WorldWideScience

Sample records for unitaid-supported medicines patent

  1. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  2. Patent Medicine VendorsAND#8217; Clients: Medicine Use Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate some medicine use behaviour of Patent Medicine Vendors’ (PMVs clients including self medication practice and medication sharing behaviour. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2011, on 361 undergraduate students of the University of Jos, Nigeria who visited PMVs within a month preceding the study. A pretested questionnaire was administered to participating students. Participants responded to questions on demography, and medicine use behaviour. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 to generate descriptive statistics which were represented in percentages. RESULTS: The results showed that majority of the respondents (91.7% visited the PMVs for self-medication with the common classes of medicines procured by PMVs clients including analgesics (38.4%, antimalarials (22.2% and nutrition/blood preparations (14.1%. About 78.5% of the medicines sold to PMVs clients were in their original package and only 45.9% of clients reported checking the expiry date of their procured medicine prior to use. Medication sharing behaviour was common (60.2% among respondents. Although most respondents (70.2% said they had read a medicine information leaflet in the past, majority of them depended on unreliable sources such as friends/relatives (23.2%, media (10.8% and the internet (9.9% for medicine information. CONCLUSION: The study therefore demonstrated that PMV clients are those on self-medication practices and medication sharing behaviour is high among them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 681-686

  3. Patent medicine vendors are major providers antimalaria treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Fifty-five patent medicine vendors selected through a multistage ... Intervention training was instituted and its impact assessed using a ... medicine vendors, the overall appropriate treatment practice score rose from ... University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria. ... was used to test the difference between two.

  4. Canada’s Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Canada’s Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process. PMID:25573772

  5. Is Patent "Evergreening" Restricting Access to Medicine/Device Combination Products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed F Beall

    Full Text Available Not all new drug products are truly new. Some are the result of marginal innovation and incremental patenting of existing products, but in such a way that confers no major therapeutic improvement. This phenomenon, pejoratively known as "evergreening", can allow manufacturers to preserve market exclusivity, but without significantly bettering the standard of care. Other studies speculate that evergreening is especially problematic for medicine/device combination products, because patents on the device component may outlast expired patents on the medicine component, and thereby keep competing, possibly less-expensive generic products off the market.We focused on four common conditions that are often treated by medicine/device product combinations: asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, diabetes, and severe allergic reactions. The patent data for a sample of such products (n = 49 for treating these conditions was extracted from the United States Food and Drug Administration's Orange Book. Additional patent-related data (abstracts, claims, etc were retrieved using LexisNexis TotalPatent. Comparisons were then made between each product's device patents and medicine patents.Unexpired device patents exist for 90 percent of the 49 medicine/device product combinations studied, and were the only sort of unexpired patent for 14 products. Overall, 55 percent of the 235 patents found by our study were device patents. Comparing the last-to-expire device patent to that of the last-to-expire active ingredient patent, the median additional years of patent protection afforded by device patents was 4.7 years (range: 1.3-15.2 years.Incremental, patentable innovation in devices to extend the overall patent protection of medicine/device product combinations is very common. Whether this constitutes "evergreening" depends on whether these incremental innovations and the years of extra patent protection they confer are proportionately matched by

  6. Patents & the progress of personalized medicine: biomarkers research as lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the barriers to personalized medicine, focusing on the burgeoning field of biomarkers research. The author begins by framing intellectual property issues as more than a product of industry incentives and suggests that these issues are deeply entangled with other barriers facing personalized medicine such as regulatory framework deficiencies. The author proposes a set of future research questions to more fully define the barriers to biomarkers research and to uncover which corrective measures may be effective. The author concludes by recommending an integration of regulatory and patent reforms, with a call to action by scholars, scientists, representatives of the biopharmaceutical industry, and policy-makers.

  7. A novel classification method for aid decision of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Bo; He, Liyun; Bai, Wenjing; Yu, Xueyun; Cao, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Rong, Peijing; Zhao, Yuxue; Li, Guozheng; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-09-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, Manifold Ranking is employed to develop the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. First, 115 stroke patients from three hospitals are recruited in the cross-sectional survey. Simultaneously, traditional Chinese physicians determine the traditional Chinese patent medicines appropriate for each patient. Second, particular indicators are explored to characterize the population feature of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. Moreover, these particular indicators can be easily obtained byWestern physicians and are feasible for widespread clinical application in the future. Third, the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment is constructed based on Manifold Ranking. Experimental results reveal that traditional Chinese patent medicines can be differentiated. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain high accuracy of aid decision.

  8. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  9. Patent Medicine Sellers: How Can They Help Control Childhood Malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamund M. Akuse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Roll Back Malaria Initiative encourages participation of private health providers in malaria control because mothers seek care for sick children from them. This study investigated Patent Medicine Sellers (PMS management of presumptive malaria in children in order to identify how they can assist malaria control. A cross-sectional survey of 491 PMS in Kaduna, Nigeria, was done using interviews and observation of shop activities. Most (80% customers bought drugs without prescriptions. Only 29.5% were given instructions about doses. Between 40–100% doses of recommended antimalarials were incorrect. Some (22% PMS did not ask questions about illness for which they were consulted. Most children treated in shops received injections. PMS facilitate homecare but have deficiencies in knowledge and practice. Interventions must focus on training them to accurately determine doses, give advice about drug administration, use oral medication, and ask about illness. Training should be made a prerequisite for registering and reregistering shops.

  10. How do patents and economic policies affect access to essential medicines in developing countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaran, Amir

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between patents and access to essential medicines. It finds that in sixty-five low- and middle-income countries, where four billion people live, patenting is rare for 319 products on the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines. Only seventeen essential medicines are patentable, although usually not actually patented, so that overall patent incidence is low (1.4 percent) and concentrated in larger markets. This and other results shed light on the policy dialogue among public health activists, the pharmaceutical industry, and governments that is often based on mistaken premises about how patents affect corporate revenues or the health of the world's poorest. Pragmatism and greater flexibility are urged, so that policy may better concentrate on the greater causes of epidemic mortality, which now pose unprecedented threats to global peace and security.

  11. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  12. A method for understanding generic procurement of HIV medicines by developing countries with patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed F; Attaran, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Patent protection on medicines may frustrate access by blocking generic competition. Nevertheless, circumstances may still allow for generic procurement to occur anyway, especially for humanitarian cause. But to what extent does this occur? And which legal flexibilities may facilitate such procurement? We attempted to design a replicable methodology that involved linking antiretroviral (ARV) patent data (1260 patents for 12 medicines) from a World Intellectual Property Organization patent study on the 2013 World Health Organization's (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines to all available matching procurement records in the WHO's Global Price Reporting Mechanism. We then cross-referenced these with lists of legal flexibilities which facilitate generic access where patents have been granted (e.g., supplier companies' patent non-enforcement policies, voluntary and compulsory licenses) to estimate plausible relevance. The patent data corresponded to 1924 generic procurement transactions (1.34 billion units) from 85 countries. While patents were relatively less common in these countries (the median coverage was 20%), over half (53%) of the generic procurements nevertheless aligned with patent protection in the exporting and/or importing country. The disproportionately high relevance of patents despite their lower numbers can be explained by their presence in key medicine-exporting countries and/or those with larger populations. We noted, however, that developing countries still seemed able to buy generic versions of these essential ARVs. A combination of legal flexibilities may have played important roles, but voluntary licensing agreements (VLs) between originator companies and generic ones appeared to align with the largest volumes of generic procurement where we estimated patent protection. If true, VLs may warrant proportionate attention from observers as a heavily relied upon international mechanism for facilitating generic access so that the implications can be

  13. [Core elements of safety monitoring report of medicines(Chinese patent medicines)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Qian; Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-Ming

    2016-12-01

    Studies on post-marketing drug surveillance have become increasingly important in recent years. In particular, many researchers for traditional Chinese medicine have paid more attention to the safety of post-marketing Chinese patent medicines. Observational studies, like cohort study, registry study, and intensive hospital monitoring, were conducted to collect data on safety information. How to accurately report and assess these studies and let readers to completely understand relevant published reports and obtain transparent information about its methodology and findings remain unsolved. According to the reporting guidelines made by EQUATOR, our research team drafted a framework based on a four-year study by reference to relevant rules, guidelines and standards all over the world in the field of drug safety evaluation. Besides, we consulted relevant experts in this field and formed a framework on how to report post-marketing safety studies of Chinese patent medicines. There were seven core components, namely drug, population, setting, design, quality, adverse reaction and statistics, which could be abbreviated to DPSDQAS. We introduced the framework here to provide reference for future researchers. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Patent and exclusivity status of essential medicines for non-communicable disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Mackey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs" is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs" that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. MATERIALS: We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization's ("WHO" Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines ("MLEM" and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. RESULTS: Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359 address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  15. A new entity for the negotiation of public procurement prices for patented medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Wirtz, Veronika J; Reich, Michael R; Terrazas, Paulina; Ortiz, Maki

    2012-10-01

    As countries expand health insurance coverage, their expenditures on medicines increase. To address this problem, WHO has recommended that every country draw up a list of essential medicines. Although most medicines on the list are generics, in many countries patented medicines represent a substantial portion of pharmaceutical expenditure. To help control expenditure on patented medicines, in 2008 the Mexican Government created the Coordinating Commission for Negotiating the Price of Medicines and other Health Inputs (CCPNM), whose role, as the name suggests, is to enter into price negotiations with drug manufacturers for patented drugs on Mexico's list of essential medicines. Mexico's public expenditure on pharmaceuticals has increased substantially in the past decade owing to government efforts to achieve universal health-care coverage through Seguro Popular, an insurance programme introduced in 2004 that guarantees access to a comprehensive package of health services and medicines. Since 2008, the CCPNM has improved procurement practices in Mexico's public health institutions and has achieved significant price reductions resulting in substantial savings in public pharmaceutical expenditure. The CCPNM has successfully changed the landscape of price negotiation for patented medicines in Mexico. However, it is also facing challenges, including a lack of explicit indicators to assess CCPNM performance; a shortage of permanent staff with sufficient technical expertise; poor coordination among institutions in preparing background materials for the annual negotiation process in a timely manner; insufficient communication among committees and institutions; and a lack of political support to ensure the sustainability of the CCPNM.

  16. ["Holtos," a Patented Medicine of the Late Edo Era--Wrapping Style, Statement of Medicine Efficacy, and Tablet Form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojiri, Kayoko

    2015-01-01

    Holtos is a medicine that was patented by Kan-sei-do, a pharmacy in Osaka, and sold as a Western medicine from the late Edo era to the Meiji era. It is similar to the patented medicine Uluus, which sold well using the katakana brand name. This article introduces HOLTOS products marketed beginning in the late Edo era and makes a comparative study with Uluus products. The features of Holtos include more indications of what the drug can be used to treat in order to emphasize its versatility. There was also a slight increase in size of the tablet sold at the same price as Uluus, and other improvements such as embossing the name "Holtos" on the surface of the tablet. These reasons lead to the conclusion that Holtos was a patented medicine that imitated Uluus. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that strategic measures were taken by Holtos to outlast competition in the market.

  17. [A pharmacist designer and manufacturer of veterinarian patent medicines, Paul Méré, de Chantilly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, Guy

    2012-02-01

    In the last quarter of the 19th century, Paul Méré, pharmacist in Chantilly (Oise), worked out and marketed a range of veterinarian medicines mainly intended for horses. He pursued his activity in Orleans (Loiret), giving her a big extension with export of his patents medicines in numerous foreign countries, this company having remained up to the Second World War.

  18. An economic justification for open access to essential medicine patents in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sean; Hollis, Aidan; Palmedo, Mike

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an economic rationale for compulsory licensing of needed medicines in developing countries. The patent system is based on a trade-off between the "deadweight losses" caused by market power and the incentive to innovate created by increased profits from monopoly pricing during the period of the patent. However, markets for essential medicines under patent in developing countries with high income inequality are characterized by highly convex demand curves, producing large deadweight losses relative to potential profits when monopoly firms exercise profit-maximizing pricing strategies. As a result, these markets are systematically ill-suited to exclusive marketing rights, a problem which can be corrected through compulsory licensing. Open licenses that permit any qualified firm to supply the market on the same terms, such as may be available under licenses of right or essential facility legal standards, can be used to mitigate the negative effects of government-granted patents, thereby increasing overall social welfare.

  19. Quality Control of the Traditional Patent Medicine Yimu Wan Based on SMRT Sequencing and DNA Barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jing; Xu, Zhichao; Xin, Tianyi; Shi, Linchun; Song, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    Substandard traditional patent medicines may lead to global safety-related issues. Protecting consumers from the health risks associated with the integrity and authenticity of herbal preparations is of great concern. Of particular concern is quality control for traditional patent medicines. Here, we establish an effective approach for verifying the biological composition of traditional patent medicines based on single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing and DNA barcoding. Yimu Wan (YMW), a classical herbal prescription recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, was chosen to test the method. Two reference YMW samples were used to establish a standard method for analysis, which was then applied to three different batches of commercial YMW samples. A total of 3703 and 4810 circular-consensus sequencing (CCS) reads from two reference and three commercial YMW samples were mapped to the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively. Moreover, comparison of intraspecific genetic distances based on SMRT sequencing data with reference data from Sanger sequencing revealed an ITS2 and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer that exhibited high intraspecific divergence, with the sites of variation showing significant differences within species. Using the CCS strategy for SMRT sequencing analysis was adequate to guarantee the accuracy of identification. This study demonstrates the application of SMRT sequencing to detect the biological ingredients of herbal preparations. SMRT sequencing provides an affordable way to monitor the legality and safety of traditional patent medicines.

  20. Clinical Observation of Acupuncture plus Patent Chinese Medicine for Post-stroke Constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Xue-feng; Wu Ying; Zhang Zheng-xu; Zheng De-song

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture plus patent Chinese medicine in treating post-stroke constipation. Methods: Sixty eligible patients with post-stroke constipation were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 30 in each group. The treatment group was intervened by acupuncture plusMa Zi Ren pill, while the control group was byMa Zi Ren pill alone. The symptoms of constipation were observed before and after intervention. Results: After 2-week treatment, the constipation condition was improved in both groups, and the improvement in the treatment group was statistically more significant than that in the control group (P Conclusion: Acupuncture at specific acupoints plus patent Chinese medicine can produce a content therapeutic efficacy.

  1. [Strategy and core technologies for the secondary development of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhagn, Bo-Li; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yang; Qu, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Chegn, Yi-Yu

    2013-11-01

    Secondary development of Chinese Patent Medicine (CPM) is an effective and innovation-driven way for the leaping development of Chinese medicine industry with less investment and faster return. Aim to improving the efficacy, safety and batch-to-batch consistency of CPMs, the theory and methodology for the secondary development of CPMs, mode for cultivating superior CPM, approaches to reforming the pharmaceutical technology and the corresponding core technologies were proposed in this paper, which is summarized as 'One objective, Three analyses, Five definitudes and Seven improvements'.

  2. [Application characteristics and situation analysis of volatile oils in database of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ya-Qi; Hu, Peng-Yi; Jie, Xiao-Lu; Han, Fei; Wang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in China, with wide varieties. Volatile oils are active ingredients extracted from aromatic herbal medicines, which usually contain tens or hundreds of ingredients, with many biological activities. Therefore, volatile oils are often used in combined prescriptions and made into various efficient preparations for oral administration or external use. Based on the sources from the database of Newly Edited National Chinese Traditional Patent Medicines (the second edition), the author selected 266 Chinese patent medicines containing volatile oils in this paper, and then established an information sheet covering such items as name, dosage, dosage form, specification and usage, and main functions. Subsequently, on the basis of the multidisciplinary knowledge of pharmaceutics, traditional Chinese pharmacology and basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, efforts were also made in the statistics of the dosage form and usage, variety of volatile oils and main functions, as well as the status analysis on volatile oils in terms of the dosage form development, prescription development, drug instruction and quality control, in order to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the market development situations of volatile oils and the future development orientation.

  3. Efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiru; Mao, Qinghua; Hua, Hong; Liu, Xiaosong; Yan, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common chronic oral mucosal condition of the oral cavity. Investigators in clinical trials have evaluated the effectiveness of Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of RAS. However, the results are conflicting rather than conclusive. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicines for the treatment of RAS, the authors conducted a systematic review. The authors searched 9 electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or potential clinical controlled trials (CCTs), published in any language, in which the investigators compared Chinese patent medicines with vitamin tablets or placebos for the treatment of RAS. The authors included 11 RCTs and 1 CCT in the review. Results showed that Chinese patent medicines were beneficial for patients with RAS in relieving ulcer pain and reducing the duration and frequency of attacks. The reported adverse effects of Chinese patent medicines included stomachache, abdominal distention, diarrhea, mild nausea, and gastrointestinal discomfort, which were either self-limiting or could be relieved by treatment cessation. Chinese patent medicines may be effective for treatment of RAS by means of relieving pain and reducing ulcer size and episode duration and frequency. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Canada's Patented Medicine Notice of Compliance regulations: balancing the scales or tipping them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lexchin Joel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to comply with the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement, in 1993 the Canadian federal government introduced the Patented Medicine Notice of Compliance Linkage Regulations. These regulations were meant to achieve a balance between the timely entry of generic medicines and the rights of patent holders. The regulations tied the regulatory approval of generic medicines to the patent status of the original brand-name product. Discussion Since their introduction the regulations have been a source of contention between the generic and the brand-name industry. While the regulations have generated a considerable amount of work for the Federal Court of Canada both sides dispute the interpretation of the "win rate" in the court cases. Similarly, there is no agreement on whether multiple patents on single drugs represent a legitimate activity by the brand-name industry or an "evergreening" tactic. The generic industry's position is that the regulations are being abused leading to the delay in the introduction of lower cost generic products by as much as 8 years. The brand-name companies counter that the regulations are necessary because injunctions against the introduction of generic products are frequently unavailable to them. The regulations were amended in 2006 and again in 2008 but both sides continue to claim that the regulations favour the other party. The battle around the regulations also has an international dimension with interventions by PhRMA, the trade association representing the United States based multinational companies, arguing that the regulations are not stringent enough and that Canada needs to be placed on the U.S. Priority Watch List of countries. Finally, there are multiple costs to Canadian society as a result of the NOC regulations. Summary Despite the rhetoric there has been almost no empiric academic research done into the effect of the regulations. In order to develop rational policy

  5. The pharmaceutical sector, patents and access to medicines in the South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier Barrutia Etxebarría

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the lack of access to drug treatments experienced by the poor in the economic South. First, it studies the extraordinarily profitable pharmaceutical industry, whose research forgets about the illnesses typical of the South, given its greatbusiness and market concentration in the countries of the North, where marketing is decisive. Then, it deals with the relationship between the high prices of medicines and a patent system which is greatly strengthened by the rules of the WTO and which clasheswith people’s right to health, as revealed by the case of HIV-AIDS treatment in the countries of the South. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for an active intervention by the public sector, both at a national and international level, which wouldlimit the patents on drugs and promote research on the forgotten diseases.

  6. Authentication of Schisandra chinensis and Schisandra sphenanthera in Chinese patent medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pin; Lu, Yan; Chen, Daofeng

    2016-11-30

    Authentication of species is crucial for ensuring the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. The fruits of Schisandra chinensis and S. sphenanthera have been used for the same traditional Chinese drug, Wuweizi, but are found to be quite different according to their constituents, pharmacological effects, and qualities. These two fruits have been recorded as Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus (Wuweizi) and Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus (Nan-wuweizi), respectively, by Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 2000 edition. However, Nan-wuweizi is often found to be taken as Wuweizi in some Chinese patent drugs intentionally or by mistake because of its lower price and similar characteristics to Wuweizi. In this study, the selection and validation of special chemical markers for the identification of Schisandra species were established by HPLC-DAD-MS profiling analysis. Simple TLC and HPLC methods were proposed for the accurate determination of Nan-wuweizi from Wuweizi in Chinese patent medicines, using schisandrin and anwulignan as the identifying markers for Wuweizi and Nan-wuweizi, respectively. Through the establishment of a statistical model, adulterated or misused ratios of Nan-wuweizi in Wuweizi (w/w), as well as in Fenghan Kesou pills, can be determined. The limit of detection of Nan-wuweizi in a mixture (w/w) using both TLC and HPLC methods is 5% (mixed crude drugs of 50mg and 5g in a 1000g prescribed amount). The constructed statistical model relating the HPLC peak area ratio (anwulignan/schisandrin) and adulteration ratio is suitable for mixed crude drugs and Fenghan Kesou pills, and the two fitting equations have a good correlation (r=0.9979). Furthermore, 36 commercial Chinese patent medicines containing Wuweizi or Nan-wuweizi according to their labels were checked by these methods, and Nan-wuweizi was detected in Renshen Wuweizi Granules and Fenghan Kesou Pills. The ratios of Nan-wuweizi in these mixtures (w/w) were 100:0 for both, which does not comply with the statutory

  7. A critique of an argument against patent rights for essential medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    holds, namely that patent rights for essential medicines are morally unjustified per se. Throughout this paper, ‘the strong view’ refers to this view. The strong view is one that enjoys considerable support both within and outside the academic community. This paper critically discusses one specific...... argument in favor of the strong view. This argument is named the ‘Poggean argument’. This denominator is appropriate because a number of the essential premises of the argument are constituted by propositions that Pogge at some point has defended. The Poggean argument is valid, and defenders of the strong...

  8. Using Patents to Protect Traditional Knowledge on the Medicinal Uses of Plants in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The movement towards the protection of traditional knowledge particularly on the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP in South Africa reflects a global albeit belated interest in the protection of traditional knowledge associated with biological resources. Hence, it was not surprising South Africa like most developing nation, sought in response to instances of the misappropriation of its TKMUP and other TK associated with its biological resources, to provide a measure of protection for such knowledge using the intellectual property (IP system. This is evident in the adoption of the Policy Framework for the Protection of Indigenous Knowledge through the Intellectual Property System in 2008 which identified patent as one of the major IP tools in the protection of the TK. The Policy Framework represents a paradigmatic shift from South Africa’s earlier sceptical and dialectical approach to, and experience with the IP system in context of TK. This paper therefore examines the benefits and challenges involved in using the patent system in the protection of TK particularly those relating to the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP. Such examination became necessary as South Africa’s natural capital of biological diversity, together with its wealth of indigenous TK, has been recognised as an important resource base for promoting economic growth through biological innovations under the recently adopted Bio-economy Strategy. It finds that patents offer a great potential in not only protecting TKMUP from misappropriation, but also in promoting the commercialisation of innovative TKMUP or inventions based on or derived from TKMUP in South Africa. However, this can only be possible if the challenges identified in this paper can be successfully navigated.

  9. 我院中成药应用分析%Application analysis of Chinese patent medicine in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞国丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价本院中成药应用的现状和发展中存在的问题。方法对本院门诊所使用的中成药的金额、数量、种类进行统计分析。结果本院门诊应用的中成药占药品使用的比例很大,以清热类药居多(48.9%),其次为活血化瘀类(24.5%)和止血类(11.0%)。总体使用规范,但仍存在一些不合理现象。结论提高中成药疗效,规范合理使用中成药需全院全社会共同努力。%Objective To evaluate the problems in current condition and development of Chinese patent medicine application in our hospital.Methods The statistical analysis was made on the consumption sum, quantity, and category of Chinese patent medicine in outpatient service of our hospital.Results Chinese patent medicine accounted for a large proportion in outpatient drug use in our hospital, with a majority of heat-clearing drugs (48.9%) following by promoting circulation and removing stasis drugs (24.5%) and hemostasis drugs (11.0%). The application was basically standard with a few of irrational phenomena.Conclusion Improving the curative effect of Chinese patent medicine and standardizing the rational use of Chinese patent medicine require the concerted efforts in the hospital and society.

  10. Projected savings through public health voluntary licences of HIV drugs negotiated by the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Sandeep; Gupta, Aastha; Moon, Suerie; Resch, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) was established in 2010 to ensure timely access to low-cost generic versions of patented antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) through the negotiation of voluntary licences with patent holders. While robust data on the savings generated by MPP and other major global public health initiatives is important, it is also difficult to quantify. In this study, we estimate the savings generated by licences negotiated by the MPP for ARV medicines to treat HIV/AIDS in LMICs for the period 2010-2028 and generate a cost-benefit ratio-based on people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in any new countries which gain access to an ARV due to MPP licences and the price differential between originator's tiered price and generics price, within the period where that ARV is patented. We found that the direct savings generated by the MPP are estimated to be USD 2.3 billion (net present value) by 2028, representing an estimated cost-benefit ratio of 1:43, which means for every USD 1 spent on MPP, the global public health community saves USD 43. The saving of USD 2.3 billion is equivalent to more than 24 million PLHIV receiving first-line ART in LMICs for 1 year at average prices today.

  11. A critique of an argument against patent rights for essential medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn Sonderholm

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Pogge has recently argued that the way in which research and development of essential medicines is incentivized, under existing World Trade Organization rules, should be supplemented with an additional incentivizing mechanism. One might hold a stronger view than the one that Pogge currently holds, namely that patent rights for essential medicines are morally unjustified per se. Throughout this paper, ‘the strong view’ refers to this view. The strong view is one that enjoys considerable support both within and outside the academic community. This paper critically discusses one specific argument in favor of the strong view. This argument is named the ‘Poggean argument’. This denominator is appropriate because a number of the essential premises of the argument are constituted by propositions that Pogge at some point has defended. The Poggean argument is valid, and defenders of the strong view also have some grounds for believing that the argument is sound. This belief comes, however, with what is arguably a too high cost, namely that the global institutional order becomes very demanding on taxpaying citizens of high-income countries if it is to be just. One may find acceptance of this cost relatively unproblematic, but this cost is, it is argued, unacceptable to anyone who has views on distributive justice that are sympathetic to the core tenets of libertarianism.

