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Sample records for unit-cell volume decrease

  1. Decreased mean platelet volume in panic disorder

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    Göğçegöz Gül I

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Işil Göğçegöz Gül, Gül Eryilmaz, Eylem Özten, Gökben Hizli Sayar Neuropsychiatry Health, Practice, and Research Center, Uskudar University, Istanbul, Turkey Aim: The relationship between psychological stress and platelet activation has been widely studied. It is well known that platelets may reflect certain biochemical changes that occur in the brain when different mental conditions occur. Platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT is also extensively studied in psychiatry. The mean platelet volume (MPV, the accurate measure of platelet size, has been considered a marker and determinant of platelet function. The aim of the present study was to search for any probable difference in the MPV of subjects with panic disorder (PD.Methods: A total of 37 drug-free subjects, aged 18 to 65 years, diagnosed with PD, with or without agoraphobia, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV criteria and 45 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Platelet count and MPV were measured and recorded for each subject.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of female/male ratio, age, or body mass index between the PD group and control group (P=0.91, P=0.82, and P=0.93, respectively. The MPV was found to be significantly lower in the PD group compared with the control group (8.8±0.9 fL vs 9.2±0.8 fL; P=0.02. All the participants had MPV values in the standard range of 6.9–10.8 fL.Conclusion: We concluded that abnormalities of the 5-HT1A receptor function in the central nervous system of subjects with a diagnosis of PD are also mirrored in as an alteration in platelet activity. Measurements of platelet activity may be used as a tool for neuropsychiatric and psychopharmacological research and for studying how certain mental diseases and medications affect the central nervous system. Keywords: 5-HT, thrombocyte, anxiety 

  2. Decrease in coronary vascular volume in systole augments cardiac contraction.

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    Willemsen, M J; Duncker, D J; Krams, R; Dijkman, M A; Lamberts, R R; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    2001-08-01

    Coronary arterial inflow is impeded and venous outflow is increased as a result of the decrease in coronary vascular volume due to cardiac contraction. We evaluated whether cardiac contraction is influenced by interfering with the changes of the coronary vascular volume over the heart cycle. Length-tension relationships were determined in Tyrode-perfused rat papillary muscle and when coronary vascular volume changes were partly inhibited by filling it with congealed gelatin or perfusing it with a high viscosity dextran buffer. Also, myocyte thickening during contraction was reduced by placing a silicon tube around the muscle. Increasing perfusion pressure from 8 to 80 cmH2O, increased developed tension by approximately 40%. When compared with the low perfusion state, developed tension of the gelatin-filled vasculature was reduced to 43 +/- 6% at the muscle length where the muscle generates the largest developed tension (n = 5, means +/- SE). Dextran reduced developed tension to 73 +/- 6% (n = 6). The silicon tube, in low perfusion state, reduced the developed tension to 83 +/- 7% (n = 4) of control. Time-control and oxygen-lowering experiments show that the findings are based on mechanical effects. Thus interventions to prevent myocyte thickening reduce developed tension. We hypothesize that when myocyte thickening is prevented, intracellular pressure increases and counteracts the force produced by the contractile apparatus. We conclude that emptying of the coronary vasculature serves a physiological purpose by facilitating cardiomyocyte thickening thereby augmenting force development.

  3. Hippocampal volume is decreased in adults with hypothyroidism.

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    Cooke, Gillian E; Mullally, Sinead; Correia, Neuman; O'Mara, Shane M; Gibney, James

    2014-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for the adult brain, particularly regions of the hippocampus including the dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 regions. The hippocampus is a thyroid hormone receptor-rich region of the brain involved in learning and memory. Consequently, alterations in thyroid hormone levels have been reported to impair hippocampal-associated learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. While these effects have been shown primarily in developing rats, as well as in adult rats, little is known about the effects in adult humans. There are currently no data regarding structural changes in the hippocampus as a result of adult-onset hypothyroidism. We aimed to establish whether hippocampal volume was reduced in patients with untreated adult-onset hypothyroidism compared to age-matched healthy controls. High-resolution magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE) scans were performed on 11 untreated hypothyroid adults and 9 age-matched control subjects. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed based on increased levels of thyrotropin (TSH) and reduced levels of free thyroxine (fT4). Volumetric analysis of the right and left hippocampal regions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (FMRIB) integrated registration and segmentation tool (FIRST), demonstrated significant volume reduction in the right hippocampus in the hypothyroid patients relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothyroidism results in structural deficits in the adult human brain. Decreases in volume in the right hippocampus were evident in patients with adult-onset overt hypothyroidism, supporting some of the findings in animal models.

  4. The decrease of cardiac chamber volumes and output during positive-pressure ventilation

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    Kristensen, Kasper Kyhl; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Iversen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    the effect of PPV on the central circulation by studying cardiac chamber volumes with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). We hypothesized that PPV lowers cardiac output (CO) mainly via the Frank-Starling relationship. In 18 healthy volunteers, cardiac chamber volumes and flow in aorta and the pulmonary...... artery were measured by CMR during PPV levels of 0, 10, and 20 cmH2O applied via a respirator and a face mask. All cardiac chamber volumes decreased in proportion to the level of PPV. Following 20-cmH2O PPV, the total diastolic and systolic cardiac volumes (±SE) decreased from 605 (±29) ml to 446 (±29......) ml (P volume decreased by 27 (±4) ml/beat; heart rate increased by 7 (±2) beats/min; and CO decreased by 1.0 (±0.4) l/min (P

  5. Decreasing Irradiated Rat Lung Volume Changes Dose-Limiting Toxicity From Early to Late Effects

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    Veen, Sonja J. van der; Faber, Hette; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Brandenburg, Sytze [KVI Center for Advanced Radiation Research, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Coppes, Robert P. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijk, Peter van, E-mail: p.van.luijk@umcg.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technological developments in radiation therapy result in smaller irradiated volumes of normal tissue. Because the risk of radiation therapy-induced toxicity generally depends on irradiated volume, changing volume could change the dose-limiting toxicity of a treatment. Recently, in our rat model, we found that early radiation-induced lung dysfunction (RILD) was closely related to irradiated volume dependent vascular remodeling besides inflammation. The exact relationship between early and late RILD is still unknown. Therefore, in this preclinical study we investigated the dose-volume relationship of late RILD, assessed its dependence on early and late pathologies and studied if decreasing irradiated volume changed the dose-limiting toxicity. Methods and Materials: A volume of 25%, 32%, 50%, 63%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using protons. Until 26 weeks after irradiation, respiratory rates were measured. Macrovascular remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed at 26 weeks after irradiation. For all endpoints dose-volume response curves were made. These results were compared to our previously published early lung effects. Results: Early vascular remodeling and inflammation correlated significantly with early RILD. Late RILD correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, but not with vascular remodeling. In contrast to the early effects, late vascular remodeling, inflammation and fibrosis showed a primarily dose but not volume dependence. Comparison of respiratory rate increases early and late after irradiation for the different dose-distributions indicated that with decreasing irradiated volumes, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late RILD. Conclusions: In our rat model, different pathologies underlie early and late RILD with different dose-volume dependencies. Consequently, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late dysfunction when the irradiated volume was reduced. In patients, early and late

  6. Decreased right heart blood volume determined by magnetic resonance imaging: evidence of central underfilling in cirrhosis

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    Møller, S; Søndergaard, L; Møgelvang, J

    1995-01-01

    mL, NS), and left atrial volume (70 vs. 57 mL, P = .08) were normal or slightly increased. The right ejection fraction (68% vs. 53%, P fraction was slightly reduced (61% vs. 69%, NS). The central and arterial blood volume (CBV), assessed......Whether the central blood volume is reduced or expanded in cirrhosis is still under debate. Accordingly, the current study was undertaken to assess the volume of the heart cavities. Ten cirrhotic patients and matched controls had their right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (RVDV and LVDV...... as the cardiac output (CO) multiplied by the central circulation time, was significantly decreased (1.47 vs. 1.81 L, P blood volume (4.43 vs. 3.64 L, P

  7. Unit cell geometry of 3-D braided structures

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    Du, Guang-Wu; Ko, Frank K.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional approach used in modeling of composites reinforced by three-dimensional (3-D) braids is to assume a simple unit cell geometry of a 3-D braided structure with known fiber volume fraction and orientation. In this article, we first examine 3-D braiding methods in the light of braid structures, followed by the development of geometric models for 3-D braids using a unit cell approach. The unit cell geometry of 3-D braids is identified and the relationship of structural parameters such as yarn orientation angle and fiber volume fraction with the key processing parameters established. The limiting geometry has been computed by establishing the point at which yarns jam against each other. Using this factor makes it possible to identify the complete range of allowable geometric arrangements for 3-D braided preforms. This identified unit cell geometry can be translated to mechanical models which relate the geometrical properties of fabric preforms to the mechanical responses of composite systems.

  8. Insomnia severity is associated with a decreased volume of the CA3/Dentate Gyrus Hippocampal Subfield

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    Neylan, Thomas C.; Mueller, Susanne G.; Wang, Zhen; Metzler, Thomas J.; Lenoci, Maryann; Truran, Diana; Marmar, Charles R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    Background Prolonged disruption of sleep in animal studies is associated with decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Our objective was to determine if insomnia severity in a sample of PTSD and controls was associated with decreased volume in the CA3/dentate hippocampal subfield. Methods Volumes of hippocampal subfields in seventeen veteran males positive for PTSD (41 ±12 years) and nineteen age-matched male veterans negative for PTSD were measured using 4 Tesla MRI. Subjective sleep quality was measured by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results Higher scores on the ISI, indicating worse insomnia, were associated with smaller volumes of the CA3/dentate subfields (r= −.48, p < 0.01) in the combined sample. Adding the ISI score as a predictor for CA3/dentate volume to a hierarchical linear regression model after first controlling for age and PTSD symptoms accounted for a 13 % increase in incremental variance (t= −2.47, p= 0.02). Conclusions The findings indicate for the first time in humans that insomnia severity is associated with volume loss of the CA3/dentate subfields. This is consistent with animal studies showing that chronic sleep disruption is associated with decreased neurogenesis and dendritic branching in these structures. PMID:20598672

  9. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

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    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  10. Role of BK channels in the apoptotic volume decrease in native eel intestinal cells

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    Lionetto, Maria Giulia; Giordano, Maria Elena; Calisi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    High conductance Ca(+)-activated K(+) channels (BK channels) have previously been demonstrated in the eel intestine. They are specifically activated following a hypotonic stress and sustain Regulatory Volume Decrease (RVD). The aim of the present work was to address the possible role...... enterocytes that BK channels, which are involved in RVD in these cells, plays also a crucial role in the AVD process and in the progression of apoptosis....

  11. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

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    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Psicologia Medica]. E-mail: fgraeff@keynet.com.br; Santos, A.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Guimaraes, F.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2003-07-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t{sub 21} = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t{sub 21} = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t{sub 21} = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t{sub 21} = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t{sub 21} = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  12. Gray Matter Volume Decrease Distinguishes Schizophrenia From Bipolar Offspring During Childhood and Adolescence.

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    Sugranyes, Gisela; de la Serna, Elena; Romero, Soledad; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Calvo, Anna; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Diaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Janssen, Joost; Bargallo, Nuria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-08-01

    There is increasing support toward the notion that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share neurodevelopmental underpinnings, although areas of divergence remain. We set out to examine gray matter volume characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder comparatively. In this 2-center study, magnetic resonance structural neuroimaging data were acquired in 198 children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years): 38 offspring of patients with schizophrenia, 77 offspring of patients with bipolar disorder, and 83 offspring of community controls. Analyses of global brain volumes and voxel-based morphometry (using familywise error correction) were conducted. There was an effect of group on total cerebral gray matter volume (F = 3.26, p = .041), driven by a decrease in offspring of patients with schizophrenia relative to offspring of controls (p = .035). At a voxel-based level, we observed an effect of group in the left inferior frontal cortex/anterior insula (F = 14.7, p bipolar disorder (p bipolar disorder and offspring of controls in either global or voxel-based gray matter volumes. This first comparative study between offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder suggests that gray matter volume reduction in childhood and adolescence may be specific to offspring of patients with schizophrenia; this may index a greater neurodevelopmental impact of risk for schizophrenia relative to bipolar disorder during youth. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G.; Santos, A.C.; Guimaraes, F.S.

    2003-01-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t 21 = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t 21 = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t 21 = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t 21 = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t 21 = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  14. Apparent CBF decrease with normal aging due to partial volume effects: MR-based partial volume correction on CBF SPECT.

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    Inoue, Kentaro; Ito, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Tachio; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    Several studies using single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have shown changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) with age, which were associated with partial volume effects by some authors. Some studies have also demonstrated gender-related differences in CBF. The present study aimed to examine age and gender effects on CBF SPECT images obtained using the 99mTc-ethyl cysteinate dimer and a SPECT scanner, before and after partial volume correction (PVC) using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Forty-four healthy subjects (29 males and 15 females; age range, 27-64 y; mean age, 50.0 +/- 9.8 y) participated. Each MR image was segmented to yield grey and white matter images and coregistered to a corresponding SPECT image, followed by convolution to approximate the SPECT spatial resolution. PVC-SPECT images were produced using the convoluted grey matter MR (GM-MR) and white matter MR images. The age and gender effects were assessed using SPM99. Decreases with age were detected in the anterolateral prefrontal cortex and in areas along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, bilaterally, in the GM-MR images and the SPECT images. In the PVC-SPECT images, decreases in CBF in the lateral prefrontal cortex lost their statistical significance. Decreases in CBF with age found along the lateral sulcus and the lateral ventricle, on the other hand, remained statistically significant, but observation of the spatially normalized MR images suggests that these findings are associated with the dilatation of the lateral sulcus and lateral ventricle, which was not completely compensated for by the spatial normalization procedure. Our present study demonstrated that age effects on CBF in healthy subjects could reflect morphological differences with age in grey matter.

  15. Long-term results of preventive embolization of renal angiomyolipomas: evaluation of predictive factors of volume decrease

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    Hocquelet, A.; Cornelis, F.; Le Bras, Y.; Meyer, M.; Tricaud, E.; Lasserre, A.S.; Grenier, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Urology and Vascular Imaging, Bordeaux (France); Ferriere, J.M.; Robert, G. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pellegrin, Urology Service, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective arterial embolization (SAE) of angiomyolipomas based on the percentage volume reduction after embolization and to identify predictive factors of volume decrease. Patients receiving prophylactic SAE of renal angiomyolipomas were included retrospectively over 3 years. The volume change after SAE and haemorrhagic or surgical events were recorded. Initial tumour volume, percentage tumour fat content, mean tumour density, embolic agent used, number of angiomyolipomas and tuberous sclerosis disease were evaluated as predictive factors of volume decrease. A total of 19 patients with 39 angiomyolipomas were included with median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range 21-37 months). All treatments were technically successful (92 % primary and 8 % secondary). No distal bleeding or any increase in size or surgical nephrectomy after SAE was recorded. Mean volume reduction was 72 % (±24 %). Volumes before SAE (R{sup 2} = 0.276; p = 0.001), percentage fat content (R{sup 2} = 0.612; p < 0.0001) and mean angiomyolipoma density (R{sup 2} = 0.536; p < 0.0001) were identified as predictive factors of volume decrease. In multivariate regression, only percentage fat content influenced volume decreases. SAE is an efficient treatment for angiomyolipoma devascularisation and volume reduction. A significant reduction of volume is modulated by the initial volume and tissue composition of the tumour. (orig.)

  16. Mathematical simulation of water distillation column for decreasing volume of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-12-01

    Water distillation is an attractive method for decreasing volume of the tritiated water produced by operation of tritium facilities. The tritiated water is continuously fed to a column and it is separated into two streams. The top stream is discarded to the environment after addition of sufficient amount of uncontaminated water. The bottom stream is further treated for solidification and capsulation. The tridiagonal matrix method proved to provide surprisingly rapid convergences of the calculations. The concentration of deuterium naturally contained in the tritiated water is higher than the tritium concentration, but it was verified that presence of HDO can be ignored in the calculation. (author)

  17. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

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    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  18. Increased CSF-BACE1 activity associated with decreased hippocampus volume in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The enzyme beta-secretase (BACE1) is essentially involved in the production of cerebral amyloidogenic pathology in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD). The measurement of BACE1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been reported, which may render CSF measurement of BACE1 a potential biomarker candidate of AD. In order to investigate whether BACE1 protein activity is correlated with regional brain atrophy in AD, we investigated the association between CSF levels of BACE1 and MRI-assessed hippocampus volume in patients with AD (n = 30). An increase in CSF-BACE1 activity was associated with decreased left and right hippocampus volume corrected for global head volume in the AD patients. Boot-strapped regression analysis showed that increased CSF levels of BACE1 activity were associated with increased CSF concentration of total tau but not amyloid-beta1-42 in AD. White matter hyperintensities did not influence the results. BACE1 activity and protein levels were significantly increased in AD compared to 19 elderly healthy controls. Thus, the CSF biomarker candidate of BACE1 activity was associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD in a robust manner and may reflect neurotoxic amyloid-beta-related processes.

  19. Anorexia Nervosa during Adolescence Is Associated with Decreased Gray Matter Volume in the Inferior Frontal Gyrus.

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    Takashi X Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is an eating disorder characterized by the relentless pursuit to lose weight, mostly through self-starvation, and a distorted body image. AN tends to begin during adolescence among women. However, the underlying neural mechanisms related to AN remain unclear. Using voxel-based morphometry based on magnetic resonance imaging scans, we investigated whether the presence of AN was associated with discernible changes in brain morphology. Participants were 20 un-medicated, right-handed patients with early-onset AN and 14 healthy control subjects. Group differences in gray matter volume (GMV were assessed using high-resolution, T1-weighted, volumetric magnetic resonance imaging datasets (3T Trio scanner; Siemens AG and analyzed after controlling for age and total GMV, which was decreased in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG (left IFG: FWE corrected, p < 0.05; right IFG: uncorrected, p < 0.05 of patients with AN. The GMV in the bilateral IFG correlated significantly with current age (left IFG: r = -.481, p < .05; right IFG: r = -.601, p < .01 and was limited to the AN group. We speculate that decreased IFG volume might lead to deficits in executive functioning or inhibitory control within neural reward systems. Precocious or unbalanced neurological trimming within this particular region might be an important factor for the pathogenesis of AN onset.

  20. Regulatory volume decrease in isolated nematocytes is affected by crude venom from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

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    Rossana Morabito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Crude venom from nematocysts of the Scyphozoan Pelagia noctiluca possesses hemolytic and cytotoxic power on cultured cells and elicits local and systemic inflammation reactions in vivo. The ability of regulating their volume after exposure to an anisosmotic solution is a fundamental feature common to cells from vertebrates and invertebrates, including Cnidarians. The aim of the present work i s to assay whether crude venom from Pelagia noctiluca may affect the regulatory volume decrease (RVD of nematocytes isolated from the Anthozoan Aiptasia mutabilis, here employed as a cell model. For this purpose, nematocytes were isolated by 605 mM NaSCN plus 0.01 mM Ca2+ application on acontia of Aiptasia mutabilis, while crude venom was obtained by sonication of a population of, respectively, 10, 25 and 50 nematocysts/µL (n/µL. Isolated nematocytes were pre-treated for 30 min with crude venom, submitted to hypotonic stress and their osmotic response and RVD were measured optically. Our results show that, after exposure to crude venom, nematocytes were morphologically intact, as shown by the Trypan blue exclusion test, but did not exhibit RVD. This effect was dose-dependent and reversed by the ionopho re gramicidin. The last observation suggests an inhibitory effect of venom on cell membrane ion transport mechanisms involved in RVD. Further studies are needed to verify this hypothesis and ascertain if a similar effect could be observed in human cells.

  1. Colloid volume loading does not mitigate decreases in central blood volume during simulated hemorrhage while heat stressed

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    Crandall, Craig G; Wilson, Thad E; Marving, Jens

    2012-01-01

    attenuates the reduction in regional blood volumes during a simulated hemorrhagic challenge imposed via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP). Seven subjects underwent 30 mmHg LBNP while normothermic, during passive heat stress (increased internal temperature ~1°C), and while continuing to be heated after...... intravenous colloid volume loading (11 ml/kg). Relative changes in torso and regional blood volumes were determined by gamma camera imaging with technetium-99m labeled erythrocytes. Heat stress reduced blood volume in all regions (ranging from 7 to 16%), while subsequent volume loading returned those values...... to normothermic levels. While normothermic, LBNP reduced blood volume in all regions (torso: 22±8%; heart: 18±6%; spleen: 15±8%). During LBNP while heat stressed, the reductions in blood volume in each region were markedly greater when compared to LBNP while normothermic (torso: 73±2%; heart: 72±3%; spleen: 72...

  2. Tumor Volume Decrease via Feeder Occlusion for Treating a Large, Firm Trigone Meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takuma; Hatano, Norikazu; Kanamori, Fumiaki; Muraoka, Shinsuke; Kawabata, Teppei; Takasu, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Tadashi; Kojima, Takao; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Seki, Yukio

    2018-01-01

    Trigone meningiomas are considered a surgical challenge, as they tend to be considerably large and hypervascularized at the time of presentation. We experienced a case of a large and very hard trigone meningioma that was effectively treated using initial microsurgical feeder occlusion followed by surgery in stages. A 19-year-old woman who presented with loss of consciousness was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment of a brain tumor. Radiological findings were compatible with a left ventricular trigone meningioma extending laterally in proximity to the Sylvian fissure. At initial surgery using the transsylvian approach, main feeders originating from the anterior and lateral posterior choroidal arteries were occluded at the inferior horn; however, only a small section of the tumor could initially be removed because of its firmness. Over time, feeder occlusion resulted in tumor necrosis and a 20% decrease in its diameter; the mass effect was alleviated within 1 year. The residual meningioma was then totally excised in staged surgical procedures after resection became more feasible owing to ischemia-induced partial softening of the tumor. When a trigone meningioma is large and very hard, initial microsurgical feeder occlusion in the inferior horn can be a safe and effective option, and can lead to necrosis, volume decrease, and partial softening of the residual tumor to allow for its staged surgical excision.

  3. Mean platelet volume is decreased in adults with active lupus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Delgado-García

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Only a few biomarkers are available for assessing disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Mean platelet volume (MPV has been recently studied as an inflammatory biomarker. It is currently unclear whether MPV may also play a role as a biomarker of disease activity in adult patients with SLE. Objective: We investigated the association between MPV and disease activity in adult patients with SLE. Methods: In this retrospective study, we compared two groups of adult patients divided according to disease activity (36 per group. Subjects were age- and gender-matched. Results: MPV was significantly decreased with respect to those of inactive patients (7.16 ± 1.39 vs. 8.16 ± 1.50, p = 0.005. At a cutoff level of 8.32 fL, MPV has a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 41% for the detection of disease activity. A modest positive correlation was found between MPV and albumin (r = 0.407, p = 0.001, which in turn is inversely associated with disease activity. Conclusions: In summary, MPV is decreased in adult patients with active lupus disease, and positively correlated with albumin, another biomarker of disease activity. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of this biomarker.

  4. Mean platelet volume is decreased in adults with active lupus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Guillermo; Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio Ángel; Colunga-Pedraza, Iris; Borjas-Almaguer, Omar David; Mandujano-Cruz, Ilse; Benavides-Salgado, Daniel; Martínez-Granados, Rolando Jacob; Atilano-Díaz, Alexandro

    Only a few biomarkers are available for assessing disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been recently studied as an inflammatory biomarker. It is currently unclear whether MPV may also play a role as a biomarker of disease activity in adult patients with SLE. We investigated the association between MPV and disease activity in adult patients with SLE. In this retrospective study, we compared two groups of adult patients divided according to disease activity (36 per group). Subjects were age- and gender-matched. MPV was significantly decreased with respect to those of inactive patients (7.16±1.39 vs. 8.16±1.50, p=0.005). At a cutoff level of 8.32fL, MPV has a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 41% for the detection of disease activity. A modest positive correlation was found between MPV and albumin (r=0.407, p=0.001), which in turn is inversely associated with disease activity. In summary, MPV is decreased in adult patients with active lupus disease, and positively correlated with albumin, another biomarker of disease activity. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic value of this biomarker. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulatory volume decrease in Leishmania mexicana: effect of anti-microtubule drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francehuli Dagger

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trypanosomatid cytoskeleton is responsible for the parasite's shape and it is modulated throughout the different stages of the parasite's life cycle. When parasites are exposed to media with reduced osmolarity, they initially swell, but subsequently undergo compensatory shrinking referred to as regulatory volume decrease (RVD. We studied the effects of anti-microtubule (Mt drugs on the proliferation of Leishmania mexicana promastigotes and their capacity to undergo RVD. All of the drugs tested exerted antiproliferative effects of varying magnitudes [ansamitocin P3 (AP3> trifluoperazine > taxol > rhizoxin > chlorpromazine]. No direct relationship was found between antiproliferative drug treatment and RVD. Similarly, Mt stability was not affected by drug treatment. Ansamitocin P3, which is effective at nanomolar concentrations, blocked amastigote-promastigote differentiation and was the only drug that impeded RVD, as measured by light dispersion. AP3 induced 2 kinetoplasts (Kt 1 nucleus cells that had numerous flagella-associated Kts throughout the cell. These results suggest that the dramatic morphological changes induced by AP3 alter the spatial organisation and directionality of the Mts that are necessary for the parasite's hypotonic stress-induced shape change, as well as its recovery.

  6. Adaptive Radiotherapy Planning on Decreasing Gross Tumor Volumes as Seen on Megavoltage Computed Tomography Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, Curtis; Yartsev, Slav; Dar, A. Rashid; Bauman, Glenn; Van Dyk, Jake

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate gross tumor volume (GTV) changes for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer by using daily megavoltage (MV) computed tomography (CT) studies acquired before each treatment fraction on helical tomotherapy and to relate the potential benefit of adaptive image-guided radiotherapy to changes in GTV. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients were prescribed 30 fractions of radiotherapy on helical tomotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer at London Regional Cancer Program from Dec 2005 to March 2007. The GTV was contoured on the daily MVCT studies of each patient. Adapted plans were created using merged MVCT-kilovoltage CT image sets to investigate the advantages of replanning for patients with differing GTV regression characteristics. Results: Average GTV change observed over 30 fractions was -38%, ranging from -12 to -87%. No significant correlation was observed between GTV change and patient's physical or tumor features. Patterns of GTV changes in the 17 patients could be divided broadly into three groups with distinctive potential for benefit from adaptive planning. Conclusions: Changes in GTV are difficult to predict quantitatively based on patient or tumor characteristics. If changes occur, there are points in time during the treatment course when it may be appropriate to adapt the plan to improve sparing of normal tissues. If GTV decreases by greater than 30% at any point in the first 20 fractions of treatment, adaptive planning is appropriate to further improve the therapeutic ratio

  7. Analysis of decrease in lung perfusion blood volume with occlusive and non-occlusive pulmonary embolisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yohei; Yoshimura, Norihiko; Hori, Yoshiro; Horii, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Motohiko; Noto, Yoshiyuki; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proportion of preserved PE lesions in the non-occlusive group was 76.7% (33/43). • HUs of the iodine map were significantly higher in the non-occlusive group than in the occlusive group. • There was no significant difference in HUs between the non-occlusive and corresponding normal group. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if lung perfusion blood volume (lung PBV) with non-occlusive pulmonary embolism (PE) differs quantitatively and visually from that with occlusive PE and to investigate if lung PBV with non-occlusive PE remains the same as that without PE. Materials and methods: Totally, 108 patients suspected of having acute PE underwent pulmonary dual-energy computed tomography angiography (DECTA) between April 2011 and January 2012. Presence of PE on DECTA was evaluated by one radiologist. Two radiologists visually evaluated the PE distribution (segmental or subsegmental) and its nature (occlusive or non-occlusive) on DECTA and classified perfusion in lung PBV as “decreased,” “slightly decreased,” and “preserved”. Two radiologists used a lung PBV application to set a region of interest (ROI) in the center of the lesion and measured HU values of an iodine map. In the same slice as the ROI of the lesion and close to the lesion, another ROI was set in the normal perfusion area without PE, and HUs were measured. The proportion of lesions was compared between the occlusive and non-occlusive groups. HUs were compared among the occlusive, non-occlusive, and corresponding normal groups. Results: Twenty-five patients had 80 segmental or subsegmental lesions. There were 37 and 43 lesions in the occlusive and non-occlusive groups, respectively. The proportion of decreased lesions was 73.0% (27/37) in the occlusive group, while that of preserved lesions in the non-occlusive group was 76.7% (33/43). There was a significant difference in the proportion of lesions (P < 0.001) between the two groups. HUs of the

  8. High tidal volume decreases adult respiratory distress syndrome, atelectasis, and ventilator days compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousse, Linda E; Herndon, David N; Andersen, Clark R; Ali, Arham; Benjamin, Nicole C; Granchi, Thomas; Suman, Oscar E; Mlcak, Ronald P

    2015-04-01

    Inhalation injury, which is among the causes of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), continues to represent a significant source of mortality in burned patients. Inhalation injury often requires mechanical ventilation, but the ideal tidal volume strategy is not clearly defined in burned pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low and high tidal volume on the number of ventilator days, ventilation pressures, and incidence of atelectasis, pneumonia, and ARDS in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury within 1 year post burn injury. From 1986 to 2014, inhalation injury was diagnosed by bronchoscopy in pediatric burned patients (n = 932). Patients were divided into 3 groups: unventilated (n = 241), high tidal volume (HTV, 15 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 190), and low tidal volume (LTV, 9 ± 3 mL/kg, n = 501). High tidal volume was associated with significantly decreased ventilator days (p tidal volume significantly decreases ventilator days and the incidence of both atelectasis and ARDS compared with low tidal volume in pediatric burned patients with inhalation injury. Therefore, the use of HTV may interrupt sequences leading to lung injury in our patient population. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spider phobia is associated with decreased left amygdala volume: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies imply the amygdala as the most critical structure involved in processing of fear-relevant stimuli. In phobias, the amygdala seems to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and maintenance of the disorder. However, the neuropathology of specific phobias remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether patients with spider phobia show altered amygdala volumes as compared to healthy control subjects. Methods Twenty female patients with spider phobia and twenty age-matched healthy female controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging to investigate amygdala volumes. The amygdalae were segmented using an automatic, model-based segmentation tool (FSL FIRST). Differences in amygdala volume were investigated by multivariate analysis of covariance with group as between-subject factor and left and right amygdala as dependent factors. The relation between amygdala volume and clinical features such as symptom severity, disgust sensitivity, trait anxiety and duration of illness was investigated by Spearman correlation analysis. Results Spider phobic patients showed significantly smaller left amygdala volume than healthy controls. No significant difference in right amygdala volume was detected. Furthermore, the diminished amygdala size in patients was related to higher symptom severity, but not to higher disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety and was independent of age. Conclusions In summary, the results reveal a relation between higher symptom severity and smaller left amygdala volume in patients with spider phobia. This relation was independent of other potential confounders such as the disgust sensitivity or trait anxiety. The findings suggest that greater spider phobic fear is associated with smaller left amygdala. However, the smaller left amygdala volume may either stand for a higher vulnerability to develop a phobic disorder or emerge as a consequence of the disorder. PMID:23442196

  10. Decreased hippocampal volume, indirectly measured, is associated with depressive symptoms and consolidation deficits in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiy, G.; Lehmann, P.; Hahn, H.K.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Kastrup, A.; Hildebrandt, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The human hippocampus plays a role in episodic memory and depression. Recently, it has been shown, using manual tracings, that the hippocampus is smaller in volume in MS patients compared with healthy controls, and that, at least for depression, hippocampal atrophy correlates with

  11. What causes the hippocampal volume decrease in depression? : Are neurogenesis, glial changes and apoptosis implicated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czeh, B.; Lucassen, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Even though in vivo imaging studies document significant reductions of hippocampal volume in depressed patients, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms are unclear. Since stressful life events are associated with an increased risk of developing depression, preclinical studies in which animals are

  12. Decreased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyoung-Sae; Ham, Byung-Joo; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Leen; Kim, Yong-Ku; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung

    2013-08-01

    Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) have clinical symptoms such as the fear of being outside or of open spaces from which escape would be difficult. Although recent neurobiological studies have suggested that fear conditioning and extinction are associated with PDA, no study has examined the possible structural abnormalities in patients with PDA. This preliminary study compares the gray matter volume among patients with PDA, those with panic disorder without agoraphobia (PDW), and healthy controls (HC) using high-resolution 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Compared with HC, patients with PDA showed decreased gray matter volume in their left medial orbitofrontal gyrus. However, differences were not found in the gray matter volumes of patients with PDW and whole panic disorder compared with HC. These findings suggest that the phobic avoidance found in patients with PDA arise from abnormalities in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, which plays an important role in fear extinction. Future studies should investigate the neuroanatomical substrates of PDA and distinguish them from those of PDW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rho family GTP binding proteins are involved in the regulatory volume decrease process in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine F; Beisner, Kristine H; Willumsen, Berthe M

    2002-01-01

    The role of Rho GTPases in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process following osmotic cell swelling is controversial and has so far only been investigated for the swelling-activated Cl- efflux. We investigated the involvement of RhoA in the RVD process in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts, using wild......-type cells and three clones expressing constitutively active RhoA (RhoAV14). RhoAV14 expression resulted in an up to fourfold increase in the rate of RVD, measured by large-angle light scattering. The increase in RVD rate correlated with RhoAV14 expression. RVD in wild-type cells was unaffected by the Rho...

  14. Placed in a steady magnetic field, the flux density inside a permalloy-shielded volume decreases over hours and days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Benedict; Gould, Harvey

    2018-03-01

    Following the application of an external magnetic field to a thin-walled demagnetized Permalloy cylinder, the magnetic flux density at the center of the shielded volume decreases by roughly 20% over periods of hours to days. We measured this effect for applied magnetic fields from 0.48 A/m to 16 A/m, the latter being comparable to the Earths magnetic field at its weakest point. Delayed changes in magnetic flux density are also observed following alternating current demagnetization. We attribute these effects to delayed changes in magnetization, which have previously been observed in thin Permalloy films and small bulk samples of ferromagnetic materials. Phenomenological models of thermal activation are discussed. Some possible effects on experiments that rely on static shielding are noted.

  15. Sea Water Acidification Affects Osmotic Swelling, Regulatory Volume Decrease and Discharge in Nematocytes of the Jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP, regulatory volume decrease (RVD and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy, was assessed. Methods: Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. Results: At normal pH (7.65, nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Conclusion: Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment.

  16. Sea water acidification affects osmotic swelling, regulatory volume decrease and discharge in nematocytes of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Rossana; Marino, Angela; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C; La Spada, Giuseppa

    2013-01-01

    Increased acidification/PCO2 of sea water is a threat to the environment and affects the homeostasis of marine animals. In this study, the effect of sea water pH changes on the osmotic phase (OP), regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and discharge of the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) nematocytes, collected from the Strait of Messina (Italy), was assessed. Isolated nematocytes, suspended in artificial sea water (ASW) with pH 7.65, 6.5 and 4.5, were exposed to hyposmotic ASW of the same pH values and their osmotic response and RVD measured optically in a special flow through chamber. Nematocyte discharge was analyzed in situ in ASW at all three pH values. At normal pH (7.65), nematocytes subjected to hyposmotic shock first expanded osmotically and then regulated their cell volume within 15 min. Exposure to hyposmotic ASW pH 6.5 and 4.5 compromised the OP and reduced or totally abrogated the ensuing RVD, respectively. Acidic pH also significantly reduced the nematocyte discharge response. Data indicate that the homeostasis and function of Cnidarians may be altered by environmental changes such as sea water acidification, thereby validating their use as novel bioindicators for the quality of the marine environment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Does not Prevent Polycythemia or Decrease in Plasma Volume in Men at 4300 m Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, R. F.; Selland, M. A.; McCullough, R. G.; Dahms, T. E.; Wolfel, E. E.; Butterfield, G. E.; Reeves, J. T.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    When humans ascend to high altitude (ALT) their plasma volume (PV) and total blood volume (BV) decrease during the first few days. With continued residence over several weeks, the hypoxia-induced stimulation of erythropoietin increases red cell production which tends to restore BV. Because hypoxia also activates the beta-adrenergic system, which stimulates red blood cell production, we investigated the effect of adrenergic beta-receptor inhibition with propranolol on fluid volumes and the polycythemic response in 11 healthy unacclimatized men (21-33 years old exposed to an ALT of 4300 m (barometric pressure 460 Torr) for 3 weeks on Pikes Peak, Colorado. PV was determined by the Evans blue dye method (PV(sub EB)), BV by the carbon monoxide method (BV(sub CO)), red cell volume (RCV)was calculated from hematocrit (Hct) and BV(sub CO), and serum erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]) and reticulocyte count, were also determined. All determinations were made at sea level and after 9-11 (ALT-10) and 9-20 (ALT-20) days at ALT. At sea level and ALT, six men received propranolol (pro, 240 mg/day), and five received a placebo (pla). Effective beta-blockade did not modify the mean (SE) maximal values of [EPO] [pla: 24.9 (3.5) vs pro: 24.5 (1.5) mU/ml] or reticulocyte count [pla: 2.7 (0.7) vs pro: 2.2 (0.5)%]; nor changes in PV(sub EB)[pla: -15.8 (3.8) vs pro: -19.9 (2.8)%], RCV(sub CO) [pla: +7.0 (6.7) vs pro: +10.1 (6.1)%], or BV(sub CO) [pla: -7.3 (2.3) vs pro: -7.1 (3.9)%]. In the absence of weight loss, a redistribution of body water with no net loss is implied. Hence, activation of the beta-adrenergic system did not appear to affect the hypovolemic or polycythemic responses that occurred during 3 weeks at 4300 m ALT in these subjects.

  18. Decreased Volume of the Cerebral Ventricles on CT Images in Gilles de la Tourette’s Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Regeur

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to estimate the volume of the ventricular system comprising lateral plus third ventricles in patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome on computed tomographic (CT scannings using unbiased stereological principles and to compare that volume with a control group. We found a significantly reduced ventricular volume in 24 patients with Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS compared with 28 controls.

  19. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  20. Importance of unit cells in accurate evaluation of the characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabzyan, Hassan; Sadeghpour, Narges [Isfahan Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-08-01

    Effects of the size of the unit cell on energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies of graphene at the Γ point of the Brillouin zone are studied in the absence and presence of an electric field using density functional theory (DFT) methods (LDA and DFT-PBE functionals with Goedecker-Teter-Hutter (GTH) and Troullier-Martins (TM) norm-conserving pseudopotentials). Two types of unit cells containing n{sub c}=4-28 carbon atoms are considered. Results show that stability of graphene increases with increasing size of the unit cell. Energy, atomic charges, and phonon frequencies all converge above n{sub c}=24 for all functional-pseudopotentials used. Except for the LDA-GTH calculations, application of an electric field of 0.4 and 0.9 V/nm strengths does not change the trends with the size of the unit cell but instead slightly decreases the binding energy of graphene. Results of this study show that the choice of unit cell size and type is critical for calculation of reliable characteristics of graphene.

  1. Two Years of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Treatment Decreased Parathyroid Gland Volume and Serum Parathyroid Hormone Level in Hemodialysis Patients With Advanced Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Tokumoto, Masanori; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Toyonaga, Jiro; Suehiro, Takaichi; Eriguchi, Rieko; Fujimi, Satoru; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2015-08-01

    The long-term effect of cinacalcet hydrochloride treatment on parathyroid gland (PTG) volume has been scarcely investigated in patients with moderate to advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The present study was a prospective observational study to determine the effect of cinacalcet treatment on PTG volume and serum biochemical parameters in 60 patients with renal SHPT, already treated with intravenous vitamin D receptor activator (VDRA). Measurement of biochemical parameters and PTG volumes were performed periodically, which were analyzed by stratification into tertiles across the baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) level or PTG volume. We also determined the factors that can estimate the changes in PTG volume and the achievement of the target PTH range by multivariable analyses. Two years of cinacalcet treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of PTH, calcium, and phosphate, followed by the improvement of achieving the target ranges for these parameters recommended by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. Cinacalcet decreased the maximal and total PTG volume by about 30%, and also decreased the serum PTH level independent of the baseline serum PTH level and PTG volume. Ten out of 60 patients showed 30% increase in maximal PTG after 2 years. Multivariable analysis showed that patients with nodular PTG at baseline and patients with higher serum calcium and PTH levels at 1 year were likely to exceed the target range of PTH at two years. In conclusion, cinacalcet treatment with intravenous VDRA therapy decreased both PTG volume and serum intact PTH level, irrespective of the pretreatment PTG status and past treatment history. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  2. The volume of Purkinje cells decreases in the cerebellum of acrylamide-intoxicated rats, but no cells are lost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Tandrup, T; Braendgaard, H

    1994-01-01

    The effects of acrylamide intoxication on the numbers of granule and Purkinje cells and the volume of Purkinje cell perikarya have been evaluated with stereological methods. The analysis was carried out in the cerebella of rats that had received a dose of 33.3 mg/kg acrylamide, twice a week, for 7.......5 weeks. The total numbers of cerebellar granule and Purkinje cells were estimated using the optical fractionator and the mean volume of the Purkinje cell perikarya was estimated with the vertical rotator technique. The volumes of the molecular layer, the granular cell layer and the white matter were...... estimated using the Cavalieri principle. The mean weight of the cerebellum of the intoxicated rats was 7% lower than that of the control rats (2P = 0.001). The numbers of the Purkinje cells and granule cells were the same in both groups, but the mean volume of the perikarya of the Purkinje cells...

  3. Atlas-Based Segmentation Improves Consistency and Decreases Time Required for Contouring Postoperative Endometrial Cancer Nodal Volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Amy V.; Wortham, Angela; Wernick, Iddo; Evans, Andrew; Ennis, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate target delineation of the nodal volumes is essential for three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy planning for endometrial cancer adjuvant therapy. We hypothesized that atlas-based segmentation ('autocontouring') would lead to time savings and more consistent contours among physicians. Methods and Materials: A reference anatomy atlas was constructed using the data from 15 postoperative endometrial cancer patients by contouring the pelvic nodal clinical target volume on the simulation computed tomography scan according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0418 trial using commercially available software. On the simulation computed tomography scans from 10 additional endometrial cancer patients, the nodal clinical target volume autocontours were generated. Three radiation oncologists corrected the autocontours and delineated the manual nodal contours under timed conditions while unaware of the other contours. The time difference was determined, and the overlap of the contours was calculated using Dice's coefficient. Results: For all physicians, manual contouring of the pelvic nodal target volumes and editing the autocontours required a mean ± standard deviation of 32 ± 9 vs. 23 ± 7 minutes, respectively (p = .000001), a 26% time savings. For each physician, the time required to delineate the manual contours vs. correcting the autocontours was 30 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 5 min (p = .003), 39 ± 12 vs. 30 ± 5 min (p = .055), and 29 ± 5 vs. 20 ± 5 min (p = .0002). The mean overlap increased from manual contouring (0.77) to correcting the autocontours (0.79; p = .038). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that autocontouring leads to increased consistency and time savings when contouring the nodal target volumes for adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer, although the autocontours still required careful editing to ensure that the lymph nodes at risk of recurrence are properly included in the target volume.

