WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit total protein

  1. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  2. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  3. Total body irradiation with a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Larouche, Renée-Xavière; Olivares, Marina; Léger, Pierre; Larkin, Joe; Freeman, Carolyn R; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2006-01-01

    While the current trend in radiotherapy is to replace cobalt teletherapy units with more versatile and technologically advanced linear accelerators, there remain some useful applications for older cobalt units. The expansion of our radiotherapy department involved the decommissioning of an isocentric cobalt teletherapy unit and the replacement of a column-mounted 4-MV LINAC that has been used for total body irradiation (TBI). To continue offering TBI treatments, we converted the decommissioned cobalt unit into a dedicated fixed-field total body irradiator and installed it in an existing medium-energy LINAC bunker. This article describes the logistical and dosimetric aspects of bringing a reconditioned cobalt teletherapy unit into clinical service as a total body irradiator.

  4. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in Africa: Panel Unit Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... ... were made. Keywords: Total factor productivity, Convergence, Panel Unit Root. .... variable or labour quality variable. Mankiw et al [31] ... America are increasing in their economic growth rate ... This line of argument centers.

  5. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total protein test system. 862.1635 Section 862.1635 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... measure total protein(s) in serum or plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  7. ETERMINATION OF TOTAL PROTEINS IN SOME MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Haras

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to establish the quantity of total proteins for two different types of meat products and establish if the protein content is between the limits imposed by law.

  8. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  9. Evaluation of salivary sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in oral cancer: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, noninvasive methods like analysis of saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Thus, this study aimed to estimate salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in the oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. Study Design: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (Group I and 30 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II. Estimations of salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar were performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical Analysis and Results: The Student′s ′ t ′ test and multivariate regression analysis were performed. The results showed that salivary levels of total protein, total sugar, protein-bound sialic acid, and free sialic acid were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to those of normal healthy controls ( P values in all the results were less than 0.001. The salivary free sialic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma than in moderately differentiated carcinoma ( P < 0.001. However, protein-bound sialic acid, total proteins, and total sugars did not show any statistical significance between well and moderately differentiated carcinomas. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of saliva can be used in early detection of cancer and is best correlated with histopathological degree of squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  11. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method), and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g%) were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%). There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709) between the total protein values, determined with both methods...

  13. Quantification assays for total and polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Macdonald

    Full Text Available The expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which produces huntingtin protein with an expanded polyglutamine tract, is the cause of Huntington's disease (HD. Recent studies have reported that RNAi suppression of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin (mutant HTT in HD animal models can ameliorate disease phenotypes. A key requirement for such preclinical studies, as well as eventual clinical trials, aimed to reduce mutant HTT exposure is a robust method to measure HTT protein levels in select tissues. We have developed several sensitive and selective assays that measure either total human HTT or polyglutamine-expanded human HTT proteins on the electrochemiluminescence Meso Scale Discovery detection platform with an increased dynamic range over other methods. In addition, we have developed an assay to detect endogenous mouse and rat HTT proteins in pre-clinical models of HD to monitor effects on the wild type protein of both allele selective and non-selective interventions. We demonstrate the application of these assays to measure HTT protein in several HD in vitro cellular and in vivo animal model systems as well as in HD patient biosamples. Furthermore, we used purified recombinant HTT proteins as standards to quantitate the absolute amount of HTT protein in such biosamples.

  14. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  15. Total synthesis of mycobacterial arabinogalactan containing 92 monosaccharide units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Xiong, De-Cai; Chen, Si-Cong; Wang, Yong-Shi; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2017-03-01

    Carbohydrates are diverse bio-macromolecules with highly complex structures that are involved in numerous biological processes. Well-defined carbohydrates obtained by chemical synthesis are essential to the understanding of their functions. However, synthesis of carbohydrates is greatly hampered by its insufficient efficiency. So far, assembly of long carbohydrate chains remains one of the most challenging tasks for synthetic chemists. Here we describe a highly efficient assembly of a 92-mer polysaccharide by the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol. Several linear and branched oligosaccharide/polysaccharide fragments ranging from 5-mer to 31-mer in length have been rapidly constructed in one-pot manner, which enables the first total synthesis of a biologically important mycobacterial arabinogalactan through a highly convergent [31+31+30] coupling reaction. Our results show that the preactivation-based one-pot glycosylation protocol may provide access to the construction of long and complicated carbohydrate chains.

  16. Total protein or high-abundance protein: Which offers the best loading control for Western blotting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Yeung, Derrick H; Staines, W Richard; Mielke, John G

    2016-03-01

    Western blotting routinely involves a control for variability in the amount of protein across immunoblot lanes. Normalizing a target signal to one found for an abundantly expressed protein is widely regarded as a reliable loading control; however, this approach is being increasingly questioned. As a result, we compared blotting for two high-abundance proteins (actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]) and two total protein membrane staining methods (Ponceau and Coomassie Brilliant Blue) to determine the best control for loading variability. We found that Ponceau staining optimally balanced accuracy and precision, and we suggest that this approach be considered as an alternative to normalizing with a high-abundance protein.

  17. Total plasma protein in very preterm babies: prognostic value and comparison with illness severity scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Iacobelli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the predictive value for severe adverse outcome of plasma protein measurements on day one of life in very preterm infants and to compare total plasma protein levels with the validated illness severity scores CRIB, CRIB-II, SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II, regarding their predictive ability for severe adverse outcome. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of infants born at 24-31 weeks gestation, admitted to the tertiary intensive care unit of a university hospital over 10.5 years. The outcome measure was "severe adverse outcome" defined as death before discharge or severe neurological injury on cranial ultrasound. The adjusted odd ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI of severe adverse outcome for hypoproteinemia (total plasma protein level <40 g/L was calculated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit was performed and the predictive ability for severe adverse outcome was assessed for total plasma protein and compared with CRIB, CRIB-II, SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II, by calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and their associated area under the curve (AUC. RESULTS: 761 infants were studied: 14.4% died and 4.1% survived with severe cerebral ultrasound findings. The aOR of severe adverse outcome for hypoproteinemia was 6.1 (95% CI 3.8-9.9. The rank order for variables, as assessed by AUCs and 95% CIs, in predicting outcome was: total plasma protein [0.849 (0.821-0.873], SNAPPE-II [0.822 (0.792-0.848], CRIB [0.821 (0.792-0.848], SNAP-II [0.810 (0.780-0.837] and CRIB-II [0.803 (0.772-0.830]. Total plasma protein predicted severe adverse outcome significantly better than CRIB-II and SNAP-II (both p<0.05. Calibration for total plasma protein was very good. CONCLUSIONS: Early hypoproteinemia has prognostic value for severe adverse outcome in very preterm, sick infants. Total plasma protein has a predictive performance comparable with CRIB and SNAPPE-II and greater than

  18. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  19. Analisis Kadar Protein Total dan Non Protein Nitrogen Pada Pakkat (Calamus caesius Blume.) dengan Metode Kjeldahl

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Irma Yusnita

    2016-01-01

    Pakkat is a traditional food in Mandailing Natal is taken from the inside of the young rattan and the most commonly consumed by people is grilled pakkat. Pakkat can be used as vegetables and believed to cure many diseases that need to be researched content of nutrients in it and is expected to take it become one of the functional food. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of total protein and non protein nitrogen (NPN) in pakkat and their changes in fresh, grilled and ...

  20. Retinoblastoma protein: a central processing unit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Poznic

    2009-06-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is one of the key cell-cycle regulating proteins and its inactivation leads to neoplastic transformation and carcinogenesis. This protein regulates critical G1-to-S phase transition through interaction with the E2F family of cell-cycle transcription factors repressing transcription of genes required for this cell-cycle check-point transition. Its activity is regulated through network sensing intracellular and extracellular signals which block or permit phosphorylation (inactivation) of the Rb protein. Mechanisms of Rb-dependent cell-cycle control have been widely studied over the past couple of decades. However, recently it was found that pRb also regulates apoptosis through the same interaction with E2F transcription factors and that Rb–E2F complexes play a role in regulating the transcription of genes involved in differentiation and development.

  1. Retinoblastoma protein: a central processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznic, M

    2009-06-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRb) is one of the key cell-cycle regulating proteins and its inactivation leads to neoplastic transformation and carcinogenesis. This protein regulates critical G1 -to-S phase transition through interaction with the E2F family of cell-cycle transcription factors repressing transcription of genes required for this cell-cycle check-point transition. Its activity is regulated through network sensing intracellular and extracellular signals which block or permit phosphorylation (inactivation) of the Rb protein. Mechanisms of Rb-dependent cell-cycle control have been widely studied over the past couple of decades. However, recently it was found that pRb also regulates apoptosis through the same interaction with E2F transcription factors and that Rb-E2F complexes play a role in regulating the transcription of genes involved in differentiation and development.

  2. ALTERATIONS IN TOTAL PROTEIN CONCENTRATION, SERUM PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO IN HEALTHY RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Sultana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of oral administration of Aloe vera and was to evaluate total serum protein, albumin and globulin concentrations as well as albumin / globulin (A / G ratio. Twenty rabbits weighing 1000 – 1800 g were divided into 2 groups. Each group consisted of ten animals. One served as control and other group served as experimental group. Results show that animals after 07, 15 and 30 days dosing of Aloe vera showed highly significant decrease in total protein and globulin and highly significant decrease in Albumin after 15 and 30 days of dosing of Aloe vera in comparison to control animals group. It is concluded that the long-term use of Aloe vera may cause hypoglobinemia and hypoalbuminemia at 30 days of dosing and it could be due to the liver diseases, evidence of hepatotoxicity induced Aloe vera also reported in previous studies.

  3. Plasma protein oxidation and total antioxidant power in premenstrual syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eans Tara Tuladhar; Anjali Rao

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore whether oxidative stress has any role inpremenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods: Female volunteers suffering from PMS , in the age group of 20-24 years were compared to their asymptomatic normomennorhoeic counterparts in follicular phase and late luteal phase for ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma(FRAP), plasma protein thiols(PPT) and protein carbonyls(PPC) levels.Results:There was no significant change in FRAP and PPC levels in controls andPMS groups but PPT decreased significantly in luteal phase ofPMS (P< 0.05) when compared to follicular phase.Conclusions:Estrogen and progesterone, might be responsible for a healthy antioxidant profile inPMS. However, a marked decrease inPPT in luteal phase of PMS group may be due to pro-oxidant nature of estrogen-active in this phase of PMS leading to consumption of the sacrificial antioxidant-protein thiol.

  4. Experimental Evaluation of a Total Heat Recovery Unit with Polymer Membrane Foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Yuan, Shu; Nie, Jinzhe

    2014-01-01

    . The test was also conducted in isothermal conditions to observe the moisture transfer performance of the polymer membrane heat exchanger. The results of the experiment shows that total heat recovery equipment tested can recover up to 60 % of the total heat from the ventilation air. Around 87......A laboratory experimental study was conducted to investigate the energy performance of a total heat recovery unit using a polymer membranes heat exchanger. The study was conducted in twin climate chambers. One of the chambers simulated outdoor climate conditions and the other simulated the climate...... on the measured temperature and humidity values, the temperature, humidity, and enthalpy efficiencies of the total heat recovery unit were calculated. The experiment was conducted in different combinations of outdoor climate conditions simulating warm and humid outdoor climates and air-conditioned indoor climate...

  5. Total protein, albumin and low-molecular-weight protein excretion in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Lucy J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease is common in HIV positive patients and renal tubular dysfunction has been reported in those receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Tenofovir (TFV in particular has been linked to severe renal tubular disease as well as proximal tubular dysfunction. Markedly elevated urinary concentrations of retinal-binding protein (RBP have been reported in patients with severe renal tubular disease, and low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWP such as RBP may be useful in clinical practice to assess renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV. We analysed 3 LMWP as well as protein and albumin in the urine of a sample of HIV positive patients. Methods In a cross-sectional fashion, total protein, albumin, RBP, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL were quantified in random urine samples of 317 HIV positive outpatients and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine (RBPCR, CCR and NGALCR. Exposure to cART was categorised as none, cART without TFV, and cART containing TFV and a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (TFV/NNRTI or TFV and a protease-inhibitor (TFV/PI. Results Proteinuria was present in 10.4 % and microalbuminuria in 16.7 % of patients. Albumin accounted for approximately 10 % of total urinary protein. RBPCR was within the reference range in 95 % of patients while NGALCR was elevated in 67 % of patients. No overall differences in urine protein, albumin, and LMWP levels were observed among patients stratified by cART exposure, although a greater proportion of patients exposed to TFV/PI had RBPCR >38.8 μg/mmol (343 μg/g (p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses, black ethnicity (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77 and eGFR 2 (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.61, 7.80 were independently associated with upper quartile (UQ RBPCR. RBPCR correlated well to CCR (r2 = 0.71, but not to NGALCR, PCR or ACR. Conclusions In HIV positive patients, proteinuria was predominantly of

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia; Fábio Rangel Marques; Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins) and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B) was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin) was measured and...

  7. Relating protein intake to nutritional status in haemodialysis patients : How to normalize the protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Stegeman, CA; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1999-01-01

    Background. The protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA) is assumed to be a reliable estimate of dietary protein intake in haemodialysis patients. Protein requirements are related to body size. In order to standardize PNA to individual differences in body size, PNA is normalized to vari

  8. Relating protein intake to nutritional status in haemodialysis patients : How to normalize the protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloppenburg, Wybe; Stegeman, CA; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM

    1999-01-01

    Background. The protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (PNA) is assumed to be a reliable estimate of dietary protein intake in haemodialysis patients. Protein requirements are related to body size. In order to standardize PNA to individual differences in body size, PNA is normalized to vari

  9. Evaluation of the refractometric method for the determination of total protein in avian plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeij, J T; de Bruijne, J J

    1985-07-01

    Serum total protein concentrations in pigeon blood determined with the biuret method (TPB-se) were compared with total protein concentrations in plasma (TPR-pl) and serum (TPR-se) obtained by estimation from refractive index. The refractometric method consistently yielded higher values (Prefractometric method for determination of TP in pigeon blood is not recommended.

  10. Eukaryotic protein domains as functional units of cellular evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jing; Xie, Xueying; Chen, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Modular protein domains are functional units that can be modified through the acquisition of new intrinsic activities or by the formation of novel domain combinations, thereby contributing to the evolution of proteins with new biological properties. Here, we assign proteins to groups with related...... biological processes. Evolutionary jumps are associated with a domain that coordinately acquires a new intrinsic function and enters new domain clubs, thereby providing the modified domain with access to a new cellular microenvironment. We also coordinately analyzed the covalent and noncovalent interactions...... that domains, and the proteins in which they reside, are selected during evolution through reciprocal interactions with protein domains in their local microenvironment. Based on this scheme, we propose a mechanism by which Tudor domains may have evolved to support different modes of epigenetic regulation...

  11. Total elbow arthroplasty in the United States: evaluation of cost, patient demographics, and complication rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is utilized in the treatment of rheumatoid and post-traumatic elbow arthritis. TEA is a relatively low volume surgery in comparison to other types of arthroplasty and therefore little is known about current surgical utilization, patient demographics and complication rates in the United States. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the current practice trends and associated inpatient complications of TEA at academic centers in the United States. We queried the University Health Systems Consortium administrative database from 2007 to 2011 for patients who underwent an elective TEA. A descriptive analysis of demographics was performed which included patient age, sex, race, and insurance status. We also evaluated the following patient clinical benchmarks: hospital length of stay (LOS, hospital direct cost, inhospital mortality, complications, and 30-day readmission rates. Our cohort consisted of 3146 adult patients (36.5% male and 63.5% female with an average age of 58 years who underwent a total elbow arthroplasty (159 academic medical centers in the United States. The racial demographics included 2334 (74% Caucasian, 285 (9% black, 236 (7.5% Hispanic, 16 (0.5% Asian, and 283 (9% other patients. The mean LOS was 4.2±5 days and the mean total direct cost for the hospital was 16,300±4000 US Dollars per case. The overall inpatient complication rate was 3.1% and included mortality <1%, DVT (0.8%, re-operation (0.5%, and infection (0.4%. The 30-day readmission rate was 4.4%. TEA is a relatively uncommon surgery in comparison to other forms of arthroplasty but is associated with low in-patient and 30-day perioperative complication rate. Additionally, the 30-day readmission rate and overall hospital costs are comparable to the traditional total hip and knee arthroplasty surgeries.

  12. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  13. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  14. In-Patient Trends and Complications After Total Ankle Arthroplasty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanbing; Yakavonis, Mark; Shaw, Joshua J; Patel, Abhay; Li, Xinning

    2016-01-01

    The number of total ankle arthroplasties (TAAs) performed annually in the United States has increased. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-patient demographics, complications, and readmission rates of patients after TAA at academic medical centers in the United States. The University HealthSystems Consortium administrative database was searched for patients who underwent TAA in 2007 to 2011. A descriptive analysis of demographics was performed, followed by a similar analysis of clinical benchmarks, including hospital length of stay, hospital direct cost, in-hospital mortality, and 30-day readmission rates. The study included 2340 adult patients with a mean age of 62 years (47% men and 53% women) who underwent TAA. The majority of patients were Caucasian (2073; 88.5%). Average hospital length of stay was 2.2±1.26 days. Average total direct cost for the hospital was $16,212±7000 per case, with 49.7% of patients having private insurance. In-hospital mortality was less than 1%, and overall complications were 1.4%. Complications after discharge included deep venous thrombosis (2.3%), reoperation (0.7%), and infection (3.2%). A readmission rate of 2.7% within the first 30 days from the time of discharge occurred. Total ankle arthroplasty in the United States is a relatively safe procedure with low overall complication rates. Patients who are male, have a history of community-acquired pneumonia, and have a larger number of preoperative comorbidities had a significant increased risk of developing 1 complication within 30 days of surgery.

  15. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant.

  16. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  17. Preliminary study on total protein extraction methods from Enterococcus faecalis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Liang, J; He, Z; Jiang, W

    2016-08-30

    Enterococcus faecalis is the major pathogen of post-endodontic disease and refractory periapical periodontitis, and recent research on this species has focused on its pathogenicity. E. faecalis most often causes disease in the form of a biofilm, and total protein expression shows a strong association with its virulence. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to explore different methods of extracting the total proteins of the E. faecalis (ATCC 33186 standard strain) biofilm. The total proteins in the biofilm were extracted using an ultrasonication method with varied parameters, including duration, amplitude setting, period, and duty cycle. After the optimal conditions of ultrasonication were determined based on the protein profile from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis, the total protein content in the biofilm was detected using the bicinchoninic acid assay, Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay, and Lowry assay, and the results were compared and analyzed. The parameters for the optimal conditions of ultrasonication were as follows: a processing duration of 2 min, amplitude setting of 20%, and ultrasonication period of 4 s at a 50% duty cycle. The total protein content was 2299.1 mg/dish when measured by the bicinchoninic assay, 3793.8 mg/dish when measured by the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay, and 1858.0 mg/dish when measured by the Lowry assay. These results demonstrate that the Bradford Coomassie brilliant blue assay is a simple and feasible method for use in detecting the total protein content in a bacterial biofilm.

  18. Formulation of plant based Rainbow trout feeds on an Ideal Protein Basis can reduce total dietary protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish meal has been a primary protein source in trout feeds and any changes that can reduce fish meal levels and total costs are beneficial. Replacing fish meal with plant protein is a first step, but amino acid content of plant based diets can be limiting. Amino acids are needed for many metabolic...

  19. Total variation regularization of geodetically and geologically constrained block models for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Eileen L.; Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2015-08-01

    Geodetic observations of interseismic deformation in the Western United States provide constraints on microplate rotations, earthquake cycle processes, and slip partitioning across the Pacific-North America Plate boundary. These measurements may be interpreted using block models, in which the upper crust is divided into microplates bounded by faults that accumulate strain in a first-order approximation of earthquake cycle processes. The number and geometry of microplates are typically defined with boundaries representing a limited subset of the large number of potentially seismogenic faults. An alternative approach is to include a large number of potentially active faults bounding a dense array of microplates, and then algorithmically estimate the boundaries at which strain is localized. This approach is possible through the application of a total variation regularization (TVR) optimization algorithm, which simultaneously minimizes the L2 norm of data residuals and the L1 norm of the variation in the differential block motions. Applied to 3-D spherical block models, the TVR algorithm can be used to reduce the total variation between estimated rotation vectors, effectively grouping microplates that rotate together as larger blocks, and localizing fault slip on the boundaries of these larger block clusters. Here we develop a block model comprised of 137 microplates derived from published fault maps, and apply the TVR algorithm to identify the kinematically most important faults in the western United States. This approach reveals that of the 137 microplates considered, only 30 unique blocks are required to approximate deformation in the western United States at a residual level of <2 mm yr-1.

  20. Review of methods for determination of total protein and peptide concentration in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapan, Christine V; Lundblad, Roger L

    2015-04-01

    Clinical proteomics can be defined as the use of proteomic technologies to identify and measure biomarkers in fluids and tissues. The current work is intended to review various methods used for the determination of the total concentration of protein or peptide in fluids and tissues and the application of such methods to clinical proteomics. Specifically, this article considers the approaches to the measurement of total protein concentration, not the measurement of the concentration of a specific protein or group of proteins in a larger mixture of proteins. The necessity of understanding various concepts such as fit-for-use, quality-by-design, and other regulatory elements is discussed, as is the significance of using suitable standards for the protein quality of various samples.

  1. Variations in the concentration of total human milk proteins in the first month of lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Marija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Human milk proteins are maximally adapted to physiological needs of a neonate. Thus, depending on the speed of the neonatal growth and development, the content of milk proteins changes, both in quantity and quality. Objective. The study was conducted in order to determine variations of total protein concentrations in milk in the first and third lactation week in lactating mothers of term and preterm neonates. Also, we analyzed the influence of the mode of delivery, neonatal Apgar score and parity on the concentration of human milk proteins in both lactation phases. Method. The study aims were evaluated on the sample of 48 women, of whom 33 were mothers of term neonates and 15 of neonates born between the 34th to 37th gestational weeks. Total protein level of the lactation milk from the middle phase was determined using the standard laboratory method (Lowry et al., 1951, and the obtained differences were analyzed by t-test. Results. Total protein concentration in term colostrum was 17.60-45.17 g/l (X=24.71±5.19, while in preterm colostrum it was 28.39-73.30 g/l (X=39.17±11.08. The total protein level of mature milk in women who had term delivery was 11.90-22.11 g/l (X=16.39±2.96, while in women who had preterm delivery it was 14.50-44.19 g/l (X=23.25±8.96. The obtained results indicated that total protein concentration in women who had preterm delivery was significantly higher than that of women who had term delivery, both in the colostral and mature phase of lactation. (p<0.01. Also, the difference in the protein concentration was statistically highly significant (p<0.01 in the colostral and mature phase of lactation, both in women who had term and preterm delivery. Variations in the total protein level of human milk were not significant, depending on the prematurity stage, the mode and severity of delivery and parity, both in the first and third week of lactation. Conclusion. Our results show that total protein concentration

  2. Total monitor units influence on plan quality parameters in volumetric modulated arc therapy for breast case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancosu, P; Reggiori, G; Alongi, F; Cozzi, L; Fogliata, A; Lobefalo, F; Navarria, P; Stravato, A; Tomatis, S; Scorsetti, M

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between total monitor units (MU), dosimetric findings, and pre-treatment quality assurance for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) by RapidArc (RA). Ten patients with breast cancer were considered. Dose prescriptions were: 48 Gy and 40.5 Gy in 15 fractions to, respectively, PTV(Boost) and PTVWholeBreast. A reference plan was optimized and four more plans using the "MU Objective", a tool for total MU controlling, were prepared imposing ± 20 and ± 50% total MU for inducing different complexities. Plan objectives were: D95% > 95% for both PTVs, and D2% Plans were evaluated in terms of technical parameters, dosimetric plan objectives findings and pre-treatment quality assurance (QA). Concerning PTVs, there were no significant differences for target coverage (D95%); mean doses for ipsilateral lung and controlateral breast, and V18 Gy for heart decreased with MUs increasing, reaching a plateau with reference plan. Body volume receiving low dose (V5-10 Gy) was minimized for reference plans. All plans had GAI (3 mm, 3%) > 95%. The data suggest that the best plan is the reference one, where the "MU Objective" tool was not used during optimisation. Nevertheless, it is advisable to use the "MU Objective" tool for re-planning when low GAI is found to increase its value. In this case, attention should be paid to OARs dose limits, since their values may be increased. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of biuret and refractometry methods for the serum total proteins measurement in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Karatzia, Maria A; Giadinis, Nektarios; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantin; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2017-07-26

    Determination of serum total protein concentration is commonly performed by the biuret method. Refractometric measurement is a faster and less expensive alternative but its accuracy has not been determined in ruminants. The purpose of the study was to compare the serum total protein concentrations in cattle, sheep, and goats measured by the biuret method with those obtained by refractometry. Serum total protein concentration was determined in 120 cattle, 67 sheep, and 58 goat blood samples refractometrically and with the biuret method. The data were analyzed with a paired samples t-test, and Passing and Bablok regression equations and Bland and Altman plots were generated. There was a strong linear relationship between the total protein values determined with the refractometer and the biuret method in cattle, sheep, and goats. The statistical accuracy, which represents a bias correction factor that measures the deviation of the best-fit line from the 45° line through the origin, was 90.63% for cattle, 93.05% for sheep, and 91.76% for goats. The mean protein values determined with the refractometer were significantly lower than those measured with the biuret method in cattle and goats (P  .05). The evaluated refractometer was sufficiently accurate for the determination of serum total proteins in cattle, sheep, and goats, although it cannot be used interchangeably with the biuret method. The RIs should be corrected for negative bias based on the created equations. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.

  5. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H. Seeberger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS. A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations.

  6. Total synthesis of a Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS repeating unit hexasaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claney L; Govindan, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae causes severe disease globally. Vaccines that prevent S. pneumoniae infections induce antibodies against epitopes within the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS). A better immunological understanding of the epitopes that protect from bacterial infection requires defined oligosaccharides obtained by total synthesis. The key to the synthesis of the S. pneumoniae serotype 12F CPS hexasaccharide repeating unit that is not contained in currently used glycoconjugate vaccines is the assembly of the trisaccharide β-D-GalpNAc-(1→4)-[α-D-Glcp-(1→3)]-β-D-ManpNAcA, in which the branching points are equipped with orthogonal protecting groups. A linear approach relying on the sequential assembly of monosaccharide building blocks proved superior to a convergent [3 + 3] strategy that was not successful due to steric constraints. The synthetic hexasaccharide is the starting point for further immunological investigations.

