WorldWideScience

Sample records for unitarity triangle fits

  1. Standard Model updates and new physics analysis with the Unitarity Triangle fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, A.; Bona, M.; Ciuchini, M.; Derkach, D.; Franco, E.; Silvestrini, L.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, C.; Martinelli, G.; Parodi, F.; Schiavi, C.; Pierini, M.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Vagnoni, V.

    2013-01-01

    We present the summer 2012 update of the Unitarity Triangle (UT) analysis performed by the UTfit Collaboration within the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. The increased accuracy on several of the fundamental constraints is now enhancing some of the tensions amongst and within the constraint themselves. In particular, the long standing tension between exclusive and inclusive determinations of the V ub and V cb CKM matrix elements is now playing a major role. Then we present the generalisation the UT analysis to investigate new physics (NP) effects, updating the constraints on NP contributions to ΔF=2 processes. In the NP analysis, both CKM and NP parameters are fitted simultaneously to obtain the possible NP effects in any specific sector. Finally, based on the NP constraints, we derive upper bounds on the coefficients of the most general ΔF=2 effective Hamiltonian. These upper bounds can be translated into lower bounds on the scale of NP that contributes to these low-energy effective interactions

  2. The CKM matrix and the unitarity triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Buras, A.J.; Gambino, P.; Stocchi, A.; Abbaneo, D.; Ali, A.; Amaral, P.; Andreev, V.; Artuso, M.; Barberio, E.; Bauer, C.; Becirevic, D.; Beneke, M.; Bigi, I.; Bozzi, C.; Brandt, T.; Buchalla, G.; Calvi, M.; Cassel, D.; Cirigliano, V.; Ciuchini, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e + e - machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the 'CKM Lattice Working Group', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. These proceedings are organized as a coherent document with chapters covering the domains of

  3. The CKM Matrix and the unitarity triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e + e - machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. These proceedings are organized as a coherent document with chapters covering the domains

  4. Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The CKM Unitarity Triangle Workshop is meant to provide an opportunity for an intense and fruitful exchange of ideas between experimentalists and theorists to assess the present knowledge on fundamental parameters from the data of LEP and other colliders, to define an agenda of future measurements to further probe the model assumptions employed in the interpretation of the data and to indicate paths for the B physics programme at LHC.

  5. Update of the Unitarity Triangle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantino, C.; Bona, M.; Sordini, V.

    2009-01-01

    We present the update of the Unitarity Triangle (UT) analysis within the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. Within the SM, combining the direct measurements on sides and angles, the UT turns out to be overconstraint in a consistent way, showing that the CKM matrix is the dominant source of flavour mixing and CP-violation and that New Physics (NP) effects can appear at most as small corrections to the CKM picture. Generalizing the UT analysis to investigate NP effects, constraints on b → s transitions are also included and both CKM and NP parameters are fitted simultaneously. While no evidence of NP effects is found in K - (bar) K and B d - (bar) B d mixing, in the B s - (bar) B s mixing an hint of NP is found. The UT analysis beyond the SM also allows us to derive bounds on the coefficients of the most general ΔF = 2 effective Hamiltonian, that can be translated into bounds on the NP scale. (authors)

  6. Lattice QCD inputs to the CKM unitarity triangle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiho, Jack; Lunghi, E.; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global fit to the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle using the latest experimental and theoretical constraints. Our emphasis is on the hadronic weak matrix elements that enter the analysis, which must be computed using lattice QCD or other nonperturbative methods. Realistic lattice QCD calculations which include the effects of the dynamical up, down, and strange quarks are now available for all of the standard inputs to the global fit. We therefore present lattice averages for all of the necessary hadronic weak matrix elements. We attempt to account for correlations between lattice QCD results in a reasonable but conservative manner: whenever there are reasons to believe that an error is correlated between two lattice calculations, we take the degree of correlation to be 100%. These averages are suitable for use as inputs both in the global Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle fit and other phenomenological analyses. In order to illustrate the impact of the lattice averages, we make standard model predictions for the parameters B-circumflex K , |V cb |, and |V ub |/|V cb |. We find a (2-3)σ tension in the unitarity triangle, depending upon whether we use the inclusive or exclusive determination of |V cb |. If we interpret the tension as a sign of new physics in either neutral kaon or B mixing, we find that the scenario with new physics in kaon mixing is preferred by present data.

  7. Update of the Unitarity Triangle Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bevan, A.J.; Ciuchini, M.; Derkach, D.; Stocchi, A.; Franco, E.; Silvestrini, L.; Lubicz, V.; Tarantino, Cecilia; Martinelli, G.; Parodi, F.; Schiavi, C.; Pierini, M.; Sordini, V.; Vagnoni, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present the status of the Unitarity Triangle Analysis (UTA), within the Standard Model (SM) and beyond, with experimental and theoretical inputs updated for the ICHEP 2010 conference. Within the SM, we find that the general consistency among all the constraints leaves space only to some tension (between the UTA prediction and the experimental measurement) in BR(B -> tau nu), sin(2 beta) and epsilon_K. In the UTA beyond the SM, we allow for New Physics (NP) effects in (Delta F)=2 processes. The hint of NP at the 2.9 sigma level in the B_s-\\bar B_s mixing turns out to be confirmed by the present update, which includes the new D0 result on the dimuon charge asymmetry but not the new CDF measurement of phi_s, being the likelihood not yet released.

  8. 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle

    CERN Document Server

    CKM2016

    2016-01-01

    The 9th International Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle (CKM 2016) will be held during November 28 to December 3, 2016 at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, India. The CKM series is a well-established international meeting in the field of quark-flavour physics that brings both experimenters and theorists on a common platform. On the experimental front, we bridge borders between neutron, kaon, charm and beauty hadron, and top quark physics. The theory program tries to cover a wide range of approaches. We shall discuss how this marriage of the two can indirectly probe physics beyond the standard model, taking into account the interplay with high-pT collider searches.

  9. The CKM matrix and the unitarity triangle. Proceedings, workshop, Geneva, Switzerland, February 13-16, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Battaglia et al.

    2004-04-02

    This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e{sup +}e{sup -} machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. This report is organized as a coherent document with chapters

  10. Right unitarity triangles and tri-bimaximal mixing from discrete symmetries and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, S.; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Spinrath, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose new classes of models which predict both tri-bimaximal lepton mixing and a right-angled Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle, α∼90 o . The ingredients of the models include a supersymmetric (SUSY) unified gauge group such as SU(5), a discrete family symmetry such as A 4 or S 4 , a shaping symmetry including products of Z 2 and Z 4 groups as well as spontaneous CP violation. We show how the vacuum alignment in such models allows a simple explanation of α∼90 o by a combination of purely real or purely imaginary vacuum expectation values (vevs) of the flavons responsible for family symmetry breaking. This leads to quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros that satisfy the 'phase sum rule' and lepton mass matrices that satisfy the 'lepton mixing sum rule' together with a new prediction that the leptonic CP violating oscillation phase is close to either 0 o , 90 o , 180 o , or 270 o depending on the model, with neutrino masses being purely real (no complex Majorana phases). This leads to the possibility of having right-angled unitarity triangles in both the quark and lepton sectors.

  11. Right unitarity triangles, stable CP-violating phases and approximate quark-lepton complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhizhong

    2009-01-01

    Current experimental data indicate that two unitarity triangles of the CKM quark mixing matrix V are almost the right triangles with α∼90 deg. We highlight a very suggestive parametrization of V and show that its CP-violating phase φ is nearly equal to α (i.e., φ-α∼1.1 deg.). Both φ and α are stable against the renormalizaton-group evolution from the electroweak scale M Z to a superhigh energy scale M X or vice versa, and thus it is impossible to obtain α=90 deg. at M Z from φ=90 deg. at M X . We conjecture that there might also exist a maximal CP-violating phase φ∼90 deg. in the MNS lepton mixing matrix U. The approximate quark-lepton complementarity relations, which hold in the standard parametrizations of V and U, can also hold in our particular parametrizations of V and U simply due to the smallness of |V ub | and |V e3 |.

  12. Connecting Majorana phases to the geometric parameters of the Majorana unitarity triangle in a neutrino mass matrix model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surender; Bhardwaj, Shankita

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated a possible connection between the Majorana phases and geometric parameters of Majorana unitarity triangle (MT) in two-texture zero neutrino mass matrix. Such analytical relations can, also, be obtained for other theoretical models viz. hybrid textures, neutrino mass matrix with vanishing minors and have profound implications for geometric description of C P violation. As an example, we have considered the two-texture zero neutrino mass model to obtain a relation between Majorana phases and MT parameters that may be probed in various lepton number violating processes. In particular, we find that Majorana phases depend on only one of the three interior angles of the MT in each class of two-texture zero neutrino mass matrix. We have also constructed the MT for class A , B , and C neutrino mass matrices. Nonvanishing areas and nontrivial orientations of these Majorana unitarity triangles indicate nonzero C P violation as a generic feature of this class of mass models.

  13. The measurements of angle γ of the unitarity triangle with the BaBar detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkach, D.

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis, we present studies of the B mesons system performed using the full dataset collected by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II collider at SLAC. The first analysis presented here is the search of the rare V ub mediated decays B + → D + K *0 . The experimental analysis is performed looking at several D + decay modes. No signals have been found and upper limits have been set to be: Br(B + → D + K 0 ) -6 at 90% prob.; Br(B + → D + K *0 ) -6 at 90% prob. In the second part we present the CP violation studies in the B-meson system, and in particular the measurements of the γ angle of the unitarity triangle. The γ angle is the relative weak phase between the V ub and V cb elements of the CKM matrix. We present and describe the analysis using the charged B meson decays: B + → D 0 K + . These decays are studied through the ADS method, where the neutral D mesons are reconstructed into Kππ 0 final states. Combining this analysis with a similar one that used Kπ as a D 0 final state, we have obtained the following values: ratio r(DK) 0.083+0.028-0.043; γ angle = (86+51-45) degrees. If the results of this thesis are used in the full system of the B → DK and B → DK * decay amplitudes, other interesting results can be obtained. The error on the ratio r(DK * ) for the charged B decays is improved by a factor 3 resulting in r(DK * ) = (0.08 ± 0.03). The ration between the V ub mediated annihilation (A) and the color suppressed (C) amplitudes is obtained to be A/C 0 ) for neutral B decays is found to be (0.27 ± 0.09)

  14. How to determine all the angles of the unitarity triangle from Bd0 → DKS and Bs0 → Dφ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; London, D.

    1990-10-01

    We consider within the standard model the time-dependent decay rates of the three processes B d 0 → D 0 Ks.anti D 0 Ks and D 1 0 Ks, where D 1 0 is a neutral D meson CP-eigenstate. We show that it is possible to derive from these processes, in which two weak amplitudes are involved, two of the three angles in the unitarity triangle of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The third angle can be determined from B s 0 → DΦ. All three angles are obtained free of hadronic final-state uncertainties. (orig.)

  15. Prospects for the measurement of the unitarity triangle angle γ from B0→DK+π- decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershon, Tim; Williams, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The potential for a precise measurement of the unitarity triangle angle γ in future experiments from the decay B 0 →DK* 0 is well known. It has recently been suggested that the sensitivity can be significantly enhanced by analyzing the B 0 →DK + π - Dalitz plot to extract amplitudes relative to those of the flavor-specific decay B 0 →D 2 * - K + . An extension to this method which includes the case where the neutral D meson is reconstructed in suppressed final states is presented. The sensitivity to γ is estimated using this method and compared to that obtained using the B 0 →DK* 0 decay alone. Experimental effects, such as background contamination, are also considered. This approach appears to be a highly attractive addition to the family of methods that can be used to determine γ.

  16. Unitarity boomerang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Paul H.; He Xiaogang

    2010-01-01

    For the three family quark flavor mixing, the best parametrization is the original Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, V KM , with four real parameters: three rotation angles θ 1,2,3 and one phase δ. A popular way of presentation is by the unitarity triangle which, however, explicitly displays only three, not four, independent parameters. Here we propose an alternative presentation which displays simultaneously all four parameters: the unitarity boomerang.

  17. Unitarity boomerang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Paul H. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); He Xiaogang, E-mail: hexg@phys.ntu.edu.t [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-26

    For the three family quark flavor mixing, the best parametrization is the original Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, V{sub KM}, with four real parameters: three rotation angles theta{sub 1,2,3} and one phase delta. A popular way of presentation is by the unitarity triangle which, however, explicitly displays only three, not four, independent parameters. Here we propose an alternative presentation which displays simultaneously all four parameters: the unitarity boomerang.

  18. Next-to-leading order unitarity fits in Two-Higgs-Doublet models with soft ℤ{sub 2} breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacchio, Vincenzo; Chowdhury, Debtosh; Eberhardt, Otto [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Murphy, Christopher W. [Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2016-11-07

    We fit the next-to-leading order unitarity conditions to the Two-Higgs-Doublet model with a softly broken ℤ{sub 2} symmetry. In doing so, we alleviate the existing uncertainty on how to treat higher order corrections to quartic couplings of its Higgs potential. A simplified approach to implementing the next-to-leading order unitarity conditions is presented. These new bounds are then combined with all other relevant constraints, including the complete set of LHC Run I data. The upper 95% bounds we find are 4.2 on the absolute values of the quartic couplings, and 235 GeV (100 GeV) for the mass degeneracies between the heavy Higgs particles in the type I (type II) scenario. In type II, we exclude an unbroken ℤ{sub 2} symmetry with a probability of 95%. All fits are performed using the open-source code HEPfit.

  19. Universal Unitarity Triangle 2016 and the tension between ΔM{sub s,d} and ε{sub K} in CMFV models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, Monika [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fur Kernphysik, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fur Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Buras, Andrzej J. [TUM-IAS, Garching (Germany); TUM, Physik Department, Garching (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Motivated by the recently improved results from the Fermilab Lattice and MILC Collaborations on the hadronic matrix elements entering ΔM{sub s,d} in B{sup 0}{sub s,d}- anti B{sup 0}{sub s,d} mixing, we determine the universal unitarity triangle (UUT) in models with constrained minimal flavour violation (CMFV). Of particular importance are the very precise determinations of the ratio vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke / vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke = 0.0864 ± 0.0025 and of the angle γ = (62.7 ± 2.1) {sup circle}. They follow in this framework from the experimental values of ΔM{sub d}/ΔM{sub s} and of the CP-asymmetry S{sub ψK{sub S}}. As in CMFV models the new contributions to meson mixings can be described by a single flavour-universal variable S(v), we next determine the CKM matrix elements vertical stroke V{sub ts} vertical stroke, vertical stroke V{sub td} vertical stroke, vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke as functions of S(v) using the experimental value of ΔM{sub s} as input. The lower bound on S(v) in these models, derived by us in 2006, implies then upper bounds on these four CKM elements and on the CP-violating parameter ε{sub K}, which turns out to be significantly below its experimental value. This strategy avoids the use of tree-level determinations of vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke and vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, which are presently subject to considerable uncertainties. On the other hand, if ε{sub K} is used instead of ΔM{sub s} as input, ΔM{sub s,d} are found to be significantly above the data. In this manner we point out that the new lattice data have significantly sharpened the tension between ΔM{sub s,d} and ε{sub K} within the CMFV framework. This implies the presence of new physics contributions beyond this framework that are responsible for the breakdown of the flavour universality of the function S(v). We also present the

  20. Measurement of the CKM angle gamma of the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix in B{sup {+-}} {yields} D{sup *}K{sup {+-}} decays at the BaBar experiment; Mesure de l'angle gamma du triangle d'unitarite de la matrice CKM dans les desintegrations B{sup {+-}} {yields} D{sup *}K{sup {+-}} aupres de l'experience BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latour, E

    2007-10-15

    This thesis applies the Gronau-London-Wyler (GLW) method to the B{sup {+-}} {yields} D{sup *}K{sup {+-}} decays in view of measuring the angle {gamma} of the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix at the Babar experiment. After a review of CP violation, we describe the different paths used so far for measuring {gamma}, with a special emphasis on the GLW method. Then the analysis is presented. It relies on an optimized selection for maximizing signal sensitivity, and on an extended maximum likelihood fit from which we extract the four GLW observables A{sup *}(CP+), R{sup *}(CP+), A{sup *}(CP-) and R{sup *}(CP-). Results obtained using Run 1 to 5 of Babar, corresponding to 347 fb{sup -1}, i.e. 381*10{sup 6} BB-bar pairs, give A{sup *}(CP+) equals -0.114{+-}0.089{+-}0.007; R{sup *}(CP+) equals 1.313{+-}0.132{+-}0.029; A{sup *}(CP-) equals 0.060{+-}0.099{+-}0.016 and R{sup *}(CP-) equals 1.081{+-}0.119{+-}0.034. Translated into cartesian coordinates x{sub {+-}}{sup *} for comparing with Dalitz analysis, we get x{sub +}{sup *} equals 0,112{+-}0,061{+-}0,012; x{sub -}{sup *} equals 0,004{+-}0,059{+-}0,012. All these results are in agreement with previous measurements from Babar and Belle experiments. Precision is improved by a factor two on CP even observables and a factor three for CP odd observables, in particular due to the use of D{sup *} {yields} D{sup 0}{gamma} decays, and is better on x{sub {+-}}{sup *} than the world average of Babar and Belle Dalitz measurements. The statistics used is too small for providing a precise enough r{sub B}{sup *} with R{sup *}(CP{+-}) that could constrain {gamma}. However the combination of our results with Dalitz measurements will improve this constraint. (author)

  1. Hunting for new physics with unitarity boomerangs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Paul H.; He Xiaogang

    2010-01-01

    The standard model of particle theory will be rigorously tested by upcoming precision data on flavor mixing. Although the unitarity triangles (UTs) carry information about the Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) quark mixing matrix, it explicitly contains just three parameters which is one short to completely fix the KM matrix. We have recently shown that the unitarity boomerangs (UBs) formed using two UTs, with a common inner angle, can completely determine the KM matrix and, therefore, better represents quark mixing. Out of the total 18 possible UBs, there is only one that does not involve very small angles and is the ideal one for practical uses. Although the UBs have different areas, there is, however, an invariant quantity, for all UBs, which is equal to a quarter of the Jarlskog parameter J squared. Hunting for new physics, with a unitarity boomerang, can reveal more information, than just using a UTs.

  2. New analytic unitarization schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cudell, J.-R.; Predazzi, E.; Selyugin, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider two well-known classes of unitarization of Born amplitudes of hadron elastic scattering. The standard class, which saturates at the black-disk limit includes the standard eikonal representation, while the other class, which goes beyond the black-disk limit to reach the full unitarity circle, includes the U matrix. It is shown that the basic properties of these schemes are independent of the functional form used for the unitarization, and that U matrix and eikonal schemes can be extended to have similar properties. A common form of unitarization is proposed interpolating between both classes. The correspondence with different nonlinear equations are also briefly examined.

  3. Generalized eikonalization and unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffon, M. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Predazzi, E. [Universita di Torino (Italy); Martynov, E.

    1996-12-31

    In the literature, the notion of eikonalization is often used as synonymous of unitarization or, at least, as implying that unitarity is not violated. This, to the very least, appears to be wishful thinking. We discuss the properties of various types of eikonalization within a unified treatment. Linear trajectories with intercept larger than unity (so popular nowadays) lead to small asymptotic violations of unitarity even after eikonalization. Classes of eikonalizations in which the Odderon could dominate over the Pomeron are given; even so the maximal Odderon is still excluded by eikonalization. (authors). 18 refs.

  4. Generalized eikonalization and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffon, M.; Martynov, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the literature, the notion of eikonalization is often used as synonymous of unitarization or, at least, as implying that unitarity is not violated. This, to the very least, appears to be wishful thinking. We discuss the properties of various types of eikonalization within a unified treatment. Linear trajectories with intercept larger than unity (so popular nowadays) lead to small asymptotic violations of unitarity even after eikonalization. Classes of eikonalizations in which the Odderon could dominate over the Pomeron are given; even so the maximal Odderon is still excluded by eikonalization. (authors)

  5. Geometric ghosts and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1980-09-01

    A review is given of the geometrical identification of the renormalization ghosts and the resulting derivation of Unitarity equations (BRST) for various gauges: Yang-Mills, Kalb-Ramond, and Soft-Group-Manifold

  6. Unitarizing Higgs Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple extension of the Standard Model Higgs inflation with one new real scalar field which preserves unitarity up to the Planck scale. The new scalar field (called sigma) completes in the ultraviolet the theory of Higgs inflation by linearizing the Higgs kinetic term in the Einstein frame, just as the non-linear sigma model is unitarized into its linear version. The unitarity cutoff of the effective theory, obtained by integrating out the sigma field, varies with the background value of the Higgs field. In our setup, both the Higgs field and the sigma field participate in the inflationary dynamics, following the flat direction of the potential. We obtain the same slow-roll parameters and spectral index as in the original Higgs inflation but we find that the Hubble rate during inflation depends not only on the Higgs self-coupling, but also on the unknown couplings of the sigma field.

  7. Unitarizing Higgs inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; Lee, Hyun Min

    2011-01-01

    We consider a simple extension of the Standard Model Higgs inflation with one new real scalar field which preserves unitarity up to the Planck scale. The new scalar field (called sigma) completes in the ultraviolet the theory of Higgs inflation by linearizing the Higgs kinetic term in the Einstein frame, just as the non-linear sigma model is unitarized into its linear version. The unitarity cutoff of the effective theory, obtained by integrating out the sigma field, varies with the background value of the Higgs field. In our setup, both the Higgs field and the sigma field participate in the inflationary dynamics, following the flat direction of the potential. We obtain the same slow-roll parameters and spectral index as in the original Higgs inflation but we find that the Hubble rate during inflation depends not only on the Higgs self-coupling, but also on the unknown couplings of the sigma field.

  8. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  9. Baryons and dual unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.-I.

    1977-05-01

    Processes involving baryons are discussed in the scheme of dual unitarization. In particular, the topological expansion is generalized to any hadronic S-matrix elements involving baryons and/or mesons. The expansion is based on a model for the baryon propagator, which is a set of three planar Feynman diagrams joined at a junction line. The resulting expansion is a double expansion in 1/N (N = the number of quark flavours) and in the number of baryon loops. Based on this, several new observations are made in phenomenological problems, and a unifying point of view in stressed. The scheme is evidently crossing invariant, and unitarity constraints are imposed order by order in 1/N and in the baryon loop number. (author)

  10. Unitarity boomerangs of quark and lepton mixing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shiwen; Ma Boqiang

    2010-01-01

    The most popular way to present mixing matrices of quarks (CKM) and leptons (PMNS) is the parametrization with three mixing angles and one CP-violating phase. There are two major options in this kind of parametrizations, one is the original Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) matrix, and the other is the Chau-Keung (CK) matrix. In a new proposal by Frampton and He, a unitarity boomerang is introduced to combine two unitarity triangles, and this new presentation displays all four independent parameters of the KM parametrization in the quark sector simultaneously. In this Letter, we study the relations between KM and CK parametrizations, and also consider the quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) in the KM parametrization. The unitarity boomerang is discussed in the situation of the CK parametrization for comparison with that in the KM parametrization in the quark sector. Then we extend the idea of unitarity boomerang to the lepton sector, and check the corresponding unitarity boomerangs in the two cases of parametrizations.

  11. Unitarity boomerangs of quark and lepton mixing matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shiwen [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma Boqiang, E-mail: mabq@phy.pku.edu.c [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-07-12

    The most popular way to present mixing matrices of quarks (CKM) and leptons (PMNS) is the parametrization with three mixing angles and one CP-violating phase. There are two major options in this kind of parametrizations, one is the original Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) matrix, and the other is the Chau-Keung (CK) matrix. In a new proposal by Frampton and He, a unitarity boomerang is introduced to combine two unitarity triangles, and this new presentation displays all four independent parameters of the KM parametrization in the quark sector simultaneously. In this Letter, we study the relations between KM and CK parametrizations, and also consider the quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) in the KM parametrization. The unitarity boomerang is discussed in the situation of the CK parametrization for comparison with that in the KM parametrization in the quark sector. Then we extend the idea of unitarity boomerang to the lepton sector, and check the corresponding unitarity boomerangs in the two cases of parametrizations.

  12. Diffraction and Unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, I. M.

    I begin with a tribute to V.N. Gribov and then come to a particular problem which would be of interest for him. His first paper on reggeology was devoted to elastic scatterings of hadrons. Here, using the unitarity relation in combination with experimental data about the elastic scattering in the diffraction cone, I show how the shape and the darkness of the interaction region of colliding protons change with the increase of their energies. In particular, the collisions become fully absorptive at small impact parameters at LHC energies that results in some special features of inelastic processes as well. The possible evolution with increasing energy of the shape from the dark core at the LHC to the fully transparent one at higher energies is discussed. It implies that the terminology of the black disk would be replaced by the black torus.

  13. Implications of perturbative unitarity for scalar di-boson resonance searches at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Di Luzio, Luca; Nardecchia, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We study the constraints implied by partial wave unitarity on new physics models explaining the LHC di-photon excess at 750 GeV. We argue that the effective description in terms of the SM supplemented by a single scalar resonance breaks down at scales of few tens of TeV, where perturbative unitarity is violated due to the large cross-section required in order to fit the $\\gamma\\gamma$ signal. Likewise, we use unitarity arguments in order to set perturbativity bounds on renormalizable UV completions of the EFT description. We finally discuss under which conditions the data can be accommodated within weakly-coupled models.

  14. Dual topological unitarization -- phenomenological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment is provided on the viability of dual topological unitarization as a practical scheme for organizing and interpreting hadronic phenomena at current machine energies. Previous detailed reviews are complemented, with emphasis on phenomenological aspects and more recent developments. Diffraction scattering, a test of P--f identity hypothesis, the flavor model, the P--f identity versus the Veneziano two-jet picture, and an illustration of the new phenomenology are included. 24 references

  15. Another method for a global fit of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dita, Petre

    2005-01-01

    Recently we proposed a novel method for doing global fits on the entries of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. The new used ingredients were a clear relationship between the entries of the CKM matrix and the experimental data, as well as the use of the necessary and sufficient condition the data have to satisfy in order to find a unitary matrix compatible with them. This condition writes as -1 ≤ cosδ ≤1 where δ is the phase that accounts for CP violation. Numerical results are provided for the CKM matrix entries, the mixing angles between generations and all the angles of the standard unitarity triangle. (author)

  16. Anomalies, Unitarity and Quantum Irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and Box R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a and a', the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total RG flows of a and a' are equal and therefore the a'-ambiguity can be consistently removed through the identification a'=a. The picture that emerges clarifies several long-standing issues. The interplay between unitarity and renormalization implies that the flux of the renormalization group is irreversible. A monotonically decreasing a-function interpolating between the appropriate values is naturally provided by a'. The total a-flow is expressed non-perturbatively as the invariant (i.e. scheme-independent) area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. We test this prediction to the fourth loop order in perturbation theory, in QCD with Nf ~< ...

  17. Unitarity constraints on trimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    When the neutrino mass eigenstate ν 2 is trimaximally mixed, the mixing matrix is called trimaximal. The middle column of the trimaximal mixing matrix is identical to tribimaximal mixing and the other two columns are subject to unitarity constraints. This corresponds to a mixing matrix with four independent parameters in the most general case. Apart from the two Majorana phases, the mixing matrix has only one free parameter in the CP conserving limit. Trimaximality results in interesting interplay between mixing angles and CP violation. A notion of maximal CP violation naturally emerges here: CP violation is maximal for maximal 2-3 mixing. Similarly, there is a natural constraint on the deviation from maximal 2-3 mixing which takes its maximal value in the CP conserving limit.

  18. Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  19. Unitarity corrections to current algebra versus chiral perturbation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Borges, J.

    1991-01-01

    We compare the result of the application of the chiral perturbation approach for pion-pion scattering amplitudes with the description that follows from our first order quasi-unitarized current algebra method. We show that the only discrepancy comes in the polynomial part of the amplitudes and we trace back its origin. We discuss the peculiarities of each model irrespective of their abilities to fit the low energy experimental data. We have extended our analysis to the possible parametrization of the unknown symmetry breaking dynamics of the standard model. (orig.)

  20. Electroweak unification and tree unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horejsi, J.

    1993-01-01

    The monograph is an unconventional introduction into the theory of unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions, which is conceptually different from the exposition presented in standard textbooks. A detailed explanation is given of the way to the standard model of electroweak interactions which is based on a straightforward application of the requirement of renormalizability of the perturbation series expansion. The procedure to derive the model is interesting as it demonstrates the necessity of introducing vector bosons and Yang-Mills type interactions and at least one elementary scalar boson to obtain a renormalizable theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions. The book is divided into 5 chapters: introduction, problems encountered in a Fermi type theory, the intermediate vector boson, electrodynamics of vector bosons, tree unitarity, and electroweak interactions. Each chapter is completed with exercise problems to be solved by the reader. The text is supplemented with a number of appendices. The monograph is aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as at physicists interested in the theory of elementary particles. (Z.J.)

  1. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  2. Matter scattering in quadratic gravity and unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yugo; Inami, Takeo; Izumi, Keisuke; Kitamura, Tomotaka

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the ultraviolet (UV) behavior of two-scalar elastic scattering with graviton exchanges in higher-curvature gravity theory. In Einstein gravity, matter scattering is shown not to satisfy the unitarity bound at tree level at high energy. Among some of the possible directions for the UV completion of Einstein gravity, such as string theory, modified gravity, and inclusion of high-mass/high-spin states, we take R_{μν}^2 gravity coupled to matter. We show that matter scattering with graviton interactions satisfies the unitarity bound at high energy, even with negative norm states due to the higher-order derivatives of metric components. The difference in the unitarity property of these two gravity theories is probably connected to that in another UV property, namely, the renormalizability property of the two.

  3. Three-body unitarity with isobars revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, M.; Hu, B. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Doering, M. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Pilloni, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Szczepaniak, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Indiana University, Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Bloomington, IN (United States); Indiana University, Physics Department, Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The particle exchange model of hadron interactions can be used to describe three-body scattering under the isobar assumption. In this study we start from the 3 → 3 scattering amplitude for spinless particles, which contains an isobar-spectator scattering amplitude. Using a Bethe-Salpeter Ansatz for the latter, we derive a relativistic three-dimensional scattering equation that manifestly fulfills three-body unitarity and two-body unitarity for the sub-amplitudes. This property holds for energies above breakup and also in the presence of resonances in the sub-amplitudes. (orig.)

  4. Building up reggeons and the pomeron from duality and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, N.

    1975-07-01

    The subject is treated under the following headings: duality; unitarity; duality and unitarity; 1/N expansion; Reggeon bootstrap; Pomeron equation; triple Pomeron. The results are summarized: (1) combining duality with unitarity, powerful constraints are obtained; (2) many phenomenological successes have been obtained since some practical methods of calculation were devised; and (3) even the complete unitarization is hopeful; 1/N expansion may be useful for this purpose. (author)

  5. Unitarity bounds on low scale quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, Michael; Calmet, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    We study the unitarity of models with low scale quantum gravity both in four dimensions and in models with a large extra-dimensional volume. We find that models with low scale quantum gravity have problems with unitarity below the scale at which gravity becomes strong. An important consequence of our work is that their first signal at the Large Hadron Collider would not be of a gravitational nature such as graviton emission or small black holes, but rather would be linked to the mechanism which fixes the unitarity problem. We also study models with scalar fields with non-minimal couplings to the Ricci scalar. We consider the strength of gravity in these models and study the consequences for inflation models with non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We show that a single scalar field with a large non-minimal coupling can lower the Planck mass in the TeV region. In that model, it is possible to lower the scale at which gravity becomes strong down to 14 TeV without violating unitarity below that scale. (orig.)

  6. Harry Lehmann and the analyticity unitarity programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    2001-01-01

    I try to describe the extremely fruitful interaction I had with Harry Lehmann and the results which came out of the analyticity unitarity programme, especially the proof of the Froissart bound, which, with recent and future measurements of total cross-sections and real parts, remains topical. (orig.)

  7. Antishadowing effects in the unitarized BFKL equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Jianhong; Shen Zhenqi; Yang Jifeng; Zhu Wei

    2007-01-01

    A unitarized BFKL equation incorporating shadowing and antishadowing corrections of the gluon recombination is proposed. This equation reduces to the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation near the saturation limit. We find that the antishadowing effects have a sizable influence on the gluon distribution function in the preasymptotic regime

  8. Antishadowing effects in the unitarized BFKL equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan Jianhong [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Shen Zhenqi [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang Jifeng [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhu Wei [Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)]. E-mail: weizhu@mail.ecnu.edu.cn

    2007-01-01

    A unitarized BFKL equation incorporating shadowing and antishadowing corrections of the gluon recombination is proposed. This equation reduces to the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation near the saturation limit. We find that the antishadowing effects have a sizable influence on the gluon distribution function in the preasymptotic regime.

  9. Graphing trillions of triangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Paul

    2017-07-01

    The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.

  10. The Incompatibility Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Amarița

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Launch of the euro in the late 90s, can be interpreted as a first step towards the monetarysystem outlined by Mundell. Economists have noted the incompatibility of fixed exchange regime,perfect mobility of capital and the independence of monetary policy, the so-called triangle ofincompatibility, which was highlighted by Robert Mundell since 1968. Tommaso Padoa - Schioppacontinued his research on the harmonization and convergence required to economic policies in“Financial Europe". The author shows that the triangle is the freedom of movement of capital, theexchange rate stability and the autonomy of national monetary policies. The triangle ofincompatibility stems from the fact that they can be combined in their entirety, but only two. Theautonomy of monetary policy is the freedom of states to choose the appropriate monetary policyand take appropriate measures in case of recessions.

  11. Unitarity relations in c=1 Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the S-matrix of c = 1 Liouville theory with vanishing cosmological constant. The authors examine some of the constraints imposed by unitarity. These completely determine (N,2) amplitudes at tree level in terms of the (N,1) amplitudes when the plus tachyon momenta take generic values. A surprising feature of the matrix model results is the lack of particle creation branch cuts in the higher genus amplitudes. In fact, the authors show that the naive field theory limit of Liouville theory would predict such branch cuts. However, unitarity in the full string theory ensures that such cuts do not appear in genus one (N,1) amplitudes. The authors conclude with some comments about the genus one (N,2) amplitudes

  12. Higgs-Palatini inflation and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Florian; Demir, Durmus A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Higgs inflation scenario the Higgs field is strongly coupled to the Ricci scalar in order to drive primordial inflation. However, in its original form in pure metric formulation of gravity, the ultraviolet (UV) cutoff of the Higgs interactions and the Hubble rate are of the same magnitude, and this makes the whole inflationary evolution dependent of the unknown UV completion of the Higgs sector. This problem, the unitarity violation, plagues the Higgs inflation scenario. In this Letter we show that, in the Palatini formulation of gravitation, Higgs inflation does not suffer from unitarity violation since the UV cutoff lies parametrically much higher than the Hubble rate so that unknown UV physics does not disrupt the inflationary dynamics. Higgs-Palatini inflation, as we call it, is, therefore, UV-safe, minimal and endowed with predictive power.

  13. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arises from ultra-planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simul...

  14. Tree-level unitarity and renormalizability in Lifshitz scalar theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Toshiaki; Inami, Takeo; Izumi, Keisuke; Kitamura, Tomotaka

    2016-01-01

    We study unitarity and renormalizability in the Lifshitz scalar field theory, which is characterized by an anisotropic scaling between the space and time directions. Without the Lorentz symmetry, both the unitarity and the renormalizability conditions are modified from those in relativistic theories. We show that for renormalizability, an extended version of the power-counting condition is required in addition to the conventional one. The unitarity bound for S-matrix elements also gives stronger constraints on interaction terms because of the reference frame dependence of scattering amplitudes. We prove that both unitarity and renormalizability require identical conditions as in the case of conventional relativistic theories

  15. Noncommutativity and unitarity violation in gauge boson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, J. L.; Petriello, F. J.; Rizzo, T. G.

    2002-01-01

    We examine the unitarity properties of spontaneously broken noncommutative gauge theories. We find that the symmetry breaking mechanism in the noncommutative standard model of Chaichian et al. leads to an unavoidable violation of tree-level unitarity in gauge boson scattering at high energies. We then study a variety of simplified spontaneously broken noncommutative theories and isolate the source of this unitarity violation. Given the group theoretic restrictions endemic to noncommutative model building, we conclude that it is difficult to build a noncommutative standard model under the Weyl-Moyal approach that preserves unitarity

  16. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Levin, Eugene [Departemento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,and Centro Científico-Tecnológico de Valparaíso,Avda. Espana 1680, Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Department of Particle Physics, Tel Aviv University,Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lublinsky, Michael [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2016-08-04

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  17. QCD unitarity constraints on Reggeon Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, Alex; Levin, Eugene; Lublinsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the s-channel unitarity of QCD imposes meaningful constraints on a possible form of the QCD Reggeon Field Theory. We show that neither the BFKL nor JIMWLK nor Braun’s Hamiltonian satisfy the said constraints. In a toy, zero transverse dimensional case we construct a model that satisfies the analogous constraint and show that at infinite energy it indeed tends to a “black disk limit' as opposed to the model with triple Pomeron vertex only, routinely used as a toy model in the literature.

  18. Unitarity relations for the four-body scattering amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A formal derivation of the general unitarity relation for the four-particle transition operator is given by generalizing the three-body formalism of Karlson and Zeiger to the four-body case. From this operator relation the on-shell unitarity relations for the amplitudes that describe elastic/rearrangement, partial breakup, and full breakup scattering processes are obtained

  19. Massive Yang-Mills theory: Renormalizability versus unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbourgo, R.; Twisk, S.; Thompson, G.

    1987-06-01

    Various massive Yang-Mills theories not based on the Higgs mechanism are investigated. They are subject to conflicting demands in the twin requirements of unitarity and perturbative renormalizability. Either one or other of these requirements is violated. Unitarity is considered in some detail. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs

  20. A survey of numerical cubature over triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyness, J.N.; Cools, R.

    1993-12-31

    This survey collects together theoretical results in the area of numerical cubature over triangles and is a vehicle for a current bibliography. We treat first the theory relating to regular integrands and then the corresponding theory for singular integrands with emphasis on the ``full comer singularity.`` Within these two sections we treat successively approaches based on transforming the triangle into a square, formulas based on polynomial moment fitting, and extrapolation techniques. Within each category we quote key theoretical results without proof, and relate other results and references to these. Nearly all the references we have found may be readily placed in one of these categories. This survey is theoretical in character and does not include recent work in adaptive and automatic integration.

  1. Triangle in a triangle : on a problem of Steinhaus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition on the sidesp, q, r of a trianglePQR and the sidesa, b, c of a triangleABC in order thatABC contains a congruent copy ofPQR is the following: At least one of the 18 inequalities obtained by cyclic permutation of {a, b, c} and arbitrary permutation of {itp, q, r}

  2. Leptonic unitary triangles and boomerangs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, Alexander; Rodejohann, Werner; Petcov, Serguey T.

    2010-01-01

    We review the idea of leptonic unitary triangles and extend the concept of the recently proposed unitary boomerangs to the lepton sector. Using a convenient parametrization of the lepton mixing, we provide approximate expressions for the side lengths and the angles of the six different triangles and give examples of leptonic unitary boomerangs. Possible applications of the leptonic unitary boomerangs are also briefly discussed.