  4. Alterations in the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and swelling-activated Cl- current associated with neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemonnier, L.; Lazarenko, R.; Shuba, Y.; Thebault, S.C.; Roudbaraki, M.; Lepage, G.; Prevarskaya, N.; Skryma, R.

    2005-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation of prostate epithelial/basal cells is a hallmark of advanced, androgen-independent prostate cancer, for which there is no successful therapy. Here we report for the first time on alterations in regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and its key determinant,

  5. Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus: Response to chemoradiotherapy is associated with decrease of metabolic tumor volume as measured on PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedl, Johannes B.; Colen, Rivka R.; Holalkere, Nagaraj S.; Fischman, Alan J.; Choi, Noah C.; Blake, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We determined whether evaluation of treatment response is feasible by measuring metabolic tumor volume parameters on 18F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) PET-CT (Positron emission tomography-Computed tomography). We compared the response evaluation based on metabolic tumor volume parameters to a histopathologic and clinical response evaluation (clinical response criteria: RECIST criteria = Response evaluation criteria in solid tumors, and WHO criteria = World health organization). Patients and methods: A total of 51 study subjects with adenocarcinomas (Type I due to Siewert classification) of the esophagus underwent PET-CT scans before and after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Tumor volume, maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV) were assessed before and after chemoradiotherapy. Furthermore, the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) was calculated by multiplying the tumor volume by the mean SUV of the volume. Clinical response evaluation was performed with endoscopic ultrasound and CT using RECIST and WHO criteria. The reference standard for treatment response was the postsurgical histopathology. Results: The decrease of tumor volume between the pre- and post-treatment PET-CT scans was a better predictor of histopathologic response and survival than the decrease of the SUV and of the clinical response evaluation based on RECIST and WHO criteria. The highest accuracy, however, was achieved when using the TLG for the identification of treatment responders. A decrease of the TLG by >78% between pre- and post-therapy scans predicted histopathologic response with a sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 93%, respectively. Conclusions: Tumor volume and TLG can be used to assess treatment response and survival in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma

  6. Buckling behavior of origami unit cell facets under compressive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshad, Mohamed Ali Emhmed; Naguib, Hani E.

    2018-03-01

    Origami structures as cores for sandwich structures are designed to withstand the compressive loads and to dissipate compressive energy. The deformation of the origami panels and the unit cell facets are the primary factors behind the compressive energy dissipation in origami structures. During the loading stage, the origami structures deform through the folding and unfolding process of the unit cell facets, and also through the plastic deformation of the facets. This work presents a numerical study of the buckling behavior of different origami unit cell elements under compressive loading. The studied origami configurations were Miura and Ron-Resch-like origami structures. Finite element package was used to model the origami structures. The study investigated the buckling behavior of the unit cell facets of two types of origami structures Miura origami and Ron-Resch-Like origami structures. The simulation was conducted using ANSYS finite element software, in which the model of the unit cell represented by shell elements, and the eigenvalues buckling solver was used to predict the theoretical buckling of the unit cell elements.

  7. Decreased left middle temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and their healthy unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Maorong; Li, Jun; Eyler, Lisa; Guo, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qingling; Tang, Jingsong; Liu, Feng; He, Zhong; Li, Lihua; Jin, Hua; Liu, Zhening; Wang, Juan; Liu, Fang; Chen, Huafu; Zhao, Jingping

    2013-03-01

    The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might represent intermediate phenotypes that could be used to investigate genetic susceptibility to the illness. We sought to discover gray matter volume differences in patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings with voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We recruited antipsychotic drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, their unaffected siblings and age-, sex- and handedness-matched healthy controls. We used VBM to investigate differences in gray matter volume among the 3 groups. There were significant gray matter volumetric differences among the 3 groups in bilateral hippocampal and parahippocampal gyri, bilateral middle temporal gyri, and superior temporal gyri (FDR ptemporal gyrus, and volume of this region was not different between siblings and patients. Our findings confirm and extend previous VBM analyses in schizophrenia and it indicate that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal development of cerebral lateralization. Furthermore, these data argue that patients and their unaffected siblings might share decreases in the gray matter volume of the left middle temporal gyrus, and this regional reduction might be a potential endophenotype for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning about the Unit Cell and Crystal Lattice with Computerized Simulations and Games: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luealamai, Sutha; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2012-01-01

    The authors have developed a computer-based learning module on the unit cell of various types of crystal. The module has two components: the virtual unit cell (VUC) part and the subsequent unit cell hunter part. The VUC is a virtual reality simulation for students to actively arrive at the unit cell from exploring, from a broad view, the crystal…

  9. Dielectric Behavior of Low Microwave Loss Unit Cell for All Dielectric Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhuan Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With a deep study of the metamaterial, its unit cells have been widely extended from metals to dielectrics. The dielectric based unit cells attract much attention because of the advantage of easy preparation, tunability, and higher frequency response, and so forth. Using the conventional solid state method, we prepared a kind of incipient ferroelectrics (calcium titanate, CaTiO3 with higher microwave permittivity and lower loss, which can be successfully used to construct metamaterials. The temperature and frequency dependence of dielectric constant are also measured under different sintering temperatures. The dielectric spectra showed a slight permittivity decrease with the increase of temperature and exhibited a loss of 0.0005, combined with a higher microwave dielectric constant of ~167 and quality factor Q of 2049. Therefore, CaTiO3 is a kind of versatile and potential metamaterial unit cell. The permittivity of CaTiO3 at higher microwave frequency was also examined in the rectangular waveguide and we got the permittivity of 165, creating a new method to test permittivity at higher microwave frequency.

  10. Mechanical ventilation with high tidal volumes attenuates myocardial dysfunction by decreasing cardiac edema in a rat model of LPS-induced peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeding Lonneke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injurious mechanical ventilation (MV may augment organ injury remote from the lungs. During sepsis, myocardial dysfunction is common and increased endothelial activation and permeability can cause myocardial edema, which may, among other factors, hamper myocardial function. We investigated the effects of MV with injuriously high tidal volumes on the myocardium in an animal model of sepsis. Methods Normal rats and intraperitoneal (i.p. lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treated rats were ventilated with low (6 ml/kg and high (19 ml/kg tidal volumes (Vt under general anesthesia. Non-ventilated animals served as controls. Mean arterial pressure (MAP, central venous pressure (CVP, cardiac output (CO and pulmonary plateau pressure (Pplat were measured. Ex vivo myocardial function was measured in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts. Cardiac expression of endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 and edema were measured to evaluate endothelial inflammation and leakage. Results MAP decreased after LPS-treatment and Vt-dependently, both independent of each other and with interaction. MV Vt-dependently increased CVP and Pplat and decreased CO. LPS-induced peritonitis decreased myocardial function ex vivo but MV attenuated systolic dysfunction Vt-dependently. Cardiac endothelial VCAM-1 expression was increased by LPS treatment independent of MV. Cardiac edema was lowered Vt-dependently by MV, particularly after LPS, and correlated inversely with systolic myocardial function parameters ex vivo. Conclusion MV attenuated LPS-induced systolic myocardial dysfunction in a Vt-dependent manner. This was associated with a reduction in cardiac edema following a lower transmural coronary venous outflow pressure during LPS-induced coronary inflammation.

  11. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them.

  12. Fabrication and characteristics of unit cell for SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwi-Yeol; Eom, Seung-Wook; Moon, Seong-In [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Kyongnam (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Research and development on solid oxide fuel cells in Korea have been mainly focused on unit cell and small stack. Fuel cell system is called clean generation system which not cause NOx or SOx. It is generation efficiency come to 50-60% in contrast to 40% of combustion generation system. Among the fuel cell system, solid oxide fuel cell is constructed of ceramics, so stack construction is simple, power density is very high, and there are no corrosion problems. The object of this study is to develop various composing material for SOFC generation system, and to test unit cell performance manufactured. So we try to present a guidance for developing mass power generation system. We concentrated on development of manufacturing process for cathode, anode and electrolyte.

  13. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Photothermal Therapy Using Gold Nanorods and Near-Infrared Light in a Murine Melanoma Model Increases Survival and Decreases Tumor Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K. Popp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photothermal therapy (PTT treatments have shown strong potential in treating tumors through their ability to target destructive heat preferentially to tumor regions. In this paper we demonstrate that PTT in a murine melanoma model using gold nanorods (GNRs and near-infrared (NIR light decreases tumor volume and increases animal survival to an extent that is comparable to the current generation of melanoma drugs. GNRs, in particular, have shown a strong ability to reach ablative temperatures quickly in tumors when exposed to NIR light. The current research tests the efficacy of GNRs PTT in a difficult and fast growing murine melanoma model using a NIR light-emitting diode (LED light source. LED light sources in the NIR spectrum could provide a safer and more practical approach to photothermal therapy than lasers. We also show that the LED light source can effectively and quickly heat in vitro and in vivo models to ablative temperatures when combined with GNRs. We anticipate that this approach could have significant implications for human cancer therapy.

  15. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR.

  16. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  17. Overexpression of synapsin Ia in the rat calyx of Held accelerates short-term plasticity and decreases synaptic vesicle volume and active zone area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya eVasileva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Synapsins are synaptic vesicle (SV proteins organizing a component of the reserve pool of vesicles at most central nervous system synapses. Alternative splicing of the three mammalian genes results in multiple isoforms that may differentially contribute to the organization and maintenance of the synaptic vesicle-pools. To address this, we first characterized the expression pattern of synapsin isoforms in the rat calyx of Held. At postnatal day 16, synapsins Ia, Ib, IIb and IIIa were present, while IIa – known to sustain repetitive transmission in glutamatergic terminals – was not detectable. To test if the synapsin I isoforms could mediate IIa-like effect, and if this depends on the presence of the E-domain, we overexpressed either synapsin Ia or synapsin Ib in the rat calyx of Held via recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer. Although the size and overall structure of the perturbed calyces remained unchanged, short-term depression and recovery from depression were accelerated upon overexpression of synapsin I isoforms. Thus, at the calyx of Held, synapsin Ia may not substitute for the synapsin IIa-function reported for hippocampal synapses. Using electron microscopic three-dimensional reconstructions we found a redistribution of SV clusters proximal to the active zones (AZ alongside with a decrease of both AZ area and SV volume. The number of SVs at individual AZs was strongly reduced. Hence, our data indicate that the amount of synapsin Ia expressed in the calyx regulates the rate and extent of short-term synaptic plasticity by affecting vesicle recruitment to the AZ. Finally, our study reveals a novel contribution of synapsin Ia to define the surface area of AZs.

  18. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume is decreased at maximal exercise in athletes with marked repolarisation abnormalities: a continuous radionuclide monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, Albert; Camacho, Valle; Mena, Esther; Estorch, Montserrat; Tembl, Ana; Fuertes, Jordi; Carrio, Ignasi; Serra-Grima, Ricard; Borras, Xavier; Cinca, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Although marked repolarisation abnormalities (MRAs) are considered innocuous in trained athletes, their functional significance awaits clarification. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the pathophysiological implications of such MRAs. We compared left ventricular (LV) functional response to exhausting exercise in 39 male athletes with (n=22) or without (n=17) MRAs and with no structural cardiac abnormalities, by means of a portable radionuclide monitoring system (Vest, Capintec, Inc., Ramsey, NJ). MRAs were defined by the presence of negative T waves ≥2 mm in three or more rest ECG leads. The Vest data were averaged for 30 s and analysed at baseline and at different heart rate (HR) values (50%, 75%, 85%, 95% and 100% of peak HR), as well as at 2, 5 and 10 min of recovery. There were no significant differences in the effect of exhausting exercise between athletes with and athletes without MRAs. However, there was a significant difference in the trend in end-diastolic volume (EDV) during exercise depending upon the group of athletes considered (p=0.05). EDV differed significantly between the two groups of athletes at peak HR (p=0.031). EDV in athletes with MRAs was lower than that in athletes without MRAs (102%±7% vs 107%±8%, p=0.034). EDV is decreased at peak HR in athletes with MRAs. Such high HR values are infrequently achieved or maintained during sporting activities; therefore, in the absence of structural heart disease, MRAs should not preclude physical training and competitive availability. (orig.)

  19. Frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of centred lattices from the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2012-03-01

    In crystallography, a centred conventional lattice unit cell has its corresponding reduced primitive unit cell. This study presents the frequency distribution of the reduced unit cells of all centred lattice entries of the Protein Data Bank (as of 23 August 2011) in four unit-cell-dimension-based groups and seven interaxial-angle-based subgroups. This frequency distribution is an added layer of support during space-group assignment in new crystals. In addition, some interesting patterns of distribution are discussed as well as how some reduced unit cells could be wrongly accepted as primitive lattices in a different crystal system.

  20. On the Effect of Unit-Cell Parameters in Predicting the Elastic Response of Wood-Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of unit-cell geometrical parameters in predicting elastic properties of a typical wood plastic composite (WPC. The ultimate goal was obtaining the optimal values of representative volume element (RVE parameters to accurately predict the mechanical behavior of the WPC. For each unit cell, defined by a given combination of the above geometrical parameters, finite element simulation in ABAQUS was carried out, and the corresponding stress-strain curve was obtained. A uniaxial test according to ASTM D638-02a type V was performed on the composite specimen. Modulus of elasticity was determined using hyperbolic tangent function, and the results were compared to the sets of finite element analyses. Main effects of RVE parameters and their interactions were demonstrated and discussed, specially regarding the inclusion of two adjacent wood particles within one unit cell of the material. Regression analysis was performed to mathematically model the RVE parameter effects and their interactions over the modulus of elasticity response. The model was finally employed in an optimization analysis to arrive at an optimal set of RVE parameters that minimizes the difference between the predicted and experimental moduli of elasticity.

  1. Unit-cell refinement from powder diffraction scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawley, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for the refinement of the crystal unit cell from a powder diffraction scan is presented. In this procedure knowledge of the crystal structure is not required, and at the end of the refinement a list of indexed intensities is produced. This list may well be usable as the starting point for the application of direct methods. The problems of least-squares ill-conditioning due to overlapping reflections are overcome by constraints. An example using decafluorocyclohexene, C 6 F 10 , shows the quality of fit obtained in a case which may even be a false minimum. The method should become more relevant as powder scans of improved resolution become available, through the use of pulsed neutron sources. (Auth.)

  2. Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in reverse electrodialysis: Effect of unit cell configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Kook; Choi, Kyung Soo [Advanced Combustion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Soo; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Han, Ji Hyung; Kim, Han Ki; Jeong, Nam Jo [Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in Reverse electrodialysis (RED) were performed. In this study, a module with 200 unit cells is considered for the demonstration of bench-scale RED module and two different unit cell configurations are utilized. Pressure drop through the module is measured by varying flow rates. For evaluating the hydrodynamic characteristics in the unit cell, a numerical simulation is also conducted and the simplified method using a porous media model is employed to simulate the channel filled with spacer. Due to the insertion of spacer and narrow channel, great pressure loss occurs along the unit cell. Based on estimated pressure data, high pressure difference between seawater and fresh water channel takes place locally in the unit cell configuration with crossflow direction, leading to a leakage problem through the membrane and finally degradation in the output power. Consequently, it is confirmed that the unit cell configuration is one of the important design parameters in a RED module.

  3. Intra-tumour 18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity decreases the reliability on target volume definition with positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinzhe; Wu, Peipei; Sun, Xiaorong; Li, Wenwu; Wan, Honglin; Yu, Jinming; Xing, Ligang

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to explore whether the intra-tumour (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake heterogeneity affects the reliability of target volume definition with FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and squamous cell oesophageal cancer (SCEC). Patients with NSCLC (n = 50) or SCEC (n = 50) who received (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning before treatments were included in this retrospective study. Intra-tumour FDG uptake heterogeneity was assessed by visual scoring, the coefficient of variation (COV) of the standardised uptake value (SUV) and the image texture feature (entropy). Tumour volumes (gross tumour volume (GTV)) were delineated on the CT images (GTV(CT)), the fused PET/CT images (GTV(PET-CT)) and the PET images, using a threshold at 40% SUV(max) (GTV(PET40%)) or the SUV cut-off value of 2.5 (GTV(PET2.5)). The correlation between the FDG uptake heterogeneity parameters and the differences in tumour volumes among GTV(CT), GTV(PET-CT), GTV(PET40%) and GTV(PET2.5) was analysed. For both NSCLC and SCEC, obvious correlations were found between uptake heterogeneity, SUV or tumour volumes. Three types of heterogeneity parameters were consistent and closely related to each other. Substantial differences between the four methods of GTV definition were found. The differences between the GTV correlated significantly with PET heterogeneity defined with the visual score, the COV or the textural feature-entropy for NSCLC and SCEC. In tumours with a high FDG uptake heterogeneity, a larger GTV delineation difference was found. Advance image segmentation algorithms dealing with tracer uptake heterogeneity should be incorporated into the treatment planning system. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Intra-tumour 18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity decreases the reliability on target volume definition with positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xinzhe; Wu, Peipei; Yu, Jinming; Xing, Ligang; Sun, Xiaorong; Li, Wenwu; Wan, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore whether the intra-tumour 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake heterogeneity affects the reliability of target volume definition with FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and squamous cell oesophageal cancer (SCEC). Patients with NSCLC (n = 50) or SCEC (n = 50) who received 18 F-FDG PET/CT scanning before treatments were included in this retrospective study. Intra-tumour FDG uptake heterogeneity was assessed by visual scoring, the coefficient of variation (COV) of the standardised uptake value (SUV) and the image texture feature (entropy). Tumour volumes (gross tumour volume (GTV) ) were delineated on the CT images (GTV CT ), the fused PET/CT images (GTV PET-CT ) and the PET images, using a threshold at 40% SUV max (GTV PET40% ) or the SUV cut-off value of 2.5 (GTV PET2.5 ). The correlation between the FDG uptake heterogeneity parameters and the differences in tumour volumes among GTV CT , GTV PET-CT , GTV PET40% and GTV PET2.5 was analysed. For both NSCLC and SCEC, obvious correlations were found between uptake heterogeneity, SUV or tumour volumes. Three types of heterogeneity parameters were consistent and closely related to each other. Substantial differences between the four methods of GTV definition were found. The differences between the GTV correlated significantly with PET heterogeneity defined with the visual score, the COV or the textural feature-entropy for NSCLC and SCEC. In tumours with a high FDG uptake heterogeneity, a larger GTV delineation difference was found. Advance image segmentation algorithms dealing with tracer uptake heterogeneity should be incorporated into the treatment planning system.

  5. Structural imaging of the brain reveals decreased total brain and total gray matter volumes in obese but not in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to body mass index-matched counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen Saydam, Basak; Has, Arzu Ceylan; Bozdag, Gurkan; Oguz, Kader Karli; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2017-07-01

    To detect differences in global brain volumes and identify relations between brain volume and appetite-related hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to body mass index-matched controls. Forty subjects participated in this study. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of fasting ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as GLP-1 levels during mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), were performed. Total brain volume and total gray matter volume (GMV) were decreased in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean PCOS and controls did not show a significant difference. Secondary analyses of regional brain volumes showed decreases in GMV of the caudate nucleus, ventral diencephalon and hippocampus in obese PCOS compared to obese controls (p lean patients with PCOS had lower GMV in the amygdala than lean controls (p PCOS, suggests volumetric reductions in global brain areas in obese women with PCOS. Functional studies with larger sample size are needed to determine physiopathological roles of these changes and potential effects of long-term medical management on brain structure of PCOS.

  6. High "normal" blood glucose is associated with decreased brain volume and cognitive performance in the 60s: the PATH through life study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyra E Mortby

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is associated with cerebral atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. We recently showed higher glucose levels in the normal range not to be free of adverse effects and to be associated with greater hippocampal and amygdalar atrophy in older community-dwelling individuals free of diabetes.This study aimed to determine whether blood glucose levels in the normal range (<6.1 mmol/L were associated with cerebral volumes in structures other than the hippocampus and amygdale, and whether these glucose-related regional volumes were associated with cognitive performance.210 cognitively healthy individuals (68-73 years without diabetes, glucose intolerance or metabolic syndrome were assessed in the large, community-based Personality and Total Health Through Life (PATH study.Baseline blood glucose levels in the normal range (3.2-6.1 mmol/l were used to determine regional brain volumes and associated cognitive function at wave 3.Higher blood glucose levels in the normal range were associated with lower grey/white matter regional volumes in the frontal cortices (middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus precentral gyrus. Moreover, identified cerebral regions were associated with poorer cognitive performance and the structure-function associations were gender specific to men.These findings stress the need to re-evaluate what is considered as healthy blood glucose levels, and consider the role of higher normal blood glucose as a risk factor for cerebral health, cognitive function and dementia. A better lifetime management of blood glucose levels may contribute to improved cerebral and cognitive health in later life and possibly protect against dementia.

  7. Decreased Left Caudate Volume Is Associated with Increased Severity of Autistic-Like Symptoms in a Cohort of ADHD Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Dwyer, Laurence; Tanner, Colby; van Dongen, Eelco V.; Greven, Corina U.; Bralten, Janita; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Franke, Barbara; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Groen, Wouter; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates of ASD ratings were analysed by studying the relationship between ASD ratings and grey matter volumes using mixed effects models which controlled for ADHD symptom count and total brain volume. ASD ratings were significantly elevated in participants with ADHD relative to controls and unaffected siblings. For the entire group (participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and TD controls), mixed effect models revealed that the left caudate nucleus volume was negatively correlated with ASD ratings (t = 2.83; P = 0.005). The current findings are consistent with the role of the caudate nucleus in executive function, including the selection of goals based on the evaluation of action outcomes and the use of social reward to update reward representations. There is a specific volumetric profile associated with subclinical ASD-like symptoms in participants with ADHD, unaffected siblings and controls with the caudate nucleus and globus pallidus being of critical importance in predicting the level of ASD-like symptoms in all three groups. PMID:27806078

  8. Rhombicuboctahedron unit cell based scaffolds for bone regeneration: geometry optimization with a mechanobiology - driven algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccio, Antonio; Fiorentino, Michele; Uva, Antonio E; Laghetti, Luca N; Monno, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    In a context more and more oriented towards customized medical solutions, we propose a mechanobiology-driven algorithm to determine the optimal geometry of scaffolds for bone regeneration that is the most suited to specific boundary and loading conditions. In spite of the huge number of articles investigating different unit cells for porous biomaterials, no studies are reported in the literature that optimize the geometric parameters of such unit cells based on mechanobiological criteria. Parametric finite element models of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were developed and incorporated into an optimization algorithm that combines them with a computational mechanobiological model. The algorithm perturbs iteratively the geometry of the unit cell until the best scaffold geometry is identified, i.e. the geometry that allows to maximize the formation of bone. Performances of scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell were compared with those of other scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells. We found that scaffolds with rhombicuboctahedron unit cell are particularly suited for supporting medium-low loads, while, for higher loads, scaffolds with hexahedron unit cells are preferable. The proposed algorithm can guide the orthopaedic/surgeon in the choice of the best scaffold to be implanted in a patient-specific anatomic region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Unit-Cell Model for Predicting the Elastic Constants of 3D Four Directional Cylindrical Braided Composite Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wenfeng; Liu, Ye; Huang, Xinrong; Liu, Yinghua; Zhu, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    In this work, the elastic constants of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts were predicted using analytical and numerical methods. First, the motion rule of yarn carrier of 3D four directional cylindrical braided composite shafts was analyzed, and the horizontal projection of yarn motion trajectory was obtained. Then, the geometry models of unit-cells with different braiding angles and fiber volume contents were built up, and the meso-scale models of 3D cylindrical braided composite shafts were obtained. Finally, the effects of braiding angles and fiber volume contents on the elastic constants of 3D braided composite shafts were analyzed theoretically and numerically. These results play a crucial role in investigating the mechanical properties of 3D 4-directional braided composites shafts.

  10. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  11. Unit cell parameters of wurtzite InP nanowires determined by x-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegner, D; Wintersberger, E; Kawaguchi, K; Wallentin, J; Borgström, M T; Stangl, J

    2011-10-21

    High resolution x-ray diffraction is used to study the structural properties of the wurtzite polytype of InP nanowires. Wurtzite InP nanowires are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using S-doping. From the evaluation of the Bragg peak position we determine the lattice parameters of the wurtzite InP nanowires. The unit cell dimensions are found to differ from the ones expected from geometric conversion of the cubic bulk InP lattice constant. The atomic distances along the c direction are increased whereas the atomic spacing in the a direction is reduced in comparison to the corresponding distances in the zinc-blende phase. Using core/shell nanowires with a thin core and thick nominally intrinsic shells we are able to determine the lattice parameters of wurtzite InP with a negligible influence of the S-doping due to the much larger volume in the shell. The determined material properties will enable the ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of wurtzite InP nanowires.

  12. Unusually large unit cell of lipid bicontinuous cubic phase: towards nature's length scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojun; Leal, Cecilia

    Lipid bicontinuous cubic phases are of great interest for drug delivery, protein crystallization, biosensing, and templates for directing hard material assembly. Structural modulations of lipid mesophases regarding phase identity and unit cell size are often necessary to augment loading and gain pore size control. One important example is the need for unit cells large enough to guide the crystallization of bigger proteins without distortion of the templating phase. In nature, bicontinuous cubic constructs achieve unit cell dimensions as high as 300 nm. However, the largest unit cell of lipid mesophases synthesized in the lab is an order of magnitude lower. In fact, it has been predicted theoretically that lipid bicontinuous cubic phases of unit cell dimensions exceeding 30 nm could not exist, as high membrane fluctuations would damp liquid crystalline order. Here we report non-equilibrium assembly methods of synthesizing metastable bicontinuous cubic phases with unit cell dimensions as high as 70 nm. The phases are stable for very long periods and become increasingly ordered as time goes by without changes to unit cell dimensions. We acknowledge the funding source as a NIH.

  13. An increased rectal maximum tolerable volume and long anal canal are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback therapy for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, P L; Choi, M S; Kim, Y H; Son, H J; Kim, J J; Koh, K C; Paik, S W; Rhee, J C; Choi, K W

    2000-10-01

    Biofeedback is an effective therapy for a majority of patients with anismus. However, a significant proportion of patients still failed to respond to biofeedback, and little has been known about the factors that predict response to biofeedback. We evaluated the factors associated with poor response to biofeedback. Biofeedback therapy was offered to 45 patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency (less than three times per week) and normal colonic transit time. Any differences in demographics, symptoms, and parameters of anorectal physiologic tests were sought between responders (in whom bowel frequency increased up to three times or more per week after biofeedback) and nonresponders (in whom bowel frequency remained less than three times per week). Thirty-one patients (68.9 percent) responded to biofeedback and 14 patients (31.1 percent) did not. Anal canal length was longer in nonresponders than in responders (4.53 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.08 +/- 0.56 cm; P = 0.02), and rectal maximum tolerable volume was larger in nonresponders than in responders. (361 +/- 87 vs. 302 +/- 69 ml; P = 0.02). Anal canal length and rectal maximum tolerable volume showed significant differences between responders and nonresponders on multivariate analysis (P = 0.027 and P = 0.034, respectively). This study showed that a long anal canal and increased rectal maximum tolerable volume are associated with poor short-term response to biofeedback for patients with anismus with decreased bowel frequency and normal colonic transit time.

  14. The loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Na+/K+-ATPase α2 isoform decreases lesion volume and improves functional outcome after acute spinal cord injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellman, Ditte; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Lund, Minna

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters...... lesion volume compared to littermate controls (α 2(+/+) ) 7 days after SCI. The protein level of the α1 isoform was significantly increased, in contrast to the α3 isoform that significantly decreased 3 days after SCI in both α 2(+/G301R) and α 2(+/+) mice. The level of the α2 isoform was significantly...... as no apparent differences were observed in location and activation of CD45 and F4/80 positive microglia and infiltrating leukocytes. CONCLUSION: Our proof of concept study demonstrates that reduced expression of the α2 isoform in the spinal cord is protective following SCI. Importantly, the BMS and lesion...

  15. TRICE - A program for reconstructing 3D reciprocal space and determining unit-cell parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiaodong; Hovmoeller, Anders; Hovmoeller, Sven

    2004-01-01

    A program system-Trice-for reconstructing the 3D reciprocal lattice from an electron diffraction tilt series is described. The unit-cell parameters can be determined from electron diffraction patterns directly by Trice. The unit cell can be checked and the lattice type and crystal system can be determined from the 3D reciprocal lattice. Trice can be applied to all crystal systems and lattice types

  16. The loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Na+/K+-ATPase α2 isoform decreases lesion volume and improves functional outcome after acute spinal cord injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Ditte Gry; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Lund, Minna Christiansen; Dursun, Safinaz; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke

    2017-09-08

    The Na + /K + -ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters in all animal cells. The α 2 Na + /K + -ATPase subunit isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, which us the sharp Na + -gradient maintained by the sodium pump necessary for astroglial metabolism. Prolonged ischemia induces an elevation of [Na + ] i , decreased ATP levels and intracellular pH owing to anaerobic metabolism and lactate accumulation. During ischemia, Na + /K + -ATPase-related functions will naturally increase the energy demand of the Na + /K + -ATPase ion pump. However, the role of the α 2 Na + /K + -ATPase in contusion injury to the spinal cord remains unknown. We used mice heterozygous mice for the loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Atp1a2 gene (α 2 +/G301R ) to study the effect of reduced α 2 Na + /K + -ATPase expression in a moderate contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) model. We found that α 2 +/G301R mice display significantly improved functional recovery and decreased lesion volume compared to littermate controls (α 2 +/+ ) 7 days after SCI. The protein level of the α 1 isoform was significantly increased, in contrast to the α 3 isoform that significantly decreased 3 days after SCI in both α 2 +/G301R and α 2 +/+ mice. The level of the α 2 isoform was significantly decreased in α 2 +/G301R mice both under naïve conditions and 3 days after SCI compared to α 2 +/+ mice. We found no differences in astroglial aquaporin 4 levels and no changes in the expression of chemokines (CCL2, CCL5 and CXCL1) and cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-5) between genotypes, just as no apparent differences were observed in location and activation of CD45 and F4/80 positive microglia and infiltrating leukocytes. Our proof of concept study

  17. Mechanical behavior of regular open-cell porous biomaterials made of diamond lattice unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Campoli, G; Amin Yavari, S; Sajadi, B; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-06-01

    Cellular structures with highly controlled micro-architectures are promising materials for orthopedic applications that require bone-substituting biomaterials or implants. The availability of additive manufacturing techniques has enabled manufacturing of biomaterials made of one or multiple types of unit cells. The diamond lattice unit cell is one of the relatively new types of unit cells that are used in manufacturing of regular porous biomaterials. As opposed to many other types of unit cells, there is currently no analytical solution that could be used for prediction of the mechanical properties of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cells. In this paper, we present new analytical solutions and closed-form relationships for predicting the elastic modulus, Poisson׳s ratio, critical buckling load, and yield (plateau) stress of cellular structures made of the diamond lattice unit cell. The mechanical properties predicted using the analytical solutions are compared with those obtained using finite element models. A number of solid and porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) specimens were manufactured using selective laser melting. A series of experiments were then performed to determine the mechanical properties of the matrix material and cellular structures. The experimentally measured mechanical properties were compared with those obtained using analytical solutions and finite element (FE) models. It has been shown that, for small apparent density values, the mechanical properties obtained using analytical and numerical solutions are in agreement with each other and with experimental observations. The properties estimated using an analytical solution based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory markedly deviated from experimental results for large apparent density values. The mechanical properties estimated using FE models and another analytical solution based on the Timoshenko beam theory better matched the experimental observations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Improved reproducibility of unit-cell parameters in macromolecular cryocrystallography by limiting dehydration during crystal mounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Christopher; Burks, Geoffry; Siegert, Thomas; Juers, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    In macromolecular cryocrystallography unit-cell parameters can have low reproducibility, limiting the effectiveness of combining data sets from multiple crystals and inhibiting the development of defined repeatable cooling protocols. Here, potential sources of unit-cell variation are investigated and crystal dehydration during loop-mounting is found to be an important factor. The amount of water lost by the unit cell depends on the crystal size, the loop size, the ambient relative humidity and the transfer distance to the cooling medium. To limit water loss during crystal mounting, a threefold strategy has been implemented. Firstly, crystal manipulations are performed in a humid environment similar to the humidity of the crystal-growth or soaking solution. Secondly, the looped crystal is transferred to a vial containing a small amount of the crystal soaking solution. Upon loop transfer, the vial is sealed, which allows transport of the crystal at its equilibrated humidity. Thirdly, the crystal loop is directly mounted from the vial into the cold gas stream. This strategy minimizes the exposure of the crystal to relatively low humidity ambient air, improves the reproducibility of low-temperature unit-cell parameters and offers some new approaches to crystal handling and cryoprotection.

  19. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  20. Electrochemical characterization of a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Schaltz, Erik; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    This work constitutes detailed EIS (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy) measurements on a PBIbased HT-PEM unit cell. By means of EIS the fuel cell is characterized in several modes of operation by varying the current density, temperature and the stoichiometry of the reactant gases. Using...

  1. Experimental broadband absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-09-09

    We design silicon membranes with nanohole structures with optimized complex unit cells that maximize broadband absorption. We fabricate the optimized design and measure the optical absorption. We demonstrate an experimental broadband absorption about 3.5 times higher than an equally-thick thin film.

  2. Quasi bound states in the continuum with few unit cells of photonic crystal slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2017-01-01

    cell structures. They are explained by a viewpoint of BICs originating from the tight-binding of individual resonances of each unit cell as in semiconductors. Combined with a reciprocal-space matching technique, the microcavities based on quasi-BICs can achieve a Q-factor as high as defect-based Ph...

  3. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  4. The early predictive value of a decrease of metabolic tumor volume in repeated 18F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer with concurrent radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Bo; Fan, Min; Zhou, Tao; Fu, Zheng; Zhang, Zicheng; Li, Hongsheng; Li, Baosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •The patients underwent the second FDG PET during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). •To our knowledge, this could be the first study showing that the repeated FDG PET during the early stage of CCRT has added value by being a prognostic factor for recurrence of the locally advanced NSCLC patients. •This is a result of continuous research. •The decrease of MTV was the only significant risk factor for recurrence. -- Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the value of [ 18 F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F FDG PET/CT) to predict recurrence of patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) during the early stage of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods: A total of 53 stage III NSCLC patients without diabetics or undergoing surgery were enrolled in the prospective study. Those patients were evaluated by FDG PET before and following 40 Gy radiotherapy (RT) with a concurrent cisplatin-based heterogeneous chemotherapy regimen. Semiquantitative assessment was used to determine maximum and mean SUVs (SUVmax/SUVmean) and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) of the primary tumor. The prognostic significance of PET/CT parameters and other clinical variables was assessed using Cox regression analyses. The cutoffs of PET/CT parameters which have been determined by the previous study were used to separate the groups with Kaplan–Meier curves. Results: Recurrence rates at 1- and 2-years were 18.9% (10/53) and 50.9% (27/53) for all patients, respectively. Cox regression analysis showed that the only prognostic factor for recurrence was a decrease of MTV. Using the cutoff of 29.7%, a decrease of MTV can separate the patients into 2 groups with Kaplan–Meier curve successfully. Conclusion: The prospective study has reinforced the early predictive value of MTV in repeated 18 F-FDG PET/CT for recurrence in a subgroup of locally advanced NSCLC who underwent CCRT. A

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of statistically optimal unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites from microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Brandyberry, M.; Tudor, A.; Matous, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic approach for characterization and reconstruction of statistically optimal representative unit cells of polydisperse particulate composites. Microtomography is used to gather rich three-dimensional data of a packed glass bead system. First-, second-, and third-order probability functions are used to characterize the morphology of the material, and the parallel augmented simulated annealing algorithm is employed for reconstruction of the statistically equivalent medium. Both the fully resolved probability spectrum and the geometrically exact particle shapes are considered in this study, rendering the optimization problem multidimensional with a highly complex objective function. A ten-phase particulate composite composed of packed glass beads in a cylindrical specimen is investigated, and a unit cell is reconstructed on massively parallel computers. Further, rigorous error analysis of the statistical descriptors (probability functions) is presented and a detailed comparison between statistics of the voxel-derived pack and the representative cell is made.

  6. Magnetoresistance oscillations of two-dimensional electron systems in lateral superlattices with structured unit cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardts, Rolf R.

    2015-11-01

    Model calculations for commensurability oscillations of the low-field magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in lateral superlattices, consisting of unit cells with an internal structure, are compared with recent experiments. The relevant harmonics of the effective modulation potential depend not only on the geometrical structure of the modulated unit cell, but also strongly on the nature of the modulation. While higher harmonics of an electrostatically generated surface modulation are exponentially damped at the position of the 2DES about 90 nm below the surface, no such damping appears for strain-induced modulation generated, e.g., by the deposition of stripes of calixarene resist on the surface before cooling down the sample.

  7. Fatigue behaviour of NiTi shape memory alloy scaffolds produced by SLM, a unit cell design comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, M; Van Hooreweder, B; Van Humbeeck, J; Kruth, J-P

    2017-06-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique able to produce complex functional parts via successively melting layers of metal powder. This process grants the freedom to design highly complex scaffold components to allow bone ingrowth and aid mechanical anchorage. This paper investigates the compression fatigue behaviour of three different unit cells (octahedron, cellular gyroid and sheet gyroid) of SLM nitinol scaffolds. It was found that triply periodic minimal surfaces display superior static mechanical properties in comparison to conventional octahedron beam lattice structures at identical volume fractions. Fatigue resistance was also found to be highly geometry dependent due to the effects of AM processing techniques on the surface topography and notch sensitivity. Geometries minimising nodal points and the staircase effect displayed the greatest fatigue resistance when normalized to yield strength. Furthermore oxygen analysis showed a large oxygen uptake during SLM processing which must be altered to meet ASTM medical grade standards and may significantly reduce fatigue life. These achieved fatigue properties indicate that NiTi scaffolds produced via SLM can provide sufficient mechanical support over an implants lifetime within stress range values experienced in real life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure and oxidation states of giant unit cell compound Dy{sub 117+x}Fe{sub 57-y}Sn{sub 112-z}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Alexander T.; Barron, Keaton G.; Salazar, Bryan G.; Kirby, Parker; McCandless, Gregory T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Walker, Amy V.; Chan, Julia Y. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas, Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States)

    2017-12-13

    Motivated by the complex structure and properties of giant unit cell intermetallic compounds, a new isostructural Fe analogue of the Dy{sub 117}Co{sub 57}Sn{sub 112} structure type was synthesized. Single crystals of Dy{sub 122}Fe{sub 55}Sn{sub 101} were grown at 1260 C via a Dy-Fe eutectoid flux. The Fe analogue also adopts the space group Fm anti 3m with lattice parameters a = 29.914(9) Aa, V = 26769(23) Aa{sup 3}, and Z = 4. Dy{sub 122}Fe{sub 55}Sn{sub 101} has a large cell volume, structural complexity, and consists of seven Dy, eight Fe, and ten Sn unique crystallographic sites. There are fifteen fully occupied atomic positions, three unique pairs of alternating atomic positions with positional disorder, and seven partially occupied atomic sites. Within this complex unit cell, only approximately half the unique atomic positions are fully occupied with the remainder of the atoms either positionally or occupationally disordered. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the compound contains Dy{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 0}, Fe{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 0}, and Sn{sup 4+}. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lamultree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  10. Failure mechanisms of additively manufactured porous biomaterials: Effects of porosity and type of unit cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhodapour, J; Montazerian, H; Darabi, A Ch; Anaraki, A P; Ahmadi, S M; Zadpoor, A A; Schmauder, S

    2015-10-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, regular porous biomaterials have emerged as promising candidates for tissue engineering scaffolds owing to their controllable pore architecture and feasibility in producing scaffolds from a variety of biomaterials. The architecture of scaffolds could be designed to achieve similar mechanical properties as in the host bone tissue, thereby avoiding issues such as stress shielding in bone replacement procedure. In this paper, the deformation and failure mechanisms of porous titanium (Ti6Al4V) biomaterials manufactured by selective laser melting from two different types of repeating unit cells, namely cubic and diamond lattice structures, with four different porosities are studied. The mechanical behavior of the above-mentioned porous biomaterials was studied using finite element models. The computational results were compared with the experimental findings from a previous study of ours. The Johnson-Cook plasticity and damage model was implemented in the finite element models to simulate the failure of the additively manufactured scaffolds under compression. The computationally predicted stress-strain curves were compared with the experimental ones. The computational models incorporating the Johnson-Cook damage model could predict the plateau stress and maximum stress at the first peak with less than 18% error. Moreover, the computationally predicted deformation modes were in good agreement with the results of scaling law analysis. A layer-by-layer failure mechanism was found for the stretch-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the cubic unit cell, while the failure of the bending-dominated structures, i.e. structures made from the diamond unit cells, was accompanied by the shearing bands of 45°. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilization of transmission probabilities in the calculation of unit-cell by the interface-current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de.

    1989-10-01

    A widely used but otherwise physically incorrect assumption in unit-cell calculations by the method of interface currents in cylindrical or spherical geometries, is that of that of isotropic fluxes at the surfaces of the cell annular regions, when computing transmission probabilities. In this work, new interface-current relations are developed without making use of this assumption and the effects on calculated integral parameters are shown for an idealized unit-cell example. (author) [pt

  12. Mechanical properties of regular porous biomaterials made from truncated cube repeating unit cells: Analytical solutions and computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has enabled fabrication of open-cell porous biomaterials based on repeating unit cells. The micro-architecture of the porous biomaterials and, thus, their physical properties could then be precisely controlled. Due to their many favorable properties, porous biomaterials manufactured using AM are considered as promising candidates for bone substitution as well as for several other applications in orthopedic surgery. The mechanical properties of such porous structures including static and fatigue properties are shown to be strongly dependent on the type of the repeating unit cell based on which the porous biomaterial is built. In this paper, we study the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively new unit cell, namely truncated cube. We present analytical solutions that relate the dimensions of the repeating unit cell to the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, and buckling load of those porous structures. We also performed finite element modeling to predict the mechanical properties of the porous structures. The analytical solution and computational results were found to be in agreement with each other. The mechanical properties estimated using both the analytical and computational techniques were somewhat higher than the experimental data reported in one of our recent studies on selective laser melted Ti-6Al-4V porous biomaterials. In addition to porosity, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of the porous structures were found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the length of the inclined struts to that of the uninclined (i.e. vertical or horizontal) struts, α, in the truncated cube unit cell. The geometry of the truncated cube unit cell approaches the octahedral and cube unit cells when α respectively approaches zero and infinity. Consistent with those geometrical observations, the analytical solutions presented in this study approached those of the octahedral and cube unit cells when

  13. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  14. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  15. Editor's Choice - High Annual Hospital Volume is Associated with Decreased in Hospital Mortality and Complication Rates Following Treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Secondary Data Analysis of the Nationwide German DRG Statistics from 2005 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenner, Matthias; Kuehnl, Andreas; Salvermoser, Michael; Reutersberg, Benedikt; Geisbuesch, Sarah; Schmid, Volker; Eckstein, Hans-Henning

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the association between annual hospital procedural volume and post-operative outcomes following repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in Germany. Data were extracted from nationwide Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) statistics provided by the German Federal Statistical Office. Cases with a diagnosis of AAA (ICD-10 GM I71.3, I71.4) and procedure codes for endovascular aortic repair (EVAR; OPS 5-38a.1*) or open aortic repair (OAR; OPS 5-38.45, 5-38.47) treated between 2005 and 2013 were included. Hospitals were empirically grouped to quartiles depending on the overall annual volume of AAA procedures. A multilevel multivariable regression model was applied to adjust for sex, medical risk, type of procedure, and type of admission. Primary outcome was in hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were complications, use of blood products, and length of stay (LOS). The association between AAA volume and in hospital mortality was also estimated as a function of continuous volume. A total of 96,426 cases, of which 11,795 (12.6%) presented as ruptured (r)AAA, were treated in >700 hospitals (annual median: 501). The crude in hospital mortality was 3.3% after intact (i)AAA repair (OAR 5.3%; EVAR 1.7%). Volume was inversely associated with mortality after OAR and EVAR. Complication rates, LOS, and use of blood products were lower in high volume hospitals. After rAAA repair, crude mortality was 40.4% (OAR 43.2%; EVAR 27.4%). An inverse association between mortality and volume was shown for rAAA repair; the same accounts for the use of blood products. When considering volume as a continuous variate, an annual caseload of 75-100 elective cases was associated with the lowest mortality risk. In hospital mortality and complication rates following AAA repair are inversely associated with annual hospital volume. The use of blood products and the LOS are lower in high volume hospitals. A minimum annual case threshold for AAA procedures might improve

  16. What is the reason for the doubled unit-cell volumes of copper-lead-rich pavonite homologues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Makovicky, Emil; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2008-01-01

    The crystal Structure of cupromakovickyite, ideally Cu8Pb4Ag2Bi18S36, from the skarn deposit at Baita Bihor, in Romania, has been solved by direct methods and refined to an RI index of 5.36% for 2680 unique reflections measured with MOKU radiation oil it four-circle diffractometer equipped...... parameter for cupromakovickyite with respect to makovickyite. To be able to compare them, the crystal structure of Cu-bearing makovickyite, Cu2.25Ag1.56 (Pb0.27Cd0.13)(Sigma 0.4)Bi10.46S18, from a scheelite deposit at Felbertal, in Austria, has been refined to in R, index of 4.36% for 1320 unique...