  7. Comparison of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle as measured by the Bradford and Lowry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevaratnam, Rajini; Patel, Barkha P; Hamadeh, Mazen J

    2009-06-01

    The Lowry and Bradford assays are the most commonly used methods of total protein quantification, yet vary in several aspects. To date, no comparisons have been made in skeletal muscle. We compared total protein concentrations of mouse red and white gastrocnemius, reagent stability, protein stability and range of linearity using both assays. The Lowry averaged protein concentrations 15% higher than the Bradford with a moderate correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.01). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable bias (15.8 +/- 29.7%). Both Lowry reagents and its protein-reagent interactions were less stable over time than the Bradford. The linear range of concentration was smaller for the Lowry (0.05-0.50 mg/ml) than the Bradford (0-2.0 mg/ml). We conclude that the Bradford and Lowry measures of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle are not interchangeable. The Bradford and Lowry assays have various strengths and weaknesses in terms of substance interference and protein size. However, the Bradford provides greater reagent stability, protein-reagent stability and range of linearity, and requires less time to analyse compared to the Lowry assay.

  8. Effects of Shuanghuangbu on the total protein content and ultrastructure in cultured human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦枝; 邹慧儒; 王小玲; 刘世正; 王永军

    2004-01-01

    Background Successful periodontal regeneration depends on the migration, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in periodontal defects. The total protein content and the ultrastructure demonstrate the metabolizability and activity of periodontal ligament cells. This study was conducted to observe the effects of Shuanghuangbu, a mixture of medicinal herbs, on the total protein content and the ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament cells.Methods Periodontal ligament cells were grown to confluence and then cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with Shuanghuangbu over the concentration range of 0 to 1000 μg/ml. The total protein content in cultured cells was determined by using Coommasie brilliant blue technique. Periodontal ligament cells were incubated in 0 and 100 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu decoction for 5 days, then observed through transmission electron microscope.Results The total protein content of human periodontal ligament cells increased in each experiment group added 10-1000 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu respectively, and the effect of 100 μg/ml was excellent. Under the transmission electron microscope, there were more rough endoplasmic reticulums and mitochodrias in the experiment group than those in the control group. Conclusion Shuanghuangbu stimulates the protein synthesis of human periodontal ligament cells and improves human periodontal ligament cells' metabolizability and activity.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of Total Knee Arthroplasty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Kessler, Courtenay L.; Emrani, Parastu S.; Reichmann, William M.; Wright, Elizabeth A.; Holt, Holly L.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Yelin, Edward; Paltiel, A. David; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) relieves pain and improves quality of life for persons with advanced knee osteoarthritis. However, to our knowledge, the cost-effectiveness of TKA and the influences of hospital volume and patient risk on TKA cost-effectiveness have not been investigated in the United States. Methods We developed a Markov, state-transition, computer simulation model and populated it with Medicare claims data and cost and outcomes data from national and multinational sources. We projected lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for different risk populations and varied TKA intervention and hospital volume. Cost-effectiveness of TKA was estimated across all patient risk and hospital volume permutations. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to determine various parameters’ influences on cost-effectiveness. Results Overall, TKA increased QALE from 6.822 to 7.957 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Lifetime costs rose from $37 100 (no TKA) to $57 900 after TKA, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $18 300 per QALY. For high-risk patients, TKA increased QALE from 5.713 to 6.594 QALY, yielding a cost-effectiveness ratio of $28 100 per QALY. At all risk levels, TKA was more costly and less effective in low-volume centers than in high-volume centers. Results were insensitive to variations of key input parameters within policy-relevant, clinically plausible ranges. The greatest variations were seen for the quality of life gain after TKA and the cost of TKA. Conclusions Total knee arthroplasty appears to be cost-effective in the US Medicare-aged population, as currently practiced across all risk groups. Policy decisions should be made on the basis of available local options for TKA. However, when a high-volume hospital is available, TKAs performed in a high-volume hospital confer even greater value per dollar spent than TKAs performed in low-volume centers. PMID:19546411

  10. [Total protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis in cysticerci of Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Xiao, Liang-Liang; Bao, Huai-En; Mu, Rong

    2011-06-01

    Two 20-day-old three-way crossed hybrid pigs were infected with 80000 Taenia solium or T. asiatica eggs, respectively. Immature cysticerci of the two species in liver were collected at 40 days after infection. The total proteins were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by Image-Master 2D Platinum 6.0 software. The results showed that there were (236 +/- 12) and (231 +/- 14) protein spots in 2D electrophoresis gel images of T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, with 3 proteins up-regulated and 7 proteins down-regulated in T. solium cysticercus by 2-fold or more compared with those in T. asiatica cysticercus.

  11. Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2009-01-01

    Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

  12. Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2009-01-01

    Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

  13. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  14. Combined pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein in differentiation of exudates and transudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anand K; Choudhury, Sushmita

    2013-01-01

    The management strategy to be adopted in pleural effusion depends on whether an effusion is a transudate or exudate. To evaluate the usefulness of pleural fluid cholesterol and/or total protein measurements for differentiating between exudates and transudates, and to compare it with Light's criteria. In this prospective study 60 patients with pleural effusion were included. Pleural fluid total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cholesterol as well as serum total protein and LDH levels along with other investigations were studied. Clinical classification of transudate or exudate was done on the basis of aetiology. Based on clinical signs and symptoms, chest radiograph, other investigations and response to treatment, 49 of these effusions were classified as exudates and 11 as transudates. Using pleural fluid cholesterol levels at a cut-off point of greater than 60 mg/dL and/or total protein at a cut-off point of greater than 3 g/dL for distinguishing transudates and exudates, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), were 100 percent. Using Light's criteria for discriminating transudates and exudates, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found to be 98%; 100%; 100% and 92%, respectively. The differences resulted from a mis-classification of one expected exudate as transudate by Light's criteria. Pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein are simple, cost-effective, and useful parameters in distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates, with the advantage of requiring only two laboratory determinations and no simultaneous blood sample, compared to the use of Light's criteria.

  15. SU-E-T-31: Alternative VMAT Technique Reduces Total Monitor Units for Lung SBRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happersett, L; Mechalakos, J; Kuo, L; Zhang, P; Rimner, A [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate an alternative approach to VMAT optimization for hypofractionation lung treatment which increases average aperture opening and results in lower total Monitor Units (MU) without significantly sacrificing plan quality. Methods: Benchmark Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (bVMAT) plans were generated for 10 lung Stereotactic Body radiotherapy (SBRT) cases using Eclipse Version 11.0.42 (Varian Medical Systems) without a maximum MU constraint. Prescriptions ranged from 40 to 54Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. AAA dose calculation and PRO fluence based optimization was utilized. Two comparison VMAT plans were generated for each case, one that forced an initial “open” mlc aperture conformal to the tumor as a starting condition (oVMAT) with similar optimization parameters and arc geometries, and one that repeated the bVMAT optimization but added a maximum MU constraint (muVMAT). All plans used two arcs with lengths between 168 to 230 degrees. PTV D 95% and Dmean, lung V20 Gy, chest wall V30 Gy, average aperture opening and MU's were compared. Statistical significance was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Average PTV D(95), PTV mean and lung V20Gy over all plans was 99.2 ± 1.7%, 103.3 ± 0.6% and 7.8 ± 2.4% respectively. The average chest wall V30Gy was 61 ± 61 cc and ranged between 0 to 166 cc. There were no significant differences between the three techniques for the dosimetric quantities. MUs were reduced by 11 ±11% (p<0.01) and 25 ± 5% (p<0.01) and the average aperture size was increased by 13.7 ± 14% (p=0.02) and 35.8 ± 10% (p<0.01) with muVMAT and oVMAT, respectively, compared to bVMAT. Conclusion: oVMAT and muVMAT techniques were both able to increase average aperture size and reduce total MU compared to the benchmark VMAT plan, but the magnitude of the changes observed for oVMAT was larger.

  16. Projected increase in total knee arthroplasty in the United States - an alternative projection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, M C S; Paxton, E W; Graves, S E; Namba, R S; Nemes, S

    2017-08-08

    The purpose of our study was to estimate the future incidence rate (IR) and volume of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the United States from 2015 to 2050 using a conservative projection model that assumes a maximum IR of procedures. Furthermore, our study compared these projections to a model assuming exponential growth, as done in previous studies, for illustrative purposes. A population based epidemiological study was conducted using data from US National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and Census Bureau. Primary TKA procedures performed between 1993 and 2012 were identified. The IR, 95% confidence intervals (CI), or prediction intervals (PI) of TKA per 100,000 US citizens over the age of 40 years were calculated. The estimated IR was used as the outcome of a regression modelling with a logistic regression (i.e., conservative model) and Poisson regression equation (i.e., exponential growth model). Logistic regression modelling suggests the IR of TKA is expected to increase 69% by 2050 compared to 2012, from 429 (95%CI 374-453) procedures/100,000 in 2012 to 725 (95%PI 121-1041) in 2050. This translates into a 143% projected increase in TKA volume. Using the Poisson model, the IR in 2050 was projected to increase 565%, to 2854 (95%CI 2278-4004) procedures/100,000 IR, which is an 855% projected increase in volume compared to 2012. Even after using a conservative projection approach, the number of TKAs in the US, which already has the highest IR of knee arthroplasty in the world, is expected to increase 143% by 2050. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Yi; Yang, Kuen-Cheh; Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Lee, Long-Teng; Lu, Chia-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2016-06-17

    Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (protein density (protein density (p = 0.023) and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025). Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  18. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN DAN PEREBUSAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN PROTEIN, GULA, TOTAL FENOLIK DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN KERANDANG (Canavalia virosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Farianti Djaafar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Soaking and Boiling on Protein, Oligosaccharides, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity ofKerandang (Canavalia virosa Titiek Farianti Djaafar, Umar Santosa, Muhammad Nur Cahyanto, Endang Sutriswati Rahayu ABSTRAK Kerandang (Canavalia virosa tergolong tanaman legum dan menghasilkan biji, tumbuh menjalar di lahan pasir pantaiDaerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, khususnya di Kabupaten Bantul dan Kulon Progo dengan luas lahan sekitar 3.500 ha.Tanaman kerandang merupakan sumber protein nabati, mengandung senyawa fenolik dan memiliki aktivitas antioksidan.Penelitian tentang aktivitas antioksidan biji kerandang belum dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahuipengaruh perendaman dan perebusan terhadap perubahan kandungan protein, gula, total fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidanbiji kerandang. Perendaman dilakukan pada 0, 12, dan 24 jam dengan rasio biji kerandang dan air sebesar 1:6 (b/v.Perlakuan perendaman ini dikombinasikan dengan perebusan biji pada suhu didih air (80 – 90 ºC selama 0, 10, dan20 menit. Perbandingan biji kerandang dan air untuk perebusan adalah 1:5 (b/v. Pengujian yang dilakukan meliputikadar protein, jenis gula, total fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan AcakLengkap dengan ulangan dua kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kadar protein biji kerandang menurun denganperlakuan perendaman dan perebusan. Biji kerandang mengandung oligosakarida tahan cerna (raÞ nosa yang cukuptinggi. Kandungan total fenolik biji kerandang segar sebesar 7,42 g GAE/100 g biji kerandang. Perlakuan perendamandan perebusan menyebabkan kandungan total fenolik menurun sampai dengan 74,93 %. Aktivitas antioksidan bijikerandang dinyatakan sebagai Radical Scavenging Activity sebesar 10,22 %. Pada perendaman selama 12 dan 24 jamterjadi penurunan aktivitas antioksidan.Kata kunci: kerandang, total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan ABSTRACT Kerandang (Canavalia virosa is legume crops and producing seeds

  19. Impact of the economic downturn on total joint replacement demand in the United States: updated projections to 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-04-16

    Few studies have explored the role of the National Health Expenditure and macroeconomics on the utilization of total joint replacement. The economic downturn has raised questions about the sustainability of growth for total joint replacement in the future. Previous projections of total joint replacement demand in the United States were based on data up to 2003 using a statistical methodology that neglected macroeconomic factors, such as the National Health Expenditure. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993 to 2010) were used with United States Census and National Health Expenditure data to quantify historical trends in total joint replacement rates, including the two economic downturns in the 2000s. Primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Projections in total joint replacement were estimated using a regression model incorporating the growth in population and rate of arthroplasties from 1993 to 2010 as a function of age, sex, race, and census region using the National Health Expenditure as the independent variable. The regression model was used in conjunction with government projections of National Health Expenditure from 2011 to 2021 to estimate future arthroplasty rates in subpopulations of the United States and to derive national estimates. The growth trend for the incidence of joint arthroplasty, for the overall United States population as well as for the United States workforce, was insensitive to economic downturns. From 2009 to 2010, the total number of procedures increased by 6.0% for primary total hip arthroplasty, 6.1% for primary total knee arthroplasty, 10.8% for revision total hip arthroplasty, and 13.5% for revision total knee arthroplasty. The National Health Expenditure model projections for primary hip replacement in 2020 were higher than a previously projected model, whereas the current model estimates for total

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin was measured and Bradford method showed the lowest variation of absorbance. The concentration of total protein obtained by using Bradford method was not statistically different (p>0.05 from concentration of total protein obtained by the biuret method. But in regard to erythrosin-B and TBPEE methods the concentrations of total protein were statistically different (pA determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo é importante em diversas áreas de pesquisa. Um estudo comparativo entre o método de biureto (método padrão para proteínas totais e diversos métodos que utilizam corantes (Bradford, tetrabromofenolftaleína etil éster-TBPEE, e eritrosina-B foi realizado para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo de ratos. O método de Bradford mostrou a maior sensibilidade para proteínas e o de biureto a menor. Para todos os métodos, as absorbâncias para diferentes proteínas (BSA, caseína, e ovoalbumina foram medidas e o método de Bradford mostrou a menor variação da absorbância. Utilizando o método de Bradford a concentração de proteínas totais obtida não foi estatisticamente diferente (p>0.05 daquela obtida pelo método do biureto. Porém, para os métodos da eritrosina-B e TBPEE as concentrações de proteínas totais foram estatisticamente diferentes (p<0.05 da obtida pelo método de biureto. Portanto o método de Bradford pode ser utilizado no lugar do método de biureto para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo.

  1. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... with cross-validated R2=0.890 for fat content and R2=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples....

  2. In vivo body composition studies in rats: assessment of total body protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, S; Stamatelatos, I E; Boozer, C N; Moore, R; Ma, R

    1998-01-01

    The precision and accuracy of a prompt-gamma neutron activation facility developed to assess total body protein in rats is estimated. The coefficient of variation of nitrogen measurement, as estimated by repeated measurements on 15 rats, was 5.5% for an equivalent dose of 60 mSv (Q = 20). Good agreement was observed in comparing the results of in vivo neutron activation analysis and chemical carcass analysis performed by the Kjeldahl method. The application of the technique in comparing the effect of a low-fat and a high-fat diet on body protein in rats is demonstrated.

  3. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  4. Total synthesis and structure–activity relationship studies of a series of selective G protein inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Hang; Underwood, Christina R.;

    2016-01-01

    G proteins are key mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signalling, which facilitates a plethora of important physiological processes. The cyclic depsipeptides YM-254890 and FR900359 are the only known specific inhibitors of the Gq subfamily of G proteins; however, no synthetic route has been...... reported previously for these complex natural products and they are not easily isolated from natural sources. Here we report the first total synthesis of YM-254890 and FR900359, as well as of two known analogues, YM-385780 and YM-385781. The versatility of the synthetic approach also enabled the design...... and synthesis of ten analogues, which provided the first structure–activity relationship study for this class of compounds. Pharmacological characterization of all the compounds at Gq-, Gi- and Gs-mediated signalling provided succinct information on the structural requirements for inhibition, and demonstrated...

  5. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total...... focus on differential effects of dairy and meat protein on bone health during growth.......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  6. Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dhakar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis.

  7. Effect of plate asymmetric rolling parameters on the change of the total unit pressure of roll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kawalek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work shows the results of theoretical analysis of asymmetric rolling process of plates in the finishing mill of plate rolling. Its aim was to determine the influence of asymmetry velocity of working rolls on decrease of unit pressure of metal on the rolls. The lower value of the unit pressure will reduce the elastic deflection of the finishing stand and improve the cross-section shape of plate. Three-dimensional simulation of asymmetric hot rolling of S355J2G3 steel plates was done with the aid of FORGE 2008® software. The tensor polynomial interpolation was used for comparing the values of the unit pressure obtaining from symmetric and asymmetric rolling.

  8. A Platform for Combined DNA and Protein Microarrays Based on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Asanov

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel microarray technology based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF in combination with DNA and protein bioassays immobilized at the TIRF surface. Unlike conventional microarrays that exhibit reduced signal-to-background ratio, require several stages of incubation, rinsing and stringency control, and measure only end-point results, our TIRF microarray technology provides several orders of magnitude better signal-to-background ratio, performs analysis rapidly in one step, and measures the entire course of association and dissociation kinetics between target DNA and protein molecules and the bioassays. In many practical cases detection of only DNA or protein markers alone does not provide the necessary accuracy for diagnosing a disease or detecting a pathogen. Here we describe TIRF microarrays that detect DNA and protein markers simultaneously, which reduces the probabilities of false responses. Supersensitive and multiplexed TIRF DNA and protein microarray technology may provide a platform for accurate diagnosis or enhanced research studies. Our TIRF microarray system can be mounted on upright or inverted microscopes or interfaced directly with CCD cameras equipped with a single objective, facilitating the development of portable devices. As proof-of-concept we applied TIRF microarrays for detecting molecular markers from Bacillus anthracis, the pathogen responsible for anthrax.

  9. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  10. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  11. Total Water Management: A Research Project of the United States Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  12. Undiscovered natural gas resources Total Petroleum System unit boundaries for Bangladesh (tps8bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the Total Petroleum System boundaries of the natural gas resources of Bangladesh. This...

  13. Total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables commonly consumed in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Li; Paonessa, Joseph D.; Zhang, Yuesheng; Ambrosone, Christine B.; McCann, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates are a group of promising chemopreventive agents obtained primarily from cruciferous vegetables. Due to their potent chemopreventive and/or anti-cancer activities, there is a growing interest in assessing dietary isothiocyanate exposure and its impact on human health. Using the HPLC-based cyclocondensation assay, the current study measured total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables. A total of 73 samples comprising nine types of cruciferous vegetables we...

  14. Total Protein Profile and Drug Resistance in Candida albicans Isolated from Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to evaluate its total protein profile based on morphological difference on drug resistance. Hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. albicans from various clinical specimens were tested for susceptibility against four antifungal agents, namely, fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole. A significant increase of drug resistance in clinical isolates of C. albicans was observed. The study showed 50% fluconazole and itraconazole resistance at 32 μg mL−1 with a MIC50 and MIC90 values at 34 and 47 and 36 and 49 μg mL−1, respectively. All isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. The SDS-PAGE protein profile showed a prevalent band of ~52.5 kDa, indicating overexpression of gene in 72% strains with fluconazole resistance. Since the opportunistic infections of Candida spp. are increasing along with drug resistance, the total protein profile will help in understanding the evolutionary changes in drug resistance and also to characterize them.

  15. Amino Acid Molecular Units: Building Primary and Secondary Protein Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecido R. Silva

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to guarantee the learning quality and suitable knowledge  use  about structural biology, it is fundamental to  exist, since the beginning of  students’ formation, the possibility of clear visualization of biomolecule structures. Nevertheless, the didactic books can only bring  schematic  drawings; even more elaborated figures and graphic computation  do not permit the necessary interaction.  The representation of three-dimensional molecular structures with ludic models, built with representative units, have supplied to the students and teachers a successfully experience to  visualize such structures and correlate them to the real molecules.  The design and applicability of the representative units were discussed with researchers and teachers before mould implementation.  In this stage  it  will be presented the  developed  kit  containing the  representative  plastic parts of the main amino acids.  The kit can demonstrate the interaction among the amino acids  functional groups  (represented by colors, shapes,  sizes and  the peptidic bonds between them  facilitating the assembly and visuali zation of the primary and secondary protein structure.  The models were designed for  Ca,  amino,  carboxyl groups  and  hydrogen. The  lateral chains have  well defined models that represent their geometrical shape.  The completed kit set  will be presented in this meeting (patent requested.  In the last phase of the project will be realized  an effective evaluation  of the kit  as a facilitative didactic tool of the teaching/learning process in the Structural Molecular Biology area.

  16. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    that normalisation using total protein analysis on samples run in parallel with stains such as Coomassie blue provides a more robust approach.

  17. Total synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of a series of selective G protein inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Hang; Underwood, Christina R.; Harpsøe, Kasper; Gardella, Thomas J.; Wöldike, Mie F.; Mannstadt, Michael; Gloriam, David E.; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2016-11-01

    G proteins are key mediators of G protein-coupled receptor signalling, which facilitates a plethora of important physiological processes. The cyclic depsipeptides YM-254890 and FR900359 are the only known specific inhibitors of the Gq subfamily of G proteins; however, no synthetic route has been reported previously for these complex natural products and they are not easily isolated from natural sources. Here we report the first total synthesis of YM-254890 and FR900359, as well as of two known analogues, YM-385780 and YM-385781. The versatility of the synthetic approach also enabled the design and synthesis of ten analogues, which provided the first structure-activity relationship study for this class of compounds. Pharmacological characterization of all the compounds at Gq-, Gi- and Gs-mediated signalling provided succinct information on the structural requirements for inhibition, and demonstrated that both YM-254890 and FR900359 are highly potent inhibitors of Gq signalling, with FR900359 being the most potent. These natural products and their analogues represent unique tools for explorative studies of G protein inhibition.

  18. Effect of β-TCP Ceramic on the Total Protein of Osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhitao; DAI Honglian; ZHANG qihuan; CAO Xianying; LI Shipu

    2007-01-01

    The osteoblast with the β-TCP ceramic was co-cultured. Scanning electron microscopy shows the cells adhered onto β-TCP ceramic surface and grew better, proving the β-TCP ceramic has a biocompatible property. The Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 stain shows that the total protein in the experimental groups was highly increased compared with the control group (p<0.05). Flow-cytometric analysis shows that β-TCP ceramic could promote the osteoblast transform from the G0/G1 phase to S phase. Those all demonstrate the product of the degradation of the β-TCP ceramic may take part in the protein metabolism of osteoblast.

  19. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  20. Brillouin spectroscopy as a new method of screening for increased CSF total protein during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of pronounced clinical significance, especially in the developing world. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is essential, and no single test can provide a conclusive diagnosis. It is well established that elevated total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with bacterial meningitis. Brillouin spectroscopy is a widely used optical technique for noninvasive determination of the elastic moduli of materials. We found that elevated protein levels in CSF alter the fluid elasticity sufficiently to be measurable by Brillouin spectroscopy, with model healthy and diseased fluids distinguishable to marked significance (P = 0.014), which increases with sample concentration by dialysis. Typical raw output of a 2-stage VIPA Brillouin spectrometer: inelastically scattered Brillouin peaks (arrows) and elastically scattered incident radiation (center cross). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Comparison Of Serum Calcium, Phosphorus And Total Protein Levels, In Pregnancy With Or Without Hypertensive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Pooraei M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension development and proteinuria during pregnancy. Hypertension disorder is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and death in worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of hypertension during pregnancy is unclear, but there is consensus that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is warranted to prevent complicated to both fetus and mother. The changes of serum trace elements during pregnancy are paramount important to predict and good understanding the situation of patients. The aim of this study was about this issue. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study we investigated the possible differences in the level of serum calcium, phosphorus and total protein in 55 healthy pregnant and 52 pregnant with hypertensive disease at 32-40 weeks of gestational age during the recent two years in Loghman hospital of Tehran. Some information such as age, blood group, parity number and blood pressure was taken from patients by a questionnaire. Results: The case population consisted of 22 sever preeclampsia, 15 mild preeclampsia, 8 eclampsia, and 7 chronic hypertensive. The mean serum calcium concentration (mg/dl was 9.180.74 in control group, 8.810.9 in mild preeclampsia, 7.850.38 in sever preeclampsia, 7.83 0.47 in eclampsia, 8.91 0.3 in chronic blood pressure. The mean serum phosphorus (mg/dl level observed, 4.27 in sever preeclampsia, 3.74 in eclampsia, 3.59 in mild eclampsia, 4.09 in chronic blood pressure, and 3.43 in control pregnant women. The mean serum total protein concentration level in sever preeclampsia and eclampsia was 5.46 and 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, sever preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with decreased level of calcium, total protein, and increased concentration of phosphorus.

  2. Diagnosis of drowning: Electrolytes and total protein in sphenoid sinus liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Akira; Terazawa, Koichi; Matoba, Kotaro; Horioka, Kie; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2017-02-24

    In this study, electrolyte (sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl), and magnesium (Mg)) and total protein (TP) concentrations and volume of liquid in the sphenoid sinus were examined to determine their usefulness to elucidate whether drowning occurred in freshwater or seawater. We examined 68 cases (seawater drowning group: 27 cases, freshwater drowning group: 21 cases, non-drowning group: 20 cases). There was a significant difference in Na, Cl, Mg, and TP concentrations of liquid in the sphenoid sinus among the three groups (seawater drowning, freshwater drowning, and non-drowning groups). To distinguish freshwater drowning from seawater drowning, Na, Cl, and Mg concentrations of liquid in the sphenoid sinus might serve as useful indicators.

  3. Sensitivity of Total Protein Creatinine Ratio in Urine for Diagnosis Diabetic Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Fatrinawati, .; Windarwati; Sianipar, Osman

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACTDiabetic nephropathy is one of diabetic complication characterized by proteinuria and impaired renal function. Confirmation of diagnosis based either on urine value of albumin excretion rate (AER) 30-300 mg/24 hours or albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) 30-300 mg/g or total protein creatinine ratio (TPCR) 150-500 mg/g. It is reported that TPCR measurement is more acceptable since it is convenient, fast and does not require special preparation. The aim of this study is to investigate the a...

  4. Post-anaesthesia care unit stay after total hip and knee arthroplasty under spinal anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Kristensen, B B; Gaarn-Larsen, L;

    2012-01-01

    patients operated with primary unilateral total hip or knee arthroplasty (THA or TKA) under spinal anaesthesia were included in this hypothesis-generating, prospective, observational cohort study during a 4-month period. Surgical technique, analgesia, and perioperative care were standardized. Well...

  5. Protein sectors: evolutionary units of three-dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Najeeb; Rivoire, Olivier; Leibler, Stanislas; Ranganathan, Rama

    2011-01-01

    Proteins display a hierarchy of structural features at primary, secondary, tertiary, and higher-order levels, an organization that guides our current understanding of their biological properties and evolutionary origins. Here, we reveal a structural organization distinct from this traditional hierarchy by statistical analysis of correlated evolution between amino acids. Applied to the S1A serine proteases, the analysis indicates a decomposition of the protein into three quasi-independent groups of correlated amino acids that we term “protein sectors”. Each sector is physically connected in the tertiary structure, has a distinct functional role, and constitutes an independent mode of sequence divergence in the protein family. Functionally relevant sectors are evident in other protein families as well, suggesting that they may be general features of proteins. We propose that sectors represent a structural organization of proteins that reflects their evolutionary histories. PMID:19703402

  6. [Refractometric measurement of total serum protein, comparison of refractometry and biuret test (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liappis, N; Jäkel, A

    1978-07-01

    Study on the Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Serum, Comparison of the Refractometric and Biuret Method. Total protein concentration in serum was determined by the aid of the Abbé-refractometer and the biuret method. Both methods showed a good precision and accuracy. The investigation was carried out in 241 sera with normal bilirubin (up to 1 mg/100 ml), cholesterol (up to 200 mg/100 ml) and urea (up to 23,0 mg/100 ml) concentration, in 43 sera with increased (10,6-26,6 mg/100 ml) bilirubin concentration, in 129 sera with increased (200-520 mg/100 ml) cholesterol concentration and in 43 sera with increased (23,0-155,3 mg/100 ml) urea concentration. The comparison of the refractometric values with the values obtained by the biuret method in the 241 sera with normal bilirubin, cholesterol and urea concentration (correlation coefficient = 0,971) showed a close correlation and in the 43 sera with increased bilirubin concentration (correlation coefficient = 0,958) an acceptable correlation. However no close correlations were observed in the 129 sera with increased cholesterol concentration and in the 43 sera with increased urea concentration. The correlation lines diverged proportional with the increase of cholesterol and urea concentration from the expected correlation lines.