  12. Patent medicine vendors, community pharmacists and STI management in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, A D; Okonkwo, U P

    2010-09-01

    Increasingly, literature indicates that Patent Medicine Vendors (PMVs) and Community Pharmacists (CPs) provide sexual reproductive health services and products to their young patrons. This study explored the validity of literature claims, principally from CPs and PMVs perspective in Abuja, Nigeria. Participants were recruited with convenience sampling based on their willingness to participate in the study and our judgement of their professional competence. They were administered a semi-structured questionnaire, which was modelled after McCracken's long interview. We empirically assessed the validity of CPs and PMVs opinions with an exit interview of seven consenting patrons. Interviews were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and subjected to iterative thematic analysis. Participants' accounts and our observations indicate that PMVs and CPs serve young people's sexual reproductive healthcare needs in Abuja. CPs and PMVs provide young people with a seamless and non-judgemental access to contraceptives, sexual health advice and post-sexual risk exposure care. The study corroborates literature claims that CPs and PMVs provide sexual reproductive health advice, services and products to young people. However, participants contend that the current pharmacy practice laws in Nigeria constrain the scope and quality of services that young unmarried people require. Because it is unlikely that Nigeria will reinvigorate her primary healthcare system soon, we call for the formal co-option of CPs and PMVs into the sexual reproductive health management system to standardize and improve services.

  13. Recents patents for isolating, delivering and tracking adult stem cells in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2010-06-01

    The field of regenerative medicine offers nowadays the potential to significantly impact a wide spectrum of healthcare issues, from insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1 diabetes, T1D) to cardiovascular disease. In tissue engineering biomaterials, biological factors, regeneration competent cells are used in the process of creating functional tissue. Regarding the type of stem or progenitor cells which represents the best candidate for therapy, embryonic stem cells have been considered the master cells capable of differentiating into every type of cells either in vitro or in vivo, in spite of serious ethical concerns. Nevertheless experimental evidence suggests that adult stem cells and even terminally differentiated somatic cells under appropriate microenvironmental treatments can be reprogrammed and contribute to a much wider spectrum of differentiated progeny than previously anticipated. One of the main goals is to exploit novel technologies aiming to isolate, expand and enrich sources of regeneration competent cells, especially adult somatic stem cells. Researchers are also trying to develop innovative strategies for effectively delivering regenerative cell populations and to implement 'tracking' tools to verify their engraftment and destiny in vivo. Here we review recent patents on the field issued over the past five years.

  14. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the detection of rhaponticin in Chinese patent medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Xie, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2012-08-24

    The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) had been synthesized for the selective extraction and clean-up of rhaponticin in Chinese patent medicines (CPM). The MMIPs were prepared via suspension polymerization, using Fe(3)O(4) as magnetically component, rhaponticin as template molecule, acrylamide (AM) as functional monomers, styrene (St) as copolymer monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker in dimethyl sulfoxide porogen. The obtained MMIPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for analysis the target analytes. The polymers were evaluated further by batch rebinding experiments. From the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI) equation their binding capacity and binding strength were determined. Structurally similar compound resveratrol and a reference compound kirenol were used for investing the selective recognition capability of MMIPs. The MMIPs were used as sorbents for selective pre-concentration of rhaponticin from CPM samples. The contents of rhaponticin for the four CPM samples were found to be 11.84, 3.35, 4.47, and 7.57μg g(-1), respectively, and the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 77.82% to 91.00%. The prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine rhaponticin in CPM samples.

  15. [Evolution of the international intellectual property rights system: patent protection for the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Hasenclever, Lia; de Melo, Luiz Martins

    2007-02-01

    This article discusses the evolution of the international intellectual property rights system in three phases and the implications for public health, especially for the implementation of policies for access to medicines. During the first phase, characterized by the Paris and Berne Convention, signatory countries defined which technological fields should be protected (or not). Under the second phase, with the enforcement of the WTO TRIPS Agreement, countries are obliged to grant patent protection for all technological fields, including for the pharmaceutical industry. Within their national legislations, countries also have the opportunity to implement access to TRIPS flexibilities for medicines. With the third phase, characterized by the negotiation and signing of bilateral and regional free trade agreements, countries will have to implement TRIPS-plus provisions which may have negative implications for the TRIPS flexibilities as well as for policies for access to medicines. The authors conclude that the currently proposed international intellectual property rights system favors patent-holder rights and that a balance is needed between patent holders' and health rights.

  16. Life after Myriad: the uncertain future of patenting biomedical innovation and personalised medicine in an international context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Schwartz, Robert; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    of these decisions on the biomedical sector and personalized medicine,as well the methodology used by the generalist Supreme Court in reversing a specialized CAFC judgment is particularly interesting from a comparative perspective. This paper analyses and discusses these U.S. developments, and compares them...... with the situation in Australia and in the EU.   Keywords: biotechnology, comparative patent law, US, Europe, Australia, DNA, Myriad, patent-eligibility,personalized medicine, genetic diagnostics, USPTO 2014 Guidelines, methods,innovation, Unified Patent Court....

  17. Bilski: assessing the impact of a newly invigorated patent-eligibility doctrine on the pharmaceutical industry and the future of personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    The patent-eligibility doctrine serves a gatekeeper role in excluding from patent protection natural phenomena, principles of nature, abstract ideas, and mental processes. Beginning around 1980, the U.S. patent system embarked upon a pronounced expansion in its definition of patent-eligible subject matter, particularly with respect to software and business method inventions, but also in the life sciences. In recent years, however, we have seen a backlash, with many critics from the public and private sectors arguing that the threshold for patent-eligibility needs to be raised in order to ensure that patents fulfill their constitutional objective of encouraging innovation rather than impeding it. The courts and PTO appear to have heard these critics, and have begun to actively rein in the scope of patent-eligible subject matter. This shift in the swing of the patent-eligibility pendulum will likely have a profound impact on the patentability of innovations arising out of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, particularly those relating to diagnostics and personalized medicine. In this article, I discuss the current status of the patent-eligibility doctrine, how it is that we got here, and what the future might hold, particularly for the life science industries.

  18. Off-patent generic medicines vs. off-patent brand medicines for six reference drugs: a retrospective claims data study from five local healthcare units in the Lombardy Region of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio L Colombo

    Full Text Available The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet.We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04.The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines.Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic consequences

  19. Off-patent generic medicines vs. off-patent brand medicines for six reference drugs: a retrospective claims data study from five local healthcare units in the Lombardy Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Margonato, Alberto; Mencacci, Claudio; Montecucco, Carlo Maurizio; Trevisan, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet. We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs) and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali) in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic) and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04. The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL) represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs) show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines. Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic consequences, both for the

  20. Access to medicine and the dangers of patent linkage: lessons from Bayer Corp v. Union of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Mabel

    2011-03-01

    In February 2010, the Delhi High Court delivered its decision in Bayer Corp v Union of India in which Bayer had appealed against an August 2009 decision of the same court. Both decisions prevented Bayer from introducing the concept of patent linkage into India's drug regulatory regime. Bayer appealed to the Indian Supreme Court, the highest court in India, which agreed on 2 March 2010 to hear the appeal. Given that India is regarded as a global pharmaceutical manufacturer of generic medications, how its judiciary and government perceive their international obligations has a significant impact on the global access to medicines regime. In rejecting the application of patent linkage, the case provides an opportunity for India to further acknowledge its international human rights obligations.

  1. Effects of traditional Chinese patent medicine on essential hypertension: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Zhang, Yuqing; Li, Xiaoke

    2015-02-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPM) is widely used for essential hypertension (EH) in China. However, there is no critically appraised evidence, such as systematic reviews or meta-analyses, regarding the potential benefits and disadvantages of TCPM to justify their clinical use and recommendation. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate and meta-analyze the effects of TCPM for EH. Seven databases, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the Chinese Scientific Journal Database, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and the Wanfang Database, were searched from their inception to August 2014 for relevant studies that compared one TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs alone. The methodological quality of the included trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome measures were mortality or progression to severe complications and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures were blood pressure (BP) and quality of life (QOL). Seventy-three trials, which included 8138 patients, on 17 TCPMs were included. In general, the methodological quality was low. Two trials evaluated the effects of TCPMs on mortality and the progression to severe complications after treatment, and no significant difference was identified compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. No severe adverse events were reported. Thirteen TCPMs used in complementary therapy significantly decreased systolic BP by 3.94 to 13.50 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.28 to 11.25 mmHg. QOL was significantly improved by TCPM plus antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. This systematic review provided the first classification of clinical evidence for the effectiveness of TCPM for EH. The usage of TCPMs for EH was supported by evidence of class level III. As a result of the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials

  2. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Henrietta U

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended.

  3. Ultrasonic Nebulization Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Volatile Components in Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Yue; WANG Lu; WANG Zi-ming; YU Cui; ZHANG Han-qi; SHI Yu-hua

    2011-01-01

    The ultrasonic nebulization extraction(UNE) was developed and applied to the extraction of volatile components from traditional Chinese patent medicine Xiaoyao Pills. Several parameters of ultrasonic nebulization extraction including the sample particle size, solvent volume, extraction time and ultrasonic power were studied and selected. As a result, 2.4 g of sample with particle size of 80 mesh was extracted with 15 mL of n-hexane for 20 min at an ultrasonic power of 35 W. The volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) under the optimal conditions and 57 compounds were identified. The precision, repeatability and stability of the proposed method were also studied. Compared with ultrasonic-assisted extraction(UAE) and hydrodistillation(HD) extraction, the proposed method is more efficient, faster and easier to be operated at room temperature with smaller sample and energy consumption. It is suggested that the ultrasonic nebulization extraction can be used as a novel alternative method for the extraction of volatile components from traditional Chinese patent medicine.

  4. [Industry of traditional Chinese patent medicine science and technology development and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed.

  5. [Determination of five aflatoxins in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shen; Liu, Ying; Lu, Meiling; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Jinhua

    2011-07-01

    A method for the determination of five aflatoxins (B1 , B2, G1 , G2, M1 ) in Chinese patent medicines and medicinal herbs by immunoaffinity extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol-water solution, followed by stepwise purification using an immunoaffinity column. The target compounds were then eluted with methanol. The extract was filtered then analyzed. With the gradient elution using a binary mobile phase containing of 0.1% formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol, the five aflatoxins were separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column, followed by positive electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) provided by a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. The limits of detection for the standard solution of aflatoxins ranged from 0.05-0.3 microg/L. The linear response was observed in the spiked concentration range of 0.5-100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The spiked recoveries were within 62.3%-82.4% at the spiked levels of 1.0 microg/kg and 5.0 microg/kg for all the five aflatoxins with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 10% (n = 6). The developed method is sensitive, accurate, and reproducible with the reasonable recoveries, and can be applied to the determination of the 5 aflatoxins in the Chinese traditional patent medicines, medicinal herbs as well as other similar complex matrices.

  6. 基层医院中成药应用现状分析%Analysis of the Utilization of ChinesePatent Medicines in Primary Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓秀英; 张鹏; 杨海霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the utilization of Chinese patent medicines in a primary hospital , in order to promote clinical ra-tional drug use though provide reference data for clinical medicine .Methods: The utilization of the Chinese patent medicines were re-viewed and analyzed statistically with regard to its categories , proportion in total , usage and dosage , adverse reaction , use rationality etc . Results:The Chinses patent medicine usage increased year by year , Chinese patent medicines for activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis were mainly used , part of Chinese patent medicine were irrational used .At the same time, the adverse drug reactions caused by traditional Chinese medicine Should be taken into consideration seriously .Conclusion:Application of Chinese patent medicine should pay more attention , do the dialectical medication .standardized application of Chinese patent medicine needs the joint efforts of the whole society.%目的:通过调查某基层医院中成药使用情况,了解中成药使用现状,为临床用药提供参考数据,促进基层医院合理用药。方法:对某基层医院使用中成药的种类、用量、使用合理性及不良反应发生等情况进行统计分析。结果:基层医院中成药使用量逐年增加,主要以祛瘀类药物使用为主,部分中成药物使用欠合理,同时中成药不良反应引起临床重视。结论:规范应用中成药应引起重视,做到辩证用药,规范应用中成药需全社会共同努力。

  7. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in the Chinese Patent Medicine Niuhuang Jiangya Pill by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shan; Lei, Shanshan

    2016-12-16

    Niuhuang Jiangya (NHJY) pill is one of the well-known Chinese patent medicines in China used in the treatment of high blood pressure. The primary purpose of this study was to establish and validate a method using HPLC with tandem MS for the quality evaluation of NHJY pill through simultaneous determination of the following five active components: baicalin, paeoniflorin, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid, and emodin. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method established in this study was selective, linear, precise, and accurate and was successfully applied to evaluate five active components in NHJY pill collected from different production batches, which could be considered a good approach to control the quality of NHJY pill and other related botanical drugs.

  9. The radiotoxicology of Radithor: Analysis of an early case of latrogenic poisoning by a radioactive patent medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklis, R.M.; Bellerive, M.R.; Humm, J.L. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Radithor was a radioactive patent medicine that was touted as a metabolic stimulant and aphrodisiac. The authors have obtained several original samples of Radithor and have used these historical specimens and a computer-based calculation model to perform a retrospective analysis of a famous case of Radithor-related radium poisoning. Their data suggest that the victim's cumulative skeletal radiation dose may have exceeded 350 Sv by the time he died. This figure far exceeds most current estimates of what radiation exposure level would constitute a rapidly lethal dose if given acutely. The physiological response to long-term internal radiation exposure and the highly localized nature of alpha particle irradiation may require the development of new models for the assessment of risk in cases of internal alpha particle irradiation.

  10. Medicinal importance of gallic acid and its ester derivatives: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, Sneha; Varughese, Lesley Rachel; Kumar, Vinod; Beniwal, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid and its derivatives have a large number of applications in various fields of science. In nature, these compounds are widely distributed in plants and fruits, and thus they are being used as food stuffs, preservatives, etc. directly or indirectly by human community. They have also been implicated as anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory agents besides their use in treating critical diseases like depression, cancer, microbial infections, lipid-related diseases, etc. Herein, an attempt has been made to summarize the important uses of gallic acid derivatives which have extensively been disclosed particularly in various patents. This review would certainly create a great interest of the scientific community toward the developments and uses of gallic acid based compounds in the future.

  11. Interfacing of science, medicine and law: The stem cell patent controversy in the United States and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya eDavey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The patent eligibility of stem cells – particularly those derived from human embryos – has long been under debate in both the scientific and legal communities. On the basis of moral grounds, the European Patent Office (EPO has refrained from granting patents for stem cells obtained through the destruction of human embryos. On the contrary, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO has historically granted patents regarding the isolation and use of human embryonic and other stem cells. To date, these US patents remain valid despite an increasing onslaught of challenges in court. However, recent precedents established in US courts significantly narrow the scope of patent eligibility within biotechnology. This article compares the implications of recent legal changes on stem cell patent eligibility between the EU and US.

  12. Nanotechnology and patents in agriculture, food technology, nutrition and medicine - advantages and risks: worldwide patented nano- and absorber particles in food nutrition and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benckiser, Gero

    2012-12-01

    The keywords nanotechnology, super absorber, agriculture, nutrition, and food technology exhibited 28,149 positive matches under more than 68 million patents worldwide. A closer look at the first 500 nanotechnology, agriculture, nutrition and biotechnology related patents, published during 2011-2012, unveiled that 64% are parts of machines and control devices while about 36% comprise metal oxides, fertilizers, pesticides and drugs, which are compounds and often applied in combination with inorganic or organic super absorbing polymeric structures. The latter compounds are in the focus of this special issue.

  13. An introduction of Zuotai in Tibetan patent medicine%透视藏医珍宝类药品中的“佐太”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    看召本

    2013-01-01

    文章介绍藏医药珍宝类药品中“佐太”的发明和传世、特殊的加工炮制程序、独特的疗效和良好的安全性、服用方法,以期解除人们对藏药重金属入药的担忧,并为中医学对重金属类药物的应用提供参考和借鉴.%Zuotai is an essential part in Tibetan patent medicine,which plays an important role in treating diseases.This paper introduced the invention,preparing process,use,effectiveness,and safety of Zuotai,aimed to provide an insight for traditional Chinese medicine when using heavy mental within Chinese patent medicine.

  14. Derivative Technology of DNA Barcoding (Nucleotide Signature and SNP Double Peak Methods) Detects Adulterants and Substitution in Chinese Patent Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zitong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Xiaoyue; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Han, Jianping; Newmaster, Steven G

    2017-07-19

    Lonicerae japonicae Flos has been used to produce hundred kinds of Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) in China. Economically motivated adulterants have been documented, leading to market instability and a decline in consumer confidence. ITS2 has been used to identify raw medicinal materials, but it's not suitable for the identification of botanical extracts and complex CPMs. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed CPMs would be profitable. A 34 bp nucleotide signature (5' CTAGCGGTGGTCGTACGATAGCCAATGCATGAGT 3') was developed derived from ITS2 region of Eucommiae Folium based on unique motifs. Mixtures of powdered Lonicerae japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos resulted in double peaks at the expected SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) positions, of which the height of the peaks were roughly indicative of the species' ratio in the mixed powder. Subsequently we tested 20 extracts and 47 CPMs labelled as containing some species of Lonicera. The results revealed only 17% of the extracts and 22% of the CPMs were authentic, others exist substitution or adulterant; 7% were shown to contain both of two adulterants Eucommiae Folium and Lonicerae Flos. The methods developed in this study will widely broaden the application of DNA barcode in quality assurance of natural health products.

  15. Software Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  16. A critique of an argument against patent rights for essential medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Pogge has recently argued that the way in which research and development of essential medicines is incentivized, under existing World Trade Organization rules, should be supplemented with an additional incentivizing mechanism. One might hold a stronger view than the one that Pogge currently...

  17. Patent medicine dealers and irrational use of medicines in children: the economic cost and implications for reducing childhood mortality in southeast Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S C Uzochukwu

    Full Text Available This study assessed the economic costs of irrational medicine use by Patent Medicine Dealers (PMDs for malaria, acute respiratory infection (ARI and diarrhea diseases (DD in Nigeria. Exit interviews were conducted with 395 respondents who sought care for their children from 15 PMDs in Abakpa district of Enugu state Nigeria. Of the total respondents, 80.0% received treatment for malaria while 12.0% and 8.0% received treatment for DD and ARI respectively. The average number of drugs dispensed per patient was 6.8, average percentage of patients given injections was 72.5%, average percentage of patients given one or more antibiotics was 59.7%, while the percentage of patients given non essential drugs was 45.9%. The additional costs to the standard treatment in Naira was 255, 350 and 175 for malaria, ARI and DD respectively. The losses attributable to irrational dispensing was 4,500 Naira. However, more than half of the drugs were on essential drug list, implying some cost savings for the consumers, but the high number of drugs (6.8 on average/patient is likely to increase the total cost of drugs cancelling out the cost savings to consumers arising from dispensing essential drugs.

  18. A systematic review of RCTs and quasi-RCTs on traditional Chinese patent medicines for treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tao; Wei, Xing; Chen, Ze-Qi; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Dai, Xing-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicines (TCPMs) are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in China. To estimate the overall effectiveness of TCPMs for CHB, we performed a systematic review of clinical reports designed as randomized controlled trials (RCTs). One hundred and thirty-eight available RCTs and quasi-RCTs on 62 TCPMs, involving 16,393 patients, were included. The methodological quality of these trials was generally "poor". Few trials (6.52%) reported the methods of randomization correctly. Another common problem was the lack of allocation concealment, proper blinding, and the reporting of lost cases and dropouts. Forty-two trials (30.43%) on 27 TCPMs reported some anti-viral effect of TCPMs. Others reported beneficial aspects, including improvements of liver function (79.71% of the studies), liver fibrosis (29.99%), and CHB symptoms (92.75%). Forty-one articles (29.71%) reported mild adverse events with TCPMs but these occurred infrequently. In summary, the outcome of the report on currently registered TCPMs may be biased due to poor methodology. The data from these trials, therefore, is too weak to use in forming a recommendation for treatment of CHB. Nevertheless, five drugs (Dan Shen agents, Da Huang Zhe Chong pill/capsule, Shuang Hu Qing Gan granule, Fu Zheng Hua Yu granule and Cao Xian Yi Gan capsule) appear to be more effective than the other TCPMs.

  19. Patent Research Progress of Resveratrol on Health-care and Medicine%白藜芦醇保健医药专利研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕海丹

    2011-01-01

    系统论述了国内外以白藜芦醇为基础申请保健和医药方面专利的研究进展,为我国白藜芦醇的研究提供参考.%The patent research progress of resveratrol on health-care and medicine at home and abroad were discussed systematically in this study, aiming at providing reference for the research and development of resveratrol in China.

  20. Tibetan traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.

  1. Patente gera patente?

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Coeli Ribeiro Garcia

    2006-01-01

    A patente, fonte de informação e geradora de nova patente em condições e contexto favoráveis, constitui objeto desta pesquisa. Esta é respaldada em quadro teórico da Ciência da Informação e identifica os fatores intervenientes no fluxo das relações desde a patente-fonte até o registro de nova patente. Da amostra da pesquisa constam instituições privadas e públicas representadas por unidades situadas em Brasília, Belo Horizonte e Rio de Janeiro. A entrevista é a técnica usada para a coleta de ...

  2. Protecting Pharmaceutical Patents and Test Data: How the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement Could Affect Access to Medicines in the US and Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-07-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement is a proposed free trade agreement between the US and 11 other countries in Asia and South America covering many consumer goods, including prescription medicines. This review describes how the TPP could affect international laws governing intellectual property rights for prescription drugs, focusing on patents and exclusivity protections for test data, including their effect on reimbursement decisions by national health care authorities responsible for health priority setting. We conclude that the TPP could affect low-income patients' access to medicines in signatory countries. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved. ISSN 2376-6980.

  3. 关国授权的全球传统医药专利分析%Analysis on Patents of International Traditional Medicine Issued by U.S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅俊英; 曹燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解世界传统医药专利的分布,加强中医药的知识产权保护.方法:以ISTIC-美国专利分析数据库的授权专利为数据源,利用专利计量方法,研究全球传统医药的授权专利情况.结果:共检索到授权专利5335件.1976-1990年为专利授权的萌芽阶段,1991-1996年为缓慢增长阶段,1997年开始进入快速增长阶段,并在2002年达到峰值446件后呈现下降趋势.美国、日本、法国、印度和德国获得了较多专利授权,中国排名第10位.印度的科学与工业研究理事会是获得最多专利授权的机构.美国的传统医药专利发明人最多,而中国香港的Cheung,Ling Yuk发明的专利数居世界第5位.传统医药相关专利具体涉及含有植物材料的生物杀灭剂、害虫驱避剂或引诱剂、植物生长调节剂,以及作为活性组分的未明成分植物材料或植物提取物.结论:中国有悠久的传统医药历史,并有系统的中医药现代教育、临床和科研体系,但其知识产权保护的意识和途径亟待加强.%This article aimed to analyze the distribution of patents of international traditional medicine (TM) in order to enhance the intellectual property protection of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).Issued patents of the ISTICUSPAD were used as data source in the analysis of international TM patents with patentometrics.The searching result was that there are 5335 issued patents.The gemination phase of issued patents is from 1976 to 1990.And the development phase is from 1991 to 1996 for TM patents.The maturation phase started from 1997.And the issued patent amount reached its peak number of 466 in 2002.The acquired patent amount in the U.S., Japan, France, India and Germany is more than the amount in other countries or areas.China ranked as the lOth position.The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was the institute with the most issued patents.The U.S.was reviewed as the one with the most TM patent

  4. [Study on building index system of risk assessment of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine based on AHP-fuzzy neural network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yanming; Fu, Yingkun

    2011-10-01

    Currently massive researches have been launched about the safety, efficiency and economy of post-marketing Chinese patent medicine (CPM) proprietary Chinese medicine, but it was lack of a comprehensive interpretation. Establishing the risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model of CPM is the key to solve drug safety problems and protect people's health. The clinical risk factors of CPM exist similarities with the Western medicine, can draw lessons from foreign experience, but also have itself multi-factor multivariate multi-level complex features. Drug safety risk assessment for the uncertainty and complexity, using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to empower the index weights, AHP-based fuzzy neural network to build post-marketing CPM risk evaluation index system and risk assessment model and constantly improving the application of traditional Chinese medicine characteristic is accord with the road and feasible beneficial exploration.