  17. First-Principles Studies of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate (PETN) Single Crystal Unit Cell Volumes and Vibrational Frequencies under Hydrostatic Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, Warren F.; Zhao, Jijun; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2006-07-01

    The vibrational frequencies of the PETN molecular crystal were calculated using the first-principles CRYSTAL03 program which employs an all-electron LCAO approach and calculates analytic first derivatives of the total energy with respect to atomic displacements. Numerical second derivatives were used to enable calculation of the vibrational frequencies at ambient pressure and under various states of compression. Three different density functionals, B3LYP, PW91, and X3LYP were used to examine the effect of the exchange-correlation functional on the vibrational frequencies. The average deviation with experimental results is shown to be on the order of 2-3%, depending on the functional used. The pressure-induced shift of the vibrational frequencies is presented.

  18. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  19. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  20. OECD benchmark a of MOX fueled PWR unit cells using SAS2H, triton and mocup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganda, F.; Greenspan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Three code systems are tested by applying them to calculate the OECD PWR MOX unit cell benchmark A. The codes tested are the SAS2H code sequence of the SCALE5 code package using 44 group library, MOCUP (MCNP4C + ORIGEN2), and the new TRITON depletion sequence of SCALE5 using 238 group cross sections generated using CENTRM with continuous energy cross sections. The burnup-dependent k ∞ and actinides concentration calculated by all three code-systems were found to be in good agreement with the OECD benchmark average results. Limited results were calculated also with the WIMS-ANL code package. WIMS-ANL was found to significantly under-predict k ∞ as well as the concentration of Pu 242 , consistently with the predictions of the WIMS-LWR reported by two of the OECD benchmark participants. Additionally, SAS2H is benchmarked against MOCUP for a hydride fuel containing unit cell, giving very satisfactory agreement. (authors)

  1. Relationship between unit cell type and porosity and the fatigue behavior of selective laser melted meta-biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Ahmadi, S M; Wauthle, R; Pouran, B; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-03-01

    Meta-materials are structures when their small-scale properties are considered, but behave as materials when their homogenized macroscopic properties are studied. There is an intimate relationship between the design of the small-scale structure and the homogenized properties of such materials. In this article, we studied that relationship for meta-biomaterials that are aimed for biomedical applications, otherwise known as meta-biomaterials. Selective laser melted porous titanium (Ti6Al4V ELI) structures were manufactured based on three different types of repeating unit cells, namely cube, diamond, and truncated cuboctahedron, and with different porosities. The morphological features, static mechanical properties, and fatigue behavior of the porous biomaterials were studied with a focus on their fatigue behavior. It was observed that, in addition to static mechanical properties, the fatigue properties of the porous biomaterials are highly dependent on the type of unit cell as well as on porosity. None of the porous structures based on the cube unit cell failed after 10(6) loading cycles even when the applied stress reached 80% of their yield strengths. For both other unit cells, higher porosities resulted in shorter fatigue lives for the same level of applied stress. When normalized with respect to their yield stresses, the S-N data points of structures with different porosities very well (R(2)>0.8) conformed to one single power law specific to the type of the unit cell. For the same level of normalized applied stress, the truncated cuboctahedron unit cell resulted in a longer fatigue life as compared to the diamond unit cell. In a similar comparison, the fatigue lives of the porous structures based on both truncated cuboctahedron and diamond unit cells were longer than that of the porous structures based on the rhombic dodecahedron unit cell (determined in a previous study). The data presented in this study could serve as a basis for design of porous biomaterials

  2. Direct Observation of High-Temperature Superconductivity in One-Unit-Cell FeSe Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen-Hao; Zhang Jin-Song; Li Fang-Sen; Guo Ming-Hua; Ding Hao; Tang Chen-Jia; Wang Qing-Yan; He Ke; Ji Shuai-Hua; Chen Xi; Sun Yi; Zhao Yan-Fei; Xing Ying; Wang Hui-Chao; Zhang Hui-Min; Peng Jun-Ping; Li Zhi; Wang Meng; Fujita Takeshi; Hirata Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    We prepared one-unit-cell (1-UC) thick FeSe films on insulating SrTiO 3 substrates with non-superconducting FeTe protection layers by molecular beam epitaxy for ex situ studies. By direct transport and magnetic measurements, we provide definitive evidence for high temperature superconductivity in the 1-UC FeSe films with an onset T C above 40 K and an extremely large critical current density J C ∼1.7×10 6 A/cm 2 at 2 K, which are much higher than T C ∼8 K and J C ∼10 4 A/cm 2 for bulk FeSe, respectively. Our work may pave the way to enhancing and tailoring superconductivity by interface engineering. (express letter)

  3. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P., E-mail: yplee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics and RINS, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, J. Y. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.-H. [Department of Nano and Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. W. [Department of Information Display, Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, H. [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. H. [Infovion Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  4. Computer programs for unit-cell determination in electron diffraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Z.

    2005-01-01

    A set of computer programs for unit-cell determination from an electron diffraction tilt series and pattern indexing has been developed on the basis of several well-established algorithms. In this approach, a reduced direct primitive cell is first determined from experimental data, in the means time, the measurement errors of the tilt angles are checked and minimized. The derived primitive cell is then checked for possible higher lattice symmetry and transformed into a proper conventional cell. Finally a least-squares refinement procedure is adopted to generate optimum lattice parameters on the basis of the lengths of basic reflections in each diffraction pattern and the indices of these reflections. Examples are given to show the usage of the programs

  5. Mitigation of Unwanted Forward Narrow-band Radiation from PCBs with a Metamaterial Unit Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of EMI from a PCB is obtained through the use of a metamaterial unit cell. The focus is on the reduction of narrow-band radiation in the forward hemisphere when the resonant element is etched on a layer located between the source of radiation and the ground plane. As opposed to previous...... publications in the literature, the aim of this work is the application of a filter to scattered radiation, generalizing the former characterizations based solely upon transmission lines’ insertion loss. The radiating area accounts for traces and components placed on the top layer of a PCB and is simulated via...... a patch antenna. The study exhibits how the radiation pattern and the electric field on the patch antenna change within and outside the resonance bandwidth of the parasitic element. An EMC assessment provides experimental verification of the operating principle....

  6. Inulin isoforms differ by repeated additions of one crystal unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Peter D.; Barclay, Thomas G.; Ginic-Markovic, Milena; Gerson, Andrea R.; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    Inulin isoforms, especially delta inulin, are important biologically as immune activators and clinically as vaccine adjuvants. In exploring action mechanisms, we previously found regular increments in thermal properties of the seven-member inulin isoform series that suggested regular additions of some energetic structural unit. Because the previous isolates carried additional longer chains that masked defining ranges, these were contrasted with new isoform isolates comprising only inulin chain lengths defining that isoform. The new series began with 19 fructose units per chain (alpha-1 inulin), increasing regularly by 6 fructose units per isoform. Thus the ‘energetic unit’ equates to 6 fructose residues per chain. All isoforms showed indistinguishable X-ray diffraction patterns that were also identical with known inulin crystals. We conclude that an ‘energetic unit’ equates to one helix turn of 6 fructose units per chain as found in one unit cell of the inulin crystal. Each isoform chain comprised progressively more helix turns plus one additional fructose and glucose residues per chain. PMID:24528745

  7. HTR-PROTEUS benchmark calculations. Pt. 1. Unit cell results LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogenbirk, A.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Janssen, A.J.; Klippel, H.T.; Kuijper, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    In the framework of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Validation of Safety Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched (LEU) HTGRs' calculational benchmarks are performed on the basis of LEU-HTR pebble-bed critical experiments carried out in the PROTEUS facility at PSI, Switzerland. Of special interest is the treatment of the double heterogeneity of the fuel and the spherical fuel elements of these pebble bed core configurations. Also of interest is the proper calculation of the safety related physics parameters like the effect of water ingress and control rod worth. This document describes the ECN results of the LEUPRO-1 and LEUPRO-2 unitcell calculations performed with the codes WIMS-E, SCALE-4 and MCNP4A. Results of the LEUPRO-1 unit cell with 20% water ingress in the void is also reported for both the single and the double heterogeneous case. Emphasis is put on the intercomparison of the results obtained by the deterministic codes WIMS-E and SCALE-4, and the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. The LEUPRO whole core calculations will be reported later. (orig.)

  8. Combined UMC- DFT prediction of electron-hole coupling in unit cells of pentacene crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Luciano Almeida; de Souza Júnior, Rafael Timóteo; de Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Junior, Luiz Antonio; Blawid, Stefan; da Silva Filho, Demetrio Antonio; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Pentacene is an organic semiconductor that draws special attention from the scientific community due to the high mobility of its charge carriers. As electron-hole interactions are important aspects in the regard of such property, a computationally inexpensive method to predict the coupling between these quasi-particles is highly desired. In this work, we propose a hybrid methodology of combining Uncoupled Monte Carlo Simulations (UMC) and Density functional Theory (DFT) methodologies to obtain a good compromise between computational feasibility and accuracy. As a first step in considering a Pentacene crystal, we describe its unit cell: the Pentacene Dimer. Because many conformations can be encountered for the dimer and considering the complexity of the system, we make use of UMC in order to find the most probable structures and relative orientations for the Pentacene-Pentacene complex. Following, we carry out electronic structure calculations in the scope of DFT with the goal of describing the electron-hole coupling on the most probable configurations obtained by UMC. The comparison of our results with previously reported data on the literature suggests that the methodology is well suited for describing transfer integrals of organic semiconductors. The observed accuracy together with the smaller computational cost required by our approach allows us to conclude that such methodology might be an important tool towards the description of systems with higher complexity.

  9. Fermi surface properties of paramagnetic NpCd11 with a large unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yoshiya; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Settai, Rikio; Sakai, Hironori; Ikeda, Shugo; Yamamoto, Etsuji; Nakamura, Akio; Shiokawa, Yoshinobu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Ōnuki, Yoshichika

    2010-03-01

    We succeeded in growing a high-quality single crystal of NpCd11 with the cubic BaHg11-type structure by the Cd-self flux method. The lattice parameter of a = 9.2968(2) Å and crystallographic positions of the atoms were determined by x-ray single-crystal structure analysis. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat experiments, this compound is found to be a 5f-localized paramagnet with the singlet ground state in the crystalline electric field (CEF) scheme. Fermi surface properties were measured using the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) technique. Long-period oscillations were observed in the dHvA frequency range of 9.1 x 105 to 1.9 x 107 Oe, indicating small cross-sectional areas of Fermi surfaces, which is consistent with a small Brillouin zone based on a large unit cell. From the results of dHvA and magnetoresistance experiments, the Fermi surface of NpCd11 is found to consist of many kinds of closed Fermi surfaces and a multiply-connected-like Fermi surface, although the result of energy band calculations based on the 5f-localized Np3+(5f4) configuration reveals the existence of only closed Fermi surfaces. The corresponding cyclotron effective mass is small, ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 m0, which is consistent with a small electronic specific heat coefficient γ ≅ 10mJ/K2·mol, revealing no hybridization between the 5f electrons and conduction electrons.

  10. Multi-sphere unit cell model to calculate the effective thermal conductivity in pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Antwerpen, W.; Rousseau, P.G.; Du Toit, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    A proper understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer, fluid flow and pressure drop through a packed bed of spheres is of utmost importance in the design of a high temperature Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR). While the gas flows predominantly in the axial direction through the bed, the total effective thermal conductivity is a lumped parameter that characterises the total heat transfer in the radial direction through the packed bed. The study of the effective thermal conductivity is important because it forms an intricate part of the self-acting decay heat removal chain, which is directly related to the PBR safety case. The effective thermal conductivity is the summation of various heat transport phenomena. These are the enhanced thermal conductivity due to turbulent mixing as the fluid passes through the voids between pebbles, heat transfer due to the movement of the solid spheres and thermal conduction and thermal radiation between the spheres in a stagnant fluid environment. In this study, the conduction and radiation between the spheres are investigated. Firstly, existing correlations for the effective thermal conductivity are investigated, with particular attention given to its applicability in the near-wall region. Several phenomena in particular are examined namely: conduction through the spheres, conduction through the contact area between the spheres, conduction through the gas phase and radiation between solid surfaces. A new approach to simulate the effective thermal conductivity for randomly packed beds is then presented, namely the so-called Multi-sphere Unit Cell Model. The model is validated by comparing the results with that obtained in experiments. (authors)

  11. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  12. Quasi-Unit-Cell Model for an Al-Ni-Co Ideal Quasicrystal based on Clusters with Broken Tenfold Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Eiji; Saitoh, Koh; Takakura, H.; Tsai, A. P.; Steinhardt, P. J.; Jeong, H.-C.

    2000-01-01

    We present new evidence supporting the quasi-unit-cell description of the Al 72 Ni 20 Co 8 decagonal quasicrystal which shows that the solid is composed of repeating, overlapping decagonal cluster columns with broken tenfold symmetry. We propose an atomic model which gives a significantly improved fit to electron microscopy experiments compared to a previous proposal by us and to alternative proposals with tenfold symmetric clusters. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  13. Unit cell determination of epitaxial thin films based on reciprocal space vectors by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Huajun; Chen, Zuhuang; Chen, Lang; Wang, John

    2013-01-01

    A new approach, based on reciprocal space vectors (RSVs), is developed to determine Bravais lattice types and accurate lattice parameters of epitaxial thin films by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry (HR-XRD). The lattice parameters of single crystal substrates are employed as references to correct the systematic experimental errors of RSVs of thin films. The general procedure is summarized, involving correction of RSVs, derivation of raw unit cell, subsequent conversion to the Niggli unit ...

  14. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  15. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  16. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  17. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  18. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  19. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  20. Semiempirical and DFT computations of the influence of Tb(III) dopant on unit cell dimensions of cerium(III) fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyichuk, Andrii; Runowski, Marcin; Lis, Stefan; Kaczkowski, Jakub; Jezierski, Andrzej

    2015-01-30

    Several computational methods, both semiempirical and ab initio, were used to study the influence of the amount of dopant on crystal cell dimensions of CeF3 doped with Tb(3+) ions (CeF3 :Tb(3+) ). AM1, RM1, PM3, PM6, and PM7 semiempirical parameterization models were used, while the Sparkle model was used to represent the lanthanide cations in all cases. Ab initio calculations were performed by means of GGA+U/PBE projector augmented wave density functional theory. The computational results agree well with the experimental data. According to both computation and experiment, the crystal cell parameters undergo a linear decrease with increasing amount of the dopant. The computations performed using Sparkle/PM3 and DFT methods resulted in the best agreement with the experiment with the average deviation of about 1% in both cases. Typical Sparkle/PM3 computation on a 2×2×2 supercell of CeF3:Tb3+ lasted about two orders of magnitude shorter than the DFT computation concerning a unit cell of this material. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A simplistic analytical unit cell based model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X H; Kuang, J J; Lu, T J; Han, F S; Kim, T

    2013-01-01

    We present a simplistic yet accurate analytical model for the effective thermal conductivity of high porosity open-cell metal foams saturated in a low conducting fluid (air). The model is derived analytically based on a realistic representative unit cell (a tetrakaidecahedron) under the assumption of one-dimensional heat conduction along highly tortuous-conducting ligaments at high porosity ranges (ε ⩾ 0.9). Good agreement with existing experimental data suggests that heat conduction along highly conducting and tortuous ligaments predominantly defines the effective thermal conductivity of open-cell metal foams with negligible conduction in parallel through the fluid phase. (paper)

  2. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  3. A program for the derivation of crystal unit cell parameters from X-ray powder diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, I.F.; Rogerson, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    The program, FIRESTAR, determines the dimensions of a crystallographic unit cell from a set of X-ray powder diffraction measurements corresponding to a set of Bragg reflections, provided that the crystal system applicable is known and the Bragg reflections have been indexed. The program includes a range of possible extrapolation functions, and the data may be weighted. Provision is made for detecting and rejecting a single 'bad' measurement, and then rejecting measurements which lie outside an error limit set in the input data. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms inside Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China); Science and Technology on Surface Physics and Chemistry Laboratory, Mianyang, Sichuan 621908 (China); Fu, Qiang [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Shao, Xiji; Ma, Xuhang; Wu, Xuefeng [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Wang, Kedong, E-mail: wangkd@sustc.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China); Xiao, Xudong, E-mail: xdxiao@phy.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territory, Hong Kong (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Diffusions of Au, Ag and Cu atoms in the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7×7) have been studied by using a STM-based I-t method. • Despite their similar absorption sites, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. • Theoretical calculations suggest that different potential energy profiles are responsible for the observed differences. - Abstract: The diffusion behaviors of single Au, Ag and Cu atoms on Si(111)-(7 × 7) half unit cells have been investigated via combining scanning tunneling microscopy and first-principles calculations. Despite the similar adsorption sites between both half unit cells among these elements, the diffusion dynamics show obvious differences between Ag and the other two. Although obvious asymmetry has been found in the diffusion behaviors of Au and Cu atoms in two half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7), the asymmetry behaves in a way different from that of Ag atoms and no dual-time character has been observed for the diffusions of Au and Cu in both half unit cells. Theoretical calculations suggest a different potential energy profile caused by the stronger hybridization between d states of Au (Cu) and Si states make the concept of basin useless for the diffusion of Au and Cu atoms inside the half unit cells of Si(111)-(7 × 7).

  5. Multi-Periodic Photonic Hyper-Crystals: Volume Plasmon Polaritons and the Purcell Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Iorsh, I. V.; Orlov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate superior degree of control over volume plasmon polariton propagation and the Purcell effect in multi-period (4-layer unit cell) plasmonic multilayers, which can be viewed as multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials or multi-periodic photonic hyper-crystals. © 2014 OSA....

  6. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  7. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  8. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells: The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahmadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited, primarily because of the challenge in fabricating porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex morphological designs. In the present work, we studied the relationship between relative density (RD of porous Ti6Al4V EFI alloy and five compressive properties of the material, namely elastic gradient or modulus (Es20–70, first maximum stress, plateau stress, yield stress, and energy absorption. Porous structures with different RD and six different unit cell configurations (cubic (C, diamond (D, truncated cube (TC, truncated cuboctahedron (TCO, rhombic dodecahedron (RD, and rhombicuboctahedron (RCO were fabricated using selective laser melting. Each of the compressive properties increased with increase in RD, the relationship being of a power law type. Clear trends were seen in the influence of unit cell configuration and porosity on each of the compressive properties. For example, in terms of Es20–70, the structures may be divided into two groups: those that are stiff (comprising those made using C, TC, TCO, and RCO unit cell and those that are compliant (comprising those made using D and RD unit cell.

  9. HTTR criticality calculations with SCALE6: Studies of various geometric and unit-cell options in modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. Y.; Chiang, M. H.; Sheu, R. J.; Liu, Y. W. H. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2012-07-01

    The fuel element of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) presents a doubly heterogeneous geometry, where tiny TRISO fuel particles dispersed in a graphite matrix form the fuel region of a cylindrical fuel rod, and a number of fuel rods together with moderator or reflector then constitute the lattice design of the core. In this study, a series of full-core HTTR criticality calculations were performed with the SCALE6 code system using various geometric and unit-cell options in order to systematically investigate their effects on neutronic analysis. Two geometric descriptions (ARRAY or HOLE) in SCALE6 can be used to construct a complicated and repeated model. The result shows that eliminating the use of HOLE in the HTTR geometric model can save the computation time by a factor of 4. Four unit-cell treatments for resonance self-shielding corrections in SCALE6 were tested to create problem-specific multigroup cross sections for the HTTR core model. Based on the same ENDF/B-VII cross-section library, their results were evaluated by comparing with continuous-energy calculations. The comparison indicates that the INFHOMMEDIUM result overestimates the system multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) by 55 mk, whereas the LATTICECELL and MULTIREGION treatments predict the k{sub eff} values with similar biases of approximately 10 mk overestimation. The DOUBLEHET result shows a more satisfactory agreement, about 4.2 mk underestimation in the k{sub eff} value. In addition, using cell-weighted cross sections instead of an explicit modeling of TRISO particles in fuel region can further reduce the computation time by a factor of 5 without sacrificing accuracy. (authors)

  10. Integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system on a lattice with three structural elements in the unit cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.

    2018-05-01

    Developing the idea of increasing the number of structural elements in the unit cell of a quasi-one-dimensional lattice as applied to the semi-discrete integrable systems of nonlinear Schrödinger type, we construct the zero-curvature representation for the general integrable nonlinear system on a lattice with three structural elements in the unit cell. The integrability of the obtained general system permits to find explicitly a number of local conservation laws responsible for the main features of system dynamics and in particular for the so-called natural constraints separating the field variables into the basic and the concomitant ones. Thus, considering the reduction to the semi-discrete integrable system of nonlinear Schrödinger type, we revealed the essentially nontrivial impact of concomitant fields on the Poisson structure and on the whole Hamiltonian formulation of system dynamics caused by the nonzero background values of these fields. On the other hand, the zero-curvature representation of a general nonlinear system serves as an indispensable key to the dressing procedure of system integration based upon the Darboux transformation of the auxiliary linear problem and the implicit Bäcklund transformation of field variables. Due to the symmetries inherent to the six-component semi-discrete integrable nonlinear Schrödinger system with attractive-type nonlinearities, the Darboux-Bäcklund dressing scheme is shown to be simplified considerably, giving rise to the appropriately parameterized multi-component soliton solution consisting of six basic and four concomitant components.

  11. Use of variations in unit cell length, reflectance and hardness for determining the origin of Fe disulphides in sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Eberhard, E.; Hartmann, B.

    1997-01-01

    Fe disulphides are common opaque accessories in sedimentary rocks. Both marcasite and pyrite may shed some light on the depositional environment and help determine the diagenesis of their host rocks. Quantitative ore microscopy (reflectance measurements, Vickers hardness numbers) and X-ray diffraction methods, supplemented with scanning electron microscopy and chemical analyses, were applied to pyrite (and some marcasite) hosted by sedimentary rocks spanning the interval from the Devonian to the Pliocene, and formed in various marine and continental environments. Quantitative ore microscopy of pyrites of sedimentary origin does not seem to be an efficient tool for analyzing the environment owing to the inhomogeneous nature of sulphide aggregates when viewed under the ore microscope, and the variable amounts of minor elements (e.g., As, Ni, and Co) that control the reflectance values (RV) and Vickers hardness numbers (VHN) of the host sulphides. However, such parameters as crystal habit and unit cell length of pyrite, which correlate with FeS x, are useful for environmental analysis. The redox conditions and the presence of organic remains during formation are the main factors determining these crystallographic parameters. Differences in these parameters from those of pure, ideal FeS 2 can be related to substitution of, e.g., wustite in the pyrite lattice, reflecting moderate oxidation (i.e. in the microenvironment). As far as crystal habit and length of the cell edge are concerned, late stage diagenesis is obviously less important than the microenvironment attending initial formation. The environment of deposition (i.e. the macroenvironment) of pyrite-bearing rocks has no influence on the crystal morphology or the length of the unit cell of Fe disulphide. X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that this method provides useful evidence on the microenvironment of sulphide precipitation around a single, equant pyrite, as well as around pyritized fossils.

  12. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  13. Additively Manufactured Open-Cell Porous Biomaterials Made from Six Different Space-Filling Unit Cells : The Mechanical and Morphological Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadi, S.M.; Yavari, S.A.; Wauthle, R.; Pouran, B.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is known that the mechanical properties of bone-mimicking porous biomaterials are a function of the morphological properties of the porous structure, including the configuration and size of the repeating unit cell from which they are made. However, the literature on this topic is limited,

  14. Extraordinary electromagnetic transmission by antenna arrays and frequency selective surfaces having compound unit cells with dissimilar elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loui, Hung; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2018-03-20

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to extraordinary electromagnetic transmission (EEMT) to enable multiple inefficient (un-matched) but coupled radiators and/or apertures to radiate and/or pass electromagnetic waves efficiently. EEMT can be utilized such that signal transmission from a plurality of antennas and/or apertures occurs at a transmission frequency different to transmission frequencies of the individual antennas and/or aperture elements. The plurality of antennas/apertures can comprise first antenna/aperture having a first radiating area and material(s) and second antenna/aperture having a second radiating area and material(s), whereby the first radiating/aperture area and second radiating/aperture area can be co-located in a periodic compound unit cell. Owing to mutual coupling between the respective antennas/apertures in their arrayed configuration, the transmission frequency of the array can be shifted from the transmission frequencies of the individual elements. EEMT can be utilized for an array of evanescent of inefficient radiators connected to a transmission line(s).

  15. Single-unit-cell layer established Bi 2 WO 6 3D hierarchical architectures: Efficient adsorption, photocatalysis and dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hongwei; Cao, Ranran; Yu, Shixin; Xu, Kang; Hao, Weichang; Wang, Yonggang; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Tierui; Zhang, Yihe

    2017-12-01

    Single-layer catalysis sparks huge interests and gains widespread attention owing to its high activity. Simultaneously, three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure can afford large surface area and abundant reactive sites, contributing to high efficiency. Herein, we report an absorbing single-unit-cell layer established Bi2WO6 3D hierarchical architecture fabricated by a sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS)-assisted assembled strategy. The DBS- long chains can adsorb on the (Bi2O2)2+ layers and hence impede stacking of the layers, resulting in the single-unit-cell layer. We also uncovered that SDS with a shorter chain is less effective than SDBS. Due to the sufficient exposure of surface O atoms, single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 shows strong selectivity for adsorption on multiform organic dyes with different charges. Remarkably, the single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 casts profoundly enhanced photodegradation activity and especially a superior photocatalytic H2 evolution rate, which is 14-fold increase in contrast to the bulk Bi2WO6. Systematic photoelectrochemical characterizations disclose that the substantially elevated carrier density and charge separation efficiency take responsibility for the strengthened photocatalytic performance. Additionally, the possibility of single-unit-cell layer 3D Bi2WO6 as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) has also been attempted and it was manifested to be a promising dye-sensitized photoanode for oxygen evolution reaction (ORR). Our work not only furnish an insight into designing single-layer assembled 3D hierarchical architecture, but also offer a multi-functional material for environmental and energy applications.

  16. Research of the impact of coupling between unit cells on performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mengchao; Zhou, Kan; Wang, Xiaokun; Zhuang, Haiyan; Tang, Dongming; Zhang, Baoshan; Yang, Yi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the impact of coupling between unit cells on the performance of linear-to-circular polarization conversion metamaterial with half transmission and half reflection is analyzed by changing the distance between the unit cells. An equivalent electrical circuit model is then built to explain it based on the analysis. The simulated results show that, when the distance between the unit cells is 23 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected left-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted left-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; when the distance is 28 mm, this metamaterial reflects all of the incident linearly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz; and when the distance is 32 mm, this metamaterial converts half of the incident linearly-polarized wave into reflected right-hand circularly-polarized wave and converts the other half of it into transmitted right-hand circularly-polarized wave at 4.4 GHz. The tunability is realized successfully. The analysis shows that the changes of coupling between unit cells lead to the changes of performance of this metamaterial. The coupling between the unit cells is then considered when building the equivalent electrical circuit model. The built equivalent electrical circuit model can be used to perfectly explain the simulated results, which confirms the validity of it. It can also give help to the design of tunable polarization conversion metamaterials.

  17. Heat and Mass Transfer during Hydrogen Generation in an Array of Fuel Bars of a BWR Using a Periodic Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Romero-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, the numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during hydrogen generation in an array of fuel cylinder bars, each coated with a cladding and a steam current flowing outside the cylinders. The analysis considers the fuel element without mitigation effects. The system consists of a representative periodic unit cell where the initial and boundary-value problems for heat and mass transfer were solved. In this unit cell, we considered that a fuel element is coated by a cladding with steam surrounding it as a coolant. The numerical simulations allow describing the evolution of the temperature and concentration profiles inside the nuclear reactor and could be used as a basis for hybrid upscaling simulations.

  18. Conspicuous variation of the lattice unit cell in the pavonite homologous series and its relation with cation/anion occupational modulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Mato, J.M., E-mail: jm.perez-mato@ehu.es [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Elcoro, Luis [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Makovicky, Emil [Department of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Topa, Dan [Department of Materials Research and Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Petříček, Václav [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Madariaga, Gotzon [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Strong non-uniform variation of unit cell parameters in the pavonite homologous series. ► Conspicuous unit cell variation due to an underlying sub-lattice with cation/anion occupation. ► A modulated model common to the whole series using the superspace formalism proposed. ► Model successfully applied to the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}(Bi,Pb){sub 7}S{sub 12}. ► The model can be applied in a predictive way to other members of the family. - Abstract: The pavonites is a homologous series of sulfosalts with galena-like modules of variable size. A survey of their unit cells reveals that they are severely constrained by the metrics of an underlying common average sublattice. The unit cell of any compound of the series accommodates with high precision an integer number of approximately equal subcells. This explains a peculiar non-uniform variation of the unit cell parameters within the series and evidences that the interface between the galena-like modules, despite having a very different topology, approximately maintains the subperiodicity of the modules, and must therefore be subject to strong steric restrictions. It also implies that cations and anions occupy the nodes of the observed common underlying average sublattice according to a striking alternate cation/anion occupational modulation. This is the starting point for a description of these materials as modulated structures, which can make a proficient use of the approximate atomic positional non-crystallographic correlations caused by their modular character. Under this approach only four parameters suffice to define a realistic approximate model of any member of the series. A full structural characterization of any of the compounds only requires the determination of additional small/smooth modulations. As an example, the case of the {sup 7}P pavonite Ag{sub 3}Bi{sub 6.2}Pb{sub 0.8}S{sub 12}, is analyzed.

  19. Airplane radiation dose decrease during a strong Forbush decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Kudela, K.; Dachev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, S05001 (2004), s. 1-4 ISSN 1542-7390 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : airplane dose * Forbush decrease * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  20. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  1. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  2. Comparison of Hippocampal Volume in Dementia Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Avinash; Vijayakumar, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To examine the relationship between different types of dementia and hippocampal volume. Methods. Hippocampal volume was measured using FL3D sequence magnetic resonance imaging in 26 Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, mixed dementia, and normal pressure hydrocephalus patients and 15 healthy controls and also hippocampal ratio, analyzed. Minimental scale was used to stratify patients on cognitive function impairments. Results. Hippocampal volume and ratio was reduced by 25% in Alzheimer's disease, 21% in mixed dementia, 11% in vascular dementia and 5% in normal pressure hydrocephalus in comparison to control. Also an asymmetrical decrease in volume of left hippocampus was noted. The severity of dementia increased in accordance to decreasing hippocampal volume. Conclusion. Measurement in hippocampal volume may facilitate in differentiating different types of dementia and in disease progression. There was a correlation between hippocampal volume and severity of cognitive impairment

  3. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  4. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  6. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1993-01-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application. (orig.)

  7. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application

  8. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  9. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  10. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  11. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  12. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Giant Unit Cell Intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallics R117Co52+δSn112+γ (R = Y, La, Pr, Nd, and Ho have been prepared by arc-melting followed by annealing at 800 °C. All the compounds belong to the Tb117Fe52Ge112 structure type (space group Fm 3 ¯ m characterized by a complex giant cubic unit cell with a ~ 30 Å. The single-crystal structure determination of Y- and La-containing compounds reveals a significant structural disorder. A comparison of these and earlier reported crystal structures of R117Co52+δSn112+γ suggests that more extensive disorder occurs for structures that contain larger lanthanide atoms. This observation can be explained by the need to maintain optimal bonding interactions as the size of the unit cell increases. Y117Co56Sn115 exhibits weak paramagnetism due to the Co sublattice and does not show magnetic ordering in the 1.8–300 K range. Ho117Co55Sn108 shows ferromagnetic ordering at 10.6 K. Both Pr117Co54Sn112 and Nd117Co54Sn111 exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering at 17 K and 24.7 K, respectively, followed by a spin reorientation transition at lower temperature.

  14. Selective Laser Melting: a regular unit cell approach for the manufacture of porous, titanium, bone in-growth constructs, suitable for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Lewis; Stamp, Robin C; Brooks, Wesley K; Jones, Eric; Sutcliffe, Christopher J

    2009-05-01

    In this study, a novel porous titanium structure for the purpose of bone in-growth has been designed, manufactured and evaluated. The structure was produced by Selective Laser Melting (SLM); a rapid manufacturing process capable of producing highly intricate, functionally graded parts. The technique described utilizes an approach based on a defined regular unit cell to design and produce structures with a large range of both physical and mechanical properties. These properties can be tailored to suit specific requirements; in particular, functionally graded structures with bone in-growth surfaces exhibiting properties comparable to those of human bone have been manufactured. The structures were manufactured and characterized by unit cell size, strand diameter, porosity, and compression strength. They exhibited a porosity (10-95%) dependant compression strength (0.5-350 Mpa) comparable to the typical naturally occurring range. It is also demonstrated that optimized structures have been produced that possesses ideal qualities for bone in-growth applications and that these structures can be applied in the production of orthopedic devices. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  16. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Development of a three-dimensional unit cell to model the micromechanical response of a collagen-based extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2010-04-01

    The three-dimensional microstructure and mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is now being recognized as a primary factor in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, an appreciation of the mechanical aspects by which a cell interacts with its ECM is required for the development of engineered tissues. Ultimately, using these interactions to design tissue equivalents requires mathematical models with three-dimensional architecture. In this study, a three-dimensional model of a collagen fibril matrix undergoing uniaxial tensile stress was developed by making use of cellular solids. A structure consisting of thin struts was chosen to represent the arrangement of collagen fibrils within an engineered ECM. To account for the large deformation of tissues, the collagen fibrils were modeled as hyperelastic neo-Hookean or Mooney-Rivlin materials. The use of cellular solids allowed the fibril properties to be related to the ECM properties in closed form, which, in turn, allowed the estimation of fibril properties using ECM experimental data. A set of previously obtained experimental data consisting of simultaneous measures of the fibril microstructure and mechanical tests was used to evaluate the model's capability to estimate collagen fibril mechanical property when given tissue-scale data and to predict the tissue-scale mechanical properties when given estimated fibril stiffness. The fibril tangent modulus was found to be 1.26 + or - 0.70 and 1.62 + or - 0.88 MPa when the fibril was modeled as neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin material, respectively. There was no statistical significance of the estimated fibril tangent modulus among the different groups. Sensitivity analysis showed that the fibril mechanical properties and volume fraction were the two input parameters which required accurate values. While the volume fraction was easily obtained from the initial image of the gel, the fibril mechanical properties

  18. Prediction of equibiaxial loading stress in collagen-based extracellular matrix using a three-dimensional unit cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Monica E; Bell, Brett J; Roeder, Blayne A; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L; Kokini, Klod; Nauman, Eric A

    2013-03-01

    Mechanical signals are important factors in determining cell fate. Therefore, insights as to how mechanical signals are transferred between the cell and its surrounding three-dimensional collagen fibril network will provide a basis for designing the optimum extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Previously we described a cellular solid model to predict fibril microstructure-mechanical relationships of reconstituted collagen matrices due to unidirectional loads (Acta Biomater 2010;6:1471-86). The model consisted of representative volume elements made up of an interconnected network of flexible struts. The present study extends this work by adapting the model to account for microstructural anisotropy of the collagen fibrils and a biaxial loading environment. The model was calibrated based on uniaxial tensile data and used to predict the equibiaxial tensile stress-stretch relationship. Modifications to the model significantly improved its predictive capacity for equibiaxial loading data. With a comparable fibril length (model 5.9-8μm, measured 7.5μm) and appropriate fibril anisotropy the anisotropic model provides a better representation of the collagen fibril microstructure. Such models are important tools for tissue engineering because they facilitate prediction of microstructure-mechanical relationships for collagen matrices over a wide range of microstructures and provide a framework for predicting cell-ECM interactions. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    , and arterial pressure were determined before and during a volume expansion induced by infusion of a hyperosmotic galactose solution. RESULTS: During volume expansion, the central and arterial blood volume increased significantly in patients with class A and controls, whereas no significant change was found...... in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not change significantly......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...

  20. Air clearing pressure oscillation produced in a quenching tank by a prototype unit cell sparger of the APR1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seok; Song, Chul-Hwa; Park, Choon-Kyong; Kim, Hwan-Yeol; Baek, Won-Pil

    2008-01-01

    KAERI has performed a series of experiments to investigate the performance of a prototype sparger for the APR1400 in view of a dynamic load oscillation with a variation of the test conditions such as a discharged air mass, a submergence of the sparger, the valve opening time, and the pool temperature during an air clearing phase. The air mass and pool temperature are in the range of 0.8-1.5 kg and 20-90 o C, respectively. The valve opening time can be adjusted within the range of 0.6-1.8 s. The maximum positive pressure amplitude, which is observed at the bottom of the quenching tank, is increased with the maximum header pressure of the sparger. The valve opening time has a considerable effect on the maximum amplitude. As the opening time decreases, the maximum amplitude at the tank wall is increased. Air mass and pool temperature, however, have a weak effect on the maximum amplitude. Oscillation frequency is decreased with an increase of the air mass in the range of 2.5-4.5 Hz

  1. Effect of primary and secondary parameters on analytical estimation of effective thermal conductivity of two phase materials using unit cell approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Chidambara Raja; P, Karthikeyan; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; M, Ramu

    2018-05-01

    Most of the thermal design systems involve two phase materials and analysis of such systems requires detailed understanding of the thermal characteristics of the two phase material. This article aimed to develop geometry dependent unit cell approach model by considering the effects of all primary parameters (conductivity ratio and concentration) and secondary parameters (geometry, contact resistance, natural convection, Knudsen and radiation) for the estimation of effective thermal conductivity of two-phase materials. The analytical equations have been formulated based on isotherm approach for 2-D and 3-D spatially periodic medium. The developed models are validated with standard models and suited for all kind of operating conditions. The results have shown substantial improvement compared to the existing models and are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Physically elastic analysis of a cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Vahid

    2018-03-01

    Elastic analysis is analytically presented to predict the behaviors of the stress and displacement components in the cylindrical ring as a unit cell of a complete composite under applied stress in the complex plane using cubic polynomials. This analysis is based on the complex computation of the stress functions in the complex plane and polar coordinates. Also, suitable boundary conditions are considered and assumed to analyze along with the equilibrium equations and bi-harmonic equation. This method has some important applications in many fields of engineering such as mechanical, civil and material engineering generally. One of the applications of this research work is in composite design and designing the cylindrical devices under various loadings. Finally, it is founded that the convergence and accuracy of the results are suitable and acceptable through comparing the results.

  3. A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals using an imaging plate as a detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Masaki; Imada, Katsumi; Katsube, Yukiteru; Tanaka, Nobuo; Higashi, Tsuneyuki

    1992-01-01

    A high-speed data-collection system for large-unit-cell crystals is presented, using the Fuji Imaging Plate as an X-ray detector and a rotating-anode generator as the X-ray source. It is an automatic data-acquisition system that requires almost no manual intervention. The quality of data collected on the system is discussed. Merging R values ranged from 0.04 to 0.05. Compared with a four-circle diffractometer, data reproducibility was better, isomorphous/anomalous Patterson maps were almost identical in quality and data from a small-molecule crystal, cytidine, were of almost the same quality. Protein structures were refinable using the data measured on the system, the final crystallographic R value of the 2.2 A 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase structure being 0.185 and that of the 1.88 A Flammulina veltipes agglutinin structure being 0.199. (orig.)

  4. Ion Channels Involved in Cell Volume Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2011-01-01

    regulatory ion channels involved, and the mechanisms (cellular signalling pathways) that regulate these channels. Finally, I shall also briefly review current investigations in these two cell lines that focuses on how changes in cell volume can regulate cell functions such as cell migration, proliferation......This mini review outlines studies of cell volume regulation in two closely related mammalian cell lines: nonadherent Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EATC) and adherent Ehrlich Lettre ascites (ELA) cells. Focus is on the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) that occurs after cell swelling, the volume...

  5. Cell swelling and volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular space in the brain is typically 20% of the tissue volume and is reduced to at least half its size under conditions of neural insult. Whether there is a minimum size to the extracellular space was discussed. A general model for cell volume regulation was presented, followed...... by a discussion on how many of the generally involved mechanisms are identified in neural cells and (or) in astrocytes. There seems to be clear evidence suggesting that parallel K+ and Cl- channels mediate regulatory volume decrease in primary cultures of astrocytes, and a stretch-activated cation channel has...... been reported. The role of the different channels was discussed. A taurine leak pathway is clearly activated after cell swelling both in astrocytes and in neurones. The relations between the effect of glutamate and cell swelling were discussed. Discussion on the clearance of potassium from...