  7. Bacteriophage and impurity carryover and total organic carbon release during extended protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2009-05-01

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, column chromatography residuals are routinely assessed by the direct measurement of mock eluates. In this study, we evaluated virus and other impurity carryover between protein A cycles and the feasibility of using a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer to monitor for column impurity leakage as a correlate for actual measured carryover in mock eluates. Commercial process intermediates were used in scaled down studies of two protein A media, ProSep A (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) and MabSelect SuRe (GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden). The chromatography system was programmed to run up to 200 normal load/elution cycles with periodic blank cycles to measure protein and phage carryover, and water flush cycles to measure TOC release. Sustained phage carryover was evident in each study. Carryover and TOC release was lowest in the case where cleaning was most stringent (50 mM NaOH/0.5 M Na(2)SO(4) with MabSelect SuRe). The TOC analysis at this time does not appear to be a viable practical means of measuring impurity carryover; direct measurements in mock eluates appears to be more predictive of column performance.

  8. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.37–6.72 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%. Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%. Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023 and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025. Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  9. Total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables commonly consumed in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Paonessa, Joseph D; Zhang, Yuesheng; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCann, Susan E

    2013-10-01

    Dietary isothiocyanates are a group of promising chemopreventive agents obtained primarily from cruciferous vegetables. Due to their potent chemopreventive and/or anti-cancer activities, there is a growing interest in assessing dietary isothiocyanate exposure and its impact on human health. Using the HPLC-based cyclocondensation assay, the current study measured total isothiocyanate yield from raw cruciferous vegetables. A total of 73 samples comprising nine types of cruciferous vegetables were analyzed. We observed a wide range of isothiocyanate content across the individual vegetables with an average level of 16.2 μmol/100g wet weight, ranging from 1.5 μmol in raw cauliflower to 61.3 μmol in raw mustard greens. The data represent the maximum amount of isothiocyanates released from the intake of raw cruciferous vegetables. Given that the vegetables assayed in this study include the most commonly consumed cruciferous vegetables in western diets, the data may be particularly useful in estimation of dietary isothiocyanate exposure in these populations. However, due to the variation observed within each vegetable, biomarkers such as urinary isothiocyanate level may be necessary for accurate estimation of individual exposure.

  10. Spectrophotometric total protein assay with copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in alkaline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözgen, Kevser; Cekic, Sema Demirci; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Resat

    2006-02-28

    Total protein assay was made using copper(II)-neocuproine (Nc) reagent in alkaline medium (with the help of a hydroxide-carbonate-tartarate solution) after 30min incubation at 40 degrees C. The absorbance of the reduction product, Cu(I)-Nc complex, was recorded at 450nm against a reagent blank. The absorptivity of the developed method for bovine serum albumin (BSA) was 0.023lmg(-1)cm(-1), greater than that of Lowry assay (0.0098), and much greater than that of Cu(II)-bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay (0.00077). The linear range of the developed method (8-100mgl(-1) BSA) was as wide as that of Lowry, and much wider than that of BCA (200-1000mgl(-1) BSA) assay. The sensitivity of the method was greater than those of Cu-based assays (biuret, Lowry, and BCA) with a LOD of 1mgl(-1) BSA. The within-run and between-run precisions as RSD were 0.73 and 1.01%, respectively. The selectivity of the proposed method for protein was much higher than those of dye-binding and Lowry assays: Most common interferents to other protein assays such as tris, ethanolamine, deoxycholate, CsCl, citrate, and triton X-100 were tolerated at 100-fold concentrations in the analysis of 10mgl(-1) BSA, while the tolerance limits for other interferents, e.g., (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and acetylsalicylic acid (50-fold), SDS (25-fold), and glycerol (20-fold) were at acceptable levels. The redox reaction of Cu(II)-Nc as an outer-sphere electron transfer agent with the peptide bond and with four amino acid residues (cystine, cysteine, tryptophan, and tyrosine) was kinetically more favourable than that of Cu(II) alone in the biuret assay. Since the reduction product of Cu(II) with protein, i.e., Cu(I), was coordinatively saturated with Nc in the stable Cu(Nc)(2)(+) chelate, re-oxidation of the formed Cu(I) with Fenton-like reactions was not possible, thereby preventing a loss of chromophore. After conventional protein extraction, precipitation, and redissolution procedures, the protein contents of the minced meat

  11. The APOBEC Protein Family: United by Structure, Divergent in Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C

    2016-07-01

    The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated.

  12. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group. Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p

  13. The nutrient composition of European ready meals: protein, fat, total carbohydrates and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Determination of total mercury in seafood and other protein-rich products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, S.; Fagioli, F.; Locatelli, C. [Universita di Ferrara (Italy)

    1992-11-01

    A previously developed wet-digestion method for the determination of total mercury in plants by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CVAAS) was extended to the analysis of seafood and other products rich in proteins. Oxidation of matrixes is accomplished by K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the presence of diluted H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}; a simple air condenser is used to reflux vapors released from the boiling mixture. The original procedure (A) and 2 modifications (B and C), which differ with respect to the mode of acidification and/or digestion time and the types of condensers used, were compared for precision and accuracy by means of National Institute of Standards and Technology Research Material 50 Albacore Tuna and proved to be reliable (Hg present, 0.95{plus_minus}0.1 {mu}g/g; Hg found, 0.97 {plus_minus} 0.029 {mu}g/g [A], 0.98 {plus_minus} 0.018 {mu}g/g [B], and 0.94 {plus_minus} 0.025 {mu}g/g [C]). The modified procedures were tested further in Hg recovery experiments on a variety of biological matrixes with different spiking substances and again showed good analytical characteristics (overall average recoveries = 98 {plus_minus} 5.1% for seafood and 100 {plus_minus} 3.6 for protein-rich baby foods). 22 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. Developments in total quality management in the United States: the Intermountain Health Care perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K F

    1994-06-01

    In summary our purpose has been to evaluate quality in the following terms. Best process of care--narrowing the variation of care decisions, working towards the best method. Best clinical outcome--decreased morbidity ond mortality. Best patient satisfaction--both for clinical outcome and the process of care. Best value--best value at the lowest cost. At Intermountain Health Care we believe that the best way to achieve the best quality improvement in a health care system is to involve all of the participants--patients, providers, and systems--in employing the principles of total quality management. Patient involvement--in prevention; participating in best care process through education and utilisation; in evaluating functional status before, during, and after intervention; in satisfaction; in clinical outcome and follow up with providers. Provider involvement--in planning, implementing, analysing, and educating; in defining guidelines; in reassessing and defining guidelines; in reassessing and continually modifying the care map, always striving for "best care." System involvement--in providing structure and mechanisms, support staff, and information systems and being willing to focus on quality as a part of its mission. An American philosopher, George Santayana, once said: "What we call the contagious force of an idea is really the force of the people who have embraced it." It will be up to all of us collectively to become the force behind moving quality management principles into the forefront of patient care methodology and ensuring that quality remains as the guiding principle of health care delivery in the future.

  16. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  17. Clinical performance evaluation of total protein measurement by digital refractometry and characterization of non-protein solute interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Joshua J H; Wyness, Sara P; Snow, Taylor M; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-12-01

    Refractometric methods to measure total protein (TP) in serum and plasma specimens have been replaced by automated biuret methods in virtually all routine clinical testing. A subset of laboratories, however, still report using refractometry to measure TP in conjunction with serum protein electrophoresis. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct a modern performance evaluation of a digital refractometer for TP measurement. Performance evaluation of a MISCO Palm Abbe™ digital refractometer was conducted through device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, and reference interval verification. Comparison assays included a manual refractometer and an automated biuret assay. Carryover risk was eliminated using a demineralized distilled water (ddH2O) wash step. Precision studies demonstrated overall imprecision of 2.2% CV (low TP pool) and 0.5% CV (high TP pool). Accuracy studies demonstrated correlation to both manual refractometry and the biuret method. An overall positive bias (+5.0%) was observed versus the biuret method. On average, outlier specimens had an increased triglyceride concentration. Linearity was verified using mixed dilutions of: a) low and high concentration patient pools, or b) albumin-spiked ddH2O and high concentration patient pool. Decreased recovery was observed using ddH2O dilutions at low TP concentrations. Significant interference was detected at high concentrations of glucose (>267 mg/dL) and triglycerides (>580 mg/dL). Current laboratory reference intervals for TP were verified. Performance characteristics of this digital refractometer were validated in a clinical laboratory setting. Biuret method remains the preferred assay for TP measurement in routine clinical analyses.

  18. How Many Temporomandibular Joint Total Joint Alloplastic Implants Will Be Placed in the United States in 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoriobe, Uvoh; Miloro, Michael; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mercuri, Louis G; Lotesto, Anthony; Eke, Ransome

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a statistical projection of the number of alloplastic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) total joint replacements (TJRs) that will be performed in the United States through the year 2030. The program directors of all 101 Commission on Dental Accreditation-accredited oral and maxillofacial surgery training programs in the United States were surveyed online by use of a questionnaire developed using Redcap (Chicago, IL) over a 6-week period (February 2015-March 2015). The questionnaire included 19 questions related to each program's TMJ disorder and TMJ TJR curricula, as well as clinical experience. In addition, members of the American Society of Temporomandibular Joint Surgeons were surveyed online using Redcap and via direct survey forms. Moreover, requests for the total number of TMJ TJR devices produced and implanted during the same period were made to the 3 manufacturers of Food and Drug Administration-approved TMJ TJR devices in the United States. The response rate among program directors was 52.5%, and the total number of TMJ TJR devices implanted in oral and maxillofacial surgery programs in 2005 was 412. This total increased by 38% to 572 in 2014. Statistically, this projects an increase of 58% over the next 16 years to 902 TMJ TJR operations by 2030 (95% prediction limits, 768 and 1,037). The total number of TMJ TJR devices distributed by one manufacturer increased from 430 in the year 2000 to 1,004 in 2014 (133%). By use of these data, statistically over the next 16 years, the number of TMJ TJR devices distributed by this company is projected to be 1,658 (95% prediction limits, 1,380 and 1,935). The data presented in this study show an increasing demand for the use of TMJ TJR devices in the management of end-stage TMJ disorders to the year 2030. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species induce protein and DNA modifications driving arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Theresa A; Parvizi, Javad; Della Valle, Craig J; Steinbeck, Marla J

    2009-11-13

    Arthrofibrosis, occurring in 3%-4% of patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is a challenging condition for which there is no defined cause. The hypothesis for this study was that disregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) mediates matrix protein and DNA modifications, which result in excessive fibroblastic proliferation. We found increased numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, along with elevated amounts of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in arthrofibrotic tissues when compared to control tissues. MPO expression, an enzyme that generates ROS/RNS, is usually limited to neutrophils and some macrophages, but was found by immunohistochemistry to be expressed in both macrophages and fibroblasts in arthrofibrotic tissue. As direct measurement of ROS/RNS is not feasible, products including DNA hydroxylation (8-OHdG), and protein nitrosylation (nitrotyrosine) were measured by immunohistochemistry. Quantification of the staining showed that 8-OHdg was significantly increased in arthrofibrotic tissue. There was also a direct correlation between the intensity of inflammation and ROS/RNS to the amount of heterotopic ossification (HO). In order to investigate the aberrant expression of MPO, a real-time oxidative stress polymerase chain reaction array was performed on fibroblasts isolated from arthrofibrotic and control tissues. The results of this array confirmed the upregulation of MPO expression in arthrofibrotic fibroblasts and highlighted the downregulated expression of the antioxidants, superoxide dismutase1 and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3, as well as the significant increase in thioredoxin reductase, a known promoter of cell proliferation, and polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase, a key enzyme in the base excision repair pathway for oxidative DNA damage. Based on our current findings, we suggest that ROS/RNS initiate and sustain the arthrofibrotic response driving aggressive fibroblast proliferation and subsequent HO.

  20. Analysis of total proteins in pollen of Humulus scandens Lour in Wuhan Region of China by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dongdong; HE Shaoheng

    2007-01-01

    Total proteins in the pollen of Humulus scandens Lour,one of the most popular aeroallergens in China,were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis in the current study.The proteins were extracted by Trichloracetic acid (TCA) method,and then separated by isoelectric focusing as the first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension.The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue.After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D),122 different proteins were detected;isoelectric point (pI),Molecular weight (MW) and relativevolume of each protein in the pollen were also discovered.This is the first high-resolution,two-dimensional protein map of the pollen ofHumulus scandens Lour in China.Our finding has built a solid foundation for identification,characterization,gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the pollen ofHumulus scandens Lour for further studies.

  1. Exposure to total and protein-unbound rifampin is not affected by malnutrition in Indonesian tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Brake, L H M; Ruslami, R; Later-Nijland, H; Mooren, F; Teulen, M; Apriani, L; Koenderink, J B; Russel, F G; Burger, D M; Alisjahbana, B; Wieringa, F; van Crevel, R; Aarnoutse, R E

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status may have a profound impact on the pharmacokinetics of drugs, yet only few data are available for tuberculosis (TB) drugs. As malnutrition occurs frequently among TB patients, we assessed the effect of malnutrition on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of total and protein-unbound rifampin during the intensive phase of TB treatment. In a descriptive pharmacokinetic study in Bandung, Indonesia, patients received a fixed standard rifampin dose of 450 mg once daily during the intensive phase of TB treatment. A full pharmacokinetic curve for rifampin was recorded, and total and unbound concentrations of rifampin were analyzed in all samples. Rifampin pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between severely malnourished (BMI of effect on total and protein-unbound pharmacokinetic parameters of rifampin in Indonesian subjects. The large interindividual variability in the free fraction of rifampin suggests that protein-unbound rather than total rifampin concentrations should preferably be used to study exposure-response relationships.

  2. Molecular weight assessment of proteins in total proteome profiles using 1D-PAGE and LC/MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Church George M

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The observed molecular weight of a protein on a 1D polyacrylamide gel can provide meaningful insight into its biological function. Differences between a protein's observed molecular weight and that predicted by its full length amino acid sequence can be the result of different types of post-translational events, such as alternative splicing (AS, endoproteolytic processing (EPP, and post-translational modifications (PTMs. The characterization of these events is one of the important goals of total proteome profiling (TPP. LC/MS/MS has emerged as one of the primary tools for TPP, but since this method identifies tryptic fragments of proteins, it has not generally been used for large-scale determination of the molecular weight of intact proteins in complex mixtures. Results We have developed a set of computational tools for extracting molecular weight information of intact proteins from total proteome profiles in a high throughput manner using 1D-PAGE and LC/MS/MS. We have applied this technology to the proteome profile of a human lymphoblastoid cell line under standard culture conditions. From a total of 1 × 107 cells, we identified 821 proteins by at least two tryptic peptides. Additionally, these 821 proteins are well-localized on the 1D-SDS gel. 656 proteins (80% occur in gel slices in which the observed molecular weight of the protein is consistent with its predicted full-length sequence. A total of 165 proteins (20% are observed to have molecular weights that differ from their predicted full-length sequence. We explore these molecular-weight differences based on existing protein annotation. Conclusion We demonstrate that the determination of intact protein molecular weight can be achieved in a high-throughput manner using 1D-PAGE and LC/MS/MS. The ability to determine the molecular weight of intact proteins represents a further step in our ability to characterize gene expression at the protein level. The identification of

  3. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erema Ransome Daka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were determined in plasma, muscle, liver, gills and kidney. The levels of total protein in plasma and muscle were significantly lower (p<0.05 in all test concentrations in comparison with the control; but no concentration-dependent in depletions were observed. On the other hand, protein concentrations in liver, kidney and gills decreased with increased concentration of diazinon. In addition to significant differences in ALT and AST in liver, kidney, gills and muscle when compared with the control, concentration dependent activities in ALT was observed to in the liver and gills. It is concluded that protein concentration as well as ALT activities in gills and liver of Clarias gariepinus are more useful biomarkers of sub-lethal effects of diazinon than total protein, ALT and A ST activities in plasma.

  4. Total leucocyte count, C-reactive protein and neutrophil count: Diagnostic Aid in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafi Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute intraabdominal affections seen in surgical departments, which can be treated easily if an accurate diagnosis is made in time. Otherwise, delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to diffuse peritonitis. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted on 110 patients who were operated for acute appendicitis to determine the role and predictive value of the total leucocyte count (TLC, C-reactive protein (CRP and percentage of neutrophil count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Preoperative TLC, CRP and percentage of neutrophil count were determined and were compared with the results of the histopathology of the removed appendix. Results: Of all the patients studied, 92 had histopathologically positive appendicitis. The TLC was found to be significantly high in 90 patients who proved to have acute appendicitis, whereas CRP was high in only 88 patients and neutrophil percentage was raised in 91; four had a normal CRP level. Thus, TLC had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 97.82%, 55.55% and 91.8%, respectively. CRP had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 95.6%, 77.77% and 95.6% respectively. Percentage of neutrophil count had a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 98.9%, 38.88% and 89.21%, respectively. When used in combination, there was a marked improvement in the specificity and the positive predictive value to 88.04% and 98.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The inflammatory markers, i.e., TLC, CRP and neutrophil count can be helpful in the diagnosis when measured together as this increases their specificity and positive predictive value.

  5. Pediatric reference intervals for random urine calcium, phosphorus and total protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slev, Patricia R; Bunker, Ashley M; Owen, William E; Roberts, William L

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish age appropriate reference intervals for calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and total protein (UTP) in random urine samples. All analytes were measured using the Roche MODULAR P analyzer and normalized to creatinine (Cr). Our study cohort consisted of 674 boys and 728 girls between 7 and 17 years old (y.o.), which allowed us to determine the central 95% reference intervals with 90% confidence intervals by non-parametric analysis partitioned by both gender and 2-year age intervals for each analyte [i.e. boys in age group 7-9 years (7-9 boys); girls in age group 7-9 years (7-9 girls), etc.]. Results for the upper limits of the central 95% reference interval were: for Ca/Cr, 0.27 (16,17 y.o.) to 0.46 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the girls and 0.26 (16,17 y.o.) to 0.43 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the boys; for P/Cr, 0.85 (16,17 y.o.) to 1.44 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the girls and 0.87 (16,17 y.o.) to 1.68 mg/mg (7-9 y.o.) for the boys; for UTP/Cr, 0.30 (7-9 y.o.) to 0.34 mg/mg (10-12 y.o.) for the girls and 0.19 (16,17, y.o.) to 0.26 mg/mg (13-15 y.o.) for the boys. Upper reference limits decreased with increasing age, and age was a statistically significant variable for all analytes. Eight separate age- and gender-specific reference intervals are proposed per analyte.

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  8. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toh, Y., E-mail: toh.yosuke@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [University of Fukui, Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui City, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Furutaka, K.; Kimura, A.; Koizumi, M.; Hara, K.; Kin, T.; Nakamura, S.; Harada, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen contents were analyzed by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of neutron scattering was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein content can be calculated by nitrogen content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein contents of standard materials agreed with the certified values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method is a rapid, non-destructive, feasible method to quantify protein.

  9. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Y; Murakami, Y; Furutaka, K; Kimura, A; Koizumi, M; Hara, K; Kin, T; Nakamura, S; Harada, H

    2012-06-01

    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable.

  10. Preliminary proteomics analysis of the total proteins of flower bud induction of apple trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangyin CAO; Qiuming ZHANG; Zhiyong ZHU; Junying GUO; Yuling CHEN; Huabai XUE

    2008-01-01

    Apple is one of the most important fruit trees in the world. Nevertheless, mainly due to its long juvenile period, its breeding work constantly falls far behind other crops. So the aim of this study is to reveal the mechanism of apple flower bud differentiation, shorten the juvenile period and accelerate its breeding process. Proteomics technology (including two-dimensional gel electrophor-esis (2-DE), biomass spectrometry and bioinformatics) was applied to work on the specific protein of flower bud and leaf bud after the brachyblasts of 'Fuji' stopped growth for 3-9 weeks. The results showed that the mor-phodifferentiation of flower bud did not begin until the seventh week after the brachyblast stopped growth. Furthermore, compared with the leaf bud, flower bud had significant changes in the expression of 283 protein spots in quality and quantity on 2-DE maps. Among the 283 protein spots, four protein spots (16.4, 30.2, 40.3 and 65.1 kD) were characteristic of the flower bud in the archae-stage (initial inflorescence appeared) at the begin-ning of flower-bud differentiation, three (39.3, 60.2 and 66.3 kD) in the post-stage (Lateral-flower appears) and one (77.1 kD) in the sepal stage on 2-DE maps. Analysis by peptide mass fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry also identified and forecasted functionally by blasting dif-ferent databases. In the four specific proteins, it was found that spots No. 256 (16.4 kD) and 298 (30.2 kD) were unknown proteins, spot Nos. 327 (40.3 kD) was identified as the synthesis enzyme protein and spot No. 367 (40.3 kD) was identified as a RNA-binding protein involved in transcription. When flower bud started to dif-ferentiate morphologically, we detected four specific pro-teins which were 16.4, 30.2, 40.3 and 65.1 kD. Three specific proteins 39.3, 60.2 and 66.3 kD were observed at side flower-appearing stage. When calyx began to emerge, there was one specific protein: 77.1 kD. The

  11. Effects of Sub-Lethal Concentrations of Diazinon on Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias gariepinus

    OpenAIRE

    Erema Ransome Daka; I.R. Inyang; E.N. Ogamba

    2010-01-01

    Diazinon-induced changes in the total protein and transaminase activities of Clarias gariepinus, a common Niger Delta wetland fish were assessed. Adult fish (mean length 35.24±2.80 cm) were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and then exposed to varying sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/L) in semi-static bioassays for 30 days. Total protein and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined...

  12. Fast and selective determination of total protein in milk powder via titration of moving reaction boundary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-ye; Wang, Hou-yu; Liu, Xiao-ping; Fan, Liu-yin; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Cheng-xi

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) was developed for rapid and accurate quantification of total protein in infant milk powder, from the concept of moving reaction boundary (MRB) electrophoresis. In the method, the MRB was formed by the hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of milk proteins immobilized via cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAG), an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. As a proof of concept, we chose five brands of infant milk powders to study the feasibility of MRBT method. The calibration curve of MRB velocity versus logarithmic total protein content of infant milk powder sample was established based on the visual signal of MRB motion as a function of logarithmic milk protein content. Weak influence of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) reagents (e.g., melamine and urea) on MRBT method was observed, due to the fact that MRB was formed with hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of captured milk proteins, rather than the alkaline residues or the NPN reagents added. The total protein contents in infant milk powder samples detected via the MRBT method were in good agreement with those achieved by the classic Kjeldahl method. In addition, the developed method had much faster measuring speed compared with the Kjeldahl method.

  13. Net protein utilization during total parenteral nutrition of injured critically ill patients: an original approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, G; Solca, M; Radrizzani, D; Zucchetti, M; Damia, G

    1981-01-01

    Traumatized critically ill patients with either a moderate or severe catabolic response were studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive an intravenous solution which was either protein-free or contained protein and hypertonic glucose. The overall energy intake in both groups was equivalent to each patient's daily requirement. In both the moderately catabolic and severely catabolic patients the urinary nitrogen loss with the protein-free solution was negatively correlated to the energy intake/energy need ratio (p less than 0.01, moderate catabolism; p less than 0.001, severe catabolism). The ratio of energy intake/energy need was correlated with the nitrogen loss. From the resultant straight line, the obligatory nitrogen loss was determined for those patients receiving the protein containing solution (test diet). The net protein utilization was subsequently calculated using this value of the obligatory nitrogen loss. The net protein utilization was inversely correlated with the severity of trauma. It was significantly (p less than 0.005) greater in the patients with a moderate catabolic response. In the acute postinjury phase, the net protein utilization of infused amino acids was similar to that for protein fed orally to normal healthy subjects.

  14. Total protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis methods for Burkholderia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velapatiño, Billie; Zlosnik, James E A; Hird, Trevor J; Speert, David P

    2013-10-15

    The investigation of the intracellular protein levels of bacterial species is of importance to understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases caused by these organisms. Here we describe a procedure for protein extraction from Burkholderia species based on mechanical lysis using glass beads in the presence of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride in phosphate buffered saline. This method can be used for different Burkholderia species, for different growth conditions, and it is likely suitable for the use in proteomic studies of other bacteria. Following protein extraction, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis proteomic technique is described to study global changes in the proteomes of these organisms. This method consists of the separation of proteins according to their isoelectric point by isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, followed by separation on the basis of molecular weight by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. Visualization of separated proteins is carried out by silver staining.

  15. Retardation signal for fluorescent determination of total protein content via rapid and sensitive chip moving reaction boundary electrophoretic titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houyu; Shi, Yongting; Yan, Jian; Dong, Jingyu; Li, Si; Xiao, Hua; Xie, Haiyang; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2014-03-18

    A novel concept and theory of moving reaction boundary (MRB) retardation signal (RMRB) was advanced for determination of total protein content via MRB electrophoretic titration (MRBET). The theoretical results revealed that the retardation extent of boundary displacment, viz., the RMRB value, was as a function of protein content. Thus, the RMRB value of a sample could be used to determine its total protein content according to the relevant calibration curve. To demonstrate the concept and theoretical results, a novel microdevice was designed for the relevant experiments of MRBET. The microdevice has 30 identical work cells, each of which is composed of five ultrashort single microchannels (5 mm). In the microdevice, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was used to denote MRB motion and RMRB value for the first time, the polyacrylamide gel (PAG) containing protein sample was photopolymerized in microchannels, and the MRB was created with acid or alkali and target protein sample. As compared to the classic Kjeldahl method and conventional MRBET performed in glass tube, the developed titration chip has the following merits: good sensitivity (0.3-0.4 μg/mL vs 150-200 μg/mL of protein concentration, 0.6-0.8 ng vs 30-2000 μg of absolute protein content), rapid analysis (20-60 s vs 15-200 min), and portable low-power (15 V vs 200 V).