  3. Dual unitarization scheme with several trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichiam, M.; Hayashi, M.

    1977-12-01

    Consequences of bootstrap with several input Regge trajectories are investigated. We find that in a formal treatment of bootstrap the consistency requires the intercept of output Pomeron pole in the one-dimensional case to be larger than one: αsub(B)(0) > 1, a situation reminiscent of the one in the Reggeon field theory. Symmetry breakings of the Pomeron couplings are derived. These couplings coincide with those of the f-dominated Pomeron model of Carlitz-Green-Zee in the approximation, when in the unitarity loops only highest Regge trajectories are included. The case when all possible trajectories are exchanged is also discussed. Predictions of dual unitary model for the slopes of differential cross section for diffractive scattering are made which differ from the ones of the CGZ model. Comparison with the experimentally available data is done. (author)

  4. Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2006-01-01

    The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arise from ultra-Planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simultaneous description of modes that have fallen into the black hole and outgoing Hawking modes can be given without appearance of a large kinematic invariant, or other dependence on ultra-Planckian physics. This indicates that a reliable argument for information loss has not been constructed, and that strong gravitational dynamics is important. Such dynamics has been argued to be fundamentally nonlocal in extreme situations, such as those required to investigate the fate of information

  5. Unitarity and amplitudes for high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that in the quantum field theory of scalar particles with mass m the following inequalities for the upper bound for the amplitude of elastic scattering Μ(s,t) |Μ(s,t)| 0 )s, (|t|≥|t 0 |>0) and for the total cross section of scalar particles σ tot (s)≤C|d/dt ln Im Μ(s,t)| t=0 , (s → ∞) are valid. This result is based on the unitarity of the S-matrix on the mass shell and on a natural assumption that the imaginary part of the elastic scattering Im Μ(s,t) is a differentiable and convex down function in some vicinity of t=0. The locality of the theory and the analyticity of the elastic amplitude in the Martin-Lehmann ellipse are not used in proving these inequalities

  6. Heavy-light fermion mixtures at unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gezerlis, Alexandros [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlson, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gandol, S [UNIV. ILL; Schmidt, E [ITALY

    2009-01-01

    We investigate fermion pairing in the unitary regime for a mass ratio corresponding to a {sup 6}Li-{sup 40}K mixture using quantum Monte Carlo methods. The ground-state energy and the average light- and heavy-particle excitation spectrum for the unpolarized superfluid state are nearly independent of the mass ratio. In the majority light system, the polarized superfluid is close to the energy of a phase separated mixture of nearly fully polarized normal and unpolarized superfluid. For a majority of heavy particles, we find an energy minimum for a normal state with a ratio of {approx}3:1 heavy to light particles. A slight increase in attraction to k{sub F}a{approx}2.5 yields a ground state energy of nearly zero for this ratio. A cold unpolarized system in a harmonic trap at unitarity should phase separate into three regions, with a shell of unpolarized superfluid in the middle.

  7. A framework for testing leptonic unitarity by neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, Chee Sheng [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Minakata, Hisakazu [Department of Physics, Yachay Tech,San Miguel de Urcuquí, 100119 (Ecuador); Nunokawa, Hiroshi [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro,C.P. 38097, 22451-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-02-22

    If leptonic unitarity is violated by new physics at an energy scale much lower than the electroweak scale, which we call low-scale unitarity violation, it has different characteristic features from those expected in unitarity violation at high-energy scales. They include maintaining flavor universality and absence of zero-distance flavor transition. We present a framework for testing such unitarity violation at low energies by neutrino oscillation experiments. Starting from the unitary 3 active plus N (arbitrary positive integer) sterile neutrino model we show that by restricting the active-sterile and sterile-sterile neutrino mass squared differences to ≳ 0.1 eV{sup 2} the oscillation probability in the (3+N) model becomes insensitive to details of the sterile sector, providing a nearly model-independent framework for testing low-scale unitarity violation. Yet, the presence of the sterile sector leaves trace as a constant probability leaking term, which distinguishes low-scale unitarity violation from the high-scale one. The non-unitary mixing matrix in the active neutrino subspace is common for the both cases. We analyze how severely the unitarity violation can be constrained in ν{sub e}-row by taking a JUNO-like setting to simulate medium baseline reactor experiments. Possible modification of the features of the (3+N) model due to matter effect is discussed to first order in the matter potential.

  8. Signature of a Collaboration agreement between Unitar & CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pierre Gildemyn

    2012-01-01

    Signature of agreement with Mr Carlos Lopes (UNITAR) and Prof Rolf Heuer (CERN). From left to right : Einar Bjorgo, Francesco Pisano, Calors Lopes, Rolf Heuer, Maurizio Bona, Frédéric Hemmer, Olivier Van Damme

  9. Is it a triangle?

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason.   A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty.  It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...

  10. Unitarity violation in noninteger dimensional Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yao; Kelly, Michael

    2018-05-01

    We construct an explicit example of unitarity violation in fermionic quantum field theories in noninteger dimensions. We study the two-point correlation function of four-fermion operators. We compute the one-loop anomalous dimensions of these operators in the Gross-Neveu-Yukawa model. We find that at one-loop order, the four-fermion operators split into three classes with one class having negative norms. This implies that the theory violates unitarity, following the definition in Ref. [1].

  11. Unitarity and time reversal in the Glauber model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazard, C.; Lombard, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    It has been pointed out by Formanek (1976-1980) that for incident energies above the particle production threshold the usual Glauber formulation of particle-nucleus scattering violates unitarity and time reversal invariance. We propose a simple method for recovering T-invariance and we discuss unitarity in view of the proposed modification. Numerical estimates are given to check the importance of T-invariance effects

  12. The Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruuskanen, V.; Toernqvist, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Using an explicitly unitary framework the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka (OZI) rule is discussed and in particular how this rule is compatible with unitarity. For the phi-ω case unitarity effects (phi→KantiK→ω) contribute a (nearly) imaginary mixing of 0.6 +- 0.1 % and thus cannot account for the whole mixing of 6-10 %. For the f'-f mixing unitarity effects give a much larger value (>6.8%). In order to understand the small experimental f'→2π coupling the process f'→f→2π must be cancelled by another process e.g. f'→fsup((2))→2π, where fsup((2)) is a heavy f-like meson. For the psions above the first important charm threshold unitarity effects are likely to be crucial. At very high energies cancellations can suppress the unitarity effects. But in a transient energy interval (+p particular between the Dsup(*)antiDsup(*) and the Dsup(*)antiDsup(**) thresholds) these cancellations cannot work everywhere because mass differences are important. Therefore (if charm annihilation amplitudes near threshold are not negligibly small), it is expected that in this interval unitarity effects should be the dominant mechanism for the breaking of the OZI rule. Results from a conventional mass matrix mixing analysis are also given in the appendix. (author)

  13. The Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and dual unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Kansuke; Toyoda, Fumihiko.

    1978-01-01

    The Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka (OZI) rule carries an important role in the constituent rearrangement and interest in the rule has been increased by the discovery of the J/psi particle. An example of phenomenological analysis related to the OZI rule is introduced. The decays of psi particles can be explained consistently by an existence of the disconnected type of a constituent rearrangement diagram (CRD) with comparable strength to that of the connected one. A survey of an outline of the dual unitarization scheme and discussion of the OZI rule with the scheme and other related theory are presented. The method of dual unitarization starts with the unitarity relation. In the estimation of multiparticle production amplitude in the unitarity sum, dominant nondiffractive production component is taken as a first approximation and the amplitude is described by the multiperipheral model of Reggeon exchange. Here, a case of meson-meson scattering in flavor of SU(N) scheme is considered. A survey of the mechanism of the planar bootstrap and Pomeron generation in the dual unitarization is made. The nonplanar CR diagrams give breaking of various features at the planar level. The reaction with the disconnected CRD could occur in the nonperipheral region through the hard collision of constituent and appears at large momentum transfers in comparable order with a connected one. Baryon and baryoniums with the scheme of the dual unitarization are examined. (Kato, T.)

  14. Triangles: Shapes in Math, Science and Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine Sheldrick

    This book examines everything having to do with the triangle. It begins with a basic definition of the triangle and continues with discussions on tetrahedrons, triangular prisms, and pyramid shapes. Some ideas addressed include how triangles are used to measure heights and distances, the importance of triangles to builders, Alexander Graham Bell's…

  15. Unitarity problems in 3D gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkac, Gokhan; Basanisi, Luca; Kilicarslan, Ercan; Tekin, Bayram

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the problem of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash in 2 +1 -dimensional gravity theories, which has been an obstacle in providing a viable dual two-dimensional conformal field theory for bulk gravity in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Chiral gravity, which is a particular limit of cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMG), suffers from perturbative log-modes with negative energies inducing a nonunitary logarithmic boundary field theory. We show here that any f (R ) extension of TMG does not improve the situation. We also study the perturbative modes in the metric formulation of minimal massive gravity—originally constructed in a first-order formulation—and find that the massive mode has again negative energy except in the chiral limit. We comment on this issue and also discuss a possible solution to the problem of negative-energy modes. In any of these theories, the infinitesimal dangerous deformations might not be integrable to full solutions; this suggests a linearization instability of AdS spacetime in the direction of the perturbative log-modes.

  16. Perturbative unitarity constraints on gauge portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hedri, Sonia; Shepherd, William; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2017-12-01

    Dark matter that was once in thermal equilibrium with the Standard Model is generally prohibited from obtaining all of its mass from the electroweak phase transition. This implies a new scale of physics and mediator particles to facilitate dark matter annihilation. In this work, we focus on dark matter that annihilates through a generic gauge boson portal. We show how partial wave unitarity places upper bounds on the dark gauge boson, dark Higgs and dark matter masses. Outside of well-defined fine-tuned regions, we find an upper bound of 9 TeV for the dark matter mass when the dark Higgs and dark gauge bosons both facilitate the dark matter annihilations. In this scenario, the upper bound on the dark Higgs and dark gauge boson masses are 10 TeV and 16 TeV, respectively. When only the dark gauge boson facilitates dark matter annihilations, we find an upper bound of 3 TeV and 6 TeV for the dark matter and dark gauge boson, respectively. Overall, using the gauge portal as a template, we describe a method to not only place upper bounds on the dark matter mass but also on the new particles with Standard Model quantum numbers. We briefly discuss the reach of future accelerator, direct and indirect detection experiments for this class of models.

  17. A unitarized meson model including color Coulomb interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, Kees.

    1990-01-01

    Ch. 1 gives a general introduction into the problem field of the thesis. It discusses in how far the internal structure of mesons is understood theoretically and which models exist. It discusses from a phenomenological point of view the problem of confinement indicates how quark models of mesons may provide insight in this phenomenon. In ch. 2 the formal theory of scattering in a system with confinement is given. It is shown how a coupled channel (CC) description and the work of other authors fit into this general framework. Explicit examples and arguments are given to support the CC treatment of such a system. In ch. 3 the full coupled-channel model as is employed in this thesis is presented. On the basis of arguments from the former chapters and the observed regularities in the experimental data, the choices underlying the model are supported. In this model confinement is described with a mass-dependent harmonic-oscillator potential and the presence of open (meson-meson) channels plays an essential role. In ch. 4 the unitarized model is applied to light scalar meson resonances. In this regime the contribution of the open channels is considerable. It is demonstrated that the model parameters as used for the description of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons, unchanged can be used for the description of these mesons. Ch. 5 treats the color-Coulomb interaction. There the effect of the Coulomb interaction is studied in simple models without decay. The results of incorporating the color-Coulomb interaction into the full CC model are given in ch.6. Ch. 7 discusses the results of the previous chapters and the present status of the model. (author). 182 refs.; 16 figs.; 33 tabs

  18. On unitarity of the particle-hole dispersive optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, M. L.; Shlomo, S.; Tulupov, B. A.; Urin, M. H.

    2018-02-01

    For the recently developed particle-hole dispersive optical model, weak violations of unitarity due to a phenomenological description of the spreading effect are considered. Methods for unitarity restoration are proposed and implemented for the 208Pb nucleus in the description of the energy-averaged isoscalar monopole double transition density and strength functions in a wide excitation energy interval that includes the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone. To illustrate abilities of the model, direct neutron decay of the mentioned giant resonance is also considered.

  19. Causality and unitarity via the tree-loop duality relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomboulis, E.T. [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics,Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2017-05-29

    The tree-loop duality relation is used as a starting point to derive the constraints of causality and unitarity. Specifically, the Bogoliubov causality condition is ab initio derived at the individual graph level. It leads to a representation of a graph in terms of lower order cut graphs. Extracting the absorptive part gives then the general unitarity relation (Cutkosky rule). The derivation, being carried out directly in momentum space, holds for any local (polynomial) hermitian interaction vertices. This is in contrast to the technical difficulties arising from contact terms in the spacetime approach based on the largest time equation.

  20. Visualizing Elections Using Saari Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Ricardo; Han, Lixing; Schilling, Kenneth; Birgen, Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Students sometimes have difficulty calculating the result of a voting system applied to a particular set of voter preference lists. Saari triangles offer a way to visualize the result of an election and make this calculation easier in the case of several important voting systems.

  1. Multigrid for refined triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Yair

    1997-02-01

    A two-level preconditioning method for the solution of (locally) refined finite element schemes using triangle meshes is introduced. In the isotropic SPD case, it is shown that the condition number of the preconditioned stiffness matrix is bounded uniformly for all sufficiently regular triangulations. This is also verified numerically for an isotropic diffusion problem with highly discontinuous coefficients.

  2. Unitarity, (anti)shadowing, and black-disk limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrolard, P.; Jenkovszky, L.; Struminsky, B.V.

    2000-01-01

    By using realistic models for elastic hadron scattering, we demonstrate that, at current accelerator energies, the s-channel unitarity bound is safe and is not to be reached until 10 5 GeV, while the black-disk limit is saturated around 6 TeV. It will be followed by a larger transparency of the scattered particles near the center

  3. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Unitarity, dynamics, and experimental prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    A review of what is known about the unexplained mechanism that breaks the electroweak symmetry and thereby gives mass to the W and Z gauge bosons while leaving the photon massless is given. Symmetry, unitarity, technicolor, supersymmetry, higgs sector dynamics, and experimental status and prospects are discussed

  4. On Generalizations of the Stirling Number Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Wolfdieter

    2000-09-01

    Sequences of generalized Stirling numbers of both kinds are introduced. These sequences of triangles (i.e. infinite-dimensional lower triangular matrices) of numbers will be denoted by S2(k;n,m) and S1(k;n,m) with k in Z. The original Stirling number triangles of the second and first kind arise when k = 1. S2(2;n,m) is identical with the unsigned S1(2;n,m) triangle, called S1p(2;n,m), which also represents the triangle of signless Lah numbers. Certain associated number triangles, denoted by s2(k;n,m) and s1(k;n,m), are also defined. Both s2(2;n,m) and s1(2;n + 1, m + 1) form Pascal's triangle, and s2(-1,n,m) turns out to be Catalan's triangle. Generating functions are given for the columns of these triangles. Each S2(k) and S1(k) matrix is an example of a Jabotinsky matrix. Therefore the generating functions for the rows of these triangular arrays constitute exponential convolution polynomials. The sequences of the row sums of these triangles are also considered. These triangles are related to the problem of obtaining finite transformations from infinitesimal ones generated by x^k d/dx, for k in Z.

  5. Bound-state formation for thermal relic dark matter and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, Benedict von; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    We show that the relic abundance of thermal dark matter annihilating via a long-range interaction, is significantly affected by the formation and decay of dark matter bound states in the early universe, if the dark matter mass is above a few TeV . We determine the coupling required to obtain the observed dark matter density, taking into account both the direct 2-to-2 annihilations and the formation of bound states, and provide an analytical fit. We argue that the unitarity limit on the inelastic cross-section is realized only if dark matter annihilates via a long-range interaction, and we determine the upper bound on the mass of thermal-relic dark matter to be about 197 (139) TeV for (non)-self-conjugate dark matter

  6. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2016-08-01

    The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Fermionic ground state at unitarity and Haldane exclusion statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, R K; Murthy, M V N [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600 113 (India); Brack, M [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2008-06-14

    We consider a few-particle system of trapped neutral fermionic atoms at ultra-low temperatures, with the attractive interaction tuned to Feshbach resonance. We calculate the energies and the spatial densities of the few-body systems using a generalization of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) method, and assuming the particles obey the Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics (FES) at unitarity. This method is different from the scaled ETF version given by Chang and Bertsch (2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 021603). Our semiclassical FES results are consistent with the Monte Carlo calculations of the above authors, but can hardly be distinguished from their overall scaling of the ETF result at unitarity.

  8. Fermionic ground state at unitarity and Haldane exclusion statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaduri, R K; Murthy, M V N; Brack, M

    2008-01-01

    We consider a few-particle system of trapped neutral fermionic atoms at ultra-low temperatures, with the attractive interaction tuned to Feshbach resonance. We calculate the energies and the spatial densities of the few-body systems using a generalization of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) method, and assuming the particles obey the Haldane-Wu fractional exclusion statistics (FES) at unitarity. This method is different from the scaled ETF version given by Chang and Bertsch (2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 021603). Our semiclassical FES results are consistent with the Monte Carlo calculations of the above authors, but can hardly be distinguished from their overall scaling of the ETF result at unitarity

  9. Unitarity in three-dimensional flat space higher spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumiller, D.; Riegler, M.; Rosseel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate generic flat-space higher spin theories in three dimensions and find a no-go result, given certain assumptions that we spell out. Namely, it is only possible to have at most two out of the following three properties: unitarity, flat space, non-trivial higher spin states. Interestingly, unitarity provides an (algebra-dependent) upper bound on the central charge, like c=42 for the Galilean W_4"("2"−"1"−"1") algebra. We extend this no-go result to rule out unitary “multi-graviton” theories in flat space. We also provide an example circumventing the no-go result: Vasiliev-type flat space higher spin theory based on hs(1) can be unitary and simultaneously allow for non-trivial higher-spin states in the dual field theory.

  10. Unitarity constraints in the construction of optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannata, F.; Deponder, J.P.; Lenz, F.

    1982-01-01

    We first review the unitarity properties of the first order optical potential theory which arise from the one-body nature of both the single scattering approximation and of the single particle model for the nucleus. We construct optical potentials relaxing either the independent particle guided by the requirement of incorporating the minimal unitary of the first order theory and extending it to more complex situations. Our investigation of the effects of nucleon-nucleon residual interaction results in a description of the quasifree mechanism modified by final state unitarity requires the inclusion of all possible scattering processes on a given pair of target nucleons. This naturally leads to a formation of the optical potential in terms of three-body rather than two-body amplitudes. We discuss various approximation which make, in combination with phenomenological ingredients, an evaluation of these optical potentials feasible

  11. Meson-baryon interactions in unitarized chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Recio, G.; Nieves, J.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Vicente Vacas, M.

    2003-01-01

    Meson-Baryon Interactions can be successfully described using both Chiral Symmetry and Unitarity. The s-wave meson-baryon scattering amplitude is analyzed in a Bethe-Salpeter coupled channel formalism incorporating Chiral Symmetry in the potential. Two body coupled channel unitarity is exactly preserved. The needed two particle irreducible matrix amplitude is taken from lowest order Chiral Perturbation Theory in a relativistic formalism. Off-shell behavior is parameterized in terms of low energy constants. The relation to the heavy baryon limit is discussed. The position of the complex poles in the second Riemann sheet of the scattering amplitude determine masses and widths baryonic resonances of the N(1535), N(1670), Λ(1405) and Λ(1670) resonances which compare well with accepted numbers

  12. Effective field theory and unitarity in vector boson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulla, Marco; Kilian, Wolfgang; Ohl, Thorsten; Reuter, Juergen

    2016-10-01

    Weak vector boson scattering at high energies will be one of the key measurements in current and upcoming LHC runs. It is most sensitive to any new physics associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. However, a conventional EFT analysis will fail at high energies. To address this problem, we present a parameter-free prescription valid for arbitrary perturbative and non-perturbative models: the T-matrix unitarization. We describe its implementation as an asymptotically consistent reference model matched to the low-energy effective theory. We show examples of typical observables of vector-boson scattering at the LHC in our unitarized framework. For many strongly-coupled models like composite Higgs models, dimension-8 operators might be actually the leading operators. In addition to those longitudinal and transversal dimension eight EFT operators, the effects of generic tensor and scalar resonances within simplified models are considered.

  13. Unitarity and the time evolution of quantum mechanical states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, P.K.; Pilaftsis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The basic requirement that, in quantum theory, the time evolution of any state is determined by the action of a unitary operator, is shown to be the underlying cause for certain open-quote open-quote exact close-quote close-quote results that have recently been reported about the time dependence of transition rates in quantum theory. Departures from exponential decay, including the open-quote open-quote quantum Zeno effect,close-quote close-quote as well as a theorem by Khalfin about the ratio of reciprocal transition rates, are shown to follow directly from such considerations. At sufficiently short times, unitarity requires that reciprocity must hold, independent of whether T invariance is valid. If T invariance does not hold, unitarity restricts the form of possible time dependence of reciprocity ratios. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  14. First unitarity-independent determination of the CKM matrix elements $V_{td}$, $V_{ts}$, and ${V_{tb}$ and the implications for unitarity

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, John; Taylor, Lucas

    1997-01-01

    The magnitudes of the CKM matrix elements $V_{td}$, $V_{ts}$, and $V_{tb}$ are determined for the first time without any assumptions of unitarity. The implications for the unitarity of the CKM matrix as a whole are discussed.

  15. Reggeon, Pomeron and annihilation processes in the dual unitarization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias de Deus, J.

    1976-07-01

    In the framework of the dual unitarization scheme the connection between particle production in processes dominated by Reggeon, Pomeron and Annihilation diagrams is discussed and critical tests of the scheme are suggested. The simple relation for average multiplicities anti nsup(R) = 1/2 anti nsup(P) = 1/3 anti nsup(A) and other relations for inclusive cross-sections and higher moments of the particle distribution are shown to be in reasonable agreement with data. (author)

  16. Loop Amplitudes in Pure Yang-Mills from Generalised Unitarity

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4 - 2 epsilon dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.

  17. Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandhuber, Andreas; McNamara, Simon; Spence, Bill; Travaglini, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2ε dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions

  18. Loop amplitudes in pure Yang-Mills from generalised unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhuber, Andreas [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); McNamara, Simon [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Spence, Bill [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Travaglini, Gabriele [Department of Physics, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-15

    We show how generalised unitarity cuts in D = 4-2{epsilon} dimensions can be used to calculate efficiently complete one-loop scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. This approach naturally generates the rational terms in the amplitudes, as well as the cut-constructible parts. We test the validity of our method by re-deriving the one-loop ++++, -+++, --++, -+-+ and +++++ gluon scattering amplitudes using generalised quadruple cuts and triple cuts in D dimensions.

  19. Unitarization of pomeron and Regge phenomenology of deep inelastic scattering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynov, E S

    1994-12-31

    Using conventional Regge approach we consider unitarization of supercritical pomeron in DIS and then describe the total photon-proton cross-section and the proton structure functions in the region W{sup 2} = Q{sup 2}(1/x-1) + m{sup 2} {>=} 9 GeV{sup 2}, including the small-x data from HERA. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  20. Constraints on the unitarity triangle angle gamma from Dalitz plot analysis of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellan; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    2016-01-01

    The first study is presented of CP violation with an amplitude analysis of the Dalitz plot of B-0 -> DK+pi(-) decays, with D -> K+pi(-), K+K-, and pi(+)pi(-). The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to 3.0 fb(-1) of pp collisions collected with the LHCb detector. No significant CP

  1. Measurements of B -> DK decays to constrain the CKM Unitarity Triangle angle $\\gamma$ and related results at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Craik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Constraints on the CKM angle \\gamma are presented from GLW, ADS, and GGSZ analyses of B+- -> D K+- at the LHCb experiment. The branching fractions of B0 -> D0bar K+ \\pi- and Bs -> D0bar K- \\pi+ are also reported, measured relative to the related mode B0 -> D0bar \\pi+ \\pi-.

  2. Simple-minded unitarity constraint and an application to unparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Antonio; Strassler, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Unitarity, a powerful constraint on new physics, has not always been properly accounted for in the context of hidden sectors. Feng, Rajaraman, and Tu have suggested that large (pb to nb) multiphoton or multilepton signals could be generated at the LHC through the three-point functions of a conformally invariant hidden sector (an 'unparticle' sector). Because of the conformal invariance, the kinematic distributions are calculable. However, the cross sections for many such processes grow rapidly with energy, and at some high scale, to preserve unitarity, conformal invariance must break down. Requiring that conformal invariance not be broken, and that no signals be already observed at the Tevatron, we obtain a strong unitarity bound on multiphoton events at the (10 TeV) LHC. For the model of Feng et al., even with extremely conservative assumptions, cross sections must be below 25 fb, and for operator dimension near 2, well below 1 fb. In more general models, four-photon signals could still reach cross sections of a few pb, though bounds below 200 fb are more typical. Our methods apply to a wide variety of other processes and settings.

  3. 2000 CKM-triangle analysis a critical review with updated experimental inputs and theoretical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Ciuchini, M.; Lubicz, V.; D'Agostini, G.; Franco, E.; Martinelli, G.; Parodi, F.

    2000-12-01

    Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the sides and angles of the CKM unitarity triangle is presented, using experimental constraints from the measurements of |ε K |, |V ub /V cb |, Δm d and from the limit on Δm s , available in September 2000. Results from the experimental search for B 0 s -B-bar 0 s oscillations are introduced in the present analysis using the likelihood. Special attention is devoted to the determination of the theoretical uncertainties. The purpose of the analysis is to infer regions where the parameters of interest lie with given probabilities. The BaBar '95% C.L. scanning' method is also commented. (authors)

  4. The Weimar Triangle and The Ukrainian Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Romer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the activity of Weimar Triangle (Germany, France, Poland during Ukrainian crisis (2013-2014 as an efficient, but still largely underestimated negotiation force of the European Union. The evolution of role of Weimar Triangle in post-bipolar era is indicated, as well as the role of this specific structure during Ukrainian crisis.

  5. Altitude, Orthocenter of a Triangle and Triangulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the altitudes of a triangle (the cevians perpendicular to the opposite sides. Using the generalized Ceva’s Theorem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the orthocenter of a triangle [7]. Finally, we formalize in Mizar [1] some formulas [2] to calculate distance using triangulation.

  6. Circumcenter, Circumcircle and Centroid of a Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    We introduce, using the Mizar system [1], some basic concepts of Euclidean geometry: the half length and the midpoint of a segment, the perpendicular bisector of a segment, the medians (the cevians that join the vertices of a triangle to the midpoints of the opposite sides) of a triangle.

  7. Partitioning Pythagorean Triangles Using Pythagorean Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carl E.; Yandl, Andre L.

    2012-01-01

    Inside any Pythagorean right triangle, it is possible to find a point M so that drawing segments from M to each vertex of the triangle yields angles whose sines and cosines are all rational. This article describes an algorithm that generates an infinite number of such points.

  8. Circumcenter, Circumcircle and Centroid of a Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, using the Mizar system [1], some basic concepts of Euclidean geometry: the half length and the midpoint of a segment, the perpendicular bisector of a segment, the medians (the cevians that join the vertices of a triangle to the midpoints of the opposite sides of a triangle.

  9. The Fermat point for a taxicab triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. R.

    2015-04-01

    The Fermat point P for a triangle ABC is the point P the sum of whose distances from the vertices A, B and C is a minimum. This note will show how to find the Fermat point for any triangle using the taxicab metric.

  10. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng; Choi, Yi King; Wang, Wen Ping; Yan, Dongming; Liu, Yang; Lé vy, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng

    2011-12-01

    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quark-parton model from dual topological unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; El Hassouni, A.; Kalinowski, J.; Peschanski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Topology, which occurs in the topological expansion of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and in the dual topological unitarization (DTU) schemes, allows us to establish a quantitative correspondence between QCD and the dual S-matrix approaches. This topological correspondence, proposed by Veneziano and made more explicit in a recent paper for current-induced reactions, provides a clarifying and unifying quark-parton interpretation of soft inclusive processes. Precise predictions for inclusive cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions, structure functions of hadrons, and quark fragmentation functions including absolute normalizations are shown to agree with data. On a more theoretical ground the proposed scheme suggests a new approach to the confinement problem

  13. Thermal relic dark matter beyond the unitarity limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harigaya, Keisuke [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ibe, Masahiro [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); ICRR, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science (IBS),Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Nakano, Wakutaka; Suzuki, Motoo [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); ICRR, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2016-08-25

    We discuss a simple model of thermal relic dark matter whose mass can be much larger than the so-called unitarity limit on the mass of point-like particle dark matter. The model consists of new strong dynamics with one flavor of fermions in the fundamental representation which is much heavier than the dynamical scale of the new strong dynamics. Dark matter is identified with the lightest baryonic hadron of the new dynamics. The baryonic hadrons annihilate into the mesonic hadrons of the new strong dynamics when they have large radii. Resultantly, thermal relic dark matter with a mass in the PeV range is possible.

  14. Unitarity bounds on angular distribution in multiparticle production - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaran, P.P.; Kugler, M.; Soffer, J.

    1976-01-01

    Upper bounds which follow from unitarity are derived for the angular distribution of the detected particle C in the inclusive process AB→C+anything at a finite energy, in terms of the corresponding elastic amplitudes for a fixed value of the forward inelastic cross-section and for a fixed value of the total inelastic cross-section for the production of C. In comparison with the pp→p+anything data at 24GeV/c, some improvement on previous bounds is observed [fr

  15. Elastic unitarity of direct channel and Froissart saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushko, N.I.; Kobylinsky, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    The condition of elastic unitarity for direct channel continued analytically to high-energy range reveals a fast (upper the Froissart bound) rise of the amplitude between elastic and inelastic cuts in the case when the hadron scattering picture approaches the black disc limit. This fact is assumed as a basis for a new model of generating the Froissart saturation which describes well the main characteristics of NN, PIN and KN scattering. The model suggested is also compared witn the U-matrix approach

  16. Unitarity condition in covariant quantum field theory with indefinite metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions that ensure the existence of a unitarity S matrix acting on the subspace of states with positive norm are formulated. A study is made of BRST quantization. The only restriction on the class of theories is that the author assumes asymptotic linearization of the theory, namely, that the asymptotic dynamics is determined by a quadratic Hamiltonian. In field theory this is always the case in the framework of standard perturbation theory. However, in some models, for example, string models, and also outside the framework of perturbation theory, this condition need not be satisfied

  17. Generalized unitarity for N=4 super-amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.M.; Henn, J. [LAPTH, Université de Savoie, CNRS B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Korchemsky, G.P., E-mail: Gregory.Korchemsky@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sokatchev, E. [LAPTH, Université de Savoie, CNRS B.P. 110, F-74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2013-04-21

    We develop a manifestly supersymmetric version of the generalized unitarity cut method for calculating scattering amplitudes in N=4 SYM theory. We illustrate the power of this method by computing the one-loop n-point NMHV super-amplitudes. The result confirms two conjectures which we made in Drummond, et al., [1]. Firstly, we derive the compact, manifestly dual superconformally covariant form of the NMHV tree amplitudes for arbitrary number and types of external particles. Secondly, we show that the ratio of the one-loop NMHV to the MHV amplitude is dual conformal invariant.

  18. Constraints on the Kl3 form factors from analyticity and unitarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    in. Abstract. The Kπ form factors are investigated at low energies by the method of unitarity bounds adapted so as to include information on the phase and modulus along the elastic region of the unitarity cut. Using as input the ...

  19. CKM parameter fits, the Bs0- anti Bs0 mixing ratio xs and CP-violating phases in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; London, D.

    1993-02-01

    We review and update constraints on the parameters of the flavour mixing matrix (V CKM ) in the Standard Model. In performing these fits, we use inputs from the measurements of parallel ε parallel , the CP-violating parameter in K decays, x d = (ΔM)/Γ, the mixing parameter in B 0 d -anti B 0 d mixing, and the present measurements of the matrix elements parallel V cb parallel and parallel V ub parallel . We take into account the next-to-leading order QCD results in our analysis, wherever available, and incorporate results stemming from the ongoing lattice calculations of the B-meson coupling constants, which predict a value f Bd = 200 ± 30 MeV, though for the sake of comparison we also show the CKM fits for smaller values of f Bd . We use the updated CKM matrix to predict the mixing ration x, relevant for B 0 s - anti B 0 s , mixing, and the phases in the CKM unitarity triangle, sin 2α, sin 2β and sin 2γ, which determine the CP-violating asymmetries on B-decays. The importance of measuring the ratio x, in restricting the allowed values of the CKM parameters is emphasized. (orig.)

  20. Unitarity corrections and high field strengths in high energy hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Y.V.; Mueller, A.H.

    1997-01-01

    Unitarity corrections to the BFKL description of high energy hard scattering are viewed in large N c QCD in light-cone quantization. In a center of mass frame unitarity corrections to high energy hard scattering are manifestly perturbatively calculable and unrelated to questions of parton saturation. In a frame where one of the hadrons is initially at rest unitarity corrections are related to parton saturation effects and involve potential strengths A μ ∝1/g. In such a frame we describe the high energy scattering in terms of the expectation value of a Wilson loop. The large potentials A μ ∝1/g are shown to be pure gauge terms allowing perturbation theory to again describe unitarity corrections and parton saturation effects. Genuine nonperturbative effects only come in at energies well beyond those energies where unitarity constraints first become important. (orig.)

  1. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

  2. Three-body unitarity in the finite volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, M. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Doering, M. [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The physical interpretation of lattice QCD simulations, performed in a small volume, requires an extrapolation to the infinite volume. A method is proposed to perform such an extrapolation for three interacting particles at energies above threshold. For this, a recently formulated relativistic 3 → 3 amplitude based on the isobar formulation is adapted to the finite volume. The guiding principle is two- and three-body unitarity that imposes the imaginary parts of the amplitude in the infinite volume. In turn, these imaginary parts dictate the leading power-law finite-volume effects. It is demonstrated that finite-volume poles arising from the singular interaction, from the external two-body sub-amplitudes, and from the disconnected topology cancel exactly leaving only the genuine three-body eigenvalues. The corresponding quantization condition is derived for the case of three identical scalar-isoscalar particles and its numerical implementation is demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. Cold atoms at unitarity and inverse square interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaduri, R K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4M1 (Canada); Murthy, M V N [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai 600113 (India); Srivastava, M K [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-12-14

    Consider two identical atoms in a spherical harmonic oscillator interacting with a zero-range interaction which is tuned to produce an s-wave zero-energy bound state. The quantum spectrum of the system is known to be exactly solvable. We note that the same partial wave quantum spectrum is obtained by the one-dimensional scale-invariant inverse square potential. Long known as the Calogero-Sutherland-Moser (CSM) model, it leads to the fractional exclusion statistics (FES) of Haldane and Wu. The statistical parameter is deduced from the analytically calculated second virial coefficient. When FES is applied to a Fermi gas at unitarity, it gives good agreement with experimental data without the use of any free parameter.

  4. Can the "standard" unitarized Regge models describe the TOTEM data?

    CERN Document Server

    Alkin, A; Martynov, E

    2013-01-01

    The standard Regge poles are considered as inputs for two unitarization methods: eikonal and U-matrix. It is shown that only models with three input pomerons and two input odderons can describe the high energy data on $pp$ and $\\bar pp$ elastic scattering including the new data from Tevatron and LHC. However, it seems that the both considered models require a further modification (e.g. nonlinear reggeon trajectories and/or nonexponential vertex functions) for a more satisfactory description of the data at 19.0 GeV$\\leq \\sqrt{s}\\leq$ 7 TeV and 0.01 $\\leq |t|\\leq $14.2 GeV$^{2}$.

  5. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu

    2016-03-10

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  6. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  7. Unitarity constraints in the standard model with a singlet scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sin Kyu; Park, Jubin

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of a new scalar field and amelioration of the electroweak vacuum stability ascribed to a singlet scalar field embedded in the standard model (SM), we examine the implication of the perturbative unitarity in the SM with a singlet scalar field. Taking into account the full contributions to the scattering amplitudes, we derive unitarity conditions on the scattering matrix which can be translated into bounds on the masses of the scalar fields. In the case that the singlet scalar field develops vacuum expectation value (VEV), we get the upper bound on the singlet scalar mass varying with the mixing between the singlet and Higgs scalars. On the other hand, the mass of the Higgs scalar can be constrained by the unitarity condition in the case that the VEV of the singlet scalar is not generated. Applying the upper bound on the Higgs mass to the scenario of the unitarized Higgs inflation, we discuss how the unitarity condition can constrain the Higgs inflation. The singlet scalar mass is not constrained by the unitarity itself when we impose Z 2 in the model because of no mixing with the Higgs scalar. But, regarding the singlet scalar field as a cold dark matter candidate, we derive upper bound on the singlet scalar mass by combining the observed relic abundance with the unitarity condition.

  8. The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... applicability discussed; third, details about China and India’s relations and responses to the new US policy are being analyzed; the perspective turns to the implications for conflict and security in South Asia with a focus on Afghanistan and Iran where oil and energy security are the main denominators...... of foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...

  9. LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2011-01-28

    We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.

  10. On dispersive derivation of triangle anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horejsi, J.

    1985-01-01

    A straightforward generalization of the results of some previous treatments, in which the Adler-Bell-Jachiw triangle anomaly has been recovered with the help of dispersion relation is presented. The absorptive part of the VVA triangle diagram with the external momenta k, p at vector vertices such as K 2 =p 2 =0 is considered. An integral of the imaginary part of the relevant invariant amplitude is calculated explicitly. It is shown that the anomalous contribution to the axial Ward identity is reproduced. This also enables one to demonstrate the delta-like behaviour of sich an imaginary part in k 2 → 0, m → 0 limit

  11. Anomalous couplings, resonances and unitarity in vector boson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekulla, Marco

    2015-12-04

    The Standard Model of particle physics has proved itself as a reliable theory to describe interactions of elementary particles. However, many questions concerning the Higgs sector and the associated electroweak symmetry breaking are still open, even after (or because) a light Higgs boson has been discovered. The 2→2 scattering amplitude of weak vector bosons is suppressed in the Standard Model due to the Higgs boson exchange. Therefore, weak vector boson scattering processes are very sensitive to additional contributions beyond the Standard Model. Possible new physics deviations can be studied model-independently by higher dimensional operators within the effective field theory framework. In this thesis, a complete set of dimension six and eight operators are discussed for vector boson scattering processes. Assuming a scenario where new physics in the Higgs/Goldstone boson decouples from the fermion-sector and the gauge-sector in the high energy limit, the impact of the dimension six operator L{sub HD} and dimension eight operators L{sub S,0} and L{sub S,1} to vector boson scattering processes can be studied separately for complete processes at particle colliders. However, a conventional effective field theory analysis will violate the S-matrix unitarity above a certain energy limit. The direct T-matrix scheme is developed to allow a study of effective field theory operators consistent with basic quantum-mechanical principles in the complete energy reach of current and future colliders. Additionally, this scheme can be used preventively for any model, because it leaves theoretical predictions invariant, which already satisfies unitarity. The effective field theory approach is further extended by allowing additional generic resonances coupling to the Higgs/Goldstone boson sector, namely the isoscalar-scalar, isoscalar-tensor, isotensor-scalar and isotensor-tensor. In particular, the Stueckelberg formalism is used to investigate the impact of the tensor degree of

  12. On unitarity in renormalisable R2sub(μν) quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomboulis, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on unitarity in renormalisable quantum gravity is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. Arguments are presented for the unitarity of the general fourth-order action (non-supersymmetric) of the renormalisable higher derivative theories of gravity directly in the continuum. Graviton propagators, propagator poles, massless matter fields and gauge theories are all discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Semiclassical approximation of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation: arbitrary orders and the question of unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus; Wichmann, David

    2018-06-01

    We extend the Born-Oppenheimer type of approximation scheme for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation of canonical quantum gravity to arbitrary orders in the inverse Planck mass squared. We discuss in detail the origin of unitarity violation in this scheme and show that unitarity can be restored by an appropriate modification which requires back reaction from matter onto the gravitational sector. In our analysis, we heavily rely on the gauge aspects of the standard Born-Oppenheimer scheme in molecular physics.

  14. Unitarity corrections in the pT distribution for the Drell-Yan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betempts, M.A.; Gay Ducaty, M.B.; Machado, M.V.T.

    2001-01-01

    In this contribution we investigate the Drell-Yan transverse momentum distribution considering the color dipole approach, taking into account unitarity aspects in the dipole cross section. The process is analyzed in the current energies on pp collisions (√s = 62 GeV) and at LHC energies (√s = 8.8 TeV. The unitarity corrections are implemented through the multiple scattering Glauber-Mueller approach. (author)

  15. Building Intuitive Arguments for the Triangle Congruence Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The triangle congruence conditions are a central focus to nearly any course in Euclidean geometry. The author presents a hands-on activity that uses straws and pipe cleaners to explore and justify the triangle congruence conditions. (Contains 4 figures.)