  5. Analysis of outpatient prescriptions of Chinese patent medicines%某医院门诊中成药处方的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建峰; 杨鹏

    2013-01-01

    Objective The characteristics of Chinese patent medicines in outpatient prescriptions were studied to improve its rational use in clinical practice .Methods The outpatient prescriptions collected in December 2011 were analyzed for its departments ,usage rate and dose forms .Results The Chinese patent medicines were used much more in six departments ,including four categories and two dosage forms .Conclusion Chinese patent medicines were preferred to be chosen for some disease treatment ,and the modern dosage forms were the major choice .%目的:研究门诊处方对中成药的使用规律和特点,为临床更好地使用中成药提供参考。方法选取我院2011年12月1日~31日门诊处方,对含有中成药的处方进行统计分析,对其分布的科室、品种的使用频次和剂型分类进行统计。结果6个科室中成药处方比例较高,即较多使用中成药治疗相关疾病,4类中成药使用频次较高,2个现代剂型为使用的主要剂型。结论中成药治疗部分疾病具有明显的优势,现代剂型是门诊使用的主要剂型,体现了中成药的治疗特色。

  6. Life after Myriad: the uncertain future of patenting biomedical innovation and personalised medicine in an international context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Schwartz, Robert; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    , when combined with the US Supreme Court decisions in Prometheus and Alice, Myriad may affect method claims which depend upon unmodified biological materials. The USPTO guidance, however, still leaves much uncertainty over the patentability of such methods and diagnostics. The substantial impact...... of these decisions on the biomedical sector and personalized medicine,as well the methodology used by the generalist Supreme Court in reversing a specialized CAFC judgment is particularly interesting from a comparative perspective. This paper analyses and discusses these U.S. developments, and compares them...

  7. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi; Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  8. Spatiotemporal PET Imaging of Dynamic Metabolic Changes After Therapeutic Approaches of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Neuronal Stem Cells, and a Chinese Patent Medicine in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Song, Fahuan; Xu, Caiyun; Liu, Hao; Wang, Zefeng; Li, Jinhui; Wu, Shuang; YehuaShen; Chen, Yao; Zhu, Yunqi; Du, Ruili; Tian, Mei

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to use spatiotemporal PET imaging to investigate the dynamic metabolic changes after a combined therapeutic approach of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and Chinese patent medicine in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Cerebral ischemia was established by the middle cerebral artery occlusion approach. Thirty-six male rats were randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 groups: control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), Chinese patent medicine (Qing-kai-ling [QKL]), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), combination of iPSCs and QKL, neuronal stem cells (NSCs), and combination of NSCs and QKL. Serial (18)F-FDG small-animal PET imaging and neurofunctional tests were performed weekly. Autoradiographic imaging and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent analyses were performed at 4 wk after stem cell transplantation. Compared with the PBS control group, significantly higher (18)F-FDG accumulations in the ipsilateral cerebral infarction were observed in 5 treatment groups from weeks 1-4. Interestingly, the most intensive (18)F-FDG accumulation was found in the NSCs + QKL group at week 1 but in the iPSCs + QKL group at week 4. The neurofunctional scores in the 5 treatment groups were significantly higher than that of the PBS group from week 3 to 4. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the PET imaging findings and neurofunctional recovery (P cells of interest. Spatiotemporal PET imaging with (18)F-FDG demonstrated dynamic metabolic and functional recovery after iPSCs or NSCs combined with QKL in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. iPSCs or NSCs combined with Chinese medicine QKL seemed to be a better therapeutic approach than these stem cells used individually. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  9. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Yuan Liu; James Chingyu Yang

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  10. 部分中成药包装存在的问题及改进建议%Problems and Improvement Suggestions of Some Chinese Patent Medicine Package

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏建; 赖宗浪

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To provide suggestions for pharmaceutical manufacturers to improve medicine package in China. METHODS:The problems of some Chinese patent medicine package were summed up and analyzed,and improvement suggestions were put forward. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:At present,many defects are observed in Chinese patent drug package,such as large package increasing patients’burden;various package material aggravating resource waste and environmental pollution;indi-vidual package and multilayered package increasing unpacking and peeling time,and bringing risk;non-standard medicine informa-tion carrier easily resulting in medical errors. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are suggested to simplify drug package,increase pack-age capacity,adopt ordinary packagdized,highlight key information and other measures. Through these measures,Chinese patent medicine package could to be more standard,humanized and be convenient for clinical use.%目的:为我国药品生产企业改进药品包装提供建议。方法:对临床使用过程中发现的部分中成药包装存在的问题进行归纳与分析,并提出改进建议。结果与结论:目前,我国部分中成药包装存在的问题包括规格太大,会间接增加患者的就医成本;包装材料多样,会造成资源浪费和环境污染;采用独立包装和多层次包装,会增加医务人员的拆剥时间并带来风险;药品信息载体不规范,易引发医疗差错等。建议药品生产企业可采取适当精简药品包装、增加包装容量、采用普通包装、突出重点信息等措施予以改进,使药品包装更加规范、更加人性化,方便临床使用。

  11. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Google Patents (www.google.com/patents includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office, EPO (European Patent Office, etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several suggestions for improving Google Patents. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Google Patents for journals in the field of library and information science (LIS. Finally, it concludes that Google Patents provides a free alternative or complement to other patent databases. It also addressed the advantages of Google Patents, for example, easy-use search interface and fast search engine; convenient access to patent images in PDF format; and fast downloads of PDF patent documents.

  12. Leveraging Traditional Knowledge on the Medicinal Uses of Plants within the Patent System: The Digitisation and Disclosure of Knowledge in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Polycarp Amechi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge (TK plays an important role in the global economy and is valuable not only to those who traditionally depend on it in their daily lives, but also to modern industry, especially the global biotechnology, pharmaceutical and agribusiness corporations. Yet the exploitation of TK by these industries does not usually lead to corresponding benefits to indigenous communities either in the form of attribution or compensation. Such misappropriations of TK are aided by the fact that the global intellectual property (IP regime as presently structured is based entirely on the traditionally western or conventional description of knowledge, as are its conceptions of individual intellectual property ownership. In response to the fact that their calls for the reform of the global patent system have not be heeded, most developing countries, including South Africa, have resorted to the adoption of a radically different strategy in their approach to intellectual property, particularly as it concerns the protection of their TK from misappropriation. This is evident in the adoption of strategic measures in South Africa for the protection of various aspects of its TK forms from misappropriation, such as the National Recordal System (NRS and Disclosure of Origins (DRs. This paper seeks to explore the implications of these measures in leveraging TK within the structure, content and conceptual framework of the patent system in South Africa. The focus is on TK associated with the medicinal uses of plants (TKMUP.

  13. Role of beta2 agonists in respiratory medicine with particular attention to novel patents and effects on endocrine system and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Nancy E; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny V; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2011-09-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors are very important in respiratory medicine. Traditionally, the stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors by beta2-agonists is commonly used for giving bronchodilation in chronic airflow obstruction However; the wide distribution of these receptors in cells and tissues other than airway smooth muscle suggests that beta agonists should offer other beneficial effects in respiratory disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of these receptors in the modulation of endocrine and immune system that affect respiratory function and may decrease therapy effectiveness in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New patented compound and uses have provided new insights in future therapeutics of respiratory diseases in which genetic, endocrine and immune response should be considered.

  14. 我国中药专利保护的现状分析与对策研究%Status analysis and countermeasures research for patent protection of traditional chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远; 沈爱玲

    2013-01-01

    Strengthening the patent protection of traditional Chinese medicine, on the one hand, it can stimulate the innovation of enterprises, achieving the goal of their economics. On the other hand, it also can improve the international competitiveness of traditional Chinese medicine. This article mainly analyzes the feasibility of the patent protection on the basis of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, make recommendations for the improvement of patent protection for traditional Chinese medicine and establish a patent protection system combined with the situation of our country.%加强中药专利保护,一方面能够激发中药企业的创新力,以实现其经济效应;另一方面,也有利于提高我国中药的国际竞争力.本文基于中医药理论原理,分析我国现有中药专利保护现状,为我国中药专利保护提出建议,建立我国特有的中药专利保护体系.

  15. Simultaneous determination of synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in Chinese patent medicine Si-Mo-Tang oral liquid preparation by strong cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue-Neng; Cheng, Xue-Mei; Liu, Ling-An; Hu, Gao-Yun; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Deng, Yi-De; Huang, Ke-Long; Cai, Guang-Xian; Wang, Chang-Hong

    2012-07-01

    Chinese patent medicine Si-Mo-Tang oral liquid preparation (SMT) is composed of Aucklandia luppa Decne (Compositae), Citrus aurantium Linn (Rutaceae), Lindera aggregata (Sims) Kosterm (Lauraceae), and Areca catechu Linn (Arecaceae). Studies of SMT have been impeded due to the lack of quality control methods. This study aimed to simultaneously determine three alkaloids including synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in SMT for the first time. A strong cation exchange (SCX) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously determine synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in SMT, and was compared with ion-pairing chromatography using regular reversed-phase chromatography columns. System suitability parameters of synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine using the SCX chromatography column were investigated. Results demonstrated that good separations were achieved on an Agilent SCX (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column at 35 °C. The mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.2% phosphoric acid was delivered at a constant flow of 1.0 mL min(-1) and the eluent was monitored at 215 nm. The HPLC method showed good linearity for the examined concentration ranges of 2.55-255.0, 1.30-208.0, and 2.06-201.6 µg mL(-1) for synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine, respectively. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) were 2.55, 1.30, and 2.06 µg mL(-1), the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 1.53, 0.78, and 1.21 µg mL(-1), and average recoveries were 98.99, 95.63 and 99.04%, respectively, for synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine. This method has been successfully applied to determine synephrine, arecoline, and norisoboldine in Chinese patent medicine SMT.

  16. Analysis of the Utilization of Antineoplastic Chinese Patent Medicine in Our Hospital during the Period of 2008-2011%我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药使用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉霞; 张磊; 齐伟; 吴志恒

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the status quo of the utilization of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital and to promote rational use of drugs. METHODS: The consumption sum, DDDs.DDC and DUI of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital during the period of 2008—2010 were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: The variety of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine in our hospital was stable during 2008—2011, the consumption sum of drugs increased year by year, suitable price and effective therapeutic efficacy of Chinese patent medicine took the lead on the list of DDDs and DDC. CONCLUSION: In our hospital, the utilization of antineoplastic Chinese patent medicine is rational on the whole. Comprehensive considerations including good effect and reasonable cost should be taken into account during clinical drug use.%目的:评价我院抗肿瘤口服中成药的使用现状,促进合理用药.方法:对我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日用药金额(DDC)、药物利用指数(DUI)进行排序和分析.结果:我院2008-2011年抗肿瘤口服中成药品种基本固定,销售金额呈逐年上升趋势,疗效确切、价格适中的中成药DDDs、DDC、DUI排序靠前.结论:我院抗肿瘤中成药的应用基本合理,在临床用药过程中要综合考虑疗效和经济两方面.

  17. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACCESS TO PATENTED HIV/AIDS PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINES THROUGH THE CANADIAN AND EU TRIPS FLEXIBILITIES MEASURES: ARE THEY EFFICACIOUS OR OVERLY BURDENSOME AND INEFFECTIVE MEASURES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omphemetse S Sibanda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the Canadian and the European Union's (EU implementation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO General Council Decision of 2003, which resolved that developed nations could export patented pharmaceutical drugs to member states in order to address public health challenges such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, such states including Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The author makes a primarily textual appraisal of how and to what extent the Canada Access to Medicine Regime (CAMR and European Union (EU Regulations benefit, for instance, SSA countries in the WTO in their quest to make essential medicine more accessible. The author argues that although there are identifiable complexities inherent in the Canadian and the EU's access to pharmaceutical product regimes, there are far more important incentives and benefits that can be reaped in taking advantage of the respective systems. The author recommends that countries facing public health crises/emergencies, such as SSA countries, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs take advantage of the regulatory flexibilities of Canada and the EU in their efforts to provide their communities with essential HIV/AIDS treatment, and treatment for other diseases such as malaria. The author dismisses the arguments against TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property flexibilities-inspired legislation and similar measures as mostly mere rhetoric and hair-splitting, because they sometimes unwarrantedly dismiss a workable solution to public-health problems.

  18. 我国中成药处方中重点保护野生药材的应用状况分析%Analysis on application of key-protected wild medicinal materials in prescription of Chinese patent medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃华; 路金才

    2013-01-01

    以《国家重点保护野生药材物种名录》、《国家重点保护野生动物名录》、《国家重点保护野生植物名录(第一批)》、华盛顿公约(CITES)附录1和附录2等名录中收载且具有法定药材标准的动植物物种所对应的药材品种作为国家重点保护野生药材,对其在我国中成药质量标准“处方”项下出现的频次进行了查询,并结合相关药材人工栽培及养殖的文献,对相关重点保护野生药材在中成药中的应用状况进行初步分析,为其可持续利用提供参考.%As state key-protected wild medicinal materials, their species are collected in State Key-protected Wild Medicinal Species List, State Key-protected Wild Animals List, and State Key-protected Wild Plants List {the first) and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix Ⅰ/Ⅱ, and there are legal medicinal material standards. Based on the statistical results of the existence frequency in Chinese patent medicine and the literatures of medicinal materials cultivation and breeding situation, the application of key-protected wild medicinal materials is preliminarily estimated, which would provide the reference for their sustainable utilization.

  19. Danhong Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine) for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pengda; Wang, Lei; Guo, Liheng; Zeng, Ruixiang; Huang, Juming; Zhang, Minzhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Danhong injection (DHI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methods. We searched several electrical databases and hand searched several Chinese medical journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine plus placebo and RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine were retrieved. Study screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. Results. 13 RCTs enrolling 979 patients were included. Danhong injection could significantly reduce the risk of mortality, recurrent angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure. In addition, DHI was associated with improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and reperfusion. No significant difference of DHI was found on recurrent acute myocardial infarction. However, the safety of DHI remained unknown for limited data. Conclusion. DHI might be a potentially efficacious treatment for AMI patients. Nevertheless, the safety of DHI remained uncertain for limited information. Due to the fact that the overall quality of all included studies is generally low, more high quality RCTs are expected to validate the efficacy and safety of DHI for AMI patients.

  20. Danhong Injection (a Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengda Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Danhong injection (DHI for acute myocardial infarction (AMI patients. Methods. We searched several electrical databases and hand searched several Chinese medical journals. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine plus placebo and RCTs comparing DHI plus conventional western medicine with conventional western medicine were retrieved. Study screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analysis were conducted in accordance with the Cochrane standards. Results. 13 RCTs enrolling 979 patients were included. Danhong injection could significantly reduce the risk of mortality, recurrent angina, arrhythmia, and heart failure. In addition, DHI was associated with improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and reperfusion. No significant difference of DHI was found on recurrent acute myocardial infarction. However, the safety of DHI remained unknown for limited data. Conclusion. DHI might be a potentially efficacious treatment for AMI patients. Nevertheless, the safety of DHI remained uncertain for limited information. Due to the fact that the overall quality of all included studies is generally low, more high quality RCTs are expected to validate the efficacy and safety of DHI for AMI patients.

  1. Recent patents on molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    The questions surrounding patenting of DNA sequences encoding specific proteins are relatively well reviewed in the available literature. However, neither applications nor molecular cytogenetic techniques, which use these sequences as a probe, have been reviewed in the light of the patenting. Furthermore, the patenting of the use of numerous probes, which are produced on different types of repetitive genome elements (i.e. satellite DNA or telomeric DNA sequences) and those generated by chromosome microdissection has not been reviewed. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are one of the most applied in current bioscience (as to June 2007, over 40,000 papers in browseable scientific databases mention one or several molecular cytogenetic techniques). Therefore, reviewing recent patents in this field is of general interest for numerous researchers in different areas of biology and medicine. Here, we address world-wide patents on DNA sequences used as molecular cytogenetic probes and molecular cytogenetic techniques to define current state and perspectives of this biomedical direction.

  2. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  3. Patent office Governance and Patent System Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Pierre; Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  4. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujuju C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinazo Ujuju,1 Samson B Adebayo,2 Jennifer Anyanti,3 Obi Oluigbo,3 Fatima Muhammad,4 Augustine Ankomah5 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 2Planning, Research and Statistics Directorate, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Technical Services Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Family Planning Directorate, Society for Family Health, Abuja, Nigeria; 5Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana Introduction: In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs. This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method: This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills; user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results: A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go

  5. Validation method in microbial limit test for antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines%清热解毒类中成药微生物限度检查方法验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 吴虹

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究清热解毒类中成药的抑菌作用,建立其微生物限度检查方法 .方法 按照<中国药典)2010年版一部的微生物限度检查法进行验证实验.结果 8种清热解毒类中成药均对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌有一定的抑菌作用,可以分别通过培养基稀释法和薄膜过滤法得以消除.结论 分别建立了8种清热解毒类中成药的微生物限度检查方法 ,为该类药品的微生物检查提供参考.%Objective To study the antimicrobial effect of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines and to establish microbial limit test method for them. Methods According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition,validation method in microbial limit test for the medicines was validated. Results Eight kinds of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines all showed inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The effect could be eliminated by culture medium dilution method and filtration membrane method. Conclusion Microbial limit test methods were established for the Chinese patent medicines respectivesly. The results could give experimental evidence for the kind of Chinese patent medicines.

  6. [Current service invention patents and growth pathways on basis of cluster analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu-jie; Xiao, Shi-ying

    2012-09-01

    This study aims for enhancing quantity and quality of patents of traditional Chinese medicine compounds of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises, traditional Chinese medicine colleges and relevant institutions while building an efficient pathway for patent protection using simple statistics and cluster analysis, with service invention patent holders of traditional Chinese medicine compounds as the study object.

  7. Rapid Determination of Costunolide and Dehydrocostuslactone in Human Plasma Sample and Chinese Patent Medicine Xiang Sha Yang Wei Capsule Using HPLC-DAD Coupled with Second-order Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚娟; 吴海龙; 朱绍华; 康超; 许慧; 苏志义; 谷惠文; 俞汝勤

    2012-01-01

    A novel methodology that combines high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) coupled with second-order calibration method based on alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) algorithm was used in determination of the effective constituents such as costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone, in plasma sample and Chinese patent medicine Xiang Sha Yang Wei (XSYW) capsule. Complicated systems such as plasma and Chinese patent medicine which have intricate components are tedious to isolate and purify. The problem that chromatographic peaks are heavily overlapped among the analytes and interferents from the background matrices can be resolved, and the satisfactory quantification results have been gained with the help of the ATLD algorithm which utilized "mathematical separation" instead of partial "physical or chemical separation". Meanwhile, HPLC-MS/MS method was used to validate the accuracy of the proposed determination method.

  8. 我院门诊2007-2011年中成药应用分析%Analysis of the Utilization of Chinese Patent Medicines in Outpatient Department in Our Hospital during 2007-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧华; 穆林; 金鹏飞; 蔡小兵

    2012-01-01

    目的:为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:对我院门诊中成药的销售金额及构成比、用药频度和科室用药分布情况进行统计分析.结果:我院门诊中成药的种类连续性较好,各类药销售金额及构成比相对固定,同时在临床各科室的用药集中度相对较低.结论:我院在用药品种的选择上基本能够满足临床需求,同时也兼顾了患者的经济承受能力,注重合理用药,保障了临床用药的安全、有效和经济.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical utilization of Chinese patent medicines in outpatient department of our hospital during 2007-2011,and to provide reference for clinical rational drug use. METHODS: The utilization of Chinese patent medicines in outpatient department of our hospital was analyzed statistically in respect of consumption sum, constituent ratio, DDDs and departments distribution of drug use. RESULTS: The category continuity of Chinese patent medicines in outpatient department was fairly good. The consumption sum and constituent ratio for various drugs were relatively fixed, the concentration ratio of drug use were lower in clinical departments. CONCLUSIONS: The type selection of Chinese patent medicines in hospital meet the requirement of clinical treatments, and also need to consider the afford ability of patients and rational drug use so as to guarantee safe, effective and economical drug in the clinic.

  9. To Pay Attention to “Warning Words” in Package Inserts of Chinese Patent Medicine%重视中成药说明书中的警示语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严洁

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To play the role of "warning words" in package inserts of Chinese patent medicine. METHODS: According to the requirements of package inserts issued by SFDA, warning words of 242 package inserts of Chinese patent medicine in my hospital were collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: 35 package inserts of Chinese patent medicine included warning words, and only 10 package inserts were in line with the standard completely. CONCLUSION: Enterprises, administration depart-. Ments, physicians, pharmacists and patients all should pay attention to the effects of warning words. The warning effects of it can be played really to promote rational and standard use of drugs.%目的:让中成药说明书的“警示语”真正发挥警示作用.方法:根据国家食品药品监督管理局对说明书内容要求,对我院242份中成药说明书中“警示语”项进行统计和分析.结果:有35份中成药说明书含有此项内容,完全符合规定的仅有10份.结论:生产企业、监管部门以及医师、药师和病人都应重视“警示语”的作用,使中成药的使用更加合理、规范.

  10. JinQi-Jiangtang tablet, a Chinese patent medicine, for pre-diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Jing

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-diabetes is a growing health concern where a large percentage of these patients develop full type 2 diabetes. Effective interventions on pre-diabetes can prevent or delay the occurrence or development of diabetes. Pharmaco-dynamics and pre-clinical of JinQi-Jiangtang tablets (JQJT suggest that it could be benefit for pre-diabetes. Methods/Design Randomized controlled trial (RCT is implemented in this study. The study term is 24 months (12 months for intervention and 12 months for follow up. Participants are recruited from four cities of China: Beijing, Tianjin, Xi'an and Nanning. Four hundred participants are randomized to treatment group (JQJT tablets and control group (Placebo; two hundred participants each. People being included in this study must have been diagnosed as pre-diabetes via western medicine criteria and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM criteria. The end-point indexes include: incidence of diabetes mellitus and reversion rate. Primary outcome indexes include: oral glucose tolerance test; insulin releasing test; glycosylated hemoglobin (HA1c. Secondary outcome indexes include: score of the Short Form 36 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36; score of TCM symptoms; blood lipid test. Indexes of safety include: general medical examination; blood and urine regular test; electrocardiogram (ECG, liver function (ALT and renal function (BUN, Creatinine test; record of adverse event, such as headache, faint, etc. Qualitative control will be implemented and a number of standard operating processes (SOPs will be formed throughout the study: laboratory quality control measures; compliance control for researchers and participants; researcher training before study; supervision; investigational drug management and others. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of JinQi JiangTang (JQJT tablets for the treatment of patients with pre-diabetes. Trial registration Chinese clinical trials

  11. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  12. A evolução do sistema internacional de propriedade intelectual: proteção patentária para o setor farmacêutico e acesso a medicamentos Evolution of the international intellectual property rights system: patent protection for the pharmaceutical industry and access to medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Costa Chaves

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a evolução do sistema internacional de direitos de propriedade intelectual em três fases e as implicações para saúde pública, especialmente para a implementação de políticas de acesso a medicamentos. Durante a primeira fase, caracterizada pelas Convenções de Paris e de Berna, os países signatários determinavam os campos tecnológicos que seriam protegidos ou não. Na segunda fase, com a implementação do Acordo TRIPS pela OMC, os países são obrigados a garantir proteção patentária a todos os campos tecnológicos, inclusive para a indústria farmacêutica. Dentro das suas respectivas legislações nacionais, os países também têm a oportunidade de implementar o acesso às flexibilidades do TRIPS para medicamentos. Com a terceira fase, caracterizada pela negociação e assinatura de acordos comerciais bilaterais e regionais, os países terão que implementar medidas TRIPS-plus que podem ter implicações negativas para as flexibilidades do TRIPS e para políticas de acesso a medicamentos. Os autores concluem que a proposta atual de sistema internacional de direitos de propriedade intelectual favorece os direitos dos detentores de patentes, que deveriam estar em equilíbrio com os direitos à saúde para a população.This article discusses the evolution of the international intellectual property rights system in three phases and the implications for public health, especially for the implementation of policies for access to medicines. During the first phase, characterized by the Paris and Berne Convention, signatory countries defined which technological fields should be protected (or not. Under the second phase, with the enforcement of the WTO TRIPS Agreement, countries are obliged to grant patent protection for all technological fields, including for the pharmaceutical industry. Within their national legislations, countries also have the opportunity to implement access to TRIPS flexibilities for medicines

  13. 专利制度与中药资源保护的衔接分析%Analysis of connection between patent system and protection of traditional Chinese medicine resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹丽荣

    2013-01-01

    中药是我国宝贵的民族财富,中药资源具有相当的商业开发和利用价值,具有转换为商业利益的潜力,可以成为开发某种新药的材料或者给予开发某种新药以技术启示.一些发达国家依靠专利制度,利用我国的中药资源获得可供专利保护的客体,我们却承担着由此带来的代价.2008年新修订的《专利法》中增加了对利用遗传资源完成的发明创造申请专利的相关规定,但目前我国《专利法》中无法对上述情形进行相应的规制.本文对专利制度与我国中药资源保护如何衔接进行了探讨,从专利制度的视野对中药资源的保护提出了相应的对策和建议.%Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is the treasure of China nation. Under the new historical conditions, TCM meets with unprecedented opportunities and challenges in a new situation of global economy, especially legal protection of intellectual property of TCM after China joined WTO. As knowing the handicap of R&D of new drugs, more and more scientists began to focus on natural medicine. Consequently TCM gets more attention than ever. Based on advanced technology, some developed countries extract active ingredients or compounds from the traditional medicines or medicinal animals and plants coming from China to apply for patents. Amended patent law issued in 2008 added the paragraph in Article 5, "No patent right shall be granted for any invention-creation where acquisition or use of the genetic resources, on which the development of the invention-creation relies, is not consistent with the provisions of the laws or administrative regulations". However, there are no provisions in this Law on invention-creation which relies on resources of TCM , because genetic resources are essentially different from TCM resources. This paper discusses how to protect TCM resources in the patent law indirectly, and gives suggestion as well.