  6. Picometer registration of zinc impurity states in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ for phase determination in intra-unit-cell Fourier transform STM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidian, M H; Firmo, I A; Fujita, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Davis, J C; Orenstein, J W; Eisaki, H; Uchida, S; Lawler, M J; Kim, E-A

    2012-01-01

    Direct visualization of electronic-structure symmetry within each crystalline unit cell is a new technique for complex electronic matter research (Lawler et al 2010 Nature 466 347-51, Schmidt et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 065014, Fujita K et al 2012 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 81 011005). By studying the Bragg peaks in Fourier transforms of electronic structure images and particularly by resolving both the real and imaginary components of the Bragg amplitudes, distinct types of intra-unit-cell symmetry breaking can be studied. However, establishing the precise symmetry point of each unit cell in real space is crucial in defining the phase for such a Bragg-peak Fourier analysis. Exemplary of this challenge is the high-temperature superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ for which the surface Bi atom locations are observable, while it is the invisible Cu atoms that define the relevant CuO 2 unit-cell symmetry point. Here we demonstrate, by imaging with picometer precision the electronic impurity states at individual Zn atoms substituted at Cu sites, that the phase established using the Bi lattice produces a ∼2%(2π) error relative to the actual Cu lattice. Such a phase assignment error would not diminish reliability in the determination of intra-unit-cell rotational symmetry breaking at the CuO 2 plane (Lawler et al 2010 Nature 466 347-51, Schmidt et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 065014, Fujita K et al 2012 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 81 011005). Moreover, this type of impurity atom substitution at the relevant symmetry site can be of general utility in phase determination for the Bragg-peak Fourier analysis of intra-unit-cell symmetry. (paper)

  7. Possible Factors that Affect Testis Volume in Varicocele Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozay Demiray

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Left varicocele degree is associated with decrease in testis volume. There was no relationship between testis volume and body mass index or smoking habit. Early varicocele diagnosis is important to protect testis volume. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 233-238

  8. Chiral crossover transition in a finite volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Jia, Wenbao; Sun, An; Zhang, Liping; Zong, Hongshi

    2018-02-01

    Finite volume effects on the chiral crossover transition of strong interactions at finite temperature are studied by solving the quark gap equation within a cubic volume of finite size L. With the anti-periodic boundary condition, our calculation shows the chiral quark condensate, which characterizes the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, decreases as L decreases below 2.5 fm. We further study the finite volume effects on the pseudo-transition temperature {T}{{c}} of the crossover, showing a significant decrease in {T}{{c}} as L decreases below 3 fm. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11475085, 11535005, 11690030, 51405027), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (020414380074), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2016M591808) and Open Research Foundation of State Key Lab. of Digital Manufacturing Equipment & Technology in Huazhong University of Science & Technology (DMETKF2015015)

  9. BMT decreases HFD-induced weight gain associated with decreased preadipocyte number and insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Katiraei

    Full Text Available Experimental bone marrow transplantation (BMT in mice is commonly used to assess the role of immune cell-specific genes in various pathophysiological settings. The application of BMT in obesity research is hampered by the significant reduction in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. We set out to characterize metabolic tissues that may be affected by the BMT procedure and impair the HFD-induced response. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent syngeneic BMT using lethal irradiation. After a recovery period of 8 weeks they were fed a low-fat diet (LFD or HFD for 16 weeks. HFD-induced obesity was reduced in mice after BMT as compared to HFD-fed control mice, characterized by both a reduced fat (-33%; p<0.01 and lean (-11%; p<0.01 mass, while food intake and energy expenditure were unaffected. As compared to control mice, BMT-treated mice had a reduced mature adipocyte volume (approx. -45%; p<0.05 and reduced numbers of preadipocytes (-38%; p<0.05 and macrophages (-62%; p<0.05 in subcutaneous, gonadal and visceral white adipose tissue. In BMT-treated mice, pancreas weight (-46%; p<0.01 was disproportionally decreased. This was associated with reduced plasma insulin (-68%; p<0.05 and C-peptide (-37%; p<0.01 levels and a delayed glucose clearance in BMT-treated mice on HFD as compared to control mice. In conclusion, the reduction in HFD-induced obesity after BMT in mice is at least partly due to alterations in the adipose tissue cell pool composition as well as to a decreased pancreatic secretion of the anabolic hormone insulin. These effects should be considered when interpreting results of experimental BMT in metabolic studies.

  10. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)]. E-mail: tetsukaw@arc.sony.co.jp; Kondo, Hirofumi [Sony Corporation, 6-7-35 Kitashinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0001 (Japan)

    2005-09-15

    We have investigated the activation volume (V{sub ac}) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V{sub phy}) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V{sub phy}/V{sub ac} of advanced metal particles are 6x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10{sup -24}m{sup 3} when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M{sub r}.t (M{sub r}=remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced.

  11. Activation volume and interaction of metal particulate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsukawa, Hiroki; Kondo, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the activation volume (V ac ) and magnetostatic interaction of metal particulate (MP) media. The activation volume of MP media decreases with the decrease of physical volume (V phy ) of metal particles. The activation volume and the ratio of V phy /V ac of advanced metal particles are 6x10 -24 m 3 and 1.5, respectively. It can be predicted that the physical volume of metal particle is about 3x10 -24 m 3 when the physical volume is equal to the activation volume. This value is agreement with the practical lower limit of physical volume of metal particle predicted by Sharrock. The negative interaction (demagnetization effect) in MP media decreases with low saturation magnetization of the metal particles, a thin magnetic layer, a high orientation of MP media, and a low packing fraction of metal particles in the MP media. The activation volume of the MP media decreased as the negative interactions decreased. In advanced MP media with low M r .t (M r =remanent magnetization and t=thickness), the influence of interaction on the activation volume is reduced

  12. Interface-enhanced high-temperature superconductivity in single-unit-cell FeT e1 -xS ex films on SrTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangsen; Ding, Hao; Tang, Chenjia; Peng, Junping; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhang, Wenhao; Zhou, Guanyu; Zhang, Ding; Song, Can-Li; He, Ke; Ji, Shuaihua; Chen, Xi; Gu, Lin; Wang, Lili; Ma, Xu-Cun; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Recently discovered high-temperature superconductivity in single-unit-cell (UC) FeSe films on SrTi O3 (STO) substrate has stimulated tremendous research interest, both experimental and theoretical. Whether this scenario could be extended to other superconductors is vital in both identifying the enhanced superconductivity mechanism and further raising the critical transition temperature (Tc). Here we successfully prepared single-UC FeT e1 -xS ex(0.1 ≤x ≤0.6 ) films on STO substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and observed U -shaped superconducting gaps (Δ ) up to ˜16.5 meV , nearly ten times the gap value (Δ ˜1.7 meV ) of the optimally doped bulk FeT e0 .6S e0 .4 single crystal (Tc˜14.5 K ). No superconducting gap has been observed on the second UC and thicker FeT e1 -xS ex films at 5.7 K, indicating the important role of the interface. This interface-enhanced high-temperature superconductivity is further confirmed by ex situ transport measurements, which revealed an onset superconducting transition temperature above 40 K, nearly two times higher than that of the optimally doped bulk FeT e0 .6S e0 .4 single crystal. This work demonstrates that interface engineering is a feasible way to discover alternative superconductors with higher Tc.

  13. Simultaneous microwave photonic and phononic band gaps in piezoelectric–piezomagnetic superlattices with three types of domains in a unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zheng-hua [Xiangnan University-Gospell Joint Laboratory of Microwave Communication Technology, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China); Jiang, Zheng-Sheng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Tao [Laboratory of Quantum Information and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lei, Da-Jun [Xiangnan University-Gospell Joint Laboratory of Microwave Communication Technology, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China); Yan, Wen-Yan, E-mail: yanwenyan88@126.com [School of Software and Communication Engineering, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China); Qiu, Feng; Huang, Jian-Quan; Deng, Hai-Ming; Yao, Min [Xiangnan University-Gospell Joint Laboratory of Microwave Communication Technology, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000 (China)

    2016-04-29

    A novel phoxonic crystal using the piezoelectric (PMN-PT) and piezomagnetic (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) superlattices with three types of domains in a unit cell (PPSUC) is present, in which dual microwave photonic and phononic band gaps can be obtained simultaneously. Two categories of phononic band gaps, originating from both the Bragg scattering of acoustic waves in periodic structures at the Brillouin zone boundary and the electromagnetic wave-lattice vibration couplings near the Brillouin zone center, can be observed in the phononic band structures. The general characteristics of the microwave photonic band structures are similar to those of pure piezoelectric or piezomagnetic superlattices, with the major discrepancy being the appearance of nearly dispersionless branches within the microwave photonic band gaps, which show an extremely large group velocity delay. Thus, the properties may also be applied to compact acoustic-microwave devices. - Highlights: • Dual microwave photonic and phononic band gaps can coexist in the PPSUC. • Two categories of phononic band gaps with different mechanism can be obtained. • Nearly dispersionless branches appear in the microwave photonic band gaps.

  14. [Evaluation of tidal volume delivered by ventilators during volume-controlled ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Yan, Yong; Cao, Desen

    2014-12-01

    To study the ways which ensure the delivery of enough tidal volume to patients under various conditions close to the demand of the physician. The volume control ventilation model was chosen, and the simulation lung type was active servo lung ASL 5000 or Michigan lung 1601. The air resistance, air compliance and lung type in simulation lungs were set. The tidal volume was obtained from flow analyzer PF 300. At the same tidal volume, the displaying values of tidal volume of E5, Servo i, Evital 4, and Evital XL ventilators with different lung types of patient, compliance of gas piping, leakage, gas types, etc. were evaluated. With the same setting tidal volume of a same ventilator, the tidal volume delivered to patients was different with different lung types of patient, compliance of gas piping, leakage, gas types, etc. Reducing compliance and increasing resistance of the patient lungs caused high peak airway pressure, the tidal volume was lost in gas piping, and the tidal volume be delivered to the patient lungs was decreased. If the ventilator did not compensate to leakage, the tidal volume delivered to the patient lungs was decreased. When the setting gas type of ventilator did not coincide with that applying to the patient, the tidal volume be delivered to the patient lungs might be different with the setting tidal volume of ventilator. To ensure the delivery of enough tidal volume to patients close to the demand of the physician, containable factors such as the compliance of gas piping, leakage, and gas types should be controlled.

  15. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  16. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  17. Effect of pulmonary hyperinflation on central blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Kyhl, Kasper; Frestad, Daria

    2017-01-01

    (11±7%) above the total lung capacity. All cardiac chambers decreased in volume and despite a heart rate increase of 24±29 bpm (39±50%), pulmonary blood flow decreased by 2783±1820mL (43±20%). The pulmonary transit time remained unchanged at 7.5±2.2s and pulmonary blood volume decreased by 354±176m...

  18. Estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume from radioisotopic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Minoru

    1989-01-01

    Lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in man were estimated from the radioisotopic image using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Six healthy volunteers were studied in a supine position with normal and altered lung volumes by applying continuous negative body-surface pressure (CNP) and by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). 99m Tc labeled human serum albumin was administered as an aerosol to image the lungs. The CNP caused the diaphragm to be lowered and it increased the mean lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT from 3.09±0.49 l for baseline to 3.67±0.62 l for 10 cmH 2 O (p 2 O (p 2 O), respectively. The PEEP also increased the lung tissue volume to 3.68±0.68 l for 10 cmH 2 O as compared with the baseline (p 2 O PEEP. The lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT showed a positive correlation with functional residual capacity measured by the He dilution method (r=0.91, p 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells. The L/H ratio decreased after either the CNP or PEEP, suggesting a decrease in the blood volume per unit lung volume. However, it was suggested that the total pulmonary blood volume increased slightly either on the CNP (+7.4% for 10 cmH 2 O, p 2 O,p<0.05) when we extrapolated the L/H ratio to the whole lungs by multiplying the lung tissue volume obtained by SPECT. We concluded that SPECT could offer access to the estimation of lung volume and pulmonary blood volume in vivo. (author)

  19. KCNQ channels are involved in the regulatory volume decrease response in primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Nielsen, Morten Schak; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes was studied in intact single cells attached to coverslips, i.e. with an intact cytoskeleton. The potential contribution of KCNQ (Kv7) channels to the RVD response and the possible involvement of the F-actin cytoskeleton were investigated. The rate of RVD was significantly...... changes the structure of the F-actin cytoskeleton, leading to a more rounded cell shape, less pronounced F-actin stress fibers and patches of actin. In the presence of cytochalasin D (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of actin polymerization, the RVD response was strongly reduced, confirming a possible role...... for an intact F-actin cytoskeleton in linking cell swelling to activation of ion transport in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun...

  20. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  1. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  2. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  3. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  4. Definite existence of subphases with eight- and ten-layer unit cells as studied by complementary methods, electric-field-induced birefringence and microbeam resonant x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengyu; Chandani Perera, A D L; Fukuda, Atsuo; Vij, Jagdish K; Ishikawa, Ken; Iida, Atsuo; Takanishi, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    A mixture of two selenium-containing compounds, 80 wt. % AS657 and 20 wt. % AS620, are studied with two complementary methods, electric-field-induced birefringence (EFIB) and microbeam resonant x-ray scattering (μRXS). The mixture shows the typical phase sequence of Sm-C_{A}^{*}-1/3-1/2-Sm-C^{*}-Sm-C_{α}^{*}-Sm-A, where 1/3 and 1/2 are two prototypal ferrielectric and antiferroelectric subphases with three- and four-layer unit cells, respectively. Here we designate the subphase as its q_{T} number defined by the ratio of [F]/([F]+[A]), where [F] and [A] are the numbers of synclinic ferroelectric and anticlinic antiferroelectric orderings in the unit cell, respectively. The electric field vs temperature phase diagram with EFIB contours indicates the emergence of three additional subphases, an antiferroelectric one between Sm-C_{A}^{*} and 1/3 and antiferroelectric and apparently ferrielectric ones between 1/3 and 1/2. The simplest probable q_{T}'s for these additional subphases are 1/4, 2/5, and 3/7, respectively, in the order of increasing temperature. The μRXS profiles indicate that antiferroelectric 1/4 and 2/5 approximately have the eight-layer (FAAAFAAA) and ten-layer (FAFAAFAFAA) Ising unit cells, respectively. The remaining subphase may be ferrielectric 3/7 with a seven-layer unit cell, although the evidence is partial. These experimental results are compared with the phenomenological Landau model [P. V. Dolganov and E. I. Kats, Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 127 (2014)2168-039610.1080/21680396.2013.869667] and the quasimolecular model [A. V. Emelyanenko and M. A. Osipov, Phys. Rev. E 68, 051703 (2003)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.68.051703].

  5. Blood volume studies in chronic renal failure using radioactive 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.S.; Mehta, S.R.; Mathur, D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimation of blood volume was carried out in 20 healthy subjects and in 25 patients suffering from chronic renal failure using radioactive 51 Cr. A detailed history, physical examination and investigations were also undertaken. On statistical evaluation, the red cell volume was diminished significantly in males and females but rise in blood volume was insignificant. Plasma volume was raised significantly in females but was insignificant in males. The reduction in red cell volume is due to reduced red cell mass because of chronic renal disease. Plasma volume may be elevated in order to compensate for decreased red cell volume. The variability in these two parameters results in variable blood volume. (author)

  6. Macular thickness and volume in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Forshaw, Thomas; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    manifests in the macula of the elderly focusing on clinical relevant measures that are thicknesses and volumes of different macular areas. Ageing seems to increase center point foveal thickness. Ageing does not seem to change the center subfield thickness significantly. Ageing decreases the inner and outer...

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  8. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  9. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  10. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  11. Guilt decreasing marketing communication: an unexplored appeal

    OpenAIRE

    B. BUSACCA; SOSCIA I; PITRELLI E

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of guilt is relevant to a variety of consumption situations and practitioners around the world have continued to use it as a communication appeal. Marketing literature demonstrated that guilt as a distinct emotion can be aroused by advertising. Nevertheless, the capacity of advertising to decrease guilt was neglected by marketing scholars and the aim of this research is to assess the role of the guilt decreasing appeal in reducing anticipated guilt. Findings demonstrate the eff...

  12. Elite synchronized swimmers display decreased energy availability during intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, K; Tiollier, E; Le Meur, Y; Casazza, G; Hausswirth, C

    2017-09-01

    Elite synchronized swimmers follow high-volume training regimen that result in elevated rates of exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). While adequate energy intake (EI) is important to optimize recovery, a number of sport-specific constraints may lead to chronically low energy availability (EA = EI-ExEE). This study aimed to quantify changes in EA, endocrine markers of energy conservation, and perceived fatigue in synchronized swimmers, during a week of baseline training followed by 4 weeks of intensified training (IT). EI, ExEE, and body composition were measured in nine swimmers at Baseline, midpoint (IT WK 2 ), and end of IT (IT WK 4 ). Waking saliva samples were obtained to measure [leptin] s , [ghrelin] s , and [cortisol] s . Fatigue ratings were provided daily. ExEE increased by 27% during IT. Swimmers increased EI from Baseline to IT WK 2 , but decreased it significantly from IT WK 2 to IT WK 4 . EA, fat mass, and [leptin] s decreased from Baseline to IT WK 4 , while [ghrelin] s increased significantly. Fatigue at IT WK 4 was inversely correlated with Baseline EI and EA. The significant decrease in EA was accompanied by endocrine signs of energy conservation in elite swimmers. As perceived fatigue was associated with low EA, particular attention should be paid to these athletes' energy intake during phases of heavy training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  14. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  15. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  16. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. MRI volume measurement of basal ganglia volumes in patients with Tourette's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jie; Li Kuncheng; Cao Yanxiang; Zhang Miao; Sui Xin; Zhang Xiaohua

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate MRI measurement of basal ganglia volumes in patients with Tourette's syndrome. Methods: Ten patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) and 10 healthy volunteers were studied. Volumes of bilateral caudate, putamen and pallidum were measured, and the results were analyzed using paired t test. The basal ganglia volume was normalized according to individual brain volume. The basal ganglia volumes of TS patients were compared with normal control group using independent-sample t test. Results: In 10 healthy volunteers, volumes of the left caudate, putamen, pallidum were significantly larger compared with those of the right side (P 0.05) in TS patients. After normalized processing, the volumes of the left caudate (7.06 ± 0.48) cm 3 , putamen (8.81±1.01) cm 3 , pallidum (2.64± 0.38) cm 3 were smaller than those of control group [caudate (11.05±1.86) cm 3 , putamen (9.97± 1.11) cm 3 , pallidum (3.04±0.37) cm 3 ] (t=-6.577, -2.457, -2.376, P 3 in TS patients was significantly smaller compared with the control group (9.81±1.83) cm 3 (t=-4.258, P 0.05). Conclusion: The basal ganglia volumes were significantly decreased in patients with TS. MRI volumetric measurement was an important tool for evaluating pathologic changes of TS. (authors)

  18. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  19. Activation volume of martensitic ODS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Noh, S.; Kim, T. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Apparent activation volume as a function of temperature is 86b{sup 3}-42b{sup 3}. Activation volume decreases with increasing temperature. Activation volume changes scarcely with decreasing strain rate. Strain rate sensitivity increases with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Nano-sized oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel has a high strength, low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity, and a good swelling resistance. Martensitic ODS steel is a candidate material for fuel cladding of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (SFR). The plastic flow stress is determined through the interaction of dislocations with the obstacles encountered inside lattice. Dislocation movement through the lattice or past an obstacle requires surmounting of the energy barrier by a combination of applied stress and thermal activation. The plastic deformation of materials is a thermally activated process dependent upon time, temperature, and strain rate. Characterization of the rate controlling mechanism for plastic deformation due to dislocation motion in crystalline materials is done by the assessment of activation volume based on thermal activation analysis.

  20. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  1. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  2. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  3. Decreased bone tissue mineralization can partly explain subchondral sclerosis observed in osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, L.G.E.; Donkelaar, van C.C.; Rietbergen, van B.; Emans, P.J.; Ito, K.

    2012-01-01

    For many years, pharmaceutical therapies for osteoarthritis (OA) were focused on cartilage. However, it has been theorized that bone changes such as increased bone volume fraction and decreased bone matrix mineralization may play an important role in the initiation and pathogenesis of OA as well.

  4. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bellis, Emanuel; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Brucks, Wernher; Herrmann, Andreas; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume) and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance). Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  5. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  6. Electroanalytical chemistry. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is part of a series aimed at authoritative reviews of electroanalytical techniques and related areas of investigation. Volume 14 clearly maintains the high standards and proven usefulness of the series. Topics covered include conformation change and isomerization associated with electrode reactions, infrared vibrational spectroscopy of the electrode-solution interface, and precision in linear sweep and cyclic voltametry. A short history of electrochemical techniques which include the term square wave is provided

  7. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  8. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  9. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  10. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  11. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased decorin expression in the tumor microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, Benedek; Savchenko, Andrii; Guven, Hayrettin; Ponten, Fredrik; Klein, George; Szekely, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, synthesized and deposited by fibroblasts in the stroma where it binds to collagen I. It sequesters several growth factors and antagonizes numerous members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. In experimental murine systems, it acted as a potent tumor suppressor. Examining the Human Protein Atlas online database of immunostained tissue samples we have surveyed decorin expression in silico in several different tumor types, comparing them with corresponding normal tissues. We found that decorin is abundantly secreted and deposited in normal connective tissue but its expression is consistently decreased in the tumor microenvironment. We developed a software to quantitate the difference in expression. The presence of two closely related proteoglycans in the newly formed tumor stroma indicated that the decreased decorin expression was not caused by the delay in proteoglycan deposition in the newly formed connective tissue surrounding the tumor

  13. Calming Meditation Increases Altruism, Decreases Parochialism

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Karl

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that cultivating calm will increase altruism and decrease parochialism, where altruism is defined as self-sacrifice in support of others, regardless of group affiliation or identity, and parochialism is defined as prosocial self-sacrifice restricted to fellow members of a group. Such could be the case with a calming meditation practice. An alternate hypothesis, coming from the study of ritual, proposes that shared practices lead to bonding, increasing parochialism, but no...

  14. INVENTORY DECISIONS WITH DECREASING PURCHASING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    XIANGPEI HU; HUIMIN WANG; YUNZENG WANG

    2012-01-01

    Costs of many items drop systematically throughout their life-cycles, due to advances in technology and competition. Motivated by the management of service parts for some high-tech products, this paper studies inventory decisions for such items. In a periodic review setting with stochastic demand, we model the purchasing costs of successive periods as a stochastic and decreasing sequence. Unit selling price of the item is determined as some mark-up of the purchasing cost and, hence, will chan...

  15. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  16. Magic clusters and (2x1) local structure formed in a half-unit cell of the Si(1 1 1)-(7x7) surface by Tl adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocan, P.; Visikovskiy, A.V.; Ohira, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Ueda, K.; Tochihara, H.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of a (2x1) local structure is found at submonolayer growth of Tl on the Si(1 1 1)-(7x7) surface by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At low coverages, the (7x7) grid remains and the (2x1) structure is formed inside of the half-unit cells of the (7x7). The (2x1) coexists with other structures, such as of 'magic' clusters observed in the case of all other group III metals. Based on our STM observations we propose an atomic arrangement of the (2x1) structure

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid volume measurements in hydrocephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basati, Sukhraaj; Desai, Bhargav; Alaraj, Ali; Charbel, Fady; Linninger, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Object Experimental data about the evolution of intracranial volume and pressure in cases of hydrocephalus are limited due to the lack of available monitoring techniques. In this study, the authors validate intracranial CSF volume measurements within the lateral ventricle, while simultaneously using impedance sensors and pressure transducers in hydrocephalic animals. Methods A volume sensor was fabricated and connected to a catheter that was used as a shunt to withdraw CSF. In vitro bench-top calibration experiments were created to provide data for the animal experiments and to validate the sensors. To validate the measurement technique in a physiological system, hydrocephalus was induced in weanling rats by kaolin injection into the cisterna magna. At 28 days after induction, the sensor was implanted into the lateral ventricles. After sealing the skull using dental cement, an acute CSF drainage/infusion protocol consisting of 4 sequential phases was performed with a pump. Implant location was confirmed via radiography using intraventricular iohexol contrast administration. Results Controlled CSF shunting in vivo with hydrocephalic rats resulted in precise and accurate sensor measurements (r = 0.98). Shunting resulted in a 17.3% maximum measurement error between measured volume and actual volume as assessed by a Bland-Altman plot. A secondary outcome confirmed that both ventricular volume and intracranial pressure decreased during CSF shunting and increased during infusion. Ventricular enlargement consistent with successful hydrocephalus induction was confirmed using imaging, as well as postmortem. These results indicate that volume monitoring is feasible for clinical cases of hydrocephalus. Conclusions This work marks a departure from traditional shunting systems currently used to treat hydrocephalus. The overall clinical application is to provide alternative monitoring and treatment options for patients. Future work includes development and testing of a chronic

  18. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  19. Early changes in volume and non-enhanced volume of acoustic neurinoma after stereotactic gamma-radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kida, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Takayuki; Mori, Yoshimasa; Iwakoshi, Takayasu; Niwa, Masahiro; Kai, Osamu; Hirose, Mitsuhiko [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    The effectiveness of stereotactic gamma-radiosurgery for treating acoustic neurinoma was evaluated by measuring the volumes of the tumor, non-enhanced tumor, and cerebellar edema in 13 patients with acoustic neurinoma who were followed up for 9 to 15 months (median 12.7 mos) after treatment. The tumor volume and non-enhanced volume tended to reach a maximum after 6 months, and cerebellar edema volume after 9 months, then decreased gradually thereafter. Hearing loss tended to increase gradually, but involvement of the facial nerve was transient. (author).

  20. Music decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aggelakas, Angelos; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Abdelrasoul, Mahmoud; Lazaros, George; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Music has been related to cardiovascular health and used as adjunct therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the short-term effect of classical and rock music on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Twenty healthy individuals (22.5±2.5 years) were studied on three different occasions and listened to a 30-min music track compilation (classical, rock, or no music for the sham procedure). Both classical and rock music resulted in a decrease of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) immediately after the end of music listening (all pclassical or rock music in a more sustained way (nadir by 6.0% and 5.8%, respectively, at time zero post-music listening, all pmusic preference was taken into consideration, both classical and rock music had a more potent effect on PWV in classical aficionados (by 0.20 m/s, p=0.003 and 0.13 m/s, p=0.015, respectively), whereas there was no effect in rock aficionados (all p=NS). Regarding wave reflections, classical music led to a more potent response in classical aficionados (AIx decrease by 9.45%), whereas rock led to a more potent response to rock aficionados (by 10.7%, all pMusic, both classical and rock, decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Effect on aortic stiffness lasts for as long as music is listened to, while classical music has a sustained effect on wave reflections. These findings may have important implications, extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  2. Decreasing Human Trafficking through Sex Work Decriminalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Erin; D'Adamo, Kate

    2017-01-01

    In order to decrease human trafficking, health care workers should support the full decriminalization of prostitution. Similar to trafficking in other forms of labor, preventing trafficking in the sex trade requires addressing the different forms of marginalization that create vulnerable communities. By removing punitive laws that prevent reporting of exploitation and abuse, decriminalization allows sex workers to work more safely, thereby reducing marginalization and vulnerability. Decriminalization can also help destigmatize sex work and help resist political, social, and cultural marginalization of sex workers. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Methodology of decreasing software complexity using ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DÄ browska-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a model of web application`s source code, based on the OSD ontology (Ontology for Software Development), is proposed. This model is applied to implementation and maintenance phase of software development process through the DevOntoCreator tool [5]. The aim of this solution is decreasing software complexity of that source code, using many different maintenance techniques, like creation of documentation, elimination dead code, cloned code or bugs, which were known before [1][2]. Due to this approach saving on software maintenance costs of web applications will be possible.

  4. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel de Bellis

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance. Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  5. Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Kremer, Theodore R

    Child maltreatment has serious implications for youth outcomes, yet its associations with early parenting practices are not fully understood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding practices are correlated with childhood maltreatment. Data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of adolescents. The analytic sample comprised 4,159 adolescents. The outcome variables included four subtypes of childhood maltreatment (neglect, inadequate supervision, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). The primary independent variable was breastfeeding duration. Covariates of the child, mother, and household were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were employed to predict odds of maltreatment subtypes from breastfeeding duration and covariates. Compared with adolescents never breastfed, adolescents breastfed 9 months or longer had a reduced odds of having experienced neglect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.83) and sexual abuse (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) after controlling for covariates. Breastfeeding duration is significantly associated with decreased childhood neglect and sexual abuse. Breastfeeding practices should be explored as a consideration among clinicians when assessing maltreatment risk. Further research should examine whether a causal relationship exists between breastfeeding and decreased maltreatment.

  6. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  7. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Lifestyle Decreases Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavíček, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E.; Medová, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Žižka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Summary The morbidity and mortality of the cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1,349 volunteers, 320 men, 1,029 woman, mean age 51±14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999–2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1,223 measured persons from 71.2±14.38 (SD) to 70.6±14.02 kg (pSeventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  9. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  10. Prostate cancer: Doses and volumes of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennequin, C.; Rivera, S.; Quero, L.; Latorzeff, I.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is nowadays a major therapeutic option in prostate cancer. Technological improvements allowed dose escalation without increasing late toxicity. Some randomized trials have shown that dose escalation decreases the biochemical failure rate, without any benefit in survival with the present follow-up. However, some studies indicate that the distant metastases rate is also decreased. Most of these studies have been done without hormonal treatment, and the role of dose escalation in case of long-term androgen deprivation is unknown. The target volume encompassed the whole gland: however, complete or partial focal treatment of the prostate can be done with sophisticated IMRT technique and must be evaluated. Proximal part of the seminal vesicles must be included in the target volumes. The role of nodal irradiation is another debate, but it could be logically proposed for the unfavourable group. (authors)

  11. The volume of a soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, C.; Haberichter, M.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2016-01-01

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  12. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  13. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  14. Volume holographic memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Denz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Volume holography represents a promising alternative to existing storage technologies. Its parallel data storage leads to high capacities combined with short access times and high transfer rates. The design and realization of a compact volume holographic storage demonstrator is presented. The technique of phase-coded multiplexing implemented to superimpose many data pages in a single location enables to store up to 480 holograms per storage location without any moving parts. Results of analog and digital data storage are shown and real time optical image processing is demonstrated.

  15. Correlation between orbital volume, body mass index, and eyeball position in healthy East asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Ho; Lee, Young Hen; Lee, Hwa; Kim, Jung Wan; Chang, Minwook; Park, Minsoo; Baek, Sehyun

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were measure the orbital volume of healthy Koreans and analyze the differences between orbital tissue volume with respect to age and sex and to assess any correlation between body mass index (BMI), eyeball position, and orbital volume. We retrospectively evaluated the scan results of patients who had undergone orbital computed tomography scans between November 2010 and November 2011. We assessed the scan results of 184 orbits in 92 adults who had no pathology of the orbit. The individuals were classified into 3 groups with respect to age. Orbital volume, effective orbital volume (defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume), extraocular muscle volume, orbital fat volume, and transverse globe protrusion were recorded and analyzed. The records of the subjects were reviewed retrospectively, and BMI was calculated. A correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between BMI, eyeball position, and orbital volume. Orbital tissue volume, with the exception of orbital fat volume, was larger in men compared with women. In both sexes, orbital fat volume increased with increasing age, whereas the other volumes decreased. Orbital tissue volumes increased with increasing BMI, but transverse globe protrusion was not significantly related to BMI. In addition, orbital volume and effective orbital volume were positively correlated with transverse globe protrusion. These results provide basic information about the effects of age, sex, and BMI on orbital volume and eyeball position in healthy Koreans. Furthermore, these results will be helpful in the diagnosis of orbital diseases and in planning orbital surgeries.

  16. Troglitazone treatment increases bone marrow adipose tissue volume but does not affect trabecular bone volume in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Mosekilde, Leif; Justesen, J

    2001-01-01

    proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibia was performed in order to quantitate the amount of trabecular bone volume per total volume (BV/TV %), adipose tissue volume per total volume (AV/TV %), and hematopoietic marrow volume per total volume (HV......Aging is associated with decreased trabecular bone mass and increased adipocyte formation in bone marrow. As osteoblasts and adipocytes share common precursor cells present in the bone marrow stroma, it has been proposed that an inverse relationship exists between adipocyte and osteoblast....../TV %) using the point-counting technique. Bone size did not differ between the two groups. In troglitazone-treated mice, AV/TV was significantly higher than in control mice (4.7+/-2.1% vs. 0.2+/-0.3%, respectively, mean +/- SD, P

  17. Decreasing barriers for nurse practitioner social entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Dayle B; Monsivais, Diane

    2014-10-01

    To describe difficulties associated with the business-related aspects of practice in role transition of rural nurse practitioners (NPs), and to give practice implications. This focused ethnographic study derived data from semi-structured interviews. Participants provided information about rural NP practice ownership and barriers. The sample consisted of 24 rural NPs living throughout the United States. The majority were 51-60 years of age (45%) and females (93%) who had been in rural practice for 1 to over 20 years. NP social entrepreneurs experience difficulties related to scope of practice, business skills, and role conflict. To decrease barriers for NP clinic ownership and management, NPs need to receive education related to financing a rural practice, legal/regulatory practices, strategic planning, leadership, and clinic management. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Decreasing Ambiguity of the Safety Culture Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shiichiro; Hosoda, Satoshi; Suganuma, Takashi; Monta, Kazuo; Kameda, Akiyuki

    2001-01-01

    The status of the concept of ''safety culture'' is reviewed. It has not sufficiently taken root. One cause for this is the abstract nature of the concept. Organizations must become aware of the necessity of improving safety and have sufficient power to promote this. The culture of safety must be instilled in each employee, so that each of them will feel responsible for identifying weak points in plant safety. The authors devised a tool for a self-assessment of the safety culture. The tool will bring to light information divides, communication gaps, etc. Recognizing the vulnerabilities of the organization by themselves and discussing these weak points among them is the first step to decrease the ambiguity of the safety culture. The next step is to make these gaps known along with agreed-upon countermeasures. The concept of safety culture will be greatly clarified in this way and lead to safer nuclear power plants

  19. Volume-based characterization of postocclusion surge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Jaime; Zacharias, Sergio

    2005-10-01

    To propose an alternative method to characterize postocclusion surge using a collapsible artificial anterior chamber to replace the currently used rigid anterior chamber model. Fundación Oftamológica Los Andes, Santiago, Chile. The distal end of a phacoemulsification handpiece was placed inside a compliant artificial anterior chamber. Digital recordings of chamber pressure, chamber volume, inflow, and outflow were performed during occlusion break of the phacoemulsification tip. The occlusion break profile of 2 different consoles was compared. Occlusion break while using a rigid anterior chamber model produced a simultaneous increase of chamber inflow and outflow. In the rigid chamber model, pressure decreased sharply, reaching negative pressure values. Alternatively, with the collapsible chamber model, a delay was observed in the inflow that occurs to compensate the outflow surge. Also, the chamber pressure drop was smaller in magnitude, never undershooting below atmospheric pressure into negative values. Using 500 mm Hg as vacuum limit, the Infiniti System (Alcon) performed better that the Legacy (Alcon), showing an 18% reduction in peak volume variation. The collapsible anterior chamber model provides a more realistic representation of the postocclusion surge events that occur in the real eye during cataract surgery. Peak volume fluctuation (mL), half volume recovery time(s), and volume fluctuation integral value (mL x s) are proposed as realistic indicators to characterize the postocclusion surge performance. These indicators show that the Infiniti System has a better postocclusion surge behavior than the Legacy System.

  20. Modeling Approach for Estimating Co-Produced Water Volumes and Saltwater Disposal Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Management of produced fluids has become an important issue in Oklahoma because large volumes of saltwater are co-produced with oil and gas, and disposed into saltwater disposal wells at high rates. Petroleum production increased from 2009-2015, especially in central and north-central Oklahoma where the Mississippian and Hunton zones were redeveloped using horizontal wells and dewatering techniques that have led to a disproportional increase in produced water volumes. Improved management of co-produced water, including desalination for beneficial reuse and decreased saltwater disposal volumes, is only possible if spatial and temporal trends can be defined and related to the producing zones. It is challenging to quantify the volumes of co-produced water by region or production zone because co-produced water volumes are generally not reported. Therefore, the goal of this research is to estimate co-produced water volumes for 2008-present with an approach that can be replicated as petroleum production shifts to other regions. Oil and gas production rates from subsurface zones were multiplied by ratios of H2O:oil and H2O:gas for the respective zones. Initial H2O:oil and H2O:gas ratios were adjusted/calibrated, by zone, to maximize correlation of county-scale produced H2O estimates versus saltwater disposal volumes from 2013-2015. These calibrated ratios were then used to compute saltwater disposal volumes from 2008-2012 because of apparent data gaps in reported saltwater disposal volumes during that timeframe. This research can be used to identify regions that have the greatest need for produced water treatment systems. The next step in management of produced fluids is to explore optimal energy-efficient strategies that reduce deleterious effects.

  1. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  2. Another year, another volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    This issue represents the final one in volume 76 of Journal of Wildlife Management. As this one is pretty much in the books, one cannot help but wonder what the future holds for the journal. Lenny Brennan is putting together a piece for Wildlife Society Bulletin to examine how The Wildlife Society publications have changed through time. He solicited input from past and...

  3. Troubleshooting at Reverse Osmosis performance decrease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soons, Jan [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    There are several causes for a decrease in Reverse Osmosis (RO) membrane performance each of which requiring actions to tackle the possible cause. Two of the main factors affecting the performance of the system are the feed quality (poor feed quality can lead to fouling of the membranes) and the operational conditions (including the maximum allowed pressure, minimum cleaning frequencies and types, recovery rate etc, which should be according to the design conditions). If necessary, pre-treatment will be applied in order to remove the fouling agents from the influent, reduce scaling (through the addition of anti-scalants) and for the protection of the membranes (for example, sodium metabisulphite addition for the removal of residual chlorine which can harm the membranes). Fouling is not strictly limited to the use of surface water as feed water, also relatively clean water sources will, over time, lead to organic and inorganic fouling when cleaning is not optimum. When fouling occurs, the TransMembrane Pressure (TMP) increases and more energy will be needed to produce the same amount of product water. Also, the cleaning rate will increase, reducing the production rate and increasing the chemical consumption and the produced waste streams. Furthermore, the quality of the effluent will decrease (lower rejection rates at higher pressures) and the lifetime of the membranes will decrease. Depending on the type of fouling different cleaning regimes will have to be applied: acidic treatment for inorganic fouling, the addition of bases against organic fouling. Therefore, it is very important to have a clear view of the type of fouling that is occurring, in order to apply the correct treatment methods. Another important aspect to be kept in mind is that the chemistry of the water - in the first place ruled by the feed water composition - can change during passage of the modules, in particular in cases where the RO system consists of two or more RO trains, and where the

  4. Sled Towing Acutely Decreases Acceleration Sprint Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Megan A; Dobbs, Ian J; Watkins, Casey M; Barillas, Saldiam R; Lin, Anne; Archer, David C; Lockie, Robert G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E

    2017-11-01

    Wong, MA, Dobbs, IJ, Watkins, C, Barillas, SR, Lin, A, Archer, DC, Lockie, RG, Coburn, JW, and Brown, LE. Sled towing acutely decreases acceleration sprint time. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3046-3051, 2017-Sled towing is a common form of overload training in sports to develop muscular strength for sprinting. This type of training leads to acute and chronic outcomes. Acute training potentially leads to postactivation potentiation (PAP), which is when subsequent muscle performance is enhanced after a preload stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine differences between rest intervals after sled towing on acute sprint speed. Twenty healthy recreationally trained men (age = 22.3 ± 2.4 years, height = 176.95 ± 5.46 cm, mass = 83.19 ± 11.31 kg) who were currently active in a field sport twice a week for the last 6 months volunteered to participate. A maximal 30-meter (m) baseline (BL) body mass (BM) sprint was performed (with splits at 5, 10, 20, and 30 m) followed by 5 visits where participants sprinted 30 m towing a sled at 30% BM then rested for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 12 minutes. They were instructed to stand still during rest times. After the rest interval, they performed a maximal 30-m post-test BM sprint. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that post sled tow BM sprint times (4.47 ± 0.21 seconds) were less than BL times (4.55 ± 0.18 seconds) on an individualized rest interval basis. A follow-up 2 × 4 ANOVA showed that this decrease occurred only in the acceleration phase over the first 5 m (BL = 1.13 ± 0.08 seconds vs. Best = 1.08 ± 0.08 seconds), which may be the result of PAP and the complex relationship between fatigue and potentiation relative to the intensity of the sled tow and the rest interval. Therefore, coaches should test their athletes on an individual basis to determine optimal rest time after a 30-m 30% BM sled tow to enhance acute sprint speed.

  5. Emissions of peat production into watercourses are decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of peat production into watercourses are tried to be decreased by chemical addition into drying waters of peat production area. In the chemical adding test, which is a part of the Aqua Peat-95 research program, carried out in Haapasuo peat production area in Leivonmaeki commune, was used techniques commonly used in purification of drinking water. The method is based on precipitation of dissolved substances from mire water using ferric sulphate, and settling of formed precipitate in multi-stage settling pond system. The ferric sulphate decreases the pH of the water by 2.0-2.5 units, so the acidified water is neutralized with sodium hydroxide before leading into watercourses. In Haapavesi the drying water is pumped from the collecting pond, built in main ditch, via chemical adding station into settling pond, from which the water flows into compartment ponds and from there into lake Rutajaervi. The ferric sulphate is added into water in sewage pipe, mounted after the pumping station, there it is mixed well into water coming from the mire due to strong and turbulent flow. The chemical adding test was started in 26th of may. The concentrations of the chemicals were varied during the test in order to find the optimal dosage, the pond volume and the delay of water in the ponds have been increased, the pump power has been adjusted and the mixing of the chemicals have been improved in order to achieve the right efficiency. The price of the chemical adding is not yet available, but the chemical costs in Haapasuo mire in 1992 were about 0.30 FIM/pumped water m 3 , which equals to about 500 FIM/d. The equipment costs and the utilization and maintenance costs of the equipment must be added into this

  6. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  7. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  8. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  9. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos S R; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure) and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity -0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s -0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001), 6MWT (-37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001) and oxygenation (-2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001), while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001), whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  10. Peat Biomass Smoke Particle Exposure in Rats Decreases ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland fires, favored by prolonged drought and rising temperatures, generate significant amounts of ambient particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The eastern North Carolina peat fires of Pocosin Lake in 2008 and Pains Bay in 2011 were some of the more prominent recent wildland fires and were associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations. The biological impacts of peat biomass emissions and the specific mechanisms driving these responses are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of peat biomass smoke exposure in rats. We hypothesized that PM exposure would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 30 µg (Lo PM) or 300 µg (Hi PM) of peat biomass smoke PM extracts suspended in 200 µL of saline, or saline vehicle alone by oropharyngeal aspiration (OA). Immediately following OA rats were placed in a whole-body plethysmograph and ventilatory data were recorded for 12 minutes. One day following OA, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane for ultrasound assessment of cardiovascular function. Hi PM caused decreases in expiratory timing as early as 4-6 minutes after exposure relative to Lo PM (p = 0.02) and Vehicle (p= 0.06), which resolved shortly thereafter. One day after OA, ultrasounds revealed that Hi PM exposure increased end diastolic volume (EDV) by 16% (p = 0.03) over Vehicle and 13% (p = 0.06) over Lo PM. In addition,

  11. Decreased antibody formation in mice exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, L D; Kovacic, S

    1974-07-12

    Swiss Webster mice were given 1375, 137.5, or 13.75 ppM lead acetate in deionized water for 56 days. The control group was given deionized water orally. There were 120 mice in each group. The diet fed to all the mice was contaminated with 1.12 ppM lead. After 56 days, all mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of a 2% suspension of sheep red blood cells. Ten mice in each group were killed on days 3 to 7 to measure primary immune response (19S or IgM antibody) and on days 9 to 14 for the secondary response (7S or IgG antibody) after a second inoculation of sheep red blood cells while they remained on 137.5 ppM lead. The number of plaque forming cells was measured in the spleen. Erythrocytes were observed for basophilic stippling, packed cell volume was measured, serum was collected for hemolysin titration, and kidneys were examined for lead. Chronic exposure to lead produced a significant decrease in antibody synthesis, particularly IgG, indicating that the memory cell was involved. The results also indicated that the reduced antibody synthesis was responsible for the increased mortality from bacterial and viral diseases in animals that were chronically exposed to lead. Other environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, mercury, DDT, and sulfur dioxide have also resulted in reduction of circulating antibodies in animals, in other experiments.