  16. Mechanism of simultaneously refolding and purification of proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatographic unit and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG; Xindu(耿信笃); BAI; Quan(白泉)

    2002-01-01

    The hydrophobic amino acid residues of a denatured protein molecule tend to react with the particles of the stationary phase of hydrophobic interaction chromatography (STHIC). These hydrophobic interactions prevent the denatured protein molecules from aggregating with each other. The STHIC can provide high enough energy to a denatured protein molecule to make it dehydration and to refold it into its native or various intermediate states. The outcome not only depends on the specific interactions between amino acids, the structure of STHIC, but also depends on the association between the STHIC and mobile phase. The mechanism of protein refolding and the principle of its quality control by HPHIC were also presented. By appropriate selection of the chromatographic condition, several denatured proteins can be refolded and separated simultaneously in a single chromatographic run. A specially designed unit, with diameter much larger than its length, was designed and employed for both laboratory and preparative scales. That unit for the simultaneous renaturation and purification of proteins (USRPP) had the following four functions: to completely remove denaturant, to renature proteins, to separate renatured proteins from impurities, and to easily recycle waste denaturant. The efficiencies of refolding and purification of proteins by the USRPP are almost comparable to a usual long chromatographic column in laboratory. In preparative scale, USRPP can be easily, rapidly, and economically applied requiring a low pressure gradient. As an example, recombinant human interferon-? is employed to elucidate the application of the preparative USRPP.

  17. Quantitative colorimetric assay for total protein applied to the red wine Pinot noir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Penner, Mike H; Bennett, Samuel E; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2011-07-13

    A standard method for assaying protein in red wine is currently lacking. The method described here is based on protein precipitation followed by dye binding quantification. Improvements over existing approaches include minimal sample processing prior to protein precipitation with cold trichloroacetic acid/acetone and quantification based on absorbance relative to a commercially available standard representative of proteins likely to be found in wine, the yeast mannoprotein invertase. The precipitation method shortened preparation time relative to currently published methods and the mannoprotein standard yielded values comparable to those obtained by micro-Kjeldahl analysis. The assay was used to measure protein in 48 Pinot noir wines from 6 to 32 years old. The protein content of these wines was found to range from 50 to 102 mg/L with a mean value of 70 mg/L. The availability of a simple and relatively rapid procedure for assaying protein provides a practical tool to quantify a wine component that has been overlooked in routine analyses of red wines.

  18. Regulation of glutamine synthetase, aspartokinase, and total protein turnover in Klebsiella aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulks, R M; Stadtman, E R

    1985-12-13

    When suspensions of Klebsiella aerogenes are incubated in a nitrogen-free medium there is a gradual decrease in the levels of acid-precipitable protein and of aspartokinase III (lysine-sensitive) and aspartokinase I (threonine-sensitive) activities. In contrast, the level of glutamine synthetase increases slightly and then remains constant. Under these conditions, the glutamine synthetase and other proteins continue to be synthesized as judged by the incorporation of [14C]leucine into the acid-precipitable protein fraction and into protein precipitated by anti-glutamine synthetase antibodies, by the fact that growth-inhibiting concentrations of chloramphenicol also inhibit the incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein and into protein precipitated by anti-glutamine synthetase antibody, and by the fact that chloramphenicol leads to acceleration in the loss of aspartokinases I and III and promotes a net decrease in the level of glutamine synthetase and its cross-reactive protein. The loss of aspartokinases I and III in cell suspensions is stimulated by glucose and is inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Glucose also stimulates the loss of aspartokinases and glutamine synthetase in the presence of chloramphenicol. Cell-free extracts of K. aerogenes catalyze rapid inactivation of endogenous glutamine synthetase as well as exogenously added pure glutamine synthetase. This loss of glutamine synthetase is not associated with a loss of protein that cross-reacts with anti-glutamine synthetase antibodies. The inactivation of glutamine synthetase in extracts is not due to adenylylation. It is partially prevented by sulfhydryl reagents, Mn2+, antimycin A, 2,4-dinitrophenol, EDTA, anaerobiosis and by dialysis. Following 18 h dialysis, the capacity of extracts to catalyze inactivation of glutamine synthetase is lost but can be restored by the addition of Fe2+ (or Ni2+) together with ATP (or other nucleoside di- and triphosphates. After 40-60 h dialysis Fe3+ together with NADH (but

  19. Estimation of salivary amylase and total proteins in leukemia patients and its correlation with clinical feature and radiographic finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemia is a fatal disease. The oral manifestations of the leukemias occur early in the course of the disease and these oral features can at times act as a diagnostic indicator. Saliva has been used as a diagnostic aid in a number of systemic diseases. Materials and Methods: In our study, samples of unstimulated saliva of 30 leukemia patients who were not on chemotherapy were collected and analyzed for salivary amylase and total protein. The oral manifestations and radiographic changes (OPG were recorded. The correlation between the oral manifestations and the salivary components (salivary amylase and total protein was assessed for prognostic significance. Results: In the present study when the mean values of salivary amylase (1280±754 U/ml and total protein (647.2±320.7 mg% were compared with that in control subjects. There was a statistically significant difference for amylase levels (P<.05. On intraoral examination the study subjects showed pallor, gingivitis, gingival enlargement, petechiae, and ecchymosis. On the OPG, the radiographic features included generalized rarefaction of bone (20%, thinning of lamina dura (3.4%, generalized alveolar crest bone resorption (30%, thinning of walls of alveolar crypts (6.7%, besides others, e.g., periapical abscess (10%. Conclusions: The saliva of leukemic patients demonstrated obvious changes in composition. A rise in salivary amylase and total protein levels was evident, with the increase in amylase levels being statistically significant.

  20. Acromegaly: the significance of serum total and free IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 in diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joop); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the physiological and clinical relevance of measurements of serum total and free IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in 57 previously untreated patients with active acromegaly (32 males, 25 females; mean age 47 years) as compared with sex- and age-

  1. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on da

  2. Total leaf crude protein, amino acid composition and elemental content in the USDA-ARS bamboo germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamboo shoots and leaves are valuable food sources for both humans and livestock. The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collections hold 93 bamboo species in 20 genera. Total leaf protein, amino acid composition and elemental content for these important genetic resources had never bee...

  3. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... in a 2×2 factorial design in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased...... total N intake by 29%, duodenal AA N flow by 39%, and AA N absorbed by 37%; absorption of Leu and Lys increased 60 and 33%, and absorption of ne and Met increased 11 and 7%, respectively. Measured duodenal AA N flow (Cr2O3 marker) was 33% higher in cows cannulated adjacent to the pylorus compared...

  4. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of total protein concentration and electrophoretic protein fractions in fresh and frozen serum from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Daniela; de Giorgi, Giada Bagnagatti; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Baggiani, Luciana; Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Comazzi, Carlo; Belloli, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the health status of reptiles is based on physical examination and evaluation of hematologic and biochemical values. Evaluation of serum total protein (TP) concentration and protein fractions plays an important role in health assessment; however, little is known about references value for these analytes in wild viperoid snakes. In addition, studies evaluating the stability of proteins in frozen viperoid serum are lacking. The aims of this study were to establish preliminary reference values for concentrations of TP and protein fractions in serum from wild vipers and to evaluate the stability of serum proteins in frozen serum samples from viperoid snakes. Blood samples were collected from wild Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes). Using fresh serum, TP concentrations were determined using the biuret method and protein fractions were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE); albumin/globulin ratios were calculated. Analyses were also performed on serum frozen at -20°C for 70 days and then thawed. Pre- and post-storage results were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Five adult wild Horned Vipers were sampled and comprised 4 males and 1 female. The female snake had higher TP concentrations than the male snakes. The electrophoretic patterns demonstrated 6 protein fractions that were similar for all 5 snakes. There were no significant changes in the concentrations of the 6 protein fractions post-storage; the percentage of the alpha-1 fraction was increased in frozen/thawed serum. Total protein concentrations in serum from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes were in agreement with published reference intervals for healthy reptiles and viperoid snakes. Serum protein fractions were easy to identify using AGE electrophoresis. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre. Part

  7. Seroprevalence in Chickens against Campylobacter jejuni Flagellar Capping Protein (FliD) in Selected Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H-Y; Hiett, K L; Line, J E; Jagne, J F; Lauer, D C

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a causative pathogen of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Infected poultry products are regarded as a major source for human C. jejuni infection. The flagellar capping protein (FliD) is highly conserved among C. jejuni strains/isolates and is antigenic as analysed by immunoblot. In this study, we used the FliD protein as a probe to survey the prevalence of C. jejuni antibodies in chickens from two areas in the United States. A total of 394 samples were tested. Sera from layer breeders of 44-52 weeks of age tested 100% positive, while 4- to 6-week broilers from 22 premises showed 7-100% positivity. These results demonstrate that anti-FliD antibodies were prevalent in the poultry population in the areas of serum samples collected. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. The association of 83 Plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  9. Improved biuret procedure for routine determination of urinary total proteins in clinical proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E W

    1975-03-01

    This communication describes and evaluates an improved routine methodology for quantitating clinical proteinuria. Based on investigations of Piscator and of Savory et al., a modified Tsuchiya's reagent (ethanolic HCI-phosphotungstic acid) is used to precipitate proteins at 56 degrees C, followed by biuret spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The accuracy of the proposed procedure was assessed by comparisons with results obtained by using an ultrafiltration membrane that retains solutes with an average molecular weight in excess of 10 000 for separating of urinary proteins before they are measured with the biuret reaction. Precision of the method (coefficient of variation) is typically 2-3%.

  10. [Total proteins of the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by punction of the cisterna magna: normal values. Variations related to sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermes, L M; Ferri, R G; Aisen, J; Marlet, J M

    1976-12-01

    The total protein content of CSF collected from the cisterna magna (cisternal fluid) of 98 patients (58 males and 40 females) with no neurological diseases was determined by the colorimetric method devised by Lowry and co-workers. This method has been previously chosen based mainly on it's sensitivity, accuracy and low fluid consumption. The CSF samples were normal with regard to pressure, color, citology and it's content in glucose, chloride and urea. Complement fixation tests for syphilis and cisticercosis, as well as the globulin tests (Pandy, Nonne--Appelt and Takata-Ara) were negative. The average value and the normal range of cisternal fluid total protein was calculated for the mixed population (males and females). The mean protein value was 26.78 mg/100 ml, the lower and upper limits were respectively 13.20 and 40.36 mg/100 ml. These data are higher than those stated in some publications, and factors that could interfere in the different results mentioned in the literature are briefly discussed. Since the statistical analysis of the results showed that the mean total protein concentration in males (28.76 mg/100 ml) was higher than in females (23.91 mg/100 ml), normal limits for each sex were established: 16.96 to 47.13 mg/100 ml for males and 14.76 to 42.76 mg/100 ml for females.

  11. Konsentrasi Protein Total, Albumin, dan Globulin Anak Kambing Peranakan Etawah Setelah Pemberian Berbagai Sediaan Kolostrum* (TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, AND GLOBULIN CONCENTRATIONS ON ETTAWAH CROSSBREED NEONATES FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF VARIOUS FORM O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the profile of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrationson Ettawah crossbreed neonates after consuming various colostrums. Twenty four healthy neonatal kidswere used in this study. The neonates were divided into four groups. Each group received fresh maternal(goat colostrum, frozen-thawed bovine colostrum, bovine spray dried colostrum, and bovine powdercommercial colostrum, respectively. Colostrums were given at 10% of body weight directly after birth andfollowed by the same amount every 12 hours, for three days. The blood was taken from jugular vein at 0, 12,24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth to determine total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations.Results of this study indicated that the serum total protein and globulin concentration increased andreached the peak at 24 hours after birth. Compared to the concentration at birth, the increase of totalprotein concentration were 62.77%, 59.26%, 48.05%, and 66.67% in fresh maternal (goat, frozen-thawedbovine, bovine spray dried, and commercial bovine colostrum, respectively. Serum globulin concentrationincreased 4.9, 4.4, 4.8, and 14.6 times in fresh matermnal goat, frozen-thawed bovine, spray dried, andcommercial bovine colostrums respectively, compared to the concentration at birth. In conclusion, theconsumption of various colostrums i.e. fresh maternal goat colostrums, bovine colostrums (frozen-thawed,spray dried and commercial colostrums would increase the concentration of blood total protein and globulin,which both reached the highest concentration at 24 h after birth.

  12. Alternative modelling approaches for estimating pyrogenic carbon, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in contrasting ecoregions within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauss, Verena; Sullivan, Patrick; Lehmann, Johannes; Sanderman, Jonathan; Daub, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Given that turnover rates of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) in soil are substantially slower than those of other organic carbon input, it is considered an important carbon pool and its function and fate are relevant to global environmental change processes. Research on PyC has expanded greatly over recent years, but the analytical challenges of determining environmental core factors influencing its production, accumulation and dispersion still require elucidation across different scales. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares analysis were used in conjunction with ultraviolet photo-oxidation followed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques, to quantify PyC, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (total N) amounts for samples we collected of surface and subsurface soils across the United States at National Science Foundation supported Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites as well as samples from a national soil sampling effort by the U.S. Geological Survey. In our study, we illustrate the impact of the aforementioned natural factors by examining their correlation with PyC content in soils under contrasting environmental conditions thus identifying the factors affecting PyC accumulation. Our central findings revealed a statistically significant relationship of PyC with environmental variables soil drainage, lignin content of the vegetation, mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation as well as for the USGS sites total soil sulphur. During our investigations we evaluated PyC on different spatial scales. On a geographically smaller scale we examined samples from New England and New York. We developed a new and innovative Bayesian framework and applied three spatial models to the data in order to relate critical environmental covariates to changes in spatial density of PyC over the landscape. Akaike Information Criterion demonstrated that the Bayesian Multivariate Linear Regression model performed best (r2=0.6; p>0.05) with

  13. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, P<0.001; 1.6 g/kg/d vs 1.1 g/kg/d, P<0.001). The intervention group consumed quantities over the recommended level (25-30 g/meal) during each of the three meals (32.5 g, 30.0 g, 34.8 g/meal), where the control group consumed quantities below the recommended level during breakfast (17.7 g) and lunch (18.4 g). The use of protein enriched products, replacing regular products, results in a significant increased daily protein intake in older adults. In addition, the daily consumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  14. Bringing the science of proteins into the realm of organic chemistry: total chemical synthesis of SEP (synthetic erythropoiesis protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen B H

    2013-11-11

    Erythropoietin, commonly known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Recombinant EPO has been described as "arguably the most successful drug spawned by the revolution in recombinant DNA technology". Recently, the EPO glycoprotein molecule has re-emerged as a major target of synthetic organic chemistry. In this article I will give an account of an important body of earlier work on the chemical synthesis of a designed EPO analogue that had full biological activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties. The design and synthesis of this "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" was ahead of its time, but has gained new relevance in recent months. Here I will document the story of one of the major accomplishments of synthetic chemistry in a more complete way than is possible in the primary literature, and put the work in its contemporaneous context.

  15. Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure : a meta-analysis of observational and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S. M. A. J.; Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M. F.; Brink, E. J.; van Baak, M. A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that dietary protein may beneficially influence blood pressure (BP), but findings are inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 29 observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein and types of protein in relat

  16. Evaluation of lysozyme, complement C3, and total protein in different developmental stages of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, non–specific immune parameters in fertilized eggs, eyed embryos, larvae 10, 25, 50, 60, and 70 days post hatch (DPH, and female broodstock of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, were evaluated. The lysozyme activity, complement C3, and total protein levels were measured with the turbidimetric, immunoturbidimetric, and Bradford methods, respectively. The results showed that lysozyme levels decreased from levels noted in the fertilized eggs until the larvae were 10 days old. Subsequently, significant increases in lysozyme levels were observed until 70 DPH. An increasing trend of complement component C3 was noted from the levels in fertilized eggs to 10 DPH, following which it decreased significantly. Total protein levels differed significantly in early developmental stages of Caspian kutum. The higher values of complement component C3 than of lysozyme in the early life stages could be indicative of the former’s more fundamental role.

  17. Protein-surfactant interactions at hydrophobic interfaces studied with total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonesson, Andreas W; Blom, Hans; Hassler, Kai; Elofsson, Ulla M; Callisen, Thomas H; Widengren, Jerker; Brismar, Hjalmar

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this work was to study the dynamics of proteins near solid surfaces in the presence or absence of competing surfactants by means of total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS). Two different proteins were studied, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL). A nonionic/anionic (C12E6/LAS) surfactant composition was used to mimic a detergent formulation and the surfaces used were C18 terminated glass. It was found that with increasing surfactant concentrations the term in the autocorrelation function (ACF) representing surface binding decreased. This suggested that the proteins were competed off the hydrophobic surface by the surfactant. When fitting the measured ACF to a model for surface kinetics, it was seen that with raised C12E6/LAS concentration, the surface interaction rate increased for both proteins. Under these experimental conditions this meant that the time the protein was bound to the surface decreased. At 10 microM C12E6/LAS the surface interaction was not visible for BSA, whereas it was still distinguishable in the ACF for TLL. This indicated that TLL had a higher affinity than BSA for the C18 surface. The study showed that TIR-FCS provides a useful tool to quantify the surfactant effect on proteins adsorption.

  18. Lipid Models for United-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukol, Andreas

    2009-03-10

    United-atom force fields for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide a higher computational efficiency, especially in lipid membrane simulations, with little sacrifice in accuracy, when compared to all-atom force fields. Excellent united-atom lipid models are available, but in combination with depreciated protein force fields. In this work, a united-atom model of the lipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine has been built with standard parameters of the force field GROMOS96 53a6 that reproduces the experimental area per lipid of a lipid bilayer within 3% accuracy to a value of 0.623 ± 0.011 nm(2) without the assumption of a constant surface area or the inclusion of surface pressure. In addition, the lateral self-diffusion constant and deuterium order parameters of the acyl chains are in agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, models for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) result in areas per lipid of 0.625 nm(2) (DMPC), 0.693 nm(2) (POPC), and 0.700 nm(2) (POPG) from 40 ns MD simulations. Experimental lateral self-diffusion coefficients are reproduced satisfactorily by the simulation. The lipid models can form the basis for molecular dynamics simulations of membrane proteins with current and future versions of united-atom protein force fields.

  19. Single Nanometric Memory Unit Based On a Protein-Nanoparticle Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalsy, Izhar; Heyman, Arnon; Shoseyov, Oded; Porath, Danny

    2009-03-01

    Proteins as an isolating template and nanoparticle (NP) as an electric storage component can form a single addressable unit cell isolated from the conductive surface and adjacent NPs. This setup gives rise to a wide range of nanoelectronic applications. Here we demonstrate, by Conductive AFM, a single nanometric memory unit using individual protein-NP hybrids. SP1 is a boiling-stable ring-shaped protein, 11 nm in diameter. Mutants of SP1 were synthesized allowing its selective attachment to gold surface and the formation of 2D arrays using methods such as phospholipids trough and Langmuir Blodgett. The SP1 inner pore was connected to Si NP forming a chargeable entity embedded in an isolating unit over a conductive surface. Each NP holds three charging states: natural, positive and negative. The charging life times are 10 min in ambient and days in vacuum. Using this setup, and the relative long charging time, we were able to apply a read and write operations on individual 5nm Si NP embedded in a stable protein.

  20. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  1. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  2. Total Protein of Crude Extracts and Quantification the Native Bacillus Thuringiensis Strains Isolated From Boyacá and Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Torres Cabra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt produce parasporal crystal during sporulation which are toxic against insect larvae of lepidopteran, coleopteran and dipteran. In the present study, 10 native isolations of Bt strains were quantified from the Native Strains Bank of the Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, isolated from soil in the municipalities of Ráquira, Santa Sofía, Villa de Leyva and Sutamarchán, in Boyacá; and also in Susa, Cundinamarca. Crude extracts of total proteins from the 10 strains incubated in Luria-Bertani medium (LB for 15 days at 37 °C were obtained. For quantification of total protein of the spore crystal mixture was used the Bradford method using a standard pattern a calibration curve with bovine serum albumin (BSA. After 5 minutes, the determination was realized in the spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 595 nm. The brighter blue were presented by the strains ZBUJTL35 and ZBUJTL39, with a concentration of 560.71 and 526.43 mg / ml, respectively. The Bradford method is a simple and fast technique to estimate the protein concentration. The strains will be used to determine the toxicity over Bemisiatabaci larvae.

  3. PROFIL PROTEIN TOTAL, ALBUMIN DAN GLOBULIN PADA AYAM BROILER YANG DIBERI KUNGIY, BAWANG PUTIH DAN ZINC (ZN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sus Derthi Widhyari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effectiveness of turmeric, garlic and zinc supplementation on protein, albumin and globulin concentration of broiler. One hundred DOC were divided into five treatments, four replications, consist of five chicks in each replicate. The treatments were R0 (basal diet as a control, R1 (R0 + 1,5% turmeric powder +2,5 % garlic powder, R2 (R0 + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc, R3 (R0 +1,5% turmeric powder + 120ppm zinc and R4 (R0 +1,5 turmeric powder + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc. The diet contain 23,5% crude protein and 3215 kcal metabolizable energy. Blood samples were taken from axillary veins at the three and six weeks of age. The results showed that total protein and globulin concentration at 6 weeks slightly higher than 3 weeks old chicks but not significantly different (P>0.05. Albumin concentration were highest on R3 treatment. Total protein and globulin concentration was highest on the R2 treatment. In conclusion, the supplementation of garlic (2.5% and ZnO (120 ppm showed the best combination to improve immune response in broiler

  4. Serum Total Homocysteine Level: A True Cardiovascular Risk Factor or an Acute Phase Reactant Protein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Malik Asif Humayoun et al.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the developed world1.In Pakistan; the disease seems to follow an accelerated course with ischaemic events occurring a decade earlier than those reported worldwide2. While many risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are well established, many are still under evaluation; like homocysteine, which is now being considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases3.Homocysteine is a sulfur containing amino acid which is not our dietary constituent but is formed by metabolism of methionine, another amino acid present in our daily protein diet. In case of excess formation of homocysteine as compared to its consumption, it appears in urine if levels are too high3. Normal plasma homocysteine concentration ranges from 5 to 15μmol/litre. Of this, almost 75% is bound to proteins, especially albumin, through disulfide bond. Classification of hyperhomocysteinemia described by Kang SS 4 is followed widely.Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (15 to 30 μmol/litreIntermediate hyperhomocysteinemia (30 to 100μmol/litreSevere hyperhomocysteinemia (>100 μmol/litre

  5. Hemolysin coregulated protein 1 as a molecular gluing unit for the assembly of nanoparticle hybrid structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Anh Pham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid nanoparticle (NP structures containing organic building units such as polymers, peptides, DNA and proteins have great potential in biosensor and electronic applications. The nearly free modification of the polymer chain, the variation of the protein and DNA sequence and the implementation of functional moieties provide a great platform to create inorganic structures of different morphology, resulting in different optical and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the design and modification of a protein structure with functional groups or sequences for the assembly of biohybrid materials is not trivial. This is mainly due to the sensitivity of its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure to the changes in the interaction (e.g., hydrophobic, hydrophilic, electrostatic, chemical groups between the protein subunits and the inorganic material. Here, we use hemolysin coregulated protein 1 (Hcp1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a building and gluing unit for the formation of biohybrid structures by implementing cysteine anchoring points at defined positions on the protein rim (Hcp1_cys3. We successfully apply the Hcp1_cys3 gluing unit for the assembly of often linear, hybrid structures of plasmonic gold (Au NP, magnetite (Fe3O4 NP, and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NP. Furthermore, the assembly of Au NPs into linear structures using Hcp1_cys3 is investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM and cryo-TEM. One key parameter for the formation of Au NP assembly is the specific ionic strength in the mixture. The resulting network-like structure of Au NPs is characterized by Raman spectroscopy, showing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS by a factor of 8·104 and a stable secondary structure of the Hcp1_cys3 unit. In order to prove the catalytic performance of the gold hybrid structures, they are used as a catalyst in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol showing similar catalytic activity as the pure Au NPs. To further extend the

  6. Total working period and other risk factors related to eating protein foods habits among civil pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Imelda Hutabarat

    2017-07-01

    pilots in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using secondary data from the survey of eating, drinking and physical exercise habits among civilian pilots in Indonesia 2016. Data collected were demographic characteristics, physical exercise habits, smoking habits, knowledge, body mass index and flight characteristics. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the dominant factors associated with protein eating habits. Results: Among 528 pilots aged 19-64 years, 194 (36.74% pilots had excessive protein eating habits . Long working period and body mass index were the dominant risk factors associated with protein eating habit in pilots. Compared to pilots with 1-9 years working period, pilots with 10-40 years working period had 35% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.65; 95% CI 0:49 - 0.87. Compared to pilots with normal body mass index, overweight pilots had 34% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.66; 95% CI 0:47 - 0.93. Conclusion: Long working period and overweight were protective factors from the risk of excessive protein eating habits Keywords: protein eating habits, total working periode, body mass index, civilian pilots Indonesia

  7. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  8. Immunological changes following protein losing enteropathy after surgery total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) by cytomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocsi, József; Lenz, Dominik; Mittag, Anja; Sauer, Ursula; Wild, Lena; Hess, John; Schranz, Dietmar; Hambsch, Jörg; Schneider, Peter; Tárnok, Attila

    2008-02-01

    Complex immunophenotyping single-cell analysis are essential for systems biology and cytomics. The application of cytomics in immunology and cardiac research and diagnostics is very broad, ranging from the better understanding of the cardiovascular cell biology to the identification of heart function and immune consequences after surgery. TCPC or Fontan-type circulation is an accepted palliative surgery for patients with a functionally univentricular heart. Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), the enteric loss of proteins, is a potential late complication after TCPC surgery. PLE etiology is poorly understood, but immunological factors seem to play a role. This study was aimed to gain insight into immune phenotype alterations following post-TCPC PLE. Patients were studied during routine follow-up up to 5yrs after surgery, blood samples of TCPC patients without (n=21, age 6.8+/-2.6 years at surgery; mean+/-SD) and with manifest PLE (n=12, age 12.8+/- 4.5 years at sampling) and age matched healthy children (control, n=22, age 8.6+/-2.5 years) were collected. Routine laboratory, immune phenotype and serological parameters were determined. Following PLE the immune phenotype dramatically changed with signs of acute inflammation (increased neutrophil and monocyte count, CRP, IL-8). In contrast, lymphocyte count (NK-cells, αβTCR +CD4 +, αβTCR +CD8 + cells) decreased (p<0.001). The residual T-cells had elevated CD25 and CD69 expression. In PLE-patients unique cell populations with CD3 +αβ/γδTCR - and αβTCR +CD4 -8 - phenotype were present in increased frequencies. Our studies show dramatically altered leukocyte phenotype after PLE in TCPC patients. These alterations resemble to changes in autoimmune diseases. We conclude that autoimmune processes may play a role in etiology and pathophysiology of PLE.