  14. Ending the Patenting Monopoly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Abramowicz; John F. Duffy

    2009-01-01

    .... This patenting monopoly, which is almost certainly undesirable, is now being eroded. Rising global trade and technological sophistication have increased the number of patent filings in every country...

  15. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  16. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  17. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  18. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  19. Protecting new ideas and inventions in nanomedicine with patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj; Bawa, S R; Maebius, Stephen B; Flynn, Ted; Wei, Chiming

    2005-06-01

    New paradigms are shrinking our world. Tiny is in and patents are essential for success in nanomedicine. In fact, patents are already shaping this nascent and rapidly evolving field. For the past decade a swarm of patent applications pertaining to nanomedicine has been arriving at the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). As companies develop products and processes and begin to seek commercial applications for their inventions, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be vital to their long-term survival. As we enter the "golden era" of medicine, or nanomedicine, in the next decade with the field maturing and the promised breakthroughs accruing, patents will generate licensing revenue, provide leverage in deals and mergers, and reduce the likelihood of infringement. Because development of nanobiotechnology- and nanomedicine-related products is extremely research intensive, without the market exclusivity offered by a US patent, development of these products and their commercial viability in the marketplace will be significantly hampered. In this article, we highlight critical issues relating to patenting nanomedicine products. Effects of the "nanopatent land grab" that is underway in nanomedicine by "patent prospectors" are examined as startups and corporations compete to lock up broad patents in these critical early days. Because nanomedicine is multidisciplinary, patenting presents unique opportunities and poses numerous challenges. Although patents are being sought more actively and enforced more vigorously, the entire patent system is under greater scrutiny and strain, with the PTO continuing to struggle with evaluating nanomedicine-related patent applications.

  20. Study on the Regularity of Prescription for IgA Nephropathy Basing on Text Mining Technique with Chinese Patent Medicine and West Medicine%基于文本挖掘技术的中成药及西药治疗IgA肾病用药规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡峰; 郑光; 郭洪涛; 姜淼; 谭勇; 杨静; 张弛; 张志华; 吕爱平

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the data to reveal meaningful regularity of Chinese patent medicine and west medicine. Methods: Papers from large data sets of IgA nephropathy were used to set the Acess database. And then,these articles were used to data processing by the SQL. After article denoise,the regulation of IgA nephropathy was analyzed about the TCM medicine and the west medicine. Results:Glucoside Tripterygium Total, Huangkui Capsule ,hemostasis tablets,Bailing Capsule were the commonly used Chinese patent medicine. Im-munosuppressive agents, ACEI, glucocorticoids, ARB were of the core west medicine. Glucoside Tripterygium Total, Huangkui Capsule and ACEI,ARB,glucocorticoids were often used in conjunction with Chinese patent medicine and western medicine. Conclusion:The result,which provides an objective basis with text mining technique, not only reflects the actual clinical use,but also expands the scope of clinical medicine for the scientific and rational use of Chinese proprietary medicine and west medicine.%目的 利用文本挖掘技术探索中成药及西药治疗IgA肾病的用药规律.方法在中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)中采集治疗IgA肾病的相关文献,建立Access数据库,运用SQL对数据进行处理,结合人工降噪后,分析中成药及西药治疗IgA肾病的用药规律.结果雷公藤多苷片、黄葵胶囊、止血片、百令胶囊等依次为治疗IgA肾病的高频中成药;免疫抑制剂、ACEI、糖皮质激素、ARB等依次为治疗IgA肾病的高频西药;雷公藤多苷片、黄葵胶囊和ACEI、ARB、糖皮质激素分别是联用时常用的中成药和西药.结论文本挖掘能够分析中成药及西药治疗IgA肾病的用药规律,获得的结果不仅反映了临床用药实际,而且拓展了临床用药的范畴与思路,为科学合理地使用中成药及西药提供了客观依据.

  1. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  2. Are There Enduring Patents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Elliot; Olivastro, Dominic

    1985-01-01

    A study comparing citations received by patents in given year to number received in subsequent years found that, even though influential patents remain influential, both highly and infrequently cited patents age at same rate. Distribution of patents by number of citations received is stable over time. (17 references) (EJS)

  3. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  4. Meta Analysis on Chinese Patent Medicine in Prevention and Cure of Hepatic Lesion Caused by Anti-tuberculosis Drugs%中医成方防治抗结核药物致肝损害的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏华

    2012-01-01

    目的:系统评价中医成方防治抗结核药致肝损害的疗效和安全性.方法:电子检索2000年1月到2011年7月的Medline、Embase、Cochrane library、中国生物医学光盘数据库,万方、维普数据库,并手工检索相关文献,纳入治疗组为中医成方,对照组为常规保肝治疗,逐个对其进行质量评价和资料提取,用RevMan 4.2软件进行Meta分析.结果:最终纳入6个半随机对照试验,共372例患者,纳入研究质量均为C级.中医成方组肝功正常率优于常规l保肝治疗(P<0.01,OR-13.50,95%CI 6.89~26.46);未发现严重不良反应.结论:中医成方防治肝损害效果优于常规保肝治疗,且无明显不良反应.但由于纳入研究的方法学质量较低、观察时间较短,且存在中西医结合诊断不标准、中药使用不规范等问题,可能影响评价结果,尚需更多高质量、长周期、中西医结合规范化研究以系统评价其疗效.%Objective: To evaluate systemically the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicine in prevention and cure hepatic lesion caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs. Method :Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM, VIP and WanFang data from 2000 to May, 2011 were searched online and the literatures published or not were manually retrieved. The papers on Chinese patent medicine were divided into treatment group while routine treatment were in control group, all were undergoing the quality analysis and information extraction. RevMan 4.2 was used for data analysis. Finally six Quasi-randomized control trials involving 372 patients were recruited. Methodological qualities were all graded C. Result: After 1-6 months' treatment, normal rate of liver function in Chinese patent medicine group were higher than in routine treatment (P <0.01, OR=13.50, 95% CI 6.89-26.46) without serious side effects. Conclusion: Chinese patent medicine is better than routine treatment in prevention and cure hepatic lesion caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs

  5. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    OpenAIRE

    Namdeo R Jadhav; Trupti Powar; Santosh Shinde; Sameer Nadaf

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have...

  6. Analysis on the Factors Influencing the Curative Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine%剖析影响中成药疗效的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌钢

    2015-01-01

    The factors influencing the curative ef ect of Chinese traditional medicines are medicines variety and quality,Chinese herbal medicine quality of germplasm resources,Chinese herbal medicine planting cultivation and recovery processing,Chinese herbal medicine recovery processing,Chinese herbal medicine standardized cultivation,preparation technique,form,materials and making preparation, Chinese medicine compatibility between preparations.%影响中成药疗效的因素主要有中药材品种及质量、中药材种质资源质量、中药材种植栽培与采收加工、中药材采收加工、中药材规范化种植、炮制技术、剂型、辅料及制备工艺、中药成方制剂之间的配伍。

  7. Utilization of Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system in Beijing Hospital during 2008 -2010%2008-2010年北京医院呼吸系统用中成药用药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张碧华; 高素强; 金鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    目的:对近3年北京医院(以下简称我院)呼吸系统用中成药的临床用药情况进行研究,了解该类中成药的用药特点和变化趋势,以期为临床合理用药提供参考.方法:对我院2008-2010年呼吸系统用中成药的销售金额及构成比、用药频度(defined daily dose system,DDDs)和科室用药分布情况进行统计分析.结果:我院呼吸系统用中成药的销售金额呈现逐年上升趋势,各类药的销售金额及构成比相对固定,其中止咳平喘剂和解表剂分列第一和第二位,在临床各科室的用药集中度相对较低.结论:中成药在呼吸系统疾病的防治中有着重要的地位.医院所选择的用药品种应基本能够满足临床需求,同时也需兼顾患者的经济承受能力,注重合理用药,以保障临床用药的安全、有效和经济.%Objective; To investigate the clinical utilization status of Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system in Beijing Hospital during recent three years and the use characteristics and development tendency, so as to provide references for rational drug use. Methods: The Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system between 2008 and 2010 were statistically analyzed in respects of consumption sum and drug categories, defined daily dose system (DDDs) and use characteristics in different departments. Results: The consumption sum of Chinese patent medicines for respiratory system increased year by year during 2008 -2010. The consumption sum and constituent ratio for various drugs were relatively fixed, antitussive and antiasthmatic drugs and diaphoretic drugs were the first leading two places, and the concentration ratio of drug use was lower in clinical departments. Conclusion; Traditional Chinese medicines play an important role in the therapy of respiratory system diseases. The use of Chinese patent medicines in hospital should meet the requirements of clinical treatments, and also needs to consider the affording ability of

  8. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  9. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001560.htm Patent ductus arteriosus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus ...

  10. Time-lapse microscopy patent upheld in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, David

    2017-02-01

    A case for revoking Stanford University's European patent 2430454 on time-lapse microscopy was set out in Reproductive BioMedicine Online by Sterckx et al. in 2014, on the grounds that the patent claimed a method of diagnosis that was excluded under a provision of the European Patent Convention. An opposition at the European Patent Office in which this ground was raised has recently concluded with a decision that the patent is not excluded from patentability under European patent law and is to be upheld. An appeal from this decision has been filed, but the possibility of the decision being overturned is, in this author's opinion, very limited. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 195首治疗乳腺增生中药专利复方的用药规律分析%Study on Medication Patterns of Chinese Patent Medicine among 195 Breast Hyperplasia Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 邓家刚; 蒋筱; 范丽丽; 赵晓芳; 郭超峰

    2013-01-01

    目的:应用数据挖掘技术中关联规则、聚类等方法分析乳腺增生中药专利复方配伍规律。方法:检索治疗乳腺增生中药专利复方,排除外用中药及中西药物合用的复方。对入选的中药专利复方进行术语规范化等处理,抽取信息、建立EXCEL表,应用数据分析软件包R2.15.2对数据进行关联规则分析,网络分析软件Cytoscape2.8.3聚类分析组方配伍规律。结果:195首治疗乳腺增生的中药专利复方中,发现配伍频数较高的中药为柴胡、香附、当归、夏枯草、白芍、栝蒌等;而出现频数极低且不常用的中药为八角枫叶、白鹤草等;常用的药对为柴胡-当归、莪术-三棱、乳香-没药等;强关联规则提示以柴胡、当归等核心药物组成的逍遥散为治疗乳腺增生的基本方;聚类分析结果发现连翘-土茯苓-三桠苦-功劳木-鸡血藤等“中药社团”。结论:通过对药物频数、药对、强关联规则、药物聚类的分析,可以揭示乳腺增生组方的配伍规律,为临床优化处方、提高疗效提供参考依据。%This study was aimed to reveal the medication patterns of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia based on association rules and clustering of data mining technology. Articles on Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia were retrieved from databases. External formulas or those mixed with western drugs were excluded. Terminologies in the selected formulas were standardized. Information was extracted to build excelltables. Association rules analysis and cluster analysis were used to reveal the medication patterns of Chi-nese patent medicine in the treatment of breast hyperplasia with software R2.15.2 and Cytoscape 2.8.3. The results showed that Chinese medicinals with higher frequency in 195 formulas were Radix bupleuri, Rhizoma cyperi, Chinese Angelica, Selfheal, White Peony Root, Trichosanthes

  12. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Mao; Chung, Vincent C.H.; Jin-Qiu Yuan; Yuan-Yuan Yu; Zu-Yao Yang; Xin-Yin Wu; Jin-Ling Tang

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR) = 0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33–0.78), myocar...

  13. Intellectual property rights and patents in perspective of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anand; Singh, Neetu

    2012-01-01

    Ayurveda is getting its due recognition as a rationale system of medicine worldwide despite the fact that medical and scientific fraternity of the globe has very strong opposite opinion regarding safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines. Meanwhile, provisions of Intellectual Property Rights under World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Patents have attracted many individuals and organizations to explore possibilities of commercial benefits with Ayurvedic traditional knowledge. Although rules are not favoring to grant a patent on prior published knowledge, biopiracy managed grant of Patent on knowledge of Ayurvedic medicinal plants which has been successfully checked with references of data base of Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL). Current provisions of the Patent law of India are obstructive in nature for getting patent on Ayurvedic medicines. If we have to invite researchers from basic science to ensure quality, safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic medicines, there is an urgent need to amend laws of patent with pragmatic promotional policies. This will encourage more patents on numerous pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmaceutical products based on Ayurveda. As every action of today's world is based on economic criteria so why stakeholders of Ayurveda should be deprived of it. New inventions would drive acceptance of Ayurveda as a global system of medicine.

  14. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  15. Annotated chemical patent corpus: A gold standard for text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Akhondi (Saber); A.G. Klenner (Alexander G.); C. Tyrchan (Christian); A.K. Manchala (Anil K.); K. Boppana (Kiran); D. Lowe (Daniel); M. Zimmermann (Marc); S.A.R.P. Jagarlapudi (Sarma A. R. P.); R. Sayle (Roger); J.A. Kors (Jan); C. Muresan (Cornelia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractExploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting poin

  16. India: Court upholds patent law denying patents for slightly modified versions of existing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Madhavi

    2007-12-01

    In August 2007, the Madras High Court struck down a petition by the Swiss pharmaceutical company Novartis to declare the anti-evergreening provision in Indian patent law invalid. Evergreening is the practice of effectively extending the patent on a drug by filing a new patent for a marginal modification to that drug, such as a change in its shape, dosing range or color. The Court's decision is critical for global access to essential medicines in the form of affordable generic drugs from India

  17. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  18. Chinese Medicine and Prescription Analysis on Chronic Constipation Based on Clinical and Patent Literature%中医临床及专利文献中的慢性便秘方药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文林; 谢松; 曾莉; 潘苏华

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the general situation of studies on Chinese medicine and prescription for prevention and treatment of chronic constipation from journal and patent literature. Methods: Taking the Chinese biomedical literature database, Chinese periodical database of traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese patent database as retrieval source, the literatures concerning about TCM for prevention and treatment of chronic constipation from 1980 to July 2011 were retrieved. Results: 877 effective literatures from January 1980 to July 2011, including "Chinese medicine" and "chronic constipation" in abstract or full text, 465 Chinese medicine and 338 prescription were analysised. Some medicine such as Chinses Angelica, Chinese rhubarb and Hemp seed in Chinese medicine or Cannabis pill, Buzhong Yiqi Decoction, Zengye Chengqi Decoction, etc, were in high frequency. Conclusion: the traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of chronic constipation in Yin nourishing liquid increasing, replenishing qi and blood, liver qi, invigorating spleen, promoting blood circulation and Removing Blood Stasis Decoction for warming kidney were effective, some classical or famous prescription were widely used in clinical%目的:统计中医临床及专利文献中的常用治疗慢性便秘的中药及复方,为中药防治慢性便秘的新药开发提供参考.方法:以中国生物医学文献数据库、中国中医药期刊文献数据库及中国专利数据库为检索对象,对相关文献阅读、分析后统计有效方药.结果:3个数据库中共纳入1979年1月-2011年6月间在全文或摘要字段中含有“中药”、“便秘”、“脾约”的877篇有效文献,统计单味中药465种,经方或名方338个.(制)大黄、当归、火麻仁、白术、(制)甘草等在单味药中频次较高,麻子仁丸、补中益气汤、增液承气汤、大承气汤等基本方在复方中出现频次较高.结论:中药防治慢性便秘以滋阴增液、

  19. Analysis of the Utilization of National Essential Drugs (Chinese Patent Medicines) in 18 Second-grade Hospitals%六省区18家二级医院国家基本药物(中成药)使用情况调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓玲; 王香平; 王育琴; 王晓燕; 彭迎春; 白向荣; 元华龙

    2013-01-01

    目的:为《国家基本药物目录·基层医疗卫生机构配备使用部分》(2009版)(以下简称“2009年版国家基本药物目录”)中中成药部分的调整提供参考.方法:按照经济发达程度,选取广东省、江苏省、山东省、湖北省、四川省和宁夏回族自治区六省(区)的18家二级医院的中成药药品目录,分别与2009年版国家基本药物目录(中成药)和所在省(区)的基本药物增补目录(以下简称“省中成药增补目录”)进行比较,分析国家中成药基本药物、各省中成药增补目录和各医院2009年版国家基本药物目录外(以下简称“目录外”)中成药品种的使用情况.结果:国家中成药基本药物在18家医院的使用率平均为45%,六省(区)增补中成药目录的使用率为14%~41%,各医院目录外中成药品种使用比例平均为73%.结论:2009年版国家基本药物目录中成药部分的遴选与临床需求存在一定差距,该目录尚无法满足我国二级医院的医疗需求,特别是经济较发达地区.%OBJECTIVE: To provide reference for the adjustment of Chinese patent medicines in 2009 edition of Primary Medical Institutions Equipped Part · National Essential Drug List (called 2009 edition of National Essential Drug List for short). METHODS: Chinese patent medicine list of 18 second-grade hospitals were selected from 6 provinces such as Guangdong province, Jiang-su province, Shandong province, Hubei province, Sichuan province and Ningxia Hui autonomous region. 18 lists were compared to 2009 edition of National Essential Drug List (Chinese patent medicine) and supplementary lists of 6 provinces. The utilization of national essential drugs (Chinese patent medicines), Chinese patent medicines supplementary lists of 6 provinces and Chinese patent medicines out of the list were analyzed. RESULTS: 45% national essential Chinese patent medicines were used in 18 hospitals, and the percentages of supplementary lists

  20. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  1. Clinical Efficacy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Patent Medicine and Physical Therapy on Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation:A Clinical Observation of 200 Cases%中药专利方剂联合物理疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症200例临床观察*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德元

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Traditional Chinese medicine patent medicine and physical therapy on lumbar disc herniation related research. Methods: 300 patients of lumbar disc herniation were randomly divided into treat-ment and control group, 100 patients in each group. Patients were treated with Chinese traditional medicine patent medicine and physical therapy in treatment group, and physical therapy in control group, 7 days for a course. The pain severity (VAS score) changes and curative effect were observed. Results: The total effective rate 97.0% and 92.0% respectively in treatment and control group; the efficacy of the treatment group was better than that of the control group, with significant difference ( P<0.05). The pain severity score of VAS decreased both in treatment and the control group after treatment, with significant dif-ference (P<0.01); the lowering of VAS score in the treatment group was better thean that in the control group, and the differ-ence was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chinese patent drugs and physical therapy can provide exact effect on lumbar disc herniation, relieve back pain symptoms apparently and improve quality of life.%  目的:观察中药专利方剂联合物理疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症的临床疗效。方法:将300例腰椎间盘突出症患者随机分为治疗组200例和对照组各100例。治疗组采用中药专利方剂联合物理治疗,对照组采用物理治疗,两组均以7 d为1个疗程。观察比较两组患者治疗前后疼痛程度(VAS评分)的变化及临床疗效。结果:总有效率治疗组为97.0%,对照组率为92.0%,两组比较,两组95%CI重叠,差异无统计学意义。结论:中药专利方剂联合物理疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出症有较好疗效,可明显缓解患者腰腿痛症状,提高生活质量。

  2. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  3. Universities and Patent Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  4. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  5. Evaluation of the Add-On Effect of Chinese Patent Medicine for Patients with Stable or Unstable Angina: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese herbal medicine (CHM has been widely used as an adjunct to western medicine in treating angina in China. We carried out this systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of CHM on top of western medicine for angina. This meta-analysis included 46 randomized control trials with 4212 patients. For trials that included stable angina patients, the CHM group had significant lower incidence of total heart events (relative risk (RR=0.50, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.33–0.78, myocardial infarction (RR=0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, heart failure (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.15–0.91, and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.71 than that of control group. For trials that included unstable angina patients, CHM led to significantly lower occurrence of total heart events (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.32–0.66, myocardial infarction (RR=0.37, 95% CI 0.26–0.54, and angina (RR=0.36, 95%CI 0.26–0.51. Likewise, for trials that included stable or unstable angina patients, the rates of myocardial infarction (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.17–0.68 and angina (RR=0.46, 95% CI 0.30–0.70 in CHM group were significantly lower than that in control group. In conclusion, CHM is very likely to be able to improve the survival of angina patients who are already receiving western medicine.

  6. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  7. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart problem ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal ...

  8. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    2 Defining indigenous people, traditional knowledge, patents and the concept of biopiracy .... However, under the Plant Patent Act, patent rights were granted only to. 24 ...... Countries like Costa Rica, Brazil, Panama, Thailand or Philippines.

  9. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdeo R Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have been widely designed to increase its bioavailability and for treatment of cancers like breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so on. The common nanoformulated herbal medicines are Panax ginseng, Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum, Withania somnifera, Gymnema sylvestre, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and the like, having a profound future potential.

  10. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  11. A Patent Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  12. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    chosen a different approach to integrate in patent law similar policy considerations. Observing how this issue was debated and solved differently is in itself important, but it also allows questioning whether in future patent reforms serious consideration should not be given to alternative solutions....

  13. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  14. Truth and falsity of patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-15

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  15. Drugmakers struggle with Indian patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies continue their legal battles for intellectual property protection for their drugs in India after the country's patent office revoked Pfizer's local patent for Sutent (sunitinib malate).

  16. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recogniti...

  17. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. 治疗脑血管疾病中成药物金属元素的模糊分类%Vague categorization of the metal elements in Chinese patent medicines for treating cerebrovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽琴; 王军民; 董顺福

    2006-01-01

    物中宏量和微量元素丰富,但不同药物中含量有所差别,宏量元素含量较多的药物是脑塞通片、强力天麻杜仲丸、通塞脉片和大活络丹;微量元素含量较丰富的是通塞脉片和脉通.②将每个样品中10种金属元素含量数据、铜/锌、钙/镁比值作为指标,进行统计指标的标准化处理,并用最大树的方法进行聚类分析,在r=0.65时,有5种药物聚类相似,相似的药物有脑塞通片、强力天麻杜仲丸、通塞脉片、脉通和消栓通络胶囊.③当r=0.85时,有3种药物聚类相似,分别是强力天麻杜仲丸、通塞脉片和脉通;r=0.95时,有两种药物微量元素聚类分析极为相似,分别是通塞脉片和脉通.从药效上看,通塞脉片和脉通均具有增加血流量,改善血流作用,在治疗脑血管疾病中有很多相同点.结论:药物在治疗过程中微量元素应有其相似的作用,聚类分析相关系数大的中成药在治疗脑血管疾病中疗效相似程度也很大.相关系数较小的药物在治疗过程中,药物的疗效相似点也少.%BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies indicated that trace elements were closely correlated with the causes and pathogenesis of cerebrovascular disease, many trace elements play a beneficial role in maintaining the cerebrovascular and cardiovascular functions and structures, the trace elements needed in human body all exist in Chinese patent medicines, and different Chinese patent medicines contain different trace elements.OBJECTIVE: To make vague category of metal elements in 10 kinds of Chinese patent medicines commonly used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in clinic, and find the similarity of the contents of trace elementsand macroelements among the medicines, so as to provide evidence for researching the role of trace elements in the medicines and the correlation with the treatment of cerebrovascular disease.DESIGN: Ten kinds of Chinese patent medicines were powdered and accurately weighed

  19. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  20. The dynamics of patent citations

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of patent citations as a measure of patent "quality" increased dramatically in recent years. I estimate the hazard of patent citation, and find evidence of unobserved heterogeneity. Hazard estimation provides a means to separate patent quality from citation "inflation."

  1. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  2. Patent law for the dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan Feng; Liu, Josephine

    2013-12-01

    An exciting discovery in the laboratory may translate to a commercial product. How does the patent system fit into the picture? We first discuss the circumstances under which an invention is granted a patent. What is the purpose of a patent and what are the functions of the patent system? Who can apply for a patent? What makes an invention patentable? A patent does not automatically grant a right to make or sell a product. This is because multiple patents can cover a single pharmaceutical product. Understanding the patent landscape covering a product of interest is key to evaluating the risk of infringing another's exclusivity rights. We use a hypothetical example relating to skin cancer to guide a discussion of patent law.

  3. Patent indicators: a window to pharmaceutical market success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Hu, Yuanjia; Zheng, Mingli; Wang, Yitao

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceutical success in the market is the best reward for pharmaceutical investors undergoing the lengthy, costly and risky process of pharmaceutical Research and Development (R&D). Drugs with high market revenues trigger fierce competition between pharmaceutical enterprises, as is demonstrated by the increasing Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) cases focusing on seizing the best-selling products. On the other hand, patents, as the best shield for innovative drugs against generic drugs, become a powerful weapon for pharmaceutical enterprises to win the substantial returns generated by market exclusivity. Patents seem to be directly responsible for the commercial success of new medicines. In this context, it is of great significance to find out the empirical associations between pharmaceutical commercial success and patents. By comprehensively analysing 127 drugs marketed in the USA and their 621 American patents, this article identifies the evidence to link various patent indicators with pharmaceutical sales in actual market.

  4. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Justus Baron; Tim Pohlmann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical investigation of the effectiveness of...