  16. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  17. Transfinite C2 interpolant over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfeld, P.; Barnhill, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A transfinite C 2 interpolant on a general triangle is created. The required data are essentially C 2 , no compatibility conditions arise, and the precision set includes all polynomials of degree less than or equal to eight. The symbol manipulation language REDUCE is used to derive the scheme. The scheme is discretized to two different finite dimensional C 2 interpolants in an appendix

  18. Unitarity, Feedback, Interactions - Dynamics Emergent from Repeated Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona Ugalde, Paulina; Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert; Zych, Magdalena

    Modern measurement theory dispenses with the description of a measurement as a projection. Rather, the measurement is understood as an operation, whereby the system's final state is determined by an action of a completely positive trace non-increasing map and the outcomes are described by linear operators on the system, distributed according to a positive-operator valued measure (POVM). The POVM approach unifies the theory of measurements with a general description of dynamics, the theory of open quantum systems. Engineering a particular measurement and engineering a particular dynamics for the system are thus two complementary aspects of the same conceptual framework. This correspondence is directly applied in quantum simulations and quantum control theory . With this motivation, we study what types of dynamics can emerge from a model of repeated short interactions of a system with a set of ancillae. We show that contingent on the model parameters the resulting dynamics ranges from exact unitarity to arbitrary fast decoherence. For a series of measurements the effective dynamics includes feedback-control, which for a composite system yields effective interactions between the subsystems. We quantify the amount of decoherence accompanying such induced interactions. The simple framework used in the present study can find applications in devising novel quantum control protocols, or quantum simulations.

  19. Hawking radiation, the Stefan–Boltzmann law, and unitarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Giddings

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Where does Hawking radiation originate? A common picture is that it arises from excitations very near or at the horizon, and this viewpoint has supported the “firewall” argument and arguments for a key role for the UV-dependent entanglement entropy in describing the quantum mechanics of black holes. However, closer investigation of both the total emission rate and the stress tensor of Hawking radiation supports the statement that its source is a near-horizon quantum region, or “atmosphere,” whose radial extent is set by the horizon radius scale. This is potentially important, since Hawking radiation needs to be modified to restore unitarity, and a natural assumption is that the scales relevant to such modifications are comparable to those governing the Hawking radiation. Moreover, related discussion suggests a resolution to questions regarding extra energy flux in “nonviolent” scenarios, that does not spoil black hole thermodynamics as governed by the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy.

  20. S-Channel Dark Matter Simplified Models and Unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, Christoph; Spannowsky, Michael

    The ultraviolet structure of $s$-channel mediator dark matter simplified models at hadron colliders is considered. In terms of commonly studied $s$-channel mediator simplified models it is argued that at arbitrarily high energies the perturbative description of dark matter production in high energy scattering at hadron colliders will break down in a number of cases. This is analogous to the well documented breakdown of an EFT description of dark matter collider production. With this in mind, to diagnose whether or not the use of simplified models at the LHC is valid, perturbative unitarity of the scattering amplitude in the processes relevant to LHC dark matter searches is studied. The results are as one would expect: at the LHC and future proton colliders the simplified model descriptions of dark matter production are in general valid. As a result of the general discussion, a simple new class of previously unconsidered `Fermiophobic Scalar' simplified models is proposed, in which a scalar mediator couples to...

  1. Contributions of unitarity diagrams to the polarization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadder, B.

    1992-01-01

    In this work the subject of large single spin observables of fermions is addressed. Such observables, as for instance the analyzing power in elastic proton scattering or the polarization of hyperons, are related to the imaginary part of a product of spin-flip and non-flip amplitudes. So both spin-flip and relative phases between spin-flip and non-flip amplitudes are required to achieve non-vanishing single spin asymmetries. In the framework of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics the asymmetry arises from the subprocess level. For massless quarks no spin-flips occur, because the coupling to spin 1-gluons conserves helicity. If the quarks are massive or particles with other spin than 1/2 are considered, the helicity conservation no longer holds. The born amplitudes are real, so the phases come from the second order box diagrams. An efficient method due to Charap and Leader to calculate the imaginary part of such unitarity diagrams is investigated. With the aid of the general unitary condition for particles with arbitrary spins the evaluation of the imaginary part of a second order amplitude is traced back to an integration of the product of two born amplitudes over the relative angles. With this method the imaginary part of the helicity amplitudes for several subprocesses is calculated. The polarization in quark subprocesses with massive quarks is small. So we conclude that non-perturbative aspects are essential. As a model for non-perturbative effects we incorporate diquarks. They are considered as quasi-elementary constituents, beside quarks, within bayrons, which also take an active part in reactions in an medium range of momentum transfer. Spin 1-Diquarks constitute spin-flips on the born level. In order to investigate the polarization effects from quark and diquark subprocesses they were compared in different exclusive reactions within the framework of the spectator model. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Restoring unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2005-01-01

    Whether or not a system is unitary can be seen from the way it, if perturbed, relaxes back to equilibrium. The relaxation of a semiclassical black hole can be described in terms of a correlation function which exponentially decays with time. In the momentum space it is represented by an infinite set of complex poles to be identified with the quasinormal modes. This behavior is in sharp contrast to the relaxation in unitary theory in finite volume: the correlation function of the perturbation in this case is a quasiperiodic function of time and, in general, is expected to show the Poincare recurrences. In this paper I demonstrate how restore unitarity in the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, the simplest example of an eternal black hole in finite volume. I start with reviewing the relaxation in the semiclassical BTZ black hole and how this relaxation is mirrored in the boundary conformal field theory as suggested by the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. I analyze the sum over SL(2,Z) images of the BTZ space-time and suggest that it does not produce a quasiperiodic relaxation, as one might have hoped, but results in a correlation function which decays by power law. I develop an earlier suggestion and consider a nonsemiclassical deformation of the BTZ space-time that has the structure of a wormhole connecting two asymptotic regions semiclassically separated by a horizon. The small deformation parameter λ is supposed to have a nonperturbative origin to capture the finite N behavior of the boundary theory. The discrete spectrum of perturbation in the modified space-time is computed and is shown to determine the expected unitary behavior: the corresponding time evolution is quasiperiodic with a hierarchy of large time scales ln1/λ and 1/λ interpreted, respectively, as the Heisenberg and Poincare time scales in the system

  3. Classical square-plus-triangle well fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boghdadi, M.

    1984-01-01

    A simplified model for the intermolecular-potential function which consists of a hard core and a square-plus-triangle well is proposed. The square width is taken to be lambda 1 -1 and the triangle width is lambda 2 -lambda 1 , where the diameter of the molecules is assumed to be epsilon. Under the restriction that the area under the potential well should be equal to 0.5epsilon, which has its own reason, it is shown that the appropriate choice of lambda 1 and lambda 2 that best mimics the Lennard-Jones (LJ) cut-off results is 1.15 and 1.85 respectively. With this choice for lambda 1 and lambda 2 , the proposed model is effective and satisfactory

  4. "The Dreaded Black Triangle" - Orthodontics : The Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Janardhanam

    2010-01-01

    The black triangle that resulted due to orthodontic treatment in a 15 year old female patient had been alleviated by using both orthodontic and periodontic means. This report explains the various treatment modalities that can be adopted to avoid embarrassing post-treatment results. Several methods of managing patients with gingival diastemas exist, but the interdisciplinary aspects of treatment must be emphasized to achieve best results. The orthodontist can play a significant role in helping to manage these cases.

  5. State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...

  6. Constraints on the [Formula: see text] form factor from analyticity and unitarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B; Caprini, I; Kubis, B

    Motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic [Formula: see text] form factor and certain experimental data, we investigate this form factor using analyticity and unitarity in a framework known as the method of unitarity bounds. We use a QCD correlator computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD as input, and exploit unitarity and the positivity of its spectral function, including the two-pion contribution that can be reliably calculated using high-precision data on the pion form factor. From this information, we derive upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the [Formula: see text] form factor in the elastic region. The results provide a significant check on those obtained with standard dispersion relations, confirming the existence of a disagreement with experimental data in the region around [Formula: see text].

  7. Constraints on the ωπ form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, I.; Kubis, B.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic ωπ form factor and certain experimental data, we investigate this form factor using analyticity and unitarity in a framework known as the method of unitarity bounds. We use a QCD correlator computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD as input, and exploit unitarity and the positivity of its spectral function, including the two-pion contribution that can be reliably calculated using high-precision data on the pion form factor. From this information, we derive upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the ωπ form factor in the elastic region. The results provide a significant check on those obtained with standard dispersion relations, confirming the existence of a disagreement with experimental data in the region around 0.6 GeV. (orig.)

  8. Constraints on the ωπ form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayan, B. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India); Caprini, I. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, Magurele (Romania); Kubis, B. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic ωπ form factor and certain experimental data, we investigate this form factor using analyticity and unitarity in a framework known as the method of unitarity bounds. We use a QCD correlator computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD as input, and exploit unitarity and the positivity of its spectral function, including the two-pion contribution that can be reliably calculated using high-precision data on the pion form factor. From this information, we derive upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the ωπ form factor in the elastic region. The results provide a significant check on those obtained with standard dispersion relations, confirming the existence of a disagreement with experimental data in the region around 0.6 GeV. (orig.)

  9. Non-Unitarity, sterile neutrinos, and Non-Standard neutrino Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu; Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2017-04-27

    The simplest Standard Model extension to explain neutrino masses involves the addition of right-handed neutrinos. At some level, this extension will impact neutrino oscillation searches. In this work we explore the differences and similarities between the case in which these neutrinos are kinematically accessible (sterile neutrinos) or not (mixing matrix non-unitarity). We clarify apparent inconsistencies in the present literature when using different parametrizations to describe these effects and recast both limits in the popular neutrino non-standard interaction (NSI) formal- ism. We find that, in the limit in which sterile oscillations are averaged out at the near detector, their effects at the far detector coincide with non-unitarity at leading order, even in presence of a matter potential. We also summarize the present bounds existing in both limits and compare them with the expected sensitivities of near-future facilities taking the DUNE proposal as a bench- mark. We conclude that non-unitarity effects ...

  10. Comparing MapReduce and Pipeline Implementations for Counting Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelmira Pasarella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A common method to define a parallel solution for a computational problem consists in finding a way to use the Divide and Conquer paradigm in order to have processors acting on its own data and scheduled in a parallel fashion. MapReduce is a programming model that follows this paradigm, and allows for the definition of efficient solutions by both decomposing a problem into steps on subsets of the input data and combining the results of each step to produce final results. Albeit used for the implementation of a wide variety of computational problems, MapReduce performance can be negatively affected whenever the replication factor grows or the size of the input is larger than the resources available at each processor. In this paper we show an alternative approach to implement the Divide and Conquer paradigm, named dynamic pipeline. The main features of dynamic pipelines are illustrated on a parallel implementation of the well-known problem of counting triangles in a graph. This problem is especially interesting either when the input graph does not fit in memory or is dynamically generated. To evaluate the properties of pipeline, a dynamic pipeline of processes and an ad-hoc version of MapReduce are implemented in the language Go, exploiting its ability to deal with channels and spawned processes. An empirical evaluation is conducted on graphs of different topologies, sizes, and densities. Observed results suggest that dynamic pipelines allows for an efficient implementation of the problem of counting triangles in a graph, particularly, in dense and large graphs, drastically reducing the execution time with respect to the MapReduce implementation.

  11. The unitarity defect of the S-matrix and statistical multistep direct nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1986-09-01

    A relation is derived which connects the unitarity defect function S + S-1 with the imaginary part of the absorptive potential responsible for the nuclear scattering. The concept of angle-dependent reaction cross-section is introduced for the purpose. A similar relation is also obtained for the equivalent quantity S + -S -1 . Several applications to nucler scattering are made, and possible relevance of this unitarity defect relation to statistical coupled channels theories of preequilibrium reactions is pointed out and discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Diffusion into infrared and unitarization of the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov Pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golec-Biernat, K.; Motyka, L.; Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) Pomeron in perturbative QCD is plagued by the lack of unitarity and diffusion into the infrared region of gluon virtualities. These two problems are intimately related. We perform numerical studies of the evolution equation proposed by Balitskii and Kovchegov which unitarizes the BFKL Pomeron. We show how diffusion into the infrared region is suppressed due to the emergence of a saturation scale and scaling behavior. We study the universality of this phenomenon as well as its dependence on subleading corrections to the BFKL Pomeron such as the running coupling and kinematic constraint. These corrections are very important for phenomenological applications

  13. Unitarity Bounds and RG Flows in Time Dependent Quantum Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-04-05

    We generalize unitarity bounds on operator dimensions in conformal field theory to field theories with spacetime dependent couplings. Below the energy scale of spacetime variation of the couplings, their evolution can strongly affect the physics, effectively shifting the infrared operator scaling and unitarity bounds determined from correlation functions in the theory. We analyze this explicitly for large-N double-trace flows, and connect these to UV complete field theories. One motivating class of examples comes from our previous work on FRW holography, where this effect explains the range of flavors allowed in the dual, time dependent, field theory.

  14. Unitarity or asymptotic completeness equations and analytic structure of the S matrix and Green functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1983-11-01

    Recent axiomatic results on the (non holonomic) analytic structure of the multiparticle S matrix and Green functions are reviewed and related general conjectures are described: (i) formal expansions of Green functions in terms of (holonomic) Feynman-type integrals in which each vertex represents an irreducible kernel, and (ii) ''graph by graph unitarity'' and other discontinuity formulae of the latter. These conjectures are closely linked with unitarity or asymptotic completeness equations, which they yield in a formal sense. In constructive field theory, a direct proof of the first conjecture (together with an independent proof of the second) would thus imply, as a first step, asymptotic completeness in that sense

  15. Implications of perturbative unitarity for scalar di-boson resonance searches at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luzio, Luca [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics, Durham (United Kingdom); INFN, Sezione di Genova (Italy); Kamenik, Jernej F. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nardecchia, Marco [DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    We study the constraints implied by partial wave unitarity on new physics in the form of spin-zero di-boson resonances at LHC. We derive the scale where the effective description in terms of the SM supplemented by a single resonance is expected to break down depending on the resonance mass and signal cross section. Likewise, we use unitarity arguments in order to set perturbativity bounds on renormalizable UV completions of the effective description. We finally discuss under which conditions scalar di-boson resonance signals can be accommodated within weakly coupled models. (orig.)

  16. Electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric terahertz metamaterials with triangle microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Yanping; Qian, Yunan; Lin, Xingyue; Tang, Yunhai; Cheng, Xinli; Qin, Changfa; Shen, Jiaoyan; Zang, Taocheng; Ma, Chunlan

    2018-05-01

    We investigate terahertz transmission properties and electromagnetic resonance modes in the asymmetric triangle structures with the change of asymmetric distance and the direction of electric field. When the THz electric field is perpendicular to the split gap of triangle, the electric field can better excite the THz absorption in the triangle structures. Importantly, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) characteristics are observed in the triangle structures due to the destructive interference of the different excited modes. The distributions of electric field and surface current density simulated by finite difference time domain indicate that the bright mode is excited by the side of triangle structures and dark mode is excited by the gap-side of triangle. The present study is helpful to understand the electromagnetic resonance in the asymmetric triangular metamaterials.

  17. Polarized targets at triangle universities nuclear laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, M.L. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gould, C.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Haase, D.G. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Huffman, P.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Keith, C.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Roberson, N.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wilburn, W.S. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A summary of the polarized and aligned nuclear targets which have been constructed and used at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory is given. Statically polarized targets, typically operating at a temperature of 12 mK and a magnetic field of 7 T, have provided significant nuclear polarization in {sup 1}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 27}Al, {sup 93}Nb and {sup 165}Ho. A rotating, aligned {sup 165}Ho target is also in use. A {sup 3}He melting curve thermometer has been developed for use in statically polarized targets. A dynamically polarized proton target is under construction. ((orig.))

  18. On the unitarity of string propagation on SU(1,1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1989-12-01

    We discuss the consistency (unitarity) of string propagation on the non-compact group SU(1,1) x G c and find the restrictions on the level of the Kac-Moody algebra for this propagation to be unitary. We also suggest some modifications to the Virasoro generators and obtain a manifestly unitary string theory. (author). 10 refs

  19. Local distortion techniques and unitarity of the S-matrix for the 2-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babbitt, D.; Balslev, E.

    1976-01-01

    The two-body S-matrix for an interaction with exponential decay at infinity is defined in a time-independent way and its unitarity is proved directly by local distortion techniques. Complete sets of incoming and outgoing states or delicate resolvent estimates are not needed for the proof

  20. Star-Triangle Relation of the Chiral Potts Model Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe, M.; Shigemoto, K.

    2001-01-01

    We give the simple proof of the star-triangle relation of the chiral Potts model. We also give the constructive way to understand the star-triangle relation of the chiral Potts model, which may give the hint to give the new integrable models.

  1. Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must sati...

  2. Uses of systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes uses of the systemic chemistry triangle [SCT] in which we get the benefits of both systemic approach and chemist's triangle in teaching and learning chemistry. SCT creates active learning environment enable students to gain high mental and professional skills, correct cognition, positive attitudes ...

  3. The DNA Triangle and Its Application to Learning Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L. Kate; Catavero, Christina M.; Newman, Dina L.

    2017-01-01

    Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle. The "DNA triangle" integrates three…

  4. Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.

    2005-01-01

    Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.

  5. Angle bisectors of a triangle in $I_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar-Begović, Zdenka; Kolar_Šuper, Ružica; Volenec, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The concept of an angle bisector of the triangle will be introduced in an isotropic plane. Some statements about relationships between the introduced concepts and some other previously studied geometric concepts about triangles will be investigated in an isotropic plane. A number of these statements seems to be new, and some of them are known in Euclidean geometry.

  6. Relations between Some Characteristic Lengths in a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, Wolfram; Brede, Markus

    2005-01-01

    The paper's aim is to note a remarkable (and apparently unknown) relation for right triangles, its generalisation to arbitrary triangles and the possibility to derive these and some related relations by elimination using Groebner basis computations with a modern computer algebra system. (Contains 9 figures.)

  7. Pascal-Like Triangle and Pascal-Like Functional Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bayat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper we shall first introduce the Pascal-like triangle, using a generalization of the recurrence relation for arrays of Pascal triangle. Then we define the Pascal-like functional and Fermat-like matrices and investigate their algebraic properties. Finally, we obtain some binomial identities, using these matrices

  8. Non-unitarity of the leptonic mixing matrix in the TeV-scale type-I seesaw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy; Popa, Christoph; Zhang, He

    2010-01-01

    The non-unitarity effects in leptonic flavor mixing are regarded as one of the generic features of the type-I seesaw model. Therefore, we explore these effects in the TeV-scale type-I seesaw model, and show that there exist non-trivial correlations among the non-unitarity parameters, stemming from the typical flavor structure of the low-scale seesaw model. In general, it follows from analytical discussions and numerical results that all the six non-unitarity parameters are related to three model parameters, while the widely studied parameters η eτ and η μτ cannot be phenomenologically significant simultaneously.

  9. Economic Analysis of Asian Growth Triangles : The Johor-Singapore-Riau Growth Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Glenn G.

    2000-01-01

    In looking at the Asian economy, particularly the Growth Triangle which includes Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia, one can infer a great deal. With the Asian monetary crisis affecting the world, and certainly the Asian region in particular, some economists believe it is a mistake to evaluate such matters based on tradition. Rather, a school of thought dubbed the New Institutional Economics has come into being and while not everyone considers it to be a truly new approach, the bottom line is ...

  10. Study of open-charm 0{sup +} states in unitarized chiral effective theory with one-loop potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Meng-Lin [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics (Germany); Yao, De-Liang [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics (Germany); Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (Centro mixto CSIC-UV), Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    Chiral potentials are derived for the interactions between Goldstone bosons and pseudo-scalar charmed mesons up to next-to-next-to-leading order in a covariant chiral effective field theory with explicit vector charmed-meson degrees of freedom. Using the extended-on-mass-shell scheme, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet divergences and the so-called power counting breaking terms can be properly absorbed by the low-energy constants of the chiral Lagrangians. We calculate the scattering lengths by unitarizing the one-loop potentials and fit them to the data extracted from lattice QCD. The obtained results are compared to the ones without an explicit contribution of vector charmed mesons given previously. It is found that the difference is negligible for S-wave scattering in the threshold region. This validates the use of D*-less one-loop potentials in the study of the pertinent scattering lengths. We search for dynamically generated open-charm states with J{sup P} = 0{sup +} as poles of the S-matrix on various Riemann sheets. The trajectories of those poles for varying pion masses are presented as well. (orig.)

  11. Remarks on fermion-number violation and premature unitarization in high-energy instanton-induced scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.; Shifman, M.

    1993-01-01

    We critically discuss recent works in which the premature unitarization mechanism is studied with the inclusion of non-nearest-neighbor interactions or beyond leading order in the energy. We also point out that the nonperturbative valley method gives inconsistent results when applied to fermion-number-violating amplitudes, and we argue that, independently of the mechanism of premature unitarization, the nonperturbative amplitudes which violate the fermion number are always exponentially suppressed

  12. Implications of unitarity and gauge invariance for simplified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We show that simplified models used to describe the interactions of dark matter with Standard Model particles do not in general respect gauge invariance and that perturbative unitarity may be violated in large regions of the parameter space. The modifications necessary to cure these inconsistencies may imply a much richer phenomenology and lead to stringent constraints on the model. We illustrate these observations by considering the simplified model of a fermionic dark matter particle and a vector mediator. Imposing gauge invariance then leads to strong constraints from dilepton resonance searches and electroweak precision tests. Furthermore, the new states required to restore perturbative unitarity can mix with Standard Model states and mediate interactions between the dark and the visible sector, leading to new experimental signatures such as invisible Higgs decays. The resulting constraints are typically stronger than the ‘classic’ constraints on DM simplified models such as monojet searches and make it difficult to avoid thermal overproduction of dark matter.

  13. Coupling WW, ZZ unitarized amplitudes to γγ in the TeV region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Rafael L.; Dobado, Antonio; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    We define and calculate helicity partial-wave amplitudes for processes linking the Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Sector (EWSBS) to γγ, employing (to NLO) the Higgs-EFT (HEFT) extension of the Standard Model and the Equivalence Theorem, while neglecting all particle masses. The resulting amplitudes can be useful in the energy regime (500 GeV - 3 TeV). We also deal with their unitarization so that resonances of the EWSBS can simultaneously be described in the γγ initial or final states. Our resulting amplitudes satisfy unitarity, perturbatively in α, but for all s values. In this way we improve on the HEFT that fails as interactions become stronger with growing s and we provide a natural framework for the decay of dynamically generated resonances into WW, ZZ and γγ pairs. (orig.)

  14. Implications of unitarity and gauge invariance for simplified dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwetz, Thomas; Vogl, Stefan; Stockholm Univ.

    2015-10-01

    We show that simplified models used to describe the interactions of dark matter with Standard Model particles do not in general respect gauge invariance and that perturbative unitarity may be violated in large regions of the parameter space. The modifications necessary to cure these inconsistencies may imply a much richer phenomenology and lead to stringent constraints on the model. We illustrate these observations by considering the simplified model of a fermionic dark matter particle and a vector mediator. Imposing gauge invariance then leads to strong constraints from dilepton resonance searches and electroweak precision tests. Furthermore, the new states required to restore perturbative unitarity can mix with Standard Model states and mediate interactions between the dark and the visible sector, leading to new experimental signatures such as invisible Higgs decays. The resulting constraints are typically stronger than the 'classic' constraints on DM simplified models such as monojet searches and make it difficult to avoid thermal overproduction of dark matter.

  15. Multi-instantons at high energies: Premature unitarization and supercritical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.; Shifman, M.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the role of multi-instantons at high energies in weakly coupled theories. We perform an explicit computation of their effect and we find that they become as important as the one-instanton contribution at energies where the latter is still exponentially small (''premature unitarization''). The computation relies on various simplifying assumptions, and we discuss them. We argue, however, that premature unitarization is a phenomenon of a very general nature, which should survive our simplifying assumptions. If this is the case, there exists a critical energy where a change of regime is forced, and the dilute-instanton-gas approximation totally collapses. Possible scenarios in the critical and supercritical domain are discussed at the qualitative level

  16. Grouper: a compact, streamable triangle mesh data structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffel, Mark; Gurung, Topraj; Lindstrom, Peter; Rossignac, Jarek

    2014-01-01

    We present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. As a part of this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle--i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format--Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  17. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luffel, Mark [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Gurung, Topraj [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU); Lindstrom, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rossignac, Jarek [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). Visualization and Usability Center (GVU)

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  18. Approach to the nonrelatiVistic scattering theory based on the causality superposition and unitarity principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajnutdinov, R.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    Possibility is studied to build the nonrelativistic scattering theory on the base of the general physical principles: causality, superposition, and unitarity, making no use of the Schroedinger formalism. The suggested approach is shown to be more general than the nonrelativistic scattering theory based on the Schroedinger equation. The approach is applied to build a model ofthe scattering theory for a system which consists of heavy nonrelativistic particles and a light relativistic particle

  19. Unitarity cuts and Reduction to master integrals in d dimensions for one-loop amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasiou, C; Feng, B; Kunszt, Z; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo; Anastasiou, Charalampos; Britto, Ruth; Feng, Bo; Kunszt, Zoltan; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2007-01-01

    We present an alternative reduction to master integrals for one-loop amplitudes using a unitarity cut method in arbitrary dimensions. We carry out the reduction in two steps. The first step is a pure four-dimensional cut-integration of tree amplitudes with a mass parameter, and the second step is applying dimensional shift identities to master integrals. This reduction is performed at the integrand level, so that coefficients can be read out algebraically.

  20. Unitarity limits on the mass and radius of dark matter particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griest, Kim; Kamionkowski, Marc

    1989-01-01

    Using partial wave unitarity and the observed density of the Universe, it is show that a stable elementary particle which was once in thermal equilibrium cannot have a mass greater than 340 TeV. An extended object which was once in thermal equilibrium cannot have a radius less than 7.5 x 10(exp -7) fm. A lower limit to the relic abundance of such particles is also found.

  1. Sense and Sensibility:The Erotic Triangle in Shakespearean Sonnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒畅

    2017-01-01

    The male-female-male relationship is a recurrent theme in William Shakespeare's sonnets. In Eve Sedgwick's influen-tial queer study book Between Men:English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire, she first interpreted the relationship within the model of erotic triangle. On the basis of Sedgwick's theory, the triangle relationship in the Sonnets is analyzed—Shakespeare con-structs an erotic triangle where males by identifying, cooperating, and competing with each other, maintain their homosocial bond upon heterosexual but misogynous desires towards a female. The contradictory relationship reflects Shakespeare 's struggle vis-à-vis a Renaissance literary theme:rationality versus passion, with the former mounting over the latter.

  2. Sense and Sensibility:The Erotic Triangle in Shakespearean Sonnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒畅

    2017-01-01

    The male-female-male relationship is a recurrent theme in William Shakespeare's sonnets. In Eve Sedgwick's influen-tial queer study book Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire, she first interpreted the relationship within the model of erotic triangle. On the basis of Sedgwick's theory, the triangle relationship in the Sonnets is analyzed—Shakespeare con-structs an erotic triangle where males by identifying, cooperating, and competing with each other, maintain their homosocial bond upon heterosexual but misogynous desires towards a female. The contradictory relationship reflects Shakespeare's struggle vis-à-vis a Renaissance literary theme: rationality versus passion, with the former mounting over the latter.

  3. Applied psychometrics in clinical psychiatry: the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety, antidepress......OBJECTIVE: To consider applied psychometrics in psychiatry as a discipline focusing on pharmacopsychology rather than psychopharmacology as illustrated by the pharmacopsychometric triangle. METHOD: The pharmacopsychological dimensions of clinically valid effects of drugs (antianxiety...... psychometrics in psychiatry have been found to cover a pharmacopsychometric triangle illustrating the measurements of wanted and unwanted effects of pharmacotherapeutic drugs as well as health-related quality of life....

  4. Nonviolent unitarization: basic postulates to soft quantum structure of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Steven B.

    2017-12-01

    A first-principles approach to the unitarity problem for black holes is systematically explored, based on the postulates of 1) quantum mechanics 2) the ability to approximately locally divide quantum gravitational systems into subsystems 3) correspondence with quantum field theory predictions for appropriate observers and (optionally) 4) universality of new gravitational effects. Unitarity requires interactions between the internal state of a black hole and its surroundings that have not been identified in the field theory description; correspondence with field theory indicates that these are soft. A conjectured information-theoretic result for information transfer between subsystems, partly motivated by a perturbative argument, then constrains the minimum coupling size of these interactions of the quantum atmosphere of a black hole. While large couplings are potentially astronomically observable, given this conjecture one finds that the new couplings can be exponentially small in the black hole entropy, yet achieve the information transfer rate needed for unitarization, due to the large number of black hole internal states. This provides a new possible alternative to arguments for large effects near the horizon. If universality is assumed, these couplings can be described as small, soft, state-dependent fluctuations of the metric near the black hole. Open questions include that of the more fundamental basis for such an effective picture.

  5. Gauge theory high-energy behavior from j-plane unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriano, C.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL; White, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    In a non-abelian gauge theory the t-channel multiparticle unitarity equations continued in the complex j-plane can be systematically expanded around j=1 and t=0. The combination of Ward identity constraints with unitarity is sufficient to produce directly many of the results obtained by Regge limit leading-log and next-to-leading log momentum-space calculations. The O(g 2 ) BFKL kernel is completely determined. O(g 4 ) infrared contributions to this kernel are also obtained, including the leading contribution of a new partial-wave amplitude - previously identified as a separate forward component with a holomorphically factorizable spectrum. For this amplitude the only scale ambiguity is the overall normalization and it is anticipated to be a new conformally invariant kernel. While scale-dependent non-leading reggeon interactions can not be derived by the techniques developed, it is conjectured that all conformally invariant interactions may be determined by t-channel unitarity. (orig.)

  6. Non-unitarity, sterile neutrinos, and non-standard neutrino interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blennow, Mattias [Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Albanova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Coloma, Pilar [Theoretical Physics Department, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Hernandez-Garcia, Josu [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo [INFN, Sezione di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-04-27

    The simplest Standard Model extension to explain neutrino masses involves the addition of right-handed neutrinos. At some level, this extension will impact neutrino oscillation searches. In this work we explore the differences and similarities between the case in which these neutrinos are kinematically accessible (sterile neutrinos) or not (mixing matrix non-unitarity). We clarify apparent inconsistencies in the present literature when using different parametrizations to describe these effects and recast both limits in the popular neutrino non-standard interaction (NSI) formalism. We find that, in the limit in which sterile oscillations are averaged out at the near detector, their effects at the far detector coincide with non-unitarity at leading order, even in presence of a matter potential. We also summarize the present bounds existing in both limits and compare them with the expected sensitivities of near-future facilities taking the DUNE proposal as a benchmark. We conclude that non-unitarity effects are too constrained to impact present or near future neutrino oscillation facilities but that sterile neutrinos can play an important role at long baseline experiments. The role of the near detector is also discussed in detail.

  7. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  8. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang; Jiang, Caigui; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals

  9. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  10. Exploring fraud triangle in understanding ethics pre-cautionary: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring fraud triangle in understanding ethics pre-cautionary: a Malaysian ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Various reports on the involvement of government officials in fraud cases indicate the lacking of ethical systems.

  11. Metrical relationships in a standard triangle in an isotropic plane

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar-Šuper, R.; Kolar-Begović, Z.; Volenec, V.; Beban-Brkić, J.

    2005-01-01

    Each allowable triangle of an isotropic plane can be set in a standard position, in which it is possible to prove geometric properties analytically in a simplified and easier way by means of the algebraic theory developed in this paper.

  12. A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.

  13. Band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying, E-mail: yliu5@bjtu.edu.cn; Liang, Tianshu

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the band structures in Sierpinski triangle fractal porous phononic crystals (FPPCs) are studied with the aim to clarify the effect of fractal hierarchy on the band structures. Firstly, one kind of FPPCs based on Sierpinski triangle routine is proposed. Then the influence of the porosity on the elastic wave dispersion in Sierpinski triangle FPPCs is investigated. The sensitivity of the band structures to the fractal hierarchy is discussed in detail. The results show that the increase of the hierarchy increases the sensitivity of ABG (Absolute band gap) central frequency to the porosity. But further increase of the fractal hierarchy weakens this sensitivity. On the same hierarchy, wider ABGs could be opened in Sierpinski equilateral triangle FPPC; whilst, a lower ABG could be opened at lower porosity in Sierpinski right-angled isosceles FPPCs. These results will provide a meaningful guidance in tuning band structures in porous phononic crystals by fractal design.

  14. Measurements of direct CP violation and constraints on the CKM triangle in B → K*π decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Andrew Phillips [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We constrain the apex of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle with measurements of B → K*π amplitudes from analyses of B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays. This constraint is consistent with the world average. The B0 → K+π-π0 decay mode is reconstructed from a sample of 454 million B0$\\bar{B}$ 0 events collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC. We measure direct CP violation in B0 → K*+π- decays at the level of 3σ when measurements from both B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays are combined.

  15. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  16. On degree sums of a triangle-free graph

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.

    2014-01-01

    For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l-c...

  17. Trigonometric solutions of triangle equations. Simple Lie superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhanov, V.V.; Shadrikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Trigonometric solutions of the graded triangle equation are constructed for the fundamental representations of all simple (nonexceptional) Lie superalgebras with nondegenerate metric. In Sec. 1, we introduce the concept of Z 2 graded spaces and give the basic definitions. In Sec. 2, we determine fundamental representations of the Lie superalgebras sl(mn) and osp(2rs) and give explicit realizations of the Coxeter automorphisms. In secs. 3 and 4, we give the trigonometric solutions of the graded triangle equation (quantum R matrices)

  18. Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John

    2000-01-01

    Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph of ge...

  19. Moving triangle singularities: the possibilities for observation in deuteron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolybasov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    If the amplitude of direct reaction is dominated by the triangle graph then it can be identified observing the picture corresponding to so-called moving triangle singularity: the form of the distribution with respect to the invariant mass of several final particles must change with momentum transferred from initial fast particle to final one. The possibilities for observation are discussed using two reactions, namely deuteron break up and η-meson production pd → pdη [ru

  20. Constraints on the ωπ Form Factor from Analyticity and Unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Kubis, Bastian

    Form factors are important low-energy quantities and an accurate knowledge of these sheds light on the strong interactions. A variety of methods based on general principles have been developed to use information known in different energy regimes to constrain them in regions where experimental information needs to be tested precisely. Here we review our recent work on the electromagnetic ωπ form factor in a model-independent framework known as the method of unitarity bounds, partly motivated by the discre-pancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the form factor based on dispersion relations and certain experimental data measured from the decay ω → π0γ*. We have applied a modified dispersive formalism, which uses as input the discontinuity of the ωπ form factor calculated by unitarity below the ωπ threshold and an integral constraint on the square of its modulus above this threshold. The latter constraint was obtained by exploiting unitarity and the positivity of the spectral function of a QCD correlator, computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD. An alternative constraint is obtained by using data available at higher energies for evaluating an integral of the modulus squared with a suitable weight function. From these conditions we derived upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the ωπ form factor in the region below the ωπ threshold. The results confirm the existence of a disagreement between dispersion theory and experimental data on the ωπ form factor around 0:6 GeV, including those from NA60 published in 2016.

  1. Global structure of curves from generalized unitarity cut of three-loop diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Huang, Rijun; Mehta, Dhagash; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the global structure of algebraic curves defined by generalized unitarity cut of four-dimensional three-loop diagrams with eleven propagators. The global structure is a topological invariant that is characterized by the geometric genus of the algebraic curve. We use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula to compute the geometric genus of algebraic curves with the help of techniques involving convex hull polytopes and numerical algebraic geometry. Some interesting properties of genus for arbitrary loop orders are also explored where computing the genus serves as an initial step for integral or integrand reduction of three-loop amplitudes via an algebraic geometric approach.

  2. Electron-positron annihilation: unitarity, scaling and electrodynamics at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, G [Guelph Univ., Ontario (Canada); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1974-01-01

    The work on e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation by Cabibbo, Wolfenstein and the author is reviewed. The restrictions of unitarity are analyzed and the connection between the cross sections sigmasub(h) (into hadrons) and sigmasub(..mu..) (into muons) is derived. The possibility of non-scaling in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is studied and it is pointed out that it leads to no contradiction with presently available information. It is further pointed out that non-scaling could provide a cut-off mechanism for quantum electrodynamics.

  3. Unitarization of Koerner-Kuroda model of electromagnetic structure of octet 1/2+ baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnicka, S.; Dubnickova, A.Z.

    1994-10-01

    The Koerner-Kuroda model of the electromagnetic structure of octet 1/2 + baryons is restored on a more topical physical basis. Electromagnetic radii of baryons under consideration are calculated and compared with other model predictions. By an incorporation of a two-cut approximation of correct form factor analytic properties and nonzero vector-meson widths, the Koerner-Kuroda model is unitarized, providing in this manner imaginary parts of the octet 1/2 + baryon form factors to be nonzero just starting from a branch point corresponding to the lowest threshold. (author). 32 refs, 16 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Rapid Separation of Disconnected Triangle Meshes Based on Graph Traversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, S J; Wang, Y

    2006-01-01

    In recent year, The STL file become a de facto standard on the file presentation in CAD/CAM, computer graph and reverse engineering. When point cloud which is obtained by scanning object body using optical instrument is used to reconstruct an original model, the points cloud is presented by the STL file. Usually, datum of several separated and relative objects are stored in a single STL file, when such a file is operated by a computer, the datum in the file is firstly separated and then each element of every triangle pitch on the triangle mesh is traversed and visited and is calculated. The problem is analyzed and studied by many experts, but there is still a lack of a simple and quick algorithm. An algorithm which uses graph traversal to traverse each element of the triangle meshes and separate several disconnected triangle meshes is presented by the paper, the searching and calculating speed of the data on the triangle meshes is enhanced, memory size of the computer is reduced, complexity of the data structure is simplified and powerful guarantee is made for the next process by using this algorithm

  5. Triangle inequalities in coherence measures and entanglement concurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; You, Wenlong; Dong, Yuli; Zhang, Chengjie

    2017-12-01

    We provide detailed proofs of triangle inequalities in coherence measures and entanglement concurrence. If a rank-2 state ϱ can be expressed as a convex combination of two pure states, i.e., ϱ =p1| ψ1〉〈 ψ1|+ p2| ψ2〉〈 ψ2| , a triangle inequality can be established as |E (|Ψ1〉 )-E (|Ψ2〉 )|≤E (ϱ ) ≤E (|Ψ1〉 )+E (|Ψ2〉 ) , where | Ψ1〉= √{p1}|ψ1〉 and | Ψ2〉= √{p2}|ψ2〉 ; E can be considered either coherence measures or entanglement concurrence. This inequality displays mathematical beauty for its similarity to the triangle inequality in plane geometry. An illustrative example is given after the proof.

  6. Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish...... Broadcasting Corporation (DR) over time. The conventional iron triangle of quality, cost and schedule for project management is the theoretical starting point, but this is seen as mainly being related to process integrity in the construction stage. It is supplemented by a similar value triangle of cultural...... value, use value and quality of realization for product integrity, mainly for the design stage. Based on this framework an evaluation is made of the value management in six of DR’s building projects from the first around 1930 to the most recent – the new headquarters DR Byen finalised in 2009...