  12. Lung lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hisao; Koba, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Tsukasa; Abe, Shosaku.

    1997-01-01

    We measured lung lobar volume by using helical computed tomography (HCT) in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 7 patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD-IP), and 5 healthy volunteers HCT scanning was done at the maximal inspiratory level and the resting end-expiratory level. To measure lung lobar volume, we traced the lobar margin on HCT images with a digitizer and calculated the lobar volume with a personal computer. The lower lobar volume and several factors influencing it in chronic interstitial pneumonia were studied. At the maximal inspiratory level, the lower lobar volume as a percent of the whole lung volume was 46.8±4.13% (mean ± SD) in the volunteers, 39.5±6.19% in the patients with IIP, and 27.7±7. 86% in the patients with CVD-IP. The lower lobar volumes in the patients were significantly lower than in the volunteers. Patients with IIP in whom autoantibody tests were positive had lower lobar volumes that were very low and were similar to those of patients with CVD-IP. These data suggest that collagen vascular disease may develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The patients with IIP who had emphysematous changes on the CT scans had smaller decreases in total lung capacity and lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity than did those who had no emphysematous changes, those two groups did not differ in the ratio of lower lobar volume to whole lung volume. This suggests that emphysematous change is not factor influencing lower lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia. We conclude that chronic interstitial pneumonia together with very low values for lower lobar volume may be a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease. (author)

  13. The effect of γ radiation on a change in the volume of Protozoa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowska, A.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of various doses of γ radiation on changes in the volume of Spirostomum ambiguum and on the time of return of the volume of this protozoan to the initial state. It was found that γ rays brought about a decrease in the volume of the animal, depending in a linear relation on the dose, while the return of the volume to the initial state is negatively correlated with the received dose. (author)

  14. The Alpha value decrease when the annual individual effective dose decreases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian M.; Marchiusi, Thiago; Sousa, Jefferson de J.

    2008-01-01

    A recent IAEA publication tells that a few entities took different alpha values for maxima individual doses. Beyond to disregard the international agencies, that recommend only one alpha value for each country, the alpha values decreases when the individual doses decreases and the practice happens exactly the conversely as we will show in this paper. We will prove that the alpha value increase when the maximum individual doses decreases in a four different manner. The first one we call the theoretical conception and it is linked to the emergent of the ALARA policy and to the purpose that led to the 3/10 of the annual limits, for to decrease the individual doses as a first resort and a 1/10 as a last resort. The second prove will be based in a small mine example used in the ICRP publication number 55 concerning to the optimization and the quantitative decision-aiding techniques in radiological protection where we will determine the alpha value ranges in which each radiological protection options becomes the analytical solution. The third prove will be based in the determination of the optimized thickness example of a plane shielding for a radiation source exposed in the ICRP publication number 37. We will use, also, the numerical example provided there. Eventually, as four prove we will show that the alpha value dos not only increases with the maximum individual dose decrease, but also, with the shielding geometry. (author)

  15. Quantum volume hologram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, Denis V.; Sokolov, Ivan V.; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for parallel spatially multimode quantum memory for light. The scheme is based on a counterpropagating quantum signal wave and a strong classical reference wave as in a classical volume hologram and therefore can be called a quantum volume hologram. The medium for the hologram consists of a spatially extended ensemble of atoms placed in a magnetic field. The write-in and readout of this quantum hologram is as simple as that of its classical counterpart and consists of a single-pass illumination. In addition, we show that the present scheme for a quantum hologram is less sensitive to diffraction and therefore is capable of achieving a higher density of storage of spatial modes as compared to previous proposals. We present a feasibility study and show that experimental implementation is possible with available cold atomic samples. A quantum hologram capable of storing entangled images can become an important ingredient in quantum information processing and quantum imaging.

  16. Long-term, low-level radwaste volume-reduction strategies. Volume 4. Waste disposal costs. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Adam, J.A.; Rogers, V.C.; Merrell, G.B.

    1984-11-01

    Volume 4 establishes pricing levels at new shallow land burial grounds. The following conclusions can be drawn from the analyses described in the preceding chapters: Application of volume reduction techniques by utilities can have a significant impact on the volumes of wastes going to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Using the relative waste stream volumes in NRC81 and the maximum volume reduction ratios provided by Burns and Roe, Inc., it was calculated that if all utilities use maximum volume reduction the rate of waste receipt at disposal sites will be reduced by 40 percent. When a disposal site receives a lower volume of waste its total cost of operation does not decrease by the same proportion. Therefore the average cost for a unit volume of waste received goes up. Whether the disposal site operator knows in advance that he will receive a smaller amount of waste has little influence on the average unit cost ($/ft) of the waste disposed. For the pricing algorithm postulated, the average disposal cost to utilities that volume reduce is relatively independent of whether all utilities practice volume reduction or only a few volume reduce. The general effect of volume reduction by utilities is to reduce their average disposal site costs by a factor of between 1.5 to 2.5. This factor is generally independent of the size of the disposal site. The largest absolute savings in disposal site costs when utilities volume reduce occurs when small disposal sites are involved. This results from the fact that unit costs are higher at small sites. Including in the pricing algorithm a factor that penalizes waste generators who contribute larger amounts of the mobile nuclides 3 H, 14 C, 99 Tc, and 129 I, which may be the subject of site inventory limits, lowers unit disposal costs for utility wastes that contain only small amounts of the nuclides and raises unit costs for other utility wastes

  17. Viability Assessment Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This volume describes the major design features of the Monitored Geologic Repository. This document is not intended to provide an exhaustive, detailed description of the repository design. Rather, this document summarizes the major systems and primary elements of the design that are radiologically significant, and references the specific technical documents and design analyses wherein the details can be found. Not all portions of the design are at the same level of completeness. Highest priority has been given to assigning resources to advance the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation and for which there is no NRC licensing precedent. Those features that are important to radiological safety and/or waste isolation, but for which there is an NRC precedent, receive second priority. Systems and features that have no impact on radiological safety or waste isolation receive the lowest priority. This prioritization process, referred to as binning, is discussed in more detail in Section 2.3. Not every subject discussed in this volume is given equal treatment with regard to the level of detail provided. For example, less detail is provided for the surface facility design than for the subsurface and waste package designs. This different level of detail is intentional. Greater detail is provided for those functions, structures, systems, and components that play key roles with regard to protecting radiological health and safety and that are not common to existing nuclear facilities already licensed by NRC. A number of radiological subjects are not addressed in the VA, (e.g., environmental qualification of equipment). Environmental qualification of equipment and other radiological safety considerations will be addressed in the LA. Non-radiological safety considerations such as silica dust control and other occupational safety considerations are considered equally important but are not addressed in

  18. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity in aged skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, W L; Morgan, A L; Farquhar, W B; Brooks, E M; Pierzga, J M; Derr, J A

    1997-04-01

    Older men and women respond to local and reflex-mediated heat stress with an attenuated increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC). This study was performed to test the hypothesis that an augmented or sustained noradrenergic vasoconstriction (VC) may play a role in this age-related difference. Fifteen young (22 +/- 1 yr) and 15 older (66 +/- 1 yr) men exercised at 50% peak oxygen uptake in a 36 degrees C environment. Skin perfusion was monitored at two sites on the right forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry: one site pretreated with bretylium tosylate (BT) to block the local release of norepinephrine and thus VC and an adjacent control site. Blockade of reflex VC was verified during whole body cooling using a water-perfused suit. CVC (perfusion divided by mean arterial pressure) at each site was reported as a percentage of the maximal CVC (%CVCmax) induced at the end of each experiment by prolonged local heating at 42 degrees C. Neither age nor BT affected the %CVCmax (75-86%) attained at high core temperatures. During the early rise phase of CVC, the %CVCmax-change in esophageal temperature (delta T(es)) curve was shifted to the right in the older men (effective delta T(es) associated with 50% CVC response for young, 0.22 +/- 0.04 and 0.39 +/- 0.04 degrees C and for older, 0.73 +/- 0.04 and 0.85 +/- 0.04 degrees C at control and BT sites, respectively). BT had no interactive effect on this age difference, suggesting a lack of involvement of the VC system in the attenuated CVC response of individuals over the age of 60 yr. Additionally, increases in skin vascular conductance were quantitatively compared by measuring increases in total forearm vascular conductance (FVC, restricted to the forearm skin under these conditions). After the initial approximately 0.2 degrees C increase in T(es), FVC was 40-50% lower in the older men (P < 0.01) for the remainder of the exercise. Decreased active vasodilator sensitivity to increasing core temperature, coupled with

  19. Decreasing Magmatic Footprints of Individual Volcanos in a Waning Basaltic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A> Valentine; F.V. Perry

    2006-06-06

    The distribution and characteristics of individual basaltic volcanoes in the waning Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field provide insight into the changing physical nature of magmatism and the controls on volcano location. During Pliocene-Pleistocene times the volumes of individual volcanoes have decreased by more than one order of magnitude, as have fissure lengths and inferred lava effusion rates. Eruptions evolved from Hawaiian-style eruptions with extensive lavas to eruptions characterized by small pulses of lava and Strombolian to violent Strombolian mechanisms. These trends indicate progressively decreasing partial melting and length scales, or magmatic footprints, of mantle source zones for individual volcanoes. The location of each volcano is determined by the location of its magmatic footprint at depth, and only by shallow structural and topographic features that are within that footprint. The locations of future volcanoes in a waning system are less likely to be determined by large-scale topography or structures than were older, larger volume volcanoes.

  20. Understanding the heterogeneity in volume overload and fluid distribution in decompensated heart failure is key to optimal volume management: role for blood volume quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Mullan, Brian P

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to quantitate total blood volume (TBV) in patients hospitalized for decompensated chronic heart failure (DCHF) and to determine the extent of volume overload, and the magnitude and distribution of blood volume and body water changes following diuretic therapy. The accurate assessment and management of volume overload in patients with DCHF remains problematic. TBV was measured by a radiolabeled-albumin dilution technique with intravascular volume, pre-to-post-diuretic therapy, evaluated at hospital admission and at discharge. Change in body weight in relation to quantitated TBV was used to determine interstitial volume contribution to total fluid loss. Twenty-six patients were prospectively evaluated. Two patients had normal TBV at admission. Twenty-four patients were hypervolemic with TBV (7.4 ± 1.6 liters) increased by +39 ± 22% (range, +9.5% to +107%) above the expected normal volume. With diuresis, TBV decreased marginally (+30 ± 16%). Body weight declined by 6.9 ± 5.2 kg, and fluid intake/fluid output was a net negative 8.4 ± 5.2 liters. Interstitial compartment fluid loss was calculated at 6.2 ± 4.0 liters, accounting for 85 ± 15% of the total fluid reduction. TBV analysis demonstrated a wide range in the extent of intravascular overload. Dismissal measurements revealed marginally reduced intravascular volume post-diuretic therapy despite large reductions in body weight. Mobilization of interstitial fluid to the intravascular compartment with diuresis accounted for this disparity. Intravascular volume, however, remained increased at dismissal. The extent, composition, and distribution of volume overload are highly variable in DCHF, and this variability needs to be taken into account in the approach to individualized therapy. TBV quantitation, particularly serial measurements, can facilitate informed volume management with respect to a goal of treating to euvolemia. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  1. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could mediate subsequent food choice. Participants first received a go/no-go task in which palatable foods were consistently linked to go cues or no-go cues within participants. Next, evaluation of the palatable foods was measured as well as food choice. Replicating previous work, results show that among participants with a relatively high appetite palatable foods associated with no-go cues are less often chosen as snacks compared to when these foods are associated with go cues, whereas this manipulation did not affect participants with a relatively low appetite. Moreover, this effect was completely mediated by decreased evaluation of the palatable foods that had been associated with the no-go cues, whereas evaluation of the foods associated with go cues did not mediate this effect. Results further showed that the devaluation effect of foods associated with no-go cues was independent of the amount of pairings (4 vs. 12 vs. 24) with the no-go cues. The current findings suggest that decreased food evaluation is a mechanism that explains effects of stop signals on food choice. PMID:24324451

  2. Environmental Report 1996, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrach, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) annual Environmental Report 1996, prepared for the US Department of Energy. Volume 2 supports Volume 1 summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Volume 2 includes information on monitoring of air, air effluents, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance.

  3. Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgard, Stewart F; Welten, Brendon; Betteridge, Keith

    2015-12-01

    The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late summer and early winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking-water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine N concentration and urine N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases: a cattle metabolism stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g per heifer per day) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine N rate on N leaching. Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per-hectare N leaching by 10-22%. Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. [Target volume margins for lung cancer: internal target volume/clinical target volume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouin, A; Pourel, N

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a review of margins that should be used for the delineation of target volumes in lung cancer, with a focus on margins from gross tumour volume (GTV) to clinical target volume (CTV) and internal target volume (ITV) delineation. Our review was based on a PubMed literature search with, as a cornerstone, the 2010 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) recommandations by De Ruysscher et al. The keywords used for the search were: radiotherapy, lung cancer, clinical target volume, internal target volume. The relevant information was categorized under the following headings: gross tumour volume definition (GTV), CTV-GTV margin (first tumoural CTV then nodal CTV definition), in field versus elective nodal irradiation, metabolic imaging role through the input of the PET scanner for tumour target volume and limitations of PET-CT imaging for nodal target volume definition, postoperative radiotherapy target volume definition, delineation of target volumes after induction chemotherapy; then the internal target volume is specified as well as tumoural mobility for lung cancer and respiratory gating techniques. Finally, a chapter is dedicated to planning target volume definition and another to small cell lung cancer. For each heading, the most relevant and recent clinical trials and publications are mentioned. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-18

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r g =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  6. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  7. Volume reduction, a safer and cheaper way of radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergan, L.M.; Cordier, J.P.; Storrer, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Development of 'Volume Reduction' has demonstrated that it is a safer and cheaper radwaste management method. Safer, because of several advantages: decrease of solidified product volume, satisfactory product properties, absence of free water, better control of process parameters, increased encapsulation efficiency ... The corresponding impact on the waste management costs, results in important savings on different factors, as well as regards the operational costs as the investment expenses. Economy in the range of BF 35.000 per m 3 of incoming waste is achievable. The main volume reduction techniques readily available are briefly reviewed

  8. Strong volume, stable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This article is the September-October 1993 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. Activity was brisk, with 15 deals concluded. Six were in the spot concentrates market, with four of the six deals involving U.S. utilities and approximately 1.8M pounds of U3O8 equivalent. There were five conversion deals announced, with four of the five deals involving U.S. utilities. Four deals were concluded in the enrichment market, and the deals involving U.S. utilities were approximately 327k SWUs. On the horizon, there are deals for approximately 4.1M SWU

  9. Volume of emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, P; Whimster, W F

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the volume of emphysema in excised lungs is presented, with its validation. This method is based on macroscopic point counting using a perforated grid but only the holes (points) overlying emphysema need be counted to produce results within a percentage standard error of 5%. Application of the method shows that an adequate assessment of emphysema cannot be made from one lung slice alone, and that the amount of emphysema found in one lung cannot be used to predict the a...

  10. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  11. Benazepril hydrochloride improves diabetic nephropathy and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyu; Feng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Wenqiang; Yu, Kebo

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benazepril hydrochloride (BH) on proteinuria and ANGPTL-4 expression in a diabetic nephropathy (DN) rat model. A total of 72 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), DN group and BH treatment (BH) groups. The DN model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Weight, glucose, proteinuria, biochemical indicators and the kidney weight index were examined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. In addition, ANGPTL-4 protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Relationships between ANGPTL-4 and biochemical indicators were investigated using Spearman analysis. Weight was significantly lower but glucose levels were significantly higher in both the DN and BH groups than in the NC group (P Benazepril hydrochloride improves DN and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

  12. Environmental report 1995. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, R.J.; Failor, R.A.; Gallegos, G.M.

    1996-09-01

    This is Volume 2 of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual Environmental Report 1995. This volume is intended to support summary data from Volume 1 and is essentially a detailed data report that provides additional data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in Volume 2, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. Volume 2 includes information in eight chapters on monitoring of air, air effluent, sewage, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, and environmental radiation, as well as three chapters on ground water protection, compliance self-monitoring and quality assurance

  13. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cristina Brocki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure and 6-min walk test (6MWT were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity −0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s −0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001, 6MWT (−37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001 and oxygenation (−2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001, while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  14. Chemical treatments of soil to decrease radiostrontium leachability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1980-01-01

    The ready leachability of radiostrontium from radioactive waste is one of the most salient problems with shallow-land burial as a disposal method. The continuous leaching of buried waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, for periods up to thirty years, has led to contamination of significant volumes of soil with 90 Sr. The goal of the present investigation was to evaluate methods to effect the in situ fixation or decrease the leachability of 90 Sr from soil. Small columns of three soils, collected from the solid waste disposal areas at ORNL, were labelled with 85 Sr as a convenient tracer for 90 Sr. After this labelling but prior to leaching, the soil columns were percolated with equivalent amounts of sodium salt solutions of hydroxide, fluoride, carbonate, phosphate, silicate, or aluminate. Leaching was then initiated with 0.1 N CaCl 2 (calcium chloride), and fractions of the leachate were analyzed for 85 Sr. The CaCl 2 solution was selected to qualitatively simulate groundwater which contains Ca as the dominant dissolved cation. With two soils which were high in indigenous exchangeable Ca, only 30 to 35% of the 85 Sr could be leached from the carbonate-treated columns. Presumably, the 85 Sr was coprecipitated with the nascent CaCO 3 formed during this treatment. In contrast, greater than 98% of the 85 Sr was readily leached from all untreated soils. Other anions fixed variable but generally less 85 Sr than the carbonate treatment. Thus, sodium carbonate appears to have potential application to immobilize 90 Sr in situ in contaminated soil

  15. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males...... from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole...

  16. Radwaste '86: proceedings volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainslie, L.C.

    1986-12-01

    The volume contains all the papers presented at the above Conference, which was held in Cape Town, South Africa from 7 to 12 September 1986. A total of 55 contributions cover the full spectrum of the theme of the Conference, which was subdivided into four sessions. Conditioning, treatment and management of radioactive waste: 12 papers reporting on experiences in various countries, as well as specialist topics such as the extraction of radioactive contaminants from reactor pool water. Containment, safe handling and long-term integrity of ILLW packages: 2 papers dealing with cask design. Transport and storage of radwaste and spent fuel: 7 papers ranging from broad overviews to specific operations in different parts of the world. Radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact: 32 papers covering topics from site selection, design and operation, to modelling and monitoring studies. South Africa's Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility is comprehensively described. The volume is a useful reference for anyone interested in the disposal of radioactive waste, especially in arid environments, as well as its treatment and management prior to disposal, and will appeal to a wide range of disciplines including engineers, geologists, geophysicists, life scientists and environmentalists. Of particular interest would be the intensive studies undertaken in South Africa prior to the establishment of a radioactive waste repository in that country

  17. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  18. Limiting volume with modern ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Thomas J; Haan, Lutana; Ashworth, Lonny J; Anderson, Jeff

    2015-06-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) network low tidal-volume study comparing tidal volumes of 12 ml/kg versus 6 ml/kg was published in 2000. The study was stopped early as data revealed a 22% relative reduction in mortality rate when using 6 ml/kg tidal volume. The current generation of critical care ventilators allows the tidal volume to be set during volume-targeted, assist/control (volume A/C); however, some ventilators include options that may prevent the tidal volume from being controlled. The purpose of this bench study was to evaluate the delivered tidal volume, when these options are active, in a spontaneously breathing lung model using an electronic breathing simulator. Four ventilators were evaluated: CareFusion AVEA (AVEA), Dräger Evita® XL (Evita XL), Covidien Puritan Bennett® 840(TM) (PB 840), and Maquet SERVO-i (SERVO-i). Each ventilator was connected to the Hans Rudolph Electronic Breathing Simulator at an amplitude of 0 cm H2O and then 10 cm H2O. All four ventilators were set to deliver volume A/C, tidal volume 400 ml, respiratory rate 20 bpm, positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cm H2O, peak flowrate 60 L/min. The displayed tidal volume was recorded for each ventilator at the above settings with additional options OFF and then ON. The AVEA has two options in volume A/C: demand breaths and V-sync. When activated, these options allow the patient to exceed the set tidal volume. When using the Evita XL, the option AutoFlow can be turned ON or OFF, and when this option is ON, the tidal volume may vary. The PB 840 does not have any additional options that affect volume delivery, and it maintains the set tidal volume regardless of patient effort. The SERVO-i's demand valve allows additional flow if the patient's inspiratory flowrate exceeds the set flowrate, increasing the delivered tidal volume; this option can be turned OFF with the latest software upgrade. Modern ventilators have an increasing number of optional settings. These settings may

  19. Nocturnal polyuria and decreased serum testosterone: is there an association in men with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the putative association between nocturia and decreased serum testosterone in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Frequency volume charts and serum testosterone levels of patients visiting the outpatient clinic for lower urinary tract symptoms were collected and analyzed. Age, prostate volume, body mass index and the presence of comorbidities were accounted for. Frequency volume charts were analyzed for pathophysiological components of nocturnal polyuria, global polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity and increased frequency to identify associated risks. Frequency volume charts were also used to chart 8-h changes of volume, frequency and capacity to identify time diurnal interactions with risk factors based on serum testosterone levels. A total of 2180 patients were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed testosterone decreased 0.142 ng/mL for every increase in nocturia, independent of other factors. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant difference between pathophysiological components. Decreased testosterone was shown to carry a significant independent risk for overall nocturia (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.013-2.527, P = 0.044), and particularly nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio 1.934, 95% confidence interval 1.001-3.737, P = 0.027). Repeated measurement models showed patients with serum testosterone below 2.50 ng/mL to have a paradoxical increase in nocturnal urine volume at night. Nocturia, especially nocturnal polyuria, is associated with decreased serum testosterone. Patients with low serum testosterone show increased nocturnal urine output. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Change in brain and lesion volumes after CEE therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Resnick, Susan M.; Bryan, R. Nick; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Davatzikos, Christos; Kuller, Lewis H.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bushnell, Cheryl D.; Shumaker, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether smaller brain volumes in older women who had completed Women's Health Initiative (WHI)-assigned conjugated equine estrogen–based hormone therapy (HT), reported by WHI Memory Study (WHIMS)-MRI, correspond to a continuing increased rate of atrophy an average of 6.1 to 7.7 years later in WHIMS-MRI2. Methods: A total of 1,230 WHI participants were contacted: 797 (64.8%) consented, and 729 (59%) were rescanned an average of 4.7 years after the initial MRI scan. Mean annual rates of change in total brain volume, the primary outcome, and rates of change in ischemic lesion volumes, the secondary outcome, were compared between treatment groups using mixed-effect models with adjustment for trial, clinical site, age, intracranial volumes, and time between MRI measures. Results: Total brain volume decreased an average of 3.22 cm3/y in the active arm and 3.07 cm3/y in the placebo arm (p = 0.53). Total ischemic lesion volumes increased in both arms at a rate of 0.12 cm3/y (p = 0.88). Conclusions: Conjugated equine estrogen–based postmenopausal HT, previously assigned at WHI baseline, did not affect rates of decline in brain volumes or increases in brain lesion volumes during the 4.7 years between the initial and follow-up WHIMS-MRI studies. Smaller frontal lobe volumes were observed as persistent group differences among women assigned to active HT compared with placebo. Women with a history of cardiovascular disease treated with active HT, compared with placebo, had higher rates of accumulation in white matter lesion volume and total brain lesion volume. Further study may elucidate mechanisms that explain these findings. PMID:24384646

  1. Viability Assessment Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since May 1996, under its draft Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan (DOE 1996), DOE has been carrying out a 5-year program of work to support the decision in 2001 by the Secretary of Energy on whether or not to recommend the site to the President. Part of this program was to address major unresolved technical issues and to complete an assessment of the viability of the Yucca Mountain site by 1998. Affirming the DOE plans, Congress directed DOE in the 1997 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site to Congress and the President. This Viability Assessment (VA) document is the DOE report to Congress and the President. They are expected to use the VA to make an informed decision about program direction and funding. Drawing on 15 years of scientific investigation and design work at Yucca Mountain, the VA summarizes a large technical basis of field investigations, laboratory tests, models, analyses, and engineering, described in cited references. The VA identifies the major uncertainties relevant to the technical defensibility of DOE analyses and designs, the DOE approach to managing these uncertainties, and the status of work toward the site recommendation and LA. The VA also identifies DOE plans for the remaining work, and the estimated costs of completing an LA and constructing and operating a repository. The attention to uncertainties is important because DOE must evaluate how the repository will perform during the next 10,000 years or longer. Uncertainties exist because of variability in the natural (geologic and hydrologic) systems at Yucca Mountain and because of imperfect scientific understanding of the natural processes that might affect the repository system. This is Volume 1 and it covers, Introduction and Site Characteristics, includes a high-level summary of the results of the VA and some additional background information. (The overview is bound separately.) Section 1 of Volume

  2. Volume, Volatility and Public News Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Jia; Xue, Yuan

    We provide new empirical evidence for the way in which financial markets process information. Our results are based on high-frequency intraday data along with new econometric techniques for making inference on the relationship between trading intensity and spot volatility around public news...... announcements. Consistent with the predictions derived from a theoretical model in which investors agree to disagree, our estimates for the intraday volume-volatility elasticity around the most important news announcements are systematically below unity. Our elasticity estimates also decrease significantly...

  3. Environmental report for rod storage. Volume V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danese, F.L.

    1981-09-01

    Volume V of this report examines the environmental impact of the rod consolidation program. The postulated, nonsite-specific, differential impacts are primarily additional occupational exposures due to the rod storage operations. Other potential radiological and nonradiological impacts that are identified and addressed are negligible. There are no increases in population exposures except those associated with transportation of spent fuel and waste material. The increased utilization of existing spent fuel storage space could result in a decrease in the nonrecoverable material resources lost to new permanent spent fuel storage

  4. Prehospital tidal volume influences hospital tidal volume: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltze, Andrew J; Wong, Terrence S; Harland, Karisa K; Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Fuller, Brian M; Mohr, Nicholas M

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe current practice of ventilation in a modern air medical system and to measure the association of ventilation strategy with subsequent ventilator care and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Retrospective observational cohort study of intubated adult patients (n = 235) transported by a university-affiliated air medical transport service to a 711-bed tertiary academic center between July 2011 and May 2013. Low tidal volume ventilation was defined as tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 mL/kg predicted body weight. Multivariable regression was used to measure the association between prehospital tidal volume, hospital ventilation strategy, and ARDS. Most patients (57%) were ventilated solely with bag valve ventilation during transport. Mean tidal volume of mechanically ventilated patients was 8.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (SD, 0.2 mL/kg). Low tidal volume ventilation was used in 13% of patients. Patients receiving low tidal volume ventilation during air medical transport were more likely to receive low tidal volume ventilation in the emergency department (P tidal volume (P = .840). Low tidal volume ventilation was rare during air medical transport. Air transport ventilation strategy influenced subsequent ventilation but was not associated with ARDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  6. BNL volume H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.; Alessi, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The volume H minus ion source under development at Brookhaven is unique in that it has a toroidal plasma region, which feeds ions into the central extraction region through a conically shaped filter field. In pulsed operation, it produced 25 mA of H minus in a 1 cm 2 aperture, with an electron-to-H minus ratio of ∼ 3. At 19 mA, a normalized, 90% emittance of 0.44 π mm-mrad has been measured. Up to 50 mA has been extracted through a 1.87 cm 2 aperture. Although not designed for steady state operation, up to 6 mA has been extracted d.c. The addition of xenon to the discharge was found to improve the source output by 20--70%. The circular magnetic cusp field geometry was found to be more favorable than radial cusp fields. 4 refs., 5 figs

  7. Decreasing child mortality, spatial clustering and decreasing disparity in North-Western Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Heiko; Müller, Olaf; Dambach, Peter; Gabrysch, Sabine; Niamba, Louis; Sankoh, Osman; Simboro, Seraphin; Schoeps, Anja; Stieglbauer, Gabriele; Yé, Yazoume; Sié, Ali

    2016-04-01

    Within relatively small areas, there exist high spatial variations of mortality between villages. In rural Burkina Faso, with data from 1993 to 1998, clusters of particularly high child mortality were identified in the population of the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), a member of the INDEPTH Network. In this paper, we report child mortality with respect to temporal trends, spatial clustering and disparity in this HDSS from 1993 to 2012. Poisson regression was used to describe village-specific child mortality rates and time trends in mortality. The spatial scan statistic was used to identify villages or village clusters with higher child mortality. Clustering of mortality in the area is still present, but not as strong as before. The disparity of child mortality between villages has decreased. The decrease occurred in the context of an overall halving of child mortality in the rural area of Nouna HDSS between 1993 and 2012. Extrapolated to the Millennium Development Goals target period 1990-2015, this yields an estimated reduction of 54%, which is not too far off the aim of a two-thirds reduction. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Note: Nonpolar solute partial molar volume response to attractive interactions with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven M; Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2014-01-07

    The impact of attractive interactions on the partial molar volumes of methane-like solutes in water is characterized using molecular simulations. Attractions account for a significant 20% volume drop between a repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen and full Lennard-Jones description of methane interactions. The response of the volume to interaction perturbations is characterized by linear fits to our simulations and a rigorous statistical thermodynamic expression for the derivative of the volume to increasing attractions. While a weak non-linear response is observed, an average effective slope accurately captures the volume decrease. This response, however, is anticipated to become more non-linear with increasing solute size.

  9. Note: Nonpolar solute partial molar volume response to attractive interactions with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Steven M.; Ashbaugh, Henry S., E-mail: hanka@tulane.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2014-01-07

    The impact of attractive interactions on the partial molar volumes of methane-like solutes in water is characterized using molecular simulations. Attractions account for a significant 20% volume drop between a repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Andersen and full Lennard-Jones description of methane interactions. The response of the volume to interaction perturbations is characterized by linear fits to our simulations and a rigorous statistical thermodynamic expression for the derivative of the volume to increasing attractions. While a weak non-linear response is observed, an average effective slope accurately captures the volume decrease. This response, however, is anticipated to become more non-linear with increasing solute size.

  10. Short-term hyperglycemia increases endothelial glycocalyx permeability and acutely decreases lineal density of capillaries with flowing red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Coert J.; Demirci, Cihan; Koeman, Anneke; Vink, Hans; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is becoming recognized as an important risk factor for microvascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that short-term hyperglycemia, either on the scale of hours or weeks, alters the barrier function and the volume of the endothelial glycocalyx and decreases functional capillary density

  11. Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Benjamin L.; Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p < 0.001 for both increase and decrease). Glandular shrinkage was asymmetric, with the apex to right base dimension varying more than twice that of the lateral dimension. For all dimensions, the mean change was <0.5 cm. Conclusion: Real-time transponder positions indicated a volume increase during the initial days of radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential.

  12. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  13. Changes of pituitary gland volume in Kennedy disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C C; Teismann, I K; Konrad, C; Heindel, W L; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy disease is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the first exon of the androgen-receptor gene. Apart from neurologic signs, this mutation can cause a partial androgen insensitivity syndrome with typical alterations of gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the impact of Kennedy disease on pituitary gland volume under the hypothesis that endocrinologic changes caused by partial androgen insensitivity may lead to morphologic changes (ie, hypertrophy) of the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland volume was measured in sagittal sections of 3D T1-weighted 3T-MR imaging data of 8 patients with genetically proven Kennedy disease and compared with 16 healthy age-matched control subjects by use of Multitracer by a blinded, experienced radiologist. The results were analyzed by a univariant ANOVA with total brain volume as a covariant. Furthermore, correlation and linear regression analyses were performed for pituitary volume, patient age, disease duration, and CAG repeat expansion length. Intraobserver reliability was evaluated by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient. Pituitary volume was significantly larger in patients with Kennedy disease (636 [±90] mm(3)) than in healthy control subjects (534 [±91] mm(3)) (P = .041). There was no significant difference in total brain volume (P = .379). Control subjects showed a significant decrease in volume with age (r = -0.712, P = .002), whereas there was a trend to increasing gland volume in patients with Kennedy disease (r = 0.443, P = .272). Gland volume correlated with CAG repeat expansion length in patients (r = 0.630, P = .047). The correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability was 0.94 (P pituitary volume that correlated with the CAG repeat expansion length. This could reflect hypertrophy as the result of elevated gonadotropic hormone secretion caused by the androgen receptor mutation with partial

  14. Measurement of cell volume changes by fluorescence self-quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, J.F.; Litman, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    At high concentrations, certain fluorophores undergo self-quenching, i.e., fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing fluorophore concentration. Accordingly, the self-quenching properties can be used for measuring water volume changes in lipid vesicles. In cells, quantitative determination...... concentrations of the fluorophore calcein suitable for measurement of changes in cell water volume by self-quenching. The relationship between calcein fluorescence intensity, when excited at 490 nm (its excitation maximum), and calcein concentration was investigated in vitro and in various cultured cell types...... to a decrease in calcein fluorescence with high signal-to-noise ratio (>15). Similar results were obtained with the fluorophore BCECF when excited at its isosbestic wavelength (436 nm). The present results demonstrate the usefulness of fluorescence self-quenching to measure rapid changes in cell water volume....

  15. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4 m. 3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is .... all cases, a velocity of 169 m µs ... of ice volume calculation using this method is quite ..... industry, and agriculture in Xinjiang Uygur.

  16. Finite Volume Effect of Baryons in Strange Hadronic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-Xi; LI Lei; NING Ping-Zhi; ZHAO En-Guang

    2001-01-01

    The finite volume effect of baryons in strange hadronic matter (SHM) is studied within the framework of relativistic mean-field theory. As this effect is concerned, the saturation density of SHM turns lower, and the binding energy per baryon decreases. Its influence to the compression modulus of SHM is also discussed.

  17. High tidal volume ventilation in infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Zosky, Graeme R; Hantos, Zoltán; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D

    2008-06-30

    Infant mice were ventilated with either high tidal volume (V(T)) with zero end-expiratory pressure (HVZ), high V(T) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HVP), or low V(T) with PEEP. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically and low-frequency forced oscillations were used to measure the input impedance of the respiratory system. Inflammatory cells, total protein, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured as markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, respectively. Coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance increased in all ventilated mice, with the largest rise seen in the HVZ group where TGV rapidly decreased. BALF protein levels increased in the HVP group, whereas serum IL-6 rose in the HVZ group. PEEP keeps the lungs open, but provides high volumes to the entire lungs and induces lung injury. Compared to studies in adult and non-neonatal rodents, infant mice demonstrate a different response to similar ventilation strategies underscoring the need for age-specific animal models.

  18. Volume and Surface-Enhanced Volume Negative Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M P

    2013-01-01

    H - volume sources and, especially, caesiated H - volume sources are important ion sources for generating high-intensity proton beams, which then in turn generate large quantities of other particles. This chapter discusses the physics and technology of the volume production and the caesium-enhanced (surface) production of H - ions. Starting with Bacal's discovery of the H - volume production, the chapter briefly recounts the development of some H - sources, which capitalized on this process to significantly increase the production of H - beams. Another significant increase was achieved in the 1990s by adding caesiated surfaces to supplement the volume-produced ions with surface-produced ions, as illustrated with other H - sources. Finally, the focus turns to some of the experience gained when such a source was successfully ramped up in H - output and in duty factor to support the generation of 1 MW proton beams for the Spallation Neutron Source. (author)

  19. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    receiving hydroxyethyl starch. RESULTS: Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors despite that both treatments had similar hemodynamic effects...... constant was 56 ml/min. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic epidural anesthesia per se does not lead to changes in blood volumes despite a reduction in blood pressure. When fluid is infused, there is a dilution, and the fluid initially seems to be located centrally. Because administration of hydroxyethyl starch......BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when...

  20. Electrical stunning and exsanguination decrease the extracellular volume in the broiler brain as studied with brain impedance recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, B; Lambooij, E; Pieterse, C; Korf, J

    Electrical stunning in the process of slaughtering poultry is used to induce unconsciousness and immobilize the animal for easier processing. Unconsciousness is a function of brain damage. Brain damage has been studied with brain impedance recordings under ischemic conditions. This experiment

  1. Decreased cognitive functioning after electroconvulsive therapy is related to increased hippocampal volume : Exploring the role of brain plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Iris; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Butterbrod, E.; van Beek, Maria H; Janzing, Joost; Donders, Rogier; Schene, Aart; Tendolkar, Indira

    2018-01-01

    Objective:Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is still the most effective treatment of severe and therapy-refractory major depressive disorder. Cognitive side effects are the major disadvantage of ECT. Cognitive deficits are generally temporary in nature and may be mediated by the hippocampus. Recent

  2. Peat Biomass Smoke Particle Exposure in Rats Decreases Expiratory Time and Increases Left Heart End Diastolic Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland fires, favored by prolonged drought and rising temperatures, generate significant amounts of ambient particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The eastern North Carolina peat fires of Pocosin Lake in 2008 and Pains Bay in 2011 were some o...

  3. The rate of hypo-osmotic challenge influences regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and mechanical properties of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Irianto, J; Kazun, S; Wang, W; Knight, M M

    2015-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with a gradual reduction in the interstitial osmotic pressure within articular cartilage. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sudden and gradual hypo-osmotic challenge on chondrocyte morphology and biomechanics. Bovine articular chondrocytes were exposed to a reduction in extracellular osmolality from 327 to 153 mOsmol/kg applied either suddenly (osmotic stress, 66% of chondrocytes exhibited an increase in diameter followed by RVD, whilst 25% showed no RVD. By contrast, cells exposed to gradual hypo-osmotic stress exhibited reduced cell swelling without subsequent RVD. There was an increase in the equilibrium modulus for cells exposed to sudden hypo-osmotic stress. However, gradual hypo-osmotic challenge had no effect on cell mechanical properties. This cell stiffening response to sudden hypo-osmotic challenge was abolished when actin organization was disrupted with cytochalasin D or RVD inhibited with REV5901. Both sudden and gradual hypo-osmotic challenge reduced cortical F-actin distribution and caused chromatin decondensation. Sudden hypo-osmotic challenge increases chondrocyte mechanics by activation of RVD and interaction with the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the rate of hypo-osmotic challenge is shown to have a profound effect on chondrocyte morphology and biomechanics. This important phenomenon needs to be considered when studying the response of chondrocytes to pathological hypo-osmotic stress. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deregulation of apoptotic volume decrease and ionic movements in multidrug-resistant tumor cells: role of chloride channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Kristian Arild; Andersen, E C; Hansen, C F

    2010-01-01

    was further reduced. AVD(1) and AVD(2) were coupled to net loss of Cl(-), K(+), Na(+), and amino acids (ninhydrin-positive substances), whereas during AVD(T), Na(+) and Cl(-) were accumulated. MDR EATC was resistant to cisplatin, showing increased viability and less caspase 3 activation. Compared with WT EATC...

  5. Decreasing transobturator sling groin pain without decreasing efficacy using TVT-Abbrevo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jonathan S; Jeppson, Peter C; Rardin, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    Groin pain following a transobturator (TO) midurethral sling is not uncommon and can be difficult to manage. We sought to determine if decreasing the mesh burden in the groin would decrease pain. The primary objective was to compare the incidence of post-operative groin pain following placement of full-length TVT-Obturator versus the shorter TVT-Abbrevo. Secondarily, we aimed to compare the efficacy between both devices 6 months after surgery. This is a retrospective cohort study of all women who underwent a TO midurethral sling by the division of urogynecology at one institution between 1 January 2007 and 31 October 2013. Charts were reviewed and the incidence of post-operative groin pain in the two groups dichotomized as present or absent and compared using a Chi-squared test. Validated questionnaire scores of the groups were compared using t tests. There were 125 patients who received a TVT-Obturator and 100 patients who received a TVT-Abbrevo. No differences in demographic data were present between the groups. Twelve patients (9.6 %) in the TVT-Obturator group and 1 patient (1 %) in the TVT-Abbrevo group experienced bothersome groin pain (P value = 0.007). The complete pre- and 6-month post-operative ISI, UDI-6 and PFIQ-7 scores were available for 76 (61 %), 47 (38 %), and 45 (36 %) patients following TVT-Obturator and 57 (57 %), 30 (30 %), and 28 (28 %) following TVT-Abbrevo treatment. At 6 months the mean improvement in questionnaire scores for the TVT-Obturator and TVT-Abbrevo groups were as follows: 5.0 and 5.1 for ISI (P value = 0.9), 8.3 and 7.9 for UDI-6 (P value = 0.8), and 4.8 and 6.1 for PFIQ-7 (P value = 0.4). Use of TVT-Abbrevo reduces post-operative groin pain compared with the full-length TVT-Obturator, without any reduction in efficacy.

  6. New multicell model for describing the atomic structure of La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} piezoelectric crystal: Unit cells of different compositions in the same single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudka, A. P., E-mail: dudka@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Accurate X-ray diffraction study of langasite (La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14}) single crystal has been performed using the data obtained on a diffractometer equipped with a CCD area detector at 295 and 90.5 K. Within the known La{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}SiO{sub 14} model, Ga and Si cations jointly occupy the 2d site. A new model of a “multicell” consisting of two different unit cells is proposed. Gallium atoms occupy the 2d site in one of these cells, and silicon atoms occupy this site in the other cell; all other atoms correspondingly coordinate these cations. This structure implements various physical properties exhibited by langasite family crystals. The conclusions are based on processing four data sets obtained with a high resolution (sin θ/λ ≤ 1.35 Å{sup –1}), the results reproduced in repeated experiments, and the high relative precision of the study (sp. gr. P321, Z = 1; at 295 K, a = 8.1652(6) Å, c = 5.0958(5) Å, R/wR = 0.68/0.68%, 3927 independent reflections; at 90.5 K, a = 8.1559(4) Å, c = 5.0913(6) Å, R/wR = 0.92/0.93%, 3928 reflections).