  5. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  6. [Impact of the expiry of the patent on quality and price of medicines at hospital: Study of five anticancer drugs from 2008 to 2015 at the Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siorat, V; Raybaut, C; Poisson, N; Paubel, P

    2017-01-01

    Anticancer drugs were in 2005 the first expenditure item of the hospital drugs. Ten years later, it is noted that the placing on the market of generic drugs has led to a strong decrease of their price. To determine whether this decrease comes at the expense of product quality, a price-quality ratio trend study of five anticancer drugs was performed at AP-HP. This work concerns docetaxel, oxaliplatin, gemcitabine, irinotecan and paclitaxel, and focus on the transition period between monopoly conditions and competitive situation (2008 to 2015). The price is set by calculating the cost per milligram of each specialty. Quality is evaluated by the average of quality marks obtained during the analysis of the tenders received in the purchasing procedures on four assessment criteria: ready for use form, stability of the solution after dilution, safety use and labeling. Between 2008 and 2015, the price per milligram of these anticancer drugs decreases, following the placing on the market of generic drugs. The quality of the tenders is maintained and even improved in many cases. On average, generic rating quality, lower than that of the originators in 2008, are now the highest. This study allows an objective basis of the effects of the drop in patent originator medicines. The placing on the market of generic drugs has a double positive result for the buyer: strong price cuts, parallel to the quality improvement, through the example of five anticancer drugs studied. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  8. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  9. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation, the gover......This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  10. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  11. 广东省三城市居民中成药用药安全现状调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of the Medication Safety Status of Chinese Patent Medicines for Residents in 3 Cit-ies of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓慧; 宫瑞松; 姚茜; 侯亚静; 黎颖欣; 赵长鹰

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the medication safety status of Chinese patent medicines and related influence factors for residents in Guangdong province,and provide reference for better guarantee of medication safety for residents. METHODS:Questionnaires were randomly sent out among the residents in 3 cities of Guangdong province. The cognition,utilization habit and safety awareness,the ways to get the related information of Chinese patent medicines and purchase way were surveyed and ana-lyzed statistically. RESULTS:Totally 530 questionnaires were sent out and 514 valid questionnaires were collected with effective re-covery of 96.98%. There are 64.01% of respondents didn’t know the composition of Chinese patent medicines;50.39% didn’t know the contraindications of Chinese patent medicines;48.44% didn’t know the adverse drug reactions of Chinese patent medi-cines that they were using;23.47% had once broken the tablets when took them;65.18% didn’t know that the old people had less dosage than teenagers and 44.75% didn’t know that Chinese patent medicines couldn’t be taken with some western medicines. There were many ways to get the related information of Chinese patent medicines and purchase them,and the main sources were from doctors and pharmacists in drug stores;90.08% had purchased Chinese patent medicines in drug stores. CONCLUSIONS:During daily medication of Chinese patent medicines,the biggest problem for residents is that the weak awareness of medication safety,unreasonable medication behavior and habit caused by lack of related knowledge of medication safety,which may cause safety risks or happen medication safety problems. Therefore,the residents’education of self-medical knowledge should be intensi-fied,the management of prescription in drug stores should be enhanced,pharmaceutical service function of pharmacists should be played,supervision management of drug advertisement should be strengthened and the contents in drug instructions should be

  12. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  13. Generic and biosimilar medicines: quid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Once intellectual property protection, data and marketing exclusivity of reference medicines have expired, generic medicines and biosimilar medicines can enter the off-patent market. This market entry is conditional on the approval of marketing authorization, pricing and reimbursement. Given that there tends to be confusion surrounding generic and biosimilar medicines, this Editorial introduces basic concepts related to generic and biosimilar medicines and presents the different studies and articles included in this supplement dedicated to generic and biosimilar medicines.

  14. 盐酸氟西汀配合中成药治疗孕中期引产产妇产后抑郁的研究%The treatment of postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester with fluoxetine hydrochloride and Chinese traditional patent medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹钰荣; 吴莉娜; 张淼

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨盐酸氟西汀联合中成药治疗中孕引产产妇产后抑郁的临床疗效和不良反应.方法 将46例孕中期引产产妇产后抑郁患者随机分为研究组(氟西汀20 mg/d配合中成药组)和对照组(单用氟西汀20 mg/d组),每组各23例,共治疗6周.用汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)评定疗效,用药物不良反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果 治疗6周后,研究组与对照组总有效率分别为95.6%和95.6%,两组比较差异无显著性.研究组起效快,与对照组比较,在治疗的第1周末及出现显著差异(P0.05).结论 盐酸氟西汀联合中成药治疗孕中期引产产妇产后抑郁比单用盐酸氟西汀起效快,药物副作用小.%Objective To investigate the curative effect and adverse reaction of fluoxetine hydrochloride in combination with Chinese traditional patent medicine in the treatment of postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester. Methods Forty - six patients with postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester were randomly divided into fluoxetine - Chinese traditional patent medicine treatment group ( 23 patients ) and fluoxetine treatment group ( 23 patients ), Patients in both groups were treated for 6 wks. The efficacy and the adverse effect of the treatment were evaluated with Hamilton depression rating scale ( HAMD ) and adverse drug reactions scale ( TESS ) respectively. Results after 6 wks treatment, the total effective rate in both groups was 95. 6%. Compared with fluoxetine treatment group, rapid effect was observed in fluoxetine - Chinese traditional patent medicine treatment group at wk 1 ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Fluoxetine hydrochloride combined with Chinese traditional patent medicine effects quickly and presents less adverse effect for the treatment of postpartum depression after induction of labour in second trimester.

  15. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  16. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  17. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  18. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  19. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  20. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  1. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  2. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development.

  3. Patent monopoly : protecting your ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.B. [Bennett Jones LLB, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    A form of intellectual property, patents can be bought and sold, thereby having a lot of financial value. The petroleum industry is a sector very involved with patent protection. At some time, it is expected that most technical companies will be involved in obtaining patent protection or busy defending themselves against a patent suit. In this paper, the author focussed on the procedure to obtain patent protection. Progressing from the basic facts concerning patents, the author then briefly described the necessary steps in the procedure. The author began by distinguishing the three major intellectual properties of use in the petroleum industry, namely patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Words, symbols or designs, including the various combinations of those, which distinguish the services of one company from those of another, are considered trademarks. Creative works, on the other hand, are protected under copyrights from being copied without permission. Inventions are protected by patents. What should be known about inventions was the focus of the next section in the presentation, followed by a section entitled: seeking patent protection: the first steps. The filing of the formal patent applications was discussed, then the emphasis was placed on after filing: the examination. The issued patent, which can be enforced against competitors, was the very last section in the presentation.

  4. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  5. [Specificities of patent protection in the pharmaceutical industry: modalities and traits of intellectual property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Anna Haydée Lanzillotti; Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães; de Souza, Cristina Gomes

    2008-06-01

    Different forms of protection for inventions in the pharmaceutical industry point to strategies for the perpetuation of patent protection. Based on a literature review showing the specificities of patenting in the industry, the article provides a brief history of drug patents in Brazil, a discussion of patentable and non-patentable inventions, and the modalities and traits of patent protection that aim to extend the temporary monopoly granted under the patent. Such strategies include patents targeting polimorphs and optical isomers of drugs and drug combinations and specific clinical preparations, increasingly present in the drug patent claims filed by pharmaceutical companies. The study's objective is to discuss the specificities of drug patent claims in order to help develop expertise in the area and discuss the impact of expanding the scope of patent protection. In conclusion, while the tendency to expand towards more a permissive protective scope could produce opportunities for Brazilian national inventors, it could also be harmful to a policy for access to medicines.

  6. "To patent or not to patent? the case of Novartis' cancer drug Glivec in India".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabble, Ravinder; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2014-01-06

    Glivec (imatinib mesylate), produced by the pharmaceutical company Novartis, is prescribed in the case of chronic myeloid leukemia, one of the most common blood cancers in eastern countries. After more than a decade of legal battles surrounding its patentability, the Supreme Court of India gave its final decision on April 1st of 2013, rejecting the appeal of the Swiss giant drug manufacturer. In 2006, the Indian Patent Office first refused Glivec's patent under Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act arguing that it was only a modified version of an existing drug, Imatinib, and therefore that the drug was not innovative. Novartis replied filing legal challenges against the Indian government but the final verdict in April of 2013 ends the battle. Indeed, the Supreme Court stated that even if the bioavailability of the drug was improved, it did not demonstrate enhanced efficacy and that Glivec was not patentable. The research primarily focused on journal, newspaper and magazine articles relevant to the time frame of the lawsuit (from 1994 to 2013) as well as news searches through Google, Factiva, ProQuest, PubMed, and YouTube where press articles from court verdicts were obtained by using the following keywords: "India", "Novartis", "Glivec", "Patent", "Novartis Case", and "Supreme Court of India". The data sources were interpreted and analyzed according to the authors' own prior knowledge and understanding of the exigencies of the TRIPS Agreement. This case illuminates how India is interpreting international law to fit domestic public health needs. The Novartis case arguably sets an important precedent for the global pharmaceutical industry and ideally will help improve access to lifesaving medicines in the developing world by demanding that patient health needs supersede commercial interests. The Supreme Court of India's decision may affect the interpretation of the article of the TRIPS Agreement, which states members shall be free to determine the appropriate method

  7. Patent activity in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina, Streltsova

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnologies are a priority area of development due to the scope of global challenges and social problems they help to resolve. There is demand for updated information about the the current state of research and challenges faced. This paper discusses the potential of patent analysis and surveys the Russian biotechnological market with both quantitative and qualitative methods. It reviews key statistical and analytical findings of empirical research. The main finding is that the Russian bio...

  8. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of its PCAS technology, which allows a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) to call in air strikes using a specially configured Android tablet...rankings.aspx McGarry, B. (2015, September 18). JTAC calls in A-10 airstrike with android tablet. Retrieved from http://www.defensetech.org/2015/09/18/jtac...calls-in- a-10-airstrike-with- android -tablet/ 66 Moser, P. (2013). Patents and innovation: evidence from economic history. Journal of Economic

  9. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  10. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  11. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treatment in Very Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Gudmundsdottir, Anna; Maier, Rolf F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs frequently in very preterm infants and despite the lack of evidence for treatment benefits, treatment for PDA is common in neonatal medicine. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to study regional variations in PDA treatment...

  12. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  13. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  14. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    FOR TIlE MULTIPURPOSE 4.122,675 10/1978 Polyak ........................... 60/641 X UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 1761 Inventor...contained in Ohio 40"menf .of em W arat thot such use be fro* ffe Pivately owned riht. A 00300 AFSC ar*P7 79c R&LD RECORD (PatentI Abet...., lv PATENT

  15. Patent portfolios after myriad, how to fit in those new genes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Joseph F

    2013-08-08

    The recent US Supreme Court decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. clarified what is considered patentable subject matter. Patent claims limited to the composition of isolated nucleic acid sequences are now considered a product of nature and not patent eligible, while man-made variants of nucleic acid sequences may still be patentable. The decision is consistent with an earlier ruling in Mayo Collaborative Services v. Prometheus Laboratories., Inc. related to diagnostic methods. In Prometheus, the Court held that a method simply reciting known steps used to observe a natural event is not patentable subject matter. Taken together, the Court's decisions provide guidance as to what constitutes a natural phenomenon outside patent protection and what is considered a man-made creation worthy of protection. Despite misgivings, both decisions will provide impetus for increased genetic research and development of new therapeutics and diagnostics, especially in genomic and personalized medicine.

  16. How do patent rights affect regulatory approvals and data exclusivity rights for pharmaceuticals in the EU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Peter; Van Keymeulen, Eveline

    2012-09-01

    This article sheds light on the relationship, or rather, absence of a relationship, between patent rights and regulatory approval procedures in the EU. The principle of 'patent linkage' has long been recognized and applied by regulatory authorities in the USA. The European Commission, however, opposes the idea of linking patent rights to marketing authorizations and pricing and reimbursement decisions. This position is grounded in Article 126 of Directive 2001/83 and is expected not to change anytime soon, given the clear reaffirmation thereof in the recent Sector Inquiry Report and Transparency Directive Proposal. Therefore, the European Medicines Agency or national authorities are not permitted to refuse approval and, likely, pricing and reimbursement of a generic when the innovative reference product is still protected by a patent. The authors, however, advocate that there are strong legal arguments for patent holders to challenge regulatory decisions that did not respect their patent rights before the competent national courts.

  17. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  18. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  19. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  20. Patent Literature Analysis of α - Glucosidase Inhibitor and Development Progress on Its Chinese Medicinal New Drug%α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂专利文献分析及其中药源新药开发进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚虹

    2012-01-01

    α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂是20世纪70年代后期研究开发的一类新型口服降血糖药物,具有作用温和持久、毒副作用小甚至无毒的优点,是近年来药物治疗糖尿病的研究热点之一.中药是我国特色的药物资源,从中药资源中寻找α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂的研究则是我国新药研究的特色.专利是新药开发产品化过程中标志性的知识产权和技术文献.通过相关中国专利及相关文献分析,综述中药源α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂新药开发的现状.%α-glucosidase inhibitor is a new oral hypoglycemic drug researched and developed in the late 1970s,with mild and persistent effect, little side - effect, even non - toxicity, which is one of the hot points of diabetic pharmacotherapy in recent years. The Chinese herbal medicine as the Chinese characteristics drug resource is becoming the new drug research way,it is our characteristics research to find a - glucosidase inhibitor from Chinese medicine. Patent is the key intellectual property and technical literature in the process of new drug development. By analyzing the relevant Chinese patents and literature, the development status quo of Chinese medicinal new drug of α - glucosidase is reviewed.

  1. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  2. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension...

  3. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  4. RRLC-Q-TOF-NS法测定安神类中成药、保健食品中14种非法添加的催眠类药物%Study on the analysis of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods by RRLC-Q-TOF-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自; 严小红; 张玉英

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a qualitative and quantitative analysis method of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods. Methods RRLC-Q-TOF-NS was as the detection method. The qualitative analysis was based on the retention time,ms spectrometer and ms/ms spectrometer. The quantitative analysis was based on the quasi-molecular ion peak areas of 14 hypnotic drugs. Results The related coefficients of 14 components were all above 0. 99,the recover factors were between 80% ~120%. The qualitative and quantitative analysis method of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods was established. Conclusion This method is accu-rate and less interference,the liner relationships and the recover factors of the quantitative results are all well,which is suitable for the analysis of illegally added 14 hypnotic drugs in Chinese traditional patent medicine and healthy foods.%目的:建立安神类中成药、保健食品中非法添加14种催眠类药物的定性和定量测定方法。方法使用RRLC-Q-TOF-NS作为检测方法,化合物准分子离子峰的保留时间、一级质谱和二级质谱作为定性依据;一级质谱准分子离子峰面积作为定量依据。结果建立安神类中成药、保健食品中非法添加14种催眠类药物的定性和定量检验测定方法,14种成分线性相关系数( r)均>0.99,回收率80%~120%。结论 RRLC-Q-TOF-NS法定性准确,干扰少,定量线性及回收率良好,适用于安神类中成药、保健食品非法添加催眠类药品的定性和定量检验。

  5. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  6. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  7. Natural compounds for solar photoprotection: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim R; Guimarães, Adriana G; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Araújo, Adriano A S; Nunes, Paula S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-04-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation has deleterious effects on human skin, including tanning, sunburn, cancer and connective tissue degradation (photoaging). Botanical antioxidants have been shown to be associated with reduced incidence of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging through their photoprotective profile. Here, the authors summarized therapeutic patent applications concerning the employment of medicinal plants on the technological development of a formulation with photoprotective or photoaging application. So, the patent search was conducted in the databases WIPO, Espacenet, USPTO and Derwent, using the keywords - photoaging, photoprotection and the IPC A61K 8/97 (cosmetics or similar cleaning supplies obtained from vegetable origin, for example, plant extracts) and A61K 36/00 (medicinal preparations of undetermined constitution containing material from algae, lichens, fungi or plants, or derivatives thereof, for example, traditional herbal medicines). We found 180 patents, out of which 25 were evaluated using inclusion criteria as application of natural products with photoprotective or photoaging application. We found that some patents related to the cosmetic compositions for improving skin wrinkle and either preventing or reducing the signs of photoaging and sunburn. The cosmetic compositions are manufactured in the form of a lotion, gel, soluble liquid, cream, essence, oil-in-water-type or water-in-oil-type formulation, containing the vegetal extracts as an active ingredient.

  8. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  9. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publication sponsored by ChinaPatent Agent(H.K.)Ltd. The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and has been edited and published in HongKong for distribution in China and abroad.

  10. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  11. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    , the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  12. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  13. Prometheus: the Supreme Court redefines the patentability of diagnostic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Andrew; Schmid, Cora L

    2012-12-01

    The United States Supreme Court recently issued an opinion regarding the patentability of claims directed to diagnostic methods in Mayo Collab. Service v. Prometheus Lab., Inc. In this opinion, the Supreme Court held that correlations between metabolite levels in the human body and either therapeutic efficacy or adverse effects are unpatentable laws of nature. It further found that a patent claim to a method including such a correlation is unpatentable if the remainder of the claim contains only conventional and well-known steps. The Prometheus decision creates uncertainty regarding the scope of patentable subject matter, particularly in the fields of diagnostic and personalized medicine, that will remain until future cases apply this new doctrine.

  14. 治疗心脑血管疾病中成药微量和常量元素含量与疗效的模糊分类法则%Contents of trace and constant elements and therapeutic effects of Chinese patent medicine on cardio-cerebral vascular disease: fuzzy classified principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董顺福; 刘洁; 韩丽琴; 赵文秀; 栾静

    2005-01-01

    ,确定论域上的模糊矩阵,得相关药物的相关系数.r=0.55时,有9种药物聚类相似;相类似药物:血栓心脉宁胶囊,步长脑心通胶囊,利心丸,心宝丸,强力天麻杜仲丸,通塞脉片,脉通胶囊,大活络丹,消栓通络胶囊;r=0.65时,有6种药物聚类相似,相似药物有:步长脑心通胶囊,心宝丸,强力天麻杜仲丸,通塞脉片,脉通胶囊,消栓通络胶囊;r=0.87时,有2种药物聚类相似,相似药物有:步长脑心通胶囊,心宝丸.结论:药物中微量、常量元素含量丰富,相关系数较大的药物,其药物疗效相似,揭示该类药物中微量、常量元素与药物疗效密切相关.本研究运用模糊分类方法从微量元素的角度讨论了常用治疗心脑血管疾病中成药的药效定量指标的相似性,为中成药的质量评价提供一种新的方法.%BACKGROUND: It is discovered that trace elements in Chinese patent medicine play an important role in pharmaceutical efficacy and structural analysis. A new topic has been formed gradually in a further research on pharmaceutical efficacy and effective components of Chinese patent medicine in the view of inorganic trace elements. The fuzzy classified study on the interrelationship between trace and constant elements of Chinese herbs and therapeutic effects is to discuss the trace-element action of drugs in the holistic aspect of trace elenent and research rather scientifically the holistic coordination among trace elements in Chinese herbs.OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of 21 kinds of trace and constant elements in Chinese patent medicines in the treatment of cardio-cerebral vascular disease. To study with fuzzy classified method the interdependence between trace, constant elements of drugs and therapeutic effects so as to provide a new approach for the quality evaluation of Chinese patent medicine.DESIGN: Testified observed study based on various Chinese patent medicines.SETTING: Chemistry teaching-research room in a

  15. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  16. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the...

  18. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  19. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  20. 77 FR 4887 - DOE Patent Licensing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 781 RIN 1990-AA41 DOE Patent Licensing Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its patent... patents or patent applications vested in the United States of America, as represented by or in the...

  1. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  2. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  3. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the re

  4. Patentes farmacêuticas e acessibilidade aos medicamentos no Brasil Pharmaceutical patents and the accessibility of drugs in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Bernardes Marques

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as complexas relações estabelecidas entre as patentes farmacêuticas e a acessibilidade aos remédios no Brasil, após a aprovação da nova Lei de Patentes 9279/96, em vigor desde abril de 1997. Esta lei tornou a patente extensível às invenções químico-farmacêuticas e aos microrganismos transgênicos. O tema é considerado tendo em conta duas abordagens específicas, porém integradas: a da política de ciência e tecnologia e a da política de saúde. A autora conclui assinalando as principais futuras conseqüências das atuais tendências internacionais - legais e regulatórias -, ressaltando que o Brasil deve preparar seu arcabouço legal para enfrentar as esperadas conseqüências negativas do patenteamento do genoma sobre o fluxo da informação científica e sobre o acesso aos medicamentos.Passage of Patent Law 9279/96, in effect since April 1997, has made relations between pharmaceutical patents and accessibility to medicine in Brazil complex. Under the new law, patents may extend to chemical inventions (products and process and transgenic microorganisms. The issue is analyzed from two specific yet inter-related approaches: science and technology policy and health-care policy. The conclusion draws attention to the main future consequences of current international trends, both legal and regulatory. Brazil should ready its legal framework to respond to the negative consequences that genome patenting can be expected to have on the flow of scientific information and on access to pharmaceutical drugs.

  5. Can Mc Leod's Naturoptic Vision Improvement Patent Innovations Be Transferred, with Franchise Safeguards, to Specialists in the Arts and Sciences, Education, Engineering, Law, Medicine and Research, to Other Countries, by Teachers he has Trained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataide, Italani; Ataide, Jade; McLeod, Roger

    2006-03-01

    We hope that we can soon demonstrate that an important part of a nation's scientific, technologic, health and other educational or economic indicators, such as productivity and agrarian progress, are linked to the visual capabilities of its population. We propose to engage Brazilians specifically, and other South or Central Americans generally, in deciding whether Naturoptic Vision Improvement patent innovations or services, can be nurtured by the countries involved, for a franchisor who will be granting time-limited but protected and profit-free use permission, for the purposes referred to above. Cost-benefit analyses are readily accomplished. Insurers can easily improve their profitability by establishing that their clients, whose vision has been Naturoptically improved, are safer drivers than individuals with static vision states, caused or abetted by glasses, contacts or surgically altered corneas.

  6. "Patent Activity and Technical Change"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Basmann; Michael, McAleer; Daniel, Slottje

    2003-01-01

    As creations of the mind, intellectual property includes industrial property and copyrights. This paper presents an aggregate production function of the generalized Fechner-Thurstone (GFT) form to analyze the impact of an important component of intellectual industrial property, namely patent activity, on technical change in the USA for the period 1947-1981. Patents should alter isoquant maps, and measuring their elasticities is both intuitively and empirically appealing. We define a technolog...

  7. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  8. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  9. [How much does the backlog on drug patents cost for health in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Anna Haydée Lanzillotti; Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães

    2017-08-21

    The backlog in processing patent applications in Brazil has persisted since the enactment of Law 9,279/1996, when the country resumed granting patents on drugs. The agencies responsible for granting such patents, namely the Brazilian National Patent and Trademark Office (INPI) and the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) cite technical and administrative reasons for the backlog. However, little research has focused on the economic impacts for health due to the inefficiency of the Brazilian patent system. The current study thus proposes a methodology to estimate the extent to which government procurement of medicines is burdened by the backlog in drug patent applications. According to the results, a total of more than BRL 14 million (USD 4.5 million) is spent unnecessarily per year by the Federal Government on just one antiretroviral drug due to the extension of the respective patent's life. Measures to resolve this situation are urgently needed in the three branches of government. These include hiring more staff for the INPI, analysis of bills of law under review in the two houses of the Brazilian Congress to amend the Industrial Property Law, and ruling on direct class action claims of unconstitutionality to suppress the legal mechanisms that allow extending the life of patents.

  10. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  11. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  12. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  13. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  14. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  15. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  16. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  18. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  19. Patent Eligibility of Business Methods in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Brian Lee

    2011-01-01

    @@ While the same fundamental principles underlining patent law are generally accepted in every major jurisdiction in the world, the patent eligibility of computer-implemented business method inventions ("business methods") has received different treatment between jurisdictions.

  20. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.

  1. Current challenges in patent information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lupu, Mihai; Kando, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual property in the form of patents plays a vital role in today's increasingly knowledge-based economy. This book assembles state-of-the art research and is intended to illustrate innovative approaches to patent information retrieval.

  2. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  3. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  4. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  5. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting... patent licensing meeting was subsequently held February 16, 2011 at the SAIC Enterprise Bldg...

  6. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...

  7. Research use of patented inventions: opening remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Labastida, José M.

    2006-01-01

    Opening remarks for the 2006 conference in Madrid on the research use of patented inventions. The conference, which was held at CSIC on 18-19 May 2006, was jointly organised by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (OEPM) and the OECD, with support from the European Patent Office (EPO) through its European Patent Academy. The conference brochure is also included as an attachment to the Opening remarks file.

  8. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  9. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent applications. 734.10 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.10 Patent applications. The information referred to in § 734.3(b)(3)(iv) of this part is: (a) Information contained in a patent application prepared wholly...

  10. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  11. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 780 RIN 1990-AA33 Patent Compensation Board Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... Patent ] Compensation Board regulations to provide that the Secretary of Energy, or a person acting in that position, shall appoint, as needed, a three member panel to serve as the Patent Compensation...

  12. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  13. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  14. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  15. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  16. Compulsory patent licensing and local drug manufacturing capacity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-03-01

    Africa has the highest disease burden in the world and continues to depend on pharmaceutical imports to meet public health needs. As Asian manufacturers of generic medicines begin to operate under a more protectionist intellectual property regime, their ability to manufacture medicines at prices that are affordable to poorer countries is becoming more circumscribed. The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health gives member states of the World Trade Organization (WTO) the right to adopt legislation permitting the use of patented material without authorization by the patent holder, a provision known as "compulsory licensing". For African countries to take full advantage of compulsory licensing they must develop substantial local manufacturing capacity. Because building manufacturing capacity in each African country is daunting and almost illusory, an African free trade area should be developed to serve as a platform not only for the free movement of goods made pursuant to compulsory licences, but also for an economic or financial collaboration towards the development of strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent. Most countries in Africa are in the United Nations list of least developed countries, and this allows them, under WTO law, to refuse to grant patents for pharmaceuticals until 2021. Thus, there is a compelling need for African countries to collaborate to build strong pharmaceutical manufacturing capacity in the continent now, while the current flexibilities in international intellectual property law offer considerable benefits.