  7. αs and |Vcs| determination, and CKM unitarity test, from W decays at NNLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David d'Enterria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The hadronic (ΓhadW and total (ΓtotW widths of the W boson, computed at least at next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO accuracy, are combined to derive a new precise prediction for the hadronic W branching ratio BhadW ≡ ΓhadW/ΓtotW=0.682±0.011par, using the experimental Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM matrix elements, with uncertainties dominated by the input parameters of the calculations, or BhadW=0.6742±0.0002th±0.0001par assuming CKM unitarity. Comparing the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements for various W decay observables, the NNLO strong coupling constant at the Z pole, αs(mZ2=0.117±0.042exp±0.004th±0.001par, as well as the charm-strange CKM element, |Vcs|=0.973±0.004exp±0.002par, can be extracted under different assumptions. We also show that W decays provide today the most precise test of CKM unitarity for the 5 quarks lighter than mW, ∑u,c,d,s,b|Vij|2=1.999±0.008exp±0.001th. Perspectives for αs and |Vcs| extractions from W decays measurements at the LHC and future e+e− colliders are presented.

  8. Precise tests for the unitarized pion photoproduction impulse amplitude in exclusive nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittman, R.

    1986-07-01

    An impulse amplitude for pion photoproduction, suitable for the nuclear problem, is constructed with improved background dynamics and unitarity. The superior features of the amplitude are demonstrated at energies between threshold (E/sub γ/ = 150 MeV) and the Δ(1232) resonance energy (E/sub γ/ = 320 MeV) by discussing their effects on partial cross sections relevant to exclusive transitions in the 1p-shell. The specific reactions of 13 C(γ,π - ) 13 N/sub g.s./ and 14 N(γ,π + ) 14 C/sub g.s./ are discussed in light of these more general partial cross sections. The nuclear structure of the A = 14 system helps to enhance the effects considered. At or near resonance, very sizable (20 to 30%) effects arise both from the unitarity and from the refined treatment of the pionic final state interaction generated in the Δ-hole approach. Other examples of charged pion photoproduction reactions for 1p-shell nuclei are discussed briefly. Future theoretical improvements and experimental possibilities are suggested. 61 refs., 58 figs

  9. Unitarity bounds for gauged axionic interactions and the Green-Schwarz mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriano, C. [Universita del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce, Dipartimento di Fisica, Lecce (Italy); University of Crete, Department of Physics and Institute of Plasma Physics, Heraklion (Greece); Guzzi, M.; Morelli, S. [Universita del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce, Dipartimento di Fisica, Lecce (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    We analyze the effective actions of anomalous models in which a four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism is invoked for the cancellation of the anomalies, and we compare it with those models in which gauge invariance is restored by the presence of a Wess-Zumino term. Some issues concerning an apparent violation of unitarity of the mechanism, which requires Dolgov-Zakharov poles, are carefully examined, using a class of amplitudes studied in the past by Bouchiat-Iliopoulos-Meyer (BIM), and elaborating on previous studies. In the Wess-Zumino case we determine explicitly the unitarity bound using a realistic model of intersecting branes (the Madrid model) by studying the corresponding BIM amplitudes. This is shown to depend significantly on the Stueckelberg mass and on the coupling of the extra anomalous gauge bosons and allows one to identify standard-model-like regions (which are anomaly-free) from regions where the growth of certain amplitudes is dominated by the anomaly, separated by an inflection point, which could be studied at the LHC. The bound can even be around 5-10 TeV for a Z' mass around 1 TeV and varies sensitively with the anomalous coupling. The results for the WZ case are quite general and apply to all the models in which an axion-like interaction is introduced as a generalization of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, with a gauged axion. (orig.)

  10. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voon, Chen Huey, E-mail: chenhv@utar.edu.my; Hui, Liew How, E-mail: liewhh@utar.edu.my; How, Yim Kheng, E-mail: tidusyimhome@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematical and Actuarial Sciences, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Cheras 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-06-02

    Let mK{sub 3} = (V{sub m}, E{sub m}) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K{sub 3}, where V{sub m} is the set of vertices, E{sub m} is the set of edges and both V{sub m} and E{sub m} are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK{sub 3} is a function f which maps the elements in V{sub m} and E{sub m} to positive integer values, i.e. f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V{sub m} ∪ E{sub m} → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V{sub m} and an edge xy ∈ E{sub m} joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  11. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voon, Chen Huey; Hui, Liew How; How, Yim Kheng

    2016-01-01

    Let mK_3 = (V_m, E_m) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K_3, where V_m is the set of vertices, E_m is the set of edges and both V_m and E_m are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK_3 is a function f which maps the elements in V_m and E_m to positive integer values, i.e. f : V_m ∪ E_m → {1, 2, 3,···}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-Erdősian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V_m ∪ E_m → {c, c + 1, ···, c + 6m − 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ∈ V_m and an edge xy ∈ E_m joining them. In order to find all the c-Erdősian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-Erdősian triangle labelling for m ≤ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-Erdősian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  12. Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-12

    This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ʼnormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.

  13. A New and Very Long Proof of the Pythagoras Theorem By Way of a Proposition on Isosceles Triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a new proof of the Pythagoras Theorem on right-angled triangles via two new lemmas pertaining to, respectively, isosceles triangles and right-angled triangles, which are of pedagogical value in themselves.

  14. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi; Campbell, Stuart J.; Hoey, Andrew; Fadli, Nur; Linkie, Matthew; Baird, Andrew Hamilton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral

  15. Knowledge triangles in the Netherlands : an entrepreneurial ecosystem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, E.; Romme, A.G.L.; Roso, M.; van den Toren, J.P.; van der Starre, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    This is a study of the knowledge triangles of research-education-innovation in several Dutch regional ecosystems. It draws on case studies of the Amsterdam, Twente and Eindhoven regions as well as the analysis of secondary data regarding a larger set of regional ecosystems in the Netherlands.

  16. Triangle of Safety Technique: A New Approach to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. M. S. Almutairi

    2009-01-01

    dissection of the Calot's triangle can lead to such injuries. The aim of the authors in this study is to present a new safe triangle of dissection. Patients and Method. 501 patients under went LC in the following approach; The cystic artery is identified and mobilized from the gall bladder (GB medial wall down towards the cystic duct which would simultaneously divide the medial GB peritoneal attachment. This is then followed by dividing the lateral peritoneal attachment. The GB will be unfolded and the borders of the triangle of safety (TST are achieved: cystic artery medially, cystic duct laterally and the gallbladder wall superiorly. The floor of the triangle is then divided to delineate both cystic duct and artery in an area relatively far from CBD. Results. There were little significant immediate or delayed complications. The mean operating time was 68 minutes, nearly equivalent to the conventional method. Conclusions. Dissection at TST appears to be a safe procedure which clearly demonstrates the cystic duct and may help to reduce the CBD injuries.

  17. The chemist's triangle and a general systemic approach to teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three levels of science thought (macro, micro, symbolic), identified by Johnstone and represented by a triangle, may be viewed as a core closed-cluster concept map of the type advocated in the systemic approach to teaching and learning of chemistry. Some of the implications of this view for teaching, learning and ...

  18. Rates of convergence of Brezier net over triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuyu.

    1986-12-01

    It is well known (Farin, 1979) that the sequence of Bezier nets f-circumflex n (x) associated with Bernstein-Bezier surface over a triangle converges to the surface uniformly as n goes to infinity. In this paper the precise rates of convergence are given. The pointwise convergence result and saturation theorem are presented. (author). 7 refs

  19. Enriching Triangle Mesh Animations with Physically Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yijing; Xu, Hongyi; Barbic, Jernej

    2017-10-01

    We present a system to combine arbitrary triangle mesh animations with physically based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, enabling control over the combination both in space and time. The input is a triangle mesh animation obtained using any method, such as keyframed animation, character rigging, 3D scanning, or geometric shape modeling. The input may be non-physical, crude or even incomplete. The user provides weights, specified using a minimal user interface, for how much physically based simulation should be allowed to modify the animation in any region of the model, and in time. Our system then computes a physically-based animation that is constrained to the input animation to the amount prescribed by these weights. This permits smoothly turning physics on and off over space and time, making it possible for the output to strictly follow the input, to evolve purely based on physically based simulation, and anything in between. Achieving such results requires a careful combination of several system components. We propose and analyze these components, including proper automatic creation of simulation meshes (even for non-manifold and self-colliding undeformed triangle meshes), converting triangle mesh animations into animations of the simulation mesh, and resolving collisions and self-collisions while following the input.

  20. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Calculus of variations, shape optimization, isoperimetric prob- lems. Figure 1. Starting from the triangle inequality, we will dis- cuss a series of shape optimization problems us- ing elementary geometry and ultimately derive the classical isoperimetric inequality in the plane. One of the important results we learn in plane geom ...

  1. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear ...

  2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. From the Triangle Inequality to the Isoperimetric Inequality. S Kesavan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 135-148. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2011-01-01

    General fitness Classes Enrolments are open for general fitness classes at CERN taking place on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday lunchtimes in the Pump Hall (building 216). There are shower facilities for both men and women. It is possible to pay for 1, 2 or 3 classes per week for a minimum of 1 month and up to 6 months. Check out our rates and enrol at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  4. Comparison of charged particle multiplicity distributions in p tilde p and pp interactions and verification of the dual unitarization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyunya, B.V.; Boguslavsky, I.V.; Gramenitsky, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The difference between antiproton annihilation and pp interactions has been discussed. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in anti pp-interactions at 22.4 GeV/c were used to obtain antiproton annihilation characteristics. The comparison of the topological cross section of antipp interactions with those of non-diffractive pp interactions confirms the validity of dual unitarization

  5. Nature of the Schwinger term in spinor electrodynamics. [Dispersion formulation,dimensions,green functions,c-number,linear unitarity condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, K; Sasaki, R [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1975-06-01

    On the basis of the dispersion formulation of field theories the Schwinger term in spinor electrodynamics is shown to be a c-number. The essence of the proof consists in the dimensional argument and the characteristic features of the linear unitarity condition for a set of Green's functions involving the Schwinger term.

  6. Two aspects of one loop structure: Unitarity delay in the Standard Model and modular invariance in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, C.

    1989-08-01

    We study two aspects of one loop structures in quantum field theories which describe two different areas of particle physics: the one loop unitarity behavior of the Standard Model of electroweak interactions and modular invariance of string model theory. Loop expansion has its importance in that it contains quantum fluctuations due to all physical states in the theory. Therefore, by studying the various models to one loop, we can understand how the contents of the theory can contribute to physically measurable quantities and how the consistency at quantum level restricts the physical states of the theory, as well. In the first half of the thesis, we study one loop corrections to the process {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} {yields} {ital W}{sup +}{ital W}{sup {minus}}. In this process, there is a delicate unitarity-saving cancellation between s-channel and t-channel tree level Feynman diagrams. If the one loop contribution due to heavy particles corrects the channels asymmetrically, the cancellation, hence unitarity, will be delayed up to the mass scale of these heavy particles. We refer to this phenomena as the unitarity delay effect. Due to this effect, cross section below these mass scales can have significant radiative corrections which may provide an appropriate window through which we can see the high energy structure of the Standard Model from relatively low energy experiments. In the second half, we will show how quantum consistency can restrict the physical states in string theory. 53 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Identifying translational science within the triangle of biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M

    2013-05-24

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap places special emphasis on "bench-to-bedside" research, or the "translation" of basic science research into practical clinical applications. The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Consortium is one example of the large investments being made to develop a national infrastructure to support translational science, which involves reducing regulatory burdens, launching new educational initiatives, and forming partnerships between academia and industry. However, while numerous definitions have been suggested for translational science, including the qualitative T1-T4 classification, a consensus has not yet been reached. This makes it challenging to tract the impact of these major policy changes. In this study, we use a bibliometric approach to map PubMed articles onto a graph, called the Triangle of Biomedicine. The corners of the triangle represent research related to animals, cells and molecules, and humans; and, the position of a publication on the graph is based on its topics, as determined by its Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). We define translation as movement of a collection of articles, or the articles that cite those articles, towards the human corner. The Triangle of Biomedicine provides a quantitative way of determining if an individual scientist, research organization, funding agency, or scientific field is producing results that are relevant to clinical medicine. We validate our technique using examples that have been previously described in the literature and by comparing it to prior methods of measuring translational science. The Triangle of Biomedicine is a novel way to identify translational science and track changes over time. This is important to policy makers in evaluating the impact of the large investments being made to accelerate translation. The Triangle of Biomedicine also provides a simple visual way of depicting this impact, which can be far more powerful than numbers alone.

  8. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  9. Unitarity corrections to short-range order long-range rapidity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capella, A

    1978-01-01

    Although the effective hadronic forces have short range in rapidity space, one nevertheless expects long-range dynamical correlations induced by unitarity constraints. This paper contains a thorough discussion of long-range rapidity correlations in high-multiplicity events. In particular, the authors analyze in detail the forward- backward multiplicity correlations, measured recently in the whole CERN ISR energy range. They find from these data that the normalized variance of the number n of exchanged cut Pomerons, ((n/(n)-1)/sup 2/) , is most probably in the range 0.32 to 0.36. They show that such a number is obtained from Reggeon theory in the eikonal approximation. The authors also predict a very specific violation of local compensation of charge in multiparticle events: The violation should appear in the fourth-order zone correlation function and is absent in the second-order correlation function, the only one measured until now. (48 refs).

  10. One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: From Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R. Keith; Kunszt, Zoltan; Melnikov, Kirill; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently, new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.

  11. QED on curved background and on manifolds with boundaries: Unitarity versus covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilevich, D.V.

    1994-11-01

    Some recent results show that the covariant path integral and the integral over physical degrees of freedom give contradicting results on curved background and on manifolds with boundaries. This looks like a conflict between unitarity and covariance. We argue that this effect is due to the use of non-covariant measure on the space of physical degrees of freedom. Starting with the reduced phase space path integral and using covariant measure throughout computations we recover standard path integral in the Lorentz gauge and the Moss and Poletti BRST-invariant boundary conditions. We also demonstrate by direct calculations that in the approach based on Gaussian path integral on the space of physical degrees of freedom some basic symmetries are broken. (author). 39 refs

  12. One-loop calculations in quantum field theory: from Feynman diagrams to unitarity cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, R. Keith [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kunszt, Zoltan [Institute for Theoretical Physics (Switzerland); Melnikov, Kirill [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Zanderighi, Giulia [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-01

    The success of the experimental program at the Tevatron re-inforced the idea that precision physics at hadron colliders is desirable and, indeed, possible. The Tevatron data strongly suggests that one-loop computations in QCD describe hard scattering well. Extrapolating this observation to the LHC, we conclude that knowledge of many short-distance processes at next-to-leading order may be required to describe the physics of hard scattering. While the field of one-loop computations is quite mature, parton multiplicities in hard LHC events are so high that traditional computational techniques become inefficient. Recently new approaches based on unitarity have been developed for calculating one-loop scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. These methods are especially suitable for the description of multi-particle processes in QCD and are amenable to numerical implementations. We present a systematic pedagogical description of both conceptual and technical aspects of the new methods.

  13. A revised formula for 3-body recombination that cannot exceed the unitarity limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Chris H.; Esry, B.D.; Suno, H.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the recent developments in theory and experiment that bear on our understanding of three-body recombination at ultracold temperatures. Some of these predictions include the fourth-power dependence of the three-body rate on the two-body scattering lenght a, the appearance of quantum mechanical shape resonance and Feshbach resonances, and the existence of destructive interference minima at large positive scattering lenghts. At very large scattering lenghts, however, the a 4 dependence of the recombination rate eventually will exceed the unitarity limit. We propose in this paper a simple way to correct this problem, permitting an approximate extension of previous predictions to slightly higher energies above the three-body fragmentation threshold. A preliminary comparison is carried out with a very recent experiment by Grimm and coworkers, showing reasonable agreement

  14. Unitarized model of inclusive and diffractive DIS with Q2 evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Tywoniuk, Konrad; Kaidalov, Alexei B.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the interplay of low-x physics and QCD scaling violations by extending the unified approach describing inclusive structure functions and diffractive production in γ*p interactions proposed in previous papers to large values of Q 2 . We describe the procedure of extracting, from the nonperturbative model, initial conditions for the QCD evolution that respect unitarity. Assuming Regge factorization of the diffractive structure function, a similar procedure is proposed for the calculation of hard diffraction. The results are in good agreement with experimental data on the proton structure function F 2 and the most recent data on the reduced diffractive cross section, x P σ r D(3) . Predictions for both F 2 and F L are presented in a wide kinematical range and compared to calculations within high-energy QCD.

  15. WIMP Dark Matter and Unitarity-Conserving Inflation via a Gauge Singlet Scalar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; McDonald, John

    2015-07-01

    A gauge singlet scalar with non-minimal coupling to gravity can drive inflation and later freeze out to become cold dark matter. We explore this idea by revisiting inflation in the singlet direction (S-inflation) and Higgs Portal Dark Matter in light of the Higgs discovery, limits from LUX and observations by Planck. We show that large regions of parameter space remain viable, so that successful inflation is possible and the dark matter relic abundance can be reproduced. Moreover, the scalar singlet can stabilise the electroweak vacuum and at the same time overcome the problem of unitarity-violation during inflation encountered by Higgs Inflation, provided the singlet is a real scalar. The 2-σ Planck upper bound on n s imposes that the singlet mass is below 2 TeV, so that almost the entire allowed parameter range can be probed by XENON1T.

  16. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  17. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Fitness Club is organising Zumba Classes on the first Wednesday of each month, starting 7 September (19.00 – 20.00). What is Zumba®? It’s an exhilarating, effective, easy-to-follow, Latin-inspired, calorie-burning dance fitness-party™ that’s moving millions of people toward joy and health. Above all it’s great fun and an excellent work out. Price: 22 CHF/person Sign-up via the following form: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20Subscription/NewForm.aspx For more info: fitness.club@cern.ch

  18. Fodbold Fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren

    Samfundet forandrer sig og ligeså gør danskernes idrætsmønstre. Fodbold Fitness, der er afhandlingens omdrejningspunkt, kan iagttages som en reaktion på disse forandringer. Afhandlingen ser nærmere på Fodbold Fitness og implementeringen af dette, der ingenlunde er nogen let opgave. Bennike bidrager...

  19. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  20. Topological chiral phonons in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xifang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Lifa

    2018-06-01

    Since chiral phonons were found in an asymmetric two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, there has been growing interest in the study of phonon chirality, which were experimentally verified very recently in monolayer tungsten diselenide (2018 Science 359 579). In this work, we find chiral phonons with nontrivial topology in center-stacked bilayer triangle lattices. At the Brillouin-zone corners, (), circularly polarized phonons and nonzero phonon Berry curvature are observed. Moreover, we find that the phonon chirality remain robust with changing sublattice mass ratio and interlayer coupling. The chiral phonons at the valleys are demonstrated in doubler-layer sodium chloride along the [1 1 1] direction. We believe that the findings on topological chiral phonons in triangle lattices will give guidance in the study of chiral phonons in real materials and promote the phononic applications.

  1. Visualization on triangle concept using Adobe Flash Professional SC6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagita, Laela; Ratih Kusumarini, Adha

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop teaching aids using Adobe Flash Professional CS6 emphasize on Triangle concept. A new alternative way to deliver a basic concept in geometry with visualization is software Adobe Flash Professional CS 6. Research method is research and development with 5 phase of Ploom’s model, namely (1) preliminary, (2) design, (3) realization/ construction, (4) test, evaluation and revision, and 5) implementation. The results showed that teaching aids was valid, practice, and effective. Validity: expert judgement for material score is 3.95 and media expert judgement produce an average score of 3,2, both in the category are valid. Practically: the average of questionnaire response is 4,04 (good). Effectiveness: n-gain test value is 0,36 (medium). It concluded that developed of teaching aids using Adobe Flash CS6 on triangle can improve student achievement.

  2. Freud, Ferenczi, and Rosmersholm: incestuous triangles and analytic thirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnytsky, Peter L

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing a field theory of unconscious communication, and in particular the concept of the analytic third, this paper situates Freud's interpretation of Ibsen's 1886 Rosmersholm, presented in the section of his essay "Some Character-Types Met with in Psycho-Analytic Work" (1916) entitled "Those Wrecked by Success," in the context of his relationship with Ferenczi. Both in his interpretation of Rosmersholm and in his earlier papers on the psychology of love, it is argued, Freud may be seen to commenting both on Ferenczi's incestuous love triangle with Gizella and Elma Pálos and on his equally incestuous triangle with Martha and Minna Bernays. In a postscript, the challenge offered by Groddeck to Freud's oedipal reading of Rosmersholm is assessed.

  3. Anatomic Assessment of Variations in Kambin's Triangle: A Surgical and Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Ali Fahir; Suzer, Tuncer; Can, Halil; Falsafi, Mani; Aydin, Murat; Sasani, Mehdi; Oktenoglu, Tunc

    2017-04-01

    The relationship of exiting root and Kambin's triangle is discussed in this article. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery as the gold standard of less invasive lumbar disc surgeries is performed through Kambin's triangle. Existing root damage is one of the most important complication for this type of surgery. Anatomic variations in Kambin's triangle may be the main reason for nerve root damage during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery. Kambin's triangle was investigated with surgical views and cadaver studies. Thirty-four patients with far lateral disc herniation were treated with an extraforaminal approach under the microscope. On the other hand, 48 Kambin's triangles were dissected on 8 cadavers. Three main types of triangle were identified, and patients were grouped according to these 3 types of the triangle. Only 6 of the 34 patients had type 3 triangles, which is the wide classical triangle described by Kambin; however, 17 patients had type 2, with a narrow space in the triangle, and 11 patients had type 1, with no space inside the triangle. Cadaver results were similar; only 10 of the 48 specimens had the type 3 classical triangle, whereas 23 specimens had type 2, and 15 specimens had type 1 triangles. Our results disclosed narrowed or no space in 82.4% of the patients and 79.2% of the cadavers. We observed that a wide and safe room of the triangle may not be exist in some patients. Therefore, more care must be taken during endoscopic lumbar disc surgery to avoid nerve damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical problems with the Pascal triangle in moment computation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kautsky, J.; Flusser, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 1 (2016), s. 53-68 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : moment computation * Pascal triangle * appropriate polynomial basis * numerical problems Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0459096.pdf

  5. Sequential Triangle Strip Generator based on Hopfield Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Lněnička, Radim

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2009), s. 583-617 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545; GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2009

  6. Seismic interpretation of the triangle zone at Jumping Pound, Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotboom, R. T. [Amerada Hess Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone at Jumping Point, Alberta was characterized using seismic survey data as a NW-SE-trending antiformal stack of thrust sheets involving Cretaceous rocks that have been wedged into the foreland between two detachments. Three major thrust sheets of Lower and Upper Cretaceous strata have been stacked to form the main extremity of the wedge. The structure is tightly folded at Jumping Point, and broadens northwest along the strike. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  7. The phases of large networks with edge and triangle constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Richard; Radin, Charles; Ren, Kui; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Based on numerical simulation and local stability analysis we describe the structure of the phase space of the edge/triangle model of random graphs. We support simulation evidence with mathematical proof of continuity and discontinuity for many of the phase transitions. All but one of the many phase transitions in this model break some form of symmetry, and we use this model to explore how changes in symmetry are related to discontinuities at these transitions.

  8. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P; Nel, R [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  9. Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)

  10. One-loop QCD and Higgs bosons to partons processes using six-dimensional helicity and generalized unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We combine the six-dimensional helicity formalism of Cheung and O'Connell with D-dimensional generalized unitarity to obtain a new formalism for computing one-loop amplitudes in dimensionally regularized QCD. With this procedure, we simultaneously obtain the pieces that are constructible from four-dimensional unitarity cuts and the rational pieces that are missed by them, while retaining a helicity formalism. We illustrate the procedure using four- and five-point one-loop amplitudes in QCD, including examples with external fermions. We also demonstrate the technique's effectiveness in next-to-leading order QCD corrections to Higgs processes by computing the next-to-leading order correction to the Higgs plus three positive-helicity gluons amplitude in the large top-quark mass limit.

  11. Saturnian north polar region: a triangle inside the hexagon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The famous and "mysterious" stable hexagon structure around the North Pole of Saturn was earlier interpreted as projections of faces of a structural tetrahedron [1]. This "hidden" simplest Plato's polyhedron is a result of an interference of four fundamental (wave 1) warping waves having in any rotating celestial body four directions: orthogonal and diagonal. Origin of the warping waves in any celestial body is due to their movements in elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing accelerations. The structural tetrahedron is an intrinsic geometric feature marking the celestial bodies ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy as in a tetrahedron always there is an opposition of a face (expansion) and a vertex (contraction). In the saturnian case the tetrahedron shows a face at the north and a vertex at the south. Morphologically this is manifested by the hexagon and opposing it in the south a vertex. Blue and pink hues of the northern and southern hemispheres also underline the tectonic dichotomy. These geometric expressions are enforced by a subtle dark equilateral triangle appearing in the image PIA11682 also around the north pole and inside the hexagon (the triangle side is about 15000 km long). One angle of the triangle is clearly visible, another one just shows itself and the third one is barely distinguished. The sides of the triangle are not strait lines but slightly broken amidst lines what makes the triangle appear a bit hexagonal (spherical) and the angle is a bit bigger than 60 degrees of a classical equilateral triangle (~70 degrees). The central part of the triangle is not imaged (a black hole in the PIA11682). This image also confirms that the wide northern polar region is also densely "peppered" with bright cloudy more or less isometric spots on average 400 to 800 km across as in other latitudinal belts of Saturn [2, 3, 4]. Earlier they were observed in IR wavelengths, now they show themselves in visible wavelengths. Their origin and size were

  12. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Open to All: http://cern.ch/club-fitness  fitness.club@cern.ch Boxing Your supervisor makes your life too tough ! You really need to release the pressure you've been building up ! Come and join the fit-boxers. We train three times a week in Bd 216, classes for beginners and advanced available. Visit our website cern.ch/Boxing General Fitness Escape from your desk with our general fitness classes, to strengthen your heart, muscles and bones, improve you stamina, balance and flexibility, achieve new goals, be more productive and experience a sense of well-being, every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtime, Tuesday mornings before work and Thursday evenings after work – join us for one of our monthly fitness workshops. Nordic Walking Enjoy the great outdoors; Nordic Walking is a great way to get your whole body moving and to significantly improve the condition of your muscles, heart and lungs. It will boost your energy levels no end. Pilates A body-conditioning technique de...

  13. BETWEEN EUROPEANIZATION, UNITARISM AND AUTONOMY. REMARKS ON THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bußjäger

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article describes current challenges of Austrian federalism. On ground of the Federal Constitution from 1920 Austria is a federation with nine autonomous Länder. Federalism is one of the basic principles of the constitution. Nevertheless the Länder are faced with centralizing drive due to Europeanization and unitarism. On the other hand the Länder have a strong regional identity. The Länder are emotionally deeply rooted in theAustrian population. The Länder also participate well in the decision making process on European level.Nevertheless the division of competencies both in legislation and administration between Federation and Länder is complicated and needs to be modernised. In the past various reform projects on federal level had failed while various reforms in the Land constitutions have led to more innovation on Land level. Despite these facts paradigms of reform debates on Austria´s federal system have changed: Until the early nineties of 20th century constitutionalreforms aimed to strengthen the role of the Länder. Since Austria´saccession to the EU reform projects the efficiency of the federal structures of Austria are doubted. Economical and financial crisis probably will increase the pressure for structural reforms.

  14. Higgs Spin Determination and Unitarity of Vector-boson Scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Jessica

    After the discovery of a new particle at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it is crucial to definitely verify or disprove whether this new 125 − 126 GeV resonance is the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM). Thus, its features, including its spin, have to be determined. In order to distinguish the two most likely spin hypotheses, spin-0 or spin-2, the phenomenology of light spin-2 resonances produced in different gluon-fusion and vectorboson-fusion processes at the LHC is studied. Starting from an effective model for the interaction of a spin-2 particle with SM gauge bosons, cross sections and differential distributions are calculated within the Monte Carlo program Vbfnlo. Whereas with specific model parameters, such a spin-2 resonance can mimic rates and transverse-momentum distributions of a SM Higgs boson in the main decay channels γγ, WW and ZZ, several distributions allow to separate spin-2 from spin-0, almost independently of model parameters. Since the SM Higgs boson ensures the unitarity of the S...

  15. Self-unitarization of New Higgs Inflation and compatibility with Planck and BICEP2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germani, Cristiano; Wintergerst, Nico; Watanabe, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show that the Germani-Kehagias model of Higgs inflation (or New Higgs Inflation), where the Higgs boson is kinetically non-minimally coupled to the Einstein tensor is in perfect compatibility with the latest Planck and BICEP2 data. Moreover, we show that the tension between the Planck and BICEP2 data can be relieved within the New Higgs inflation scenario by a negative running of the spectral index. Regarding the unitarity of the model, we argue that it is unitary throughout the evolution of the Universe. Weak couplings in the Higgs-Higgs and Higgs-graviton sectors are provided by a large background dependent cut-off scale during inflation. In the same regime, the W and Z gauge bosons acquire a very large mass, thus decouple. On the other hand, if they are also non-minimally coupled to the Higgs boson, their effective masses can be enormously reduced. In this case, the W and Z bosons are no longer decoupled. After inflation, the New Higgs model is well approximated by a quartic Galileon with a renormalizable potential. We argue that this can unitarily create the right conditions for inflation to eventually start

  16. Self-unitarization of New Higgs Inflation and compatibility with Planck and BICEP2 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano; Wintergerst, Nico [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Watanabe, Yuki, E-mail: cristiano.germani@lmu.de, E-mail: watanabe@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: nico.wintergerst@physik.lmu.de [Research Center for the Early Universe, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we show that the Germani-Kehagias model of Higgs inflation (or New Higgs Inflation), where the Higgs boson is kinetically non-minimally coupled to the Einstein tensor is in perfect compatibility with the latest Planck and BICEP2 data. Moreover, we show that the tension between the Planck and BICEP2 data can be relieved within the New Higgs inflation scenario by a negative running of the spectral index. Regarding the unitarity of the model, we argue that it is unitary throughout the evolution of the Universe. Weak couplings in the Higgs-Higgs and Higgs-graviton sectors are provided by a large background dependent cut-off scale during inflation. In the same regime, the W and Z gauge bosons acquire a very large mass, thus decouple. On the other hand, if they are also non-minimally coupled to the Higgs boson, their effective masses can be enormously reduced. In this case, the W and Z bosons are no longer decoupled. After inflation, the New Higgs model is well approximated by a quartic Galileon with a renormalizable potential. We argue that this can unitarily create the right conditions for inflation to eventually start.

  17. A triangle voting algorithm based on double feature constraints for star sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiaoyun; Zhong, Xuyang

    2018-02-01

    A novel autonomous star identification algorithm is presented in this study. In the proposed algorithm, each sensor star constructs multi-triangle with its bright neighbor stars and obtains its candidates by triangle voting process, in which the triangle is considered as the basic voting element. In order to accelerate the speed of this algorithm and reduce the required memory for star database, feature extraction is carried out to reduce the dimension of triangles and each triangle is described by its base and height. During the identification period, the voting scheme based on double feature constraints is proposed to implement triangle voting. This scheme guarantees that only the catalog star satisfying two features can vote for the sensor star, which improves the robustness towards false stars. The simulation and real star image test demonstrate that compared with the other two algorithms, the proposed algorithm is more robust towards position noise, magnitude noise and false stars.

  18. Colouring the triangles determined by a point set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Fabila-Monroy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Let P be a set of n points in general position in the plane. We study the chromatic number of the intersection graph of the open triangles determined by P. It is known that this chromatic number is at least n3/27+O(n2 and, if P is in convex position, the answer is n3/24+O(n2. We prove that for arbitrary P, the chromatic number is at most n3/19.259+O(n2.

  19. Valuation of Non-Life Liabilities from Claims Triangles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Lindholm

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete program for the valuation of aggregate non-life insurance liability cash flows based on claims triangle data. The valuation is fully consistent with the principle of valuation by considering the costs associated with a transfer of the liability to a so-called reference undertaking subject to capital requirements throughout the runoff of the liability cash flow. The valuation program includes complete details on parameter estimation, bias correction and conservative estimation of the value of the liability under partial information. The latter is based on a new approach to the estimation of mean squared error of claims reserve prediction.

  20. Triangle identity and free differential algebra of massless higher spins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.

    1989-09-25

    In terms of Berezins's theory of symbols of operators, the integral formulation is suggested for the free differential algebra which gives rise to consistent equations of motion of interacting massless fields of all spins 0{le}s<{infinity} in the frameworks of gravity. In the first nontrivial order of the expansion in powers of curvatures, Frobenius consistency conditions for higher-spin equations of motion are shown to reduce to the simple geometrical fast that there are two ways for splitting any quadrangle in two triangles. To clarify our construction, we illustrate how it works in the simplest case of pure gravity. (orig.).

  1. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

      Nordic Walking Classes Come join the Nordic walking classes and outings offered by the CERN Fitness Club starting September 2013. Our licensed instructor Christine offers classes for people who’ve never tried Nordic Walking and who would like to learn the technique, and outings for people who have completed the classes and enjoy going out as a group. Course 1: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 24 September, 1 October, 8 October, 15 October Course 2: Tuesdays 12:30 - 13:30 5 November, 12 November, 19 November, 26 November Outings will take place on Thursdays (12:30 to 13:30) from 12 September 2013. We meet at the CERN Club Barracks car park (close to Entrance A) 10 minutes before departure. Prices: 50 CHF for 4 classes, including the 10 CHF Club membership. Payments made directly to instructor. Renting Poles: Poles can be rented from Christine at 5 CHF / hour. Subscription: Please subscribe at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Looking forward to seeing you among us! Fitness Club FitnessClub@c...

  2. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Get in Shape for Summer with the CERN Fitness Club Saturday 23 June 2012 from 14:30 to 16.30 (doors open at 14.00) Germana’s Fitness Workshop. Build strength and stamina, sculpt and tone your body and get your heart pumping with Germana’s workout mixture of Cardio Attack, Power Pump, Power Step, Cardio Combat and Cross-Training. Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 15 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Test_Subscription/NewForm.aspx? Join the Party and dance yourself into shape at Marco + Marials Zumba Masterclass. Saturday 30 June 2012 from 15:00 to 16:30 Marco + Mariel’s Zumba Masterclass Where: 216 (Pump room – equipped with changing rooms and showers). What to wear: comfortable clothes and indoor sports shoes + bring a drink! How much: 25 chf Sign up here: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Zumba%20...

  3. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    Nordic Walking Please note that the subscriptions for the general fitness classes from July to December are open: Subscriptions general fitness classes Jul-Dec 2010 Sign-up to the Fitness Club mailing list here Nordic Walking: Sign-up to the Nordic Walking mailing list here Beginners Nordic walking lessons Monday Lunchtimes (rdv 12:20 for 12:30 departure) 13.09/20.09/27.09/04.10 11.10/18.10/08.11/15.11 22.11/29.11/06.12/20.12 Nordic walking lessons Tuesday evenings (rdv 17:50 for 18:00 departure) 07.09/14.09/21.09/28.09 05.10/12.10/19.10/26.10 Intermediate/Advanced Nordic walking outings (follow the nordic walking lessons before signing up for the outings) every Thursday from 16.09 - 16.12, excluding 28.10 and 09.12 Subscriptions and info: fitness.club@cern.ch  

  4. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

      The CERN Fitness Club is pleased to announce its new early morning class which will be taking place on: Tuesdays from 24th April 07:30 to 08:15 216 (Pump Hall, close to entrance C) – Facilities include changing rooms and showers. The Classes: The early morning classes will focus on workouts which will help you build not only strength and stamina, but will also improve your balance, and coordination. Our qualified instructor Germana will accompany you throughout the workout  to ensure you stay motivated so you achieve the best results. Sign up and discover the best way to start your working day full of energy! How to subscribe? We invite you along to a FREE trial session, if you enjoy the activity, please sign up via our website: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Activities/SUBSCRIBE.aspx. * * * * * * * * Saturday 28th April Get in shape for the summer at our fitness workshop and zumba dance party: Fitness workshop with Germana 13:00 to 14:30 - 216 (Pump Hall) Price...

  5. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory annual report - TUNL XXIV, 1 July 1984-31 August 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Research programs of the Triangle Nuclear Laboratory are discussed. These studies are based on reactions induced by polarized beam, protons, deuterons and neutrons. Individual programs are cataloged separately

  6. The Surgical Anatomy of the Lumbosacroiliac Triangle: A Cadaveric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccali, Carmine; Skoch, Jesse; Patel, Apar S; Walter, Christina M; Avila, Mauricio J; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Demitri, Silvio; Baaj, Ali A

    2016-04-01

    The anatomic area delineated medially by the lateral part of the L4-L5 vertebral bodies, distally by the anterior-superior surface of the sacral wing, and laterally by an imaginary line joining the base of the L4 transverse process to the proximal part of the sacroiliac joint, is of particular interest to spine surgeons. We are referring to this area as the lumbo-sacro-iliac triangle (LSIT). Knowledge of LSIT anatomy is necessary during approaches for L5 vertebral and sacral fractures, sacral and iliac tumors, and extraforaminal decompression of the L5 nerve roots. We performed an anatomic dissection of the LSIT in 3 embalmed cadavers (6 triangles), using an anterior and posterior approach. We identified 3 key tissue planes: the neurological plexus plane, constituted by L4 and L5 nerve roots; an intermediate level constituted by the ileosacral tunnel; and posteriorly, by the lumbosacral ligament, and the posterior muscular plane. Improving anatomic knowledge of the LSIT may help surgeons decrease the risk of possible complications. When LSIT pathology is present, a lateral approach corresponding to the tip of the L4 transverse process, medially, is suggested to decrease the risk of vessel and nerve root damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. STRATEGIC PLACE TRIANGLE PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI KAWASAN PARIWISATA BOJONEGERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchammad Nurif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kabupaten Bojonegoro ditetapkan sebagai salah satu Daerah Tujuan Wisata (DTW di Jawa Timur karena memiliki potensi obyek wisata alam dan budaya yang telah mendapatkan perhatian wisatawan nusantara pada umumnya. Dalam kebijakan pengembangan yang tertuang dalam Rencana Induk Pengembangan Pariwisata (RIPP Jawa Timur 1999-2015 Kabupaten Bojonegoro meskipun bukan sebagai gerbang utama namun memiliki peran strategis untuk mendorong pertumbuhan kawasan di sekitarnya. Dalam penelitian, peneliti melakukan pemetakan perubahan lingkungan eksternal, pemetakan pesaing dan pelanggan, analisis internal, dan analisis TOWS. Selanjutnya akan dirumuskan Strategic Place Triangle. Yang dimaksud dengan Strategic Place Triangle adalah suatu pendekatan strategi pemasaran wilayah yang mencakup tiga hal kunci, yaitu (1 Strategi yang mencakup Segmentasi-Targeting-Positioning, (2 Taktik yang mencakup Diferensiasi-Marketing Mix-Selling, (3 Value yang mencakup Brand-Servis-Proses. Analisis pemetaan terhadap lingkungan eksternal dan internal dengan menggunakan pendekatan Strategi Pemasaran Wilayah (Marketing Places tersebut akan menghasilkan Positioning, Diferensiasi, dan Brand, bagi potensi kawasan pariwisata Bojonegoro. Positioning- nya adalah ibarat Bali bagi Jawa Timur dengan kekhasan tetap memegang nilai-nilai religi dan kultur lokal setempat. Diferensiasi-nya adalah one-stop-shopping services, pesona wisata yang tak berakhir, cantik alami, penduduknya yang santun, ramah dan mempesona. Brand-nya adalah Pesona Wisata Bojonegoro.

  8. Electronic confining effects in Sierpiński triangle fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Xue; Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Yongfeng; Hou, Shimin

    2018-03-01

    Electron confinement in fractal Sierpiński triangles (STs) on Ag(111) is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and theoretically simulated by employing an improved two-dimensional (2D) multiple scattering theory in which the energy-dependent phase shifts are explicitly calculated from the electrostatic potentials of the molecular building block of STs. Well-defined bound surface states are observed in three kinds of triangular cavities with their sides changing at a scale factor of 2. The decrease in length of the cavities results in an upshift of the resonances that deviates from an expected inverse quadratic dependence on the cavity length due to the less efficient confinement of smaller triangular cavities. Differential conductance maps at some specific biases present a series of alternative bright and dark rounded triangles preserving the symmetry of the boundary. Our improved 2D multiple scattering model reproduces the characteristics of the standing wave patterns and all features in the differential conductance spectra measured in experiments, illustrating that the elastic loss boundary scattering dominates the resonance broadening in these ST quantum corrals. Moreover, the self-similar structure of STs, that a larger central cavity is surrounded by three smaller ones with a half side length, gives rise to interactions of surface states confined in neighboring cavities, which are helpful for the suppression of the linewidth in differential conductance spectra.