  9. Marked effect of beta-lactoglobulin polymorphism on the ratio of casein to total protein in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundén, A; Nilsson, M; Janson, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between genetic variants for milk protein and the composition of milk was analyzed on 4475 repeated milk samples from individual cows; 371 dairy cows of the Swedish Red and White breed and 204 cows of the Swedish Holstein breed were used. The registrations included percentages of casein, protein, fat, and lactose in combination with milk yield and SCC. The genotype of individual cows for alpha(s1)-CN, beta-CN, kappa-CN, and beta-LG was determined by alkaline and acidic PAGE. A mixed animal model was used for the analysis; beta-LG and aggregate casein genotypes were included simultaneously as separate fixed effects in the statistical model. The results suggest a positive additive effect of the beta-LG B allele on casein content and on the ratio of casein to total protein. For the latter trait, the beta-LG genotype accounted for a relatively large part of the phenotypic variance, corresponding to a reduction in residual variance of 11% when included in the model. The corresponding value for casein content was 0.5%. The lack of unfavorable associations between milk protein variants and the traits included in this study makes the beta-LG gene an obvious candidate when the breeding objective is improved conversion of milk protein into cheese.

  10. The Evaluation of Protein C Activity and Some Inflammatory Markers in Synovia of Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ata Alturfan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a major risk factor for thrombosis in patients over 40 years of age and this risk persists for several weeks after the surgery. Since inflammatory mechanisms affect coagulation and the natural anticoagulant system, we aimed to investigate protein C activities and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing TKA surgery.Material and Methods: We included 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 healthy controls. Protein C activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels in plasma and synovia were evaluated by ELISA technique. Results: In the patient group, protein C activities decreased and TNF-α levels increased significantly both in synovia and plasma when compared with the controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of the patient group was found to be significantly elevated in comparison to the controls. On the other hand, serum C reactive protein values increased insignificantly when compared to controls.Conclusion: The decreased activity of protein C and increased levels of inflammatory markers in preoperative plasma and synovia of the patient group may enhance the risk for developing thrombosis.

  11. Province, Total Petroleum System and Assessment Unit Boundaries from the 2009-2011 World Petroleum Resources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The boundaries illustrated by these Assessment Units are the result of geologic studies conducted by the World Petroleum Resources Project, 2009-2011 (Project). The...

  12. The intake of total protein, natural protein and protein substitute and growth of height and head circumference in Dutch infants with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, M; van Rijn, M; Verkerk, PH; Bosch, AM; Mulder, MF; de Klerk, JBC; de Koning, TJ; Rubio-Gozalbo, E; de Vries, M; Sauer, PJJ; van Spronsen, FJ

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study, Dutch children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were found to be slightly shorter than their healthy counterparts. In the literature, it has been hypothesized that a higher protein intake is necessary to optimize growth in PKU patients. The study aimed to investigate whether protein i

  13. The intake of total protein, natural protein and protein substitute and growth of height and head circumference in Dutch infants with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, M; van Rijn, M; Verkerk, PH; Bosch, AM; Mulder, MF; de Klerk, JBC; de Koning, TJ; Rubio-Gozalbo, E; de Vries, M; Sauer, PJJ; van Spronsen, FJ

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study, Dutch children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were found to be slightly shorter than their healthy counterparts. In the literature, it has been hypothesized that a higher protein intake is necessary to optimize growth in PKU patients. The study aimed to investigate whether protein

  14. Influence of caffeine used at various temperature ranges on the concentrations of glucose and total serum protein as well as body weight gain in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cendrowska-Pinkosz Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine (120 mg/kg was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.

  15. Vibratory Reaction Unit for the Rapid Analysis of Proteins and Glycochains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Sasakura

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein digestion system using immobilized enzymes for protein identification and glycochain analyses has been developed, and a vibration reaction unit for micro-scale sample convection on an enzyme-immobilized solid surface was constructed. BSA as a model substrate was digested by this unit, and was successfully identified by mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Compared to the conventional liquid-phase digestion, the reaction unit increased the number of matched peptides from 9 to 26, protein score from 455 to 1247, and sequence coverage from 21% to 48%. Glycopeptidase F (NGF, an enzyme that cleaves N-glycans from glycoproteins, was also immobilized and used to remove the glycochains from human immunoglobulin G (IgG. Trypsin and NGF were immobilized on the same solid surface and used to remove glycochains from IgG in single-step. Glycochains were labeled with fluorescent reagent and analyzed by HPLC. Several peaks corresponding to the glycochains of IgG were detected. These results suggested that the single-step digestion system, by immobilized multiple enzymes (trypsin and NGF would be effective for the rapid structural analysis of glycoproteins.Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin; MS: mass spectrometry; NGF: glycopeptidase F; IgG: immunoglobulin G; PTM: post-translational modification; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; DTT: dithiothreitol; RT: retention time; ABOE: p-aminobenzoic acid octyl ester; PDMS: polydimethylsiloxane; ArgC: endoprotease Arginine C.

  16. Total and phosphorylated tau protein as biological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Advances in our understanding of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are moving this disease pathway to center stage for the development of biomarkers and disease modifying drug discovery efforts. Immunoassays were developed detecting total (t-tau) and tau phosphorylated at specific epitopes (p-tauX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), methods to analyse tau in blood are at the experimental beginning. Clinical research consistently demonstrated CSF t- and p-tau increased in AD compared to controls. Measuring these tau species proved informative for classifying AD from relevant differential diagnoses. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 (p-tau231) differentiated between AD and frontotemporal dementia, tau phosphorylated at serine 181 (p-tau181) enhanced classification between AD and dementia with Lewy bodies. T- and p-tau are considered "core" AD biomarkers that have been successfully validated by controlled large-scale multi-center studies. Tau biomarkers are implemented in clinical trials to reflect biological activity, mechanisms of action of compounds, support enrichment of target populations, provide endpoints for proof-of-concept and confirmatory trials on disease modification. World-wide quality control initiatives are underway to set required methodological and protocol standards. Discussions with regulatory authorities gain momentum defining the role of tau biomarkers for trial designs and how they may be further qualified for surrogate marker status.

  17. The four-transmembrane protein IP39 of Euglena forms strands by a trimeric unit repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Uji, Masami; Abe, Kazuhiro; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2013-01-01

    Euglenoid flagellates have striped surface structures comprising pellicles, which allow the cell shape to vary from rigid to flexible during the characteristic movement of the flagellates. In Euglena gracilis, the pellicular strip membranes are covered with paracrystalline arrays of a major integral membrane protein, IP39, a putative four-membrane-spanning protein with the conserved sequence motif of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20/Claudin superfamily. Here we report the three-dimensional structure of Euglena IP39 determined by electron crystallography. Two-dimensional crystals of IP39 appear to form a striated pattern of antiparallel double-rows in which trimeric IP39 units are longitudinally polymerised, resulting in continuously extending zigzag-shaped lines. Structural analysis revealed an asymmetric molecular arrangement in the trimer, and suggested that at least four different interactions between neighbouring protomers are involved. A combination of such multiple interactions would be important for linear strand formation of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer.

  18. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  19. DNA polymorphism and total protein in mutants of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin strain E9

    OpenAIRE

    Freire,Laurineide Lopes de Carvalho; Costa,Ana Bolena Lima da; Góes,Larissa Brandão; Oliveira,Neiva Tinti de

    2001-01-01

    Five mutants (MaE10, MaE27, MaE24, MaE41 e MaE49) of Metarhizium anisopliae wild strain E9 were analysed for DNA profile through the RAPD technique and for changes in total protein content by spectrophotometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and densitometry. The pattern of RAPD markers showed genetic polymorphism among the strains: out of twenty primers seven were selected, producing 113 bands. Forty seven bands were present in all strains (41.6% of monomorphic bands) and 66 showed polym...

  20. [Effect of triterpenoid glycosides on alpha- and beta-amylase activity and total protein content in wheat seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidiants, E S

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the aleanolic acid glycosides from Silphium perfoliatum L. (silphioside B, C, E and G) and their progenins on the amylase activity and total protein content in wheat seedlings was studied. Treatment of the Triticum aestivum L. seeds with 1-10 microM water solutions of mono- and diglycosides (mono- and bisdesmosines) elevated the alpha-amylase and total amylase activities in seedlings. Silphioside E containing three glucose moieties in its molecule did not change alpha-amylase activity, but it did if bis-triglycoside acetylated carbohydrate (as in silphioside C). Effects of 5-10 microM solutions of the active glycosides was comparable with that of exogenous gibberellin A3 and 6-benzylaminopurine.

  1. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poisson Guylaine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Results Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Conclusions Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this

  2. The evolution of the tape measure protein: units, duplications and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaid, Mahdi; Bergeron, Anne; Poisson, Guylaine

    2011-10-05

    A large family of viruses that infect bacteria, called phages, is characterized by long tails used to inject DNA into their victims' cells. The tape measure protein got its name because the length of the corresponding gene is proportional to the length of the phage's tail: a fact shown by actually copying or splicing out parts of DNA in exemplar species. A natural question is whether there exist units for these tape measures, and if different tape measures have different units and lengths. Such units would allow us to retrace the evolution of tape measure proteins using their duplication/loss history. The vast number of sequenced phages genomes allows us to attack this problem with a comparative genomics approach. Here we describe a subset of phages whose tape measure proteins contain variable numbers of an 11 amino acids sequence repeat, aligned with sequence similarity, structural properties, and simple arithmetics. This subset provides a unique opportunity for the combinatorial study of phage evolution, without the added uncertainties of multiple alignments, which are trivial in this case, or of protein functions, that are well established. We give a heuristic that reconstructs the duplication history of these sequences, using divergent strains to discriminate between mutations that occurred before and after speciation, or lineage divergence. The heuristic is based on an efficient algorithm that gives an exhaustive enumeration of all possible parsimonious reconstructions of the duplication/speciation history of a single nucleotide. Finally, we present a method that allows, when possible, to discriminate between duplication and loss events. Establishing the evolutionary history of viruses is difficult, in part due to extensive recombinations and gene transfers, and high mutation rates that often erase detectable similarity between homologous genes. In this paper, we introduce new tools to address this problem.

  3. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. TOTAL AND FRACTIONAL CONTENTS OF PROTEINS IN BEAN SEEDS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF VARIED FERTILISATION WITH MICROELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOZERA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 at the Experiment Station at Wierzchucinek at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, there was performed a strict one-factor micro-plot experiment in split-splot design. The factor tested was a type of microelements [n=5: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B]. The microelements were foliar sprayed in a chelated form, as the series of Symfonia fertilizers. The study aimed at comparing the effect of five agricultural-engineering basic microelements on the contents and protein composition of the seeds of Aura cultivar. The fertilization applied, boron and manganese in particular, showed an effect on the increase in the contents of total protein in bean seeds. It also modified the fractional composition of the bean seed protein. There was observed a clear increase in the fraction of albumins and globulins in seeds as a result of the microelements applied, except for boron. The fertilization with molybdenum, boron, copper and zinc reduced the content of glutelins, and the sum of glulelins and prolamines in the bean seeds.

  5. Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine- Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari M. P. Koskinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a phosphate-bearing spiroketal, an anti, anti, anti dipropionate segment, an α-chiral oxazole, and a trihydroxylated γ-amino acid, calyculins reach versatility that only few natural products can surpass, and truly challenge modern chemists’ asymmetric synthesis skills.

  6. Dimers of G-Protein Coupled Receptors as Versatile Storage and Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Parker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The status and use of transmembrane, extracellular and intracellular domains in oligomerization of heptahelical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are reviewed and for transmembrane assemblies also supplemented by new experimental evidence. The transmembrane-linked GPCR oligomers typically have as the minimal unit an asymmetric ~180 kDa pentamer consisting of receptor homodimer or heterodimer and a G-protein αβγ subunit heterotrimer. With neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors, this assembly is converted to ~90 kDa receptor monomer-Gα complex by receptor and Gα agonists, and dimers/heteropentamers are depleted by neutralization of Gαi subunits by pertussis toxin. Employing gradient centrifugation, quantification and other characterization of GPCR dimers at the level of physically isolated and identified heteropentamers is feasible with labeled agonists that do not dissociate upon solubilization. This is demonstrated with three neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors and could apply to many receptors that use large peptidic agonists.

  7. [The determination of total protein is not a suitable diagnosis for the treatment of hypoalbuminemia in intensive care patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielmann, S; Mielck, F; Roth, A T; Lüdtke, R; Sydow, M; Oellerich, M; Burchardi, H

    1995-10-01

    In clinical practice, the administration of supplementary albumin often depends on the measured plasma concentration of total protein (TPC). A TPC of less than 5 g/dl is generally accepted as an indication for albumin therapy, assuming an albumin concentration of less than 2.5 g/dl. However, a physiological relation between TPC and albumin cannot be expected in critically ill patients, and thus, measurement of TPC may be misleading as an indicator for the use of albumin. Therefore, we investigated the sensitivity and specificity of TPC testing for diagnosing hypoalbuminaemia requiring treatment. METHODS. In this prospective study, 210 consecutive patients were included. Protein electrophoresis was performed three times a week; the second electrophoresis was selected for evaluation. Applied statistical analysis revealed the number of positive total protein tests indicating hypoalbuminaemia requiring treatment (sensitivity) and the number of negative with tolerable reduced albumin concentrations (specificity). RESULTS. Of the investigated patients, 27.6% had normal TPCs between 6.2 and 8.0 g/dl. In 81.9% of cases an albumin concentration below 3.5 g/dl was found, while 43 patients had a concentration below 2.5 g/dl. The sensitivity and specificity of TPC measurement for the diagnosis of clinically relevant hypoalbuminaemia (albumin concentration protein. With a TPC of 6.0 g/dl, the sensitivity was 0.96 and the specificity 0.44. With a cutoff point of 5.0 g/dl, the sensitivity was reduced to 0.65 and specificity increased to 0.86. Finally, with a TPC of 4.0 g/dl sensitivity was 0.25 and specificity almost 1. CONCLUSIONS. Depending on the cutoff point for TPC, a relevant albumin requirement would frequently not be detected. In other cases, a need for albumin would be assumed from a reduced TPC even though the albumin concentration still exceeded 2.5 g/dl. Therefore, determination of TPC is not a suitable indicator of the need for albumin replacement. As a result, we

  8. Protein Turnover and Metabolism in the Elderly Intensive Care Unit Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stuart M; Dickerson, Roland N; Moore, Frederick A; Paddon-Jones, Douglas; Weijs, Peter J M

    2017-04-01

    Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients do not achieve target protein intakes particularly in the early days following admittance. This period of iatrogenic protein undernutrition contributes to a rapid loss of lean, in particular muscle, mass in the ICU. The loss of muscle in older (aged >60 years) patients in the ICU may be particularly rapid due to a perfect storm of increased catabolic factors, including systemic inflammation, disuse, protein malnutrition, and reduced anabolic stimuli. This loss of muscle mass has marked consequences. It is likely that the older patient is already experiencing muscle loss due to sarcopenia; however, the period of stay in the ICU represents a greatly accelerated period of muscle loss. Thus, on discharge, the older ICU patient is now on a steeper downward trajectory of muscle loss, more likely to have ICU-acquired muscle weakness, and at risk of becoming sarcopenic and/or frail. One practice that has been shown to have benefit during ICU stays is early ambulation and physical therapy (PT), and it is likely that both are potent stimuli to induce a sensitivity of protein anabolism. Thus, recommendations for the older ICU patient would be provision of at least 1.2-1.5 g protein/kg usual body weight/d, regular and early utilization of ambulation (if possible) and/or PT, and follow-up rehabilitation for the older discharged ICU patient that includes rehabilitation, physical activity, and higher habitual dietary protein to change the trajectory of ICU-mediated muscle mass loss and weakness.

  9. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized...... with this cDNA probe. Ten positives were colony-purified, and the largest plasmid cDNA insert, MH8 (4.4 kb), was sequenced by the dideoxy chain termination method. MH8 contained the complete coding sequence for the precursor of murine complement protein factor H (3702 bp), 100 bp of 5'-untranslated sequence......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  10. Accelerating large-scale protein structure alignments with graphics processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Bin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale protein structure alignment, an indispensable tool to structural bioinformatics, poses a tremendous challenge on computational resources. To ensure structure alignment accuracy and efficiency, efforts have been made to parallelize traditional alignment algorithms in grid environments. However, these solutions are costly and of limited accessibility. Others trade alignment quality for speedup by using high-level characteristics of structure fragments for structure comparisons. Findings We present ppsAlign, a parallel protein structure Alignment framework designed and optimized to exploit the parallelism of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs. As a general-purpose GPU platform, ppsAlign could take many concurrent methods, such as TM-align and Fr-TM-align, into the parallelized algorithm design. We evaluated ppsAlign on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050 GPU card, and compared it with existing software solutions running on an AMD dual-core CPU. We observed a 36-fold speedup over TM-align, a 65-fold speedup over Fr-TM-align, and a 40-fold speedup over MAMMOTH. Conclusions ppsAlign is a high-performance protein structure alignment tool designed to tackle the computational complexity issues from protein structural data. The solution presented in this paper allows large-scale structure comparisons to be performed using massive parallel computing power of GPU.

  11. Energy and Protein Delivery in Overweight and Obese Children in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Enid E; Ariagno, Katelyn A; Stenquist, Nicole; Anderson, Daniela; Muñoz, Eliana; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2017-06-01

    Early and optimal energy and protein delivery have been associated with improved clinical outcomes in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Overweight and obese children in the PICU may be at risk for suboptimal macronutrient delivery; we aimed to describe macronutrient delivery in this cohort. We performed a retrospective study of PICU patients ages 2-21 years, with body mass index (BMI) ≥85th percentile and >48 hours stay. Nutrition variables were extracted regarding nutrition screening and assessment, energy and protein prescription, and delivery. Data from 83 patient encounters for 52 eligible patients (52% male; median age 9.6 [5-15] years) were included. The study cohort had a longer median PICU length of stay (8 vs 5 days, P Energy expenditure was estimated primarily by predictive equations. Stress factor >1.0 was applied in 44% (22/50). Median energy delivered as a percentage of estimated requirements by the Schofield equation was 34.6% on day 3. Median protein delivered as a percentage of recommended intake was 22.1% on day 3. The study cohort had suboptimal nutrition assessments and macronutrient delivery during their PICU course. Mortality and duration of PICU stay were greater when compared with the general PICU population. Nutrition assessment, indirect calorimetry-guided energy prescriptions, and optimizing the delivery of energy and protein must be emphasized in this cohort. The impact of these practices on clinical outcomes must be investigated.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  13. Total cylindrospermopsins, microcystins/nodularins, and saxitoxins data for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency National Lake Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Maksimowicz, Megan M.; Toyne, Kathryn D.

    2016-05-26

    Phytoplankton communities in freshwater lakes, ponds, and reservoirs may be dominated by cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) under certain environmental conditions. Cyanobacteria may cause a range of water-quality impairments, including the potential for toxin production. Cyanobacteria toxins (cyanotoxins) may adversely impact human and ecological health. Microcystins are considered to be one of the most commonly found classes of cyanotoxins in freshwater ecosystems, and as such were selected as a recreational indicator of water quality for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Lakes Assessment. However, much less is known about the occurrence of other classes of cyanotoxins in fresh surface water such as anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularins, and saxitoxins.

  14. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory effect by dammarane-type triterpenes from hydrolyzate of total Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Shu; Bi, Xiu-Li; Wan-Xiao; Cao, Jia-Qing; Xia, Xi-Chun; Diao, Yun-Peng; Zhao, Yu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an important factor in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type-2 diabetes), and a promising target for treatment of diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the inhibitory activities of constituents (three new together with twelve known triterpenes compounds) isolated from the hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Their structures were accomplished mainly base on the spectroscopic methods, and then were further confirmed by X-ray crystal diffraction. All the compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against PTP1B. Current data suggested that the compounds 1, 3, 12, 13 and 14 were considered to be potential as antidiabetic agents, in which they could significantly inhibit the PTP1B enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Use of the Vettest 8008 and refractometry for determination of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations in feline effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasouliotis, Kostas; Murphy, Kate; Dodkin, Steve; Torrance, Andy G

    2002-01-01

    Pleural and peritoneal effusion is a common clinical finding in feline practice. Determination of fluid albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLOB) concentrations in addition to total protein (TP) concentration can be helpful in diagnosing or ruling out certain diseases in cats, especially feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The objective of this study was to compare effusion TP, ALB, and GLOB results obtained by a refractometer and a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer with those results obtained by a reference method. Twenty-six pleural and 14 peritoneal effusion samples were analyzed from 40 cats with various diseases. TP and ALB concentrations were determined by a reference automated wet chemistry analyzer (Kone Specific, Kone Instruments, Espoo, Finland), a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer (Vettest 8008, IDEXX Laboratories Ltd, Chalfont St Peter, UK), and a refractometer (Atago SPR-T2, Atago Co, Tokyo, Japan). GLOB, albumin to globulin (A/G) ratio, and globulins as a percentage of total proteins (GLOB%) were calculated. Results were analyzed by paired t tests, difference plots, and Deming s regression analysis. Correlation coefficients (r) for TP with Vettest versus Kone and refractometer versus Kone methods were.97 and.94, respectively. GLOB and GLOB% values were significantly higher and A/G ratios were significantly lower with Vettest versus Kone methods. Correlation coefficients for ALB, GLOB, GLOB% and A/G ratio with Vettest versus Kone methods were.86,.93,.82, and.73, respectively. Although correlation with other methods was good, the refractometer underestimated TP concentrations in 3 samples. The refractometer is an acceptable method for determination of TP concentration in feline effusions. The Vettest 8008 also is an acceptable method for the determination of TP and ALB concentrations, however, calculated A/G ratios obtained with the Vettest are unacceptable.

  16. Weight loss and total lipid profile changes in overweight women consuming beef or chicken as the primary protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Kathleen; Gootman, Jason; Myrdal, Amy; Kline, Gregory; Rippe, James M

    2003-05-01

    Conflicting recommendations are prevalent regarding the appropriateness of red meat versus white meat consumption for individuals aiming to reduce body weight and cardiovascular disease risk. We examined changes in body weight and lipid profiles in a 12-wk, randomized, controlled trial, in which overweight women followed a hypocaloric diet with lean beef or chicken as the primary protein source, while participating in a fitness walking program. Sedentary non-smoking females (n = 61), age 43.4 +/- 7.8 years, with body mass indexes of 32.1 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) (means +/- standard deviation), followed calculated-deficit diets (-500 kcal daily) and were randomly assigned to the beef-consumption or chicken-consumption dietary group, while following a fitness walking program. Body weight, body composition (by hydrodensitometry), and blood lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 wk. Weight loss was significant within (P 0.05) the beef-consumption (5.6 +/- 0.6 kg, mean +/- standard error) and the chicken-consumption (6.0 +/- 0.5 kg) groups. Both groups showed significant reductions in body fat percentage (P < 0.05) and total (P < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05) cholesterol, with no significant differences between groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not change significantly in either group. These findings demonstrated that weight loss and improved lipid profile can be accomplished through diet and exercise, whether the dietary protein source is lean beef or chicken.

  17. Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and –SH groups concentrations in liver homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ciejka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency magnetic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF on the concentration of sulfhydryl groups (–SH and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals depending on the time of exposure to the field. Material and Methods: Twenty one Sprague-Dawley male rats, aged 3–4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals: controls (group I, the rats exposed to ELF-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy, 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III. The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Results: Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of –SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. Conclusions: The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure. Med Pr 2014;65(5:639–644

  18. The effects of different preservation processes on the total protein and growth factor content in a new biological product developed from human amniotic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessandra; Bonci, Paola; Bonci, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the total protein and growth factors content in a tissue-suspension obtained from processed human amniotic membrane (hAM). hAM was collected, frozen, freeze dried, powdered and sterilized by γ-irradiation. At each step of the process, samples were characterized for the total protein amounts by a Bradford protein assay and for the growth factor concentrations by ELISA test of the tissue suspensions. Frozen-hAM samples show higher release of total proteins and specific growth factors in the tissue suspension in comparison with freeze-dried hAM. We observed that even if the protein extraction is hindered once the tissue is dried, the powdering process allows a greater release in the tissue suspension of total proteins and growth factors after tissue re-solubilization in comparison with only the freeze-drying process (+91 ± 13% for EGF, +16 ± 4% for HGF, +11 ± 5% for FGF, +16 ± 9% for TGF-β1), and a greater release of EGF (85 ± 10%) in comparison with only the freezing process, because proteins become much readily solubilized in the solution. According with these results, we describe a protocol to obtain a new sterile biological product from hAM tissue, with well-known effects of thermal, mechanical and physical processes on the total protein and grow factors contents.

  19. The use of total serum proteins and triglycerides for monitoring body condition in the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Emmanuel; González, Francisco J; Granados, José E; Moço, Gisela; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M

    2008-12-01

    Body condition in wild ungulates is traditionally evaluated during the necropsy of animals on the basis of the weight of fat stored around or within the vital organs, the weight of the organs themselves, and their derived indices. However, sometimes it is important to evaluate the nutritional status of the animal by means of blood and serum analyses and the interpretation of specific parameters. Only in a very few studies is the nutritional status of the animal obtained by blood biochemistry and, when obtained, compared with the values for body condition obtained by anatomic dissection. In this study, the usefulness of two serum parameters, total serum proteins (TSP) and serum triglycerides (ST), was assessed in the monitoring of the body condition of Iberian wild goats (Capra pyrenaica). In addition, their relationship with the kidney fat index (KFI) and its components, kidney mass without fat (KM) and kidney fat (KF) is evaluated. A total of 25 wild goats from the Sierra Nevada National Park (southern Iberian Peninsula) that were shot by hunters were used in this study. The parameter TSP was found to be correlated with KM, and ST was correlated with both KM and KFI. Hence, both TSP and ST can be used for monitoring physical condition in wild and captive Iberian wild goats.

  20. Understanding the Contribution of Mining and Transportation to the Total Life Cycle Impacts of Coal Exported from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mutchek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of two marine bulk terminals in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States are currently under review and would open up additional thermal coal exports to Asia on the order of almost 100 million additional tonnes per year. The major exporters of coal to Asian markets include Indonesia and Australia. This life cycle analysis (LCA seeks to understand the role of transportation and mining in the cradle-to-busbar environmental impacts of coal exports from the Powder River Basin (PRB to Asian countries, when compared to the competitor countries. This LCA shows that: (1 the most significant greenhouse gas (GHG impacts in the cradle-to-busbar life cycle of coal for power generation come from the combustion of coal in a power plant, even when 90% carbon capture is applied; (2 for non-GHG air impacts, power plant combustion impacts are less dominant and variations in upstream impacts (mining and transportation are more important; and (3 when comparing impacts between countries, upstream impacts vary for both GHG and non-GHG results, but conclusions that rank countries cannot be made. Future research should include expansion to include non-air impacts, potential consequential effects of coal exports, and a better understanding around the characterization of non-GHG ocean transport impacts.