  17. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  18. Economic valuation of patents methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, F

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Valuation of Patents provides an original and essential analysis of patent valuation, presenting the main methodologies to value patents in different contexts. Starting with an analysis of the relevance of patent valuation from a strategic, economic and legal perspective, the book undertakes a thorough review of the existing financial and qualitative valuation methodologies. The contributing authors, IP experts from academia and business, discuss the application of valuation issues in various contexts such as patent portfolio management, licensing agreements, IP litigation, IP-bac

  19. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  20. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human......, and subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  1. Of patents and patent disputes: The TNFα patent files. Part 1: Humira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the patent strategy underlying the world's best selling drug, AbbVie's Humira®. Despite a non-optimal starting position, AbbVie has established an extensive portfolio to fend off biosimilar competition. This article is the first part of a trilogy that discusses IP issues related to anti-Tumor Necrosis factor α (TNFα) biologics.

  2. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  3. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?.

  4. 某院2010~2011年儿科门诊中成药使用情况的分析%2010~2011 in A Hospital Outpatient Department of Pediatrics Analysis of the Use of Chinese Patent Medicines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钰颋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient department of Pediatrics in our hospital medicine application, provide reference for clinical rational drug use. Methods According to the drug dosage forms and pharmacological effects of classification, comparison of proprietary Chinese medicine sales. At the same time list sales ranked the top 20 Chinese patent medicines. Results The consumption sum of oral liquid, mixture, granules and powder were higher than that of other dosage forms, while Chinese patent drugs were applied extensively in digestive system, respiratory system of Pediatrics. Sales ranked the top 20 Chinese medicine pharmacological effect on the respiratory and digestive systems, these drug dosage forms are mainly liquid dosage form and granule. Conclusion The application of Chinese patent drugs in pediatric out-patient in our hospital is reasonable basically.%  目的 调查我院儿科门诊中成药应用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考依据。方法 利用计算机统计每个中成药品种的出库数量、金额,按剂型、作用系统分类计算销售额,列出前20位的中成药品种、销售额,用金额排序的方法进行统计、分析。结果 销售金额较高的剂型为合剂、糖浆剂、颗粒剂与散剂;中成药在儿科呼吸系统、消化系统疾病方面的应用频率较多;前20位的中成药品种以用于呼吸系统、消化系统的液体剂型、颗粒剂型为主。结论 我院儿科门诊中成药应用基本合理。

  5. The evolution of regulation of compulsory license in international and Serbian sources of patent law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author gives an overview of the regulation of compulsory licence in international and Serbian sources of patent law. From international sources the subjects of analysis are the Paris Convention, TRIPS Agreement and the Community Patent Convention, whereby the last one has not come into force yet, but also contains rules on compulsory license. As far as Serbian law is concerned, all patent laws are analyzed, from the first one adopted as early as 1922 in the first Yugoslavia, until the effective Patent Law from 2011. The evolution of compulsory license is traditionally paralleled to the institution of forfeiture of patent. As the forfeiture of patent, as a sanction against the patent owner who does not intend to exploit the invention, was gradually losing its significance, so were the rules on compulsory license becoming more detailed and nuanced. Nevertheless, at present compulsory license is an instrument rarely applied in practice. This is primarily true of cases of compulsory licenses that are usually referred to as classical, such as the one issued when the patent holder does not exploit the invention or exploits it insufficiently and the one issued for the purpose of exploitation of a dependent patent, on the one hand, and the compulsory license issued in public interest in narrower sense, on the other. It is to be expected, however, that two latest subcategories of compulsory license, the one issued as a remedy for the infringement of the rules of competition and the one issued for the production of medicines for the purpose of export into countries with problems relating to public health, will be applied more frequently in practice.

  6. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  7. The revival of Phage Therapy to fight Antimicrobial Resistance – Part II: What about patent protection and alternative incentives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    eligibility, i.e. Bilski v. Kappos (2010), Mayo v. Prometheus (2012) , AMP v. Myriad (2013) and Alice v. CLS (2014). Most relevant in this context are the decisions in Prometheus and Myriad. In its unanimous Prometheus opinion, the Supreme Court held that a claim to a “natural law” is not patentable unless...... into patentable subject matter. That the claims were directed to a specific regime optimizing the dosage for each patient to reduce side-effects of a particular drug (i.e. a typical claim in personalized medicine) did not rescue the patent. Then, in Myriad, the Court unanimously held that patent claims directed...... occurring viruses, such as phages, and the processes in which these are used. Myriad and Prometheus could thus have a fundamental impact on many patent portfolios relating to phage therapy and thus business involvement. In that context, it is important to realize that an important component of proper use...

  8. Incorporating a right to health perspective into the resolution of patent law disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Emmanuel Kolawole

    2013-12-12

    This article adopts the view that the courts in developing countries can play an important role in improving access to medicines in their countries if they incorporate a right to health perspective when adjudicating patent cases involving pharmaceutical products. The article argues that, since patent rights are not human rights, they should not be allowed to trump the right to health. The paper examines two notable cases decided by the courts in Kenya that illustrate the crucial role that incorporating a right to health perspective can play in improving access to medicines. Finally, the paper provides five reasons why courts in developing countries cannot afford to ignore the right to health when adjudicating cases involving patent rights on pharmaceutical products.

  9. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šarboh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are different Tesla’s inventions in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and processing technology, more precisely metallurgy.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 17 aphrodisiac chemical drugs illegally added in health products and Chinese patent medicines by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定保健品及中成药中非法添加的17种壮阳类化学药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芳; 吴惠勤; 黄晓兰; 罗辉泰; 朱志鑫; 林晓珊; 马立果; 蒋娅兰

    2016-01-01

    A method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of seventeen aphrodisiac chemical drugs which were illegally mixed into the health products and Chinese patent medi-cines by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry ( HPLC-MS/MS ). The extraction,chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometry parameters were optimized in order to separate three groups of isomers. The drugs were extracted with methanol under ultra-sonic condition,separated on an Agilent Extend C18 chromatographic column( 100 mm × 2. 1 mm,3. 5 μm ) with acetonitrile and water ( additional 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate ) as mobile phases under gradient elution at a flow rate of 0. 25 mL/min. The determination was conducted by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode under multiple reaction monito-ring( MRM)mode. The method made seventeen aphrodisiac chemical drugs as well as the three groups of isomers to get the ideal separation and accurate quantitative. The method was proved to be rapid,selective,sensitive and stable,and it has been applied to the screening and detec-tion of aphrodisiac chemical drugs illegally added in health products and Chinese patent medi-cines. All the tested samples show that the aphrodisiac chemical drugs have a high detection rate in the recent three years. The relevant regulatory authorities should pay more attention to it.%建立了高效液相色谱-串联质谱( LC-MS/MS)同时测定补肾壮阳类保健品及中成药中非法添加的17种壮阳化学药的定性、定量分析方法。实验优化了前处理方法,并针对几对同分异构体成分优化了分离条件和质谱参数。样品经甲醇超声萃取,提取液经 Aglient Extend C18色谱柱(100 mm×2.1 mm,3.5μm)分离,流动相为乙腈和水(含有10 mmol/L乙酸铵),梯度洗脱,流速为0.25 mL/min,以电喷雾离子源正离子多反应监测( MRM)模式进行MS/MS检测。该方法能很好地分离并定量17种壮

  11. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  12. Inventions and patents: a practical tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, J Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and costly clinical testing necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, nonobviousness, and usefulness. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions of technology transfer: inventions, inventorship, and patent filing, which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  13. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  14. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  15. Knowledge transfer and university patents in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Calderón-Martínez; José García-Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that influence the ability of Mexican public universities to generate patents. Academic patents are deserving of increasing interest as channels for the transfer of knowledge from universities to firms. Design/methodology/approach A review of the international literature on the main factors that explain the production of patents was undertaken. On the basis of this information, a database for 80 Mexican universities was built and a mod...

  16. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  17. The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gajos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.

  18. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  19. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  20. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  1. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  2. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  3. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  4. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  5. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  6. 21 CFR 314.53 - Submission of patent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of patent information. 314.53 Section... of patent information. (a) Who must submit patent information. This section applies to any applicant...)(2) of this section. (b) Patents for which information must be submitted and patents for...

  7. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  8. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  9. Inventions and Patents: A Practical Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hina; Tidwell, Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and capital-intensive drug development and clinical trials necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, non-obviousness, and usefulness. Recent changes to US patent law limit the scope of patentable material. Products of nature such as nucleic acids and proteins, or steps used to observe natural events, are no longer patent eligible. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions for inventions, inventorship, and patent filing which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  10. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  11. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  12. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  13. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  14. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; D. Kushnir; I. Rafols

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  15. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  16. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  17. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  18. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    insert for high strength. ’The 339130ft.130C;361/390, 391, 399, 415 epoxy-glems bushing is machlied fromo poat stock With 339/30 .1 C;the grain...United States Patent [p91 [I 4,280,135 Siosabers [45] Jul 21, 1981 [541 REMOTE POINTING SYSTEM A’mary Examiner- Joseph A. Orsino, Jr. 176] Inventor...ward looking intruder detection system are eliminated MEASUREMENTS by look-up sensor instrumentation that utilizus mono- (751 Inventor: JOsePh L

  19. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL...

  20. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  1. Valuable Patents for U.S. Businesses: A Catalog of DTRC Patents Available for Licensing by the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Veazey PATENT NO: 4,553,037 DATE OF PATENT Nov. 12, 1985 TITLE: Transverse Waterjet Propulsion with Auxiliary Inlets and Impellers INVENTOR(S): John G...Lee PATENT NO: 4,398,687 DATE OF PATENT: Aug. 16, 1983 DTRC-91 /CT07 19 Valuable Patents, A Catalog TITLE: Mono-Element Combined Supercritical High

  2. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods:...

  3. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating pat...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  4. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing.

  5. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  6. Patent review of novel nanostructrued devices, nanofabrication methods and applications in nanofluidics and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Chen, Che-Yang

    2012-06-01

    Over the past two decades, scientists and researchers have successfully developed MEMS (Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems) technology and its applications that provide a stepping stone for nanotechnology and nanostructure fabrication. Nanostructured devices, which have higher efficiency, less weight and lower power consumption, have been applied in the fields of electronics, chemistry, energy, environmental science and medicine. This patent review focuses on novel nanostructure fabrication methods and nanostructure devices applied in nanofluidics and nanomedicine. We can reasonably expect that the number of nanostructure patents will continue to grow, especially in the fields of biomedical science and energy.

  7. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  8. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  9. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  10. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory that...... of development. This interpretation restores the credibility of Kitch's prospect theory of patent function and emphasises that the administration of the patent institution should be designed to support the prospect function of patents.......Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...

  11. Patent Office Hands Blackboard a Setback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In March the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a preliminary decision that could have significant ramifications for universities that use course-management software, as well as for the companies that make it. The "nonfinal" decision rejects all 44 claims Blackboard Inc. made for its controversial patent of an online-learning system.…

  12. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  13. Patent information retrieval: approaching a method and analysing nanotechnology patent collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Sercan; Islam, Nazrul

    2017-01-01

    Many challenges still remain in the processing of explicit technological knowledge documents such as patents. Given the limitations and drawbacks of the existing approaches, this research sets out to develop an improved method for searching patent databases and extracting patent information to increase the efficiency and reliability of nanotechnology patent information retrieval process and to empirically analyse patent collaboration. A tech-mining method was applied and the subsequent analysis was performed using Thomson data analyser software. The findings show that nations such as Korea and Japan are highly collaborative in sharing technological knowledge across academic and corporate organisations within their national boundaries, and China presents, in some cases, a great illustration of effective patent collaboration and co-inventorship. This study also analyses key patent strengths by country, organisation and technology.

  14. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  15. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  16. Patent for Invention of Guilin Rubber Machinery Transla- tional Vulcanizer Awarded the Honorary Title of China Excel- lent Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wenguang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the results of the 13th China Patent Awards were publicized. The patent for invention of "translational vulcanizer" applied by Guilin Rubber Machinery Factory was appraised as China Excellent Patent.

  17. Can drug patents be morally justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. The working of the patent system is an important determinant of access to drugs. This paper argues that drug patents are not easily justified and that the 'architecture' of the patent system should be rethought in view of its mission of benefiting society.

  18. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise....

  19. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  20. Clean coal and patent policy in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin Popa [State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The talk explained the importance of intellectual property protection to both industry and business. Applications for patents and utility models (for inventions), trademarks and industrial designs are filed with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania; Trade secrets and how they can be kept, are discussed. The routes to follow before filing a patent application are outlined. An example is given of how to search for patents on 'clean coal' on the European Patents Office's database. The abstract of one patent is presented. This is entitled: 'Clean combustion of coal, utility of the concomitant products of the clean combustion and the product by using the concomitant products'. 23 PowerPoint slides are also available in the proceedings. 1 fig.

  1. Drug repurposing and the prior art patents of competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Drug repurposing (i.e., finding novel indications for established substances) has received increasing attention in industry recently. One challenge of repositioned drugs is obtaining effective patent protection, especially if the 'novel' indications have already been claimed by competitors within the same drug class. Here, I report the case of patents relating to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Patentees of later-filed patents on novel indications (even when they could not observe prior patenting of their direct competitors) filed patents for which patent examiners did not see the prior-filed patents of the competitors as relevant prior art, whereas these follower patent applications often failed because of other reasons.

  2. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...... containing 421 EPO-patenting firms in Denmark....

  3. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers....

  4. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms : The effects of patent pools and industry consortia on the interplay between patents and technological standards

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Justus; Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010-13; This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical i...

  5. Pharmaceutical patents and access to essential medicines in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... databases was conducted, in addition to a review of relevant literature from print sources. A manual .... sub-Saharan Africa, lack effective economic systems, the technical ..... America, sued the South African Government. They.

  6. 辨明Patent Troll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建朋

    2012-01-01

    它,究竟是凶恶的巨怪,还是可爱的精灵? 它,竟究是正当的手段,还是无赖的工具? 长久以来,patent troll便是国外学术圈、实务界探讨的焦点话题之一,如今其又转到了国内,而近来表现的越发激烈。各派对其是否应当存在、存在合法与否等等进行了持续不休的讨论与争吵,

  7. A new model for gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-02

    When the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed for patents on thousands of gene fragments in 1991, it created a furor because it was attempting to assert broad rights to sequences whose functions were unknown. The cDNA fragments NIH researchers had discovered were simply short stretches of presumably expressed genes, yet the patent the agency was seeking would give it rights both to the full genes themselves and to all their possible future uses. If NIH prevailed, researchers argued, it would potentially discourage further work on those genes. Now the head of the genome project at the Department of Energy (DOE) - NIH's partner in the program - has proposed an alternative approach to gene patenting. At a meeting last week of a congressional Office of Technology Assessment panel that is preparing a report on this issue, DOE's David Galas revealed that University of Washington genome researcher Leroy Hood is preparing to file a patent application that could serve as a model for such patents in the future. Hood's team has been sequencing the genes encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor. Mutations in the T cell receptor genes may lead to any of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. A broad patent on the genes could therefore conceivably cover not only techniques for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but also of therapies for the conditions, and indeed anything involving T cell activity. But Hood's patent application won't make such broad claims. Instead, Hood, with DOE's support, will not seek to patent the genes but will claim only the specific uses of developing the diagnostic and therapeutic tools for dealing with specific autoimmune diseases. By restricting patents just to known uses the problems of gene ownership are neatly avoided.

  8. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  9. “To patent or not to patent? the case of Novartis’ cancer drug Glivec in India”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Glivec (imatinib mesylate), produced by the pharmaceutical company Novartis, is prescribed in the case of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, one of the most common blood cancers in eastern countries. After more than a decade of legal battles surrounding its patentability, the Supreme Court of India gave its final decision on April 1st of 2013, rejecting the appeal of the Swiss giant drug manufacturer. In 2006, the Indian Patent Office first refused Glivec’s patent under Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act arguing that it was only a modified version of an existing drug, Imatinib, and therefore that the drug was not innovative. Novartis replied filing legal challenges against the Indian government but the final verdict in April of 2013 ends the battle. Indeed, the Supreme Court stated that even if the bioavailability of the drug was improved, it did not demonstrate enhanced efficacy and that Glivec was not patentable. Methods The research primarily focused on journal, newspaper and magazine articles relevant to the time frame of the lawsuit (from 1994 to 2013) as well as news searches through Google, Factiva, ProQuest, PubMed, and YouTube where press articles from court verdicts were obtained by using the following keywords: “India”, “Novartis”, “Glivec”, “Patent”, “Novartis Case”, and “Supreme Court of India”. The data sources were interpreted and analyzed according to the authors’ own prior knowledge and understanding of the exigencies of the TRIPS Agreement. Results This case illuminates how India is interpreting international law to fit domestic public health needs. Conclusions The Novartis case arguably sets an important precedent for the global pharmaceutical industry and ideally will help improve access to lifesaving medicines in the developing world by demanding that patient health needs supersede commercial interests. The Supreme Court of India’s decision may affect the interpretation of the article of the TRIPS Agreement

  10. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  11. TERM OF THE PATENT. PREMISES FOR THE CREATION OF THE SUPPLEMENTARY PROTECTION CERTIFICATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUCURA IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The legal nature of the rights derived from the patent was object of numerous theories and discussions in literature. Their main features represent recognized characteristics for the property right, nevertheless the limitation in time, in space and the ubiquity make the difference. Especially for new medicinal or plant protection products, due to the limitation in time, the period of effective protection under the patent is insufficient to cover the investment put into the research. There exists a risk of research centres situated in the Member States relocating to countries that offer greater protection. The uniform solution at Community level was created in form of regulations, as the most appropriate legal instrument to prevent the heterogeneous development of national patent laws affecting the free movement of products in the internal market. The duration of the protection granted by the patent may be extended to additional 5 years, by a supplementary protection certificate, granted, under same conditions provided by the regulation, by each Member State. The Community regulations created a legal form of a new national sui generis right, belonging both to the intellectual property right, namely patent right, and the administrative right of the marketing authorization. The main objective of the paper consists in informing the Romanian specialists in the field about the latest evolutions in intellectual property rights, especially in protection of the inventions, as a consequence of Romania’s accession to the European Community.

  12. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 inhibitors: a patent review (2014-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the Tyrosine Kinase-Like (TKL) branch of the kinome tree and is a multi-domain protein that includes GTPase and kinase activity. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has linked LRRK2 with Crohn's disease and leprosy, it has received the greatest attention due to it being implicated as one of the genetic loci associated with autosomal dominant inheritance in Parkinson's disease (PD). Areas covered: In this review, the small molecule patent literature from 2014-2016 with a focus on composition of matter and use patents was surveyed. Scifinder was primarily searched using 'LRRK2' as the query to identify all relevant literature and then triaged for small molecule patents. Expert opinion: The patent landscape around LRRK2 continues to develop. The early patents covered using existing kinase inhibitors for use against LRRK2. This evolved to compounds specifically designed for selectivity against LRRK2, but key exemplified compounds lacked sufficient brain exposure to affect sufficient efficacy. More recent compounds have addressed this deficiency and show greater potential for treating PD. While potency will be necessary to generate medicines with low human daily doses, brain penetration and safety will be the key differentiators for ultimately determining the most effective LRRK2 disease-modifying treatment for PD.

  13. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  14. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio......It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re...

  15. Patenting in Europe: The Jurisdiction of the CJEU over European Patent Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minn Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will deal with EU competence over patent law, especially in the context of the TRIPS Agreement with reference to the ruling of CJEU in the Daiichi Sankyo case (CJEU case C-414/11 Daiichi Sankyo v DEMO Anonimos. The first part will explain the process of claiming patents at the national as well as the European level in order to understand the complexity of patent law, the second part will deal with the implications of jurisdiction and developments in EU patent regulations, the third part will deal with the effects of EU competence over the TRIPS patent provisions and the forth part will deal with the interpretation of substantive patent law in the light of the Daiichi Sankyo case.

  16. Are life patents ethical? Conflict between Catholic social teaching and agricultural biotechnology's patent regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K D

    2001-09-01

    Patents for genetic material in the industrialized North have expanded significantly over the past twenty years, playing a crucial role in the current configuration of the agricultural biotechnology industries, and raising significant ethical issues. Patents have been claimed for genes, gene sequences, engineered crop species, and the technical processes to engineer them. Most critics have addressed the human and ecosystem health implications of genetically engineered crops, but these broad patents raise economic issues as well. The Catholic social teaching tradition offers guidelines for critiquing the economic implications of this new patent regime. The Catholic principle of the universal destination of goods implies that genes, gene sequences, and engineered crop varieties are ineligible for patent protection, although the processes to engineer these should be eligible. Religious leaders are likely to make a more substantive contribution to debates about agricultural biotechnology by addressing these life patents than by speculating that genetic engineering is "playing God."

  17. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    for the improvement of the European patent system are presented and discussed fully at the end of the report. Below is a simple list of the titles of the options: Insertion of the economic mission of the patent system in the European Patent Convention; Enhancing governance within the European patent system; Improving...

  18. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  19. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent...

  20. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... following methods: E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``Patent and Trademark Resource...

  1. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  2. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for...

  3. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  4. 78 FR 17102 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 41 RIN 0651-AC86 Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is correcting...

  5. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  6. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  7. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC84 Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is revising the rules of practice to implement...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  9. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals...

  10. 76 FR 34062 - Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  11. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  12. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  15. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities...

  16. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  17. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  18. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    systems in those countries are mostly not able to effectively protect intellectual property rights of multinational companies. Still, we observe the phenomenon of a strongly increasing rate of technology patenting in countries with weak appropriability regimes. This article studies patenting strategy...... clustering reveals the existence of five patent strategy archetypes of companies patenting in economies with weak appropriability regimes....

  19. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  20. Natural products against cancer: A comprehensive bibliometric study of the research projects, publications, patents and drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze multi-source data including awards, publications, patents and drugs, and try to draw the whole landscape of the research and development community in the area of natural products (NPs against cancer. Materials and Methods: Awards, publications, patents and drugs data from National Institute of Health/Natural Science Foundation of China (NIH/NSFC, PubMed, Derwent Innovation Index and Cortellis were collected. Bibliometric methodologies and technology are used to investigate publications/patents/drugs, their contents and relationships. Results: NIH and NSFC respectively demonstrated a stable and sustained expenditure growth in this area. The number of publications is continuously increasing. Yet the annual patent applications worldwide and FDA drug approvals were little changed or not obviously fluctuated in 2003-2013. USA and several Asia-pacific countries/territories are important contributing powers. We described the evolution of major research topics by those MeSH Major Topics indexed in PubMed with the largest growth range in three intervals, and analyzed hot research topics in the recent 10 years which include NPs or NPs derivatives, cell line/animal model, laboratory technologies and activation mechanisms. Conclusions: China published the most publications and received the most patent applications, but drug discovery performance is no better than USA and Japan. Research on anti-neoplastic structures and compounds originated from Chinese traditional medicine (TCM, medicinal plants, herbal medicine and marine NPs are major research topics in the recent 10 years. There still exits translational gap between basic research and drug discovery. Translational research should be undertaken to strengthen the applicability of NPs.

  1. Sequenom v. Ariosa and international approaches to the patent eligibility of biomedical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    that the innovation deserves patent protection, but also that the “sweeping language of the test" established in Mayo v. Prometheus requires a determination that the claims are patent ineligible. Whereas it is clear that the patent eligibility thresholds have been heightened considerably since the U...... and new business models, with a variety of consequences for technology transfer, open innovation and (public-private) collaborations . Hence, crucial issues are at stake, which may have a considerable impact on the development of - and access to - new therapies in increasingly important areas of medicine....... In a rather recent paper we analyze the post-Myriad developments in the US and compare them to the situation in Europe and Australia. Please find further information below: Title: Life after Myriad: The Uncertain Future of Patenting Biomedical Innovation & Personalized Medicine in an International...

  2. How do Firms Use the Information in Patent Disclosures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim

    that the patent specification should disclose sufficient information to identify the invention with respect to the prior art and therefore make the patent defensible against rival patents in court - they need not enable the making of the invention. Our research design gathers data on how firms use the information...... disclosed in patent specifications and relates this to the predictions of the different types of current theories of patent function. We intend to test and refine theory in one current patent controversy, that concerning patent information usage. [ii] [i] See Cohen, W., A. Goto, et al. (2002). "R...

  3. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  4. Patent Ethics: The Misalignment of Views Between the Patent System and the Wider Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Hanssen, Anders Braarud; Nielsen, Hanne Marie; Olesen, Ingrid

    2017-08-15

    Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system. As sources of our analyses we will use literature and document studies and a survey with important stakeholders and experts related to Norwegian patenting in the aquacultural biotechnology sector. We will structure the analyses with an ethical matrix, developed for this purpose. Showing the misalignment of the discussions within and outside the patent system, we suggest that an important reason for the ethical controversy still surrounding patenting is that ethical questions keep being framed in a narrow way within the system. Until a richer set of ethical considerations is addressed head-on within the patent system, the patent system will continue to evoke academic and interest group criticism, potentially contributing to a legitimacy crisis of the whole system.