  9. Species richness accelerates marine ecosystem restoration in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Sur, Christine; Abbott, Jessica M; Limbong, Steven R

    2017-11-07

    Ecosystem restoration aims to restore biodiversity and valuable functions that have been degraded or lost. The Coral Triangle is a hotspot for marine biodiversity held in its coral reefs, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, all of which are in global decline. These coastal ecosystems support valuable fisheries and endangered species, protect shorelines, and are significant carbon stores, functions that have been degraded by coastal development, destructive fishing practices, and climate change. Ecosystem restoration is required to mitigate these damages and losses, but its practice is in its infancy in the region. Here we demonstrate that species diversity can set the trajectory of restoration. In a seagrass restoration experiment in the heart of the Coral Triangle (Sulawesi, Indonesia), plant survival and coverage increased with the number of species transplanted. Our results highlight the positive role biodiversity can play in ecosystem restoration and call for revision of the common restoration practice of establishing a single target species, particularly in regions having high biodiversity. Coastal ecosystems affect human well-being in many important ways, and restoration will become ever more important as conservation efforts cannot keep up with their loss. Published under the PNAS license.

  10. [Cysts in the posterior triangle of the neck in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea-Álvarez, Beatriz; Roldán-Hidalgo, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the posterior triangle are a pathologic entity whose diagnosis is made in the first two years of life. Its presentation in adulthood is an incidental finding and the differential diagnosis includes cystic lymphangioma, lymphatic metastasis of thyroid cancer and branchial cyst. Often with the finding of a cervical lump, FNA is made before diagnostic imaging is performed, however, this procedure is not always advisable. We reviewed the cases of patients who came last year to our department with a cystic mass in this location and correlating the imaging findings with pathologic specimen. We show characteristic findings of these lesions in order to make an early diagnosis and thus to get the approach and treatment appropriate of adult patients with a cystic lesion in the posterior cervical triangle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  11. Triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction based on DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid; Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Akbar-ashrafi, Nafiseh; Boghrati, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Programmable Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessors are capable of doing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 50 MHz. This combined with their low expense, ease of use and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal option for spectrometer data acquisition systems. For this generation of spectrometers, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the field programmable gate array (FPGA). This will not only reduce the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilized to add considerable signal processing power to produce higher resolution spectra. In this paper we report on an all-digital triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction algorithm that is being developed for the DSP. The pileup mitigation algorithm will allow the spectrometers to run at higher count rates or with multiple sources without imposing large data losses due to the overlapping of scintillation signals. This correction technique utilizes a very narrow bipolar triangle digital pulse shaping algorithm to extract energy information for most pileup events.

  12. Triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili-sani, Vahid, E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-zarandi, Ali; Akbar-ashrafi, Nafiseh; Boghrati, Behzad [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-11

    Programmable Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessors are capable of doing complex discrete signal processing algorithms with clock rates above 50 MHz. This combined with their low expense, ease of use and selected dedicated hardware make them an ideal option for spectrometer data acquisition systems. For this generation of spectrometers, functions that are typically performed in dedicated circuits, or offline, are being migrated to the field programmable gate array (FPGA). This will not only reduce the electronics, but the features of modern FPGAs can be utilized to add considerable signal processing power to produce higher resolution spectra. In this paper we report on an all-digital triangle bipolar pulse shaping and pileup correction algorithm that is being developed for the DSP. The pileup mitigation algorithm will allow the spectrometers to run at higher count rates or with multiple sources without imposing large data losses due to the overlapping of scintillation signals. This correction technique utilizes a very narrow bipolar triangle digital pulse shaping algorithm to extract energy information for most pileup events.

  13. Multi-Higgs doublet models: physical parametrization, sum rules and unitarity bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Miguel P.; Haber, Howard E.; Romão, J. C.; Silva, João P.

    2017-11-01

    If the scalar sector of the Standard Model is non-minimal, one might expect multiple generations of the hypercharge-1/2 scalar doublet analogous to the generational structure of the fermions. In this work, we examine the structure of a Higgs sector consisting of N Higgs doublets (where N ≥ 2). It is particularly convenient to work in the so-called charged Higgs basis, in which the neutral Higgs vacuum expectation value resides entirely in the first Higgs doublet, and the charged components of remaining N - 1 Higgs doublets are mass-eigenstate fields. We elucidate the interactions of the gauge bosons with the physical Higgs scalars and the Goldstone bosons and show that they are determined by an N × 2 N matrix. This matrix depends on ( N - 1)(2 N - 1) real parameters that are associated with the mixing of the neutral Higgs fields in the charged Higgs basis. Among these parameters, N - 1 are unphysical (and can be removed by rephasing the physical charged Higgs fields), and the remaining 2( N - 1)2 parameters are physical. We also demonstrate a particularly simple form for the cubic interaction and some of the quartic interactions of the Goldstone bosons with the physical Higgs scalars. These results are applied in the derivation of Higgs coupling sum rules and tree-level unitarity bounds that restrict the size of the quartic scalar couplings. In particular, new applications to three Higgs doublet models with an order-4 CP symmetry and with a Z_3 symmetry, respectively, are presented.

  14. Fitness Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2012-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes Sessions of four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Session 1 =  11.09 / 18.09 / 25.09 / 02.10, 18:15 - 19:15 Session 2 = 25.09 / 02.10 / 09.10 / 16.10, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 3 = 23.10 / 30.10 / 06.11 / 13.11, 12:30 - 13:30 Session 4 = 20.11 / 27.11 / 04.12 / 11.12, 12:30 - 13:30 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness   Hope to see you among us!  fitness.club@cern.ch In spring 2012 there was a long-awaited progress in CERN Fitness club. We have officially opened a Powerlifting @ CERN, and the number of members of the new section has been increasing since then reaching 70+ people in less than 4 months. Powerlifting is a strength sport, which is simple as 1-2-3 and efficient. The "1-2-3" are the three basic lifts (bench press...

  15. Revisiting the Pink Triangle Exercise: An Exploration of Experiential Learning in Graduate Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L.

    2014-01-01

    The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…

  16. The number of colorings of planar graphs with no separating triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    A classical result of Birkhoff and Lewis implies that every planar graph with . n vertices has at least . 152n-1 distinct 5-vertex-colorings. Equality holds for planar triangulations with . n-4 separating triangles. We show that, if a planar graph has no separating triangle, then it has at least ...

  17. 75 FR 61788 - Triangle Capital Corporation, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... to the issuers of such securities. 2. TMF, a North Carolina limited liability limited partnership, is... same investment objectives and strategies as Triangle. Triangle owns a 99.9% limited partnership... persons who are interested persons of TMF. 3. SBIC II, a Delaware limited partnership, is an SBIC licensed...

  18. Fitness club

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness club

    2013-01-01

    Nordic Walking Classes New session of 4 classes of 1 hour each will be held on Tuesdays in May 2013. Meet at the CERN barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Dates and time: 07.05, 14.05, 21.05 and 28.05, fom  12 h 30 to 13 h 30 Prices: 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership – 5 CHF / hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! 

  19. Construction of optimal 3-node plate bending triangles by templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felippa, C. A.; Militello, C.

    A finite element template is a parametrized algebraic form that reduces to specific finite elements by setting numerical values to the free parameters. The present study concerns Kirchhoff Plate-Bending Triangles (KPT) with 3 nodes and 9 degrees of freedom. A 37-parameter template is constructed using the Assumed Natural Deviatoric Strain (ANDES). Specialization of this template includes well known elements such as DKT and HCT. The question addressed here is: can these parameters be selected to produce high performance elements? The study is carried out by staged application of constraints on the free parameters. The first stage produces element families satisfying invariance and aspect ratio insensitivity conditions. Application of energy balance constraints produces specific elements. The performance of such elements in benchmark tests is presently under study.

  20. Climate, bleaching and connectivity in the Coral Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curchitser, E. N.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Drenkard, E.; Thompson, D. M.; Pinsky, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Coral Triangle (CT) is the apex of marine biodiversity and supports the livelihoods of millions of people. It is also one of the most threatened of all reef regions in the world. We present results from a series of high-resolution, numerical ocean models designed to address physical and ecological questions relevant to the region's coral communities. The hierarchy of models was designed to optimize the model performance in addressing questions ranging from the role of internal tides in larval connectivity to distinguishing the role of interannual variability from decadal trends in thermal stress leading to mass bleaching events. In this presentation we will show how combining ocean circulation with models of larval dispersal leads to new insights into the interplay of physics and ecology in this complex oceanographic region, which can ultimately be used to inform conservation efforts.

  1. [Patient - doctor relationship from perspective of the Karpman drama triangle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Sablik, Zbigniew

    2016-11-25

    Patients' confidence in doctors has been decreased for last years despite successes of Polish medicine. It seems to be related to particular conditions of patient - doctor relationship and patient's negative emotions may frequently burden it from the beginning. They may allow an interpersonal game, the Drama Triangle, to appear in the relationship. 3 persons are typically involved in the game: a victim, a persecutor and a rescuer. All of them neither feel guilty about the situation nor their activities are aimed at solving the crucial problem. It maintains continuation of the game. Both patient and doctor are capable to attend the game as any of the person mentioned above. Authors of the article think frameworks of organization of the health care system should permit doctors not only to tackle main disease but also to devote time individually tailored to patient's emotional problems. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  2. Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Richard K F; Hinder, Stephanie L; Bodger, Owen G; Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C

    2014-01-01

    The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)

  3. Variational mesh segmentation via quadric surface fitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-11-01

    We present a new variational method for mesh segmentation by fitting quadric surfaces. Each component of the resulting segmentation is represented by a general quadric surface (including plane as a special case). A novel energy function is defined to evaluate the quality of the segmentation, which combines both L2 and L2 ,1 metrics from a triangle to a quadric surface. The Lloyd iteration is used to minimize the energy function, which repeatedly interleaves between mesh partition and quadric surface fitting. We also integrate feature-based and simplification-based techniques in the segmentation framework, which greatly improve the performance. The advantages of our algorithm are demonstrated by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Variational mesh segmentation via quadric surface fitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wang, Wen Ping; Liu, Yang; Yang, Zhouwang

    2012-01-01

    We present a new variational method for mesh segmentation by fitting quadric surfaces. Each component of the resulting segmentation is represented by a general quadric surface (including plane as a special case). A novel energy function is defined to evaluate the quality of the segmentation, which combines both L2 and L2 ,1 metrics from a triangle to a quadric surface. The Lloyd iteration is used to minimize the energy function, which repeatedly interleaves between mesh partition and quadric surface fitting. We also integrate feature-based and simplification-based techniques in the segmentation framework, which greatly improve the performance. The advantages of our algorithm are demonstrated by comparing with the state-of-the-art methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. (Beta)-decay experiments and the unitarity of the CKM matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, P E

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform very precise measurements of super-allowed Fermi β decay in order to investigate a possible non-unitarity in the CKM matrix of the Standard Model of particle physics. Current data from 9 precisely measured β decays indicated that the sum-of-squares of the first row of the CKM matrix differs from 1.0 at the 2.2σ (or 98% confidence) level. If true, it would be the first firm indication of physics beyond the Standard Model--the model that has been the backbone of the worldwide physics community for more than 30 years. The physics goal of the project was to test and constrain the calculated correction factors that must be applied to the experimental data by performing measurements at the TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facility ISAC. Accurate and precise (precision goal >99.9%) half lives and decay branching ratios were measured for nuclei where different sets of calculated corrections give divergent results thereby allowing us to determine which theory, if any, gives the correct result. The LLNL contribution was to design and build the data acquisition system that will enable the experiments, and to provide theoretical calculations necessary for the interpretation of the results. The first planned measurement was 34 Ar, to be followed by 62 Ga and 74 Rb. However, there were major problems in creating a suitable, intense beam of radioactive 34 Ar. The collaboration decided to proceed with measurements on 62 Ga and 18 Ne. These experiments were performed in a series of measurements in the summer and fall of 2004. The LLNL team also is leading the effort to perform measurements on 66 As and 70 Br that are expected during 2006-2008. While the definitive experiments to meet the goals of the LDRD were not conducted during the funding period, the involvement in the radioactive program at TRIUMF has lead to a number of new initiatives, and has attracted new staff to LLNL. This LDRD has laid the foundation for involvement in one of the

  6. A general formulation of discrete-time quantum mechanics: Restrictions on the action and the relation of unitarity to the existence theorem for initial-value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorrami, M.

    1995-01-01

    A general formulation for discrete-time quantum mechanics, based on Feynman's method in ordinary quantum mechanics, is presented. It is shown that the ambiguities present in ordinary quantum mechanics (due to noncommutativity of the operators), are no longer present here. Then the criteria for the unitarity of the evolution operator are examined. It is shown that the unitarity of the evolution operator puts restrictions on the form of the action, and also implies the existence of a solution for the classical initial-value problem. 13 refs

  7. Apparent unitarity violation in high mass region of MbW from a “hidden” top partner at high energy colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perturbative unitarity conditions have been playing an important role in estimating the energy scale of new physics, including the Higgs mass as the most important example. In this letter, we show that there is a possibility to see the hint of a new physics (top quark partner indirectly by observing an “apparent” unitarity violation in the distribution of invariant mass of b-jet and W-boson (Mbw well above the mass of a top quark in a process of a heavy resonance decaying into a pair of top quarks.

  8. Triangle islands and cavities on the surface of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorber layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Anjun; Zhang Yi; Liu Wei; Li Boyan; Sun Yun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms of evaporated Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 thin films. ► Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu atom diffusion from Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 grains brings the epitaxial triangle island. ► The triangle islands grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. ► The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. ► The performance of solar cell without triangle islands is improved. - Abstract: Cu(In, Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) thin films are co-evaporated at a constant substrate temperature of 500 °C on the Mo/soda lime glass substrates. The structural properties and chemical composition of the CIGS films are studied by an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and an X-ray fluorescent spectrometer (XRF), respectively. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the surface morphology. Lots of uncommon triangle islands and cavities are found on some planes of the CIGS thin films. We investigate the formation mechanism of these triangle islands. It is found that the planes with the triangle islands are (1 1 2) planes terminated by Se atoms. Se ad-dimer as a nucleus, Cu diffusion from CIGS grains brings the epitaxial triangle islands which grow with a two-dimensional layered mode. The film with Cu/(Ga + In) = 0.94–0.98 is one key of the formation of these islands. The triangle cavities are formed due to the insufficient coalescence of triangle islands. The growth of triangle islands brings a compact surface with large layered grains and many jagged edges, but no triangle cavity. Finally, we compare the performance of solar cell with triangle islands and layered gains. It is found that the performance of solar cell with large layered gains is improved.

  9. Influence of Blocker Distance Variations in form of Triangle in Front of Cylinder toward Drag Coefficien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Putu Gede Gunawan Tista

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to reduce energy consumption on the air plane and the other bluff bodies are by decreasing the drag. Drag isclosely related to the flow separation. The earlier separation, then the drag will increase more. Based of the fact the effort todecrease drag is conducted by manipulating the field of fluid flow. Stream manipulation was be done by installing Triangleobstacle in front of cylinder. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of various distance triangle obstacle in front ofcylinder on drag. The present experiment was done by placing triangle rod in front of the cylinder. In the present research, theexperiment was conducted in the wind tunnel, which consisted of blower, pitot pipe, manometer, cylinder pipe, and triangle rod.The triangle was positioned at L/D = 1.19, L/D = 1.43, L/D = 1.67, L/D = 1.9, L/D = 2.14, L/D = 2.38, L/D = 2.62, and L/D =2.86 by upstream from the cylinder. The triangle was 8 mm uniform side. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter (D= 42 mm was Re = 1.81 x 104. The research results showed that the triangle rod could decrease the drag of cylinder. Coefficientdrag for cylinder without triangle rod was 0.1276 while the biggest decrease of coefficient of drag with triangle rod washappened at L/D = 1.43 which was 0.0188. It means that the drag of cylinder with triangle rod was 85.25% lower than thecylinder alone.

  10. Energy, economy and development (EED) triangle: Concerns for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss issues involving energy security with economic growth and development that brings out (i) the dimension of physical security alternative, (ii) framework for a pan South East Asian platform to support energy security and (iii) requirement of promoting regional energy cooperation and specific energy peace initiatives. Sustaining projected economic growth rate coupled with energy security in future is a concern for all developing countries like India. The energy security of these nations is threatened by the disruption of energy supplies by ongoing energy terrorism and geopolitical conflicts in the region. India's geo-strategic position and increasing energy dependence raises concerns for its energy security. We discuss energy security, examine factors and approaches to attempt the energy security in the light of economic growth and development. - Highlights: → India's perspective on evolving energy security concepts and risks analysed. → Model in the form of EED triangle proposed. → New potential energy security alternatives proposed in the light of the model.

  11. Energy, economy and development (EED) triangle: Concerns for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A. [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India); Samdarshi, S.K., E-mail: drsksamdarshi@rediffmail.com [Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784028, Assam (India)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper we discuss issues involving energy security with economic growth and development that brings out (i) the dimension of physical security alternative, (ii) framework for a pan South East Asian platform to support energy security and (iii) requirement of promoting regional energy cooperation and specific energy peace initiatives. Sustaining projected economic growth rate coupled with energy security in future is a concern for all developing countries like India. The energy security of these nations is threatened by the disruption of energy supplies by ongoing energy terrorism and geopolitical conflicts in the region. India's geo-strategic position and increasing energy dependence raises concerns for its energy security. We discuss energy security, examine factors and approaches to attempt the energy security in the light of economic growth and development. - Highlights: > India's perspective on evolving energy security concepts and risks analysed. > Model in the form of EED triangle proposed. > New potential energy security alternatives proposed in the light of the model.

  12. Experimental realization of the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenaud, B; Devoille, L; Steck, B; Feltin, N; Gonzalez-Cano, A; Poirier, W; Schopfer, F; Spengler, G; Djordjevic, S; Seron, O; Piquemal, F [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais (LNE), Trappes (France); Lotkhov, S [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: laurent.devoille@lne.fr

    2009-02-01

    The quantum metrological triangle experiment (QMTE) consists in realizing Ohm's law with Josephson (JE), quantum Hall (QHE) and single electron tunneling (SET) effects. The aim is to check the consistency of the link among the phenomenological constants K {sub J}, R{sub K} and Q {sub X} involved in these effects and theoretically expressed with the fundamental constants e and h. Such an experiment could be a contribution for a new definition of the systeme international d'unites (SI) base units. In the QMTE, a current generated by a SET device flows through a resistor calibrated against QHE standard and the voltage induced at its terminals is compared to the metrological voltage generated by a Josephson junctions array. At LNE, the studied SET devices are 3 junctions single electron pumps with on chip resistors. The quantized current generated by this pump is theoretically equal to ef (f is the frequency of the driving signals applied on the gates) and is measured through a cryogenic current comparator (CCC), which allows to amplify the low pumping current with a metrological accuracy. We will present and discuss the experimental set-up developed at LNE and the first results. In addition to the main aim of QMTE described above, these preliminary results are also a first step towards a determination of e.

  13. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians.

  15. College geometry an introduction to the modern geometry of the triangle and the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Altshiller-Court, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The standard university-level text for decades, this volume offers exercises in construction problems, harmonic division, circle and triangle geometry, and other areas. 1952 edition, revised and enlarged by the author.

  16. Fact Sheet on EPA's Science, Technology, Engineering & Math (STEM) Outreach Program in Research Triangle Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employees from EPA’s Research Triangle Park (RTP) campus serve as guest speakers at local schools and in the community. Hands-on activities and interactive discussions supplement classroom instruction and promote environmental awareness

  17. Texas Urban Triangle : pilot study to implement a spatial decision support system (SDSS) for sustainable mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This project addressed sustainable transportation in the Texas Urban Triangle (TUT) by conducting a pilot : project at the county scale. The project tested and developed the multi-attribute Spatial Decision Support : System (SDSS) developed in 2009 u...

  18. Transmission probability method based on triangle meshes for solving unstructured geometry neutron transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Hongchun [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)]. E-mail: hongchun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Liu Pingping [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zhou Yongqiang [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Cao Liangzhi [Nuclear Engineering Department, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2007-01-15

    In the advanced reactor, the fuel assembly or core with unstructured geometry is frequently used and for calculating its fuel assembly, the transmission probability method (TPM) has been used widely. However, the rectangle or hexagon meshes are mainly used in the TPM codes for the normal core structure. The triangle meshes are most useful for expressing the complicated unstructured geometry. Even though finite element method and Monte Carlo method is very good at solving unstructured geometry problem, they are very time consuming. So we developed the TPM code based on the triangle meshes. The TPM code based on the triangle meshes was applied to the hybrid fuel geometry, and compared with the results of the MCNP code and other codes. The results of comparison were consistent with each other. The TPM with triangle meshes would thus be expected to be able to apply to the two-dimensional arbitrary fuel assembly.

  19. Airspora concentrations in the Vaal-triangle-monitoring and potential health-effects.2, fungal spores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vismer, HF

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...

  20. Report: Results of Technical Network Vulnerability Assessment: EPA’s Research Triangle Park Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #09-P-0227, August 31, 2009. Vulnerability testing conducted in April 2009 of EPA’s Research Triangle Park Finance Center network identified Internet Protocol addresses with several highrisk vulnerabilities.

  1. Future travel demand and its implications for transportation infrastructure investments in the Texas Triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This study takes a megaregion approach to project future travel demand and choice of transport : modes in the Texas Triangle, which is encompassed by four major metropolitan areas, Dallas-Fort : Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Austin. The model was ...

  2. Three-coloring graphs with no induced seven-vertex path II : using a triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Maria; Maceli, Peter; Zhong, Mingxian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we give a polynomial time algorithm which determines if a given graph containing a triangle and no induced seven-vertex path is 3-colorable, and gives an explicit coloring if one exists. In previous work, we gave a polynomial time algorithm for three-coloring triangle-free graphs with no induced seven-vertex path. Combined, our work shows that three-coloring a graph with no induced seven-vertex path can be done in polynomial time.

  3. Dose-response relationship of sertindole and haloperidol using the pharmacopsychometric triangle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Tanghøj, P; Andreasson, K

    2011-01-01

    Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains.......Renewed insight into dose-related effects of sertindole and haloperidol was sought by re-analysing published data for antipsychotic effect, extrapyramidal effect, and patient wellbeing - i.e., the important pharmacopsychometric triangle domains....

  4. Functioning of the knowledge triangle in the example of IT education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVITSKAYA H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the interactions between knowledge triangle components in IT-education in the Republic of Belarus is described. This paper describes the results of research in the framework of the program of the European Union Tempus IV «Fostering the Knowledge Triangle in Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova» - «FKTBUM». The analysis of the obstacles to the effective integration of higher education, research and innovation is performed.

  5. The coral triangle initiative: What are we missing? A case study from Aceh

    KAUST Repository

    Rudi, Edi

    2012-10-01

    Abstract The Coral Triangle Initiative is an ambitious attempt to conserve the marine biodiversity hotspot known as the Coral Triangle. However, the reef fauna in many nearby regions remains poorly explored and, consequently, the focus on the Coral Triangle risks overlooking other areas of high conservation significance. One region of potential significance, Aceh, Indonesia, has not been visited by coral taxonomists since the Dutch colonial period. Here we document the species richness of scleractinian corals of Pulau Weh, Aceh. We also compare the species richness of the genus Acropora at 3-5 sites in each of nine regions in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Although dominated by widespread Indo-Pacific species, the coral fauna of Pulau Weh is also the eastern and western boundary for many Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean species, respectively. We identified a total of 133 scleractinian species, of which three have been previously recorded only in the western Indian Ocean and five are presently undescribed. The mean species richness of the Acropora at Pulau Weh is similar to regions within the Coral Triangle. This high species richness plus the high proportion of endemics suggests that the Andaman Sea is of similarly high conservation value to the Coral Triangle. We suggest that an international initiative similar to the Coral Triangle Initiative is required to conserve this region, which includes the territorial waters of six countries. © 2012 Fauna & Flora International.

  6. Lost-in-Space Star Identification Using Planar Triangle Principal Component Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging task for a star sensor to implement star identification and determine the attitude of a spacecraft in the lost-in-space mode. Several algorithms based on triangle method are proposed for star identification in this mode. However, these methods hold great time consumption and large guide star catalog memory size. The star identification performance of these methods requires improvements. To address these problems, a star identification algorithm using planar triangle principal component analysis is presented here. A star pattern is generated based on the planar triangle created by stars within the field of view of a star sensor and the projection of the triangle. Since a projection can determine an index for a unique triangle in the catalog, the adoption of the k-vector range search technique makes this algorithm very fast. In addition, a sharing star validation method is constructed to verify the identification results. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust than the planar triangle and P-vector algorithms under the same conditions.

  7. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, James T

    2013-01-01

    In 1963-1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's 'special difficulty'-the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of 'offspring ideas' that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated.

  8. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Bill; Winter, Christof; Labudde, Dirk; Schroeder, Michael

    2009-06-27

    A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs) representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS). PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that relatively little structural information would be sufficient

  9. Triangle network motifs predict complexes by complementing high-error interactomes with structural information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labudde Dirk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of high-throughput studies produce protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs with many errors and missing information. Even for genome-wide approaches, there is often a low overlap between PPINs produced by different studies. Second-level neighbors separated by two protein-protein interactions (PPIs were previously used for predicting protein function and finding complexes in high-error PPINs. We retrieve second level neighbors in PPINs, and complement these with structural domain-domain interactions (SDDIs representing binding evidence on proteins, forming PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles. Results We find low overlap between PPINs, SDDIs and known complexes, all well below 10%. We evaluate the overlap of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles with known complexes from Munich Information center for Protein Sequences (MIPS. PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles have ~20 times higher overlap with MIPS complexes than using second-level neighbors in PPINs without SDDIs. The biological interpretation for triangles is that a SDDI causes two proteins to be observed with common interaction partners in high-throughput experiments. The relatively few SDDIs overlapping with PPINs are part of highly connected SDDI components, and are more likely to be detected in experimental studies. We demonstrate the utility of PPI-SDDI-PPI triangles by reconstructing myosin-actin processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cytoskeleton, which were not obvious in the original PPIN. Using other complementary datatypes in place of SDDIs to form triangles, such as PubMed co-occurrences or threading information, results in a similar ability to find protein complexes. Conclusion Given high-error PPINs with missing information, triangles of mixed datatypes are a promising direction for finding protein complexes. Integrating PPINs with SDDIs improves finding complexes. Structural SDDIs partially explain the high functional similarity of second-level neighbors in PPINs. We estimate that

  10. The subatlantic triangle: gateway to early localization of the atlantoaxial vertebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Gandhi, Sirin; Preul, Mark C; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-04-27

    OBJECTIVE Exposure of the vertebral artery (VA) between C-1 and C-2 vertebrae (atlantoaxial VA) may be necessary in a variety of pathologies of the craniovertebral junction. Current methods to expose this segment of the VA entail sharp dissection of muscles close to the internal jugular vein and the spinal accessory nerve. The present study assesses the technique of exposing the atlantoaxial VA through a newly defined muscular triangle at the craniovertebral junction. METHODS Five cadaveric heads were prepared for surgical simulation in prone position, turned 30°-45° toward the side of exposure. The atlantoaxial VA was exposed through the subatlantic triangle after reflecting the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles inferiorly. The subatlantic triangle was formed by 3 groups of muscles: 1) the levator scapulae and splenius cervicis muscles inferiorly and laterally, 2) the longissimus capitis muscle inferiorly and medially, and 3) the inferior oblique capitis superiorly. The lengths of the VA exposed through the triangle before and after unroofing the C-2 transverse foramen were measured. RESULTS The subatlantic triangle consistently provided access to the whole length of atlantoaxial VA. The average length of the VA exposed via the subatlantic triangle was 19.5 mm. This average increased to 31.5 mm after the VA was released at the C-2 transverse foramen. CONCLUSIONS The subatlantic triangle provides a simple and straightforward pathway to expose the atlantoaxial VA. The proposed method may be useful during posterior approaches to the craniovertebral junction should early exposure and control of the atlantoaxial VA become necessary.

  11. LHCb: Measurement of Gamma from $B \\rightarrow DK$ Decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Hussain, N

    2013-01-01

    The angle $\\gamma$ of the CKM Unitarity Triangle is the only one that can be measured directly at tree level. Direct measurements of $\\gamma$ constrain the triangle and any deviations from unity may be an indication of new physics. This poster presents three analyses that look at a variety of $B \\rightarrow DK$ decays, whose information is then combined to perform a $\\gamma$ measurement. The best fit value of $\\gamma$ is ${71.1^{+16.1}_{-15.2}} ^\\circ$.

  12. Perceptual grouping without awareness: superiority of Kanizsa triangle in breaking interocular suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Wang

    Full Text Available Much information could be processed unconsciously. However, there is no direct evidence on whether perceptual grouping could occur without awareness. To answer this question, we investigated whether a Kanizsa triangle (an example of perceptual grouping is processed differently from stimuli with the same local components but are ungrouped or weakly grouped. Specifically, using a suppression time paradigm we tested whether a Kanizsa triangle would emerge from interocular continuous flash suppression sooner than control stimuli. Results show a significant advantage of the Kanizsa triangle: the Kanizsa triangle emerged from suppression noise significantly faster than the control stimulus with the local Pacmen randomly rotated (t(9 = -2.78, p = 0.02; and also faster than the control stimulus with all Pacmen rotated 180° (t(11 = -3.20, p<0.01. Additional results demonstrated that the advantage of the grouped Kanizsa triangle could not be accounted for by the faster detection speed at the conscious level for the Kanizsa figures on a dynamic noise background. Our results indicate that certain properties supporting perceptual grouping could be processed in the absence of awareness.

  13. Sex Determination Using Inion-Opistocranium-Asterion (IOA Triangle in Nigerians’ Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Orish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determination of sex is an important concern to the forensic anthropologists as it is critical for individual identification. This study has investigated the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dimensions and the area of the IOA triangle. Methods. A total of 100 adult dry skulls, (78 males; 22 females from departments of anatomy in Nigerian universities were used for this study. Automatic digital calliper was used for the measurement. Coefficient of variation, correlation, linear regression, percentiles, and sexual dimorphism ratio were computed from the IOA triangle measurements. The IOA triangle area was compared between sexes. Results. The male parameters were significantly (P<0.05 higher than female parameters. The left opistocranium-asterion length was 71.09±0.56 and 61.68±3.35 mm and the right opistocranium-asterion length was 69.73±0.49 and 60.92±2.10 mm for male and female, respectively. A total area of IOA triangle of 1938.88 mm2 and 1305.68 mm2 for male and female, respectively, was calculated. The left IOA indices were 46.42% and 37.40% in males and females, respectively, while the right IOA indices for males and females were 47.19% and 38.87%, respectively. Conclusion. The anthropometry of inion-opistocranium-asterion IOA triangle can be a guide in gender determination of unknown individuals.

  14. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR environment in order to investigate participants’ in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants’ evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  15. Visual Search for Wines with a Triangle on the Label in a Virtual Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Fuxing; Spence, Charles; Wan, Xiaoang

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in a virtual reality (VR) environment in order to investigate participants' in-store visual search for bottles of wines displaying a prominent triangular shape on their label. The experimental task involved virtually moving along a wine aisle in a virtual supermarket while searching for the wine bottle on the shelf that had a different triangle on its label from the other bottles. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that the participants identified the bottle with a downward-pointing triangle on its label more rapidly than when looking for an upward-pointing triangle on the label instead. This finding replicates the downward-pointing triangle superiority (DPTS) effect, though the magnitude of this effect was more pronounced in the first as compared to the second half of the experiment, suggesting a modulating role of practice. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that the DPTS effect was also modulated by the location of the target on the shelf. Interestingly, however, the results of a follow-up survey demonstrate that the orientation of the triangle did not influence the participants' evaluation of the wine bottles. Taken together, these findings reveal how in-store the attention of consumers might be influenced by the design elements in product packaging. These results therefore suggest that shopping in a virtual supermarket might offer a practical means of assessing the shelf standout of product packaging, which has important implications for food marketing.

  16. A Dissimilarity Measure for Clustering High- and Infinite Dimensional Data that Satisfies the Triangle Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovsky, Eduardo A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The cosine or correlation measures of similarity used to cluster high dimensional data are interpreted as projections, and the orthogonal components are used to define a complementary dissimilarity measure to form a similarity-dissimilarity measure pair. Using a geometrical approach, a number of properties of this pair is established. This approach is also extended to general inner-product spaces of any dimension. These properties include the triangle inequality for the defined dissimilarity measure, error estimates for the triangle inequality and bounds on both measures that can be obtained with a few floating-point operations from previously computed values of the measures. The bounds and error estimates for the similarity and dissimilarity measures can be used to reduce the computational complexity of clustering algorithms and enhance their scalability, and the triangle inequality allows the design of clustering algorithms for high dimensional distributed data.

  17. A mechanism for the downturn in inverse susceptibility in triangle-based frustrated spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoda, M

    2008-01-01

    A mechanism for the downturn of inverse magnetic susceptibility below an intermediate temperature, recently observed in many experiments, is proposed as an intrinsic feature of lattices with triangle-based frustrated geometries. The temperature at the bending of the inverse susceptibility curve may be related to the features of other thermodynamic properties; the hump of the specific heat and the emergence of a 1/3 plateau in magnetization under a magnetic field. This fact is derived through a Monte Carlo simulation study of the Ising model on triangular and kagome lattices, and the exact calculation for the single and small-sized triangle clusters, on both the Ising and Heisenberg models. These results may indicate the dominance of S(S z ) = 1/2 quantum (classical) trimer formation in the intermediate-energy regime in two-dimensional triangle-based lattices

  18. Performance Comparison Of Triangle Antenna of 60 GHz for 5G Wireless Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishah A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper microstrip triangle with slot antenna for 5G wireless communication network are proposed. The microstip triangle antenna is design and operating 60 GHz milimeter-wave frequency band and it's suitable for 5G wireless communication. The substrates are chosen in the design, which are RogerRT5880 with copper thickness 0.035 mm to analyze their effect toward milimeter-wave performance on the designed. The designed and analysis is performed by using CST Microwave Studio. The lowest return loss of the antenna is -24.75dB which is triangle with slot and the maximum gain obtained is 6.82 db at the 59.68GHz for this antenna. The antenna is considering the gain, return loss and size, the microstrip antenna can be a suitable candidate for the 5G wireless application for short range high speed communication.

  19. Is this child sick? Usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in emergency settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fernandez

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is a rapid assessment tool that uses only visual and auditory clues, requires no equipment, and takes 30-60 s to perform. It's being used internationally in different emergency settings, but few studies have assessed its performance. The aim of this narrative biomedical review is to summarize the literature available regarding the usefulness of the Pediatric Assessment Triangle in clinical practice. Sources: The authors carried out a non-systematic review in the PubMed®, MEDLINE®, and EMBASE® databases, searching for articles published between 1999-2016 using the keywords “pediatric assessment triangle,” “pediatric triage,” “pediatric assessment tools,” and “pediatric emergency department.” Summary of the findings: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle has demonstrated itself to be useful to assess sick children in the prehospital setting and make transport decisions. It has been incorporated, as an essential instrument for assessing sick children, into different life support courses, although little has been written about the effectiveness of teaching it. Little has been published about the performance of this tool in the initial evaluation in the emergency department. In the emergency department, the Pediatric Assessment Triangle is useful to identify the children at triage who require more urgent care. Recent studies have assessed and proved its efficacy to also identify those patients having more serious health conditions who are eventually admitted to the hospital. Conclusions: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle is quickly spreading internationally and its clinical applicability is very promising. Nevertheless, it is imperative to promote research for clinical validation, especially for clinical use by emergency pediatricians and physicians.

  20. A clear map of the lower cranial nerves at the superior carotid triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Garcia-Gonzalez, Ulises; Agrawal, Abhishek; Tavares, Paulo L M S; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2010-07-01

    The lower cranial nerves must be identified to avoid iatrogenic injury during skull base and high cervical approaches. Prompt recognition of these structures using basic landmarks could reduce surgical time and morbidity. The anterior triangle of the neck was dissected in 30 cadaveric head sides. The most superficial segments of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and its superior laryngeal nerves, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves were exposed and designated into smaller anatomic triangles. The midpoint of each nerve segment inside the triangles was correlated to the angle of the mandible (AM), mastoid tip (MT), and bifurcation of the common carotid artery. A triangle bounded by the styloglossus muscle, external carotid artery, and facial artery housed the glossopharyngeal nerve. This nerve segment was 0.06 ± 0.71 cm posterior to the AM and 2.50 ± 0.59 cm inferior to the MT. The vagus nerve ran inside the carotid sheath posterior to internal carotid artery and common carotid artery bifurcation in 48.3% of specimens. A triangle formed by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, sternocleidomastoid muscle, and internal jugular vein housed the accessory nerve, 1.90 ± 0.60 cm posterior to the AM and 2.30 ± 0.57 cm inferior to the MT. A triangle outlined by the posterior belly of digastric muscle, internal jugular vein, and common facial vein housed the hypoglossal nerve, which was 0.82 ± 0.84 cm posterior to the AM and 3.64 ± 0.70 cm inferior to the MT. Comprehensible landmarks can be defined to help expose the lower cranial nerves to avoid injury to this complex region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  2. New solutions of the star-triangle relation with discrete and continuous spin variables

    OpenAIRE

    Kels, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    A new solution to the star-triangle relation is given, for an Ising type model that involves interacting spins, that contain integer and real valued components. Boltzmann weights of the model are given in terms of the lens elliptic-gamma function, and are based on Yamazaki's recently obtained solution of the star-star relation. The star-triangle given here, implies Seiberg duality for the $4\\!-\\!d$ $\\mathcal{N}=1$ $S_1\\times S_3/\\mathbb{Z}_r$ index of the $SU(2)$ quiver gauge theory, and the ...

  3. On the chromatic number of triangle-free graphs of large minimum degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c <1/3.......We prove that, for each. fixed real number c > 1/3, the triangle-free graphs of minimum degree at least cn (where n is the number of vertices) have bounded chromatic number. This problem was raised by Erdos and Simonovits in 1973 who pointed out that there is no such result for c

  4. Low-energy effective theory, unitarity, and nondecoupling behavior in a model with heavy Higgs-triplet fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Christensen, Neil D.; Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the properties of a model incorporating both a scalar electroweak Higgs doublet and an electroweak Higgs triplet. We construct the low-energy effective theory for the light Higgs doublet in the limit of small (but nonzero) deviations in the ρ parameter from one, a limit in which the triplet states become heavy. For Δρ>0, perturbative unitarity of WW scattering breaks down at a scale inversely proportional to the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the triplet field (or, equivalently, inversely proportional to the square root of Δρ). This result imposes an upper limit on the mass scale of the heavy triplet bosons in a perturbative theory; we show that this upper bound is consistent with dimensional analysis in the low-energy effective theory. Recent articles have shown that the triplet bosons do not decouple, in the sense that deviations in the ρ parameter from one do not necessarily vanish at one-loop in the limit of large triplet mass. We clarify that, despite the nondecoupling behavior of the Higgs triplet, this model does not violate the decoupling theorem since it incorporates a large dimensionful coupling. Nonetheless, we show that if the triplet-Higgs boson masses are of order the grand unified theory scale, perturbative consistency of the theory requires the (properly renormalized) Higgs-triplet vacuum expectation value to be so small as to be irrelevant for electroweak phenomenology

  5. Fitting polynomial surfaces to triangular meshes with Voronoi squared distance minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Nivoliers, Vincent

    2012-11-06

    This paper introduces Voronoi squared distance minimization (VSDM), an algorithm that fits a surface to an input mesh. VSDM minimizes an objective function that corresponds to a Voronoi-based approximation of the overall squared distance function between the surface and the input mesh (SDM). This objective function is a generalization of the one minimized by centroidal Voronoi tessellation, and can be minimized by a quasi-Newton solver. VSDM naturally adapts the orientation of the mesh elements to best approximate the input, without estimating any differential quantities. Therefore, it can be applied to triangle soups or surfaces with degenerate triangles, topological noise and sharp features. Applications of fitting quad meshes and polynomial surfaces to input triangular meshes are demonstrated. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London.