  1. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Response in Water, Sediment, and Biota to Destratification of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Carla; Black, Frank J; Stringham, Blair; Collins, Jeffrey N; Goodman, James R; Saxton, Heidi J; Mansfield, Christopher R; Schmidt, Joshua N; Yang, Shu; Johnson, William P

    2017-05-02

    Measurements of chemical and physical parameters made before and after sealing of culverts in the railroad causeway spanning the Great Salt Lake in late 2013 documented dramatic alterations in the system in response to the elimination of flow between the Great Salt Lake's north and south arms. The flow of denser, more-saline water through the culverts from the north arm (Gunnison Bay) to the south arm (Gilbert Bay) previously drove the perennial stratification of the south arm and the existence of oxic shallow brine and anoxic deep brine layers. Closure of the causeway culverts occurred concurrently with a multiyear drought that resulted in a decrease in the lake elevation and a concomitant increase in top-down erosion of the upper surface of the deep brine layer by wind-forced mixing. The combination of these events resulted in the replacement of the formerly stratified water column in the south arm with one that was vertically homogeneous and oxic. Total mercury concentrations in the deep waters of the south arm decreased by approximately 81% and methylmercury concentrations in deep waters decreased by roughly 86% due to destratification. Methylmercury concentrations decreased by 77% in underlying surficial sediment, whereas there was no change observed in total mercury. The dramatic mercury loss from deep waters and methylmercury loss from underlying sediment in response to causeway sealing provides new understanding of the potential role of the deep brine layer in the accumulation and persistence of methylmercury in the Great Salt Lake. Additional mercury measurements in biota appear to contradict the previously implied connection between elevated methylmercury concentrations in the deep brine layer and elevated mercury in avian species reported prior to causeway sealing.

  2. Single-pass attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for the prediction of protein secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandye M; Oswald, Lisa; Franzen, Stefan

    2002-07-15

    Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to a spectral library of proteins in H2O solution acquired by single-pass attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PCR was used to predict the secondary structure content, principally alpha-helical and the beta-sheet content, of proteins within a spectral library. Quantitation of protein secondary structure content was performed as a proof of principle that use of single-pass ATR-FT-IR is an appropriate method for protein secondary structure analysis. The ATR-FT-IR method permits acquisition of the entire spectral range from 700 to 3900 cm(-1) without significant interference from water bands. An "inside model space" bootstrap and a genetic algorithm (GA) were used to improve prediction results. Specifically, the bootstrap was utilized to increase the number of replicates for adequate training and validation of the PCR model. The GA was used to optimize PCR parameters, particularly wavenumber selection. The use of the bootstrap allowed for adequate representation of variability in the amide A, amide B, and C-H stretching regions due to differing levels of sample hydration. Implementation of the bootstrap improved the robustness of the PCR models significantly; however, the use of a GA only slightly improved prediction results. Two spectral libraries are presented where one was better suited for beta-sheet content prediction and the other for alpha-helix content prediction. The GA-optimized PCR method for alpha-helix content prediction utilized 120 wavenumbers within the amide I, II, A, B, and IV and the C-H stretching regions and 18 factors. For beta-sheet content predictions, 580 wavenumbers within the amide I, II, A, and B and the C-H stretching regions and 18 factors were used. The validation results using these two methods yielded an average absolute error of 1.7% for alpha-helix content prediction and an average absolute error of 2.3% for beta-sheet content prediction

  3. THE CHANGE OF TOTAL PROTEIN FRACTION OF MUSCLE TISSUE OF PORK WITH BIO- AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL SPECIFIC IN THE PROCESS OF COOKING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shalimova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The character of changes in total protein fraction of muscle tissue of pork with PSE defects in the process of cooking at temperatures ranging from 40 to 72 g.C in steps of 2 g.C is investigated. Our studies have revealed differences in the change of state the total fraction of muscle proteins with defects PSE pork during cooking.

  4. Bioavailability of the digestible lysine and total sulfur amino acids in meat and bone meals varying in protein quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Parsons, C M

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether the digestible Lys, Met, and TSAA in a high and low quality meat and bone meal (MBM) were totally bioavailable for protein synthesis in chicks. True digestibility of amino acids (AA) in the two MBM was determined by the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Bioavailability of the digestible AA was then assessed in three slope-ratio chick growth assays using Lys-, Met-, or TSAA-deficient crystalline AA basal diets that were supplemented with varying levels of the test AA, high or low quality MBM, or AA mixtures simulating the mean digestible AA composition of the high and low quality MBM. Response parameters were weight gain, feed efficiency, body N gain, and body Lys gain in the Lys assay and weight gain and feed efficiency in the Met and TSAA assays. Bioavailability values for the digestible Lys, Met, and TSAA in the MBM and AA mixtures simulating MBM varied depending on response parameter, with values based on feed efficiency generally being highest. No consistent differences in bioavailability of the digestible AA were observed between the two MBM when all AA were considered; however, the bioavailability of the digestible Lys in the low quality MBM was lower than that in the high quality MBM for two of four performance criteria. When considering all response parameters and the AA mixture results, bioavailability of the digestible Lys and Met in the two MBM was generally 90% or greater, whereas bioavailability of the digestible TSAA was only 80% or less. The results of this study indicated that essentially all of the digestible Lys and Met in MBM were bioavailable for protein synthesis and metabolism but suggested that a significant amount of the TSAA, particularly Cys, was not bioavailable.

  5. Silicon Nanowire/Polymer Hybrid Solar Cell-Supercapacitor: A Self-Charging Power Unit with a Total Efficiency of 10.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruiyuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Teng; Wang, Mingjun; Wu, Changsheng; Zou, Haiyang; Song, Tao; Zhang, Xiaohong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Wang, Zhong Lin; Sun, Baoquan

    2017-07-12

    An integrated self-charging power unit, combining a hybrid silicon nanowire/polymer heterojunction solar cell with a polypyrrole-based supercapacitor, has been demonstrated to simultaneously harvest solar energy and store it. By efficiency enhancement of the hybrid nanowire solar cells and a dual-functional titanium film serving as conjunct electrode of the solar cell and supercapacitor, the integrated system is able to yield a total photoelectric conversion to storage efficiency of 10.5%, which is the record value in all the integrated solar energy conversion and storage system. This system may not only serve as a buffer that diminishes the solar power fluctuations from light intensity, but also pave its way toward cost-effective high efficiency self-charging power unit. Finally, an integrated device based on ultrathin Si substrate is demonstrated to expand its feasibility and potential application in flexible energy conversion and storage devices.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid total protein cannot reliably distinguish true subarachnoid haemorrhage from other causes of raised cerebrospinal fluid net bilirubin and net oxyhaemoglobin absorbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Katherine; Burrows, Gillian; Cruickshank, Anne; Egner, William; Holbrook, Ian; Lewis, Emma; McNeilly, Jane; Patel, Dina; Worthington, Viki

    2014-11-01

    In cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spectrophotometry, if the net bilirubin absorbance (NBA) and net oxyhaemoglobin absorbance (NOA) are both raised with a visible oxyhaemoglobin peak, the revised national guidelines for analysis of CSF bilirubin advise interpreting the results as 'Consistent with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH)' regardless of the CSF total protein concentration of the specimen. We wanted to study the range of CSF total protein concentrations found in confirmed SAH to establish if the CSF total protein value can give further guidance on the likelihood of SAH. Consecutive cases from five different hospital sites were included if the CSF NBA was greater than 0.007 AU and the NOA was greater than 0.02 AU with a visible oxyhaemoglobin peak. For the cases identified, the laboratory information management system and patient records were interrogated to identify the total protein concentration of the CSF specimen and whether SAH had ultimately been confirmed or excluded by other methods and supporting evidence. Results from 132 patients were included. The CSF total protein range in confirmed SAH was 0.23-3.08 g/L with a median concentration of 0.7 g/L (n = 51). In the SAH excluded group, the CSF total protein range was 0.43-29 g/L with a median concentration of 1.9 g/L (n = 81). Although confirmed SAH was not associated with the very highest concentrations of CSF total protein, a definite CSF protein cut-off concentration above which SAH could reliably be excluded cannot be recommended. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H P; Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Monitoring inflammatory diseases and osteoclastogenesis with osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (total sRANKL) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has recently attracted increased interest. The purpose...

  8. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Satomi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP; oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC; Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC; and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP. Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%. The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04. TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10. TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02, as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02. Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results.

  9. [Animal experiment studies on the changes in lipid and protein metabolism in L-carnitine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhles, H; Segerer, H; Fekl, W; Stehr, K

    1983-02-01

    The influence of i.v. L-carnitine on parameters of lipid- and nitrogen metabolism was studied during total parenteral nutrition of mini pigs (x: 4077; n = 9). The infusion protocol was divided into isocaloric and isonitrogenous 48-hour-periods. Amino acids (3 g/kg/day) were administered throughout all three periods. 140 Cal/kg/day were given as non-protein calories, consisting only of glucose during period 1. During periods 2 and 3 an amount of glucose calorically equivalent to 4 g fat/kg/day was substituted with a lipid emulsion. In period 3, L-carnitine (1,5 mg/kg/day) was added. During the entire regime key parameters of fat and nitrogen metabolism were determined. During all three periods indirect calorimetry was performed and the respiratory quotient calculated. The results demonstrate a more effective lipolysis and oxydation of fatty acids during L-carnitine supplementation. This results in an increased energy gain from exogenously administered fat and a distinct improvement of nitrogen balance.

  10. Intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care: contribution to total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and length of stay (LOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Gabriel J; Greene, John D; Gardner, Marla N; Marelich, Gregory P; Quick, Bryon; Kipnis, Patricia

    2011-02-01

    Patients who experience intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care (eg, ward to intensive care unit [ICU]) are known to have high mortality. However, these findings have been based on single-center studies or studies that employ ICU admissions as the denominator. To employ automated bed history data to examine outcomes of intra-hospital transfers using all hospital admissions as the denominator. Retrospective cohort study. A total of 19 acute care hospitals. A total of 150,495 patients, who experienced 210,470 hospitalizations, admitted to these hospitals between November 1st, 2006 and January 31st, 2008. Predictors were age, sex, admission type, admission diagnosis, physiologic derangement on admission, and pre-existing illness burden; outcomes were: 1) occurrence of intra-hospital transfer, 2) death following admission to the hospital, 3) death following transfer, and 4) total hospital length of stay (LOS). A total of 7,868 hospitalizations that began with admission to either a general medical surgical ward or to a transitional care unit (TCU) had at least one transfer to a higher level of care. These hospitalizations constituted only 3.7% of all admissions, but accounted for 24.2% of all ICU admissions, 21.7% of all hospital deaths, and 13.2% of all hospital days. Models based on age, sex, preadmission laboratory test results, and comorbidities did not predict the occurrence of these transfers. Patients transferred to higher level of care following admission to the hospital have excess mortality and LOS. Copyright © 2010 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Reconstrucción total y parcial de cejas con trasplante de unidades foliculares: 10 años de experiencia Total and partial eyebrows reconstruction with folicular unit transplat: 10 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Llorens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Las cejas son elementos integrales en el carácter de la cara y en la expresión del espectro de emociones. Su patrón de cabello es complejo: toma varias direcciones y está colocado en diferente posición y con forma distinta en hombres y mujeres. Esta complejidad de características hace de su reconstrucción un reto. Se han establecido tres líneas básicas para conseguir dicho fin: injertos compuestos, colgajos y trasplante de unidades foliculares. Exponemos la experiencia de 10 años en la reconstrucción de cejas a través del trasplante de unidades foliculares en la Clínica Planas de Barcelona (España con 58 pacientes consecutivos tratados en ese lapso y 94 cejas reconstruidas. Planteamos un estudio retrospectivo, observacional, transverso y descriptivo. Se analizaron la distribución de frecuencias y medidas de tendencia central de las variables. Los resultados obtenidos nos han permitido concluir que la técnica de trasplante de unidades foliculares es la mejor alternativa para la reconstrucción total y parcial de las cejas en casos seleccionados, con minúscula morbilidad, resultados netamente superiores y con una mínima interferencia en la vida del paciente.Eyebrows are integral elements in the character of the face and the expression of the spectrum of emotions. Its hair pattern is complex: it takes several directions and is placed in a different position and differently in men and women. This complexity of features makes reconstruction a challenge. In this way, we have established three basic areas to achieve this end: composite grafts, flaps and follicular units transplant. We report the experience of 10 years in the reconstruction of eyebrows throughout the follicular units transplantation technique at Clínica Planas in Barcelona ( Spain with 58 consecutive patients treated in this period and 94 eyebrows. A retrospective, observational, transverse and descriptive study was raised. We analyzed the frequency distribution and

  12. Variability in feed and total mixed ration neutral detergent fiber and crude protein analyses among commercial laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Mertens, D; Zaman, S; Vander Pol, M; Price, W J

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the variability in amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) analyses of feed and total mixed ration (TMR) samples among feed analysis laboratories. Two TMR were prepared that varied in the dry matter proportion of forage and concentrates: 45% forage (LF-TMR) versus 60% forage (HF-TMR). Replicated TMR and individual feed samples were dried, ground through a 4-mm screen, and sent to 10 commercial and 4 research or development laboratories for aNDF and CP analyses. Laboratories were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire regarding the aNDF procedure used. Variability in aNDF and CP analyses was assessed using univariate statistics and mixed modeling procedures. Significant variability in the aNDF analysis of individual feeds was found among the participating laboratories. The variability was particularly large for low-aNDF feeds such as distillers and barley grains. The variability among laboratories in the aNDF analysis of low-fiber TMR was greater than of high-fiber TMR, with the most likely reason being their greater proportions of grains and protein concentrates and the effect of variation in the aNDF protocols, particularly α-amylase use, on the analysis of these types of feeds. Variability due to the technique used for aNDF analysis was not statistically significant when outlier labs using the filter bag technique were removed; however, laboratories using the filter bag technique tended to produce more variable results than did laboratories using variation of the crucible technique (SE=2.542 vs. 0.930, respectively). Calculated aNDF values for TMR, based on proportions and aNDF analysis of individual feeds, were slightly greater than analyzed aNDF values for TMR. Results from this ringtest emphasize the need for feed analysis laboratories to follow the official aNDF method exactly. Variation within and among laboratories can be reduced by replicating analysis and including reference

  13. Identification of irradiated insects: Alterations in total proteins of irradiated adults of the confused flour beetle, tribolium confused DuVal. (Coleoptera: Tenenbrionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatowicz, S. [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The results of electrophoretic separation of proteins (SDS-PAGE) revealed several protein bands from homogenate samples of irradiated and control adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuVal. However, it was nor possible to detect protein bands that show any shifts or separations between the irradiated and control beetles of the confused flour beetle. A remarkable reduction in the content of total proteins in irradiated adults was noted. Irradiation treatment altered the electrophoretic patterns and densities of proteins. The density of low molecular weight proteins (<16 kDa) increased, while the of high molecular weight proteins (> 23 kDa) decreased. The alterations in total proteins of adult confused beetles are related to the dose of gamma radiation and the time elapsed after treatment. However, these clear changes in the electrophoretic pattern of protein fractions cannot be used to distinguish irradiated insects from non-irradiated ones as these alterations are not specific for irradiation. (author). 28 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs.

  14. Comparación de la concentración total de proteínas salivales de adultos y adultos mayores Comparison of total salivary protein concentration in adults and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJ Castro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Entre las moléculas orgánicas que componen la saliva se han descrito un gran número de proteínas. No existe evidencia suficiente que permita especular sobre los cambios en el contenido proteico salival asociados al envejecimiento normal. El objetivo fue determinar si existen diferencias en la concentración total de proteínas en saliva de adultos y adultos mayores. Método: Se obtuvieron muestras de saliva estimulada y no estimulada de individuos pertenecientes a dos grupos etarios, adultos (A (n=30 (edad promedio: 25 años y adultos mayores (AM (n=30 (edad promedio: 68 años. Se excluyeron aquellos sujetos que presentaron alguna patología oral/sistémica o consumo de fármacos/sustancias relacionados con alteraciones del flujo o composición salival. Cada muestra fue centrifugada. A 10 µl del sobrenadante se agregaron 190 µl de solución de Bradford. Se realizó el recuento mediante lectura con espectrofotómetro (595 nm. La concentración de proteínas fue comparada entre los grupos en estudio utilizando la prueba t de Student (pObjective: A high number of proteins has been described in saliva. Scarce evidence allows to speculate about the variations on protein content associated with aging. The aim was to determine if there is a difference in total protein concentration between adults and older adults. Methods: Samples were collected from unstimulated and stimulated saliva of individuals from two age groups, adults (A (n=30 (mean age 25 years and older adults (OA (n=30(mean age: 68 years. Subjects with oral/systemic diseases or consuming medications that alter salivary flow were excluded from the study. Each sample was centrifuged and 10 μl of the supernatant was added to 190 μl of Bradford solution. Protein concentration was obtained by spectrophotometry (595 nm Protein concentration was compared between the groups using student’s t test (p<0.05. Results: Total protein concentration from unstimulated saliva was higher

  15. Prevalence of isolated non-albumin proteinuria in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and urine albumin: An unexpected discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayev, Alexander; Zebelman, Arthur M; Sharp, Thomas M; Samantha Flynn; Bernstein, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    Isolated non-albumin proteinuria (NAP) is a condition when urine total protein concentrations are elevated without elevation of urine albumin. The prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was assessed in this study. The database of a US nationwide laboratory network was queried for test results when random urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein and also when timed 24-hour urine albumin was ordered together with urine total protein. The total prevalence of NAP in the US population tested for both, urine total protein and albumin was calculated for patient groups having normal and low-normal urine albumin (random and timed) with elevated and severely increased urine total protein (random and timed). Also, the prevalence of NAP was calculated for patients with normal urine albumin to assess the probability of missing proteinuria if only urine albumin is measured. The prevalence of NAP in the random samples group was 10.1% (15.2% for females and 4.7% for males). Among patients with normal random albumin, there were 20.0% (27.3% of females and 10.7% of males) patients with NAP. The prevalence of NAP in the timed samples group was 24.6% (29.8% for females and 18.5% for males). Among patients with normal timed urine albumin, there were 36.2% (40.0% of females and 30.8% of males) patients with NAP. There was a strong positive association with female gender and NAP in most patients groups. Testing for only urine (micro)albumin can miss up to 40% of females and 30.8% of males with gross proteinuria. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of refractometry and biuret assay for measurement of total protein concentration in canine abdominal and pleural fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alexandra; Funk, Deborah; Neiger, Reto

    2016-04-01

    To compare total protein (TP) concentrations in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay. Diagnostic test evaluation. Data regarding 92 pleural and 148 abdominal fluid specimens from dogs with various diseases. TP concentrations in fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay were recorded. Strength of association between sets of measurements was assessed by Spearman rank correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Optimal concentration cutoff for diagnostic discrimination between exudate and nonexudate was identified by construction of receiver operating characteristic curves. Median TP concentration in pleural fluid specimens was 2.7 g/dL (range, 0.3 to 4.8 g/dL) for refractometry and 2.9 g/dL (range, 0.7 to 5.8 g/dL) for biuret assay. Median TP concentration in abdominal fluid specimens was 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.1 to 6.0 g/dL) for refractometry and 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.6 to 5.7 g/dL) for biuret assay. Correlation was significant between refractometric and biuret results for pleural (ρ = 0.921) and abdominal (ρ = 0.908) fluid. Bland-Altman plots revealed bias of -0.18 g/dL for pleural fluid and -0.03 g/dL for abdominal fluid for refractometry versus biuret assay. With a TP concentration of ≥ 3 g/dL used to distinguish exudate from nonexudate, sensitivity of refractometry was 77% for pleural fluid and 80% for abdominal fluid. Specificity was 100% and 94%, respectively. Refractometry yielded acceptable results for measurement of TP concentration in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens, providing a more rapid and convenient method than biuret assay.

  17. GANDivAWeb: A web server for detecting early folding units ("foldons" from protein 3D structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Arun

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has long been known that small regions of proteins tend to fold independently and are then stabilized by interactions between these distinct subunits or modules. Such units, also known as autonomous folding units (AFUs or"foldons" play a key role in protein folding. A knowledge of such early folding units has diverse applications in protein engineering as well as in developing an understanding of the protein folding process. Such AFUs can also be used as model systems in order to study the structural organization of proteins. Results In an earlier work, we had utilized a global network partitioning algorithm to identify modules in proteins. We had shown that these modules correlate well with AFUs. In this work, we have developed a webserver, GANDivAWeb, to identify early folding units or "foldons" in networks using the algorithm described earlier. The website has three functionalities: (a It is able to display information on the modularity of a database of 1420 proteins used in the original work, (b It can take as input an uploaded PDB file, identify the modules using the GANDivA algorithm and email the results back to the user and (c It can take as input an uploaded PDB file and a results file (obtained from functionality (b and display the results using the embedded viewer. The results include the module decomposition of the protein, plots of cartoon representations of the protein colored by module identity and connectivity as well as contour plots of the hydrophobicity and relative accessible surface area (RASA distributions. Conclusion We believe that the GANDivAWeb server, will be a useful tool for scientists interested in the phenomena of protein folding as well as in protein engineering. Our tool not only provides a knowledge of the AFUs through a natural graph partitioning approach but is also able to identify residues that are critical during folding. It is our intention to use this tool to study the topological

  18. Clinical, hematological, total plasma protein and fibrinogen parameters of magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus pre- and post-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Coraiola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus usually arrive in poor body conditions at Brazilian beaches during the winter. Hematology provides valuable information about clinical and immunity status of the animals. The aims of this study were to determine the hematologic, total plasma protein (TPP and fibrinogen profiles of young and adult magellanic penguins in PROAMAR and CETAS-SC, relating these results with the state of health and survival possibility of the animals. In Paraná 14 animals were evaluated in pre and eight in post-rehabilitation and 29 animals were evaluated in Santa Catarina after rehabilitation. Before rehabilitation, all animals showed weakness. In hematological exams of these animals, we found that anemia was present in 83% of the penguins that died and 50% of those which survived. The heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L ratio was 3.87±0.57 in animals that died, significantly higher than the average of 2.20±0.30 for animals that survived. These two parameters are useful to assess the survival possibility of animals to rehabilitation. The body condition score was positively correlated with hematocrit and TPP, and negatively correlated with H/L ratio. After rehabilitation, the values were similar to other animals of the family Spheniscidae, with averages ranging from 1.64 to 1.90x106 erythrocytes/μL; 43.38 to 48.80% of hematocrit; 12.45 to 13.52g/dL of hemoglobin; 8,684 to 14,011 leukocytes/μL; 4,767 to 8,041 heterophils/μL; 3,215 to 4,951 lymphocytes/μL; 95 to 655 eosinophils/μl; 179.8 to 277.9 monocytes/μL; 141 to 184.9 basophils/μL; and 1.26 to 1.74 of H/L ratio. These parameters can therefore be used as reference values and release parameters for young and adult Magellanic penguins in captivity on the rehabilitation centers.

  19. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Olsen, A; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance.......As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance....

  20. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays.

  1. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  2. Decomposition of total solvation energy into core, side-chains and water contributions: Role of cross correlations and protein conformational fluctuations in dynamics of hydration layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sayantan; Mukherjee, Saumyak; Bagchi, Biman

    2017-09-01

    Dynamical coupling between water and amino acid side-chain residues in solvation dynamics is investigated by selecting residues often used as natural probes, namely tryptophan, tyrosine and histidine, located at different positions on protein surface. Such differently placed residues are found to exhibit different timescales of relaxation. The total solvation response measured by the probe is decomposed in terms of its interactions with (i) protein core, (ii) side-chain and (iii) water. Significant anti cross-correlation among these contributions are observed. When the motion of the protein side-chains is quenched, solvation either becomes faster or slower depending on the location of the probe.

  3. Chemical Functionalization of Germanium with Dextran Brushes for Immobilization of Proteins Revealed by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Difference Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartner, Jonas; Hoeck, Nina; Güldenhaupt, Jörn; Mavarani, Laven; Nabers, Andreas; Gerwert, Klaus; Kötting, Carsten

    2015-07-21

    Protein immobilization studied by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) difference spectroscopy is an emerging field enabling the study of proteins at atomic detail. Gold or glass surfaces are frequently used for protein immobilization. Here, we present an alternative method for protein immobilization on germanium. Because of its high refractive index and broad spectral window germanium is the best material for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy of thin layers. So far, this technique was mainly used for protein monolayers, which lead to a limited signal-to-noise ratio. Further, undesired protein-protein interactions can occur in a dense layer. Here, the germanium surface was functionalized with thiols and stepwise a dextran brush was generated. Each step was monitored by ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy. We compared a 70 kDa dextran with a 500 kDa dextran regarding the binding properties. All surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy, revealing thicknesses between 40 and 110 nm. To analyze the capability of our system we utilized N-Ras on mono-NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) functionalized dextran, and the amount of immobilized Ras corresponded to several monolayers. The protein stability and loading capacity was further improved by means of tris-NTA for immobilization. Small-molecule-induced changes were revealed with an over 3 times higher signal-to-noise ratio compared to monolayers. This improvement may allow the observation of very small and so far hidden changes in proteins upon stimulus. Furthermore, we immobilized green fluorescent protein (GFP) and mCherry simultaneously enabling an analysis of the surface by fluorescence microscopy. The absence of a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal demonstrated a large protein-protein distance, indicating an even distribution of the protein within the dextran.

  4. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements of S and P in proteins using a vacuum chamber specially designed for low Z elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauwolf, M., E-mail: mrauwolf@ati.ac.at [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, Stadionallee 2, Vienna 1020 (Austria); Vanhoof, C.; Tirez, K.; Maes, E. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research NV, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Ingerle, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, Stadionallee 2, Vienna 1020 (Austria)

    2014-11-01

    As the ratio of phosphorus and sulfur in proteins allows the determination of the phosphorylation degree in proteins, the absolute determination of phosphorus and sulfur in organic samples is of growing interest. While it takes some effort to quantify phosphorus and sulfur with inductively coupled quadrupole plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS), total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) allows easy quantification. In the presented work, the low Z TXRF spectrometer at the Atominstitut was used to analyze phosphorus and sulfur in proteins. Although the preparation of the protein samples proved to be more difficult than originally expected, it could be shown that TXRF is well suited for the determination of P and S in proteins. The obtained lower limits of detection (LLD) for P and S in proteins were extrapolated for 1000s and were 34 pg and 19 pg, respectively. The importance of height scans for each sample to exclude heterogeneities was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Low Z TXRF spectrometry was used to analyze phosphorus and sulfur in proteins. • TXRF is well suited for the determination of P and S in proteins. • Good detection limits for P (34 pg) and S (19 pg) were achieved. • Due to the detection limits, we propose that TXRF is a suitable method to analyze protein fractions.

  5. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  6. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied whethe

  7. Ileal and total tract apparent crude protein and amino acid digestibility of ensiled and dried cassava leaves and sweet potato vines in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Ngoan, L.D.; Bosch, G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the ileal and total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in ensiled and dried cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaves (CL) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) as a single ingredient or in a 50:50 mixture of CL + SP

  8. Amino Acid Profiles, Total Nitrogen Contents, and Computed-Protein Efficiency Ratios of Manihot esculenta Root and Dioscorea rotundata Tuber Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chidoka Chikezie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous roots of cassava and yam are major sources of dietary carbohydrate to human, alternative sources of energy in livestock feeds, and sources of starch in small-scale industries. Investigations on amino acid profiles, total nitrogen contents, and computed-protein efficiency ratios (C-PER of tuberous root peels of Manihot esculenta Crantz and Dioscorea rotundata Poir. were carried out. Amino acid analysis was carried out using ion-exchange chromatography methods. Total nitrogen content was measured using the micro-Kjeldahl methods. The C-PER was calculated using regression equation. The concentrations of amino acids detected in the cassava peels ranged from 0.54 to 6.54 g/100 g protein, whereas those of yam peels were between 0.37 and 6.25 g/100 g protein. The total amino acid concentration of the cassava peels was not significantly (p>0.05 higher than that of the yam peels. Essential amino acid scores showed that Phe + Tyr and Met + Cys were the most abundant and limiting amino acids, respectively, in cassava and yam peels. The percentage nitrogen content and C-PER of the cassava peels were significantly (p<0.05 higher than those of the yam peels. The cassava and yam peels were not sources of good quality proteins. Therefore, the use of cassava or yam peels as livestock feeds should be supplemented with other sources rich in good quality proteins.