  5. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  6. Commercialization, patenting and genomics: researcher perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Cj; Caulfield, Timothy

    2009-02-19

    The impact of commercialization and patenting pressure on genomics research is still a topic of considerable debate in academic, policy and popular literature. We interviewed genomic researchers to see if their perspectives offered fresh insights. Regional Genome Canada centers provided us with relevant researcher contact information, and in-depth structured interviews were conducted. Researcher perspectives were sharply divided, with both support and concern for commercialization regimes surfacing in interviews. Data withholding and publication delays were commonly reported, but the aggressive enforcement of patents was not. There are parallels to the Stem Cell community in Canada in these respects. Genomic researchers, as individuals directly implicated in the field of controversy, have developed varied and often novel insights which should be incorporated into the ongoing debates surrounding commercialization and patenting. Many researchers continue to raise concerns, particularly in relation to data withholding, thus emphasizing the need for a continued exploration of the complex issues associated with commercialization and patenting.

  7. ACTA Technology Presents EPA with Patent Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA SBIR awardee, ACTA Technology, presented James H. Johnson, Director of the US EPA National Center for Environmental Research, and April Richards, Program Manager of the US EPA's SBIR Program, with a copy of their Red Ribbon patent.

  8. Patent law in dentistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  9. Mining chemical information from open patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessop David M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of which is not available in machine-understandable formats. PatentEye, a prototype system for the extraction and semantification of chemical reactions from the patent literature has been implemented and is discussed. A total of 4444 reactions were extracted from 667 patent documents that comprised 10 weeks' worth of publications from the European Patent Office (EPO, with a precision of 78% and recall of 64% with regards to determining the identity and amount of reactants employed and an accuracy of 92% with regards to product identification. NMR spectra reported as product characterisation data are additionally captured.

  10. Internet patent databases: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González-Albo Manglano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The patent is an essential document in the evaluation of technological investigation that has been used as approximation of innovation. The patent databases on the Internet are one principal source of information for this kind of analysis. However they are many databases and they are very different; reason why the election of one of them in the accomplishment of bibliometric analysis is a crucial aspect. In this sense, this survey studies some of main free –Esp@cenet, PatentScope, national databases and commercial –Derwent Innovatios Index, Chemical Abstracts Plus, Thomson Delphion Intellectual Property Network– patent databases. The results show that commercial systems provide value-added –data revision, analysis tools, etc.–; althought the free ones are going to become trustworthy resources thanks to the improvements and options that are introduced in them.

  11. International patent families: from application strategies to statistical indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechezleprêtre, Antoine; Ménière, Yann; Mohnen, Myra

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of international patent families, including their domestic component. We exploit a relatively under-studied feature of patent families, namely the number of patents covering the same invention within a given jurisdiction. Using this information, we highlight common patterns in the structure of international patent families, which reflect both the patenting strategies of innovators and the peculiarities of the different patent systems. While the literature has extensively used family size, i.e. the number of countries in which a given invention is protected, as a measure of patent value, our results suggest that the number of patent filings in the priority country within a patent family as well as the timespan between the first and last filings within a family are other insightful indicators of the value of patented innovations.

  12. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  13. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  14. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Richard L.; Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets...

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive ... NIBIB-funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that ...

  16. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... has made the determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that human drug...

  17. Severallssues in the Practice of Design Patent Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Subject Matter Protected by the Design Patent Right For any legal relation to be viable there must be three elements; the subject,subject matter and content. What the subject matter protected by the design patent right is one of the basic issues of the design patent system in China. However,in the design patent examination, we have found that many parties and even senior patent attorneys have many misconceptions about the issue.

  18. Empirical studies on the private value of Finnish patents

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted fact that innovation is important for economic growth and that a well-designed patent system increases research and development investments. Patents are unfortunately a second best solution. While the benefits of the patent system are increased incentives to innovation, diffusion of new knowledge, and easier commercialization of patented innovations; the drawback of the patent system is the monopolies it creates. Therefore, the fundamental question that has intereste...

  19. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  20. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task. The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and a F-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  1. Chemical named entity recognition in patents by domain knowledge and unsupervised feature learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Xu, Jun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Jingqi; Wu, Yonghui; Prakasam, Manu; Xu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal chemistry patents contain rich information about chemical compounds. Although much effort has been devoted to extracting chemical entities from scientific literature, limited numbers of patent mining systems are publically available, probably due to the lack of large manually annotated corpora. To accelerate the development of information extraction systems for medicinal chemistry patents, the 2015 BioCreative V challenge organized a track on Chemical and Drug Named Entity Recognition from patent text (CHEMDNER patents). This track included three individual subtasks: (i) Chemical Entity Mention Recognition in Patents (CEMP), (ii) Chemical Passage Detection (CPD) and (iii) Gene and Protein Related Object task (GPRO). We participated in the two subtasks of CEMP and CPD using machine learning-based systems. Our machine learning-based systems employed the algorithms of conditional random fields (CRF) and structured support vector machines (SSVMs), respectively. To improve the performance of the NER systems, two strategies were proposed for feature engineering: (i) domain knowledge features of dictionaries, chemical structural patterns and semantic type information present in the context of the candidate chemical and (ii) unsupervised feature learning algorithms to generate word representation features by Brown clustering and a novel binarized Word embedding to enhance the generalizability of the system. Further, the system output for the CPD task was yielded based on the patent titles and abstracts with chemicals recognized in the CEMP task.The effects of the proposed feature strategies on both the machine learning-based systems were investigated. Our best system achieved the second best performance among 21 participating teams in CEMP with a precision of 87.18%, a recall of 90.78% and aF-measure of 88.94% and was the top performing system among nine participating teams in CPD with a sensitivity of 98.60%, a specificity of 87.21%, an accuracy of 94.75%, a

  2. Biopolymers. January 1970-July 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-July 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning production methods and applications of biopolymer materials. Fermentation processes are described, and applications in oil-recovery operations and in medicine are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 102 citations, 17 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. A Patent Analysis on Realistic Media for R&D Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Hyun; Yeon, Seung-Jun

    In this paper, we use patent statistics as the recent status of R&D in international patents. The number of patents was used to compare different countries' share in the overall number of technology patents. Using the degree of patent citations, the influence and technological prowess of patents were examined. Also, implications were drawn from an analysis of patent contents for realistic media.

  4. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One

  5. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  6. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  7. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  8. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  9. iPS cells and personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    iPS cells and personalized medicine Personalized medicine uses patient's genotype and/or level of gene expression for selection of medication, therapy or preventative measures. One of the best approaches for developing patient specific therapy is to use patient specific cells as in vitro drug testing model. Furthermore, patent specific cells in vitro enriched and modified can be used for autologous cell transplantation for treating numerous degenerative conditions.

  10. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  11. Patenting human pluripotent cells: balancing commercial, academic and ethical interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, G; Morrison, M

    2010-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the ethics of patenting in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. The current stance of the European Patent Office in citing moral objections to patents on hES cells and the monopolistic scope of the Wisconsin Research Alumni Fund/Geron patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office represent twin obstacles to achieving an ethical balance in patent rights in this field. The particular issues and strategies around granting patents on hES cells can be better understood by placing them in the context of the biotechnology industry and its role in the global bioeconomy. Some possible avenues of redress are considered based on the potential to open up cell pluripotency as new terrain for intellectual property offered by new technological breakthroughs such as induced pluripotent cells. Any changes in patent law should be accompanied by increased collaboration through devices such as patent pools.

  12. Will the Modi government succumb to US and industry pressure to modify its pro-access pharmaceutical patent policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2015-06-01

    The US has persistently pressured India to adopt US-style patent protections on pharmaceuticals for many years. That pressure has intensified recently because of Indian rules that have blocked patents on medicines widely patented elsewhere and because India has issued a compulsory license. Under the leadership of its new Prime Minister (PM), Narendra Modi, India has already made several overtures to appease US pressure. The two countries have established a bilateral intellectual property (IP) Working Group that will meet regularly as part of their Trade Policy Forum. This allows the US fox in India's patent law chicken house. In addition, India has issued a Draft National IPR Policy that is highly pro-IP and that promises consensus-oriented negotiations with international partners. These signals have been reinforced by decisions to drop price controls on nonessential medicines, to appoint a pro-IP economic advisor, and to stall issuance of additional compulsory licenses. On the other hand, both PM Modi and the Draft IP Policy state the need for a balance in IP, including a balance that promotes public health and that avoids granting of secondary patents. The world will see other countries copying India's pro-access rules at the same time that India continues to be pressured by the US.

  13. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  14. Patents and the obligation to protect health: examining the significance of human rights considerations in the protection of pharmaceutical patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoeye, Olasupo Ayodeji

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the human right to health in the context of patent protection and access to medicines. It considers the limitations in international human rights law, especially in relation to socioeconomic rights, that make it difficult for the right to health to be a potent justification for derogation from trade or intellectual property agreements. It concludes by taking the view that while the right to health may be somewhat unenforceable in international law, its close association with enforceable rights such as the right to life can be a legitimate basis for making maximum use of the flexibilities in the international intellectual property regime to protect public health. The article takes the view that trade and intellectual property agreements must be interpreted in a way that endeavours as much as possible to resolve any seeming inconsistency with the right to health.

  15. Recent survey on nanosuspension: a patent overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R; Patel, Mukesh S; Patel, Kanu R

    2015-01-01

    The major goals of designing nanosuspension of nanosize materials are increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with the wide range of applications. Nanosuspension is a unique tool for improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspension drug delivery has wide range of application like oral, injectable, transdermal, inhalation, peroral, ocular, pulmonary and topical etc. by improviing the bioavailability, reducing the dose, gastric irritation, decreasing intra subject variability and increasing adhesivness with intestinal membrane. Recently, nanosuspension has been received much interest as a way to resolve solubility and stability problem because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compare to other liposome and colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions are engaged to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate, improve the bioavaibility of drug with poor solubility and dose regimen. Application and preparation method of nanosuspension has been reported by research articles and patented in different countries. Most of the marketed nanosuspensions are in preclinical and clinical based study for its application. More than 100 patents have been published on nanosuspensions by the recent days. This patent reviews covers different methods of pharmaceutical preparation and applications in drug delivery as well as the recent marketed published or granted patent surveys. This patent review is useful in enhance the knowledge of controlled drug delivery and applications.

  16. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent “Thicket”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    and entrepreneurial exploitation of patents on early vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent was alleged to have ”overlapped” with De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how patent rights were resolved......It has been proposed that difficulties in negotiating cross-licenses under multiple, independently-owned and ”overlapping” patents may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter development of technology covered by such patents. The literature alleges these features were present in radio development...... during 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, we re-examine the legal trajectories...

  17. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  18. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An

  19. Gene patents, patenting life and the impact of court rulings on US stem cell patents and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-03-01

    In June 2013, the US Supreme Court ruled that naturally occurring genes were unpatentable in the case Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics. Up until this decision, Myriad Genetics was the only company in the USA that could legally conduct diagnostic testing for BRCA1 and 2, genes that are linked to familial breast and ovarian cancer. The court case and rulings garnered discussion in public about patenting biological materials. This paper will describe the progression of the Myriad Genetics case, similar US rulings and biological intellectual property policies. In addition, it will discuss the impact of the case on biological patents - specifically those for human embryonic stem cells.

  20. The impact of patent eligibility on biotech patents: A flow chart for determining patent eligibility and an immune therapy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2015-01-01

    US common law recites a natural law, natural phenomenon or abstract idea as exceptions to the 4 statutory patentable categories to guard against the wholesale preemption of fundamental principles. The very recent evolutions of patent exceptions in the US may increase the difficulty of patenting and may create uncertainty in determining patent eligibility. To solve the thorny problem of eligibility, this study presents a flow chart based on the courts' decisions that can serve as a set of guidelines for determining patent eligibility. A case related to prostate cancer immune therapy is presented for discussion.

  1. The impact of patent eligibility on biotech patents: A flow chart for determining patent eligibility and an immune therapy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2015-01-01

    US common law recites a natural law, natural phenomenon or abstract idea as exceptions to the 4 statutory patentable categories to guard against the wholesale preemption of fundamental principles. The very recent evolutions of patent exceptions in the US may increase the difficulty of patenting and may create uncertainty in determining patent eligibility. To solve the thorny problem of eligibility, this study presents a flow chart based on the courts’ decisions that can serve as a set of guidelines for determining patent eligibility. A case related to prostate cancer immune therapy is presented for discussion. PMID:25714661

  2. Patenting humans: clones, chimeras, and biological artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbut, William B

    2005-01-01

    The momentum of advances in biology is evident in the history of patents on life forms. As we proceed forward with greater understanding and technological control of developmental biology there will be many new and challenging dilemmas related to patenting of human parts and partial trajectories of human development. These dilemmas are already evident in the current conflict over the moral status of the early human embryo. In this essay, recent evidence from embryological studies is considered and the unbroken continuity of organismal development initiated at fertilization is asserted as clear and reasonable grounds for moral standing. Within this frame of analysis, it is proposed that through a technique of Altered Nuclear Transfer, non-organismal entities might be created from which embryonic stem cells could be morally procured. Criteria for patenting of such non-organismal entities are considered.

  3. Synthetic Biology in the Biotech Patent Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana García-llerena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intended positive effects of the current patent system in biotechnological research have been widely questioned. As part of this review, it is discussed here one of the foundations of the model. The assumption of the indispensability of patents is examined through the analysis of their expected benefits; namely, that patents are suitable to ensure access to information, access to and use of inventions and, finally, that they should promote both creativity and research. Applied to synthetic biology, in spite of newly discovered techniques and promising products, this approach reveals that this discipline also encounters similar issues. However, it also offers a new vision of intellectual property rights and their effects on research, which is based on a different conception of the commons and its relationship with private ownership of intangible assets in the knowledge economy.

  4. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  5. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  6. Standing on shaky ground- US patent-eligibility of isolated DNA and genetic diagnostics after AMP v. USPTO - Part IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Schwartz, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    invigorated U.S. debate on patent eligibility, referring inter alia to the 2010 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Bilski v. Kappos and the pending certiorari in Prometheus v. Mayo (1). Before this background, Part I recited the complex procedural history of AMP v. USPTO (2) and summarized the underpinnings......-claims directed to personalized medicine, biological correlations and compounds containing biological information. Part IV, which is to be published in issue 4, finally offers a broader discussion of the recent US patent-eligibility developments from an innovation policy perspective including brief references...... in AMP v. USPTO and the pending Supreme Court decision in Prometheus v. Mayo....

  7. A case of coarctation of the aorta associated with the patent ductus arteriosus and the persistent left superior vena cava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoo Keun [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This is a case report of multiple congenital vascular anomalies in which coarctation of the aorta combined with the patent ductus arteriosus and the persistent left superior vena cava. The patient was a 15 year old girl and congenital heart disease was suspected during infancy. However, she heard the disease incurable, so she had been well with herb medicine until admission in our hospital. By physical examination and roentgenological studies including aortography, the diagnosis of the patent ductus arteriosus was detected and the coarctation of the aorta was suspected. The persistent left superior vena cava was found during surgery and it was proved roentgenologically by venography.

  8. Bio-patents, development and society: on the patentability of human genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszczuk, Ana Paula; de Meirelles, Jussara Maria Leal

    2012-01-01

    This study discusses the possibility of patenting inventions based on human genes and the need for an effective adaptation of the Patent Law system to enable the patenting of material derived from human genes. Furthermore, to allow for the inclusion of human gene-based inventions in the current patent system, many more amendments are required than those that have already become law during and since the twentieth century. It should be emphasized that one of the main characteristics of Patent Law is this changeability that requires the law to constantly respond to economic needs, advances in science and their resulting challenges in order to protect the product of human ingenuity. Therefore, new adaptations are required. In this context, the present paper adopts the understanding that human genes may serve as a basis for patentable inventions provided that the traditional requirements of novelty, inventiveness, utility and descriptive adequacy are adapted to the specific nature of living human matter. They should also be in line with the principles of legality and morality and not infringe human dignity, personality rights and should fulfill their social and environmental functions. Therefore, a bio-patent has a threefold function: economic, social and environmental. The economic function lies in the exclusive right to exploit an invention; the social function is implicit because there is no reason for the existence of a patent that solely benefits, its owner without society also enjoying its benefits and; the environmental function is that which guarantees that a bio-patent should preserve biodiversity and social diversity.

  9. Analyzing Patents Generated by SBIR Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Intervention Cumulative Knowledge  Creation   Leads to Economic Growth • Endogeneous growth theory  Romer (1990) – Investment in knowledge  creation , human capital...including patents rights to inventions funded by federal research money . To date there has been no systematic analysis of these laws on the propensity to...including patents rights to inventions funded by federal research money . To date there has been no systematic analysis of these laws on the propensity

  10. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  11. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how manufacturers can forearm themselves against them, and which issues policy makers need to address. To do...... so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...... profitably....

  12. Recent patents relating to bird flu infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-01-01

    Bird flu or H5N1 infection is a new emerging zoonosis. With the pandemic in avian species in Asia, it is now under surveillance for a possible new public health threat to human. There are many present researches focusing on several aspects of bird flu. There are some recent patents and patent applications published within a few years. In this article, the recent patients relating to bird flu infection covering the diagnostic and treatment aspects for both avian species and human are reviewed and discussed.

  13. Understanding Patents: The Role of R&D Funding Sources and the Patent Office

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of different sources of R&D funding and patent office attributes on the patenting process. Another important contribution is modeling the effect of a random delay in the ‘pendency’ time as a stochastic process and quantifying its effect on patenting. The empirical estimation is based on four major industries – electronics, chemical and biology, transportation and aeronautics – for the time period 1976-1998. The primary results are: First, the source of R&D fund...

  14. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  15. Building potential patent portfolios: An integrated approach based on topic identification and correlation analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xian ZHANG Haiyun XU Shu FANG Zhengyin HU Shuying LI

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper suggests a framework to identify important patents for building potential patent portfolios based on patents owned by different assignees so as to highlight the value of individual patents...

  16. The Idea of Patents vs. the Idea of University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Thana Cristina

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that patents are a driving force for innovation through research and development. But the university's involvement in patenting is problematic as well. In particular, it is in tension with the idea of a university itself. If patents entail a restriction on the accessibility of the scientific knowledge that has been patented, and if the main purpose of universities is to produce and disseminate knowledge to the public, then, there is a tension: when universities patent their research innovations, they are making the scientific knowledge they produce less accessible to the public. The paper argues that university patenting contradicts the very idea of a university as an institution whose mission is fundamentally to disseminate the knowledge it produces to the public. The practice of university patenting involves an un-academic attitude thus: by inciting an attitude towards knowledge that is not consistent with the proper attitudes and goals of a university, university patenting hurts university's integrity.

  17. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.

  18. Patent Researches, Their Relevance on the Way of Innovation Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kossko, T.G.; Pavlygo, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Patent investigations in accordance with the world standards, standards of the Russian Federation and Ukraine are considered. Dynamics of patent activity in the National Aca demy of Sciences of Ukraine is given.

  19. Patent Researches, Their Relevance on the Way of Innovation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossko, T.G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patent investigations in accordance with the world standards, standards of the Russian Federation and Ukraine are considered. Dynamics of patent activity in the National Aca demy of Sciences of Ukraine is given.

  20. Patent Database : A Methodology of Information Retrieval From PDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patent document holds wealth of information in itself. A brief detail of Indian patent applicationinformation is published as eighteen month publication by Indian patent Office, in electronic gazetteweekly. To date, a proper database of Indian patents specifically for research determination has not beenavailable, making it complicated for researcher to use this data for measuring any kind of researchactivities in terms of patents in India. To facilitate this, we constructed a comprehensive patent databasewhich incorporates the information presented in the electronic gazette. This database includes informationsuch as technology class, applicant, inventor, country of origin etc., of the patent submitted. We present themethodology for the creation of this database, its basic features along with its accuracy and reliability inthis research paper. Patent based database has been developed and can be used for various innovationresearches and activities.

  1. the possible overlap between plant variety protection and patent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the patentability of inventions in all fields of technology, and specifically. * This is a .... David Kaplan, Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in South Africa: A .... food sources in Ethiopia, and the grant of a patent over any gene forming.

  2. 中药天癸胶囊治疗多囊卵巢综合征的随机对照疗效观察%Efficacy of Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome:a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭素璇; 王文君; 归绥琪

    2011-01-01

    Background:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder and one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities in women.Recently,many studies have been conducted assessing Chinese herbal medicine as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS,it is,therefore,worthwhile to analyze and observe the curative effects of traditional Chinese medicine treatment in PCOS.Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of the Chinese patent medicine Tian Gui Capsule,in women with PCOS and compare its effects with metformin and ethinyl estradiol plus cyproterone acetate (Diane-35).Design,setting,participants and intervention:A total of 47 PCOS outpatients from the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University were randomly divided into 3 groups.Patients in group A (n =19) were given Tian Gui Capsule,patients in group B (n =17) were given metformin,and patients in group C (n=11) were given Diane-35.The 3 groups of patients were treated for 3 months.Main outcome measures:Serum testosterone (T),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels,free androgen index (FAI),fasting blood glucose (FPG),fasting insulin (FINS),homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR),insulin sensitive index (ISI) and left and right ovary volumes of the 3 groups were evaluated before and after treatment.Results:After 3 months of treatment,when compared with before treatment data,group A patients showed decreased serum T and SHBG levels,FAI,FINS,and left and right ovary volumes (P<0.05),and increased serum DHEA-S (P<0.05),while the FPG level showed no significant change.Although the level of serum T and FINS among the 3 groups after the treatment were similar,group A demonstrated better results than group B in reducing the FAI and increasing the serum SHBG,but less significant results than group C besides,group B was the only group showed improved insulin sensitivity.Although the level of FPG of the 3 groups after

  3. DNA Dilemma: A Perspective on Current U.S. Patent and Trademarh Office Philosophy Concerning Life Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, K.; Faletra, P.

    2002-01-01

    The lack of a solid set of criteria for determining patentability of subject matter - particularly subject matter dealing with life - has recently been of increasing public concern in the United States. Alarm for patent practices related to life systems ranges from patents being granted on biochemical processes and the knowledge of these processes to the patenting of entire organisms. One of the most volatile concerns is the patenting of human genes or parts of genes since this genetic material is the basic informational molecule for all life. Current patent law, legislated in 1952, has been interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to allow broad patents of DNA, biochemical processes, and what are generally considered 'inventions' of life systems. Several issues are addressed in this paper regarding the unsound reasoning underlying both the interpretation and execution of patent law. Lapses in logic provide a gateway for businesses and individuals to take patenting to an illogical and unworkable extreme. Patent Office disorder of this magnitude is unnecessary and has great potential for harming the mission that the patent office was designed to serve. Recently disclosed patent-granting guidelines suggest the United States Patent and Trademark Office is not upholding its Constitutional responsibility of promoting the progress of science.

  4. Influence of foreign drug patent policy on pharmaceutical industry%国外药品专利政策对制药业的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪娜; 刁天喜; 王磊; 赵晓宇

    2011-01-01

    通过研究美国、日本和印度三个具有代表性的国家的药品专利政策,分析了药品专利政策对制药业的影响,分别阐述了近期美国的专利法改革及其他药品相关法案中药品专利政策对制药业的影响,对运用专利战略非常成功的日本专利制度改革进行了分析,比较了印度旧专利法和新专利法中药品相关专利政策对印度生物制药业的影响.最后分析了典型国家专利政策对我国的启示.%The contents of this paper included drug patent policy of the developed countries such as USA and Japan and developing countries like India, and analysis of the foreign experiences. The first part introduced the influence of the reform of USA patent law on pharmaceutical industries. The cases of most important drug patents were analyzed. The second part analyzed the drug patent policy reform of Japan, in which the patent strategy is very successful. According to the four stages of development in pharmaceutical industry, this part examined the Japanese drug patent policy reform and the influences on industry. The third part introduced the Indian drug patent policy and the influences of patent laws, and also presented the strategies of some Indian medicine companies. Finally the last part gave recommendations on strategies of drug patent policy to improve the protection of patent.

  5. Patents on Therapeutic and Cosmetic Applications of Bioactives of Crocus Sativus L. and their Production through Synthetic Biology Methods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawalbhakta, Mitali; Telang, Manasi

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has a long history of use as a food additive and a traditional medicine for treating a number of disorders. Prominent bioactives of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. The aim of this study was to carry out an extensive patent search to collect information on saffron bioactives and their derivatives as therapeutic and cosmeceutical agents. All patents related to the area of interest published globally till date have been reviewed. Moreover, a recent synthetic biology approach to cost effective and consistent production of saffron bioactives has been highlighted. A patent search strategy was designed based on keywords and concepts related to Crocus sativus L. and its bioactives- safranal, crocin and crocetin in combination with different patent classification codes relevant to the technology areas. This search strategy was employed to retrieve patents from various patent databases. The patents which focused on therapeutic or cosmetic applications and claimed compositions comprising crocin, crocetin or safranal as the main active component were selected and analysed. Maximum patenting activity was noticed towards the use of these bioactives in the treatment of neurological disorders followed by multiple uses of the same compound, use in treatment of metabolic disorders and use as cosmeceuticals. Interestingly, there were no patent records related to use of these bioactives in treating infectious disorders. Our patent analysis points out the populous and less explored uses of saffron bioactives and areas where there is further scope for research and growth. Recently developed synthetic biology approach is contributory in improving availability, consistency and cost effectiveness of saffron bioactives. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Anil V. Parwani; Suryanarayana Vepa; Weinstein, Ronald S.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United State...