  6. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  7. Unge, sundhed og fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness.......Artiklen redegør for udbredelsen af fitness blandt unge og diskuterer, hvor det er blevet så populært at dyrke fitness....

  8. The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…

  9. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H

    2012-01-01

    vs. buspirone in the acute therapy of major depression in the STAR*D study. The triangle provides a composite view in three domains of antidepressive activity, side effects, and quality of life. Method: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, the short six-item subscales of the Hamilton Depression...

  10. Coordination-driven self-assembly of a novel carbonato-bridged heteromolecular neutral nickel(II) triangle by atmospheric CO2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pampa; Drew, Michael G B; Estrader, Marta; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2008-09-01

    Formation of a quasi-symmetrical mu 3-carbonato-bridged self-assembled heteromolecular triangle of Ni(II), [(mu 3-CO 3){Ni 2(salmeNH) 2(NCS) 2}{Ni(salmeNH 2) 2].Et 2O.H 2O (HsalmeNH = 2-[(3-methylamino-propylimino)-methyl]-phenol) involves atmospheric CO 2 uptake in a neutral medium, by spontaneous self-reorganization of the starting mononuclear Ni(II)-Schiff-base complex, [Ni(salmeNH) 2]. The environment around Ni(II) in two of the subunits is different from the third one. The starting complex, [Ni(salmeNH) 2], and one of the possible intermediate species, [Ni(salmeNH 2) 2(NCS) 2], which has a very similar coordination environment to that in the third Ni(II) center, have been characterized structurally. A plausible mechanism for the formation of such a triangle has also been proposed. The compound shows a very strong antiferromagnetic coupling. Fit as a regular triangular arrangement gave J = -53.1, g = 2.24, and R = 1.5 x 10 (-4).

  11. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellaney, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  12. The India-Pakistan-China strategic triangle and the role of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellaney, B

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the Asian landscape with its regional balances and imbalances and its changes after September 11 and subsequent events. The nuclear posture and the role of nuclear weapons inside the China-India-Pakistan triangle is analyzed with respect to the US non-proliferation policy and its expanding military presence over the Asian continent. (J.S.)

  13. Uniform phases in fluids of hard isosceles triangles: One-component fluid and binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Díaz-De Armas, Ariel; Velasco, Enrique

    2018-05-01

    We formulate the scaled particle theory for a general mixture of hard isosceles triangles and calculate different phase diagrams for the one-component fluid and for certain binary mixtures. The fluid of hard triangles exhibits a complex phase behavior: (i) the presence of a triatic phase with sixfold symmetry, (ii) the isotropic-uniaxial nematic transition is of first order for certain ranges of aspect ratios, and (iii) the one-component system exhibits nematic-nematic transitions ending in critical points. We found the triatic phase to be stable not only for equilateral triangles but also for triangles of similar aspect ratios. We focus the study of binary mixtures on the case of symmetric mixtures: equal particle areas with aspect ratios (κi) symmetric with respect to the equilateral one, κ1κ2=3 . For these mixtures we found, aside from first-order isotropic-nematic and nematic-nematic transitions (the latter ending in a critical point): (i) a region of triatic phase stability even for mixtures made of particles that do not form this phase at the one-component limit, and (ii) the presence of a Landau point at which two triatic-nematic first-order transitions and a nematic-nematic demixing transition coalesce. This phase behavior is analogous to that of a symmetric three-dimensional mixture of rods and plates.

  14. 76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... responsibility to provide a safe environment for all American workers. NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President... since the Triangle factory fire, we are still fighting to provide adequate working conditions for all... collective bargaining as a tool to give workers a seat at the tables of power. Working Americans are the...

  15. The V-Flex, Triangle Orientation, and Catalan Numbers in Hexaflexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Ionut E.; McLean, T. Bruce; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Regular hexaflexagons mysteriously change faces as you pinch flex them. This paper describes a different flex, the V-flex, which allows the hexahexaflexagon (with only 9 faces under the pinch flex) to have 3420 faces. The article goes on to explain the classification of triangle orientations in a hexaflexagon and gives an example of the…

  16. Impact of Heterogeneity and Lattice Bond Strength on DNA Triangle Crystal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Evi; Praetorius, Florian; de Oliveira Mann, Carina C; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-09-07

    One key goal of DNA nanotechnology is the bottom-up construction of macroscopic crystalline materials. Beyond applications in fields such as photonics or plasmonics, DNA-based crystal matrices could possibly facilitate the diffraction-based structural analysis of guest molecules. Seeman and co-workers reported in 2009 the first designed crystal matrices based on a 38 kDa DNA triangle that was composed of seven chains. The crystal lattice was stabilized, unprecedentedly, by Watson-Crick base pairing. However, 3D crystallization of larger designed DNA objects that include more chains such as DNA origami remains an unsolved problem. Larger objects would offer more degrees of freedom and design options with respect to tailoring lattice geometry and for positioning other objects within a crystal lattice. The greater rigidity of multilayer DNA origami could also positively influence the diffractive properties of crystals composed of such particles. Here, we rationally explore the role of heterogeneity and Watson-Crick interaction strengths in crystal growth using 40 variants of the original DNA triangle as model multichain objects. Crystal growth of the triangle was remarkably robust despite massive chemical, geometrical, and thermodynamical sample heterogeneity that we introduced, but the crystal growth sensitively depended on the sequences of base pairs next to the Watson-Crick sticky ends of the triangle. Our results point to weak lattice interactions and high concentrations as decisive factors for achieving productive crystallization, while sample heterogeneity and impurities played a minor role.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH OUTCOMES WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS -RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, NC, 7/30-31/2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better define ORD's Environmental Public Health Outcomes (EPHO) research agenda, a workshop was held 7/30-31/2002 at EPA facilities in Research Triangle Park, NC. The intent of this workshop was to engage federal and other organizations in a dialog that will assist ORD in deve...

  18. Constructing Geometric Properties of Rectangle, Square, and Triangle in the Third Grade of Indonesian Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Rizkianto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have provided that when learning shapes for the first time, young children tend to use the prototype as the reference point for comparisons, but often fail when doing so since they do not yet think about the defining attributes or the geometric properties of the shapes. Most of the time, elementary students learn geometric properties of shapes only as empty verbal statements to be memorized, without any chance to experience the contepts meaningfully. In the light of it, a sequence of instructional activities along with computer manipulative was designed to support Indonesian third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle. The aim of the present study is to develop a loval instructional theory to support third graders in constructing geometric properties of rectangle, square, and triangle. Thirty seven students of one third grade classes in SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, along with their class teacher, were involved in the study. Our findings suggest that the combination of computer and non-computer activities suppots third graders in constructing geometric properties of square, rectangle, and triangle in that it provides opportunities to the students to experience and to develop the concepts meaningfully while using their real experiences as the bases to attain a higher geometric thinking level.Key concepts: Geometric properties, rectangle, square, triangle, design research, realistic mathematics education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.414.160-171

  19. On the chromatic number of a space with forbidden equilateral triangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, A E; Raigorodskii, A M; Kharlamova, A A; Samirov, D V

    2014-01-01

    We improve the Frankl-Rödl estimate for the product of the numbers of edges in uniform hypergraphs with forbidden cardinalities of the intersection of edges. By using this estimate, we obtain explicit bounds for the chromatic number of a space with forbidden monochromatic equilateral triangles. Bibliography: 31 titles

  20. Decomposing series-parallel graphs into paths of length 3 and triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merker, Martin

    2015-01-01

    An old conjecture by Jünger, Reinelt and Pulleyblank states that every 2-edge-connected planar graph can be decomposed into paths of length 3 and triangles, provided its size is divisible by 3. We prove the conjecture for a class of planar graphs including all 2-edge-connected series-parallel gra...

  1. A BPTTF-based self-assembled electron-donating triangle capable of C60 binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeb, Sébastien; Bivaud, Sébastien; Dron, Paul Ionut; Balandier, Jean-Yves; Chas, Marcos; Sallé, Marc

    2012-03-25

    A kinetically stable self-assembled redox-active triangle is isolated. The resulting electron-donating cavity, which incorporates three BPTTF units, exhibits a remarkable binding ability for electron-deficient C(60), supported by a favorable combination of structural and electronic features.

  2. From Commodity Production to Sign Production: A Triple Triangle Model for Marx's Semiotics and Peirce's Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohoan

    Using the viewpoint of semiotics, this paper "re-reads" Karl Marx's labor theory of value and suggests a "triple triangle" model for commodity production and shows how this model could be a model for semiosis in general. The paper argues that there are three advantages to considering homogeneity of the sign production and the…

  3. MODEL PENDETEKSIAN KECURANGAN LAPORAN KEUANGAN OLEH AUDITOR SPESIALIS INDUSTRI DENGAN ANALISIS FRAUD TRIANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reskino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Model Pendeteksian Kecurangan Laporan Keuangan dengan Analisis Fraud Triangle. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat model dalam mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Penelitian ini menguji variabel fraud triangle dan auditor spesialis industri dengan kecurangan laporan keuangan. Sampel penelitian adalah 30 perusahaan fraud dan 30 perusahaan non-fraudyang listing di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI serta terkena sanksi dan kasus oleh Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan financial targetsdapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan, sedangkan financial stabililty tidak dapat mendeteksi kecurangan laporan keuangan. Abstract: Financial Statement Fraud Detection Model with Fraud Triangle Analysis. The research purposes is to create a model to detect financial statement fraud. This research examines the variable of fraud triangle and auditor industry specialization with financial statement fraud. Samples were 30 companies of fraud and 30 non-fraud companies that were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX and sanctioned by the Financial Services Authority (FSA. The result shows the financial targets can be detect financial statement fraud, while financial stability can’t be detect financial statement fraud.

  4. Combining the triangle method with thermal inertia to estimate regional evapotranspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Simon; Sandholt, Inge; Nørgaard, Anette

    2008-01-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of evaporative fraction and actual evapotranspiration are pursued using a simple remote sensing technique based on a remotely sensed vegetation index (NDVI) and diurnal changes in land surface temperature. The technique, known as the triangle method, is improved by...

  5. Some Nice Relations between Right-Angled Triangles and the Golden Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimone, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    The international debate about experimental approaches to the teaching and learning mathematics is very current. While number theory lends itself naturally to such approaches, elementary geometry can also provide interesting starting points for creative work in class. This article shows how simple considerations about right triangles and the…

  6. Decompositions, partitions, and coverings with convex polygons and pseudo-triangles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aichholzer, O.; Huemer, C.; Kappes, S.; Speckmann, B.; Tóth, Cs.D.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel subdivision of the plane that consists of both convex polygons and pseudo-triangles. This pseudo-convex decomposition is significantly sparser than either convex decompositions or pseudo-triangulations for planar point sets and simple polygons. We also introduce pseudo-convex

  7. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhi-Shen; Pan Jian; Chen Zhuo; Zhan Peng; Min Nai-Ben; Wang Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase. For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays. Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Member and Affiliate Contact Directory. Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triangle Coalition for Science and Technology Education, College Park, MD.

    This directory is designed to assist local action groups (existing local alliances; science mathematics, and technology teachers; superintendents, principals, and supervisors; guidance counselors and resource specialists; and university and college professors) in making contact with the local structure of the Triangle Coalition for Science and…

  9. Pre-Metric Spaces Along with Different Types of Triangle Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chung Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The T 1 -spaces induced by the pre-metric spaces along with many forms of triangle inequalities are investigated in this paper. The limits in pre-metric spaces are also studied to demonstrate the consistency of limit concept in the induced topologies.

  10. Color Degree Sum Conditions for Rainbow Triangles in Edge-Colored Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Ruonan; Ning, Bo; Zhang, Shenggui

    Let G be an edge-colored graph and v a vertex of G. The color degree of v is the number of colors appearing on the edges incident to v. A rainbow triangle in G is one in which all edges have distinct colors. In this paper, we first prove that an edge-colored graph on n vertices contains a rainbow

  11. Fermat Point for a Triangle in Three Dimensions Using the Taxicab Metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the process of finding the Fermat point for a triangle ABC in three dimensions. Three examples are presented in detail using geometrical methods. A delightfully simple general method is then presented that requires only the comparison of coordinates of the vertices A, B and C.

  12. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-01-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes—phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass. PMID:26465336

  13. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Pablo; Korem, Yael; Moran, Uri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2015-10-01

    When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  14. The Mass-Longevity Triangle: Pareto Optimality and the Geometry of Life-History Trait Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Szekely

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available When organisms need to perform multiple tasks they face a fundamental tradeoff: no phenotype can be optimal at all tasks. This situation was recently analyzed using Pareto optimality, showing that tradeoffs between tasks lead to phenotypes distributed on low dimensional polygons in trait space. The vertices of these polygons are archetypes--phenotypes optimal at a single task. This theory was applied to examples from animal morphology and gene expression. Here we ask whether Pareto optimality theory can apply to life history traits, which include longevity, fecundity and mass. To comprehensively explore the geometry of life history trait space, we analyze a dataset of life history traits of 2105 endothermic species. We find that, to a first approximation, life history traits fall on a triangle in log-mass log-longevity space. The vertices of the triangle suggest three archetypal strategies, exemplified by bats, shrews and whales, with specialists near the vertices and generalists in the middle of the triangle. To a second approximation, the data lies in a tetrahedron, whose extra vertex above the mass-longevity triangle suggests a fourth strategy related to carnivory. Each animal species can thus be placed in a coordinate system according to its distance from the archetypes, which may be useful for genome-scale comparative studies of mammalian aging and other biological aspects. We further demonstrate that Pareto optimality can explain a range of previous studies which found animal and plant phenotypes which lie in triangles in trait space. This study demonstrates the applicability of multi-objective optimization principles to understand life history traits and to infer archetypal strategies that suggest why some mammalian species live much longer than others of similar mass.

  15. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter: Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason [DESY, Notkestraße 85, Hamburg, D-22607 Germany (Germany); Petraki, Kalliopi, E-mail: iason.baldes@desy.de, E-mail: kpetraki@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE), UMR 7589 CNRS and UPMC, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris, F-75252 France (France)

    2017-09-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s -wave and p -wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  16. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter. Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2017-03-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s-wave and p-wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  17. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter. Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Petraki, Kalliopi [Nationaal Instuut voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands); UMR 7589 CNRS et UPMC, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies (LPTHE)

    2017-03-15

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s-wave and p-wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  18. Asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter: Sommerfeld-enhanced freeze-out, annihilation signals and unitarity bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldes, Iason; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter that possesses a particle-antiparticle asymmetry and has thermalised in the early universe, requires a larger annihilation cross-section compared to symmetric dark matter, in order to deplete the dark antiparticles and account for the observed dark matter density. The annihilation cross-section determines the residual symmetric component of dark matter, which may give rise to annihilation signals during CMB and inside haloes today. We consider dark matter with long-range interactions, in particular dark matter coupled to a light vector or scalar force mediator. We compute the couplings required to attain a final antiparticle-to-particle ratio after the thermal freeze-out of the annihilation processes in the early universe, and then estimate the late-time annihilation signals. We show that, due to the Sommerfeld enhancement, highly asymmetric dark matter with long-range interactions can have a significant annihilation rate, potentially larger than symmetric dark matter of the same mass with contact interactions. We discuss caveats in this estimation, relating to the formation of stable bound states. Finally, we consider the non-relativistic partial-wave unitarity bound on the inelastic cross-section, we discuss why it can be realised only by long-range interactions, and showcase the importance of higher partial waves in this regime of large inelasticity. We derive upper bounds on the mass of symmetric and asymmetric thermal-relic dark matter for s -wave and p -wave annihilation, and exhibit how these bounds strengthen as the dark asymmetry increases.

  19. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in an Appendix.

  20. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  1. Computer code FIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohmann, D.; Koehler, T.

    1987-02-01

    This is a description of the computer code FIT, written in FORTRAN-77 for a PDP 11/34. FIT is an interactive program to decude position, width and intensity of lines of X-ray spectra (max. length of 4K channels). The lines (max. 30 lines per fit) may have Gauss- or Voigt-profile, as well as exponential tails. Spectrum and fit can be displayed on a Tektronix terminal. (orig.) [de

  2. A Universal Ts-VI Triangle Method for the Continuous Retrieval of Evaporative Fraction From MODIS Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Jia, Shaofeng; Lv, Aifeng

    2017-10-01

    The triangle method based on the spatial relationship between remotely sensed land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index (VI) has been widely used for the estimates of evaporative fraction (EF). In the present study, a universal triangle method was proposed by transforming the Ts-VI feature space from a regional scale to a pixel scale. The retrieval of EF is only related to the boundary conditions at pixel scale, regardless of the Ts-VI configuration over the spatial domain. The boundary conditions of each pixel are composed of the theoretical dry edge determined by the surface energy balance principle and the wet edge determined by the average air temperature of open water. The universal triangle method was validated using the EF observations collected by the Energy Balance Bowen Ratio systems in the Southern Great Plains of the United States of America (USA). Two parameterization schemes of EF were used to demonstrate their applicability with Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products over the whole year 2004. The results of this study show that the accuracy produced by both of these two parameterization schemes is comparable to that produced by the traditional triangle method, although the universal triangle method seems specifically suited to the parameterization scheme proposed in our previous research. The independence of the universal triangle method from the Ts-VI feature space makes it possible to conduct a continuous monitoring of evapotranspiration and soil moisture. That is just the ability the traditional triangle method does not possess.

  3. First determination of the quark mixing matrix element $V_{tb}$ from electroweak corrections to Z decays and implications for CKM matrix unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, J D

    1999-01-01

    We present a new method for the determination of the Cabibbo- Kobayashi-Maskawa quark mixing matrix element V/sub tb/ from electroweak loop corrections, in particular those affecting the process Z to bb. From a combined analysis of results from the LEP, SLC, Tevatron, and neutrino scattering experiments we determine V /sub tb/=0.77/sub -0.24//sup +18/. We comment briefly on the implications of this measurement for the mass of the top quark and Higgs boson, alpha /sub s/, and CKM unitarity. (19 refs).

  4. FITS: a function-fitting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Chezem, C.G.

    1982-08-01

    FITS is an iterating computer program that adjusts the parameters of a function to fit a set of data points according to the least squares criterion and then lists and plots the results. The function can be programmed or chosen from a library that is provided. The library can be expanded to include up to 99 functions. A general plotting routine, contained in the program but useful in its own right, is described separately in Appendix A. An example problem file and its solution is given in Appendix B.

  5. Obligations, internalization, and excuse making: integrating the triangle model and self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M; Schachtman, Todd R

    2007-04-01

    Schlenker's triangle model (Schlenker, Britt, Pennington, Murphy, & Doherty, 1994, Schlenker, Pontari, & Christopher, 2001) identifies three excuses people use to avoid taking responsibility after failure: that one had no control in the situation, that the obligation was unclear, and that it was not really one's obligation. Three retrospective studies tested the presumed negative association between excuse making and responsibility taking. The studies also examined the effects of self-determination theory's concept of motivational internalization (Deci & Ryan, 2000) upon these variables. A complex but replicable pattern emerged, such that responsibility taking and motivational internalization correlated with adaptive outcomes such as future commitment and positive expectancy and excuse making did not. Of particular interest, perceiving that the person levying the obligation internalized motivation predicted responsibility taking, in all three studies. Implications for the triangle model, as well as for theories of maturity and personality development, are considered.

  6. Prediction accident triangle in maintenance of underground mine facilities using Poisson distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuluqi, M. H.; Prapdito, R. R.; Sambodo, F. P.

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, mining is categorized as a hazardous industry. In recent years, a dramatic increase of mining equipment and technological complexities had resulted in higher maintenance expectations that accompanied by the changes in the working conditions, especially on safety. Ensuring safety during the process of conducting maintenance works in underground mine is important as an integral part of accident prevention programs. Accident triangle has provided a support to safety practitioner to draw a road map in preventing accidents. Poisson distribution is appropriate for the analysis of accidents at a specific site in a given time period. Based on the analysis of accident statistics in the underground mine maintenance of PT. Freeport Indonesia from 2011 through 2016, it is found that 12 minor accidents for 1 major accident and 66 equipment damages for 1 major accident as a new value of accident triangle. The result can be used for the future need for improving the accident prevention programs.

  7. The use of triangle diagram in the detection of explosive and illicit drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudac, Davorin; Baricevic, Martina; Obhodas, Jasmina; Franulovic, Andrej; Valkovic, Vladivoj

    2010-04-01

    A tagged neutron inspection system has been used for the detection of explosive and illicite drugs. Simulant of the RDX explosive was measured in different environments and its gamma ray spectra were compared with the gamma ray spectra of benign materials like paper, sugar and rise. "Fingerprint" of the RDX simulant was found by detecting the nitrogen as well as by making the triangle plot which coordinates show the carbon and oxygen content and density. Density was obtained by measuring the intensity of the transmited tagged neutrons. Hence, the presence of the simulant can be confirmed by using two different methods. The possibility of using the triangle plot for detection of illicit drugs like heroin, cocain and marihuana is also discused.

  8. Surface charge method for molecular surfaces with curved areal elements I. Spherical triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Parametrizing a curved surface with flat triangles in electrostatics problems creates a diverging electric field. One way to avoid this is to have curved areal elements. However, charge density integration over curved patches appears difficult. This paper, dealing with spherical triangles, is the first in a series aiming to solve this problem. Here, we lay the ground work for employing curved patches for applying the surface charge method to electrostatics. We show analytically how one may control the accuracy by expanding in powers of the the arc length (multiplied by the curvature). To accommodate not extremely small curved areal elements, we have provided enough details to include higher order corrections that are needed for better accuracy when slightly larger surface elements are used.

  9. Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.

  10. Remarks on the P{sub c} structures and triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun [Chinese Academy of Science, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); Meissner, Ulf G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut fuer Kernphysik and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Juelich (Germany); Nieves, Juan [Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigacion de Paterna, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Yang, Zhi [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It was proposed that the narrow P{sub c}(4450) structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction Λ{sub b} → J/ψpK might be due to a triangle singularity around the χ{sub c1}-proton threshold at 4.45 GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the J/ψp invariant mass distribution for the decay Λ{sub b} → J/ψpπ, which could explain the bump around 4.45 GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the P{sub c} structures. (orig.)

  11. Pascal (Yang Hui) triangles and power laws in the logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, Carlos; Robledo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We point out the joint occurrence of Pascal triangle patterns and power-law scaling in the standard logistic map, or more generally, in unimodal maps. It is known that these features are present in its two types of bifurcation cascades: period and chaotic-band doubling of attractors. Approximate Pascal triangles are exhibited by the sets of lengths of supercycle diameters and by the sets of widths of opening bands. Additionally, power-law scaling manifests along periodic attractor supercycle positions and chaotic band splitting points. Consequently, the attractor at the mutual accumulation point of the doubling cascades, the onset of chaos, displays both Gaussian and power-law distributions. Their combined existence implies both ordinary and exceptional statistical-mechanical descriptions of dynamical properties. (paper)

  12. An Interactive Control Algorithm Used for Equilateral Triangle Formation with Robotic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hongcai

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive control algorithm, called Triangle Formation Algorithm (TFA), used for three neighboring robotic sensors which are distributed randomly to self-organize into and equilateral triangle (E) formation. The algorithm is proposed based on the triangular geometry and considering the actual sensors used in robotics. In particular, the stability of the TFA, which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation, is analyzed in details based on Lyapunov stability theory. Computer simulations are carried out for verifying the effectiveness of the TFA. The analytical results and simulation studies indicate that three neighboring robots employing conventional sensors can self-organize into E formations successfully regardless of their initial distribution using the same TFAs. PMID:24759118

  13. Spinning and tumbling of micron-sized triangles in a micro-channel shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, J.; Kumar, M. Vijay; Mihiretie, B. Mekonnen; Hanstorp, D.; Mehlig, B.

    2018-03-01

    We report on measurements of the angular dynamics of micron-sized equilaterally triangular platelets suspended in a micro-channel shear flow. Our measurements confirm that such particles spin and tumble like a spheroid in a simple shear. Since the triangle has corners, we can observe the spinning directly. In general, the spinning frequency is different from the tumbling frequency and the spinning is affected by tumbling. This gives rise to doubly periodic angular dynamics.

  14. North Carolina State University Nuclear Structure Research at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seagondollar, L.W.; Waltner, A.W.; Mitchell, G.E.; Tilley, D.R.; Gould, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of nuclear structure research completed at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab for the period 9/1/74 to 8/31/75. Included are abstracts and titles for studies of electromagnetic transitions in low-medium mass nuclei, high resolution studies, accelerator induced x-ray investigations, and energy related neutron and charged particle cross section measurements. (U.S.)

  15. Modification of Duval Triangle for Diagnostic Transformer Fault through a Procedure of Dissolved Gases Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Serry Dessouky

    2016-08-01

        The evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of  Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing thetransformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.

  16. Triangles, tricks and tics: Hyper-mentalizing in response to animated shapes in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Clare M; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) can feature complex tics involving socially inappropriate behaviours. Adults with TS can also demonstrate differences to healthy controls when reasoning about mental states. This study investigated spontaneous mentalizing in TS. Twenty adults with TS and twenty healthy controls completed the animations task. Participants were asked to watch short ambiguous animations involving two triangles and describe what was happening. Some animations featured random movement of the triangles, while others depicted social interactions that were simple (e.g., dancing) or more complex (e.g., one triangle tricking the other). Measures were taken of executive functions, alexithymia and clinical symptoms. Individuals with TS responded similarly to controls when viewing animations featuring simple and complex interactions, demonstrating intact mentalizing ability. However, significant group differences were apparent for the random movement animations. TS was associated with a greater tendency to attribute mental states during this condition, and to describe random movements as motivated actions guided by the intentions of the triangles. There were no group differences for the alexithymia scale, but TS was associated with mild executive deficits. No relationships were apparent between animation responses and other measures. Our findings suggest that TS is associated with a propensity to adopt the intentional stance. Hyper-mentalizing in TS could be linked to both dopamine dysfunction and altered social behaviour, whereby amplified salience of social cues could contribute to the complex interplay between environmental context and tic expression. These observations may offer further insight into the potential effects of dopamine dysfunction on social cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Getting CSR communication fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line

    2017-01-01

    Companies experience increasing legal and societal pressure to communicate about their corporate social responsibility (CSR) engagements from a number of different publics. One very important group is that of young consumers who are predicted to be the most important and influential consumer group...... in the near future. From a value- theoretical base, this article empirically explores the role and applicability of ‘fit’ in strategic CSR communication targeted at young consumers. Point of departure is taken in the well-known strategic fit (a logical link between a company’s CSR commitment and its core...... values) and is further developed by introducing two additional fits, the CSR- Consumer fit and the CSR-Consumer-Company fit (Triple Fit). Through a sequential design, the three fits are empirically tested and their potential for meeting young consumers’ expectations for corporate CSR messaging...

  18. Concept of Triangle: Examples of Mathematical Abstraction in Two Different Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Nurhasanah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In attempt to explain how students learning geometry in concept of triangle, this study explore the learning process of students and the process of solving geometry problems in the topic of triangle.  As known as one of the domain in school of mathematics, geometry has abstract notions to be learnt so that all those notions cannot be just transferred into students’ mind like a bunch of information that should be memorized. Students need to construct those concepts during their learning process. This process of knowledge construction can be considered as an abstraction process. This study aimed to qualitatively compare students’ abstraction process who learn topic of triangle in conventional method of teaching and in van Hiele model of teaching aided by Geometers’ sketchpad. Subjects of this study were junir high school students in grade 7. Based on the aims of this study, this is a qualitative study with grounded theory design. Data were collected through classroom observation, test, and task-based interview. Results of the study show that theoretical abstraction processes tend to dominate classrom with conventional method of teaching while classroom with van Hiele model of teaching aided by Geometers’ sketchpad accommodated empirical abstraction process of the students

  19. Cressey’s fraud triangle (1953 and agency theory: study applied to brazilian banking institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rílany Rodrigues Machado

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research examined if Cressey’s (1953 fraud triangle and the agency theory, jointly, enables investigate corporate fraud occurrence in Brazilian banking institutions. It was formulated  six research hypotheses were segregated in fraud triangle – pressure,  opportunity and rationalization – and measured by variables taken from the agency theory, criminology and empirical papers on corporate fraud. The identification of probability of fraud occurrence was operationalized from multinomial logistic model, applied to data of 44 banking, for the period between January 2001 and December 2012. For element pressure, hypotheses No. 01 was confirmed, since this showed that the lower an institution’s previous performance, the greater probability there is of fraudulent events occurring in the future.  In the element of opportunity, the hypothesis No. 03 was confirmed, which showed that low corporate governance indicators increased the possibility of fraud occurrences.  In rationalization element, the hypothesis No. 08 was confirmed, therefore, the predominance of women in management reduces the probability of fraud.  We thereby conclude that Cressey’s Triangle, when combined with the theory of agency is an appropriate research instrument to use when carrying out an investigation into corporate fraud occurrence in banking institutions.

  20. Pose Self-Measurement of Noncooperative Spacecraft Based on Solar Panel Triangle Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhou Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the recognition and location of noncooperative spacecraft, this paper presents a monocular vision pose measurement method based on solar triangle structure. First of all, an autonomous recognition algorithm of feature structure based on sliding window Hough transformation (SWHT and inscribed circle of a triangle is proposed, and the image coordinates of feature points on the triangle can be obtained relying on this algorithm, combined with the P4P algorithm and the structure of spacecraft, calculating the relative pose of target expressed by rotation and translation matrix. The whole algorithm can be loaded into the prewritten onboard program, which will get the autocomplete feature structure extraction and relative pose measurement without human intervention, and this method does not need to mount any markers on the target. Then compare the measured values with the accurate value of the laser tracker, so that a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum position error is lower than 5% and the rotation error is lower than 4%, which meets the requirements of noncooperative spacecraft’s pose measurement for observations, tracking, and docking in the final rendezvous phase.

  1. Assessing the plasmonics of gold nano-triangles with higher order laser modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Hennemann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Regular arrays of metallic nano-triangles – so called Fischer patterns – are fabricated by nano-sphere lithography. We studied such gold nano-triangle arrays on silicon or glass substrates. A series of different samples was investigated with a parabolic mirror based confocal microscope where the sample is scanned through the laser focus. By employing higher order laser modes (azimuthally and radially polarised laser beams, we can excite the Fischer patterns using either a pure in-plane (x,y electric field or a strongly z-directional (optical axis of the optical microscope electric field. We collected and evaluated the emitted luminescence and thereby investigated the respectively excited plasmonic modes. These varied considerably: firstly with the light polarisation in the focus, secondly with the aspect ratio of the triangles and thirdly with the employed substrate. Moreover, we obtained strongly enhanced Raman spectra of an adenine (sub-monolayer on gold Fischer patterns on glass. We thus showed that gold Fischer patterns are promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS substrates.

  2. Available pressure amplitude of linear compressor based on phasor triangle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, C. X.; Jiang, X.; Zhi, X. Q.; You, X. K.; Qiu, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    The linear compressor for cryocoolers possess the advantages of long-life operation, high efficiency, low vibration and compact structure. It is significant to study the match mechanisms between the compressor and the cold finger, which determines the working efficiency of the cryocooler. However, the output characteristics of linear compressor are complicated since it is affected by many interacting parameters. The existing matching methods are simplified and mainly focus on the compressor efficiency and output acoustic power, while neglecting the important output parameter of pressure amplitude. In this study, a phasor triangle model basing on analyzing the forces of the piston is proposed. It can be used to predict not only the output acoustic power, the efficiency, but also the pressure amplitude of the linear compressor. Calculated results agree well with the measurement results of the experiment. By this phasor triangle model, the theoretical maximum output pressure amplitude of the linear compressor can be calculated simply based on a known charging pressure and operating frequency. Compared with the mechanical and electrical model of the linear compressor, the new model can provide an intuitionistic understanding on the match mechanism with faster computational process. The model can also explain the experimental phenomenon of the proportional relationship between the output pressure amplitude and the piston displacement in experiments. By further model analysis, such phenomenon is confirmed as an expression of the unmatched design of the compressor. The phasor triangle model may provide an alternative method for the compressor design and matching with the cold finger.

  3. Quantum mechanical analysis of the equilateral triangle billiard: Periodic orbit theory and wave packet revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncheski, M.A.; Robinett, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Using the fact that the energy eigenstates of the equilateral triangle infinite well (or billiard) are available in closed form, we examine the connections between the energy eigenvalue spectrum and the classical closed paths in this geometry, using both periodic orbit theory and the short-term semi-classical behavior of wave packets. We also discuss wave packet revivals and show that there are exact revivals, for all wave packets, at times given by T rev =9μa 2 /4(h/2π) where a and μ are the length of one side and the mass of the point particle, respectively. We find additional cases of exact revivals with shorter revival times for zero-momentum wave packets initially located at special symmetry points inside the billiard. Finally, we discuss simple variations on the equilateral (60 deg. -60 deg. -60 deg. ) triangle, such as the half equilateral (30 deg. -60 deg. -90 deg.) triangle and other 'foldings', which have related energy spectra and revival structures

  4. Triangles in ROC space: History and theory of "nonparametric" measures of sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, N A; Creelman, C D

    1996-06-01

    Can accuracy and response bias in two-stimulus, two-response recognition or detection experiments be measured nonparametrically? Pollack and Norman (1964) answered this question affirmatively for sensitivity, Hodos (1970) for bias: Both proposed measures based on triangular areas in receiver-operating characteristic space. Their papers, and especially a paper by Grier (1971) that provided computing formulas for the measures, continue to be heavily cited in a wide range of content areas. In our sample of articles, most authors described triangle-based measures as making fewer assumptions than measures associated with detection theory. However, we show that statistics based on products or ratios of right triangle areas, including a recently proposed bias index and a not-yetproposed but apparently plausible sensitivity index, are consistent with a decision process based on logistic distributions. Even the Pollack and Norman measure, which is based on non-right triangles, is approximately logistic for low values of sensitivity. Simple geometric models for sensitivity and bias are not nonparametric, even if their implications are not acknowledged in the defining publications.

  5. Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevitz, Daniel Wolf [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Key, Brian P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Garcia, Daniel B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The Fragment Impact Toolkit (FIT) is a software package used for probabilistic consequence evaluation of fragmenting sources. The typical use case for FIT is to simulate an exploding shell and evaluate the consequence on nearby objects. FIT is written in the programming language Python and is designed as a collection of interacting software modules. Each module has a function that interacts with the other modules to produce desired results.

  6. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks

  7. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Fitness is for life. Motivate yourself with these practical tips. By Mayo Clinic Staff Have ... 27, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20047624 . Mayo Clinic ...

  8. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  9. GOSSIP: SED fitting code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, Paolo; Scodeggio, Marco

    2012-10-01

    GOSSIP fits the electro-magnetic emission of an object (the SED, Spectral Energy Distribution) against synthetic models to find the simulated one that best reproduces the observed data. It builds-up the observed SED of an object (or a large sample of objects) combining magnitudes in different bands and eventually a spectrum; then it performs a chi-square minimization fitting procedure versus a set of synthetic models. The fitting results are used to estimate a number of physical parameters like the Star Formation History, absolute magnitudes, stellar mass and their Probability Distribution Functions.

  10. Fitness Club / Nordic Walking

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2011-01-01

    Nordic Walking at CERN Enrollments are open for Nordic Walking courses and outings at CERN. Classes will be on Tuesdays as of 20 September, and outings for the more experienced will be on Thursdays as of 15 September. We meet at the CERN Club barracks car park (near entrance A). • 18:00 to 19:00 on 20 & 27 September, as well as 4 & 11 October. Check out our schedule and rates and enroll at: http://cern.ch/club-fitness Hope to see you among us! CERN Fitness Club fitness.club@cern.ch  

  11. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... online calculator. If you'd rather do the math yourself, divide your weight in pounds by your ... Human Services recommends one of the following activity levels for adult fitness and health benefits: 150 minutes ...

  12. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  13. ACSM Fit Society Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fitness topics. Expert commentary and features on exercise, nutrition, sports and health offer tips and techniques for maintaining ... Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- ... Preparing for Fall Sports 2009 -- Cancer and Exercise 2008 -- Group Exercise 2008 -- ...

  14. Driver fitness medical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This guide provides guidance to assist licensing agencies in making decisions about an individuals fitness for driving. This is the first attempt to produce a consolidated document covering medical conditions included in the task agreement between...

  15. The Langley Fitness Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  16. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  17. Validation and scale dependencies of the triangle method for the evaporative fraction estimation over heterogeneous areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Tomás, Alberto; Nieto, Héctor; Guzinski, Radoslaw

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing has proved to be a consistent tool for monitoring water fluxes at regional scales. The triangle method, in particular, estimates the evaporative fraction (EF), defined as the ratio of latent heat flux (LE) to available energy, based on the relationship between satellite observations...... of land surface temperature and a vegetation index. Among other methodologies, this approach has been commonly used as an approximation to estimate LE, mainly over large semi-arid areas with uniform landscape features. In this study, an interpretation of the triangular space has been applied over...

  18. The World Financial and Economic Crisis and Its Impact on China-US-Russia Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Dmitrievich Voskressenski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of relations in the triangle of Russia-US-China after the late-2000s global financial crisis from the point of view of their national interests, East Asian policy of the USA, China's growth and the strengthening of Russia in Asia. The author critically examines the existing approaches, foreign policy concepts and the latest initiatives which could shift the balance of power in the post-crisis period. According to the author, Russia still has all the chances to reshape its relations with China and the United States.

  19. Vulnerability classification in man-land territorial system of mining cities based on triangle methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin Xin; Ping-Yu Zhang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun (China). Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology

    2009-02-15

    The vulnerabilities of 40 mining cities were classified into 6 types by triangle methodology and corresponding sustainable development suggestions were proposed. Most mining cities in east China are: resource and environment and social (RS) type and economy, resource, environment and social (ERS) type, with low vulnerability. In central China, most mining cities are economy and resource and environment (ER), RS and ERS types. The vulnerability in most west mining cities is high. Coal mining cities are mostly ER, RS and ERS types, while metal mining cities are almost ERS type. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Historical and commercial triangle of Athens. Patrimonalization through imaginary urban projects, rhetoric and rediscovery of tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Polychroniadi

    2016-01-01

    Athens has both famous and infamous identities. A city immersed in history surrounded by an"ugly"contemporary urban environment. A city which people love to ‘hate’ exactly due to this dense urban environment and fast pace, but which at the same time is celebrated for its lively everyday (and night) life and creativity. In this paper we focus on the so called "historical and commercial triangle", the city’s downtown in which the historic image of Athens juxtaposes to (coexists with) the most i...

  1. Visualisation of uncertainty for the trade-off triangle used in sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Takahashi, Taro; Lee, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture at the global-scale is at a critical juncture where competing requirements for maximal production and minimal pollution have led to the concept of sustainable intensification. All farming systems (arable, grasslands, etc.) are part of this debate, where each have particular associated environmental risks such as water and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and soil degradation, as well as issues affecting production efficiency, product quality and consumer acceptability, reflected in the development of agricultural sustainability policies. These challenges necessitate multidisciplinary solutions that can only be properly researched, implemented and tested in real-world production systems which are suited to their geographical and climatic production practice. In this respect, various high-profile agricultural data collection experiments have been set up, such as the North Wyke Farm Platform (http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/farmplatform) to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices. In this farm-scale grasslands experiment, data on hydrology, emissions, nutrient cycling, biodiversity, productivity and livestock welfare/health are collected, that in turn, are converted to trade-off metrics with respect to: (i) economic profits, (ii) societal benefits and (iii) environmental concerns, under the umbrella of sustainable intensification. Similar agriculture research platforms have similar objectives, where data collections are ultimately synthesised into trade-off metrics. Trade-offs metrics can then be usefully visualized via the usual sustainable triangle, with a new triangle for each key time period (e.g. baseline versus post-baseline). This enables a visual assessment of change in sustainability harmony or discord, according to the remit of the given research experiment. In this paper, we discuss different approaches to calculation of the sustainability trade-off metrics that are required from the farm

  2. A Bony Landmark 'RAI Triangle' to Prevent 'Misplaced and Misdirected' Medial Cut in SSRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Arakeri, Gururaj; Khaji, Shahanavaj I

    2011-03-01

    'Rai triangle', a new anatomic landmark on the medial surface of the ramus of the mandible which when identified and taken into consideration, may have a definite advantage. This is especially in terms of performing the medial horizontal cut which is an important and integral part of the sagittal split ramus osteotomy so as to avoid a bad split. The objective of this article is to propose an easily identifiable bony land mark, which is closely related to lingula of mandible that may ease the procedure of osteotomy and avoid bad splits.