  7. A Cesium Rare-Earth Silicate Cs3 RESi6 O15 (RE=Dy-Lu, Y, In): The Parent of an Unusual Structural Class Featuring a Remarkable 57 Å Unit Cell Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Rylan; Vinton, Daniel; McMillen, Colin D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2018-02-19

    The structure of Cs 3 RESi 6 O 15 , where RE=Dy-Lu, Y, In, is unusual in that it contains octahedrally coordinated rare-earth ions; their relative orientation dictates the structure, as they rotate about the c-axis supported by the cyclic Si 6 O 15 framework. The repeat unit of the rotation is eight units generating a very long (ca. 57 Å) unit cell axis. This unusual repeat unit is created by the structural flexibility of the hexasilicate ring, which is in turn affected by the size of the rare earth ion as well as the size of alkali ion residing within the silicate layers. Previous work showed for the smaller Sc 3+ ion, the rotation of the octahedra is not sufficient to achieve closure at an integral repeat unit and an incommensurate structure results. The products are prepared as large, high quality single crystals using a high-temperature (650 °C) hydrothermal method with CsOH and F - mineralizers. The presence of fluoride is essential to the formation of the product. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A cesium rare-earth silicate Cs{sub 3}RESi{sub 6}O{sub 15} (RE = Dy-Lu, Y, In). The parent of an unusual structural class featuring a remarkable 57 Aa unit cell axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Rylan; Vinton, Daniel; McMillen, Colin D.; Kolis, Joseph W. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, H.L. Hunter Laboratories (United States)

    2018-02-19

    The structure of Cs{sub 3}RESi{sub 6}O{sub 15}, where RE = Dy-Lu, Y, In, is unusual in that it contains octahedrally coordinated rare-earth ions; their relative orientation dictates the structure, as they rotate about the c-axis supported by the cyclic Si{sub 6}O{sub 15} framework. The repeat unit of the rotation is eight units generating a very long (ca. 57 Aa) unit cell axis. This unusual repeat unit is created by the structural flexibility of the hexasilicate ring, which is in turn affected by the size of the rare earth ion as well as the size of alkali ion residing within the silicate layers. Previous work showed for the smaller Sc{sup 3+} ion, the rotation of the octahedra is not sufficient to achieve closure at an integral repeat unit and an incommensurate structure results. The products are prepared as large, high quality single crystals using a high-temperature (650 C) hydrothermal method with CsOH and F{sup -} mineralizers. The presence of fluoride is essential to the formation of the product. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L; Kuster, John K; Levenstein, Jacob M; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J; Sudarsky, Lewis R; Breiter, Hans C; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  10. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff L Waugh

    Full Text Available Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia.We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7. We used (1 automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2 blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume; and (3 voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus.Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region.Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches.

  11. Thalamic Volume Is Reduced in Cervical and Laryngeal Dystonias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Jeff L.; Kuster, John K.; Levenstein, Jacob M.; Makris, Nikos; Multhaupt-Buell, Trisha J.; Sudarsky, Lewis R.; Breiter, Hans C.; Sharma, Nutan; Blood, Anne J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dystonia, a debilitating movement disorder characterized by abnormal fixed positions and/or twisting postures, is associated with dysfunction of motor control networks. While gross brain lesions can produce secondary dystonias, advanced neuroimaging techniques have been required to identify network abnormalities in primary dystonias. Prior neuroimaging studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia, but few directly assessed the gross volume of motor control regions, and to our knowledge, none identified abnormalities common to multiple types of idiopathic focal dystonia. Methods We used two gross volumetric segmentation techniques and one voxelwise volumetric technique (voxel based morphometry, VBM) to compare regional volume between matched healthy controls and patients with idiopathic primary focal dystonia (cervical, n = 17, laryngeal, n = 7). We used (1) automated gross volume measures of eight motor control regions using the FreeSurfer analysis package; (2) blinded, anatomist-supervised manual segmentation of the whole thalamus (also gross volume); and (3) voxel based morphometry, which measures local T1-weighted signal intensity and estimates gray matter density or volume at the level of single voxels, for both whole-brain and thalamus. Results Using both automated and manual gross volumetry, we found a significant volume decrease only in the thalamus in two focal dystonias. Decreases in whole-thalamic volume were independent of head and brain size, laterality of symptoms, and duration. VBM measures did not differ between dystonia and control groups in any motor control region. Conclusions Reduced thalamic gross volume, detected in two independent analyses, suggests a common anatomical abnormality in cervical dystonia and spasmodic dysphonia. Defining the structural underpinnings of dystonia may require such complementary approaches. PMID:27171035

  12. Magnesium absorption from mineral water decreases with increasing quantities of magnesium per serving in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Tai, Hideyuki; Uozumi, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Koji; Matsui, Tohru

    2012-01-01

    It is hypothesized that magnesium (Mg) absorption from mineral water is affected by the concentration of Mg in the water, the consumption pattern, and the volume consumed per serving. The present study examined the effect of serving volume and consumption pattern of artificial mineral water (AMW) and Mg concentration on Mg absorption in rats. Magnesium in AMW was labeled with magnesium-25 as a tracer. Each group consisted of 6 or 7 rats. In experiment 1, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L at 4 times, 400 mg Mg/L twice, or 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. In experiment 2, the rats received 1 mL of AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L or 0.25 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 4 times or 1 mL of AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L at 1 time. The absorption of Mg decreased with increasing Mg concentrations in the same serving volume of AMW with different serving frequencies. When the AMW containing 800 mg Mg/L was portioned into 4 servings, Mg absorption increased to the level of absorption in the group exposed to AMW containing 200 mg Mg/L served at the same frequency. These results suggest that the Mg concentration and the volume of AMW do not affect Mg absorption per se, but Mg absorption from AMW decreases when the amount of Mg in each serving is increased. Thus, frequent consumption is preferable for mineral water rich in Mg when the total consumption of mineral water is the same. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deforestation and rainfall recycling in Brazil: Is decreased forest cover connectivity associated with decreased rainfall connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adera, S.; Larsen, L.; Levy, M. C.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone, deforestation has the potential to significantly affect rainfall by disrupting rainfall recycling, the process by which regional evapotranspiration contributes to regional rainfall. Understanding rainfall recycling in this region is important not only for sustaining Amazon and Cerrado ecosystems, but also for cattle ranching, agriculture, hydropower generation, and drinking water management. Simulations in previous studies suggest complex, scale-dependent interactions between forest cover connectivity and rainfall. For example, the size and distribution of deforested patches has been found to affect rainfall quantity and spatial distribution. Here we take an empirical approach, using the spatial connectivity of rainfall as an indicator of rainfall recycling, to ask: as forest cover connectivity decreased from 1981 - 2015, how did the spatial connectivity of rainfall change in the Brazilian rainforest-savanna transition zone? We use satellite forest cover and rainfall data covering this period of intensive forest cover loss in the region (forest cover from the Hansen Global Forest Change dataset; rainfall from the Climate Hazards Infrared Precipitation with Stations dataset). Rainfall spatial connectivity is quantified using transfer entropy, a metric from information theory, and summarized using network statistics. Networks of connectivity are quantified for paired deforested and non-deforested regions before deforestation (1981-1995) and during/after deforestation (2001-2015). Analyses reveal a decline in spatial connectivity networks of rainfall following deforestation.

  14. Mast cell stabilization decreases cardiomyocyte and LV function in dogs with isolated mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Chen, Yuanwen; Gladden, James D; Walcott, Greg; Powell, Pamela C; Denney, Thomas; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Dell'italia, Louis J

    2010-09-01

    Mast cells are increased in isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog and may mediate extracellular matrix loss and left ventricular (LV) dilatation. We tested the hypothesis that mast cell stabilization would attenuate LV remodeling and improve function in the MR dog. MR was induced in adult dogs randomized to no treatment (MR, n = 5) or to the mast cell stabilizer, ketotifen (MR + MCS, n = 4) for 4 months. LV hemodynamics were obtained at baseline and after 4 months of MR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at sacrifice. MRI-derived, serial, short-axis LV end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) volumes, LVED volume/mass ratio, and LV 3-dimensional radius/wall thickness were increased in MR and MR + MCS dogs compared with normal dogs (n = 6) (P < .05). Interstitial collagen was decreased by 30% in both MR and MR + MCS versus normal dogs (P < .05). LV contractility by LV maximum time-varying elastance was significantly depressed in MR and MR + MCS dogs. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs and further depressed in MR + MCS dogs (P < .05). In vitro administration of ketotifen to normal cardiomyocytes also significantly decreased fractional shortening and calcium transients. Chronic mast cell stabilization did not attenuate eccentric LV remodeling or collagen loss in MR. However, MCS therapy had a detrimental effect on LV function because of a direct negative inotropic effect on cardiomyocyte function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Decreased Retinal Thickness in Type 1 Diabetic Children with Signs of Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ruiz-Ocaña

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The retina functions as a neurovascular unit. How early vascular alterations affect neuronal layers remains controversial; early vascular failure could lead to edema increasing retinal thicknesses, but alternatively neuronal loss could lead to reduced retinal thickness. Objective. To evaluate retinal thickness in a cohort of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (PwT1DM and to analyze differences according to the presence or absence of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR, poor metabolic control, and diabetes duration. Patients and Methods. We performed retinographies and optical coherence tomography (OCT (TOPCON 3D1000® to PwT1DM followed at our center and healthy controls. Measurements of the control group served to calculate reference values. Results. 59 PwT1DM (age 12.51 ± 2.59 and 22 healthy controls (age 10.66 ± 2.51 volunteered. Only two PwT1DM, both adolescents with poor metabolic control, presented NPRD. Both showed decreased thicknesses and retinal volumes. The odds ratio of having decreased retinal thickness when signs of NPDR were present was 11.72 (95% IC 1.16–118.28; p=0.036. Conclusions. PwT1DM with NPDR have increased odds of decreased retinal thicknesses and volumes. Whether these changes are reversible by improving metabolic control or not remains to be elucidated.

  16. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  17. Pragmatics & Language Learning. Volume 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen, Ed.; Félix-Brasdefer, J. César, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 2014 International Conference of Pragmatics and Language Learning at Indiana University. It includes fourteen papers on a variety of topics, with a diversity of first and second languages, and a wide range of methods used to collect pragmatic data in L2 and FL settings. This volume is…

  18. Determination of clothing microclimate volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein; Hatcher, Kent; Havenith, George

    2005-01-01

    The average air layer thickness between human skin and clothing is an important factor in heat transfer. The trapped volume between skin and clothing is an estimator for everage air layer thickness. Several techniques are available to determine trapped volume. This study investigates the reliability

  19. Does Preinterventional Flat-Panel Computer Tomography Pooled Blood Volume Mapping Predict Final Infarct Volume After Mechanical Thrombectomy in Acute Cerebral Artery Occlusion?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Marlies; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Mesnil de Rochemont, Richard du; Singer, Oliver C.; Berkefeld, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    PurposeDecreased cerebral blood volume is known to be a predictor for final infarct volume in acute cerebral artery occlusion. To evaluate the predictability of final infarct volume in patients with acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) and successful endovascular recanalization, pooled blood volume (PBV) was measured using flat-panel detector computed tomography (FPD CT).Materials and MethodsTwenty patients with acute unilateral occlusion of the MCA or distal ACI without demarcated infarction, as proven by CT at admission, and successful Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score (TICI 2b or 3) endovascular thrombectomy were included. Cerebral PBV maps were acquired from each patient immediately before endovascular thrombectomy. Twenty-four hours after recanalization, each patient underwent multislice CT to visualize final infarct volume. Extent of the areas of decreased PBV was compared with the final infarct volume proven by follow-up CT the next day.ResultsIn 15 of 20 patients, areas of distinct PBV decrease corresponded to final infarct volume. In 5 patients, areas of decreased PBV overestimated final extension of ischemia probably due to inappropriate timing of data acquisition and misery perfusion.ConclusionPBV mapping using FPD CT is a promising tool to predict areas of irrecoverable brain parenchyma in acute thromboembolic stroke. Further validation is necessary before routine use for decision making for interventional thrombectomy

  20. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera

    2014-12-31

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs.

  1. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  2. MANAJEMEN KULTUR ROTIFER DENGAN TANGKI VOLUME KECIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teguh Imanto

    2009-04-01

    applied differently among three trials. First trial without seawater addition, increasing volume of culture media was only from 15 L. of N. occulata within 5 days culture, second trial was done with addition of seawater of 40 L and 40 L of N. occulata every day; and the last trial with twice dosage of baker yeast from trial I and II. The result showed that the average total production from the first trial was 122.37 x 106 ind. rotifer and the second trial was decreased to 97.67 x 106 ind. rotifer. Highest average total production was achieved by the last trial with 187.17 x 106 ind. rotifer per culture tank 500 L. Culture management on the third trial gave the best result with the lowest deviation among replication tanks, and proved as the best management practice for small-scale culture container.

  3. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Associations with White Matter Volume and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Park, Ann; McQueeny, Tim; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Depressed mood has been associated with decreased white matter and reduced hippocampal volumes. However, the relationship between brain structure and mood may be unique among adolescents who use marijuana heavily. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between white matter and hippocampal volumes and depressive symptoms…

  4. Modulation of KCNQ4 channel activity by changes in cell volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Charlotte; Klaerke, Dan A; Hoffmann, Else K

    2004-01-01

    KCNQ4 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells are sensitive to cell volume changes, being activated by swelling and inhibited by shrinkage, respectively. The KCNQ4 channels contribute significantly to the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process following cell swelling. Under isoosmotic conditions...

  5. Free volume changes in mechanically milled PS and PC studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günther-Schade, K.; Castricum, H.L.; Ziegler, H.J.; Bakker, H.; Faupel, F.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on free volume was studied by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) in polystyrene (PS) as a typical brittle polymer and in polycarbonate (PC) as a tough representative. Long-time milling increases the free volume, while a decrease is observed

  6. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization on Value in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    Research based on applying volume-maximizing sawing solutions to idealized hardwood log forms has shown that average lumber yield can be increased by 6 percent. It is possible, however, that a lumber volume-maximizing solution may result in a decrease in lumber grade and a net reduction in total value of sawn lumber. The objective of this study was to determine the...

  7. Development and heritability of subcortical brain volumes at age 9 and 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, S.C.; Brouwer, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2014-01-01

    Subcortical brain structures are involved in a variety of cognitive and emotional functions and follow different trajectories of increase and decrease in volume from childhood to adulthood. The heritability of development of subcortical brain volumes during adolescence has not been studied

  8. Differential effects of lower body negative pressure and upright tilt on splanchnic blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Moran, Christopher; Medow, Marvin S.; Glover, June L.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    Upright posture and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) both induce reductions in central blood volume. However, regional circulatory responses to postural changes and LBNP may differ. Therefore, we studied regional blood flow and blood volume changes in 10 healthy subjects undergoing graded lower-body negative pressure (−10 to −50 mmHg) and 8 subjects undergoing incremental head-up tilt (HUT; 20°, 40°, and 70°) on separate days. We continuously measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and regional blood volumes and blood flows in the thoracic, splanchnic, pelvic, and leg segments by impedance plethysmography and calculated regional arterial resistances. Neither LBNP nor HUT altered systolic BP, whereas pulse pressure decreased significantly. Blood flow decreased in all segments, whereas peripheral resistances uniformly and significantly increased with both HUT and LBNP. Thoracic volume decreased while pelvic and leg volumes increased with HUT and LBNP. However, splanchnic volume changes were directionally opposite with stepwise decreases in splanchnic volume with LBNP and stepwise increases in splanchnic volume during HUT. Splanchnic emptying in LBNP models regional vascular changes during hemorrhage. Splanchnic filling may limit the ability of the splanchnic bed to respond to thoracic hypovolemia during upright posture. PMID:17085534

  9. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloff, J.L.; Warnock, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K + and Cl - conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca 2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na + -H + and Cl - -HCO 3 - exchange systems

  10. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  11. Lung volumes during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, Gordon Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to influence the topographical gradients of pulmonary ventilation, perfusion, and pleural pressures. The effect of sustained microgravity on lung volumes has not previously been investigated. Pulmonary function tests were performed by four subjects before, during, and after 9 days of microgravity exposure. Ground measurements were made in standing and supine postures. Tests were performed using a bag-in-box and flowmeter system and a respiratory mass spectrometer. Measurements of tidal volume (V(sub T)), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), inspiratory and expiratory vital capacities (IVC, EVC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and residual volume (RV) were made. During microgravity, V(sub T) decreased by 15%. IVC and EVC were slightly reduced during the first 24 hrs of microgravity and returned to 1 g standing values within 72 hrs after the onset of microgravity. FRC was reduced by 15% and ERV decreased by 10-20%. RV was significantly reduced by 18%. The reductions in FRC, ERV, and V(sub T) during microgravity are probably due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm and an increase in intrathoracic blood volume.

  12. Testicular Volume: Size Does Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Lobo, Alexander; Segovia Fuentes, Javier; Cerpa Reyes, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Testicular volume is critical for semen production and, consequently, for fertility. Hence the importance of knowing the normal size ranges and the different methods for calculating size, in order to classify patients at risk and refer them for appropriate management. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic method for the evaluation of testicular pathology, and it is also the best tool for estimating the volume of both testicles, bearing in mind that a testicular volume below 15 cc results in fertility problems. Although there are many causes of infertility, varicocele is undoubtedly the most important of all, because of its frequency and because it is amenable to curative surgical treatment.

  13. Simvastatin decreases steroid production in the H295R cell line and decreases steroids and FSH in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Guldvang; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Weisser, Johan J

    2015-01-01

    .10-0.13μM for SV and from 0.019-0.055μM for SVA. In rats, SV decreased progestagens in ovaries, brain and plasma, and plasma FSH in the M (72.4% decrease) and H group (76.6% decrease). Because progestagens and gonadotropins are major players in fertility, administration of SV might exert negative effects...

  14. Bare-Hand Volume Cracker for Raw Volume Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bireswar Laha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of raw volume data generated from different scanning technologies faces a variety of challenges, related to search, pattern recognition, spatial understanding, quantitative estimation, and shape description. In a previous study, we found that the Volume Cracker (VC 3D interaction (3DI technique mitigated some of these problems, but this result was from a tethered glove-based system with users analyzing simulated data. Here, we redesigned the VC by using untethered bare-hand interaction with real volume datasets, with a broader aim of adoption of this technique in research labs. We developed symmetric and asymmetric interfaces for the Bare-Hand Volume Cracker (BHVC through design iterations with a biomechanics scientist. We evaluated our asymmetric BHVC technique against standard 2D and widely used 3D interaction techniques with experts analyzing scanned beetle datasets. We found that our BHVC design significantly outperformed the other two techniques. This study contributes a practical 3DI design for scientists, documents lessons learned while redesigning for bare-hand trackers, and provides evidence suggesting that 3D interaction could improve volume data analysis for a variety of visual analysis tasks. Our contribution is in the realm of 3D user interfaces tightly integrated with visualization, for improving the effectiveness of visual analysis of volume datasets. Based on our experience, we also provide some insights into hardware-agnostic principles for design of effective interaction techniques.

  15. Minocycline Decreases Liver Injury after Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czerny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients that survive hemorrhage and resuscitation (H/R may develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that leads to dysfunction of vital organs (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MODS. SIRS and MODS may involve mitochondrial dysfunction. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, C57BL6 mice were hemorrhaged to 30 mm Hg for 3 h and then resuscitated with shed blood plus half the volume of lactated Ringer’s solution containing minocycline, tetracycline (both 10 mg/kg body weight or vehicle. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, necrosis, apoptosis and oxidative stress were assessed 6 h after resuscitation. Mitochondrial polarization was assessed by intravital microscopy. After H/R with vehicle or tetracycline, ALT increased to 4538 U/L and 3999 U/L, respectively, which minocycline decreased to 1763 U/L (P<0.01. Necrosis and TUNEL also decreased from 24.5% and 17.7 cells/field, respectively, after vehicle to 8.3% and 8.7 cells/field after minocycline. Tetracycline failed to decrease necrosis (23.3% but decreased apoptosis to 9 cells/field (P<0.05. Minocycline and tetracycline also decreased caspase-3 activity in liver homogenates. Minocycline but not tetracycline decreased lipid peroxidation after resuscitation by 70% (P<0.05. Intravital microscopy showed that minocycline preserved mitochondrial polarization after H/R (P<0.05. In conclusion, minocycline decreases liver injury and oxidative stress after H/R by preventing mitochondrial dysfunction.

  16. Repeat Computed Tomography Simulation to Assess Lumpectomy Cavity Volume During Whole-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, Todd W.; Nichols, Elizabeth M.; Cheston, Sally B.; Marter, Kimberley J.; Naqvi, Shahid A.; Markham, Kristen M.; Ali, Imran; Mohiuddin, Majid M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the lumpectomy cavity (LPC) decreases in volume during whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) and what factors influence the decrease. Patients and Methods: Forty-three women with 44 breast lesions were prospectively enrolled. Eligible patients underwent lumpectomy followed by a CT simulation (CT1) within 60 days of surgery. Patients were treated to the entire breast to a dose of 45-50.4 Gy. After 21-23 treatments, a second planning CT simulation (CT2) was done. The LPC was contoured on CT2, and the volumes (LCV) were compared between CT1 and CT2. Results: The median LCV on CT1 and CT2 was 38.2 cm 3 and 21.7 cm 3 , respectively. The median percent change and volume decrease between CT1 and CT2 was -32.0% and 11.2 cm 3 , respectively (n = 44). The LCV decreased in 38 of 44 patients (86%). There was a significant correlation between initial LCV and decrease in volume (p = 0.001) and initial LCV and percent decrease in volume (p < 0.001). There was no correlation between time from surgery to CT1, to start of RT, or to CT2 and change in volume. Conclusions: Patients who undergo lumpectomy almost always have a decrease in their LCV during whole-breast RT. There was a correlation between the initial LCV and decrease in volume on repeat CT simulation. Evaluating patients for this change can potentially lead to decreased doses of radiation to the remaining breast and other critical structures when delivering a small-field boost. Repeat CT simulation should be considered in patients with larger cavities or cavities near critical structures.

  17. Decreased Bone Formation Explains Osteoporosis in a Genetic Mouse Model of Hemochromatosiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Doyard

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis may complicate iron overload diseases such as genetic hemochromatosis. However, molecular mechanisms involved in the iron-related osteoporosis remains poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies support a role of osteoblast impairment in iron-related osteoporosis. Our aim was to analyse the impact of excess iron in Hfe-/- mice on osteoblast activity and on bone microarchitecture. We studied the bone formation rate, a dynamic parameter reflecting osteoblast activity, and the bone phenotype of Hfe-/- male mice, a mouse model of human hemochromatosis, by using histomorphometry. Hfe-/- animals were sacrificed at 6 months and compared to controls. We found that bone contains excess iron associated with increased hepatic iron concentration in Hfe-/- mice. We have shown that animals with iron overload have decreased bone formation rate, suggesting a direct impact of iron excess on active osteoblasts number. For bone mass parameters, we showed that iron deposition was associated with bone loss by producing microarchitectural impairment with a decreased tendency in bone trabecular volume and trabecular number. A disorganization of trabecular network was found with marrow spaces increased, which was confirmed by enhanced trabecular separation and star volume of marrow spaces. These microarchitectural changes led to a loss of connectivity and complexity in the trabecular network, which was confirmed by decreased interconnectivity index and increased Minkowski's fractal dimension. Our results suggest for the first time in a genetic hemochromatosis mouse model, that iron overload decreases bone formation and leads to alterations in bone mass and microarchitecture. These observations support a negative effect of iron on osteoblast recruitment and/or function, which may contribute to iron-related osteoporosis.

  18. VOLUMNECT: measuring volumes with Kinect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintino Ferreira, Beatriz; Griné, Miguel; Gameiro, Duarte; Costeira, João. Paulo; Sousa Santos, Beatriz

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a solution to volume measurement object packing using 3D cameras (such as the Microsoft KinectTM). We target application scenarios, such as warehouses or distribution and logistics companies, where it is important to promptly compute package volumes, yet high accuracy is not pivotal. Our application auto- matically detects cuboid objects using the depth camera data and computes their volume and sorting it allowing space optimization. The proposed methodology applies to a point cloud simple computer vision and image processing methods, as connected components, morphological operations and Harris corner detector, producing encouraging results, namely an accuracy in volume measurement of 8mm. Aspects that can be further improved are identified; nevertheless, the current solution is already promising turning out to be cost effective for the envisaged scenarios.

  19. Organ volume estimation using SPECT

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of in vivo thyroid volume has both diagnostic and therapeutic importance and could lead to a more precise quantification of absolute activity contained in the thyroid gland. In order to improve single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) quantitation, attenuation correction was performed according to Chang's algorithm. The dual-window method was used for scatter subtraction. We used a Monte Carlo simulation of the SPECT system to accurately determine the scatter multiplier factor k. Volume estimation using SPECT was performed by summing up the volume elements (voxels) lying within the contour of the object, determined by a fixed threshold and the gray level histogram (GLH) method. Thyroid phantom and patient studies were performed and the influence of 1) fixed thresholding, 2) automatic thresholding, 3) attenuation, 4) scatter, and 5) reconstruction filter were investigated. This study shows that accurate volume estimation of the thyroid gland is feasible when accurate corrections are perform...

  20. Human gallbladder pressure and volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Højgaard, L; Grønvall, S

    1996-01-01

    volume with only slight changes in intraluminal pressure (n = 4). Except for the zero drift, this piece of equipment seemed to fulfil the requirements of being able to measure pressure in the GB. In vivo measurements showed a good clinical reproducibility of the method, and also that respiration...... influenced by respiration (n = 8) and the pressure seems to be higher in the sitting position than in the supine position (n = 5). Cystic duct opening pressure was 10.4, 11.2 and 16.8 mmHg (n = 3). Pressure-volume responses showed that the GB up to a certain volume could accommodate increases in intraluminal...... and patient posture influenced the pressure measurements. Further, a GB pressure-volume relationship was demonstrated, and the possibility of a cystic duct opening pressure was described....

  1. Pediatric blood volumes: a one-page reference guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, J; Reitan, J

    1998-10-01

    At our institution, a multidisciplinary team met to work out a blood volume policy for our pediatric patients' laboratory testing. Because we are a cancer center, many of our patients are on protocols and/or are in the hospital for an extended period of time. These factors result in multiple blood draws. It is important to manage the volumes used so that we do not compromise the hematological status of our pediatric patients. The concerns of nurses and laboratory technologists were discussed and a three-tiered system was designed consisting of adult volumes, volumes for inflexibility to verify or add to the original order without resticking the patient increase at each tier. It is imperative to the overall quality of care for all patients that discretion is used when following these guidelines. When it is medically prudent to restrict the blood volumes taken from any patient, it should be done. However, when it is not medically necessary, the increased costs and potential decrease in the quality of laboratory service outweighs the desire to use smaller blood volumes.

  2. Stereolithographic volume evaluation of healing and shaping after rhinoplasty operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlidede, Soner; Turgut, Gürsel; Gönen, Emre; Kayali, Mahmut Ulvi; Baş, Lütfü

    2009-07-01

    Nasal edema and volume changes are unavoidable processes during the healing period after rhinoplasty. Various applications were reported regarding the prevention of early edema; however, the literature shows no study focused on the course of the nasal edema and volume changes up-to-date. We aimed to study the nasal volume changes during the first year of postoperative healing period and to form a recovery and volume change diagram with the obtained data. We prepared standard frames and nasal molds of 7 rhinoplasty patients at regular time intervals (preoperative period and at the postoperative 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 12th, 24th, and 52nd weeks). Plaster nasal models were created by using these molds. Volumes of models were measured by computed tomographic scanning and three-dimensional image processing programs. According to our results, the nasal edema reaches its maximum level at the postoperative fourth week and then rapidly decreases until its minimum level at the eighth week. In contrast with the general opinion, the nasal volume begins to increase smoothly reaching to a level minimally below the preoperative value by the end of the first year.

  3. Determination of blood volume by pulse CO-oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalande, S; Kelsey, J W; Joyner, M J; Johnson, B D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether changes in carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) saturation following carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing can be accurately detected by pulse CO-oximetry in order to determine blood volume. Noninvasive measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpCO) were continuously monitored by pulse CO-oximetry before, during and following 2 min of CO rebreathing. Reproducibility and accuracy of noninvasive blood volume measurements were determined in 16 healthy non-smoking individuals (15 males, age: 28 ± 2 years, body mass index: 25.4 ± 0.6 kg m −2 ) through comparison with blood volume measurements calculated from invasive measurements of COHb saturation. The coefficient of variation for noninvasive blood volume measurements performed on separate days was 15.1% which decreases to 9.1% when measurements were performed on the same day. Changes in COHb saturation and SpCO following CO rebreathing were strongly correlated (r = 0.90, p < 0.01), resulting in a significant correlation between invasive and noninvasive blood volume measurements (r = 0.83, p = 0.02). Changes in SpCO following CO rebreathing can be accurately detected by pulse CO-oximetry, which could potentially provide a simplified, convenient and reproducible method to rapidly determine blood volume in healthy individuals

  4. Energy and Environment : volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRE, Michel; SAMARAS, Zissis; JACOB, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This book is part of a set of six books called the 'Research for Innovative Transports' set. This collection presents an update of the latest academic and applied research, case studies, best practices and user perspectives on transport carried out in Europe and worldwide. The volumes are made up of a selection of the best papers presented at TRA2014. In this volume 1, recent research works are reported around the triptych : 'transport, energy and environment', which demonstrates that vehicl...

  5. Spirometry, Static Lung Volumes, and Diffusing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Cain, Hilary C; Casaburi, Richard; Lee, Patty J; Iannone, Lynne; Leo-Summers, Linda S; Van Ness, Peter H

    2017-09-01

    Spirometric Z-scores from the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) rigorously account for age-related changes in lung function and are thus age-appropriate when establishing spirometric impairments, including a restrictive pattern and air-flow obstruction. However, GLI-defined spirometric impairments have not yet been evaluated regarding associations with static lung volumes (total lung capacity [TLC], functional residual capacity [FRC], and residual volume [RV]) and gas exchange (diffusing capacity). We performed a retrospective review of pulmonary function tests in subjects ≥40 y old (mean age 64.6 y), including pre-bronchodilator measures for: spirometry ( n = 2,586), static lung volumes by helium dilution with inspiratory capacity maneuver ( n = 2,586), and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( n = 2,508). Using multivariable linear regression, adjusted least-squares means (adj LS Means) were calculated for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity. The adj LS Means were expressed with and without height-cubed standardization and stratified by GLI-defined spirometry, including normal ( n = 1,251), restrictive pattern ( n = 663), and air-flow obstruction (mild, [ n = 128]; moderate, [ n = 150]; and severe, [ n = 394]). Relative to normal spirometry, restrictive-pattern had lower adj LS Means for TLC, FRC, RV, and hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P ≤ .001). Conversely, relative to normal spirometry, mild, moderate, and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for FRC and RV ( P < .001). However, only mild and moderate air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for TLC ( P < .001), while only moderate and severe air-flow obstruction had higher adj LS Means for RV/TLC ( P < .001) and lower adj LS Means for hemoglobin-adjusted single-breath diffusing capacity ( P < .001). Notably, TLC (calculated as FRC + inspiratory capacity) was not increased in severe air-flow obstruction ( P ≥ .11

  6. Decreasing Physical Inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration Employee Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schult, Tamara M; Schmunk, Sandra K; Awosika, Ebi R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) employee population. The approach included (1) initiatives to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace; (2) two operational surveys to assess system-wide service provision; and (3) two national employee surveys. From 2010 to 2012, 86 employee fitness centers were completed in VA medical centers. A grants program (2010 to 2015) funded smaller projects designed to decrease physical inactivity in the workplace. Projects involved the provision of equipment to decrease sedentary behaviors, including stability balls, treadmill and sit-to-stand desks, stairwell projects, and funding for on-site fitness classes, bicycle racks, and outdoor par courses and walking paths among others. A comprehensive approach to decrease physical inactivity in VHA employees was successful. Overall, self-reported, age-adjusted physical inactivity in VHA employees decreased from 25.3% in 2010 to 16.1% in 2015.

  7. Cerebral blood volume alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, K.; Greitz, T.

    1976-01-01

    Simultaneous and continuous measurements of the cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood pressure were carried out in six patients during fractional pneumoencephalography in order to examine intracranial volumetric interactions. Three patients (Group A) showed normal encephalographic findings, and in three patients (Group B) communicating hydrocephalus with convexity block was found encephalographically. In all patients the injection of air was followed by an immediate increase of CSF pressure and blood pressure and a concomitant decrease of CBV. The initial CSF pressure was invariably re-established within 3 to 3.5 min. During this time interval the CBV of the patients of Group B decreased significantly and 30 percent more than that of Group A. Furthermore, after restoration of the original CSF pressure, CBV returned to its initial level in all patients of Group A, whereas it remained unchanged or showed a further decrease in the patients of Group B. Removal of an amount of CSF corresponding to half of the amount of injected air was followed by a significant reactive hyperemic response in two normal patients. The intracranial volumetric alterations during fractional pneumoencephalography are discussed in detail with respect to the underlying physiologic mechanisms and are suggested as a model for acute and low pressure hydrocephalus

  8. Natural look in volume restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Mary P

    2008-09-01

    Filling and volumizing injection procedures are currently widely used for facial augmentation and re-establishing a youthful appearance. Aesthetic physicians have advanced from the practice of treating single lines and wrinkles towards filling large facial areas to globally restore natural facial contours and meet patient demand for nonsurgical rejuvenation. This review describes the different categories of fillers and volumizers based on their duration of action and ability to create a natural looking effect; they can be broadly classified as temporary or long-lasting biodegradable agents, or permanent nonbiodegradable agents. Temporary fillers are effective to correct lines and wrinkles, but may not adequately meet the need for global facial rejuvenation and volume replacement in a long-term, cost-efficient manner. Permanent fillers for global restoration pose the issue of long-term safety, and may not be compatible with changes in facial architecture with continued aging. Longer lasting volumizers provide patients with a durable, effective option for the restoration of facial volume and the re-establishment of youthful facial contours. Temporary fillers and volumizers may also be used in combination to provide a wide source of options for the global restoration and rejuvenation of the face.

  9. Control of cell volume in the J774 macrophage by microtubule disassembly and cyclic AMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melmed, RN; Karanian, PJ; Berlin, RD

    1981-01-01

    We have explored the possibilities that cell volume is regulated by the status of microtubule assembly and cyclic AMP metabolism and may be coordinated with shape change. Treatment of J774.2 mouse macrophages with colchicine caused rapid microtubule disassembly and was associated with a striking increase (from 15-20 to more than 90 percent) in the proportion of cells with a large protuberance at one pole. This provided a simple experimental system in which shape changes occurred in virtually an entire cell population in suspension. Parallel changes in cell volume could then be quantified by isotope dilution techniques. We found that the shape change caused by colchicine was accompanied by a decrease in cell volume of approximately 20 percent. Nocodozole, but not lumicolchicine, caused identical changes in both cell shape and cell volume. The volume loss was not due to cell lysis nor to inhibition of pinocytosis. The mechanism of volume loss was also examined. Colchicine induced a small but reproducible increase in activity of the ouabain-sensitive Na(+), K(+)-dependent ATPase. However, inhibition of this enzyme/transport system by ouabain did not change cell volume nor did it block the colchicines-induced decrease in volume. One the other hand, SITS (4’acetamido, 4-isothiocyano 2,2’ disulfonic acid stilbene), an inhibitor of anion transport, inhibited the effects of colchicines, thus suggesting a role for an anion transport system in cell volume regulation. Because colchicine is known to activate adenylate cyclase in several systems and because cell shape changes are often induced by hormones that elevate cyclic AMP, we also examined the effects of cyclic AMP on cell volume. Agents that act to increase syclic AMP (cholera toxin, which activates adenylate cyclase; IBMX, and inhibitor of phosphodiesterase; and dibutyryl cyclic AMP) all caused a volume decrease comparable to that of colchicine. To define the effective metabolic pathway, we studied two mutants of J

  10. Generalized decrease in brain glucose metabolism during fasting in humans studied by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redies, C.; Hoffer, L.J.; Beil, C.

    1989-01-01

    In prolonged fasting, the brain derives a large portion of its oxidative energy from the ketone bodies, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, thereby reducing whole body glucose consumption. Energy substrate utilization differs regionally in the brain of fasting rat, but comparable information has hitherto been unavailable in humans. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to study regional brain glucose and oxygen metabolism, blood flow, and blood volume in four obese subjects before and after a 3-wk total fast. Whole brain glucose utilization fell to 54% of control (postabsorptive) values (P less than 0.002). The whole brain rate constant for glucose tracer phosphorylation fell to 51% of control values (P less than 0.002). Both parameters decreased uniformly throughout the brain. The 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose lumped constant decreased from a control value of 0.57 to 0.43 (P less than 0.01). Regional blood-brain barrier transfer coefficients for glucose tracer, regional oxygen utilization, blood flow, and blood volume were unchanged

  11. Desmopressin is an effective treatment for mixed nocturia with nocturnal polyuria and decreased nocturnal bladder capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Choo, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jeong Gu; Park, Choal Hee; Paick, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Han, Deok Hyun; Park, Won Hee; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of desmopressin in patients with mixed nocturia, Patients aged ≥ 18 yr with mixed nocturia (≥ 2 voids/night and a nocturnal polyuria index [NPi] >33% and a nocturnal bladder capacity index [NBCi] >1) were recruited. The optimum dose of oral desmopressin was determined during a 3-week dose-titration period and the determined dose was maintained for 4 weeks. The efficacy was assessed by the frequency-volume charts and the sleep questionnaire. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in the number of nocturnal voids (NV) compared with baseline. Among 103 patients enrolled, 94 (79 men and 15 women) were included in the analysis. The proportion of patients with a 50% or greater reduction in NV was 68 (72%). The mean number of NV decreased significantly (3.20 to 1.34) and the mean nocturnal urine volume, nocturia index, NPi, and NBCi decreased significantly. The mean duration of sleep until the first NV was prolonged from 118.4 ± 44.1 to 220.3 ± 90.7 min (P<0.001). The overall impression of patients about their quality of sleep improved. Adverse events occurred in 6 patients, including one asymptomatic hyponatremia. Desmopressin is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mixed nocturia.

  12. Mechanisms for decreased exercise capacity after bed rest in normal middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; Goldwater, D.; Convertino, V.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the decrease in exercise capacity after bed rest were assessed in 12 apparently healthy men aged 50 +/- 4 years who underwent equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy during supine and upright multistage bicycle ergometry before and after 10 days of bed rest. After bed rest, echocardiographically measured supine resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 16% (p less than 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake during supine effort after bed rest was diminished by 6% (p . not significant [NS]), whereas peak oxygen uptake during upright effort declined by 15% (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increases in heart rate were also greater during exercise in the upright than in the supine position (p less than 0.05). Values of left ventricular ejection fraction increased normally during both supine and upright effort after bed rest and were higher than corresponding values before bed rest (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increased left ventricular ejection fraction and heart rate largely compensated for the reduced cardiac volume during supine effort, but these mechanisms were insufficient to maintain oxygen transport capacity at levels during upright effort before bed rest. These results indicate that orthostatically induced cardiac underfilling, not physical deconditioning or left ventricular dysfunction, is the major cause of reduced effort tolerance after 10 days of bed rest in normal middle-aged men

  13. Molar Volume Analysis of Molten Ni-Al-Co Alloy by Measuring the Density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; FANG Liang; FU Yuechao; YANG Lingchuan

    2004-01-01

    The density of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys was measured in the temperature range of 1714~1873K using a modified pycnometric method, and the molar volume of molten alloys was analyzed. The density of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys was found to decrease with increasing temperature and Co concentration in alloys. The molar volume of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys increases with increasing Co concentration in alloys. The molar volume of molten Ni-Al-Co alloys shows a negative deviation from the linear molar volume.

  14. Purinergic signalling - a possible mechanism for KCNQ1 channel response to cell volume challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J.; Meinild, A.-K.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: A number of K(+) channels are regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. The mechanisms underlying cell volume sensitivity are not known, but one possible mechanism could be purinergic signalling. Volume activated ATP release could trigger signalling pathways that subsequently lead...... stimuli. Basal ATP release was approx. three times higher in the KCNQ1 + AQP1 and KCNQ1 injected oocytes compared to the non-injected ones. Exogenously added ATP (0.1 mm) did not have any substantial effect on volume-induced KCNQ1 currents. Nevertheless, apyrase decreased all currents by about 50...

  15. Clinical significance of computed tomography in the measurement of thyroid volume after operation for Basedow's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Yoshio; Miyakawa, Makoto; Sugenoya, Akira

    1986-01-01

    The postoperative volume of the thyroid glands was measured using computed tomography (CT) in 16 patients with Basedow's disease. In the group which had normal postoperative thyroid function and did not need to receive T 4 , CT showed increase of thyroid volume. In three of the four patients who needed to receive it, CT showed decreased thyroid volume, as compared with that immediately after operation. CT has proved to serve as a tool for measuring postoperative thyroid volume for Basedow's disease in relation to postoperative prognosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Decreased sexual capacity after external radiation therapy for prostate cancer impairs quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgason, Asgeir R.; Fredrikson, Mats; Adolfsson, Jan; Steineck, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess to what extent patients treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer experience change in sexual functioning and to what extent this effects quality of life. Methods and Materials: Information was provided by 53 men treated with radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Assessment was made with the ''Radiumhemmets Scale of Sexual Functioning,'' which measures sexual desire, erectile capacity, orgasm, and to what extent a decrease in any of these aspects of sexual functioning affects quality of life. Function before treatment was assessed retrospectively. Results: Sexual desire diminished among 77% after treatment. The erection stiffness decreased in 77%. Before external radiation therapy, 66% had an erection usually sufficient for intercourse. Half of the men lost this ability after treatment. Of those retaining orgasm after treatment, 47% reported a decreased orgasmic pleasure and 91% a reduced ejaculation volume. Of all men, 50% reported that quality of life had decreased much or very much due to a decline in the erectile capacity following external radiation therapy. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that external radiation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with a reduction in sexual desire, erectile capacity, and orgasm functions. In a majority of patients this reduces quality of life. Previously, we may have underestimated the importance an intact sexual function has for the quality of life in this patient category of elderly men

  17. Computed Tomography Colonography Technique: The Role of Intracolonic Gas Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D. McLaughlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Poor distention decreases the sensitivity and specificity of CTC. The total volume of gas administered will vary according to many factors. We aim to determine the relationship between the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition and colonic distention and specifically the presence of collapsed bowel segments at CTC. Materials and Methods. All patients who underwent CTC over a 12-month period at a single institution were included in the study. Colonic luminal distention was objectively scored by 2 radiologists using an established 4-point scale. Quantitative analysis of the volume of retained gas at the time of image acquisition was conducted using the threshold 3D region growing function of OsiriX. Results. 108 patients were included for volumetric analysis. Mean retained gas volume was 3.3 L. 35% (38/108 of patients had at least one collapsed colonic segment. Significantly lower gas volumes were observed in the patients with collapsed colonic segments when compared with those with fully distended colons 2.6 L versus 3.5 L (P=0.031. Retained volumes were significantly higher for the 78% of patients with ileocecal reflux at 3.4 L versus 2.6 L without ileocecal reflux (P=0.014. Conclusion. Estimation of intraluminal gas volume at CTC is feasible using image segmentation and thresholding tools. An average of 3.5 L of retained gas was found in diagnostically adequate CTC studies with significantly lower mean gas volume observed in patients with collapsed colonic segments.