  9. Structural basis for the enhanced stability of protein model compounds and peptide backbone unit in ammonium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha, T; Attri, Pankaj; Venkatesu, Pannuru; Devi, R S Rama

    2012-10-04

    Protein folding/unfolding is a fascinating study in the presence of cosolvents, which protect/disrupt the native structure of protein, respectively. The structure and stability of proteins and their functional groups may be modulated by the addition of cosolvents. Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding a vast array of applications as novel cosolvents for a wide variety of biochemical processes that include protein folding. Here, the systematic and quantitative apparent transfer free energies (ΔG'(tr)) of protein model compounds from water to ILs through solubility measurements as a function of IL concentration at 25 °C have been exploited to quantify and interpret biomolecular interactions between model compounds of glycine peptides (GPs) with ammonium based ILs. The investigated aqueous systems consist of zwitterionic glycine peptides: glycine (Gly), diglycine (Gly(2)), triglycine (Gly(3)), tetraglycine (Gly(4)), and cyclic glycylglycine (c(GG)) in the presence of six ILs such as diethylammonium acetate (DEAA), diethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (DEAS), triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), triethylammonium hydrogen sulfate (TEAS), triethylammonium dihydrogen phosphate (TEAP), and trimethylammonium acetate (TMAA). We have observed positive values of ΔG'(tr) for GPs from water to ILs, indicating that interactions between ILs and GPs are unfavorable, which leads to stabilization of the structure of model protein compounds. Moreover, our experimental data ΔG'(tr) is used to obtain transfer free energies (Δg'(tr)) of the peptide backbone unit (or glycyl unit) (-CH(2)C═ONH-), which is the most numerous group in globular proteins, from water to IL solutions. To obtain the mechanism events of the ILs' role in enhancing the stability of the model compounds, we have further obtained m-values for GPs from solubility limits. These results explicitly elucidate that all alkyl ammonium ILs act as stabilizers for model compounds through the exclusion of ILs from model compounds of

  10. DNA polymorphism and total protein in mutants of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin strain E9 Polimorfismo de DNA e proteína total em mutantes da linhagem E9 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurineide Lopes de Carvalho Freire

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Five mutants (MaE10, MaE27, MaE24, MaE41 e MaE49 of Metarhizium anisopliae wild strain E9 were analysed for DNA profile through the RAPD technique and for changes in total protein content by spectrophotometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and densitometry. The pattern of RAPD markers showed genetic polymorphism among the strains: out of twenty primers seven were selected, producing 113 bands. Forty seven bands were present in all strains (41.6% of monomorphic bands and 66 showed polymorphism (58.4%. The mean coefficient of similarity among all strains was 0.75 (75%. The total protein content varied, staining in the interval of 6.0-8.0 µg/µl. The electrophoresis analysis, through zymogram and protein fraction profiles by densitometry, allowed the observation of seven bands for the wild strain E9 and five bands for the mutants MaE10, MaE27, MaE34, MaE41 and MaE49, evidence of variations in µg% among protein fractions. The RAPD technique was very sensitive to detect genetic differences between the wild type and the mutants obtained through gamma radiation. The total protein analysis also showed changes in quantity and pattern of bands after electrophoresis in the mutants compared to the wild type.Foram analisados cinco mutantes MaE (MaE10, MaE27, MaE34, MaE41 e MaE49 da linhagem selvagem E9 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae quanto ao perfil de DNA pela técnica de RAPD e também quanto ao conteúdo de proteína total por espectrometria e eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida e densitometria. O padrão de marcadores de RAPD evidenciou polimorfismo nas amostras; dos 20 primers testados foram selecionados 7 que geraram 113 bandas. Deste total, 47 estavam presentes em todas as amostras (41.6% de bandas monomórficas e 66 mostraram polimorfismo (58.4%. O coeficiente médio de similaridade foi de 75%. O conteúdo de proteína total variou de 6 a 8 µg/µl. O zimograma e perfís das frações de proteínas obtidos por densitometria

  11. DNA polymorphism and total protein in mutants of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin strain E9 Polimorfismo de DNA e proteína total em mutantes da linhagem E9 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin

    OpenAIRE

    Laurineide Lopes de Carvalho Freire; Ana Bolena Lima da Costa; Larissa Brandão Góes; Neiva Tinti de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Five mutants (MaE10, MaE27, MaE24, MaE41 e MaE49) of Metarhizium anisopliae wild strain E9 were analysed for DNA profile through the RAPD technique and for changes in total protein content by spectrophotometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and densitometry. The pattern of RAPD markers showed genetic polymorphism among the strains: out of twenty primers seven were selected, producing 113 bands. Forty seven bands were present in all strains (41.6% of monomorphic bands) and 66 showed polym...

  12. The study of hospital bavage solution and calorie and protein in take. For patients needs from the special care unit at Imam Khomeini hospital, Sari, Iran during 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Malnutrition is a major problem within intensive care units (ICU affecting the outcome of patients. In Imam Khomeini Hospital, patients were fed with gavage solutions prepared in the kitchen of hospitals, however, its' nutritional value has not been studied at present time. The aim of this study was to analyze the gavage solution and to compare the calculated nutritional demand with the provided values.Materials and Methods: The amount of carbohydrate, lipid and protein of gavage solution has been determined with Leen ion, Gerber and Kejeldal methods, respectively. In this study, 30 patients with at least 5 days in the ICU were included. Daily metabolic needs were calculated with Harris-Benedict equation and then, calculated calorie and protein values were compared with the provided values.Results: The carbohydrate, lipid, protein and energy contents of gavage solutions were 0.035 ±0.002 g/ml, 0.0225±0.017 g/ml, 0.012 ± 0.002 g/ml, and 0.39 ± 0.164 Kcal/ml. The calorie and protein provided by the hospital solution, in comparison to the standard enteral solutions, were 32.5% and 16% respectively. Total energy expenditure (TEE at the time of admission to ICU was 2302 ± 633 Kcal/ per day. During week 1, 2, and 3, TEE was 2301±634, 2283 ± 661 and 2228 ± 790 respectively. Maximum provided energy was 600 ± 632 Kcal/ per day. Maximum protein was provided in week 3 and equal to 22.9% of patient’s needs.Conclusion: The gavage solution provided by hospitals can not meet the calorie and protein needs of patients. It is necessary to prepare solutions with enough contents of carbohydrate, lipid and protein or to provide them with standard enteral nutritional solutions.Key words: Gavage, Intensive care unit, Malnutrition, Calorie, ProteinJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(64: 81-85 (Persian

  13. The clinical and economic value of the dipeptide alanyl-glutamine in total parenteral nutrition of critically ill patients treated in intensive care units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Muscaritoli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the supplementation of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide in critically ill patients necessitating total parenteral nutrition (TPN improves clinical outcomes, reducing mortality, infection rate, and shortening ICU hospital lengths of stay (LOS, as compared to standard TPN regimens. Here we present a pharmacoeconomic evaluation of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide in critically ill patients admitted to Italian Intensive Care Units (ICUs. Methods: a Discrete Event Simulation model that incorporates outcomes rates from 200 Italian ICUs for over 60,000 patients, alanyl-glutamine dipeptide efficacy data synthesized by means of a Bayesian Random-Effects meta-analysis, and national cost data has been developed to evaluated the alternatives from the point of view of the hospital. Simulated clinical outcomes are death and infection rates in ICU, death rate in general ward, and hospital LOSs. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses are performed by varying all uncertain parameter values in a plausible range. Results: alanyl-glutamine dipeptide results more effective and less costly than standard TPN: reduced mortality rate (23.55% ± 15.2% vs 34.50% ± 2.06%, infection rate (15.91% ± 3.95% vs 18.97% ± 3.94%, and hospital LOS (25.47 ± 0.26 vs 26.00 ± 0.27 days come at a lower total cost per patient (23,922 ± 3,249 vs 24,145 ± 3,361 Euro. Treatment cost is completely offset by savings on ICU and antibiotic costs. The cost/effectiveness acceptability curve indicates an estimated 78% probability of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide resulting dominant and a 90% probability of resulting cost/effective for a willingness to pay up to 1,500 Euro for one patient death avoided. Conclusions: alanyl-glutamine dipeptide is expected to improve clinical outcomes and to do so with a concurrent saving for the hospital.

  14. Use of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level to diagnose infection before revision total knee arthroplasty. A prospective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Garbuz, Donald S; Wilson, S Darrin; McAlinden, M Gavan; Xu, Min; Duncan, Clive P

    2007-07-01

    Despite the widespread use of several diagnostic tests, there is still no perfect test for the diagnosis of infection at the site of a total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic test characteristics of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein level for the assessment of infection in patients presenting for revision total knee arthroplasty. One hundred and fifty-one knees in 145 patients presenting for revision total knee arthroplasty were evaluated prospectively for the presence of infection with measurement of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the C-reactive protein level. The characteristics of these tests were assessed with use of two different techniques: first, receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal positivity criterion for the diagnostic test, and, second, previously accepted criteria for establishing positivity of the tests were used. A diagnosis of infection was established for forty-five of the 151 knees that underwent revision total knee arthroplasty. The receiver-operating-characteristic curves indicated that the optimal positivity criterion was 22.5 mm/hr for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and 13.5 mg/L for the C-reactive protein level. Both the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sensitivity, 0.93; specificity, 0.83; positive likelihood ratio, 5.81; accuracy, 0.86) and the C-reactive protein level (sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.86; positive likelihood ratio, 6.89; accuracy, 0.88) have excellent diagnostic test performance. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and the C-reactive protein level provide excellent diagnostic test information for establishing the presence or absence of infection prior to surgical intervention in patients with pain at the site of a knee arthroplasty.

  15. Specific association of growth-associated protein 43 with calcium release units in skeletal muscles of lower vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Caprara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43, is a strictly conserved protein among vertebrates implicated in neuronal development and neurite branching. Since GAP43 structure contains a calmodulin-binding domain, this protein is able to bind calmodulin and gather it nearby membrane network, thus regulating cytosolic calcium and consequently calcium-dependent intracellular events. Even if for many years GAP43 has been considered a neuronal-specific protein, evidence from different laboratories described its presence in myoblasts, myotubes and adult skeletal muscle fibers. Data from our laboratory showed that GAP43 is localized between calcium release units (CRUs and mitochondria in mammalian skeletal muscle suggesting that, also in skeletal muscle, this protein can be a key player in calcium/calmodulin homeostasis. However, the previous studies could not clearly distinguish between a mitochondrion- or a triad-related positioning of GAP43. To solve this question, the expression and localization of GAP43 was studied in skeletal muscle of Xenopus and Zebrafish known to have triads located at the level of the Z-lines and mitochondria not closely associated with them. Western blotting and immunostaining experiments revealed the expression of GAP43 also in skeletal muscle of lower vertebrates (like amphibians and fishes, and that the protein is localized closely to the triad junction. Once more, these results and GAP43 structural features, support an involvement of the protein in the dynamic intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, a common conserved role among the different species.

  16. Effect of salinity on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa genotypes inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti strains under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fazaeli; H. Besharati

    2012-01-01

    This greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity and bacterial inoculation on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The effect of three salinity levels (0, 6 and 12 dS/m) induced by a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts on growth indices and protein content of three alfalfa genotypes (Hamadani, Gharahyonjeh and Gharghalogh) at three levels of inoculatio...

  17. Fall growth, nutritive value, and estimation of total digestible nutrients for cereal-grain forages in the north-central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Walgenbach, R P

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the Southern Great Plains, wheat is managed frequently as a dual-purpose crop, but this production paradigm is not necessarily applicable throughout other regions of the United States, and a wider array of management options can be considered for forage-only uses of cereal grains. Our objectives were to assess the fall-growth potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack), and oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars in Wisconsin, and then to further evaluate and compare the fiber composition and TDN of these fall-grown forages. For 2006, yields of DM for all cultivars increased quadratically (P or = 0.072), including forage-type oat. Although TDN estimates generally were relatively static across harvest dates, the concentrations of truly digestible components constituting the total TDN pool were quite fluid. Generally, reductions of truly digestible CP were offset by increases in truly digestible nonfiber carbohydrate, truly digestible fiber, or both. The relatively stable energy densities for cereal-grain cultivars observed across harvest dates suggest that a broad window of opportunity exists for usage, including a single harvest as silage.

  18. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  19. The isolation, total synthesis and structure elucidation of chlorofusin, a natural product inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ryan C.; Lee, Sang Yeul; Searcey, Mark; Boger, Dale L.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of key protein-protein interactions are emerging as exciting therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. One such interaction between MDM2 (HDM2) and p53, that silences the tumour suppression activities of p53, was found to be inhibited by the recently isolated natural product chlorofusin. Synthetic studies on this complex natural product summarized herein have served to reassign its chromophore relative stereochemistry, assign its absolute stereochemistry, and provided access to a series of key analogues and partial structures for biological evaluation. PMID:19642417

  20. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  1. Total body nitrogen and total body carbon as indicators of body protein and body lipids in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae: effects of methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue, and of diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Mayr, Leopold; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge; Robinson, Alan S; Stauffer, Christian; Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca

    2010-12-01

    The application of methoprene, and providing access to diet including hydrolyzed yeast, are treatments known to enhance mating success in the male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), supporting their use in mass rearing protocols for sterile males in the context of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes. The objective of the present laboratory study was to investigate the effect of methoprene application and diet supplementation with hydrolyzed yeast (protein) on the turnover of body lipids and protein to confirm the feasibility of their application in melon fly SIT mass-rearing programmes. While females had access to a diet that included hydrolyzed yeast (protein), males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (1) topical application of methoprene and access to diet including protein (M+P+); (2) only diet including protein (M-P+); (3) only methoprene (M+P-) and (4) untreated, only sugar-fed, control males (M-P-). Total body carbon (TBC) and total body nitrogen (TBN) of flies were measured at regular intervals from emergence to 35 days of age for each of the different treatments. Nitrogen assimilation and turnover in the flies were measured using stable isotope ((15)N) dilution techniques. Hydrolyzed yeast incorporation into the diet significantly increased male body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to sugar-fed males. Females had significantly higher body weight, TBC and TBN as compared to all males. TBC and TBN showed age-dependent changes, increasing until the age of sexual maturity and decreasing afterwards in both sexes. Methoprene treatment did not significantly affect TBC or TBN. The progressive increase with age of TBC suggests that lipogenesis occurs in adult male B. cucurbitae, as is the case in other tephritids. Stable isotope dilution was shown to be an effective method for determining N uptake in B. cucurbitae. This technique was used to show that sugar-fed males rely solely on larval N reserves and that the N

  2. Spectrophotometric tool for the determination of the total carboxylate content in proteins; molar extinction coefficient of the enol ester from Woodward's reagent K reacted with protein carboxylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosters, H.A.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2003-01-01

    A number of relevant properties of Woodward's reagent K have been determined, such as the stability of the reactant and the optimal reaction conditions of the reactant with protein carboxylates. A Woodward's reagent K stock solution was stable at 4°C for prolonged time, whereas upon storage at 22°C,

  3. Evaluation of five commercially available assays and measurement of serum total protein concentration via refractometry for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer of immunity in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Giguère, Steeve

    2005-11-15

    To determine and compare sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values of measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry as well as 5 commercially available kits for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunity in foals. Prospective study. 65 foals with various medical problems and 35 clinically normal foals. IgG concentration in serum was assessed by use of zinc sulfate turbidity (assay C), glutaraldehyde coagulation (assay D), 2 semiquantitative immunoassays (assays F and G), and a quantitative immunoassay (assay H). Serum total protein concentration was assessed by refractometry. Radial immunodiffusion (assays A and B) was used as the reference method. For detection of IgG or = 6.0 g/dL indicated adequate IgG concentrations. Most assays were adequate as initial screening tests. However, their use as a definitive test would result in unnecessary treatment of foals with adequate IgG concentrations.

  4. A new mutation in the AFP gene responsible for a total absence of alpha feto-protein on second trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, François M; Hébert, Marylise; Picone, Olivier; Brisset, Sophie; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Benattar, Clarisse; Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Tachdjian, Gérard; Labrune, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Alpha feto-protein (AFP) is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. During the second trimester of pregnancy, APF and βhCG serum concentrations are commonly used for screening Down syndrome. AFP deficiency is rare (estimated to be 1/105 000 newborns) and only one sequence alteration has previously been reported in the AFP gene. We report a new mutation in exon 5 of the AFP gene, leading to a total absence of AFP on 2nd-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome, confirmed on the amniotic fluid. Despite this, fetal development and birth were normal. After PCR-amplification, the whole AFP gene was sequenced. The new mutation was a guanine to adenine transition in position 543 creating a premature stop codon in position 181. In order to search for eventual modifications of the amniotic fluid profile, proteins were separated by electrophoresis and compared with 10 normal amniotic fluids sampled at the same developmental age (18 weeks). In the amniotic fluid of our patient albumin rate was reduced whereas alpha1 and beta protein fractions were increased, suggesting that AFP deficiency may modify the distribution of protein fractions. This observation emphasizes the complex molecular mechanisms of compensation of serum protein deficiency. Studies on other families with AFP deficiency are necessary to confirm this observation. PMID:18854864

  5. A new mutation in the AFP gene responsible for a total absence of alpha feto-protein on second trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, François M; Hébert, Marylise; Picone, Olivier; Brisset, Sophie; Maurin, Marie-Laure; Parisot, Frédéric; Capel, Liliane; Benattar, Clarisse; Sénat, Marie-Victoire; Tachdjian, Gérard; Labrune, Philippe

    2009-03-01

    Alpha feto-protein (AFP) is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. During the second trimester of pregnancy, APF and betahCG serum concentrations are commonly used for screening Down syndrome. AFP deficiency is rare (estimated to be 1/105,000 newborns) and only one sequence alteration has previously been reported in the AFP gene. We report a new mutation in exon 5 of the AFP gene, leading to a total absence of AFP on 2nd-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome, confirmed on the amniotic fluid. Despite this, fetal development and birth were normal. After PCR-amplification, the whole AFP gene was sequenced. The new mutation was a guanine to adenine transition in position 543 creating a premature stop codon in position 181. In order to search for eventual modifications of the amniotic fluid profile, proteins were separated by electrophoresis and compared with 10 normal amniotic fluids sampled at the same developmental age (18 weeks). In the amniotic fluid of our patient albumin rate was reduced whereas alpha1 and beta protein fractions were increased, suggesting that AFP deficiency may modify the distribution of protein fractions. This observation emphasizes the complex molecular mechanisms of compensation of serum protein deficiency. Studies on other families with AFP deficiency are necessary to confirm this observation.

  6. Impact of total solid content and extraction pH on enzyme-aided recovery of protein from defatted rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) press cake and physicochemical properties of the protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommi, Katariina; Ercili-Cura, Dilek; Hakala, Terhi K; Nordlund, Emilia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lantto, Raija

    2015-03-25

    Pectinase treatment was used to facilitate protein recovery from defatted rapeseed (Brassica rapa) cold-pressing residue in water-lean conditions and without pH adjustment. Effect of extraction pH on protein yield and physiochemical properties of the protein concentrates was assessed. Enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates was feasible at high (40%) solid content and improved protein recovery at pH 6. Comparable protein yields (40-41% of total protein) from enzyme-aided water extraction (pH 6) and nonenzymatic alkaline extraction (pH10) at 10% solid content suggested that after enzymatic treatment, rapeseed protein could be extracted without exposure to alkali. However, water extraction required dilute conditions, whereas alkaline extraction was feasible also at 20% solid content. The water extracts possessed better protein solubility, higher ζ-potential, and smaller particle size than isoelectric precipitates from alkaline extraction, indicating higher dispersion stability. This is suggested to be mediated by electrostatic interactions between proteins and pectic carbohydrates in the water extracts.

  7. Experimental basis of standardized specimen collection: the effect of moderate ethanol consumption on some serum components (K, Na, ASAT, ALAT, CK, LD, total protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, E A; Gräsbeck, R

    1987-06-01

    Venous blood was collected on two mornings from seven healthy volunteers using the standard Scandinavian procedure (fasting, sitting and no tourniquet) and serum Na, K, ASAT, ALAT, CK, LD and total protein were assayed. Then ethanol (0.75 g/kg body weight) was given on three consecutive evenings and the subsequent observed values 1, 3, 15, 38, 62 and 110 h post-ethanol were compared with the morning values. The mean component/total protein ratios dropped 14% for ASAT and 19% for ALAT 62 and 15 h post-ethanol, respectively. CK rose 17% at 3 h and dropped 17% at 62 h. However, the absolute values of ASAT, ALAT and CK did not change significantly. The only significant post-ethanol changes occurred in Na +2.14 mmol/l at 1 h (p less than 0.01), K -0.24 mmol/l at 3 h (p less than 0.05) and +0.26 mmol/l at 15 h (p less than 0.05), and LD +31 IU/l at 15 h (p less than 0.05) and +25 IU/l at 110 h (p less than 0.01). In one series, the total protein concentration dropped 4.57 g/l at 110 h post ethanol (p less than 0.001) but this drop was not reproducible in two additional series. It is concluded that moderate (social) ethanol consumption does not produce clinically significant effects on the components analysed. Also it may be misleading to express results as component/total protein ratios.

  8. The first protein ever synthesized in vitro——a personal reminiscence of the total synthesis of crystalline insulin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YouShang

    2010-01-01

    @@ The total synthesis of crystalline bovine insulin started in 1958 was fully accomplished in 1965.This formidable task was a collaboration of the Institute of Biochemistry in Shanghai, the Institute of Organic Chemistry in Shanghai and the Department of Chemistry in Beijing University.It is difficult to say exactly how many people were involved in this project, as many contributors, e.g.Director Wang YingLai and Deputy Director Cao TianQin of the Institute of Biochemistry, were not included in the author list of the published papers.

  9. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: Applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geert Heidema, A.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.A.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  10. The effect of feeding level and physiological status on total flow and amino acid composition of endogenous protein at the distal ileum in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H H; Trottier, N L; Bellaver, C; Easter, R A

    1999-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of BW, feed intake, and the physiological condition of the animal on the loss and amino acid composition of endogenous protein in swine. Ten growing barrows and five multiparous sows were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum for digesta collection. A protein-free diet was fed to all animals. The barrows were given free access to the experimental diet. The sows also were allowed to consume the diet on an ad libitum basis, and digesta were collected during lactation and in the following gestation period. In addition, digesta from the gravid sows were collected after restricting the sows to 2 kg of feed per day. For each animal group, the endogenous losses of protein and amino acids were calculated in relation to DMI, and the amino acid composition of endogenous protein was calculated. The total endogenous gut protein loss at the distal ileum of growing pigs, lactating sows, and gestating sows, given free access to feed, was 12.4, 9.4, and 11.2 g/kg DMI, respectively. These values were not different (P > .10). However, when gestating sows were fed only 2 kg/d, 17.8 g of endogenous protein was lost per kilogram of DMI, which was higher (P .05) in amino acid composition of endogenous protein between growing pigs, lactating sows, and gestating sows given free access to feed, but restricted-fed gestating sows had an amino acid composition of endogenous protein that was significantly different from that of the other groups. The results from the experiment showed that age, BW, and the physiological condition of the animal have little or no effect on the amount of endogenous protein and amino acids lost at the distal ileum of hogs if calculated in relation to DMI. Likewise, the amino acid composition was not affected by the BW or physiological condition of the animal. However, DMI had a significant effect on endogenous protein losses in sows as well as on amino acid composition of endogenous protein.

  11. Effects of dietary pea protein concentrate on growth performance, biological parameters, body composition and total ammonia-nitrogen excretion of meagre (Argyrosomus regius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Güroy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using of alternative plant/animal based (except fish meal raw materials is one of the most important application for decreasing feed cost in finfish feeds. Meagre which is demanded from many countries because of its efficient meat quality and flovur and showed rapid growth under culture conditions is a potential species. A nutrition trial with meagre, Argyrosomus regius was undertaken to evaluate the effect of replacing dietary fishmeal (FM protein with pea protein concentrate (PPC. A diet with FM as the main protein source was used for the control diet (FM. Four experimental diets were formulated to progressively replace 15% (PPC15, 30% (PPC30, 45% (PPC45 and 60% (PPC60 of FM protein. The study was carried out in 450-L fiberglass tanks connected to a closed recirculation system. Eighteen fish per tank were randomly distributed into 15 tanks with three replicates. The diets were tested in triplicate for 12 weeks. The specific growth rate (SGR of fish fed diet PPC15 were not significantly different compared to fish fed the FM diet (P>0.05. Meagre fed FM, PPC15 and PPC30 had significantly lower FCR compared with fish fed PPC45 and PPC60 (P<0.05. Total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN excretion increased with elevated dietary PPC inclusion. In conclusion, using 15% of pea protein concentrate in meagre feeds has been recommended.

  12. Biotechnology Conference: Protein Engineering Held in Oxford, United Kingdom on 5-8 April 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-27

    of the iso-accepting and protein- pigment complexes. transfer RNA’s (tRNA). According to Swaf- Huber and his group have found that field the set of...regions. perform the catalytic condensation reac- tion respectively, according to Huber. In the multienzyme complex riboflavin syn- 3 PROTEIN STRUCTURE...Germany). Huber the pigments active in light absorption and his group have carried out extensive and light conduction. Motion would 3 deactivate the

  13. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  14. The epitopes in wheat proteins for defining toxic units relevant to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Angéla; Gell, Gyöngyvér; Békés, Frank; Balázs, Ervin

    2012-11-01

    Wheat-related disorders are well-studied health problems. Knowledge of the composition and amounts of epitopes present in a single wheat sample represents a significant gap, and the detailed wheat proteome datasets now available can provide the necessary information to carry out an estimation of allergen prediction for a single cultivar. The combined use of genome sequence and allergen databases, prediction methodology, and cereal chemistry results in better understanding of the level of toxicity present in the end-products produced from wheat flour. The workflow presented in this review provides information about the number and distribution of epitopes at single protein, or protein fraction, levels. In addition, epitopes present in the highest frequency and harmful proteins expressed in the highest amount can be identified. The "epitope toxicity" value obtained in this way is a significant research output from the analysis of large datasets that can be applied to the food industry.