  3. El VII Congrés Internacional de Conflictologia desentrella la complexitat de les operacions de pau des d’UNITAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Vinyamata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available

    «En parlar de les Nacions Unides, ens ve al cap la imatge dels cascos blaus, però les operacions de pau són més complexes i impliquen molta gent: militars, policia, diplomàtics i societat civil.» Ho va afirmar Sally Fegan-Wyles, la subsecretària general de les Nacions Unides i cap de l’Institut de les Nacions Unides per a la Formació Professional i la Recerca (UNITAR, en la inauguració del VII Congrés Internacional de Conflictologia i Pau de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC, que va tenir lloc els dies 2 i 3 d’octubre. Aquesta professional del desenvolupament va explicar l’impacte que té la formació sobre resolució de conflictes en el manteniment de la pau i la seguretat al món. En aquest esdeveniment, organitzat pel Campus per la Pau i els Estudis de Dret i Ciència Política de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Sally Fegan-Wyles va destacar el fet que les intervencions de pau que porten a terme les Nacions Unides han canviat de naturalesa, com també ho han fet els conflictes, amb l’aparició de les armes lleugeres i les tàctiques de guerrilla. Segons la directora d’UNITAR, «hem passat de l’acord de pau a un procés multidimensional, que implica tant la societat civil del país en conflicte com el cos diplomàtic i polític, i les tropes militars».

     

  4. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior.

  5. [Regional ecological planning and ecological network construction: a case study of "Ji Triangle" Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Han, Zeng-Lin; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    By the methods of in situ investigation and regional ecological planning, the present ecological environment, ecosystem vulnerability, and ecological environment sensitivity in "Ji Triangle" Region were analyzed, and the ecological network of the study area was constructed. According to the ecological resources abundance degree, ecological recovery, farmland windbreak system, environmental carrying capacity, forestry foundation, and ecosystem integrity, the study area was classified into three regional ecological function ecosystems, i. e., east low hill ecosystem, middle plain ecosystem, and west plain wetland ecosystem. On the basis of marking regional ecological nodes, the regional ecological corridor (Haerbin-Dalian regional axis, Changchun-Jilin, Changchun-Songyuan, Jilin-Songyuan, Jilin-Siping, and Songyuan-Siping transportation corridor) and regional ecological network (one ring, three links, and three belts) were constructed. Taking the requests of regional ecological security into consideration, the ecological environment security system of "Ji Triangle" Region, including regional ecological conservation district, regional ecological restored district, and regional ecological management district, was built.

  6. The semiosis of the Anthropocene geological era. Reflections between geoethics and semiotics starting from Peirce's triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Francesco; Dattilo, Valeria

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the first formulation of a theoretical proposal which aims to reconcile, or better, to work together, two different approaches: geoethics and the semiotic tradition of Peirce, on the basis of some important affinities. We will refer to geoethics, discipline that deals with the ethical, social and cultural implications of geological and geographical practice, at the intersection of Geoscience, Geography, Philosophy, Sociology and Economy. The proposal of this work is to try to explain the new processes of the Anthropocene era through geoethics and semiotics, using as a "translator mechanism" one of the key notions of Peirce semiotics: the semiotic triangle. On the one hand, we employ the geoethical paradigm as a possible interpretative framework for such processes (in other words, we identify in the geoethical paradigm a significant exemplification of hippocratic type, according to some scientists); on the other hand, we use the triangle "geology / geography - planet illness - society", as a metaphor of the principles and the processes inherent Anthropocene era, able to return them in a particularly random way through the semiotic triangulation of Peirce.

  7. Estimating actual evapotranspiration from remote sensing imagery using R: the package 'TriangleMethod'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, David; Huber García, Verena; Marzahn, Philip; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Actual evaporation (Eta) is an essential variable to assess water availability, drought risk and food security, among others. Measurements of Eta are however limited to a small footprint, hampering a spatially explicit analysis and application and are very often not available at all. To overcome the problem of data scarcity, Eta can be assessed by various remote sensing approaches such as the Triangle Method (Jiang & Islam, 1999). Here, Eta is estimated by using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST). In this study, the R-package 'TriangleMethod' was compiled to efficiently perform the calculations of NDVI and processing LST to finally derive Eta from the applied data set. The package contains all necessary calculation steps and allows easy processing of a large data base of remote sensing images. By default, the parameterization for the Landsat TM and ETM+ sensors are implemented, however, the algorithms can be easily extended to additional sensors. The auxiliary variables required to estimate Eta with this method, such as elevation, solar radiation and air temperature at the overpassing time, can be processed as gridded information to allow for a better representation of the study area. The package was successfully applied in various studies in Spain, Palestine, Costa Rica and Canada.

  8. Bermuda Triangle: a subsystem of the 168/E interfacing scheme used by Group B at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxoby, G.J.; Levinson, L.J.; Trang, Q.H.

    1979-12-01

    The Bermuda Triangle system is a method of interfacing several 168/E microprocessors to a central system for control of the processors and overlaying their memories. The system is a three-way interface with I/O ports to a large buffer memory, a PDP11 Unibus and a bus to the 168/E processors. Data may be transferred bidirectionally between any two ports. Two Bermuda Triangles are used, one for the program memory and one for the data memory. The program buffer memory stores the overlay programs for the 168/E, and the data buffer memory, the incoming raw data, the data portion of the overlays, and the outgoing processed events. This buffering is necessary since the memories of 168/E microprocessors are small compared to the main program and the amount of data being processed. The link to the computer facility is via a Unibus to IBM channel interface. A PDP11/04 controls the data flow. 7 figures, 4 tables

  9. S-duality, triangle groups and modular anomalies in N=2 SQCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, S. K.; Dell’Aquila, E.; Lerda, A.; Raman, M.

    2016-01-01

    We study N=2 superconformal theories with gauge group SU(N) and 2N fundamental flavours in a locus of the Coulomb branch with a ℤ_N symmetry. In this special vacuum, we calculate the prepotential, the dual periods and the period matrix using equivariant localization. When the flavors are massless, we find that the period matrix is completely specified by [(N/2)] effective couplings. On each of these, we show that the S-duality group acts as a generalized triangle group and that its hauptmodul can be used to write a non-perturbatively exact relation between each effective coupling and the bare one. For N=2,3,4 and 6, the generalized triangle group is an arithmetic Hecke group which contains a subgroup that is also a congruence subgroup of the modular group PSL(2,ℤ). For these cases, we introduce mass deformations that respect the symmetries of the special vacuum and show that the constraints arising from S-duality make it possible to resum the instanton contributions to the period matrix in terms of meromorphic modular forms which solve modular anomaly equations.

  10. S-duality, triangle groups and modular anomalies in N=2 SQCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashok, S. K.; Dell’Aquila, E. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus,Taramani, Chennai, 600113 (India); Lerda, A. [Università del Piemonte Orientale, Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica,and INFN - Gruppo Collegato di Alessandria, Sezione di Torino,Viale T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria (Italy); Raman, M. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T. Campus,Taramani, Chennai, 600113 (India)

    2016-04-19

    We study N=2 superconformal theories with gauge group SU(N) and 2N fundamental flavours in a locus of the Coulomb branch with a ℤ{sub N} symmetry. In this special vacuum, we calculate the prepotential, the dual periods and the period matrix using equivariant localization. When the flavors are massless, we find that the period matrix is completely specified by [(N/2)] effective couplings. On each of these, we show that the S-duality group acts as a generalized triangle group and that its hauptmodul can be used to write a non-perturbatively exact relation between each effective coupling and the bare one. For N=2,3,4 and 6, the generalized triangle group is an arithmetic Hecke group which contains a subgroup that is also a congruence subgroup of the modular group PSL(2,ℤ). For these cases, we introduce mass deformations that respect the symmetries of the special vacuum and show that the constraints arising from S-duality make it possible to resum the instanton contributions to the period matrix in terms of meromorphic modular forms which solve modular anomaly equations.

  11. The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle--development and validation with air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallus, K Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Peter; Winkler, Hildegard; Vormayr, Elisabeth M

    2010-02-01

    The Taskload-Efficiency-Safety-Buffer Triangle (TEST) was developed as a new computerised scaling tool for quickly visualising changes in and trade-offs between the three critical factors that determine the work situation of air traffic management (ATM), i.e. taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers. Based on a task analysis of ATM and backed up by the stress-strain model, an easy-to-interpret triangle was constructed and validated both in simulated and real ATM workplaces. Results from the validation studies show that TEST does not only reflect the most relevant task characteristics, but also provides additional insights in the controllers' working styles. The TEST tool can make ATM safety surveys more efficient and help supervisors to decide about optimal times for opening or closing additional sectors. Statement of Relevance: TEST is a new tool to assess taskload, efficiency and safety-buffers in a joint scaling. It reflects increases in taskload and effects of taskload on safety-buffers and efficiency, as well as trade-offs in opposite directions. This tool might be very useful to check sector capacity in ATM and other high risk environments.

  12. Exact many-electron ground states on diamond and triangle Hubbard chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulacsi, Zsolt; Kampf, Arno; Vollhardt, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    We construct exact ground states of interacting electrons on triangle and diamond Hubbard chains. The construction requires (1) a rewriting of the Hamiltonian into positive semidefinite form, (2) the construction of a many-electron ground state of this Hamiltonian, and (3) the proof of the uniqueness of the ground state. This approach works in any dimension, requires no integrability of the model, and only demands sufficiently many microscopic parameters in the Hamiltonian which have to fulfill certain relations. The scheme is first employed to construct exact ground state for the diamond Hubbard chain in a magnetic field. These ground states are found to exhibit a wide range of properties such as flat-band ferromagnetism and correlation induced metallic, half-metallic or insulating behavior, which can be tuned by changing the magnetic flux, local potentials, or electron density. Detailed proofs of the uniqueness of the ground states are presented. By the same technique exact ground states are constructed for triangle Hubbard chains and a one-dimensional periodic Anderson model with nearest-neighbor hybridization. They permit direct comparison with results obtained by variational techniques for f-electron ferromagnetism due to a flat band in CeRh 3 B 2 . (author)

  13. The Support of MPA (Marine Protected Area) in Coral Triangle Area: Evidence from Kei Islands, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Syahibul K.; Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Rahantoknam, Meyske A.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Kei Islands located inside the coral triangle. Therefore, the biodiversity level on the sea in this area is considered high. United nation has proposed for water that included in the coral triangle has to apply marine protected area (MPA) to preserve the area. The main problem is most of the community especially in Kei Islands have depended on the sea as their sources of the economy even fisheries commodity like fish play a large part on the inflation rate and other prosperity indicators likes school and housing. Also, Kei Islands practice on form local wisdom for owning areal of the sea which calls “petuanan laut” by certain of villages or group of villages in one area. This study aimed to map the cluster of catching fisheries area based on the quantity of fish supply on a local market in Kei Islands and measure each cluster on their support and perspective on Marine Protected Area (MPA). We conducted a focus group discussion and collecting additional data by questionnaires with descriptive and quantitative analysis with logistic regression. The implication of this study can provide a clear view of coastal communities view on MPA program also to identify an area that has marine resources, human resources, and equipment to provide government an empirical view on catching fisheries in Kei Islands to issued better policy to develop fishing industry in Kei Islands.

  14. Sub-Pixel Accuracy Crack Width Determination on Concrete Beams in Load Tests by Triangle Mesh Geometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with the determination of crack widths of concrete beams during load tests from monocular image sequences. The procedure starts in a reference image of the probe with suitable surface texture under zero load, where a large number of points is defined by an interest operator. Then a triangulated irregular network is established to connect the points. Image sequences are recorded during load tests with the load increasing continuously or stepwise, or at intermittently changing load. The vertices of the triangles are tracked through the consecutive images of the sequence with sub-pixel accuracy by least squares matching. All triangles are then analyzed for changes by principal strain calculation. For each triangle showing significant strain, a crack width is computed by a thorough geometric analysis of the relative movement of the vertices.

  15. Fitting the Phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S S; Quevedo, F; Feroz, F; Hobson, M

    2010-01-01

    We perform a global Bayesian fit of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) to current indirect collider and dark matter data. The pMSSM contains the most relevant 25 weak-scale MSSM parameters, which are simultaneously fit using `nested sampling' Monte Carlo techniques in more than 15 years of CPU time. We calculate the Bayesian evidence for the pMSSM and constrain its parameters and observables in the context of two widely different, but reasonable, priors to determine which inferences are robust. We make inferences about sparticle masses, the sign of the $\\mu$ parameter, the amount of fine tuning, dark matter properties and the prospects for direct dark matter detection without assuming a restrictive high-scale supersymmetry breaking model. We find the inferred lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass as an example of an approximately prior independent observable. This analysis constitutes the first statistically convergent pMSSM global fit to all current data.

  16. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  17. The Abstraction Ability in Constructing Relation Within Triangles by The Seventh Grade Students of Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, Suwardi; Djadir; Mutmainna Hasma, Sitti

    2018-01-01

    on is an activity to organize a mathematical concept that has been previously owned into a new mathematical structure. Activites in abstraction are recognizing, organizing and constructing. Recognizing is a process of identifying a mathematical structure that had existed before. Organizing is a process of using structural knowledge to be assembled into a solution of a problem and constructing is a process of organizing the characteristics of the object into a new structure that does not exist. In abstraction process, the students use attributes to address the object, including routine attribute, nonroutine attributes, and meaningless attributes. This research applied descriptive qualitative research which aimed to describe the abstraction ability of students from high, moderate, and low groups to construct a relation within triangle. In collecting the data, this research used students’ pre-ability math test, abstraction test, and guided interview. The sampling technique in this research was based on the students’ scores in pre-ability math test, which were divided into three groups. Two students from each group were opted as the subjects of this research. Questions of the test are based on the indicators of steps in abstraction activity. Thus, based on the data gained in this research, researcher determined the tendency of attributes used in each abstraction activity. The result of this research revealed that students from high, moderate and low groups were prone to use routine attributes in recognizing triangles. In organizing the characteristics within triangles, high group tended to organize the triangle correctly, while the moderate and low groups tended to organize the triangle incorrectly. In constructing relation within triangles, students in high, moderate and low groups construct it incompletely.

  18. The Oldman River triangle zone: a complicated tectonic wedge delineated by new structural mapping and seismic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmal, G. S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology; Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; MacKay, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone exposed along and adjacent to the Alberta Foothills was characterized on the basis of new structural mapping and seismic surveys. Results indicate that the zone is comprised of a complicated structure involving significant deformation in the hanging wall of the upper detachment, including orogenic thrusts and large orogen-vergent folds, as well as secondary orogen-directed tectonic wedging. This structure is considered to be an example of a `nested` triangle zone, where an `outer` tectonic wedge with modest shortening encases an `inner` counterpart with substantially more shortening. Both of these wedges show evidence of synchronous deformation. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Improving NEC Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    TAD Temporary Additional Duty TFMMS Total Force Manpower Management System UIC Unit Identification Code USFFC United States Fleet Forces Command...not include sailors on temporary additional duty ( TAD ). In addition, for class average Fit, we excluded units that had billets but no onboard

  20. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  1. Fitting PAC spectra with stochastic models: PolyPacFit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics and Geology (United States); Evenson, W. E. [Utah Valley University, College of Science and Health (United States); Newhouse, R.; Collins, G. S. [Washington State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2010-04-15

    PolyPacFit is an advanced fitting program for time-differential perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. It incorporates stochastic models and provides robust options for customization of fits. Notable features of the program include platform independence and support for (1) fits to stochastic models of hyperfine interactions, (2) user-defined constraints among model parameters, (3) fits to multiple spectra simultaneously, and (4) any spin nuclear probe.

  2. Extensive fitness and human cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hateren, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution depends on the fitness of organisms, the expected rate of reproducing. Directly getting offspring is the most basic form of fitness, but fitness can also be increased indirectly by helping genetically related individuals (such as kin) to increase their fitness. The combined effect is known

  3. Fuzzy Risk Analysis for a Production System Based on the Nagel Point of a Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Akyar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordering and ranking fuzzy numbers and their comparisons play a significant role in decision-making problems such as social and economic systems, forecasting, optimization, and risk analysis problems. In this paper, a new method for ordering triangular fuzzy numbers using the Nagel point of a triangle is presented. With the aid of the proposed method, reasonable properties of ordering fuzzy numbers are verified. Certain comparative examples are given to illustrate the advantages of the new method. Many papers have been devoted to studies on fuzzy ranking methods, but some of these studies have certain shortcomings. The proposed method overcomes the drawbacks of the existing methods in the literature. The suggested method can order triangular fuzzy numbers as well as crisp numbers and fuzzy numbers with the same centroid point. An application to the fuzzy risk analysis problem is given, based on the suggested ordering approach.

  4. Linear Characteristic Spatial Quadrature for Discrete Ordinates Neutral Particle Transport on Arbitrary Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    1•) + ) •,(v)(•,L) = ()(Q)+ sEXT (F). (4) The scalar flux, 0, is related to the angular flux, W, by (F)= f (dQ Vh) (5) and the particle current, J...J," v,p’) u +at(U, v) w(u, U, p’)= as(u, v) O(u, v) + SEXT (uv)] (92) 0 Ul,(V) I Assuming the area of the triangle is sufficiently small that cross...M + SEXT () (98) Wvn and WoUT are angular flux averages along the input and output edges, respectively, and are defined by WD Iv = f- ds. V(s.v) (99

  5. A Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for a Ball and Rigid Triangle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguilar-Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of linear flatness control along with active disturbance rejection control (ADRC for the local stabilization and trajectory tracking problems in the underactuated ball and rigid triangle system. To this end, an observer-based linear controller of the ADRC type is designed based on the flat tangent linearization of the system around its corresponding unstable equilibrium rest position. It was accomplished through two decoupled linear extended observers and a single linear output feedback controller, with disturbance cancelation features. The controller guarantees locally exponentially asymptotic stability for the stabilization problem and practical local stability in the solution of the tracking error. An advantage of combining the flatness and the ADRC methods is that it possible to perform online estimates and cancels the undesirable effects of the higher-order nonlinearities discarded by the linearization approximation. Simulation indicates that the proposed controller behaves remarkably well, having an acceptable domain of attraction.

  6. Three-dimensional object recognition using similar triangles and decision trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly

    1993-01-01

    A system, TRIDEC, that is capable of distinguishing between a set of objects despite changes in the objects' positions in the input field, their size, or their rotational orientation in 3D space is described. TRIDEC combines very simple yet effective features with the classification capabilities of inductive decision tree methods. The feature vector is a list of all similar triangles defined by connecting all combinations of three pixels in a coarse coded 127 x 127 pixel input field. The classification is accomplished by building a decision tree using the information provided from a limited number of translated, scaled, and rotated samples. Simulation results are presented which show that TRIDEC achieves 94 percent recognition accuracy in the 2D invariant object recognition domain and 98 percent recognition accuracy in the 3D invariant object recognition domain after training on only a small sample of transformed views of the objects.

  7. The star-triangle relation, lens partition function, and hypergeometric sum/integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute),Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Radiation Problems ANAS,B. Vahabzade 9, AZ1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Department of Mathematics, Khazar University,Mehseti St. 41, AZ1096 Baku (Azerbaijan); Kels, Andrew P. [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo,Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan)

    2017-02-08

    The aim of the present paper is to consider the hyperbolic limit of an elliptic hypergeometric sum/integral identity, and associated lattice model of statistical mechanics previously obtained by the second author. The hyperbolic sum/integral identity obtained from this limit, has two important physical applications in the context of the so-called gauge/YBE correspondence. For statistical mechanics, this identity is equivalent to a new solution of the star-triangle relation form of the Yang-Baxter equation, that directly generalises the Faddeev-Volkov models to the case of discrete and continuous spin variables. On the gauge theory side, this identity represents the duality of lens (S{sub b}{sup 3}/ℤ{sub r}) partition functions, for certain three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories.

  8. A finite element formulation of the Darwin electromagnetic PIC model for unstructured meshes of triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnendrucker, E.; Ambrosiano, J.; Brandon, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Darwin model for electromagnetic simulation is a reduced form of the Maxwell-Vlasov system that retains all essential physical processes except the propagation of light waves. It is useful in modeling systems for which the light-transit timescales are less important than Alfven wave propagation, or quasistatic effects. The Darwin model is elliptic rather than hyperbolic as are the full set of Maxwell's equations. Appropriate boundary conditions must be chosen for the problems to be well-posed. Using finite element techniques to apply this method for unstructured triangular meshes, a mesh made up of unstructured triangles allows realistic device geometries to be modeled without the necessity of using a large number of mesh points. Analyzing the dispersion relation allows us to validate the code as well as the Darwin approximation

  9. Determination of the elementary charge and the quantum metrological triangle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltin, N.; Piquemal, F. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), 78 - Trappes (France)

    2009-06-15

    The elementary charge e is of fundamental importance in physics. The determination of its value, which is closely linked to progress of the measurement techniques, started in the beginning of the twentieth century and is still on-going. Today, in the frame of the CODATA adjustment, the evaluation of the fundamental constant, e, is derived from a complex calculation and is no more related to a single experiment. But the development of single electron tunneling (SET) devices, started in the early nineties, has opened the path towards modern metrological systems as quantum current sources. Thus a new direct determination of e is possible by implementing an electron pump and the set-up of the quantum metrological triangle (QMT) in combination with the experiments linking mechanical and electrical units. Furthermore, we show how the QMT experiment can contribute to the establishment of a new system of units based on fundamental constants of physics. (authors)

  10. The star-triangle relation, lens partition function, and hypergeometric sum/integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahramanov, Ilmar; Kels, Andrew P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to consider the hyperbolic limit of an elliptic hypergeometric sum/integral identity, and associated lattice model of statistical mechanics previously obtained by the second author. The hyperbolic sum/integral identity obtained from this limit, has two important physical applications in the context of the so-called gauge/YBE correspondence. For statistical mechanics, this identity is equivalent to a new solution of the star-triangle relation form of the Yang-Baxter equation, that directly generalises the Faddeev-Volkov models to the case of discrete and continuous spin variables. On the gauge theory side, this identity represents the duality of lens (S b 3 /ℤ r ) partition functions, for certain three-dimensional N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories.

  11. Strain-induced tunable negative differential resistance in triangle graphene spirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Liu, Wenguan; He, Xiujie; Zhao, Mingwen

    2018-05-01

    Using non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with density functional theory calculations, we investigate the significant changes in electronic and transport properties of triangle graphene spirals (TGSs) in response to external strain. Tunable negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior is predicted. The NDR bias region, NDR width, and peak-to-valley ratio can be well tuned by external strain. Further analysis shows that these peculiar properties can be attributed to the dispersion widths of the p z orbitals. Moreover, the conductance of TGSs is very sensitive to the applied stress, which is promising for applications in nanosensor devices. Our findings reveal a novel approach to produce tunable electronic devices based on graphene spirals.

  12. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  13. Convolution based profile fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.; Coelho, A.A.; Cheary, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In convolution based profile fitting, profiles are generated by convoluting functions together to form the observed profile shape. For a convolution of 'n' functions this process can be written as, Y(2θ)=F 1 (2θ)x F 2 (2θ)x... x F i (2θ)x....xF n (2θ). In powder diffractometry the functions F i (2θ) can be interpreted as the aberration functions of the diffractometer, but in general any combination of appropriate functions for F i (2θ) may be used in this context. Most direct convolution fitting methods are restricted to combinations of F i (2θ) that can be convoluted analytically (e.g. GSAS) such as Lorentzians, Gaussians, the hat (impulse) function and the exponential function. However, software such as TOPAS is now available that can accurately convolute and refine a wide variety of profile shapes numerically, including user defined profiles, without the need to convolute analytically. Some of the most important advantages of modern convolution based profile fitting are: 1) virtually any peak shape and angle dependence can normally be described using minimal profile parameters in laboratory and synchrotron X-ray data as well as in CW and TOF neutron data. This is possible because numerical convolution and numerical differentiation is used within the refinement procedure so that a wide range of functions can easily be incorporated into the convolution equation; 2) it can use physically based diffractometer models by convoluting the instrument aberration functions. This can be done for most laboratory based X-ray powder diffractometer configurations including conventional divergent beam instruments, parallel beam instruments, and diffractometers used for asymmetric diffraction. It can also accommodate various optical elements (e.g. multilayers and monochromators) and detector systems (e.g. point and position sensitive detectors) and has already been applied to neutron powder diffraction systems (e.g. ANSTO) as well as synchrotron based

  14. MixFit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, Toomas; Leitsalu, Liis; Fischer, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Ancestry information at the individual level can be a valuable resource for personalized medicine, medical, demographical and history research, as well as for tracing back personal history. We report a new method for quantitatively determining personal genetic ancestry based on genome-wide data....... Numerical ancestry component scores are assigned to individuals based on comparisons with reference populations. These comparisons are conducted with an existing analytical pipeline making use of genotype phasing, similarity matrix computation and our addition-multidimensional best fitting by Mix......Fit. The method is demonstrated by studying Estonian and Finnish populations in geographical context. We show the main differences in the genetic composition of these otherwise close European populations and how they have influenced each other. The components of our analytical pipeline are freely available...

  15. Was Pythagoras Chinese? An Examination of Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China. The Pennsylvania State University Studies No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.; Kao, T. I.

    This book is primarily a scholarly monograph on ancient Chinese theory and application concerning the right triangle, based on evidence contained in classical mathematics texts and scrolls. It is also the first complete English translation of the ninth chapter of the Chiu chang suan chu, the richest source of problems from antiquity dealing with…

  16. Tributes beyond Words: Art Educators' Use of Textiles to Memorialize the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Mia Lynn; Randall, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Through the study of The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, pre-service art teachers learn the about interdisciplinary design and the importance of using discipline-specific literacy strategies alongside the materials and methods of their craft. The creativity and enthusiasm with which these preservice teachers approached the work convinced us that…

  17. Hyperbolic Cosines and Sines Theorems for the Triangle Formed by Arcs of Intersecting Semicircles on Euclidean Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Yamaleev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperbolic cosines and sines theorems for the curvilinear triangle bounded by circular arcs of three intersecting circles are formulated and proved by using the general complex calculus. The method is based on a key formula establishing a relationship between exponential function and the cross-ratio. The proofs are carried out on Euclidean plane.

  18. Hybrid GPU-CPU adaptive precision ray-triangle intersection tests for robust high-performance GPU dosimetry computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, Lancelot; Bodin, Bruno; Chodorge, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Before an intervention on a nuclear site, it is essential to study different scenarios to identify the less dangerous one for the operator. Therefore, it is mandatory to dispose of an efficient dosimetry simulation code with accurate results. One classical method in radiation protection is the straight-line attenuation method with build-up factors. In the case of 3D industrial scenes composed of meshes, the computation cost resides in the fast computation of all of the intersections between the rays and the triangles of the scene. Efficient GPU algorithms have already been proposed, that enable dosimetry calculation for a huge scene (800000 rays, 800000 triangles) in a fraction of second. But these algorithms are not robust: because of the rounding caused by floating-point arithmetic, the numerical results of the ray-triangle intersection tests can differ from the expected mathematical results. In worst case scenario, this can lead to a computed dose rate dramatically inferior to the real dose rate to which the operator is exposed. In this paper, we present a hybrid GPU-CPU algorithm to manage adaptive precision floating-point arithmetic. This algorithm allows robust ray-triangle intersection tests, with very small loss of performance (less than 5 % overhead), and without any need for scene-dependent tuning. (author)

  19. A unified triangle carrier based PWM strategy for three-phase N-level diode clamped inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kai; Xie, Chuan; Wei, Min

    2017-01-01

    The triangle carrier based pulse width modulation (TCB-PWM) can be functionally equivalent to space vector base PWM (SVB-PWM). For multi-level inverter, it is very difficult to realize the SVB-PWM because its vector space is very complex. In this paper, a unified TCB-PWM strategy for three-phase ...

  20. Recombination of the steering vector of the triangle grid array in quaternions and the reduction of the MUSIC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chen; Han, Dongjuan

    2018-04-01

    MUSIC is widely used on DOA estimation. Triangle grid is a common kind of the arrangement of array, but it is more complicated than rectangular array in calculation of steering vector. In this paper, the quaternions algorithm can reduce dimension of vector and make the calculation easier.

  1. Tourism Based on the Model of Strategic Place Triangle (A Case Study in Wisata Bahari Lamongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismuhadi Heru Wijayanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a very promising prospects to support the economic development of a region. We assess Wisata Bahari Lamongan (WBL as a tourism object. WBL was having significant decreased visitors in the last six years, thus a strategic plan is need to re-increase the number of visitors. Thisstudy used Strategic Triangle Place (SPT model as an analysis tool to assess the strategic planning in WBL. SPT is an approach that includes three key components, namely: Positioning, Differentiation and Brand (PDB. This research used Soft System Methodology (SSM which relevant to analyzethe strategic plan model which is expected to be recommendations from tourists on problems in WBL.The result of this showed that the strategic planning of WBL did not completely accordance with the SPT model. Positioning and differentiation elements were still weak, and the brand was not well developed. Therefore, we recommend WBL to set targeted segmentation of all social backgrounds and ages, especially children. WBL shouldmade ​​the sea as main differentiated factor, thus it has marine tourism potential. WBL should build an image by providing best service quality, security, comfortness, cleanliness, and best quality rides. Keywords: Strategic Planning, Strategic Place Triangle, Positioning, Differentiation, Brand

  2. Biomass assessment and small scale biomass fired electricity generation in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Coal fired electricity is a major factor in Australia's greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) emissions. The country has adopted a mandatory renewable energy target (MRET) to ensure that 20% of electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. In order to support the MRET, a market scheme of tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) has been implemented since 2001. Generators using biomass from eligible sources are able to contribute to GHG emission reduction through the substitution of coal for electricity production and are eligible to create and trade RECs. This paper quantifies the potential biomass resources available for energy generation from forestry and agriculture in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian Regions for biomass production. We analyse the cost of electricity generation using direct firing of biomass, and estimate the required REC prices to make it competitive with coal fired electricity generation. Major findings suggest that more than 2.6 million tonnes of biomass are produced every year within 200 km of the regional hub of Mount Gambier and biomass fired electricity is viable using feedstock with a plant gate cost of 46 Australian Dollars (AUD) per tonne under the current REC price of 34 AUD per MWh. These findings are then discussed in the context of regional energy security and existing targets and incentives for renewable energies. -- Highlights: → We assessed the biomass production in the Green Triangle. → 2.6 million tonnes of biomass per year are produced within 200 km from Mt Gambier. → Renewable Energy Certificates makes bioenergy competitive with coal electricity. → At a REC price of 34 AUD, biomass of up to 46 AUD/tonne might be used for bionergy

  3. Barriers to e-marketing adoption among small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the Vaal Triangle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dlodlo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study is to complement existing literature by examining the relevant barriers contributing to the non-adoption of electronic marketing practices by SMEs in the Vaal Triangle. Methodology: Primary data was collected using a quantitative research technique with the use of a structured questionnaire as the survey instrument. A total of 168 businesses were selected randomly and visited within the various municipal areas in the Vaal Triangle. These businesses were visited between August and November 2008. Thirty-two small, medium and medium enterprises SMEs refused to participate resulting in 123 usable questionnaires for the purposes of the analysis. Factor analysis was used to examine the robustness of the factor structure using principal component analysis. Findings: A five-dimensional structure was established comprising a 16 item-scale. The major impediments towards the non-adoption of e-marketing include technology incompatibility with target markets, lack of knowledge, stakeholder unreadiness, technology disorientation and technology perception. The reliability analysis, reflected coefficient values ranging from 0.70 to 0.88 indicating satisfactory internal consistency amongst variables within each dimension. Implications: By analysing the barriers that inhibit the adoption of e-marketing strategies among SMEs, marketers are presented with recommended strategies and implications on how to approach the challenges presented by Internet technological advancements. Internet capacities of SMEs may be strengthened through nurturing e-marketing awareness and providing adequate information tools through diverse Internet Marketing training programmes. Originality/Value: SMEs can prove to be a major source of economic growth for many African countries if sufficient guidance and support on how best to overcome the challenges of adopting advanced marketing practices is available.

  4. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  5. Triangulating the Sociohydrology of Water Supply, Quality and Forests in the Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    The North Carolina Research Triangle is among the most rapidly growing metropolitan areas in the United States, with decentralized governance split among several different municipalities, counties and water utilities. Historically smaller populations, plentiful rainfall, and riparian rights based water law provided both a sense of security for water resources and influenced the development of separate infrastructure systems across the region. The growth of water demand with rising populations with typical suburban sprawl, the development of multi-use reservoirs immediately downstream of urban areas, and increased hydroclimate variability have raised the potential for periodic water scarcity coupled with increasing eutrophication of water supplies. We discuss the interactions and tradeoffs between management of emerging water scarcity, quality and forest biodiversity in the Triangle as a model for the US Southeast. Institutional stakeholders include water supply and stormwater utilities, environmental NGOs, federal, state, county and municipal governments, developers and home owner associations. We emphasize principles of ecohydrologic resilience learned in heavily instrumented research watersheds, adapted to rapidly developing urban systems, and including socioeconomic and policy dynamics. Significant 20th century reforestation of central North Carolina landscapes have altered regional water balances, while providing both flood and water quality mitigation. The regrowth forest is dynamic and heterogeneous in water use based on age class and species distribution, with substantial plantation and natural regeneration. Forecasts of land use and forest structural and compositional change are based on scenario socioeconomic development, climate change and forecast wood product markets. Urban forest and green infrastructure has the potential to mediate the trade-offs and synergies of these goals, but is in a very nascent state. Computational tools to assess policy

  6. Biofuel excision and the viability of ethanol production in the Green Triangle, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Luis C.; May, Barrie; Herr, Alexander; Farine, Damien; O'Connell, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    The promotion and use of renewable energy sources are established priorities worldwide as a way to reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gases and promote energy security. Australia is committed to reach a target of 350 ML of biofuels per year by 2010, and incentives targeted to producers and consumers have been placed. These incentives include zero excise until 2011 for the ethanol produced in Australia and gradual increase of the taxation rates reaching the full excise of 0.125 AUD per litre by 2015. This paper analyses the viability of the second generation ethanol industry in the Green Triangle, one of the most promising Australian regions for biomass production, by comparing the energy adjusted pump prices of petrol and the produced ethanol under different taxation rates and forecasted oil prices. Major findings suggest that under the current conditions of zero fuel excise and oil prices around 80US$ per barrel ethanol production is viable using biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD per ton. Moreover, the forecasted increase in oil prices have a higher impact on the price of petrol than the increased ethanol excise on the pump price of the biofuel. Thus, by 2016 feedstock with a plant gate cost of up to 190 AUD per ton might be used for ethanol production, representing a flow of 1.7 million tons of biomass per year potentially mitigating 1.2 million tons of CO 2 by replacing fossil fuels with ethanol. - Research highlights: →We assessed the potential for ethanol production in the Green Triangle. → Despite of increased ethanol taxation, higher oil prices promote ethanol production. → Currently, ethanol from biomass with a plant gate cost of up to 74 AUD/ton is viable. →Forecasted oil prices suggest biomass of 190 AUD/ton might be used by 2016.

  7. Emerging marine protected area networks in the coral triangle: Lessons and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas (MPAs and MPA networks are valuable tools for protecting coral reef habitats and managing near-shore fisheries, while playing an essential role in the overall conservation of marine biodiversity. In addition, MPAs and their networks are often the core strategy for larger scale and more integrated forms of marine resource management that can lead to ecosystem-based management regimes for seascapes and eco-regions. This study conducted in 2008 documents the status of selected MPAs and MPA networks in Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea, to better understand development and their level of success in the Coral Triangle. Findings reveal that substantial gaps exist between the theory and practice of creating functional MPA networks. Across these sites, biophysical and social science knowledge, required to build functional and effective MPAs or MPA networks, lagged behind substantially. Aspects that appeared to require the most attention to improve MPA network effectiveness included essential management systems, institutional arrangements, governance and sustainable financing. Common indicators of success such as increased fish catch and habitat quality parameters were consistently associated with several independent variables: sustainable financing for management, clarity of MPA network rules, enforcement by community level enforcers, local skills development, and involvement in management by local elected politicians, a functional management board, multi-stakeholder planning mechanisms and participatory biophysical assessments. Conclusions are that although considerable investments have been made in MPAs and potential MPA networks in the Coral Triangle, management effectiveness is generally poor throughout the region and that not many large, formally declared MPAs are well managed.

  8. Interfascial technique for vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle: the road map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A Samy; Uribe, Juan S; Ramos, Edwin; Janjua, Rashid; Thomas, L Brannon; van Loveren, Harry

    2010-12-01

    The extradural portion of the vertebral artery (VA-V3) has a unique anatomy at the craniovertebral junction. The exposure of V3 can be accompanied by profuse bleeding from the venous plexus in addition to the potential risk of inadvertent injury of the VA during surgery at the craniovertebral junction. The natural tissue planes represent a road map to the safe exposure of the VA in the suboccipital triangle. To describe the microsurgical anatomy of the tissue planes in the suboccipital region. The suboccipital region was bilaterally dissected in 6 fresh silicone-injected cadaver heads. An interfascial technique was used to expose the VA-V3 following a tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscular fascia dorsally and posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the C1 periosteal membrane, and the membrane covering the VA and venous plexus ventrally. The craniovertebral junction was harvested from 2 heads and prepared for histological sections. The same technique was applied in 25 operative cases. The anatomic dissections confirmed the existence of an interfascial plane that can be dissected in a blunt fashion to reach as far lateral as the transverse processes of C1 and C2. Application of the dissection technique did not require diathermy coagulation in the operating room. In 25 cases, there was no injury of the VA or bleeding from the venous plexus. Vertebral artery exposure in the suboccipital triangle (V3) can be achieved safely with minimal blood loss using a technique that follows the natural tissue plane between the deep suboccipital muscle fascia, the posterior atlantooccipital membrane, the membrane covering VA/venous plexus, and the periosteum of the C1 and C2 laminae.

  9. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  10. Feasibility study for a model independent measurement of 2β + γ in B0 decays using D-K0π+ final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polci, F.; Schune, M.H.; Stocchi, A.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we present a feasibility study for measuring the combination of the Unitarity Triangle angle 2β + γ with a time dependent Dalitz analysis in B 0 decays using D - K 0 π + final states following the method proposed in. For this study we build a model for this decay using the latest experimental information and we investigate the possibility of fitting together with 2β + γ all the relevant strong amplitudes and phases of the decay model. (authors)

  11. Non-perturbative unitarity constraints on the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density in UV complete theories with a gravity dual

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider, from a novel perspective, how unitarity constrains the corrections to the ratio of shear viscosity \\eta\\ to entropy density s. We start with higher-derivative extensions of Einstein gravity in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. It is assumed that these theories are derived from string theory and thus have a unitary UV completion that is dual to a unitary, UV-complete boundary gauge theory. We then propose that the gravitational perturbations about a solution of the UV complete theory are described by an effective theory whose linearized equations of motion have at most two time derivatives. Our proposal leads to a concrete prescription for the calculation of \\eta/s for theories of gravity with arbitrary higher-derivative corrections. The resulting ratio can take on values above or below 1/4\\pi\\ and is consistent with all the previous calculations, even though our reasoning is substantially different. For the purpose of calculating \\eta/s, our proposal also leads to only two possible cand...