  18. Aldosterone and mortality in hemodialysis patients: role of volume overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Huang, Hsin-Lei; Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2013-01-01

    Elevated aldosterone is associated with increased mortality in the general population. In patients on dialysis, however, the association is reversed. This paradox may be explained by volume overload, which is associated with lower aldosterone and higher mortality. We evaluated the relationship between aldosterone and outcomes in a prospective cohort of 328 hemodialysis patients stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload (defined as extracellular water/total body water >48%, as measured with bioimpedance). Baseline plasma aldosterone was measured before dialysis and categorized as low (280 pg/mL). Overall, 36% (n = 119) of the hemodialysis patients had evidence of volume overload. Baseline aldosterone was significantly lower in the presence of volume overload than in its absence. During a median follow-up of 54 months, 83 deaths and 70 cardiovascular events occurred. Cox multivariate analysis showed that by using the low aldosterone as the reference, high aldosterone was inversely associated with decreased hazard ratios for mortality (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.76) and first cardiovascular event (0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) in the presence of volume overload. In contrast, high aldosterone was associated with an increased risk for mortality (1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.75) and first cardiovascular event (2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.15) in the absence of volume overload. The inverse association of aldosterone with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients is due to the confounding effect of volume overload. These findings support treatment of hyperaldosteronemia in hemodialysis patients who have achieved strict volume control.

  19. The Effect of Fiber Strength Stochastics and Local Fiber Volume Fraction on Multiscale Progressive Failure of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Jr., Thomas E.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous fiber unidirectional polymer matrix composites (PMCs) can exhibit significant local variations in fiber volume fraction as a result of processing conditions that can lead to further local differences in material properties and failure behavior. In this work, the coupled effects of both local variations in fiber volume fraction and the empirically-based statistical distribution of fiber strengths on the predicted longitudinal modulus and local tensile strength of a unidirectional AS4 carbon fiber/ Hercules 3502 epoxy composite were investigated using the special purpose NASA Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC); local effective composite properties were obtained by homogenizing the material behavior over repeating units cells (RUCs). The predicted effective longitudinal modulus was relatively insensitive to small (8%) variations in local fiber volume fraction. The composite tensile strength, however, was highly dependent on the local distribution in fiber strengths. The RUC-averaged constitutive response can be used to characterize lower length scale material behavior within a multiscale analysis framework that couples the NASA code FEAMAC and the ABAQUS finite element solver. Such an approach can be effectively used to analyze the progressive failure of PMC structures whose failure initiates at the RUC level. Consideration of the effect of local variations in constituent properties and morphologies on progressive failure of PMCs is a central aspect of the application of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) principles for composite materials.

  20. Flow and volume dependence of rat airway resistance during constant flow inflation and deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Carniel, Emanuele Luigi; Parmagnani, Andrea; Natali, Arturo Nicola

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the flow and volume dependence of both the ohmic and the viscoelastic pressure dissipations of the normal rat respiratory system separately during inflation and deflation. The study was conducted in the Respiratory Physiology Laboratory in our institution. Measurements were obtained for Seven albino Wistar rats of both sexes by using the flow interruption method during constant flow inflations and deflations. Measurements included anesthesia induction, tracheostomy and positioning of a tracheal cannula, positive pressure ventilation, constant flow respiratory system inflations and deflations at two different volumes and flows. The ohmic resistance exhibited volume and flow dependence, decreasing with lung volume and increasing with flow rate, during both inflation and deflation. The stress relaxation-related viscoelastic resistance also exhibited volume and flow dependence. It decreased with the flow rate at a constant lung volume during both inflation and deflation, but exhibited a different behavior with the lung volume at a constant flow rate (i.e., increased during inflations and decreased during deflations). Thus, stress relaxation in the rat lungs exhibited a hysteretic behavior. The observed flow and volume dependence of respiratory system resistance may be predicted by an equation derived from a model of the respiratory system that consists of two distinct compartments. The equation agrees well with the experimental data and indicates that the loading time is the critical parameter on which stress relaxation depends, during both lung inflation and deflation.

  1. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. PMID:22277302

  2. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... in labor units in 1995-2012. METHODS: Exposure information regarding the annual number of deliveries per labor unit was retrieved from the Danish National Birth Register. Outcome information was retrieved from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. Exposure was categorized in delivery volume...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D...

  3. Single-dose volume regulation algorithm for a gas-compensated intrathecal infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Kim, Kwang Gi; Sung, Mun Hyun; Choi, Seong Wook; Kim, Dae Hyun; Jo, Yung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The internal pressures of medication reservoirs of gas-compensated intrathecal medication infusion pumps decrease when medication is discharged, and these discharge-induced pressure drops can decrease the volume of medication discharged. To prevent these reductions, the volumes discharged must be adjusted to maintain the required dosage levels. In this study, the authors developed an automatic control algorithm for an intrathecal infusion pump developed by the Korean National Cancer Center that regulates single-dose volumes. The proposed algorithm estimates the amount of medication remaining and adjusts control parameters automatically to maintain single-dose volumes at predetermined levels. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can regulate mean single-dose volumes with a variation of 98%. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2010, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  5. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Tácito P; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Bloomer, Richard; Leite, Richard D; Fleck, Steven J; Oliveira, Paulo R; Simão, Roberto

    2011-10-27

    The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI) and decreasing rest intervals (DI) between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR). Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm) or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm). Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets). Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001); however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the CI group versus the DI group, yet strength gains were

  6. Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleck Steven J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the current study was to compare strength and hypertrophy responses to resistance training programs that instituted constant rest intervals (CI and decreasing rest intervals (DI between sets over the course of eight weeks by trained men who supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CR. Methods Twenty-two recreationally trained men were randomly assigned to a CI group (n = 11; 22.3 ± 1 years; 77.7 ± 5.4 kg; 180 ± 2.2 cm or a DI group (n = 11; 22 ± 2.5 years; 75.8 ± 4.9 kg; 178.8 ± 3.4 cm. Subjects in both groups supplemented with CR; the only difference between groups was the rest interval instituted between sets; the CI group used 2 minutes rest intervals between sets and exercises for the entire 8-weeks of training, while the DI group started with a 2 minute rest interval the first two weeks; after which the rest interval between sets was decreased 15 seconds per week (i.e. 2 minutes decreasing to 30 seconds between sets. Pre- and post-intervention maximal strength for the free weight back squat and bench press exercises and isokinetic peak torque were assessed for the knee extensors and flexors. Additionally, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA of the right thigh and upper arm was measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Results Both groups demonstrated significant increases in back squat and bench press maximal strength, knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torque, and upper arm and right thigh CSA from pre- to post-training (p ≤ 0.0001; however, there were no significant differences between groups for any of these variables. The total volume for the bench press and back squat were significantly greater for CI group versus the DI group. Conclusions We report that the combination of CR supplementation and resistance training can increase muscular strength, isokinetic peak torque, and muscle CSA, irrespective of the rest interval length between sets. Because the volume of training was greater for the

  7. Volume dose of organs at risk in the irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Yoshio; Tanaka, Shinichi; Miura, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Absorbed dose of organs at risk in the 50% irradiated volume needs to be carefully monitored because there is high risk of radiation injury. This paper reports on the histogram of threedimensional volume dose of organs at risk, which is obtained by computer calculation of CT scans. In order to obtain this histogram, CT is first performed in the irradiation field. The dose in each pixel is then examined by the computer as to each slice. After the pixels of all slices in the organ at risk of the irradiated field are classified according to the doses, the number of pixels in the same dose class is counted. The result is expressed in a histogram. The histogram can show the differences of influence to organs at risk given by various radiation treatment techniques. Total volume dose of organs at risk after radiotherapy can also be obtained by integration of each dose of different treatment techniques. (author)

  8. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice, and...

  9. A geometric proof of confluence by decreasing diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, J.W.; Oostrom, V. van; Vrijer, R. de

    The criterion for confluence using decreasing diagrams is a generalization of several well-known confluence criteria in abstract rewriting, such as the strong confluence lemma. We give a new proof of the decreasing diagram theorem based on a geometric study of in finite reduction diagrams, arising

  10. Model of optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo, Torsten; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Svensmark, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In order to elucidate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on cloud formation, we investigate the optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases - abrupt decreases in galactic cosmic rays - by means of modeling. We vary the nucleation rate of new aerosols, in a sectional coagulation...

  11. Decreased language lateralization is characteristic of psychosis, not auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; De Weijer, Antoin D.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Decreased language lateralization is a well-replicated finding in psychotic patients. It is currently unclear, however, whether this abnormality is related to a particular symptom of psychosis or to psychosis in general. It has been argued that decreased language lateralization may be related to

  12. Do patients' information needs decrease over the course of radiotherapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Kirsten F. L.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Zandbelt, Linda C.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate if cancer patients' information needs decrease during radiotherapy and if so, which patient, consultation and radiation oncologist characteristics are associated with a decrease in information needs over time. In this longitudinal study, patients (n = 104) completed a

  13. Emergency department spirometric volume and base deficit delineate risk for torso injury in stable patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sipe Eilynn K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to determine torso injury rates and sensitivities associated with fluid-positive abdominal ultrasound, metabolic acidosis (increased base deficit and lactate, and impaired pulmonary physiology (decreased spirometric volume and PaO2/FiO2. Methods Level I trauma center prospective pilot and post-pilot study (2000–2001 of stable patients. Increased base deficit was 2.5 mmol/L in ethanol-negative and ≥ 3.0 mmol/L in ethanol-positive patients. Decreased PaO2/FiO2 was Results Of 215 patients, 66 (30.7% had a torso injury (abdominal/pelvic injury n = 35 and/or thoracic injury n = 43. Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14.8 ± 0.5 (13–15. Torso injury rates and sensitivities were: abdominal ultrasound negative and normal base deficit, lactate, PaO2/FiO2, and spirometric volume – 0.0% & 0.0%; normal base deficit and normal spirometric volume – 4.2% & 4.5%; chest/abdominal soft tissue injury – 37.8% & 47.0%; increased lactate – 39.7% & 47.0%; increased base deficit – 41.3% & 75.8%; increased base deficit and/or decreased spirometric volume – 43.8% & 95.5%; decreased PaO2/FiO2 – 48.9% & 33.3%; positive abdominal ultrasound – 62.5% & 7.6%; decreased spirometric volume – 73.4% & 71.2%; increased base deficit and decreased spirometric volume – 82.9% & 51.5%. Conclusions Trauma patients with normal base deficit and spirometric volume are unlikely to have a torso injury. Patients with increased base deficit or lactate, decreased spirometric volume, decreased PaO2/FiO2, or positive FAST have substantial risk for torso injury. Increased base deficit and/or decreased spirometric volume are highly sensitive for torso injury. Base deficit and spirometric volume values are readily available and increase or decrease the suspicion for torso injury.

  14. [Measurement of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, S; Beaufils, M; Uzan, M; Donsimoni, R; Mareck, A; Salat-Baroux, J; Sureau, C

    1988-02-01

    An increased maternal plasma volume (PV) is a characteristic phenomenon of normal pregnancy, which may be related to a physiological decrease of peripheral resistances. The authors have studied the plasma volume of 1,105 patients distributed as follows: normal (387), permanently hypertensive patients (84), hypertensive patients during pregnancy (390), patients with apparently isolated RCIU (154) or with a pathological past-history during previous pregnancies (90). It appears that the PV is a sign of a severe HBP, and presents a rather early and good predictive value regarding the weight of the fetus and some complications such as severe UCIU and fetal death in utero. In case of pathological past events or pre-existing hypertension, the PV enables to differentiate rather well patients who will be prone to a complicated pregnancy. In view of these results, utilization and interpretation criteria of this parameter during pregnancies with hypertension or pregnancies in which there is a suspicion or a risk of intra-uterine growth delay, are defined.

  15. Respiratory Pattern and Tidal Volumes Differ for Pressure Support and Volume-assured Pressure Support in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Trevor T; Smith, Sean B; Siddique, Teepu; Sufit, Robert; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Coleman, John M; Wolfe, Lisa F

    2017-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neuromuscular disease resulting in respiratory failure and death. Use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) improves survival. However, use of volume-assured pressure support (VAPS) has not been extensively studied in ALS. To explore the clinical usefulness of a detailed evaluation of device-recorded NIV data in the management of chronic respiratory failure in ALS, and to determine whether there are differences in efficacy between patients using VAPS or PS. We performed a retrospective chart review of 271 patients with ALS using either PS or VAPS, along with an evaluation of device-recorded data to explore differences in attainment of goal tidal volumes (Vt) and ratio of respiratory rate to tidal volume (f/Vt), in addition to triggering and cycling ability. Two hundred and fifteen patients were using PS, while 56 were using VAPS. There were no significant differences in demographic data, symptoms, pulmonary function, or patient compliance. Compared with VAPS, achieved Vt was significantly lower for PS while f/Vt was significantly higher. Percent spontaneous triggering was relatively preserved in both cohorts, whereas percent spontaneous cycling was considerably decreased in both. Furthermore, there was no association found between spontaneous triggering or cycling, and pulmonary function, indicating the presence of low spontaneous breath cycling or triggering ability is difficult to predict. Examination of device data for exhaled tidal volumes and f/Vt may be of use in evaluating efficacy of NIV in ALS. VAPS provides more reliable goal Vt than does PS, and is associated with decreased f/Vt. Spontaneous cycling is decreased in ALS despite preservation of triggering ability. Although a set backup rate may address decreased triggering, perhaps more importantly, setting a sufficient fixed inspiratory time would address the issue of decreased cycling.

  16. Thermodynamics with pressure and volume under charged particle absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Bogeun

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the variation of the charged anti-de Sitter black hole under charged particle absorption by considering thermodynamic volume. When the energy of the particle is considered to contribute to the internal energy of the black hole, the variation exactly corresponds to the prediction of the first law of thermodynamics. Nevertheless, we find the decrease of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for extremal and near-extremal black holes under the absorption, which is an irreversible process. This violation of the second law of thermodynamics is only found when considering thermodynamic volume. We test the weak cosmic censorship conjecture affected by the violation. Fortunately, the conjecture is still valid, but extremal and near-extremal black holes do not change their configurations when any particle enters the black hole. This result is quite different from the case in which thermodynamic volume is not considered.

  17. Control volume based hydrocephalus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a disease involving excess amounts of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Recent research has shown correlations to pulsatility of blood flow through the brain. However, the problem to date has presented as too complex for much more than statistical analysis and understanding. This talk will highlight progress on developing a fundamental control volume approach to studying hydrocephalus. The specific goals are to select physiologically control volume(s), develop conservation equations along with the experimental capabilities to accurately quantify terms in those equations. To this end, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the human brain. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. The gel has a hollow spherical cavity representing a ventricle and a cylindrical passage representing the aquaducts. A computer controlled piston pump supplies pulsatile volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity, and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients.

  18. Study on delineation of tumor volume of primary locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma after induction chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Jinhua; Dong Shi; Jin Feng; Wu Weili; Gan Jiaying; Chen Haixia; Li Yuanyuan; Gong Xiuyun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the delineation of gross tumor volume (GTV) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANC) according to imageological changes before and after induction chemotherapy (IC) in order to decrease high dose area and protect normal tissue better. Methods: Between Mar 2010 to Jan 2011, 11 patients with LANC were enrolled and treated with TPF regimen followed by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemotherapy, target volumes were delineated based on fused CT imaging before and after IC following project determination. Tumor target volumes after and before IC were respectively delineated according to imaging tumor residues and were overlaid by CTV nx in order to ensure radical doses for the imaging tumor volume before IC, the resulting differences of tumor target volumes of IC before and after were measured and analyzed by paired t-test. Results: Before and after IC, the average volumes of GTV nx were respectively 44.72 cm 3 and 28.87 (t=3.89, P=0.003), the average volumes of GTV nd were respectively 32.76 cm 3 and 19.82 cm 3 (t=2.47, P=0.033), the volumes of maximum dose area in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball decreased (t=2.93-4.59, all P<0.05). Conclusions: LANC treated by 3 cycle TPF regimen followed by IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy shows significant shrinkage of tumor volume. The volume of high dose region which caused by normally recovered tissues were decreased by re-delineation of target volume in brainstem and spinal cord as well as eyeball of CT images after IC. (authors)

  19. Lung volumes during sustained microgravity on Spacelab SLS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; West, John B.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity is known to influence the mechanical behavior of the lung and chest wall. However, the effect of sustained microgravity (microgravity) on lung volumes has not been reported. Pulmonary function tests were performed by four subjects before, during, and after 9 days of microgravity exposure. Ground measurements were made in standing and supine postures. Tests were performed using a bag-in-box-and-flowmeter system and a respiratory mass spectrometer. Measurements included functional residual capacity (FRC), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), residual volume (RV), inspiratory and expiratory vital capacities (IVC and EVC), and tidal volume (V9sub T)). Total lung capacity (TLC) was derived from the measured EVC and RV values. With preflight standing values as a comparison, FRC was significantly reduced by 15% (approximately 500 ml) in microgravity and 32% in the supine posture. ERV was reduced by 10 - 20% in microgravity and decreased by 64% in the supine posture. RV was significantly reduced by 18% (310 ml) in microgravity but did not significantly change in the supine posture compared with standing. IVC and EVC were slightly reduced during the first 24 h of microgravity but returned to 1-G standing values within 72 h of microgravity exposure. IVC and EVC in the supine posture were significantly reduced by 12% compared with standing. During microgravity, V(sub T) decreased by 15% (approximately 90 ml), but supine V(sub T) was unchanged compared with preflight standing values. TLC decreased by approximately 8% during microgravity and in the supine posture compared with preflight standing. The reductions in FRC, ERV, and RV during microgravity are probably due to the cranial shift of the diaphragm, an increase in intrathoracic blood volume, and more uniform alveolar expansion.

  20. High lung cancer surgical procedure volume is associated with shorter length of stay and lower risks of re-admission and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Riaz, Sharma P; Holmberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset for this anal......It is debated whether treating cancer patients in high-volume surgical centres can lead to improvement in outcomes, such as shorter length of hospital stay, decreased frequency and severity of post-operative complications, decreased re-admission, and decreased mortality. The dataset...... to their geographical population. Higher volume hospitals had shorter length of stay and the odds of re-admission were 15% lower in the highest hospital volume quintile compared with the lowest quintile. Mortality risks were 1% after 30 d and 3% after 90 d. Patients from hospitals in the highest volume quintile had...

  1. Measurement of Gallbladder Volume with Ultrasonography in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Kapicioglu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasting and postprandial gallbladder volumes were investigated using ultrasonography in three groups (10 subjects in each of healthy women: third trimester pregnant women, postpartum women up to 10 days after giving birth and nonpregnant controls. The scans were performed at 09:00 after a 12 h fast. After the basal measurement was taken, gallbladder volumes were rescanned in 15 min intervals for 60 mins. At the end of this period, all volunteers received a standard liquid test meal, and scans were performed again for 1 h. The mean basal gallbladder volume was 22.2±4.2 mL in the nonpregnant (control group. In the third trimester group, the basal volume was 37.8±10.5 mL – 70.5% higher than in the nonpregnant group (P<0.001. In the postpartum group, the mean basal volume was 37.9% lower (27.4±6.5 mL than that of the third trimester group (P<0.02. This basal volume was 23.6% greater than that of the control group (P<0.05. After administration of a test meal, the postprandial gallbladder volumes decreased during the first few minutes compared with baseline values. The volumes decreased by 10.2% to 39.8% (23.5±7.3 to 34.0±10.2; P<0.01 in the third trimester group, by 14.9% to 43.2% (16.6±4.3 to 23.3±5.5; P<0.01, 0.001 in the postpartum group and by 19.2% to 51.6% (11.9±3.5 to 17.9±3.6; P<0.02, 0.05, 0.01, 0.001 in the control group. Postprandial mean gallbladder volumes of the third trimester (P<0.02 and postpartum groups (P<0.02 to 0.01 were significantly different from those of the control group. In conclusion, incomplete emptying of the gallbladder after eating during the third trimester of pregnancy may contribute to cholesterol-gallstone formation, and pregnancy may thus increase the risk of gallstones.

  2. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  3. Age-related changes in volumes of the ventricles, sulci and periventricular hyperintensity area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kenji; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Matsui, Hiroshige; Yamada, Susumu; Hishinuma, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Brain atrophy in 47 subjects without neurologic disturbances, ranging in age from 46 to 82 years, was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, the association of the periventricular hyperintensity area (PVH) recognized with MRI, was also investigated. The volume percentages of the brain, the ventricles and sulci to cranial cavity were calculated as indicators of brain atrophy. The brain volume index decreased and the indeces of the ventricles and sulci linearly increased with age, significantly. The volume ratio of the ventricles to sulci significantly increased with increasing age (p < 0.01) and the correlation coefficient was 0.38. This ratio showed negative correlation to the brain volume index. The volume percentage of PVH to the cranial cavity started to increase in the sixties and negatively correlated with the brain volume index. There was positive correlation between the ratio of the ventricles to sulci and the index of PVH. (author)

  4. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for supervised volumetric segmentation based on a dictionary of small cubes composed of pairs of intensity and label cubes. Intensity cubes are small image volumes where each voxel contains an image intensity. Label cubes are volumes with voxelwise probabilities for a given...... label. The segmentation process is done by matching a cube from the volume, of the same size as the dictionary intensity cubes, to the most similar intensity dictionary cube, and from the associated label cube we get voxel-wise label probabilities. Probabilities from overlapping cubes are averaged...... and hereby we obtain a robust label probability encoding. The dictionary is computed from labeled volumetric image data based on weighted clustering. We experimentally demonstrate our method using two data sets from material science – a phantom data set of a solid oxide fuel cell simulation for detecting...

  5. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  6. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid attenuates kanamycin-induced volume reduction in mouse utricular type I hair cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig Åvall; Kirkegaard, Mette; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2006-01-01

    injection. Total volume of the utricle, as well as total number of hair and supporting cells, were estimated on light microscopic sections. Total volume and mean volume of hair cell types I and II and supporting cells were estimated on digital transmission electron micrographs. Total volume of the utricular...... macula, hair cell type I and supporting cells decreased significantly in animals injected with kanamycin but not in animals co-treated with DHB. Hair and supporting cell numbers remained unchanged in all three groups. In conclusion, the kanamycin-induced volume reduction of type I hair cells...

  7. Decomposition analysis of differential dose volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, Frank van den

    2006-01-01

    Dose volume histograms are a common tool to assess the value of a treatment plan for various forms of radiation therapy treatment. The purpose of this work is to introduce, validate, and apply a set of tools to analyze differential dose volume histograms by decomposing them into physically and clinically meaningful normal distributions. A weighted sum of the decomposed normal distributions (e.g., weighted dose) is proposed as a new measure of target dose, rather than the more unstable point dose. The method and its theory are presented and validated using simulated distributions. Additional validation is performed by analyzing simple four field box techniques encompassing a predefined target, using different treatment energies inside a water phantom. Furthermore, two clinical situations are analyzed using this methodology to illustrate practical usefulness. A comparison of a treatment plan for a breast patient using a tangential field setup with wedges is compared to a comparable geometry using dose compensators. Finally, a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculation is refined using this decomposition. The NTCP calculation is performed on a liver as organ at risk in a treatment of a mesothelioma patient with involvement of the right lung. The comparison of the wedged breast treatment versus the compensator technique yields comparable classical dose parameters (e.g., conformity index ≅1 and equal dose at the ICRU dose point). The methodology proposed here shows a 4% difference in weighted dose outlining the difference in treatment using a single parameter instead of at least two in a classical analysis (e.g., mean dose, and maximal dose, or total dose variance). NTCP-calculations for the mesothelioma case are generated automatically and show a 3% decrease with respect to the classical calculation. The decrease is slightly dependant on the fractionation and on the α/β-value utilized. In conclusion, this method is able to distinguish clinically

  8. Radiographic determination of urinary bladder volume and residual urine volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumair, J.

    1977-01-01

    In the course of a long study the author has tested most of the methods for determination of urinary bladder volume. A radiographic method which can state bladder volume exactly in cc's is attainable only with great time and effort. In the author's experience, however, it is possible, by means of a pattern in connection with a IVP, to estimate residual urine volume from a post-void picture of the bladder with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes. An account is given of the production of this pattern and of two relatively simple calculations for residual volume based on AP and lateral views of circular- and ellipsoid-shaped bladders. Also discussed is the radiation exposure which varies with the radiographic methods used. In male patients, the radiation exposure appears to be negligible, especially when the testicles are protected by a radiation shield. In female patients - which make up only a small fraction of all patients -, radiation exposure is higher but must be accepted. (orig./MG) [de

  9. 36 CFR 223.36 - Volume determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volume determination. 223.36... Volume determination. (a) Timber sale contracts may provide for volume determination by scaling... the contract or permit provides for the determination of volume by tree measurement and the timber has...

  10. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  11. Planimetric determination of lung volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, M.; Maurer, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    The total volume of the lungs was determined by digital planimetry in 102 patients with emphysema and 33 normal controls aged between 30 and 79 years. The results were compared with the findings obtained from spirometric measurements. Mean values showed a significant relationship to age, body size and body surface. Planimetrically determined lung volume did not show a linear relationship with age, but increased after 60 years. Beyong 60 years, spirometric findings were lower because of an increase in the number of patients with emphysema. The results have shown that digital planimetry is a useful addition to spirometry. (orig.) [de

  12. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braggio, C.; Boscardin, M.; Bressi, G.; Carugno, G.; Corti, D.; Galeazzi, G.; Zorzi, N.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm 3 , cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  13. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

  14. MPCV Exercise Operational Volume Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, A.; Humphreys, B.; Funk, J.; Perusek, G.; Lewandowski, B. E.

    2017-01-01

    In order to minimize the loss of bone and muscle mass during spaceflight, the Multi-purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will include an exercise device and enough free space within the cabin for astronauts to use the device effectively. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has been tasked with using computational modeling to aid in determining whether or not the available operational volume is sufficient for in-flight exercise.Motion capture data was acquired using a 12-camera Smart DX system (BTS Bioengineering, Brooklyn, NY), while exercisers performed 9 resistive exercises without volume restrictions in a 1g environment. Data were collected from two male subjects, one being in the 99th percentile of height and the other in the 50th percentile of height, using between 25 and 60 motion capture markers. Motion capture data was also recorded as a third subject, also near the 50th percentile in height, performed aerobic rowing during a parabolic flight. A motion capture system and algorithms developed previously and presented at last years HRP-IWS were utilized to collect and process the data from the parabolic flight [1]. These motions were applied to a scaled version of a biomechanical model within the biomechanical modeling software OpenSim [2], and the volume sweeps of the motions were visually assessed against an imported CAD model of the operational volume. Further numerical analysis was performed using Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the OpenSim API. This analysis determined the location of every marker in space over the duration of the exercise motion, and the distance of each marker to the nearest surface of the volume. Containment of the exercise motions within the operational volume was determined on a per-exercise and per-subject basis. The orientation of the exerciser and the angle of the footplate were two important factors upon which containment was dependent. Regions where the exercise motion exceeds the bounds of the operational volume have been

  15. Cholinergic depletion and basal forebrain volume in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien Schaeverbeke

    2017-01-01

    In the PPA group, only LV cases showed decreases in AChE activity levels compared to controls. Surprisingly, a substantial number of SV cases showed significant AChE activity increases compared to controls. BF volume did not correlate with AChE activity levels in PPA. To conclude, in our sample of PPA patients, LV but not SV was associated with cholinergic depletion. BF atrophy in PPA does not imply cholinergic depletion.

  16. Brain volume reduction after whole-brain radiotherapy: quantification and prognostic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Distel, Luitpold; Knippen, Stefan; Gryc, Thomas; Schmidt, Manuel Alexander; Fietkau, Rainer; Putz, Florian

    2018-01-22

    Recent studies have questioned the value of adding whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) to stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastasis treatment. Neurotoxicity, including radiation-induced brain volume reduction, could be one reason why not all patients benefit from the addition of WBRT. In this study, we quantified brain volume reduction after WBRT and assessed its prognostic significance. Brain volumes of 91 patients with cerebral metastases were measured during a 150-day period after commencing WBRT and were compared with their pretreatment volumes. The average daily relative change in brain volume of each patient, referred to as the "brain volume reduction rate," was calculated. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the prognostic significance of the brain volume reduction rate, as well as of 3 treatment-related and 9 pretreatment factors. A one-way analysis of variance was used to compare the brain volume reduction rate across recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the brain volume reduction rate was a significant predictor of overall survival after WBRT (P < 0.001), as well as the number of brain metastases (P = 0.002) and age (P = 0.008). Patients with a relatively favorable prognosis (RPA classes 1 and 2) experienced significantly less brain volume decrease after WBRT than patients with a poor prognosis (RPA class 3) (P = 0.001). There was no significant correlation between delivered radiation dose and brain volume reduction rate (P = 0.147). In this retrospective study, a smaller decrease in brain volume after WBRT was an independent predictor of longer overall survival. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Normal reference values for vertebral artery flow volume by color Doppler sonography in Korean adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Hyun Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Park, Seong Jin; Joh, Joon Hee; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Hae Kyung; Ahn, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    Vertebrobasilar ischemia has been attributed to a reduction of net vertebral artery flow volume. This study was to establish the reference values for the flow volume of the vertebral artery using color Doppler sonography in the normal Korea adults. Thirty five normal Korea adults without any underlying disease including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, heart disease, obesity (body mas index>30), or carotid artery stenosis was included. There were 17 males and 18 females, age ranged from 20 to 53 years (average=32.86 years). Flow velocities and vessel diameters were recorded in the intertransverse (V2) segment, usually at C5-6 level, bilaterally. The flow volume (Q) was calculated. (Q=time averaged mean velocity x cross sectional area of vessel) A lower Flow velocity and smaller vessel diameter were measured on the right side compared to those of the left side, resulting in a lower flow volume. The calculated flow volumes using the equation were 77.0 +- 39.7 ml/min for the right side and 127.6 +- 71.0 ml/min for the left side (p=0.0001) while the net vertebral artery flow volume was 204.6 +- 81.8 ml/min. Decrease in the vertebral artery flow volume was statistically significant with advanced age. (r=-0.36, p=0.032). Vertebral artery blood flow volume was 191.20 +- 59.19 ml/min in male, and 217.28 +- 98.67 ml/min in female (p=0.6). The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume defined by the 5th to 95th percentiles was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. The normal range for the net vertebral artery flow volume was between 110.06 and 364.1 ml/min. Vertebral artery flow volume decreased with the increase of age. However, gender did not affect the blood flow volume.

  18. MRI definition of target volumes using fuzzy logic method for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; Vial, Stephane; Gibon, David; Kulik, Carine; Fournier, Charles; Castelain, Bernard; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Rousseau, Jean

    2003-01-01

    volumes calculated by the fuzzy logic method. On radiosurgery clinical cases, target volumes defined by the fuzzy logic method are about half of the size of volumes defined by the classical method. Also, intra- and interobserver variations slightly decrease with the fuzzy logic method, resulting in the definition of a better common volume fraction. Conclusion: Our fuzzy logic method shows accurate, robust, and reproducible results on phantoms and clinical targets imaged on MRI

  19. Age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Intractable epileptic adolescents have higher scores for physical functioning and health perception, but lower scores for social stigmatization. Social support has extremely low scores. Increasing age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy.

  20. Proactive pharmaceutical care interventions decrease patients' nonadherence to osteoporosis medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman-Bieze, A G G; Hiddink, E G; van Boven, J F M; Vegter, S

    UNLABELLED: Using a protocolled intervention program, pharmacists can decrease nonadherence to osteoporosis medication, by continuous monitoring and tailored counseling sessions, starting at treatment initiation. In the usual care group, 32.8% of patients initiating osteoporosis medication

  1. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  2. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  3. Forbush decreases and particle acceleration in the outer heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Allen, J.A.; Mihalov, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Major solar flare activity in 1989 has provided examples of the local acceleration of protons at 28 AU (Pioneer 11) and of the propagation of Forbush decreases in galactic cosmic ray intensity to a heliocentric radial distance of 47 AU (Pioneer 10). The combination of these and previous data at lesser distances shows (a) that Forbush decreases propagate with essentially constant magnitude to (at least) 47 AU and with similar magnitude at widely different ecliptic longitudes and (b) that the times for recovery from such decreases become progressively greater as the radial distance increases, being of the order of months in the outer heliosphere. A phenomenological scheme for (b) is proposed and fresh support is given to the hypothesis that the solar cycle modulation of the galactic cosmic ray intensity is attributable primarily to overlapping Forbush decreases which are more frequent and of greater magnitude near times of maximum solar activity than at times of lesser activity

  4. Drug Combo Decreases Colorectal Polyps in People with FAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    In people with familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP, a combination treatment of erlotinib (Tarceva) and sulindac (Aflodac) decreased the number of precancerous colorectal polyps, according to recently published clinical trial results.

  5. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  6. Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive Training Programme in the Decrease of Stress of Daily ... which involves, teaching mnemonic strategies: organization, visualization and association for ... and they should be made to participate in training to focus on thinking ability to ...

  7. Recombinant erythropoietin acutely decreases renal perfusion and decouples the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aachmann-Andersen, Niels J; Christensen, Soren J; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Oturai, Peter; Johansson, Pär I; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Olsen, Niels V

    2018-03-01

    The effect of recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) on renal and systemic hemodynamics was evaluated in a randomized double-blinded, cross-over study. Sixteen healthy subjects were tested with placebo, or low-dose rhEPO for 2 weeks, or high-dose rhEPO for 3 days. Subjects refrained from excessive salt intake, according to instructions from a dietitian. Renal clearance studies were done for measurements of renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the segmentel tubular handling of sodium and water (lithium clearance). rhEPO increased arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance, and renal vascular resistance, and decreased renal plasma flow in the high-dose rhEPO intervention and tended to decrease GFR. In spite of the decrease in renal perfusion, rhEPO tended to decrease reabsorption of sodium and water in the proximal tubule and induced a prompt decrease in circulating levels of renin and aldosterone, independent of changes in red blood cell mass, blood volumes, and blood pressure. We also found changes in biomarkers showing evidence that rhEPO induced a prothrombotic state. Our results suggest that rhEPO causes a direct downregulation in proximal tubular reabsorption that seems to decouple the activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system from changes in renal hemodynamics. This may serve as a negative feed-back mechanism on endogenous synthesis of EPO when circulating levels of EPO are high. These results demonstrates for the first time in humans a direct effect of rhEPO on renal hemodynamics and a decoupling of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Regional hippocampal volumes and development predict learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Engvig, Andreas; Grydeland, Håkon; Krogsrud, Stine K; Østby, Ylva; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is an anatomically and functionally heterogeneous structure, but longitudinal studies of its regional development are scarce and it is not known whether protracted maturation of the hippocampus in adolescence is related to memory development. First, we investigated hippocampal subfield development using 170 longitudinally acquired brain magnetic resonance imaging scans from 85 participants aged 8-21 years. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated by the use of automated segmentation of 7 subfields, including the cornu ammonis (CA) sectors and the dentate gyrus (DG), while longitudinal subfield volumetric change was quantified using a nonlinear registration procedure. Second, associations between subfield volumes and change and verbal learning/memory across multiple retention intervals (5 min, 30 min and 1 week) were tested. It was hypothesized that short and intermediate memory would be more closely related to CA2-3/CA4-DG and extended, remote memory to CA1. Change rates were significantly different across hippocampal subfields, but nearly all subfields showed significant volume decreases over time throughout adolescence. Several subfield volumes were larger in the right hemisphere and in males, while for change rates there were no hemisphere or sex differences. Partly in support of the hypotheses, greater volume of CA1 and CA2-3 was related to recall and retention after an extended delay, while longitudinal reduction of CA2-3 and CA4-DG was related to learning. This suggests continued regional development of the hippocampus across adolescence and that volume and volume change in specific subfields differentially predict verbal learning and memory over different retention intervals, but future high-resolution studies are called for. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. HUMAN GLOMERULAR VOLUME QUANTIFICATIONDURING THE AGING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Zdravković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney function is directly related to the changes of renal tissue, especially glomeruli, which is particularly distinct during the aging process. The impossibility of kidney function substitution points to the need for glomerular morphologic and functional characteristics estimation during the aging process.Human cadaveric kidney tissue samples were used as material during research. Age of cadavers ranged from 20 to 70 years and they were classified according to the scheme: I (20–29; II (30–39; III (40–49; IV (50–59; V (60–69 i VI (older than 70. After the routine histologic preparation of the renal tissue the slices were analized stereologicaly under the light microscope with projection screen (Reichert Visopan with 40 x lens magnification. M42 test system was used and 100, by unbased method selected glomeruli, were analyzed.Average glomerular capillary network volume shows significant increase (p< 0,001 as far as to the age of 50 years in regard to the age of 20 to 29 years. This parameter shows insignificant decrease after the age of 50 until the age of 70 years. This decrease was significant after the age of 70 years in regard to the period of the 20 to 29 (p< 0,05 and the period of 40 to 49 years (p<0,01.

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of decreased ventilation rates and radon exhalation from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Decreased ventilation, achieved by weather stripping and other tightening measures, is the most cost effective way to energy conservation. A very low investment can result in a considerable decrease in ventilation rate. For a typical detached house in Sweden this can be equivalent to a decrease in oil consumption of 0.5 m 3 . At present price this corresponds to a saving of SEK 1200, 150 US dollars per annum. The contribution of the building materials to the concentration of radon in indoor air is approximately the inverse to air exchange rate. For a small change in ventilation rate and cost, in SEK/man Sv or US dollar/man Sv, is a function of ventilation rate, exhalation from building materials, the ratio between surface of walls, floor and ceiling to the volume of air. Thus, it is possible to find the specific ventilation rate where the marginal cost for a small increase in ventilation rate and the marginal reduction in radon concentration will give a specific amount of money for each man Sv. Examples are given. Conclusions are that for most building materials in a climate like the Swedish, there are other factors than exhalation of radon from building materials that sets the lower limit of recommendable ventilation rate. (Author)

  11. Worse Neurological State During Acute Ischemic Stroke is Associated with a Decrease in Serum Albumin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewicz, Joanna; Kurzepa, Jacek; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Kamieniak, Piotr; Daniluk, Beata; Bartosik-Psujek, Halina; Rejdak, Konrad

    2016-04-01

    High serum albumin levels during ischemic stroke (IS) decrease the risk of a poor outcome. This study aimed to determine whether serum albumin levels within the first days after IS correlate with radiological and biochemical markers of brain tissue damage. Fifty-six IS patients were enrolled into the study. Neurological examinations were based on the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. Serum albumin levels and S100BB were evaluated using commercially available ELISA kits. The albumin decrease index (ADI) was calculated as the difference between serum albumin levels measured on days 1 and 10 of IS. All parameters were estimated on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th days of IS, and the volume of ischemic focus was measured on the 10th day. Mean serum albumin levels were decreased during acute IS. There were correlations between the ADI and mean S100BB serum levels (r = 0.36, p albumin levels during the acute phase of IS corresponds to a worse neurological state as a result of a large ischemic focus with intense catabolic processes.

  12. Effect of naftopidil on brain noradrenaline-induced decrease in arginine-vasopressin secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Naftopidil, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been shown to inhibit nocturnal polyuria in patients with lower urinary tract symptom. However, it remains unclear how naftopidil decreases nocturnal urine production. Here, we investigated the effects of naftopidil on arginine-vasopressin (AVP plasma level and urine production and osmolality in rats centrally administered with noradrenaline (NA. NA (3 or 30 μg/kg was administered into the left ventricle (i.c.v. of male Wistar rats 3 h after naftopidil pretreatment (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.. Blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava 1 h after NA administration or 4 h after peritoneal administration of naftopidil; plasma levels of AVP were assessed by ELISA. Voiding behaviors of naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.-administered male Wistar rats were observed during separate light- and dark cycles. Administration of NA decreased plasma AVP levels and elevated urine volume, which were suppressed by systemic pretreatment with naftopidil (30 mg/kg, i.p.. Urine osmolality decreased 1 h after NA administration. However, naftopidil by itself had no effect on plasma AVP levels or urodynamic parameters during light- and dark cycles. Our findings suggest that systemic administration of naftopidil could prevent central noradrenergic nervous system-mediated decline in AVP secretion and increase in urine production in rats.

  13. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  14. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-24

    Nov 24, 2013 ... nation and volume of urine voided; from1- 2 times to 10. -15 times during the day ... Serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine done on admis- sion showed ... cient synthesis and or release of AVP.7The clinical manifestation of ...

  15. Dictionary Based Segmentation in Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerson, Monica Jane; Jespersen, Kristine Munk; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    Method for supervised segmentation of volumetric data. The method is trained from manual annotations, and these annotations make the method very flexible, which we demonstrate in our experiments. Our method infers label information locally by matching the pattern in a neighborhood around a voxel ...... to a dictionary, and hereby accounts for the volume texture....

  16. Spectrum '86: Proceedings: Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, J.M.; Leonard, I.M.; Mayer, E.J.

    1987-07-01

    This document, Volume 2, contains 96 papers on various aspects of radioactive waste management. Session topics include decontamination and decommissioning/endash/industry experience, characterization and safety, techniques, facility and plant decontamination; TRU waste management; regulatory aspects; economics; environmental issues and impacts; construction, operation, and maintenance. Individual papers were processed separately for the data bases

  17. NJP VOLUME 39 No 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-02-28

    Feb 28, 2012 ... Disorders affecting fluid volume and electrolyte compo- sition are common ... knowledge of the mechanism of action of diuretic drugs and appropriate ... Presence of non-permeable solute will oppose H2O ex- traction. NaCl is actively .... loop not affected. • In oral administration rate and extent of absorption.

  18. Volume tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd A. Johnson; R. M. Kallander; Paul G. Lauterbach

    1949-01-01

    The increasing importance of red alder as a commercial species in the Pacific Northwest has prompted the three agencies listed above to pool their tree measurement data for the construction of standard regional red alder volume tables. The tables included here were based on trees from a variety of sites and form classes. Approximately one quarter of the total number of...

  19. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: Safeguards-Related Problems; Neutronics and Criticality; Operations and Systems Experience II; Plutonium Systems; Intermediate Storage in Casks; Operations and Systems Planning; Institutional Issues; Structural and Thermal Evaluation I; Poster Session B; Extended Testing I; Structural and Thermal Evaluation II; Extended Testing II; and Emergency Preparedness and Response. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  20. Volume 7 No. 2 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    communities in Butere, and three of the eight communities, in Khwisero. The ... 3. Volume 7 No. 2 2007. INTRODUCTION. Micronutrient malnutrition is recognized as a serious threat to the health and productivity of people. Deficiencies in three major ... They also have uncontested advantage of allowing for the natural.

  1. Editorial, Volume 5, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy L. Archuleta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Volume 5, Issue 1 of the Journal of Financial Therapy! In this issue, four scholarly papers are presented along with two profiles and a book review. These four papers address very important issues, such as mental health therapists’ competency in working with financial issues, financial stress of college students, parental messages about money, and financial advice media.

  2. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  3. PATRAM '80. Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 contains papers from the following sessions: Plenary Session; Regulations, Licensing and Standards; LMFBR Systems Concepts; Risk/Safety Assessment I; Systems and Package Design; US Institutional Issues; Risk/Safety Assessment II; Leakage, Leak Rate and Seals; Poster Session A; Operations and Systems Experience I; Manufacturing Processes and Materials; and Quality Assurance and Maintenance. Individual papers were processed. (LM)

  4. Volume 7 No. 2 2007

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROP4

    (having been in operation for at least five years). ... rights of the child, the children were weighed in light clothing rather than in the nude. ..... 13. Volume 7 No. 2 2007. Table 1: Mean Z-scores by Area, Type of Farming, Income Level, Sex of ...