  7. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballardini, Rosa Maria; Norrgård, Marcus; Minssen, Timo

    2015-01-01

    This article explores relevant laws and doctrines of patent infringement in Europe with a special emphasis on 3D printing (3DP) technologies. Considering the difficulties that patent owners might face in pursuing direct patent infringement actions in the rapidly evolving era of 3DP, we suggest...... of IP law. Enforcing patents in the era of 3D printing Rosa Maria Ballardini, Marcus Norrgård, and Timo Minssen Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice 2015 10: 850-866...

  8. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  9. Patent Disclosure and R&D Competition in Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fpammolli, F.Pammolli; Lmagazzini, L.Magazzini.; Mriccaboni, M.Riccaboni; Marossi, M.A.Rossi

    2009-01-01

    The prominent role played by patents within the pharmaceutical domain is unquestionable. In this paper we take an unusual perspective and focus on a relatively neglected implication of patents: the effect of patent-induced information disclosure (of both successes and failures) on the dynamics of R&D and market competition. The study builds upon the combination of two large datasets, linking the information about patents to firm level data on R&D projects and their outcome. Two case studies i...

  10. 34 CFR 6.1 - Publication or patenting of inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Publication or patenting of inventions. 6.1 Section 6.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education INVENTIONS AND PATENTS (GENERAL) § 6.1 Publication or patenting of inventions. It is the general policy of the Department that the results of...

  11. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Pursuant to the provisions of Part.... Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC AND...-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.204 - Patent and data rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent and data rights. 1214.204 Section... Substantial Investment in the STS Program § 1214.204 Patent and data rights. (a) When accommodating missions... purposes rights to inventions, patents and data resulting from such missions, subject to the...

  13. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  14. 48 CFR 52.227-3 - Patent Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent Indemnity. 52.227-3... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-3 Patent Indemnity. As prescribed in 27.201-2(c)(1), insert the following clause: Patent Indemnity (APR 1984) (a)...

  15. 77 FR 64315 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Provisional Patent...

  16. 48 CFR 970.5227-6 - Patent indemnity-subcontracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity... for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5227-6 Patent indemnity—subcontracts. Insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts in accordance with 970.2702-3: Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  17. 77 FR 22298 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Summary: Pursuant to the provisions....S. Patent No. 7,391,877, issued 24 June 2008, entitled ``Spatial Processor for Enhanced Performance... for the patent unless a written objection is received within fifteen (15) days from the date...

  18. 45 CFR 650.5 - Special patent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special patent provisions. 650.5 Section 650.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.5 Special patent provisions. At the request of the prospective awardee or on recommendation...

  19. 36 CFR 9.18 - Surface use and patent restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface use and patent... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.18 Surface use and patent restrictions. (a) The... to any claimant who wishes to take his claim to patent in Olympic National Park, Glacier Bay...

  20. 77 FR 55465 - US Air Force Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... Department of the Air Force US Air Force Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: Air Force Research Laboratory... an Exclusive Patent License. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of part 404 of Title 37, Code of... interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent No. 8,051,475, filed on March 27, 2007 and...

  1. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  2. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions... exclusive license in any right, title and interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent... license for the invention described in this patent application will be granted unless a written...

  3. 43 CFR 6.7 - Domestic patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Domestic patent protection. 6.7 Section 6.7 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.7 Domestic patent protection. (a) The Solicitor, upon determining that an invention...

  4. 7 CFR 1160.505 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1160... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Miscellaneous § 1160.505 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  5. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  6. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  7. 50 CFR 82.19 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 82.19 Section 82...-IN-AID (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.19 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights in any inventions or discoveries resulting from work under...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1150.184 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. Any patents, copyrights, trademarks, inventions or publications developed through the use...

  9. 7 CFR 1260.215 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications... AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Miscellaneous § 1260.215 Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights, inventions or publications...

  10. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and Inventions; Delegation of... administer and make decisions regarding the invention and patent program of CDC and the authority to make determinations of rights in inventions and patents in which CDC and the Department have an interest....

  11. 10 CFR 603.840 - Negotiating data and patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negotiating data and patent rights. 603.840 Section 603... patent rights. (a) The contracting officer must confer with program officials and assigned intellectual... that would support modification of standard patent and data terms, and should include...

  12. 48 CFR 28.105-2 - Patent infringement bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent infringement bonds... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 28.105-2 Patent infringement bonds. (a) Contracts providing for patent indemnity may require these bonds only if— (1)...

  13. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR...

  14. Mapping (USPTO) patent data using overlays to Google Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    2012-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and the quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology anal

  15. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting, becau

  16. Figure detection and part label extraction from patent drawing images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cronje, J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The US Patent and Trademark Office, together with the NASA Tournament Lab, launched a contest to develop specialized algorithms to help bring the seven million patents presently in the patent archive into the digital age. The contest was hosted...

  17. Coverage of Indian leather patents in chemical abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi; Amba

    2000-03-01

    Patent information is increasingly becoming important in the current context of international trade and commerce. The printed version of Chemical Abstracts still continues to be used heavily, and it was evaluated as the source of information on Indian patents using leather patents as a case study. The results of the study are given.

  18. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting,

  19. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  20. Patenting Marketing Methods: A Missing Topic in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1998 landmark case that validated the patenting of business methods as intellectual property, a plethora of patents has emerged. Patents for marketing-related processes have been particularly abundant, especially when new marketing processes are tied to a technology component. A review of the marketing literature and textbooks shows an…

  1. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  2. 14 CFR 1274.911 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definitions. (1) Administrator means the Administrator or Deputy Administrator of NASA. (2) Invention means any invention or discovery which is or may be patentable or otherwise protectable under Title 35 of the United States Code. (3) Made when used in relation to any invention means the conception or...

  3. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... USPTO's system for electronic filing of patent correspondence. EFS-Web is accessible via the Internet on....41, 1.48, and 1.53(c)(2) can be filed electronically as well as in paper. The electronic options...

  4. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  5. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Sardjono

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  6. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  7. Plant biotechnological patents from the legal perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhah Abdullah

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which plant biotechnological patent in terms of natural product which has human intervention, different from other product and the entitlement of such a patent whether it is the inventor or biological donor s patent? In addition, the article discusses how would one determine the value added” by the company s researchers as opposed to the value contributed by the original genetic material. Meanwhile, the poor farmers and indigenous people who are the pioneers in terms of the knowledge of the plant, they are left unprivileged and deprived of their contribution and benefits. Thus, this article would highlight the significance of the contribution made by the original donor especially, in a poor developing country whose natural heritage has been taken away without any consideration, acknowledgment and how to strike a balance between the rights of an inventor and biological donor? Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Patents, Inventor, Biological Donor, Developing countries Received: 7 July 2009 / Received in revised form: 28 August 2009, Accepted: 28 August 2009, Published online: 22 September 2009

  8. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    to Navy suppliers. F. Contact: Darryl Mexic, Esquire Patent Counsel Sughrue, Mion, Zinn , Macpeak & Seas 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC...Bovernack Auoney, Agent. or Firm- Howard P. Terry; Seymour (75) Inventor: D d H. MeMa , Carlisle, Mass. Levine [73] Assignee: Sperry Corporatloin, New York

  9. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  10. Two new patents of Baoxiniao suit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Recently,Baoxiniao released two patents of suit--cool suit,zero grams of weight suits. "Cool suit" is fashion design,with leisure craft production.Natural fibre blended fabric to retain cool sense of the natural fibre fabric

  11. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  12. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  13. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners’ bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm’s experience in patenting, the number of

  14. Implications of bilateral free trade agreements on access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Carlos María

    2006-05-01

    The TRIPS Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO) mandated the introduction of protection of intellectual property rights, notably patents, for pharmaceutical products. While the implications for the access to medicines contained in the terms of this Agreement raised significant concerns, a recent new wave of free trade agreements, negotiated outside the WTO, requires even higher levels of intellectual property protection for medicines than those mandated by that Agreement. The measures involved include the extension of the patent term beyond 20 years; prohibition of use of test data on drug efficacy and safety for certain periods for the approval of generic products; the linkage between drug registration and patent protection; in some cases, limitations to the grounds for granting compulsory licences. This article reviews some of these measures that further limit the competition of generic products and discusses their possible implication for access to medicines.

  15. Taiwan's Information Security Policy Enhancement: an Analysis of Patent Indicators and Patent Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Wen; Liang-Shiuan, Jr.; Chen, Yi-Chang

    2007-12-01

    Information security policy in Taiwan stems the gap between expectation and reality. For this, the paper presents an analysis of patent indicators and patent document attempt to conclude the overview of the information security technology development. The paper also identifies the leading countries and cutting-edge areas with potential trends. Finally, several practicable and valuable strategies after this work are generalized to achieve the goals of Taiwan information security policy.

  16. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases

  17. A patent strategy for genomic and research tool patents: are there any differences between the USA, Europe and Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Ihnen J

    2000-12-01

    The patenting of genomics and research tools, and its effects on the development of therapeutics are attracting considerable attention. Regardless of whether one is in favor of patents for this technology, it is not specifically excluded from patenting in most countries. Accordingly, it is imperative that a suitable global patent strategy be developed and followed to maximize both intellectual property rights and returns on R&D investment.

  18. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  19. Contribution of Latin American Countries to Cancer Research and Patent Generation: Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Bandala, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Data mining publications and patent data can provide decision support for scientists, inventors and industry in the field of cancer research. The main objective of this article it to identify trends of research and patent generation productivity originating from Latin American countries in the field of cancer. Publications were collected from the Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed database; and patents were collected from Latipat Espacenet databases. Data from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2014 were searched for documents with specific words in cancer as a ''topic'' and a list of 20 Latin American countries as affiliation country. A total of 12,989 items published and 244 patent applications including "cancer" were retrieved. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Peru were highest contributors in cancer research, while Brazil, Mexico, Cuba and Argentina were highest contributors in cancer patent applications. The analysis of the data from this study provides an overview of research and patent activity in Latin America in the cancer field, which can be useful to help health policy makers and people in academia to shape up cancer research in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Early Radio Alleged Patent ‘Thicket’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, RD

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...

  1. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  2. Piperazine derivatives for therapeutic use: a patent review (2010-present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Anuj K; Syed, Riyaz; Shin, Han-Seung; Patel, Rahul V

    2016-07-01

    Piperazine, a six membered nitrogen containing heterocycle, is of great significance to the rational design of drugs. This moiety can be found in a plethora of well-known drugs with various therapeutic uses, such as antipsychotic, antihistamine, antianginal, antidepressant, anticancer, antiviral, cardio protectors, anti-inflammatory, and imaging agents. Slight modification to the substitution pattern on the piperazine nucleus facilitates a recognizable difference in the medicinal potential of the resultant molecules. Scifinder was the main source used to search for patents containing piperazine compounds with therapeutic uses. The article describes a variety of molecular designs bearing piperazine entity furnishing CNS agents, anticancer, cardio-protective agents, antiviral, anti-tuberculosis, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antihistamine profiles, as well as agents relieving pain and useful in imaging applications. The great interest gathered to explore piperazine based molecules in relatively few years reflects the broad potential of the entity. Earlier, this scaffold was considered to express CNS activity only. However, a significant increase in research covering studies of several different activities of piperazine ring suggest a successful emergence of the pharmacophore. Certain patents outlined in the present article recommend that piperazines can be a flexible building block to discover drug-like elements and modification of substituents present on the piperazine ring may have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics factors of the resulting molecules. This article aims to provide insights to piperazine based molecular fragments that would assist drug discoverers to rationally design molecules for various diseases. We anticipate, and highly recommend, further therapeutic investigations on this motif.

  3. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, RD; Howells, John

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  4. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  5. Medical methods and Patentability of Nanomedicine in Europe: small matter, large interrogations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The present article was presented at the ATRIP Congress 2015. The main question addressed is whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. The issue is addressed by reference to both novel and resurfacing...... 53 (c) EPC is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility in the patent system allowing the protection a core ethical value of society: the right to the highest attainable standard of health and more specifically the right of access to healthcare. However a balance needs to be struck....... Every nation, arguably to a different extent, faces the issue of ensuring the protection and promotion of public health and wide access to medicine. In the current times of financial troubles it has become apparent that the traditional North/South division is a simplistic view: there are many ‘Souths...

  6. [Exploration of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by western medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi-jing

    2015-02-01

    "Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of

  7. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  8. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    We provide an anatomy of the influence of Edison’s incandescent lamp patent U.S. 223,898 on downstream development and show how subsequent inventor activity adjusts to the improved certainty provided by court decisions as to the boundaries of a patent’s claims. First, we show that court decisions...... upholding Edison’s patent generated a surge of patent filings in the incandescent lamp classes at the U.S. Patent Office. Second, by inspection of the specifications of these later patents we are able to categorize certain design-around efforts by their evasion of specific elements of the claims of Edison......’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...

  9. The dual frontier: Patented inventions and prior scientific advance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpoor, Mohammad; Jones, Benjamin F

    2017-08-11

    The extent to which scientific advances support marketplace inventions is largely unknown. We study 4.8 million U.S. patents and 32 million research articles to determine the minimum citation distance between patented inventions and prior scientific advances. We find that most cited research articles (80%) link forward to a future patent. Similarly, most patents (61%) link backward to a prior research article. Linked papers and patents typically stand 2 to 4 degrees distant from the other domain. Yet, advances directly along the patent-paper boundary are notably more impactful within their own domains. The distance metric further provides a typology of the fields, institutions, and individuals involved in science-to-technology linkages. Overall, the findings are consistent with theories that emphasize substantial and fruitful connections between patenting and prior scientific inquiry. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Increasing Access to Patented Inventions by Post-grant Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    " and the so called "tragedy of the anticommons". Next the paper discusses the use of (some) post grant measure to increase access to patented inventions. Traditionally patent law has not paid much attention to such measures. The paper argues that developments suggest that there is good reason to reconsider...... this reluctance and to include measures in the European patent legislation which seek to increase access to patented inventions. Finally the paper presents and discusses three such measures: Compulsory licences, licences of rights, and behavioural rules...... This paper builds on the recommendation in the STOA Report (2007) to improve the European patent system to "Increase Access to Patented Inventions". The paper first provides some background information to the patent system and to the limitations on access to protected technology from "thickets...

  11. An Analysis of the Patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; LI; Qing; CHEN; Bingjiang; XU; Xinxin; REN; Huasun; HUANG; Qiong; LI

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes the application data of patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis in the world and China from the perspectives of time,research field,and the geographical distribution of applicants. It also interprets the patents for invention in China from time,research field,and types of applicants. Based on the study,it shows that although the patent applications fluctuate,the general trend is rising. And the patents are mostly concentrated in plant protection,and agricultural biotechnology. The Chinese applicants of patents for invention largely work in the research institutes,and most of these patents focus on the field of plant protection,agricultural biotechnology,and agro-processing.However,the foreign applicants mainly work in companies,and most of these patents only focus on plant protection. These findings will provide a reference for formulating development policies about natural rubber industry in China.

  12. Small-molecule anti-inflammatory drug compositions for the treatment of asthma: a patent review (2013 - 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossop, Paul; Whitlock, Gavin; Gibson, Karl

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is a chronic condition affecting 235 million people worldwide, with prevalence continuing to increase. A significant number of patients have poorly controlled asthma but despite this, a new mechanistic class of small-molecule asthma therapy has not emerged over the past 15 years. In this article, the authors review the published patent literature from 2013 to 2014 that describes the discovery of novel small-molecule anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of asthma. This patent analysis was performed using multiple search engines including SciFinder and Free Patents Online. This review highlights that significant research is still directed towards the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of asthma. Current standard-of-care therapies are given topically to the lung via an inhaled dose, which the authors believe can offer significant advantages in terms of efficacy and therapeutic index, compared with an oral dose. Several of the patents reviewed disclose preferred compounds and data that suggest an inhaled approach is being specifically pursued. The patents reviewed target a wide range of inflammatory pathways, although none have yet delivered an approved novel medicine for asthma; this gives an indication of both the opportunity and challenge involved in such an endeavor.

  13. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  14. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  15. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law....... The article points out that the UPC because of this design will be biased towards technology based values and uniformity at the expense of other values and interests e.g. non-economic public interests, and values associated with diversity. The practical effects of these biases are analysed regarding cases...... involving ordre public and morality and scope of protection. The article shows that the biases will affect the law in all the areas discussed and that if unchecked they will reduce some of the “wriggling room” which the current system has provided. To maintain that room a focused effort by the UPC...

  17. Drug patents and intellectual property rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Gerard Marshall; Priyadarshini, Rekha; Mathaiyan, Jayanthi

    2015-04-01

    Inquisitive scientists are untiring and relentless in the hard work they perform day in and day out. In this pursuit, a researcher has to exercise their intellectual expertise in its entirety. Eventually, all credit of the invention is vested with the inventor who has the right of control over their intellectual creation. Likewise, pharmaceutical companies spend extravagantly in successfully introducing a novel drug from hundreds and thousands of lead compounds. Hence, it is a prerogative for every company to protect its innovative products from unauthorized duplication. Certainly, "patents" are the sole custodians of these products of medical intelligence - the drugs! This review focuses on the various intricacies of the drug patent system all over the world with special emphasis on India, Europe, and the United States. A note on other intellectual properties such as copyrights, trademarks, and designs is also added.

  18. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  19. Patent ductus arteriosus with Eisenmenger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Sherif; Patton, David J; Balon, Yvonne; Connelly, Michael S; Alvarez, Nanette

    2013-11-01

    Herein we report a 21 year-old woman with a previously documented patent ductus arteriosus and Eisenmenger physiology. She presented with increasing cyanosis and exercise intolerance which could be explained by a new finding of right to left shunting through an interatrial communication. She was started on Bosentan therapy aiming to reduce the pulmonary pressure with consideration for heart-lung transplantation should any further deterioration occur.

  20. A rare association with patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Warrier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent fifth aortic arch (PFAA, also known as congenital double-lumen aortic arch, is a rare developmental anomaly of the aortic arch. A 5-month-old baby who presented with congestive cardiac failure was diagnosed to have a large patent ductus arteriosus with PFAA. Although this arch anomaly had no hemodynamic relevance in this case, preoperative diagnosis prevented surprises "on table."

  1. 中药在美国的专利申请与专利适格性探讨Δ%Discussion on Chinese Medicines’Patent Application and Eligibility in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄踔基; 田思齐; 唐先博; 胡元佳

    2016-01-01

    in the United States,notable difference between the medicine and natural products as well as the order of nature must be clearly stated;technical attributes should be em-phasized,and different patent application ideas were adopted for different types of invention in order to guarantee patent eligibility. At present,small number of Chinese medicine’s patent in the United States come from China,and relevant enterprises should liber-ate themselves from the misperception that Chinese medicines do not hold patent eligibility. Hence,it is suggest that the first claim in the patent should not be too definite in Chinese medicines’patent application,afford more comprehensive application,strength-en patent protection of classic Chinese medicine recipe and stress patent eligibility.

  2. Recent Patents in Pulmonary Delivery of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animikh; Mandal, Abhirup; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary delivery is a non-invasive form of delivery that holds tremendous therapeutic promise for topical and systemic administration of several macromolecules. Oral administration of macromolecules has several limitations such as low bioavailability, degradation of drug before reaching circulation and insufficient absorption across intestinal membrane. Administration of macromolecules such as proteins, peptides and nucleic acids via inhalation offers great potential due to the avoidance of first pass metabolism, higher surface area and rapid clinical response. However, delivery of reproducible, uniform and safe doses of inhaled particles remains a major challenge for clinical translation. Recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and particle engineering led to progress in novel pulmonary drug delivery systems. Moreover, significant developments in carriers and delivery devices prevent denaturation of macromolecules and control their release within the lungs. This article reviews the advances in pulmonary drug delivery systems by focusing on the recent patents in delivery of macromolecules. Furthermore, recent patents in gene delivery to the lungs have also been discussed. List of patents included in this review is comprehensive in terms of pulmonary delivery of therapeutics. It includes inventions related to proteins and peptides, DNA therapeutics, siRNA and other genetic materials with therapeutic applications. The diseases targeted by these therapeutic molecules are varied including but not limited to different forms of cancer, respiratory diseases etc.

  3. On Management Crisis, Innovation and Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣莲

    2005-01-01

    There are lots of management crisises in chinese enterprises with development of china' s economy. There exists a bottle neck in the transition from middle-level to international level group for Chinese companies. While the general principles behind wise competition policy are well understood, their application in particular industries and particular cases calls for careful analytical thinking. That thinking often includes economics. Innovation competition policy can be analyzed using the same general principles as other parts of competition policy. It is important to understand innovation competition policy, because several kinds of innovation are important in the modern economy. How could such industries as software, semiconductors, and computers have been so innovative despite historically weak patent protection? We argue that if innovation is both sequential and complementary- as it certainly has been in those industries-competition can increase firms' future profits thus offsetting short-term dissipation of rents. A simple model also shows that in such a dynamic industry, patent protection may reduce overall innovation and social welfare. Standard arguments would predict that R&D intensity and productivity should have increased among patenting firms.

  4. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  5. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  6. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  7. International collaboration in patenting : a case study of contributions of Indian inventors

    OpenAIRE

    Dutt, Bharvi

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates international collaboration of Indian inventors in patenting, using United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database from 1976-2004. The result indicates that Indian inventors had 911 patents with the inventors of 28 countries. It examines these patent documents in terms of patent assignees and their countries, type of assignees, areas of patenting, joint ownerships and key players holding these patents. It is observed that Indian inventors have contributed m...

  8. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  9. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Christie

    Full Text Available Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  10. The Doha declaration in action: An examination of patent law flexibilities in the South African acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Huddart

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patent law flexibilities outlined in the Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement make it possible for low-income nations to provide affordable essential medicine during health crises. During the rise of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, multinational pharmaceutical companies challenged the implementation of these flexibilities. In response to this lawsuit, the World Trade Organization enacted the Doha Declaration, an affirmation of the right of low-income nations to import and produce generic versions of patented essential medicines. This case study assesses the Doha Declaration's impact on access to HIV/AIDS treatment in South Africa by examining drug pricing, antiretroviral treatment coverage and drug licensing fees. The declaration ultimately contributed to the decrease in HIV/AIDS treatment costs and the subsequent increase in availability and affordability of life-saving drug regimens.

  11. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  12. Impact of Global Patent and Regulatory Reform on Patent Strategies for Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Napoleon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  I come to you this morning not as an intellectual property lawyer but as a former general counsel of biotechnology and pharmaceutical related companies, as an attorney with significant exposure to intellectual property issues and as one who has seen first-hand the importance of intellectual property in shaping commercial strategies in biotechnology. With that as a backdrop, I would like to thank you for allowing me the opportunity to share with you today thoughts that I have regarding patents and the impact of patent reform on biotechnology. It has been said that the best way to predict the future is to invent it. However, I believe that the best way to control the future is to patent it.

  13. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  14. Commentary on patents: Don`t dismiss Rifkin`s damning of gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, R.

    1995-07-01

    Biotech may have less to fear from Rifkin than from its own inclination to dismiss the fact that the evolution of ethics and patent laws applying to patenting genes has been haphazard. Perhaps it is time for the biotechnology industry to get behind the establishment of an effective forum for opening much-needed dialogue. Perhaps a Senate proposal to establish a bioethics commission, which reportedly has bogged down in partisan politics, is just such a venue for the government and private sector to begin to hash out the ethical and legal dilemmas that are indisputably at the heart of the biotechnology industry, and its future success.

  15. An overview on the advances of Gymnema sylvestre: chemistry, pharmacology and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchezhian, E; Dobriyal, R M

    2003-01-01

    Chemistry and pharmacology of Gymnema sylvestre is reviewed relying on research papers and patent literature. Extracts of this plant are widely used in Australian, Japananese, Vietnamese and Indian folk medicine. Gymnema preparations have a profound action on the modulation of taste, particularly suppressing sweet taste sensations. It is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and in food additives against obesity and caries. Anti-allergic, antiviral, lipid lowering and other effects are also reported. From a technological point of view, muchefforts have been made to mask the biter taste of Gymnema preparations.

  16. Natural products as antidepressants documented in Chinese patents from 1992 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang-Li; Geng, Chang-An; Yin, Xiu-Juan; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Depressive disorder is a severe psychiatric problem all over the world. Clinical therapeutic agents for the treatment of depression in the market targeting on monoamine neurotransmitters are far from satisfaction due to their adverse effects. Novel classes of antidepressant agents with different mechanisms and low toxicity are needed. Natural products from traditional Chinese medicines have been revealed as new sources to cure the depressive symptoms with various chemical structures and promising activities. This paper reviews natural products as antidepressants documented in Chinese patents so far.

  17. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  18. Making Patent Scopes Exceed the Technological Scopes of Scientific Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  19. 77 FR 40345 - Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: United States Air Force, DoD..., Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Number 7,927,828, Serial No. 11/550,130, issued on... William V. Stoecker, Hernan F. Gomez, Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent...

  20. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology analysis, innovation studies and evolutionary economics, as well as economic geography. The resulting maps can also be relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management, because the US market...