  12. Q Value of the Superallowed Decay of 46V and Its Influence on Vud and the Unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, G.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Gulick, S.; Lee, J.K.P.; Clark, J.A.; Sharma, H.; Sharma, K.S.; Hardy, J.C.; Hecht, A.A.; Levand, A.F.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tanihata, I.; Villari, A.C.C.; Wang, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The masses of the radioactive nuclei 46 V and its decay daughter 46 Ti have been measured with the Canadian Penning Trap on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer to a precision of 1x10 -8 . A Q EC value of 7052.90(40) keV for the superallowed beta decay of 46 V is obtained from the difference of these two masses. With this precise Q value, the Ft value for this decay is determined with improved precision. An investigation of an earlier Q-value measurement for 46 V uncovers a set of 7 measurements that cannot be reconciled with modern data and affects previous evaluations of V ud from superallowed Fermi decays. A new evaluation, adding our new data and removing the discredited subset, yields new values for G V and V ud . When combined with recent results for V us , this yields modified constraints for the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and other extensions of the standard model

  13. Analyticity and unitarity as constraints to obtain scattering phase shifts and applications to e-He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Lun, D.R.; Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements that the scattering functions for quantal scattering at energies below the first inelastic threshold be unitary and analytic have been used to establish a process that gives the complex scattering amplitudes from differential cross sections. From those amplitudes scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering phase shifts have been deduced by Legendre integration. The effects of the natural ambiguity of the phase of the scattering amplitude, under conditions for which uniqueness and (numerical) stability of solutions are not assured, also have been developed to specify the scattering phase shifts can give stable nonspurious results. The scattering of electrons from He atoms for incident energies ranging from 1.5 to 19 eV are considered as an example of the procedure. Phase shift analyses of that data have been made with a variety of other techniques to allow a comparative study of these results and of sets with which are associated fits to cross sections that are statistically significant. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  14. Dance your way to fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  15. Competency profile of Fitness Instructor

    OpenAIRE

    Peterová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Title: COMPETENCY PROFILE OF FITNESS INSTRUCTOR Objectives: The aim of this work is to find out competencies of fitness instructor and make a competency profile, containing competencies, which are important for excellent fitness instructor. Methods: I applied the method of interview and the method of research in my thesis. The interview was used to make a list of competencies of fitness instructor. The research was applied in the final part of making competency profile, for an attestation of ...

  16. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  17. Fitness for duty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.; Matney, C.

    1991-01-01

    A Fitness For Duty training program was developed to satisfy the requirements of the NRC, 10 CFR 26, 10 CFR 707 and to meet requirements at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company. Interactive videodisc technology was selected as the training medium using the TenCore authoring language. Computer-based training was chosen because of the large number of trainees, the advantages of the reduced overall cost, and the increased trainee retention of course material compared to traditional instruction. The resulting training program utilizes extensive role playing exercises in which employees and supervisors are exposed to real life situations. Extensive interactions by the trainees are required in that they must answer questions concerning the behav ior of individuals, random and for-cause drug testing, and the employee assistance program. Feedback is given in each case. Emphasis is placed on recognition of deteriorating job performance

  18. Multivariate rational data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    1992-12-01

    Sections 1 and 2 discuss the advantages of an object-oriented implementation combined with higher floating-point arithmetic, of the algorithms available for multivariate data fitting using rational functions. Section 1 will in particular explain what we mean by "higher arithmetic". Section 2 will concentrate on the concepts of "object orientation". In sections 3 and 4 we shall describe the generality of the data structure that can be dealt with: due to some new results virtually every data set is acceptable right now, with possible coalescence of coordinates or points. In order to solve the multivariate rational interpolation problem the data sets are fed to different algorithms depending on the structure of the interpolation points in then-variate space.

  19. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  20. Integrating ethical values into fraud triangle theory in assessing employee fraud: Evidence from the Malaysian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaliah Said

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to integrate ethical values into the fraud triangle theory in the context of Malaysian banking industry. Primary data were collected through the survey of 108 questionnaires administered to the employees of the top three largest banks in Malaysia. The findings revealed that ethical values were negatively related to employee fraud, and two elements of fraud triangle theory, namely, opportunity and rationalization, were positively related to employee fraud. This implies that high ethical value is crucial to mitigate employee fraud. To minimize employee fraud, the banking industry should reduce opportunities and employee negative rationalization through strong internal control. This study contributes to literature on the occurrences of employee fraud, which is not widely discussed, especially in the context of the banking industry in developing countries.

  1. HTCRL: A Range-Free Location Algorithm Based on Homothetic Triangle Cyclic Refinement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN have become a significant technology in recent years. They can be widely used in many applications. WSNs consist of a large number of sensor nodes and each of them is energy-constrained and low-power dissipation. Most of the sensor nodes are tiny sensors with small memories and do not acquire their own locations. This means determining the locations of the unknown sensor nodes is one of the key issues in WSN. In this paper, an improved APIT algorithm HTCRL (Homothetic Triangle Cyclic Refinement Location is proposed, which is based on the principle of the homothetic triangle. It adopts perpendicular median surface cutting to narrow down target area in order to decrease the average localization error rate. It reduces the probability of misjudgment by adding the conditions of judgment. It can get a relatively high accuracy compared with the typical APIT algorithm without any additional hardware equipment or increasing the communication overhead.

  2. Infinite projected entangled-pair state algorithm for ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Saeed S.; Orús, Román; Kargarian, Mehdi; Langari, Abdollah

    2018-03-01

    The infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm is one of the most efficient techniques for studying the ground-state properties of two-dimensional quantum lattice Hamiltonians in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we show how the algorithm can be adapted to explore nearest-neighbor local Hamiltonians on the ruby and triangle-honeycomb lattices, using the corner transfer matrix (CTM) renormalization group for 2D tensor network contraction. Additionally, we show how the CTM method can be used to calculate the ground-state fidelity per lattice site and the boundary density operator and entanglement entropy (EE) on an infinite cylinder. As a benchmark, we apply the iPEPS method to the ruby model with anisotropic interactions and explore the ground-state properties of the system. We further extract the phase diagram of the model in different regimes of the couplings by measuring two-point correlators, ground-state fidelity, and EE on an infinite cylinder. Our phase diagram is in agreement with previous studies of the model by exact diagonalization.

  3. Multi-scale ocean and climate drivers of widespread bleaching in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, E.; Curchitser, E. N.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Maritime Continent is home to the Coral Triangle (CT): the global pinnacle of tropical coral biodiversity. Historically, extensive bleaching-induced mortality (caused by thermal stress) among corals in the CT has been associated with extremes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), particularly years when a strong El Niños transitions to a La Niña state (i.e., 1998 and 2010). Similarities in the spatial distribution of satellite-derived indices, and the multi-scale environmental drivers of elevated sea surface temperatures (SSTs) during the 1998 and 2010 bleaching events suggests a potential predictability that has important implications for reef conservation. Using numerical models and ocean and atmosphere reanalysis products, we discuss the roles of ENSO-associated anomalies in both large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (e.g., South Asian Monsoon) and regional ocean-cooling mechanisms such as coastal upwelling, tropical storm activity, and divergent (i.e., upwelling) circulation patterns (e.g., the Mindanao Eddy) in determining SSTs and, consequently projected patterns of reef ecosystem vulnerability to thermal stress. Conditions associated with the recent and ongoing 2015/2016 coral bleaching and mortality will be compared/contrasted.

  4. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures.

  5. Linear triangle finite element formulation for multigroup neutron transport analysis with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.

    1976-05-01

    The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures

  6. The star-triangle relation and the inversion relation in statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    The plan of this paper is the following: we give a definition of the star-triangle relation (S.T.R.); we also define another very simple relation which occurs simultaneously with the S.T.R. for the two-dimensional (2-d) exact models: the inversion relation (I.R.); we study the connection between the S.T.R. and the I.R.: we see that the S.T.R. is deeply connected to the I.R., but, on the contrary, we see that the I.R. can exist even when no S.T.R. exists, as we show for the 2-d anisotropic Potts model by exhibiting an inverse functional equation satisfied by the partition function; having recognized the I.R. as an interesting concept, we use it by looking at the analytical consequences of this I.R. and, at last, we come back to the S.T.R., examining some consequences of the I.R. on the S.T.R

  7. Ecological Risk Assessment of the Southern Fujian Golden Triangle in China Based on Regional Transportation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional transportation development (RTD is an important stressor of urban agglomeration ecosystems. Groundwater recharge potential may be adversely affected when natural soil is replaced by impervious materials. To systematically identify the urban agglomeration ecological risk (UAER of RTD in the southern Fujian Golden Triangle, water regulation was used as an assessment endpoint, and RTD was considered the stressor. We used the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (SCS-CN to analyze the internal relationship between the assessment endpoint and the stressor factors. Then, a multi-level risk characterization method was used to show the evolutionary process of risk, and to provide a scientific basis for the management of UAER. Based on the current RTD plan, the UAER assessment shows that there is a 0.90 probability of that the risk distribution results will occur by 2030. The intensity of stress from arterial roads on the urban agglomeration ecosystem is greater than that of the railway system. By considering the development of the railway system as a factor in the stress of RTD, this study of UAER assessment differs from past studies of urban ecological risk assessment, since the latter considers only highways. We also propose a systematic method of risk assessment simulation-prediction.

  8. The Supply Chain Triangle: How Synchronisation, Stability, and Productivity of Material Flows Interact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Klug

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence created a commonly accepted understanding that synchronisation and stability of material flows impact its productivity. This crucial link between synchronous and stable material flows by time and quantity to create a supply chain with the highest throughput rates is at the heart of lean thinking. Although this supply chain triangle has generally been acknowledged over many years, it is necessary to reach a finer understanding of these dynamics. Therefore, we will develop and study supply chains with the help of fluid dynamics. A multistage, continuous material flow is modelled through a conservation law for material density. Unlike similar approaches, our model is not based on some quasi steady-state assumptions about the stochastic behaviour of the involved supply chain but rather on a simple deterministic rule for material flow density. These models allow us to take into account the nonlinear, dynamical interactions of different supply chain echelons and to test synchronised and stable flow with respect to its potential impacts. Numerical simulations verify that the model is able to simulate transient supply chain phenomena. Moreover, a quantification method relating to the fundamental link between synchronisation, stability, and productivity of supply chains has been found.

  9. Analysis of students’ incorrect answers at triangle materials in the fifth-grade of primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintawati, E.; Jupri, Al

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to analyse the comparison of the predictions made by the author between learning methods with the reality that occur in the class and to analyse students' responses toward questions given by teachers at triangle materials. The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. The subjects of this research are all fifth-grade students from a primary school in the city of Bandung. The results of this research indicated that there are some influences between learning methods and students' responses shown by the way students answer the question. In reality, there are many students’ responses produced beyond the predictions of the author. It shows that as the good teachers, besides setting up learning methods, they should also make predictions toward the responses of the students in answering the questions given. The results of the predictions could be used as a lesson for teachers to run the learning processes as good as possible so the students' responses could being accordance with the concept of materials presented and could also achieve the expected learning goals. Based on this research’s results, as a teacher must have techniques and strategies to overcome things that are not expected during the learning so that learning can be conducive so that students can focus on learning and enjoy learning so that learning outcomes is the ability of students to increase in understanding the material and can construct the concept of material provided.

  10. The Triangle of Sensory Marketing Model: Does it Stimulate Brand Experience and Loyalty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fahrur Riza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the framework of brand experience associating with customer loyalty. Sensory marketing effectiveness is recognized in business contexts but only little research has been conducted on sensory marketing. This study contribute to filling this gap by proposing a model that explains how sensory stimulation influences loyalty. Brand experience is expected to mediate this relationship. This study applies exploratory and explanatory approaches to investigate the sensory marketing concept and examine the framework brand experience in association with customer loyalty. Data is collected using online survey. Respondents are individual who had experience in consuming product at restaurant or cafe that has been using the five senses stimulus. Conceptually, this study found interesting relationship between sensory marketing, brand experience, and customer loyalty then called as triangle sensory marketing. The findings offer an additional insight to managers on sensory marketing strategy to stimulate brand experience that can establish customer loyalty.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.6058 

  11. Quantifying Diastolic Function: From E-Waves as Triangles to Physiologic Contours via the 'Geometric Method'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Mikhail; Padovano, William; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovács, Sándor J

    2018-03-01

    Conventional echocardiographic diastolic function (DF) assessment approximates transmitral flow velocity contours (Doppler E-waves) as triangles, with peak (E peak ), acceleration time (AT), and deceleration time (DT) as indexes. These metrics have limited value because they are unable to characterize the underlying physiology. The parametrized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism provides a physiologic, kinematic mechanism based characterization of DF by extracting chamber stiffness (k), relaxation (c), and load (x o ) from E-wave contours. We derive the mathematical relationship between the PDF parameters and E peak , AT, DT and thereby introduce the geometric method (GM) that computes the PDF parameters using E peak , AT, and DT as input. Numerical experiments validated GM by analysis of 208 E-waves from 31 datasets spanning the full range of clinical diastolic function. GM yielded indistinguishable average parameter values per subject vs. the gold-standard PDF method (k: R 2  = 0.94, c: R 2  = 0.95, x o : R 2  = 0.95, p PDF method to quantify DF in terms of physiologic chamber properties.

  12. THE "E TRIANGLE": EMPLOYMENT, EMPLOYEE AND EMPLOYER IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest forces of the European Union is its people, people living and working within this Union. This stands not only for the European Union but for every state, as it is well known that people are the ones that can make a state great or poor. For this reason, the matters regarding labor are a continuous concern both for European Union common institutions as well as for every individual state of the European Union. The main interest, on both sides, is to ensure the best for every part involved in labor process because this means, in the end, added value for everyone. The article focuses on the realities as well as on the expectations regarding the labor field highlighting the most preeminent aspects of the so called "E triangle": employment, employee and employer starting with the most needed definition for each and every one of the above going towards even to proposing remedies for the "spots" needing improvement.

  13. Characterization of the Shielded Neutron Source at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Chad; Finch, Sean; Howell, Calvin; Malone, Ron; Tornow, Wernew

    2016-09-01

    In 2015, Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory rebuilt its shielded neutron source (SNS) with the goal of improving neutron beam collimation and reducing neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds. Neutrons are produced via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction and then collimated by heavy shielding to form a beam. The SNS has the ability to produce both a rectangular and circular neutron beam through use of two collimators with different beam apertures. Our work characterized both the neutron beam profiles as well as the neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds at various locations around the SNS. This characterization was performed to provide researchers who use the SNS with beam parameters necessary to plan and conduct an experiment. Vertical and horizontal beam profiles were measured at two different distances from the neutron production cell by scanning a small plastic scintillator across the face of the beam at various energies for each collimator. Background neutron and gamma-ray intensities were measured using time-of-flight techniques at 10 MeV and 16 MeV with the rectangular collimator. We present results on the position and size of neutron beam as well as on the structure and magnitude of the backgrounds.

  14. Persistent current in triangle silicene rings with spin–orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning, E-mail: nxu@ycit.cn [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Zhang, Haiyang; Wu, Xiuqiang; Bai, Yujie [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Ding, Jianwen, E-mail: jwding@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2017-06-28

    The energy spectrum and magnetic response of triangle silicene rings (TSRs) are investigated within the tight-binding model. It is shown that the flux-dependent energy spectrum is divided into bands, with three levels per band, owing to the three-fold rotational symmetry structure of TSRs. The zigzag TSRs are metallic, exhibiting either diamagnetic or paramagnetic response depending on the size of inner ring radius. Armchair TSRs are semiconducting, exhibiting diamagnetic response. Taking into account the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction, the magnetic-field-driven spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise around the TSRs and the spin-down electrons flow clockwise around the TSRs. Additionally, paramagnetism–diamagnetism or diamagnetism–paramagnetism transitions are observed with the increase of exchange field. The results may be very helpful for the design and application of TSR-based nanodevices. - Highlights: • The zigzag TSRs are metallic. • Armchair TSRs which exhibit diamagnetic response are semiconducting. • The spin-up electrons flow anticlockwise and spin-down electrons flow clockwise around the rings.

  15. Importance of clothing brands on the purchasing decisions of Generation Y in the Vaal Triangle area / Mothapo, M.N.

    OpenAIRE

    Mothapo, Moshibudi Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the importance of clothing brands on the purchasing decisions of Generation Y individuals. The research concentrates specifically on university students aged between 17 to 26 years, located in the Vaal Triangle Area. This study aims to determine if this group of Generation Y members are brand conscious in their choices of clothing brands and what influences or motivates them to buy clothing brands. The findings suggest that Generation Y students are brand conscious, in t...

  16. The spin-charge-family theory offers understanding of the triangle anomalies cancellation in the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankoc Borstnik, N.S. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nielsen, H.B.F. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-12-15

    The standard model has for massless quarks and leptons ''miraculously'' no triangle anomalies due to the fact that the sum of all possible traces T r[τ{sup Ai}τ{sup Bj}τ{sup Ck}] - where τ{sup Ai}, τ{sup Bi} and τ{sup Ck} are the generators of one, of two or of three of the groups SU(3), SU(2) and U(1) - over the representations of one family of the left handed fermions and anti-fermions (and separately of the right handed fermions and anti-fermions), contributing to the triangle currents, is equal to zero.{sup [1-4]} It is demonstrated in this paper that this cancellation of the standard model triangle anomaly follows straightforwardly if the SO(3, 1), SU(2), U(1) and SU(3) are the subgroups of the orthogonal group SO(13, 1), as it is in the spin-charge-family theory.{sup [5-22]} We comment on the SO(10) anomaly cancellation, which works if handedness and charges are related ''by hand''. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Environmental Pollution from Illegal Waste Disposal and Health Effects: A Review on the “Triangle of Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Triassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “triangle of death” was used for the first time by Senior and Mazza in the journal The Lancet Oncology referring to the eastern area of the Campania Region (Southern Italy which has one of the worst records of illegal waste dumping practices. In the past decades, many studies have focused on the potential of illegal waste disposal to cause adverse effects on human health in this area. The great heterogeneity in the findings, and the bias in media communication has generated great healthcare doubts, anxieties and alarm. This paper addresses a review of the up-to-date literature on the “triangle of death”, bringing together the available information on the occurrence and severity of health effects related to illegal waste disposal. The Scopus database was searched using the search terms “waste”, “Campania”, “Naples”, “triangle of death” and “human biomonitoring”. Despite the methodological and sampling heterogeneity between the studies, this review examines the evidence from published data concerning cancer incidence, childhood mortality and birth defects, so that the current situation, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. The review aims to provide a contribution to the scientific community, and to respond to the concerns of the general population.

  18. Ten things to get right for marine conservation planning in the Coral Triangle [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Weeks

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic conservation planning increasingly underpins the conservation and management of marine and coastal ecosystems worldwide. Amongst other benefits, conservation planning provides transparency in decision-making, efficiency in the use of limited resources, the ability to minimise conflict between diverse objectives, and to guide strategic expansion of local actions to maximise their cumulative impact. The Coral Triangle has long been recognised as a global marine conservation priority, and has been the subject of huge investment in conservation during the last five years through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security. Yet conservation planning has had relatively little influence in this region. To explore why this is the case, we identify and discuss 10 challenges that must be resolved if conservation planning is to effectively inform management actions in the Coral Triangle. These are: making conservation planning accessible; integrating with other planning processes; building local capacity for conservation planning; institutionalising conservation planning within governments; integrating plans across governance levels; planning across governance boundaries; planning for multiple tools and objectives; understanding limitations of data; developing better measures of progress and effectiveness; and making a long term commitment. Most important is a conceptual shift from conservation planning undertaken as a project, to planning undertaken as a process, with dedicated financial and human resources committed to long-term engagement.

  19. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion

  20. Adoption of Small-Scale Irrigation Farming as a Climate-Smart Agriculture Practice and Its Influence on Household Income in the Chinyanja Triangle, Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Mango; Clifton Makate; Lulseged Tamene; Powell Mponela; Gift Ndengu

    2018-01-01

    This article is concerned with the adoption of small-scale irrigation farming as a climate-smart agriculture practice and its influence on household income in the Chinyanja Triangle. Chinyanja Triangle is a region that is increasingly experiencing mid-season dry spells and an increase in occurrence of drought, which is attributed largely to climate variability and change. This poses high agricultural production risks, which aggravate poverty and food insecurity. For this region, adoption of s...

  1. Epidemia de fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanja Bastos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir sobre uma condição naturalizada e disseminada principalmente pelo campo da nova promoção à saúde e reforçada nos espaços de atuação da educação física, a que se denominou epidemia de fitness. O termo refere-se a hábitos e comportamentos obsessivos com a saúde, beleza e vitalidade, tornando-se alvo de exercício de controle por parte de especialistas. Para discuti-la realizou-se um estudo de caso em que foram submetidos à análise semiótica, por meio do método de leitura isotópica, 59 materiais de divulgação, impressos, coletados na Expo Wellness Rio 2009, uma feira de negócios inserida no Congresso Wellness Rio 2009. As categorias isotópicas que emergiram a partir da análise são as seguintes: saúde/beleza e tecnologia, saúde/beleza e especialidade e saúde/beleza e longevidade. Elas apontam para a potencialização da vitalidade humana como mola propulsora das estratégias discursivas, assim como valor recorrente que embasa ações voltadas para a melhoria das condições de saúde, imbricadas à ideia de longevidade e beleza.

  2. Fitness Landscapes of Functional RNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Kun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of fitness landscapes, a map between genotype and fitness, was proposed more than 80 years ago. For most of this time data was only available for a few alleles, and thus we had only a restricted view of the whole fitness landscape. Recently, advances in genetics and molecular biology allow a more detailed view of them. Here we review experimental and theoretical studies of fitness landscapes of functional RNAs, especially aptamers and ribozymes. We find that RNA structures can be divided into critical structures, connecting structures, neutral structures and forbidden structures. Such characterisation, coupled with theoretical sequence-to-structure predictions, allows us to construct the whole fitness landscape. Fitness landscapes then can be used to study evolution, and in our case the development of the RNA world.

  3. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    professional fighting force. Numerous studies indicate physical fitness improves cognitive function, the ability to handle stress, injury recovery...4 ―What is Fitness?‖ The CrossFit Journal (October 2002) http://www.crossfit.com (accessed 11 February, 2011). An excellent article beyond the...scope of this paper. Although our definition was derived from Crossfit , it is our position that Crossfit is not, and should not be, the only method to

  4. Physical Fitness in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-17

    in fitness as the absence of disease or injury . The coach defines fitness as §l’Jse factors responsible for success in a sport. The leader is...lower back and legs to gradually increase your body’s level of activity. This will reduce the risk of injury and prevent unnecessary soreness. Also, a...flexibility. Let’s discuss the importance of muscular fitness and how we can achieve this kind of fitneas through weightlifting or calisthenics. Remember

  5. Sierpinski triangles as a tool to introduce fractal geometry to children and their parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Schertzer, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    There are currently two somehow contradictory trends in the public debates involving scientific issues. On the one hand there is a need to address topics of increasing complexity, while on the other hand simple(istic) solutions are suggested by numerous people (including high level ones). Meanwhile there seems to be growing defiance towards science findings. Such problems are faced in numerous fields including geosciences where famous examples are the debates dealing with climate change, or water / air contamination. Such unfortunate trends means that the input of scientists in the society and public debates is strongly required. Although it not actually their job, scientists should get involved as a citizens. They should try to explain the complexity of the issues at stake, and take the necessary time to achieve this; not all problems can be explained with the help of a 140 characters tweet! Rather than hiding the uncertainties, they should try to explain this notion often not well understood, and admit the current limitations of knowledge. In the meantime it would be positive if this dialogue could help children and their parents to get familiarized with science and scientists, show that science is not obscure and actually present in everyday life. Scientists obviously also have the hope of fostering a desire for understanding, enhancing scientific culture and even promoting careers in this field. Fractals and fractal geometry are actually a rather good tool to achieve this. Indeed through numerous iterations of a simple process, one can easily obtain a rather complex shape, exhibiting some of the features observed in the nature. Fractal shapes are scale invariant, i.e. the more you zoom in, the more details you see; a portion of the shape is similar to the full one. This paper aims at presenting a series of activities presenting fractals to young people developed primarily around the famous Sierpinski triangles. Two types of activities were carefully designed

  6. Digit recognition for Arabic/Jawi and Roman using features from triangle geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Sanusi; Omar, Khairuddin; Nasrudin, Mohamad Faidzul; Idrus, Bahari; Wan Mohd Ghazali, Khadijah

    2013-04-01

    A novel method is proposed to recognize the Arab/Jawi and Roman digits. This new method is based on features from the triangle geometry, normalized into nine features. The features are used for zoning which results in five and 25 zones. The algorithm is validated by using three standard datasets which are publicly available and used by researchers in this field. The first dataset is HODA that contains 60,000 images for training and 20,000 images for testing. The second dataset is IFHCDB. This dataset has 52,380 isolated characters and 17,740 digits. Only the 17,740 images of digits are used for this research. For the roman digit, MNIST are chosen. MNIST dataset has 60,000 images for training and 10,000 images for testing. Supervised (SML) and Unsupervised Machine Learning (UML) are used to test the nine features. The SML used are Neural Network (NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Whereas the UML uses Euclidean Distance Method with data mining algorithms; namely Mean Average Precision (eMAP) and Frequency Based (eFB). Results for SML testing for HODA dataset are 98.07% accuracy for SVM, and 96.73% for NN. For IFHCDB and MNIST the accuracy are 91.75% and 93.095% respectively. For the UML tests, HODA dataset is 93.91%, IFHCDB 85.94% and MNIST 86.61%. The train and test images are selected using both random and the original dataset's distribution. The results show that the accuracy of proposed algorithm is over 90% for each SML trained datasets where the highest result is the one that uses 25 zones features.

  7. Antioxidant responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii exposed to harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Menghong; Wu, Fangli; Yuan, Mingzhe; Li, Qiongzhen; Gu, Yedan; Wang, Youji; Liu, Qigen

    2015-11-01

    Bloom forming algae and hypoxia are considered to be two main co-occurred stressors associated with eutrophication. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interactive effects of harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and hypoxia on an ecologically important mussel species inhabiting lakes and reservoirs, the triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii, which is generally considered as a bio-management tool for eutrophication. A set of antioxidant enzymes involved in immune defence mechanisms and detoxification processes, i.e. glutathione-S-transferases (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), lysozyme (LZM) in mussel haemolymph were analyzed during 14days exposure along with 7days depuration duration period. GST, GSH, SOD, GPX and LZM were elevated by toxic M. aeruginosa exposure, while CAT activities were inhibited by such exposure. Hypoxia influenced the immune mechanisms through the activation of GSH and GPX, and the inhibition of SOD, CAT, and LZM activities. Meanwhile, some interactive effects of M. aeruginosa, hypoxia and time were observed. Independently of the presence or absence of hypoxia, toxic algal exposure generally increased the five tested enzyme activities of haemolymph, except CAT. Although half of microcystin could be eliminated after 7days depuration, toxic M. aeruginosa or hypoxia exposure history showed some latent effects on most parameters. These results revealed that toxic algae play an important role on haemolymph parameters alterations and its toxic effects could be affected by hypoxia. Although the microcystin depuration rate of H. cumingii is quick, toxic M. aeruginosa and/or hypoxia exposure history influenced its immunological mechanism recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationship between Growth-Inequality-Poverty Triangle and Environmental Degradation: Unveiling the Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Anam Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognize that increase in well-being is no longer dependent on further economic growth, but on economic and social well-being, which means that the decline in carbon dioxide emission without reducing real wellbeing and growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the main driving forces affecting short and long-run carbon emissions pattern due to changes in growth, inequality and poverty triangle in Pakistan over the period 1980 – 2011 by using multivariate cointegration approach. This study uses five different models i.e., each model have an important policy implication in the context of Pakistan. The results indicate that, on the short run, there is a significant negative relationship between economic growth & carbon emissions and economic growth & poverty while there is a positive relationship between i economic growth & income inequality; and ii poverty & income inequality. On the long-run, there is a significant positive relationship between GDP & income inequality, carbon dioxide emissions & income inequality, and poverty & income inequality in Pakistan. On the other side, there is a negative relationship between carbon emissions & economic growth, carbon emissions & income inequality, and economic growth & income inequality. The results of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis show an inverted U-shaped trajectory in relation to economic growth in Pakistan. This study contributes to the debate on the existence and policy relevance of the EKC for Pakistan. The conclusion ensures the sustainability of an urgent need to look beyond the EKC by adopting courageous policy measures of environmental preservation in Pakistan irrespective of the country's level of income. For reduction of CO2 emission, environmental progressive management policies, economic transport system regulations, and low emit fuel consumption by industries are the need of the world.

  9. An Australian government dental scheme: Doctor-dentist-patient tensions in the triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerakoon, Arosha; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Porter, Suzette

    2014-11-30

    Autonomy of participants is challenged when legislation to provide a public health service is weakly designed and implemented. Australia's Chronic Disease Dental Scheme was instigated to provide a government subsidy for private dental treatment for people suffering chronic illness impacting their oral health or vice versa. They were allocated AUD$4250 towards comprehensive treatment over 2 years with their eligibility determined by their general medical doctor. A qualitative research study was conducted to explore the experiences from the perspectives of the patient, medical and dental practitioner. One of the research outcomes identified a frequently reported level of discomfort in the patient/doctor/dentist triangle. Doctors and dentists reported feeling forced by patients into positions that compromised their autonomy in obeying the intent (if not the law) of the scheme. Additionally, dentists felt under pressure from doctors and patients to provide subsidized treatment to those eligible. In turn, the patients reported difficulties in gaining access to the scheme and in some cases, experiencing full or partially unmet oral health needs. REASON FOR CONFLICT: Poor inter-professional communication and lack of understanding about profession-unique patient-driven pressures, ultimately contributed to dissonance. Ill-defined eligibility guidelines rendered the doctor's ability to gate-keep challenging. OUTCOME OF CONFLICT: Inefficient gate-keeping led to exponential increase in referrals, resulting in unprecedented cost blow-outs. Ensuing government-led audits caused political tensions and contributed to the media-induced vilification of dentists. In December 2013, government financing of dental treatment through Chronic Disease Dental Scheme was discontinued, leaving many Australians without a viable alternative. There is a need for qualitative research methods to help identify social issues that affect public health policy process. In order to succeed, new health

  10. Correlation of ultrasound appearance, gross anatomy, and histology of the femoral nerve at the femoral triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonchena, Tiffany K; McFadden, Kathryn; Orebaugh, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Correlation between ultrasound appearance, gross anatomic characteristics, and histologic structure of the femoral nerve (FN) is lacking. Utilizing cadavers, we sought to characterize the anatomy of the FN, and provide a quantitative measure of its branching. We hypothesize that at the femoral crease, the FN exists as a group of nerve branches, rather than a single nerve structure, and secondarily, that this transition into many branches is apparent on ultrasonography. Nineteen preserved cadavers were investigated. Ultrasonography was sufficient to evaluate the femoral nerve in nine specimens; gross dissection was utilized in all 19. Anatomic characteristics were recorded, including distances from the inguinal ligament to femoral crease, first nerve branch, and complete arborization of the nerve. The nerves from nine specimens were excised for histologic analysis. On ultrasound, the nerve became more flattened, widened, and less discrete as it coursed distally. Branching of the nerve was apparent in 12 of 18 images, with mean distance from inguinal ligament of 3.9 (1.0) cm. However, upon dissection, major branching of the femoral nerve occurred at 3.1 (1.0) cm distal to the inguinal ligament, well proximal to the femoral crease. Histologic analysis was consistent with findings at dissection. The femoral nerve arborizes into multiple branches between the inguinal ligament and the femoral crease. Initial branching is often high in the femoral triangle. As hypothesized, the FN exists as a closely associated group of nerve branches at the level of the femoral crease; however, the termination of the nerve into multiple branches is not consistently apparent on ultrasonography.

  11. Female Fitness in the Blogosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Andreasson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes self-portrayals and gender constructions among female personal trainers within an Internet-mediated framework of fitness culture. The empirical material comes from a close examination of three strategically selected blogs. The result shows that some of the blogs clearly build upon what Connell calls emphasized femininity, as a means of legitimizing and constructing appropriate female fitness. In addition, there are also tendencies of sexualization in text and imagery present. As such, these self-representations are framed within a cultural history of body fitness dominated by stereotypical ways of perceiving masculinity and femininity. However, this does not capture the entire presentation of the self among the analyzed fitness bloggers. The blogs also point in the direction of ongoing negotiations and subversions of traditional gender norms. Among other things, they show how irony and humor are used as a means of questioning normative gender constructions while empowering female fitness and bodyliness.

  12. Nuclear fuel element end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    An invention is described whereby end fittings are formed from lattices of mutually perpendicular plates. At the plate intersections, sockets are secured to the end fittings in a manner that permits the longitudinal axes of each of the sockets to align with the respective lines of intersection of the plates. The sockets all protrude above one of the surfaces of the end fitting. Further, a detent is formed in the proturding sides of each of the sockets. Annular grooves are formed in each of the ends of the fuel rods that are to be mounted between the end fittings. The socket detents protrude into the respective annular grooves, thus engaging the grooves and retaining the fuel rods and end fittings in one integral structure. (auth)

  13. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  14. Fitness Doping and Body Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    This PhD thesis examines in a first paper the conceptualization of fitness doping and its current limitations. Based on a review of studies on bodywork and fitness doping it is emphasised that the definition of doping does not provide insights into bodywork of both men and women. Moreover......, it is argued that the social and a cultural context are missing in the many epidemiological studies on the prevalence of doping. The second paper explores the difficulties of implementing an anti-doping policy, which was originally formulated in an elite sport context, in a fitness context and more......-based fitness centres. Based on a survey in ten Danish club-based fitness centres and on narratives from semi-structured interviews, it is highlighted that the objectives of bodywork differ according to the users’ age and gender. Two different ways of investing in the body are explored in the paper, namely...

  15. A New Temperature-Vegetation Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE for Satellite-Based Actual Evapotranspiration Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of spatially-variable actual evapotranspiration (AET is a critical challenge to regional water resources management. We propose a new remote sensing method, the Triangle Algorithm with Variable Edges (TAVE, to generate daily AET estimates based on satellite-derived land surface temperature and the vegetation index NDVI. The TAVE captures heterogeneity in AET across elevation zones and permits variability in determining local values of wet and dry end-member classes (known as edges. Compared to traditional triangle methods, TAVE introduces three unique features: (i the discretization of the domain as overlapping elevation zones; (ii a variable wet edge that is a function of elevation zone; and (iii variable values of a combined-effect parameter (that accounts for aerodynamic and surface resistance, vapor pressure gradient, and soil moisture availability along both wet and dry edges. With these features, TAVE effectively addresses the combined influence of terrain and water stress on semi-arid environment AET estimates. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in one of the driest countries in the world—Jordan, and compare it to a traditional triangle method (TA and a global AET product (MOD16 over different land use types. In irrigated agricultural lands, TAVE matched the results of the single crop coefficient model (−3%, in contrast to substantial overestimation by TA (+234% and underestimation by MOD16 (−50%. In forested (non-irrigated, water consuming regions, TA and MOD16 produced AET average deviations 15.5 times and −3.5 times of those based on TAVE. As TAVE has a simple structure and low data requirements, it provides an efficient means to satisfy the increasing need for evapotranspiration estimation in data-scarce semi-arid regions. This study constitutes a much needed step towards the satellite-based quantification of agricultural water consumption in Jordan.

  16. Eternal triangle: the interaction of light source, electrical control gear, and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'heeren, Griet

    1998-04-01

    should guarantee the best system performance. This paper sets out to provide some guidelines on attempting to achieve a harmonious relationship between the three partners in this particular eternal triangle.

  17. Non-linear triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal method for hexagonal core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Young; Cho, Byung Oh; Joo, Han Gyu; Zee, Sung Qunn; Park, Sang Yong

    2000-09-01

    This report is for the implementation of triangle-based polynomial expansion nodal (TPEN) method to MASTER code in conjunction with the coarse mesh finite difference(CMFD) framework for hexagonal core design and analysis. The TPEN method is a variation of the higher order polynomial expansion nodal (HOPEN) method that solves the multi-group neutron diffusion equation in the hexagonal-z geometry. In contrast with the HOPEN method, only two-dimensional intranodal expansion is considered in the TPEN method for a triangular domain. The axial dependence of the intranodal flux is incorporated separately here and it is determined by the nodal expansion method (NEM) for a hexagonal node. For the consistency of node geometry of the MASTER code which is based on hexagon, TPEN solver is coded to solve one hexagonal node which is composed of 6 triangular nodes directly with Gauss elimination scheme. To solve the CMFD linear system efficiently, stabilized bi-conjugate gradient(BiCG) algorithm and Wielandt eigenvalue shift method are adopted. And for the construction of the efficient preconditioner of BiCG algorithm, the incomplete LU(ILU) factorization scheme which has been widely used in two-dimensional problems is used. To apply the ILU factorization scheme to three-dimensional problem, a symmetric Gauss-Seidel Factorization scheme is used. In order to examine the accuracy of the TPEN solution, several eigenvalue benchmark problems and two transient problems, i.e., a realistic VVER1000 and VVER440 rod ejection benchmark problems, were solved and compared with respective references. The results of eigenvalue benchmark problems indicate that non-linear TPEN method is very accurate showing less than 15 pcm of eigenvalue errors and 1% of maximum power errors, and fast enough to solve the three-dimensional VVER-440 problem within 5 seconds on 733MHz PENTIUM-III. In the case of the transient problems, the non-linear TPEN method also shows good results within a few minute of

  18. The contribution of axial-anomaly triangle diagrams for the π0→2γ process in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Ru-Keng; Qian Zhi-Xin; Bin Wang; Yu, P.K.N.; Young, E.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    By means of the real time Green's function method, the decay width of the π 0 →2γ process through axial anomaly triangle diagram at finite temperature and finite density is calculated and its effect on the evolution of the universe is discussed. It was found that the decay width increases with temperature but decreases with density. At the beginning of the lepton era, the decay width at zero temperature. A critical density at which the decay width becomes zero is given. The contribution of axial anomaly to the cosmic background γ-radiation is considered

  19. Current indirect fitness and future direct fitness are not incompatible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Anindita; Mandal, Souvik; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2018-02-01

    In primitively eusocial insects, many individuals function as workers despite being capable of independent reproduction. Such altruistic behaviour is usually explained by the argument that workers gain indirect fitness by helping close genetic relatives. The focus on indirect fitness has left open the question of whether workers are also capable of getting direct fitness in the future in spite of working towards indirect fitness in the present. To investigate this question, we recorded behavioural profiles of all wasps on six naturally occurring nests of Ropalidia marginata , and then isolated all wasps in individual plastic boxes, giving them an opportunity to initiate nests and lay eggs. We found that 41% of the wasps successfully did so. Compared to those that failed to initiate nests, those that did were significantly younger, had significantly higher frequency of self-feeding behaviour on their parent nests but were not different in the levels of work performed in the parent nests. Thus ageing and poor feeding, rather than working for their colonies, constrain individuals for future independent reproduction. Hence, future direct fitness and present work towards gaining indirect fitness are not incompatible, making it easier for worker behaviour to be selected by kin selection or multilevel selection. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Opas CrossFit -harjoitteluun

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    CrossFit on laji, joka pyrkii edistämään terveyttä ja kuntoa. CrossFit saleja löytyy mailmalta yli 10 000 kappaletta. CrossFit -harjoittelussa pyritään parantamaan ihmisen kuntoa mahdollisimman laajalla skaalalla kehittämällä mm. voimaa, kestävyyttä, tarkkuutta, tasapainoa ja eri aineenvaihduntareittejä samanaikaisesti. Terveyden ja kunnon kehittämiseen kuuluu kuntoilun lisäksi myös muita osa-alueita. Ruokavalio ja kehonhuolto ovat tärkeitä osa-alueita hyvän kunnon saavuttamiseksi. Ruokav...