  5. Healing Magazine, Volume 8, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    This volume of "Healing Magazine" features practical, clinical information aimed at sharing current work in children's mental health. The first issue contains articles on intervention for self-injurious behavior, providing school-based grief groups, effectively using time-out as a parenting tool, and KidsPeace's suicide prevention…

  6. History of CERN. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krige, J.

    1996-01-01

    The present volume continues the story of the history of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, concentrating on the years between the mid 1960s and the late 1970s. Whereas the first two volumes were the product of a team of historians, this book is rather a collection of studies by authors with very different professional backgrounds and institutional locations. It also differs from the predecessor volumes in the fact that it consists of distinct case studies dealing with a number of issues deemed important. The first part of this volume, containing contributions by historians of science, perceives the laboratory as being at the node of a complex of interconnected relationships between scientists and science managers on the staff, the users in the member states, and the governments which were called upon to finance the laboratory. In part 2 the physical results, obtained at CERN, are surveyed, while in part 3 two chapters are presented, one on engineering and technology, and the other on the research and development of electronic position detectors

  7. Eddy current manual, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecco, V.S.; Van Drunen, G.; Sharp, F.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report on eddy current testing is divided into three sections: (a) Demonstration of Basic Principles, (b) Practical (Laboratory) Tests and, (c) Typical Certification Questions. It is intended to be used as a supplement to ΣEddy Current Manual, Volume 1Σ (AECL-7523) during CSNDT Foundation Level II and III courses

  8. Gray and white matter volume abnormalities in monozygotic and same-gender dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilshoff, Hilleke E.; Brans, Rachel G. H.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole brain tissue volume decreases in schizophrenia have been related to both genetic risk factors and disease-related (possibly nongenetic) factors; however, whether genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia are differentially reflected...... in gray or white matter volume change is not known. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-gender dizygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia were acquired and compared with 11 monozygotic and 11 same-gender dizygotic healthy control twin pairs. RESULTS......: Repeated-measures volume analysis of covariance revealed decreased whole brain volume in the patients with schizophrenia as compared with their co-twins and with healthy twin pairs. Decreased white matter volume was found in discordant twin pairs compared with healthy twin pairs, particularly...

  9. Decreasing Temporal Lobe Dose With Five-Field Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Treatment of Pituitary Macroadenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parhar, Preeti K.; Duckworth, Tamara; Shah, Parinda; DeWyngaert, J. Keith; Narayana, Ashwatha; Formenti, Silvia C.; Shah, Jinesh N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare temporal lobe dose delivered by three pituitary macroadenoma irradiation techniques: three-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), three-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (3F IMRT), and a proposed novel alternative of five-field IMRT (5F IMRT). Methods and Materials: Computed tomography-based external beam radiotherapy planning was performed for 15 pituitary macroadenoma patients treated at New York University between 2002 and 2007 using: 3D-CRT (two lateral, one midline superior anterior oblique [SAO] beams), 3F IMRT (same beam angles), and 5F IMRT (same beam angles with additional right SAO and left SAO beams). Prescription dose was 45 Gy. Target volumes were: gross tumor volume (GTV) = macroadenoma, clinical target volume (CTV) = GTV, and planning target volume = CTV + 0.5 cm. Structure contouring was performed by two radiation oncologists guided by an expert neuroradiologist. Results: Five-field IMRT yielded significantly decreased temporal lobe dose delivery compared with 3D-CRT and 3F IMRT. Temporal lobe sparing with 5F IMRT was most pronounced at intermediate doses: mean V25Gy (% of total temporal lobe volume receiving ≥25 Gy) of 13% vs. 28% vs. 29% for right temporal lobe and 14% vs. 29% vs. 30% for left temporal lobe for 5F IMRT, 3D-CRT, and 3F IMRT, respectively (p -7 for 5F IMRT vs. 3D-CRT and 5F IMRT vs. 3F IMRT). Five-field IMRT plans did not compromise target coverage, exceed normal tissue dose constraints, or increase estimated brain integral dose. Conclusions: Five-field IMRT irradiation technique results in a statistically significant decrease in the dose to the temporal lobes and may thus help prevent neurocognitive sequelae in irradiated pituitary macroadenoma patients.

  10. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in Parkinson's disease also decreases at thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hideaki; Udaka, Fukashi; Oda, Masaya; Tamura, Akiko; Kubori, Tamotsu; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2005-01-01

    Decreased cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was reported in Parkinson's disease and this contributes to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism such as multiple system atrophy. However, decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to compare MIBG uptake of the thyroid among Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and controls. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease, 11 patients with multiple system atrophy and 14 controls were examined in this study. Planar images were taken 15 minutes (early images) and 3 hours (late images) after intravenous injection of 111 MBq 123 I-MIBG. MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly in Parkinson's disease compared to controls (p<0.0001) and multiple system atrophy (p=0.018). MIBG uptake of the thyroid on early images decreased significantly also in multiple system atrophy compared to controls (p=0.027). On late images, thyroid uptake differed significantly only between Parkinson's disease and controls (p=0.010). Our study is the first to demonstrate decreased MIBG uptake of the thyroid in Parkinson's disease. Sympathetic nervous denervation of Parkinson's disease occurred not only in the heart but also in the thyroid. (author)

  11. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  12. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sbragia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1 and VEGFR2 (Flk-1, in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each of four different gestational days (GD 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC, exposed to olive oil (OO, exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-, and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH on GD 9.5 (term=22 days. The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW, total lung weight (TLW, left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216. All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05 and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression.

  13. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbragia, L. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Nassr, A.C.C. [Departamento de Hidrobiologia do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Hidrobiologia do Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gonçalves, F.L.L. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Schmidt, A.F. [Pediatrics House Office, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Pediatrics House Office, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zuliani, C.C. [Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, P.V. [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gallindo, R.M. [Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Cirurgia Pediátrica, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Pereira, L.A.V. [Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Histologia e Embriologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression.

  14. Decreased Vertebral Artery Hemodynamics in Patients with Loss of Cervical Lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet Deniz; Alpayci, Mahmut; Şenköy, Emre; Bora, Aydin; Yazmalar, Levent; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Gülşen, İsmail

    2016-02-15

    BACKGROUND Because loss of cervical lordosis leads to disrupted biomechanics, the natural lordotic curvature is considered to be an ideal posture for the cervical spine. The vertebral arteries proceed in the transverse foramen of each cervical vertebra. Considering that the vertebral arteries travel in close anatomical relationship to the cervical spine, we speculated that the loss of cervical lordosis may affect vertebral artery hemodynamics. The aim of this study was to compare the vertebral artery values between subjects with and without loss of cervical lordosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 30 controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index were included in the study. Sixty vertebral arteries in patients with loss of cervical lordosis and 60 in controls without loss of cervical lordosis were evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Vertebral artery hemodynamics, including lumen diameter, flow volume, peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, and resistive index, were measured, and determined values were statistically compared between the patient and the control groups. RESULTS The means of diameter (p=0.003), flow volume (p=0.002), and peak systolic velocity (p=0.014) in patients were significantly lower as compared to controls. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of the end-diastolic velocity (p=0.276) and resistive index (p=0.536) parameters. CONCLUSIONS The present study revealed a significant association between loss of cervical lordosis and decreased vertebral artery hemodynamics, including diameter, flow volume, and peak systolic velocity. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to investigate their possible clinical implications.

  15. VEGF receptor expression decreases during lung development in congenital diaphragmatic hernia induced by nitrofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbragia, L.; Nassr, A.C.C.; Gonçalves, F.L.L.; Schmidt, A.F.; Zuliani, C.C.; Garcia, P.V.; Gallindo, R.M.; Pereira, L.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in pulmonary vessels have been described in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension; however, how the expression of VEGF receptors changes during fetal lung development in CDH is not understood. The aim of this study was to compare morphological evolution with expression of VEGF receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1), in pseudoglandular, canalicular, and saccular stages of lung development in normal rat fetuses and in fetuses with CDH. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups (n=20 fetuses each) of four different gestational days (GD) 18.5, 19.5, 20.5, 21.5: external control (EC), exposed to olive oil (OO), exposed to 100 mg nitrofen, by gavage, without CDH (N-), and exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH) on GD 9.5 (term=22 days). The morphological variables studied were: body weight (BW), total lung weight (TLW), left lung weight, TLW/BW ratio, total lung volume, and left lung volume. The histometric variables studied were: left lung parenchymal area density and left lung parenchymal volume. VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression were determined by Western blotting. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance with the Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. CDH frequency was 37% (80/216). All the morphological and histometric variables were reduced in the N- and CDH groups compared with the controls, and reductions were more pronounced in the CDH group (P<0.05) and more evident on GD 20.5 and GD 21.5. Similar results were observed for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression. We conclude that N- and CDH fetuses showed primary pulmonary hypoplasia, with a decrease in VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 expression

  16. Evaluation of whole genome amplified DNA to decrease material expenditure and increase quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bækvad-Hansen

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Whole genome amplified DNA samples from dried blood spots is well suited for array genotyping and produces robust and reliable genotype data. However, the amplification process introduces additional noise to the data, making detection of structural variants such as copy number variants difficult. With this study, we explore ways of optimizing the amplification protocol in order to reduce noise and increase data quality. We found, that the amplification process was very robust, and that changes in amplification time or temperature did not alter the genotyping calls or quality of the array data. Adding additional replicates of each sample also lead to insignificant changes in the array data. Thus, the amount of noise introduced by the amplification process was consistent regardless of changes made to the amplification protocol. We also explored ways of decreasing material expenditure by reducing the spot size or the amplification reaction volume. The reduction did not affect the quality of the genotyping data.

  17. Is April to July runoff really decreasing in the Western United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Global warming has been the topic of a great deal of heated discussion and debate in recent years, both in the lay press and in scientific journals. The debate is about whether we are beginning to detect signs of a buildup of greenhouse gases on a global scale. A major part of the debate concerns the possible effects on climate and on the future availability of water resources. The ongoing drought in California has added impetus to the debate, serving notice of the serious consequences of any prolonged decrease in the availability of adequate water supplies. This paper has three primary objectives: (1) To evaluate the ramifications of using fractional runoff rather than total runoff to define trends in runoff; (2) to analyze additional streamflow data for the presence and extent of trends in annual and seasonal runoff volume for the conterminous Western United States; and (3) to examine the influence of the current California drought on indicators of trend.

  18. Solifenacin objectively decreases urinary sensation in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lior; Kenton, Kimberly; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brubaker, Linda; Sabo, Edmond; Durazo-Arivzu, Ramón A; Fitzgerald, Mary P

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a device that measures urinary sensation during cystometry, and to use that device to determine whether treatment of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with solifenacin is associated with a change in urinary sensation. Overall 15 women were recruited for this study, ten women with OAB and urodynamically demonstrated detrusor overactivity and five controls without OAB underwent filling cystometry twice with contemporaneous, continuous recording of urinary sensation. Women with OAB received solifenacin 10 mg daily during the weeks between testing. We compared the areas under the initial and repeat sensation-volume curves. While taking solifenacin, the maximum cystometric capacity increased from 329 ± 168 ml to 464 ± 123 ml (P sensation curve decreased (P sensation during the treatment of OAB with solifenacin. If clinical correlations are confirmed by future study, such urinary sensation measures may prove useful as assessment, treatment predictor, or outcome measures in OAB research and/or clinical care.

  19. Delivered volumes of enteral nutrition exceed prescribed volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Renee Nichole; Utech, Anne; Velez, Maria Eugenia; Schwartz, Katie

    2014-10-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) provisions are typically calculated based on a 24-hour infusion period. However, feedings are often interrupted for daily activities, procedures, or gastrointestinal intolerance. The study's objective was to determine the delivered EN quantities provided to stable hospitalized patients, using cellular time and measured volumes to verify our EN calculation adjustment. A supply of consecutively numbered ready-to-hang (RTH) EN product was delivered to the bedside of 26 inpatients with established EN tolerance at goal rates on various types of nursing units. The dietitian weighed the volume remaining in the infusing product and recorded the measurement time. On the following days, the dietitian continued to weigh the infusing RTH product and the empty RTH bottles saved by nursing. The primary outcome was the difference between the prescribed and delivered EN provisions, which was calculated with a paired t test. Patients received significantly more calories in the delivered enteral feeding (mean [SD], 1678 [385] kcal) than prescribed calories in the EN order (1489 [246 kcal]; t = 3.736, P = .001), adjusting for observed time. No significant differences were found between nursing units, product, and rate. EN delivered may actually exceed ordered amounts by 5%–21% (mean, 12%) with feeding pump inaccuracy as the primary contributing factor. This differs from what others have found. Our findings support using a volume-based ordering system vs a rate-based ordering system for more accurate EN delivery.

  20. The brain matures with stronger functional connectivity and decreased randomness of its network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J A Smit

    Full Text Available We investigated the development of the brain's functional connectivity throughout the life span (ages 5 through 71 years by measuring EEG activity in a large population-based sample. Connectivity was established with Synchronization Likelihood. Relative randomness of the connectivity patterns was established with Watts and Strogatz' (1998 graph parameters C (local clustering and L (global path length for alpha (~10 Hz, beta (~20 Hz, and theta (~4 Hz oscillation networks. From childhood to adolescence large increases in connectivity in alpha, theta and beta frequency bands were found that continued at a slower pace into adulthood (peaking at ~50 yrs. Connectivity changes were accompanied by increases in L and C reflecting decreases in network randomness or increased order (peak levels reached at ~18 yrs. Older age (55+ was associated with weakened connectivity. Semi-automatically segmented T1 weighted MRI images of 104 young adults revealed that connectivity was significantly correlated to cerebral white matter volume (alpha oscillations: r = 33, p<01; theta: r = 22, p<05, while path length was related to both white matter (alpha: max. r = 38, p<001 and gray matter (alpha: max. r = 36, p<001; theta: max. r = 36, p<001 volumes. In conclusion, EEG connectivity and graph theoretical network analysis may be used to trace structural and functional development of the brain.

  1. Decreased pyramidal neuron size in Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Descombes, Sarah; Uppal, Neha; Wicinski, Bridget; Santos, Micaela; Schmeidler, James; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Heinsen, Helmut; Heinsein, Helmut; Schmitz, Christoph; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-07-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and social communication, as well as by the presence of repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal cortex, which are involved in language processing, imitation function, and sociality processing networks, have been implicated in this complex disorder. Using a stereologic approach, this study aims to explore the presence of neuropathological differences in areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism compared to age- and hemisphere-matched controls. Based on previous evidence in the fusiform gyrus, we expected to find a decrease in the number and size of pyramidal neurons as well as an increase in volume of layers III, V, and VI in patients with autism. We observed significantly smaller pyramidal neurons in patients with autism compared to controls, although there was no difference in pyramidal neuron numbers or layer volumes. The reduced pyramidal neuron size suggests that a certain degree of dysfunction of areas 44 and 45 plays a role in the pathology of autism. Our results also support previous studies that have shown specific cellular neuropathology in autism with regionally specific reduction in neuron size, and provide further evidence for the possible involvement of the mirror neuron system, as well as impairment of neuronal networks relevant to communication and social behaviors, in this disorder.

  2. Blowfly puparia in a hermetic container: survival under decreasing oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Despite widely accepted standards for sampling and preservation of insect evidence, unrepresentative samples or improperly preserved evidence are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Here, we report the results of laboratory studies on the survival of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) intra-puparial forms in hermetic containers, which were stimulated by a recent case. It is demonstrated that the survival of blowfly intra-puparial forms inside airtight containers is dependent on container volume, number of puparia inside, and their age. The survival in both species was found to increase with an increase in the volume of air per 1 mg of puparium per day of development in a hermetic container. Below 0.05 ml of air, no insect survived, and above 0.2 ml of air per 1 mg of puparium per day, survival reached its maximum. These results suggest that blowflies reveal a single, general pattern of survival under decreasing oxygen conditions and that this pattern is a product of number of developing insects, their age and the initial amount of available air. Implications for forensic entomology are discussed.

  3. Recent decrease in typhoon destructive potential and global warming implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-I; Chan, Johnny C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoons (tropical cyclones) severely impact the half-billion population of the Asian Pacific. Intriguingly, during the recent decade, typhoon destructive potential (Power Dissipation Index, PDI) has decreased considerably (by ∼35%). This decrease, paradoxically, has occurred despite the increase in typhoon intensity and ocean warming. Using the method proposed by Emanuel (in 2007), we show that the stronger negative contributions from typhoon frequency and duration, decrease to cancel the positive contribution from the increasing intensity, controlling the PDI. Examining the typhoons' environmental conditions, we find that although the ocean condition became more favourable (warming) in the recent decade, the atmospheric condition ‘worsened' at the same time. The ‘worsened' atmospheric condition appears to effectively overpower the ‘better' ocean conditions to suppress PDI. This stronger negative contribution from reduced typhoon frequency over the increased intensity is also present under the global warming scenario, based on analysis of the simulated typhoon data from high-resolution modelling. PMID:25990561

  4. Social branding to decrease smoking among young adults in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.

  5. Evolution of the French greenhouse gas emissions: an eyewash decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.

    2010-01-01

    As the French greenhouse emissions displayed a significant decrease in 2009, compared with the reference levels of 1990, the author shows that this decrease cannot be in fact attributed to the environment policy, and more particularly not to the measures adopted within the frame of the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'. An examination of the statistics reveals that this decrease cannot be explained by a structural transformation of energy production or consumption, but essentially by the current economic crisis. Therefore, the energetic transition which is supposed to allow the emissions to be divided by 4 in 2050, is not actually under way. On the contrary, it appears that, in a context of globalization of economy, emissions produced to satisfy French needs tend to increase through their foreign relocation

  6. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency

  7. Simulation of decreasing reactor power level with BWR simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair; Rivai, Abu Khalid

    2002-01-01

    Study on characteristic of BWR using Desktop PC Based Simulator Program was analysed. This simulator is more efficient and cheaper for analyzing of characteristic and dynamic respond than full scope simulator for decreasing power level of BW. Dynamic responses of BWR reactor was investigated during the power level reduction from 100% FP (Full Power) which is 3926 MWth to 0% FP with 25% steps and 1 % FP/sec rate. The overall results for core flow rate, reactor steam flow, feed-water flow and turbine-generator power show tendency proportional to reduction of reactor power. This results show that reactor power control in BWR could be done by control of re-circulation flow that alter the density of water used as coolant and moderator. Decreasing the re-circulation flow rate will decrease void density which has negative reactivity and also affect the position of control rods

  8. Do socioeconomic mortality differences decrease with rising age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Hoffmann

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of SES on mortality is an established finding in mortality research. I examine, whether this impact decreases with age. Most research finds evidence for this decrease but it is unknown whether the decline is due to mortality selection. My data come from the US-HRS Study and includes 9376 persons aged 59+, which are followed over 8 years. The variables allow a time varying measurement of SES, health and behavior. Event-history-analysis is applied to analyze mortality differentials. My results show that socioeconomic mortality differences are stable across ages whereas they decline clearly with decreasing health. The first finding that health rather than age is the equalizer combined with the second finding of unequally distributed health leads to the conclusion that in old age, the impact of SES is transferred to health and is stable across ages.

  9. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (total significance...... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray......Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...

  10. Effects of cosmic ray decreases on cloud microphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, J.; Enghoff, M. B.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-01-01

    Using cloud data from MODIS we investigate the response of cloud microphysics to sudden decreases in galactic cosmic radiation – Forbush decreases – and find responses in effective emissivity, cloud fraction, liquid water content, and optical thickness above the 2–3 sigma level 6–9 days after...... the minimum in atmospheric ionization and less significant responses for effective radius and cloud condensation nuclei (... of the signal of 3.1 sigma. We also see a correlation between total solar irradiance and strong Forbush decreases but a clear mechanism connecting this to cloud properties is lacking. There is no signal in the UV radiation. The responses of the parameters correlate linearly with the reduction in the cosmic ray...

  11. Decreasing radioactive cesium in lodged buckwheat grain after harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katashi Kubo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed soil contamination with high radioactive cesium (R–Cs concentration in buckwheat grains by lodging, and assessed the possibility of R–Cs reduction in grain through post-harvest preparation. Analysis of buckwheat grain produced in farmers’ fields and reports from farmers indicated that grain from fields that had lodging showed higher R–Cs than grain from fields with no lodging. A field experiment demonstrated that R–Cs in grain after threshing and winnowing (TW was about six times higher in lodged plants than in nonlodged plants. In lodged plants, R–Cs in grain was decreased to about one-fourth by polishing, and was decreased to about one-seventh by ultrasonic cleaning, compared with R–Cs in grain after TW. These results demonstrate that R–Cs of buckwheat grain of lodged plants can be decreased by removing soil from the grain surface by polishing and winnowing.

  12. Design and Analysis of LT Codes with Decreasing Ripple Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new design of LT codes, which decreases the amount of necessary overhead in comparison to existing designs. The design focuses on a parameter of the LT decoding process called the ripple size. This parameter was also a key element in the design proposed in the original...... work by Luby. Specifically, Luby argued that an LT code should provide a constant ripple size during decoding. In this work we show that the ripple size should decrease during decoding, in order to reduce the necessary overhead. Initially we motivate this claim by analytical results related...... to the redundancy within an LT code. We then propose a new design procedure, which can provide any desired achievable decreasing ripple size. The new design procedure is evaluated and compared to the current state of the art through simulations. This reveals a significant increase in performance with respect...

  13. International Linear Collider Technical Design Report (Volumes 1 through 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison M.

    2013-03-27

    The design report consists of four volumes: Volume 1, Executive Summary; Volume 2, Physics; Volume 3, Accelerator (Part I, R and D in the Technical Design Phase, and Part II, Baseline Design); and Volume 4, Detectors.

  14. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  15. Decreased Identification of Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Cautionary Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Hyder Qureshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimTo find the trend in patient’s visits to our centers for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. We hypothesize that VUR diagnosis and hence possible nephropathy recognition may be diminishing because of changing practice patterns.MethodsData were extracted from electronic medical records for new and follow-up patients aged 0–18 years with ICD-9/10 codes to correspond with VUR, VUR unilateral, VUR bilateral, and VUR with reflux nephropathy, as well as new patients with diagnoses of urinary tract infections (UTI and pyelonephritis at two major pediatric centers from 2012 to 2015. Figures and statistics to reflect absolute clinic visits and annual trends were created with SPSS 2010. Linear regression was applied.ResultsAnnually, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital and Nationwide Children’s Hospital experienced an average decrease of 13 and 17% in total VUR visits, and an average decrease of 22 and 27% in VUR nephropathy visits, respectively, for each institution. Patient visits for UTIs were reduced an average of 16% annually in both centers. Linear regression demonstrated that number of patients (patients/year ± SE decreased annually 69 ± 19 (P = 0.02, 7 ± 2 (P = 0.02, and 67 ± 25 (P = 0.04 for VUR, VUR nephropathy, and UTI, respectively.ConclusionWe conclude that the decreased number of VUR and VUR nephropathy cases identified in subspecialty clinics (Nephrology/Urology at two major children’s hospitals reflect a possible decreased identification of VUR. This trend may also be due to decreased referral of low grade cases of VUR. We cannot conclude that “undifferentiated UTI” referrals increased concomitantly to account for the decreased VUR as our data reflects a decreased trend in those visits as well. We suggest that clinicians following the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines ensure that all UTI are accounted for and surveillance is appropriately escalated for recurrent UTI or abnormal imaging results.

  16. Cosmic ray decreases affect atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Bondo, Torsten; Svensmark, J.

    2009-01-01

    Close passages of coronal mass ejections from the sun are signaled at the Earth's surface by Forbush decreases in cosmic ray counts. We find that low clouds contain less liquid water following Forbush decreases, and for the most influential events the liquid water in the oceanic atmosphere can...... diminish by as much as 7%. Cloud water content as gauged by the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) reaches a minimum ≈7 days after the Forbush minimum in cosmic rays, and so does the fraction of low clouds seen by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and in the International...

  17. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  18. Decreased sound tolerance: hyperacusis, misophonia, diplacousis, and polyacousis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Pawel J; Jastreboff, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, potential mechanisms, and treatments for decreased sound tolerance, hyperacusis, misophonia, and diplacousis are presented with an emphasis on the associated physiologic and neurophysiological processes and principles. A distinction is made between subjects who experience these conditions versus patients who suffer from them. The role of the limbic and autonomic nervous systems and other brain systems involved in cases of bothersome decreased sound tolerance is stressed. The neurophysiological model of tinnitus is outlined with respect to how it may contribute to our understanding of these phenomena and their treatment. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    segmentation and outlining of regions in order to identify regional volume changes that might be useful in the diagnosis of the two diseases. RESULTS: Patients with PD had significantly larger intracranial volumes (ICVs) and significantly smaller putaminal and sustantia nigra volumes than controls. MSA...... patients had significantly smaller substantia nigra and caudate volumes than controls but normal intracranial volume. In both patient groups there was a further trend towards smaller amygdala volumes. DISCUSSION: Increased ICV in PD patients is a new finding that may be explained by genetic factors...

  20. Epidural morphine and detomidine decreases postoperative hindlimb lameness in horses after bilateral stifle arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Laurie R; Nixon, Alan J; Fubini, Susan L; Ducharme, Norm G; Fortier, Lisa A; Warnick, Lorin D; Ludders, John W

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether preoperative epidural administration of morphine and detomidine would decrease postoperative lameness after bilateral stifle arthroscopy in horses. Prospective clinical controlled study. Eight adult horses that had bilateral arthroscopic procedures, including drilling of cartilage and subchondral bone within the femoropatellar joints. Horses were randomly separated into 2 groups. Preoperatively, 4 horses were administered a combination of epidural morphine (0.2 mg/kg) and detomidine (30 microg/kg), and 4 horses were administered an equivalent volume of epidural saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Postoperative pain was assessed using 6 video recordings made at hourly intervals of each horse at a walk. Assessments began 1 hour after recovery from anesthesia. The recordings were scrambled out of sequence and evaluated by 3 observers, unaware of treatment groups, who scored lameness from 0 to 4. Lameness scores of the 2 groups of horses were compared using a Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Heart and respiratory rates were also measured at each hourly interval and compared between groups using a repeated-measures ANOVA; statistical significance was set at P detomidine significantly decreased lameness and heart rates after bilateral stifle arthroscopy. The greatest decrease was detected at hours 1 and 2 after recovery from anesthesia. We conclude that horses undergoing a painful arthroscopic procedure of the stifle joint benefit from the administration of preoperative epidural morphine and detomidine. Preoperative epidural administration of detomidine and morphine may be useful in decreasing postoperative pain after stifle arthroscopy as well as pain associated with other painful disorders involving the stifle joint, such as septic arthritis and trauma. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  1. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  2. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  3. Sensors, Volume 4, Thermal Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Jorg; Ricolfi, Teresio

    1996-12-01

    'Sensors' is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. This volume describes the construction and applicational aspects of thermal sensors while presenting a rigorous treatment of the underlying physical principles. It provides a unique overview of the various categories of sensors as well as of specific groups, e.g. temperature sensors (resistance thermometers, thermocouples, and radiation thermometers), noise and acoustic thermometers, heat-flow and mass-flow sensors. Specific facettes of applications are presented by specialists from different fields including process control, automotive technology and cryogenics. This volume is an indispensable reference work and text book for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers.

  4. Basketball training increases striatum volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2011-02-01

    The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Decreased NAA in gray matter is correlated with decreased availability of acetate in white matter in postmortem multiple sclerosis cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Clements, R; Sulak, M; Gregory, R; Freeman, E; McDonough, J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which leads to progressive neurological disability. Our previous studies have demonstrated mitochondrial involvement in MS cortical pathology and others have documented decreased levels of the neuronal mitochondrial metabolite N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in the MS brain. While NAA is synthesized in neurons, it is broken down in oligodendrocytes into aspartate and acetate. The resulting acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, linking neuronal mitochondrial function to oligodendrocyte-mediated elaboration of myelin lipids in the CNS. In the present study we show that treating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with the electron transport chain inhibitor antimycin A decreased levels of NAA as measured by HPLC. To better understand the significance of the relationship between mitochondrial function and levels of NAA and its breakdown product acetate on MS pathology we then quantitated the levels of NAA and acetate in MS and control postmortem tissue blocks. Regardless of lesion status, we observed that levels of NAA were decreased 25 and 32 % in gray matter from parietal and motor cortex in MS, respectively, compared to controls. Acetate levels in adjacent white matter mirrored these decreases as evidenced by the 36 and 45 % reduction in acetate obtained from parietal and motor cortices. These data suggest a novel mechanism whereby mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced NAA levels in neurons may result in compromised myelination by oligodendrocytes due to decreased availability of acetate necessary for the synthesis of myelin lipids.

  6. A Teacher-Focused Intervention to Decrease PE Students' Amotivation by Increasing Need Satisfaction and Decreasing Need Frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Sung Hyeon; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Song, Yong-Gwan

    2016-06-01

    Intervention-induced gains in need satisfaction decrease PE students' amotivation. The present study adopted a dual-process model to test whether an intervention could also decrease need frustration and hence provide a second supplemental source to further decrease students' PE amotivation. Using an experimental, longitudinal research design, 19 experienced PE teachers (9 experimental, 10 control) and their 1,017 students participated in an intervention program to help teachers become both more autonomy supportive and less controlling. Multilevel repeated measures analyses showed that students of teachers in the experimental group reported greater T2, T3, and T4 perceived autonomy support, need satisfaction, and engagement and lesser T2, T3, and T4 perceived teacher control, need frustration, and amotivation than did students of teachers in the control group. Multilevel structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the hypothesized dual-process model in which both intervention-induced increases in need satisfaction and intervention-induced decreases need frustration decreased students' end-of-semester amotivation. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of this new finding on the dual antecedents of diminished amotivation.

  7. Volume stumbles; prices hold steady

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the July 1994 uranium market summary. During this period, spot market volume slid to just under 370,000 lbs U3O8 equivalent. In total, six deals took place; four in the spot market, none in the medium and long-term market, one in the conversion market, and one in the enrichment market, The low end of the unrestricted price range strengthened a bit. All other prices were unchanged

  8. Indigenous high volume air sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.; Setty, N.P.N.; Raghunath, B.; Sivasubrahmanyam, P.S.

    1978-01-01

    A high volume air sampler for use in assessing concentrations of low levels of air borne particulates has been fabricated. The sampler will be of use in radioactive installations, conventional industries and environmental pollution analysis. It is comparable in performance with the imported Staplex air samplers. A turbine and motor system similar to the one found in conventional vacuum cleaners is used in its design. The sampler units can be produced in large numbers. (M.G.B.)

  9. Relationship between free volume and mechanical properties of polyurethane irradiated by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heliang Sui; Xin Ju; Xueyong Liu; Fachun Zhong; Xiaoyan Li; Baoyi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethane was irradiated at various gamma radiation doses up to 1,000 kGy at room temperature in nitrogen. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, tensile test and dynamic mechanical analysis were used to find the relationship between free volume and mechanical properties. An increase of the free volume fraction in soft segments (SS) and a decrease of the free volume fraction in hard segments (HS) during gamma radiation was observed and analyzed. The results showed that HS in polyurethane had the excellent resistance to gamma radiation, whereas SS had a tendency to degrade. The reason for the decrease of the strain at break and the ultimate tensile strength was analyzed, which showed the changes in the mechanical properties of polyurethane irradiated by gamma rays were mainly determined by the changes of free volume in SS. If the resistance properties of polyurethanes exposed to radiations need to be improved, SS should be paid more attention to. (author)

  10. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  11. Does Corruption Increase or Decrease Employment in Firms?

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán, Arlette

    2015-01-01

    This article uses representative data for firms for Latin American firms and show that corruption decreases employment in firms. This result is robust to changes in specification and also consistent with the use of an instrumental variables approach. Corruption appears to negatively impact the growth and wealth in a country, not by introducing labour distortion in firms, but by keeping them small.

  12. Limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughters in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The limitation schemes to decrease the radon daughter concentrations in Swedish homes are described. The application of the Swedish provisional limitation system in use since 1980 is also reported. As a background the radon source and the international and national recommedations in other countries are reviewed. (author)

  13. Chemotherapy decreases epiphyseal strength and increases bone fracture risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, BL; Verkerke, GJ; Hartel, RM; Sluiter, WJ; Kamps, WA; Jansen, HWB; Hoekstra, HJ

    To establish the effect of three frequently used chemotherapeutic agents in childhood cancer on the skeleton, growing male Wistar rats were studied. Treatment with doxorubicin, methotrexate, and cisplatin reduces the proximal tibial growth plate shear strength because of a decreased surface area and

  14. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  15. Partial sleep restriction decreases insulin sensitivity in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donga, Esther; van Dijk, Marieke [Leiden Univ., LUMC; van Dijk, J. Gert; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Lammers, Gert-Jan; van Kralingen, Klaas; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep restriction results in decreased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that sleep duration is also a determinant of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. We studied seven patients (three men, four women) with type 1 diabetes: mean age 44

  16. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecht, Andrea C.; Šupraha, Luka; Langer, Gerald; Henderiks, Jorijntje

    2018-02-01

    Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths). We examined the effect of phosphorus (P) limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite) production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous) induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC) to organic carbon (POC) and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  /  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  17. Phosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Gerecht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores sequester carbon in the form of organic and inorganic cellular components (coccoliths. We examined the effect of phosphorus (P limitation and heat stress on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (calcite production in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. Both environmental stressors are related to rising CO2 levels and affect carbon production in marine microalgae, which in turn impacts biogeochemical cycling. Using semi-continuous cultures, we show that P limitation and heat stress decrease the calcification rate in E. huxleyi. However, using batch cultures, we show that different culturing approaches (batch versus semi-continuous induce different physiologies. This affects the ratio of particulate inorganic (PIC to organic carbon (POC and complicates general predictions on the effect of P limitation on the PIC  ∕  POC ratio. We found heat stress to increase P requirements in E. huxleyi, possibly leading to lower standing stocks in a warmer ocean, especially if this is linked to lower nutrient input. In summary, the predicted rise in global temperature and resulting decrease in nutrient availability may decrease CO2 sequestration by E. huxleyi through lower overall carbon production. Additionally, the export of carbon may be diminished by a decrease in calcification and a weaker coccolith ballasting effect.

  18. Decrease of the atmospheric co-rotation with height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrado, M; Pacheco, A F

    2010-01-01

    Considering our atmosphere as a steady viscous gaseous envelope that co-rotates with the Earth, we obtain a solution for the form in which this induced rotational effect decreases as a function of the distances to the centre of the Earth and to the rotation axis.

  19. Decreased reproductive rates in sheep fed a high selenium diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    High Se-containing forages grow on seleniferous soils in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. Selenium is an essential trace element that is required for many physiological processes but can also be either acutely or chronically toxic to livestock. Anecdotal reports of decrease...

  20. Congruent, decreasing trends of gentoo penguins and Crozet shags ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua and Crozet shags Phalacrocorax [atriceps] melanogenis breeding annually at Marion Island, one of South Africa's Prince Edward Islands in the South-West Indian Ocean, were strongly correlated over 19 split-years from 1994/1995 to 2012/2013. Both species decreased ...

  1. The effect of decreased developer activity on patient exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.B.; Turner, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Overexposing and underdeveloping a radiographic image is not a common practice, but it has been observed to occur as a result of poor processing protocols. This study discovered that, as a result of decreased developer activity, the patient exposure could be three times as great as it would be under normal conditions

  2. Decreased endogenous progesterone and ratio of progesterone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progesterone and estrogen are two steroid hormones whose exposure may decrease the risk and delay the onset of ischemic stroke. The main objective of this study was to determine the plasma level of progesterone, estrogen and ratio of progesterone/estrogen in ischemic stroke patients. The plasma levels of ...

  3. ASCORBID ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACTEvidence suggests that the antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA), plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased levels of AA have been reported in asthmatics but not at the site directly proximal to asthma pathology, i.e. the bronchial...

  4. ASCORBIC ACID IS DECREASED IN INDUCED SPUTUM OF MILD ASTHMATICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma is primarily an airways inflammatory disease, and the bronchial airways have been shown to be particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage. The antioxidant ascorbic acid (AA) plays an essential role in defending against oxidant attack in the airways. Decreased...

  5. Observed Decrease of North American Winter Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in determining whether temperature variability has changed in recent decades. Model ensembles project that extratropical land temperature variance will detectably decrease by 2070. We use quantile regression of station observations to show that decreasing variability is already robustly detectable for North American winter during 1979--2014. Pointwise trends from GHCND stations are mapped into a continuous spatial field using thin-plate spline regression, resolving small-scales while providing uncertainties accounting for spatial covariance and varying station density. We find that variability of daily temperatures, as measured by the difference between the 95th and 5th percentiles, has decreased markedly in winter for both daily minima and maxima. Composites indicate that the reduced spread of winter temperatures primarily results from Arctic amplification decreasing the meridional temperature gradient. Greater observed warming in the 5th relative to the 95th percentile stems from asymmetric effects of advection during cold versus warm days; cold air advection is generally from northerly regions that have experienced greater warming than western or southwestern regions that are generally sourced during warm days.

  6. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, de A.G.

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  7. Vertical governance change and product differentiation under decreasing component costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Huisman, K.J.M.; Kok, A.G. de

    2015-01-01

    In deciding on whether and when to outsource component production, firms should consider the trade-off between total production costs and the ability to horizontally differentiate products. We study the outsourcing decision in a duopoly under decreasing but uncertain market rates for components,

  8. Does Child Labor Decrease when Parental Incomes Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carol Ann; Swinnerton, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    When parents and children care about each other's utility, increases in parental income need not always lead to decreases in child labor. Adults raised in poor families make altruistic transfers to their elderly parents, which the parents take as repayment for income lost when their children were young and spent some time in school instead of…

  9. Decrease Radar Cross-Section Objectives Using the Metamerial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironchev Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work influence of an electromagnetic field on lattices from close located ring conductors is shown. RCS is also calculated and shown that at 0 ≤ n2 < 1 there is the considerable decrease of an object.

  10. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......-202) (mean and range) at sea level to 189 (179-200), 182 (172-189), 175 (166-183), and 165 (162-169) in the acute hypoxic conditions. Peak HR did not decrease further after 4 and 8 h at 4300 m compared to the acute exposure at this altitude. Between barometric pressures of 518 and 355 mmHg (approximately...... 3300 and 6300 m), peak HR decreased linearly: peak HR(hypobaria) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.135 x [hypobaria(3100) - hypobaria (mmHg)]; or peak HR(altitude) = peak HR(sea level) - 0.15 x (altitude - 3100 m). This corresponds to approximately 1-beat x min(-1) reduction in peak HR for every 7-mmHg decrease...

  11. Decreased Stress Levels in Nurses: A Benefit of Quiet Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Heather C; Mates, Joanna; Ryan, Linda; Schleder, Bonnie J

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of quiet time, a therapeutic method of improving the health care environment, have been evaluated in patients, but only a few studies have examined the effects of quiet time on intensive care nurses. To evaluate the effects of implementing quiet time in a medical-surgical intensive care unit on levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress. Quiet time consisted of turning down the unit lights for a designated time. Levels of light, noise, and nurses' stress were measured. Nurses' stress levels were measured by using a 100-point visual analog scale; unit noise, by using a digital sound level meter (model 407736, Extech Instruments); and unit light, by using an illumination light meter (model 615, Huygen Corporation). Measurements were obtained 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours after implementation of quiet time. Analysis of variance and comparisons of means indicated that both light levels and nurses' stress levels were significantly decreased after quiet time (both P quiet time, but the decrease was not significant (P = .08). Use of quiet time resulted in decreased light levels and decreased stress levels among nurses. Quiet time is an easily performed energy-saving intervention to promote a healthy work environment. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. Vinegar decreases allergenic response in lentil and egg food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Dueñas-Laita, A; Pineda, F; Herrero, M; Martín, B

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy results from an atypical response of the mucosal immune system to orally consumed allergens. Antacid medication inhibits the digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy. A decrease of the gastric pH might enhance the function of digestion and reduce the risk of food allergy. To test a possible decrease in the allergenicity of powerful food allergens (egg, chicken, lentils) with the addition of vinegar during the cooking process. We included seven patients who suffered from anaphylaxis due to egg, chicken and lentils. We added vinegar to egg, chicken and lentil processed extracts used for skin prick tests (SPT) and compared the wheal areas obtained with the same extracts sources and the same way but without vinegar addition. Immunodetection was performed with the different processed extracts and patients' sera. Only one patient consented food challenge with vinegar-marinated-chicken. Wheal areas were significantly minor with the food extract with vinegar. Immunodetection showed a decrease of the response with vinegar processed extracts. Vinegar addition during the cooking process may decrease lentil and chicken allergenicity. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Perdeck, A.C.; van Balen, J.H.; Both, C.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  14. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marcel E.; Perdeck, Albert C.; van Balen, Johan H.; Both, Christiaan

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  15. Decrease in back strength in asymmetric trunk postures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Daanen, H. A M; Meijst, W. J.; Ligteringen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extension force against resistance was recorded in 23 postures for 12 subjects to find explanations for the decrease in back strength in asymmetric postures. A reduction in muscle force in asymmetric postures was found up to 40%, but was strongly dependent on the plane in which asymmetry

  16. Esophageal acid exposure decreases intraluminal baseline impedance levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weijenborg, Pim W.; Hemmink, Gerrit J. M.; Loots, Clara M.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Intraluminal baseline impedance levels are determined by the conductivity of the esophageal wall and can be decreased in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the baseline impedance in GERD patients, on and off proton pump inhibitor (PPI), and in

  17. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Hale

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.

  18. Glucocorticosteroids Associated With a Decreased Risk of Psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Wijnand; Smeets, Hugo; de Wit, Niek J.; Kahn, Rene S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Burger, Huibert

    The hypothesis that chronic inflammation may play a role in psychosis receives increasing attention. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the use of steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a decreased risk of psychosis. A longitudinal nested case-control study was performed

  19. DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA damage and decrease of cellular oxidase activity in piglet sertoli cells exposed to gossypol. Ming Zhang, Hui Yuan, Zuping He, Liyun Yuan, Jine Yi, Sijun Deng, Li Zhu, Chengzhi Guo, Yin Lu, Jing Wu, Lixin Wen, Qiang Wei, Liqun Xue ...

  20. Decreased Muscle Strength and Quality in Diabetes-Related Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Tsugawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes-related dementia (DrD, a dementia subgroup associated with specific diabetes mellitus (DM-related metabolic abnormalities, is clinically and pathophysiologically different from Alzheimer disease (AD and vascular dementia. We determined whether skeletal muscle strength, quality, and mass decrease in individuals with DrD. Methods: We evaluated grip and knee extension strength, muscle mass, and gait speed in 106 patients with probable AD and without type 2 DM (AD[–DM] group, 74 patients with probable AD and with DM (AD[+DM] group, and 36 patients with DrD (DrD group. Muscle quality was defined as the ratio of muscle strength to muscle mass. Results: Both female and male subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle strength and quality in the upper extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM] or AD[+DM]. Female subjects with DrD showed significantly decreased muscle quality in the lower extremities compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. Both female and male subjects with DrD had a significantly lower gait speed compared with the subjects with AD[–DM]. However, there were no significant differences in muscle mass and the prevalence of sarcopenia between the groups. Conclusion: Subjects with DrD showed decreased muscle strength and quality, but not muscle mass, and had a low gait speed.