  15. Binding affinity between dietary polyphenols and β-lactoglobulin negatively correlates with the protein susceptibility to digestion and total antioxidant activity of complexes formed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Marija; Radosavljevic, Jelena; Ognjenovic, Jana; Vesic, Jelena; Prodic, Ivana; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2013-02-15

    Non-covalent interactions between β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and polyphenol extracts of teas, coffee and cocoa were studied by fluorescence and CD spectroscopy at pH values of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The biological implications of non-covalent binding of polyphenols to BLG were investigated by in vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestibility assay and ABTS radical scavenging activity of complexes formed. The polyphenol-BLG systems were stable at pH values of the GIT. The most profound effect of pH on binding affinity was observed for polyphenol extracts rich in phenolic acids. Stronger non-covalent interactions delayed pepsin and pancreatin digestion of BLG and induced β-sheet to α-helix transition at neutral pH. All polyphenols tested protected protein secondary structure at an extremely acidic pH of 1.2. A positive correlation was found between the strength of protein-polyphenol interactions and (a) half time of protein decay in gastric conditions (R(2)=0.85), (b) masking of total antioxidant capacity of protein-polyphenol complexes (R(2)=0.95).

  16. Effects of radiation and α-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with α - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on α - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with α - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  17. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young-Il [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Eun, E-mail: ondalgl@cdc.go.kr [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical

  18. Total and free insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit reflect clinical activity in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Lange, Merete Wolder; Pedersen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate, markers of disease activity in acromegaly in relation to perceived disease activity. Thirty-seven consecutively treated, acromegalic patients, classified by clinical symptoms as inactive (n=16), slightly active (n=10) and active (n=11), entered the study. When evaluating......-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with PV(pos) of 0.69 and 0.71 and PV(neg) of 0.91 and 0.92 respectively. We conclude that free IGF-I is more closely related than total IGF-I to perceived disease activity and is as such useful when evaluating previously treated acromegaly for disease activity...

  19. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  20. Total and free insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit reflect clinical activity in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Lange, Merete Wolder; Pedersen, L M

    2001-01-01

    the inactive and the active groups, we found that positive and negative predictive values (PV(pos), PV(neg)) for clinical disease activity of total and free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) were 0.59, 0.90 and 1.00, 0.82 respectively. Acid-labile subunit (ALS) showed diagnostic merit similar to insulin......-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with PV(pos) of 0.69 and 0.71 and PV(neg) of 0.91 and 0.92 respectively. We conclude that free IGF-I is more closely related than total IGF-I to perceived disease activity and is as such useful when evaluating previously treated acromegaly for disease activity...

  1. Free and total insulin-like growth factors and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins during 14 days of growth hormone administration in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaerbaek, C; Frystyk, J; Møller, J; Christiansen, J S; Orskov, H

    1996-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of growth hormone (GH) administration on circulating levels of free insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in healthy adults. Eight healthy male subjects were given placebo and two doses of GH (3 and 6 IU/m2 per day) for 14 days in a double-blind crossover study. Fasting blood samples were obtained every second day. Free IGF-I and IGF-II were determined by ultrafiltration of serum. Total IGF-I and IGF-II were measured after acid-ethanol extraction. In addition, GH, insulin, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) and IGFBP-3 were measured. Serum-free and total IGF-I increased in a dose-dependent manner during the 14 days of GH administration. After 14 days, serum-free IGF-I values were 610 +/- 100 ng/l (mean +/- SEM) (placebo), 2760 +/- 190 ng/l (3 IU/ m2) and 3720 +/- 240 ng/l (6 IU/m2) (p = 0.0001 for 3 and 6 IU/m2 vs placebo; p = 0.004 for 3 IU/m2 vs 6 IU/m2). Total IGF-I values were 190 +/- 10 micrograms/l (placebo), 525 +/- 10 (3 IU/m2), and 655 +/- 40 micrograms/l (6 IU/m2) (p Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 was decreased during GH administration (p = 0.04 for placebo vs 3 IU/m2; p = 0.006 for placebo vs 6 IU/m2). In conclusion, fasting serum free IGF-I increased dose dependently during GH administration and free IGF-I increased relatively more than total IGF-I. This may partly be due to the decrease in IGFBP-1.

  2. Factor de crecimiento epidermal y proteínas totales en saliva de fumadores y no fumadores Epidermal growth factor and total protein in saliva of smokers and non smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gutiérrez Nova

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La función del Factor de Crecimiento Epidermal (EGF es mantener la integridad de los tejidos, su receptor se localiza en superficies celulares y se expresa principalmente en epitelios. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la asociación entre el tabaquismo crónico, el pH, las proteínas totales (PT y el EGF en saliva de fumadores, Se seleccionaron pacientes masculinos, entre 20 y 60 años, de la clínica de Registro del Postgrado de Odontología de la Universidad. Se tomaron muestras de saliva total estimulada (STHe y no estimulada (STH a un grupo de fumadores y no fumadores. Se midió el pH, se cuantificaron las PT por el método de Bradford y para el EGF la técnica de ELISA (ELISA Kit KHG0061 biosource. Los resultados fueron: el pH se encontró ligeramente alcalino en STHe en ambos grupos, la cantidad de PT fue de 1,11 ± 0,71 en no fumadores y 0,87 ± 0,31 mg/mL en STH de fumadores. En STHe también existió un decremento en la cantidad de PT de 0,94 ± 0,47 0,66 ± 0,21 mg/mL. El EGF fue en STH de no fumadores 14,8 ± 5,62 comparado con los fumadores con un promedio de 11,4 ± 5,45. En STHe, el promedio del mismo factor fue en los no fumadores de 7,8 ± 5,60 y en los fumadores a 9,1 ± 6,53 ng/mL. Con una con una confiabilidad del 90%.The role of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is to maintain tissue’s integrity. It’s receptor is located on cell surfaces and mainly expressed in epithelia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between chronicle tabaquism, pH, total proteins (TP and EGF in smoker’s saliva. There were selected male volunteers between 20 and 60 years old from the Registration Clinic of the Postgrade Division of UNAM’s Dentistry School. There were taken stimulated (sWHS and not stimulated whole saliva (WHS samples from groups of smoker’s and non smokers. Total proteins (Bradford method, pH and EGF (ELISA Kit KHG0061 biosource were measured. Results: Slightly alkaline pH in sWHS in both groups. TP were 1.11

  3. Are Visceral Proteins Valid Markers for Nutritional Status in the Burn Intensive Care Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    B. A., Pidcoke H. F., Chung K. K., Wade C. E., Martini W. Z., Renz E. M., Wolf S. E., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...unable to perform indirect calorimetry . Indirect calo- rimetry was performed to measure the REE when clinically available. An activity factor of 1.2...and 1.4 was used clinically with the Carlson or Milner equa- tions and with indirect calorimetry because these lev- els have been found to increase

  4. For assessment of changes in intraoperative red blood cell transfusion practices over time, the pooled incidence of transfusion correlates highly with total units transfused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H

    2017-06-01

    Multiple studies nationwide and at single hospitals have examined changes over time in the incidence of perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. However, the cost of RBC transfusions is related to the number of RBC units transfused, not to the incidence. We evaluate whether the readily available incidence of RBC transfusion can be used as a valid surrogate measure. Observational retrospective study. One tertiary, academic hospital. 394,789 cases of 1885 procedures over N=42 quarters of the year. None. Incidence and number of RBC units transfused intraoperatively. The number of RBC units transfused per case did not follow a Poisson distribution, confirming that the number of units and incidence of transfusion are not interchangeable for analyzing decisions by case. However, with all cases of each quarter combined, the Spearman correlation was 0.98±0.01 between each quarter's incidence of RBC transfusion and mean RBC units transfused per case (Punits transfused. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis.

  6. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Strug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5 mg/mL and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2 µL; it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents.

  7. Application of an improved biuret method to the determination of total protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluid without concentration step by use of Hitachi 7170 auto-analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guobing, X; Lili, J; Lihua, Z; Tiean, X

    2001-01-01

    A biuret automated colorimetric assay for total protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluids was established. The procedures were as follows. Acidify all urine sample before analysis. Add precipitant Na(2)WO(4) to urine samples. After 10 min, centrifuge, decant the supernatant fluid, drain the inverted tubes on absorbent tissue, dissolve the precipitation with 0.1 mol/L NaOH, and finally adapt the reconstituted urine to the Hitachi 7170 analyzer. A cell-free cerebrospinal fluid sample produced by centrifugation can be inserted in an auto-analyzer for protein measurement directly. The program: mix 35 microl sample (CSF or reconstituted urine) and standard with 0.2 mol/L NaOH; incurable at 37 degrees C for 5 min, and real A1. Add concentrated biuret reagent, and 10 min later measure absorbance A2 at 546 nm vs. reagent blank. Secondary wavelength was 700 nm. The test results were calculated against a one-point standard. This biuret colorimetric method was relatively simple, fast, and accurate for the determination of protein in urine and cerebrospinal fluid, with a wide linearity extending from 0.125 g/L up to 6 g/L, had a good correlation with Benzethonium chloride turbidimetry technique, and was a practical routine method. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Effects of vitamin D binding protein phenotypes and vitamin D supplementation on serum total 25(OH)D and directly measured free 25(OH)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollid, Stina T; Hutchinson, Moira Y S; Berg, Vivian; Fuskevåg, Ole M; Figenschau, Yngve; Thorsby, Per M; Jorde, Rolf

    2016-04-01

    To determine the relationship between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), directly measured free 25(OH)D and calculated free 25(OH)D with regard to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) phenotypes, sex, BMI, age and season, and their interrelationship to vitamin D supplementation. A randomized controlled trial with 20 000 IU of vitamin D3 per week or placebo for 12 months was designed. A total of 472 subjects, 236 in each of the intervention groups, were included in the analyses. Baseline serum concentrations and increases in serum total 25(OH)D, directly measured free 25(OH)D, calculated free 25(OH)D and DBP. Serum total 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with the phenotype Gc2/Gc2 compared to phenotypes with the Gc1S allele, and lower in males compared to females. When using directly measured free 25(OH)D, the differences related to DBP phenotypes and sexes were clearly diminished. All calculated free 25(OH)D concentrations were overestimated compared to the directly measured free 25(OH)D. Serum parathyroid hormone showed an inverse correlation with all vitamin D parameters analyzed. The increases after 12 months of vitamin D supplementation were not significantly different for any of the vitamin D parameters regardless of DBP phenotype, sex or age. Supplementation with vitamin D did not affect serum DBP. Direct measurements of free 25(OH)D reduce the differences seen in total 25(OH)D between DBP phenotype groups and sexes, probably caused by differences in DBP concentrations. With conditions affecting serum DBP concentrations, direct measurements of free 25(OH)D should be considered. © 2016 The authors.

  9. Central leptin regulates total ceramide content and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1C proteolytic maturation in rat white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzón-Kulichenko, Elena; Schwudke, Dominik; Gallardo, Nilda; Moltó, Eduardo; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Shevchenko, Andrej; Andrés, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with insulin and leptin resistance, and increased ceramide contents in target tissues. Because the adipose tissue has become a central focus in these diseases, and leptin-induced increases in insulin sensitivity may be related to effects of leptin on lipid metabolism, we investigated herein whether central leptin was able to regulate total ceramide levels and the expression of enzymes involved in ceramide metabolism in rat white adipose tissue (WAT). After 7 d central leptin treatment, the total content of ceramides was analyzed by quantitative shotgun lipidomics mass spectrometry. The effects of leptin on the expression of several enzymes of the sphingolipid metabolism, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG-1) in this tissue were studied. Total ceramide levels were also determined after surgical WAT denervation. Central leptin infusion significantly decreased both total ceramide content and the long-chain fatty acid ceramide species in WAT. Concomitant with these results, leptin decreased the mRNA levels of enzymes involved in de novo ceramide synthesis (SPT-1, LASS2, LASS4) and ceramide production from sphingomyelin (SMPD-1/2). The mRNA levels of enzymes of ceramide degradation (Asah1/2) and utilization (sphingomyelin synthase, ceramide kinase, glycosyl-ceramide synthase, GM3 synthase) were also down-regulated. Ceramide-lowering effects of central leptin were prevented by local autonomic nervous system denervation of WAT. Finally, central leptin treatment markedly increased INSIG-1 mRNA expression and impaired SREBP-1c activation in epididymal WAT. These observations indicate that in vivo central leptin, acting through the autonomic nervous system, regulates total ceramide levels and SREBP-1c proteolytic maturation in WAT, probably contributing to improve the overall insulin sensitivity.

  10. Total and differential white blood cell counts, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome in non-affective psychoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Mellor, Andrew; Buckley, Peter

    2013-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, and is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Schizophrenia is also associated with increased inflammation, including aberrant blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts, hsCRP, and the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and related non-affective psychoses. Fifty-nine inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with non-affective psychotic disorders and 22 controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Subjects had a fasting blood draw between 8 and 9 am for glucose, lipids, total and differential WBC counts, and hsCRP. Vital signs and anthropometric measures were obtained. Patients with non-affective psychosis and the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher total WBC counts, monocytes, and hsCRP levels than patients without the metabolic syndrome (p≤0.04 for each). In binary logistic regression analyses, after controlling for potential confounding effects of age, race, sex, age at first hospitalization for psychosis, parental history of diabetes, smoking, and psychotropic medications, total WBC count, monocytes, and hsCRP were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome in patients (p≤0.04 for each). hsCRP was also a significant predictor of increased waist circumference and triglycerides in patients (p≤0.05 for each). Our findings suggest that measurement of total and differential WBC counts and hsCRP blood levels may be germane to the clinical care of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders, and support an association between inflammation and metabolic disturbance in these patients.

  11. Dynamic detection of non-protein-bound strychnine and brucine in rabbit muscle and synovial fluid after topical application of total Strychnos alkaloid patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaibo; Yan, Miao; Li, Huande; Xun, Tianrong; Deng, Yang; Zhao, Yeye; Deng, Long

    2014-04-01

    Semen Strychni, a known toxic drug in Chinese pharmacopoeia, is notable for its therapeutic effects on local muscle and joint pain. However, oral administration can be risky. Topically administered drugs accumulate in the topical muscles and knee joints without any major increase in plasma levels; only non-protein-bound drugs in the biological fluids of target tissues are effective for therapeutic effects. A sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method coupled with a microdialysis technique was developed to determine the non-protein-bound strychnine (Str) and brucine (Bru) in rabbit muscle and synovial fluid microdialysate. The UPLC separation was carried out using a 1.7μm BEH C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol: water (29.5:70.5, v/v) with 0.1% formic acid and 20 mM ammonium acetate in water. The method was validated at concentrations ranging from 0.58 ng/ml to 467.20 ng/ml for Str and from 0.42 ng/ml to 422.40 ng/ml for Bru. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy ranged from 99.1% to 103.2% for Str and from 95.8% to 108.8% for Bru with intra-day and inter-day precision within 9.7%. The proposed method was successfully applied to determine non-protein-bound Str and Bru, and the analysates concentration remained stable in rabbit muscle and synovial fluid after topical application of total Strychnos alkaloid patches, which indicated that total Strychnos alkaloid patches could substitute for the traditional oral administration of Semen Strychni. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non

  13. Biosynthesis of the Cyclotide Kalata B1 using a Protein Splicing Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, R H; Tran, A T; Camarero, J A

    2005-08-13

    Cyclotides are a newly emerging family of large backbone cyclic polypeptides ({approx}30 residues long) characterized by a disulfide-stabilized core (3 disulfide bonds) with an unusual knotted structure. In contrast to other cyclic polypeptides, cyclotides have a well-defined three-dimensional structure. Therefore, despite their small size, they can be considered miniproteins. The unique cyclic-backbone topology and knotted arrangement of 3 disulfide bonds endow cyclotides with exceptional stability and resistance to chemical, enzymatic and thermal degradation. Furthermore, their well-defined structures have been associated with a range of biological functions. Together, these characteristics suggest that cyclotides are ideal molecular scaffolds for the development of stable peptide drugs. Despite the fact that the chemical synthesis of circular peptides has been well explored and a number different approaches involving solid-phase or liquid-phase exist, recent developments in the fields of molecular biology and protein engineering have now made possible the biosynthesis of cyclic peptides. This progress has been made mainly in two areas, non-ribosomal peptide synthesis and Expressed Protein Ligation (EPL)/protein trans-splicing. Access to biosynthetic cyclotides using recombinant DNA expression techniques offers the exciting possibility of producing large combinatorial libraries of highly stable miniproteins. This would allow the generation of cell-based combinatorial libraries that could be screened either in vitro or in vivo for their ability to regulate cellular processes. In the present work, we describe the biosynthesis of the cyclotide Kalata B1 (KB1) in E. coli using an engineered intein. Our approach (Figure 1) is based on an intramolecular version of Native Chemical Ligation (NCL). NCL involves the chemoselective reaction between a N-terminal Cys residue of one peptide and an {alpha}-thioester group of a second peptide. Importantly, incorporation of these

  14. Portable Analyzer for Rapid Analysis of Total Protein, Fat and Lactose Contents in Raw Milk Measured by Non-dispersive Short-wave Near-infrared Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xu-dong; SU Rui; XU Nan; WANG Xing-hua; YU Ai-min; ZHANG Han-qi; CAO Yan-bo

    2013-01-01

    A novel portable analyzer for raw milk quality control during the material purchase at dairy plants was developed,by which the percentages(mass fraction) of main components including total protein,fat,and lactose of an unhomogenized milk sample could be determinated in 1 min with the help of non-dispersive short-wave near-infrared (NDSWNIR) spectrometry in a wavelength range from 600 nm to 1100 nm and multivariate calibration.The analyzer was designed with a single-beam optical system,which comprised a temperature control module,a multi-channel narrow-band light source(16 wavelengths),a glass absorption cell with 15 mm sample thickness,a silicon photodiode detector,several compound lenses and a recorder module.A total of 80 raw milk samples were collected at a dairy farm twice a month for 4 months.The samples were scanned with a common UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer and analyzed according to China GB standard methods.The uninformative variables elimination(UVE) method was carried out on the spectrum data and the percentages of main components of all the samples to choose the peak emitting wavelength of each channel of the light source.Another 90 raw milk samples were collected from the same dairy farm thrice a month for 3 months.The samples were analyzed according to China GB standard methods and with the proposed analyzer.The percentages of the main components and the NDSWNIR absorption data of the samples were used for the construction and validation of the multivariate calibration model with partial least squares(PLS) method.The root-mean-square errors of prediction(RMSEP) of total protein,fat and lactose were 0.201,0.172 and 0.247 and the coefficients of correlation(R) were 0.932,0.981 and 0.933,respectively.

  15. Effect of Teaching Protein Synthesis Unit Based On Multiple Intelligence Theory, To the Student Level of Retaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet HASENEKOĞLU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Protein Synthesis Unit was presented through Multiple Intelligence Theory based activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate Multiple Intelligence Theory’s impacts on student’s retention of knowledge acquired about Protein Synthesis. This research was conducted with Sophomores from Primary Science Education Department in Kafkas University Faculty of Education and lasted three weeks in the spring term of 2007–2008 academic year. In this study, within context of quasi-experimental method, which is based on impartially selected groups, nonequivalent control groups pretest-posttest method was used. Two classes from Primary Science Education Department were randomly selected. While the traditionalapproach was used in the control group, the teaching activities based on Multiple Intelligences Theory were used in the experimental group. The Protein Syntheses achievement test which had an reliability coefficient Cronbach Alpha of 0,8 prepared by the researcher were used to collect data.The data obtained, t test and A nova test was evaluated by using SPSS 12.0 package program. As a result of research was found that teaching based on Multiple Intelligence has been more effective in increasing student’s achievement and their levels of retention compared to teaching based on Traditional Approach.

  16. The association of carotid intima media thickness with retinol binding protein-4 and total and high molecular weight adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri Masoumeh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether carotid intima media thickness (CIMT is associated with serum level of retinol- binding protein-4 (RBP4 and total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin in type 2 diabetes (T2DM without clinical symptom of atherosclerotic disease. Method 101 type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 53.63 ± 8.42 years and 42 body mass index (BMI matched control (mean age 50.1 ± 8.4 were recruited. The CIMT was assessed by using B-mode ultrasonography, while serum levels of RBP4 and total and HMW adiponectin were measured by using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. Linear regression analysis was performed with CIMT as dependent variable and adipokines and cardio metabolic risk factors as independent variables. Result The CIMT was higher in diabetic group compared to control group (p Age (B = 0.44 P Conclusion In conclusion, the present study showed that serum levels of RBP4 or total and HMW adiponectin were not potential predictors of CIMT in type 2 diabetic patients who exposed to this risk factor at least for nine years.

  17. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every...

  18. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic...

  19. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major Rivers Basins in the Conterminous United States: Total Precipitation, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the catchment-average total precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 for 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of...

  20. Substrate, focal adhesions, and actin filaments: a mechanical unit with a weak spot for mechanosensitive proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchenbüchler, David; Born, Simone; Kirchgeßner, Norbert; Houben, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    Mechanosensing is a vital prerequisite for dynamic remodeling of focal adhesions and cytoskeletal structures upon substrate deformation. For example, tissue formation, directed cell orientation or cell differentiation are regulated by such mechanosensing processes. Focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton are believed to be involved in these processes, but where mechanosensing molecules are located and how elastic substrate, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton couple with each other upon substrate deformation still remains obscure. To approach these questions we have developed a sensitive method to apply defined spatially decaying deformation fields to cells cultivated on ultrasoft elastic substrates and to accurately quantify the resulting displacements of the actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesions, as well as the substrate. Displacement fields were recorded in live cell microscopy by tracking either signals from fluorescent proteins or marker particles in the substrate. As model cell type we used myofibroblasts. These cells are characterized by highly stable adhesion and force generating structures but are still able to detect mechanical signals with high sensitivity. We found a rigid connection between substrate and focal adhesions. Furthermore, stress fibers were found to be barely extendable almost over their whole lengths. Plastic deformation took place only at the very ends of actin filaments close to focal adhesions. As a result, this area became elongated without extension of existing actin filaments by polymerization. Both ends of the stress fibers were mechanically coupled with detectable plastic deformations on either site. Interestingly, traction force dependent substrate deformation fields remained mostly unaffected even when stress fiber elongations were released. These data argue for a location of mechanosensing proteins at the ends of actin stress fibers and describe, except for these domains, the whole system to be relatively rigid for tensile

  1. A novel big protein TPRBK possessing 25 units of TPR motif is essential for the progress of mitosis and cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumiyama, Tomohiro; Minoshima, Shinsei; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2012-12-15

    Through the comprehensive analysis of the genomic DNA sequence of human chromosome 22, we identified a novel gene of 702 kb encoding a big protein of 2481 amino acid residues, and named it as TPRBK (TPR containing big gene cloned at Keio). A novel protein TPRBK possesses 25 units of the TPR motif, which has been known to associate with a diverse range of biological functions. Orthologous genes of human TPRBK were found widely in animal species, from insecta to mammal, but not found in plants, fungi and nematoda. Northern blotting and RT-PCR analyses revealed that TPRBK gene is expressed ubiquitously in the human and mouse fetal tissues and various cell lines of human, monkey and mouse. Immunofluorescent staining of the synchronized monkey COS-7 cells with several relevant antibodies indicated that TPRBK changes its subcellular localization during the cell cycle: at interphase TPRBK locates on the centrosomes, during mitosis it translocates from spindle poles to mitotic spindles then to spindle midzone, and through a period of cytokinesis it stays on the midbody. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and immunofluorescent staining with adequate antibodies revealed that TPRBK binds to Aurora B, and those proteins together translocate throughout mitosis and cytokinesis. Treatments of cells with two drugs (Blebbistatin and Y-27632), that are known to inhibit the contractility of actin-myosin, disturbed the proper intracellular localization of TPRBK. Moreover, the knockdown of TPRBK expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed the bundling of spindle midzone microtubules and disrupted the midbody formation, arresting the cells at G(2)+M phase. These observations indicated that a novel big protein TPRBK is essential for the formation and integrity of the midbody, hence we postulated that TPRBK plays a critical role in the progress of mitosis and cytokinesis during mammalian cell cycle.

  2. Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Service Resources Additional Resources About FAQ Contact Protein Protein is found throughout the body—in muscle, ... the heart and respiratory system, and death. All Protein Isn’t Alike Protein is built from building ...

  3. Influence of Vitamin D Binding Protein on Accuracy of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Measurement Using the ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D Total Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Freeman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status in different populations relies on accurate measurement of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations [i.e., 25(OHD3 and 25(OHD2]. This study evaluated agreement between the ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D Total assay for 25(OHD testing (traceable to the NIST-Ghent reference method procedure and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for various populations with different levels of vitamin D binding protein (DBP. Total serum 25(OHD concentrations were measured for 36 pregnant women, 40 hemodialysis patients, and 30 samples (DBP-spiked or not from healthy subjects. ELISA measured DBP levels. The mean serum DBP concentrations were higher for pregnancy (415 μg/mL and lower for hemodialysis subjects (198 μg/mL than for healthy subjects and were highest for spiked serum (545 μg/mL. The average bias between the ADVIA Centaur assay and the LC-MS/MS method was −1.4% (healthy, −6.1% (pregnancy, and 4.4% (hemodialysis. The slightly greater bias for samples from some pregnancy and hemodialysis subjects with serum DBP levels outside of the normal healthy range fell within a clinically acceptable range—reflected by analysis of their low-range (≤136 μg/mL, medium-range (137–559 μg/mL, and high-range (≥560 μg/mL DBP groups. Thus, the ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D Total assay demonstrates acceptable performance compared with an LC-MS/MS method for populations containing different amounts of DBP.

  4. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. GPU MrBayes V3.1: MrBayes on Graphics Processing Units for Protein Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shuai; Stones, Rebecca J; Ren, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Gang; Xia, Hong-ju; Wu, Hao-Yang; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    We present a modified GPU (graphics processing unit) version of MrBayes, called ta(MC)(3) (GPU MrBayes V3.1), for Bayesian phylogenetic inference on protein data sets. Our main contributions are 1) utilizing 64-bit variables, thereby enabling ta(MC)(3) to process larger data sets than MrBayes; and 2) to use Kahan summation to improve accuracy, convergence rates, and consequently runtime. Versus the current fastest software, we achieve a speedup of up to around 2.5 (and up to around 90 vs. serial MrBayes), and more on multi-GPU hardware. GPU MrBayes V3.1 is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/mrbayes-gpu/.

  6. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárková, Bára; Chromý, Vratislav; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava; Rikanová, Milena; Ohnútková, Ivana; Žaludová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories.

  7. Variations of serum and mucus lysozyme activity and total protein content in the male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum, Kamensky 1901) during reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoori, Zomorod; Heidari, Behrooz; Farzadfar, Fariba; Aghamaali, Mahmoudreza

    2014-03-01

    Serum and mucus lysozyme were measured in male and female Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) under seasonal temperature, gonadal growth and reproductive migration. Significant difference with almost similar trend in serum and mucus lysozyme of the female Caspian kutum in sampling time and ovarian growth was observed. However, while there was no significant difference in serum lysozyme of the male specimen in sampling time and testicular growth, significant variations was observed in mucus lysozyme. In addition, there was significant difference in mucus total protein both for male and female specimens. The effectiveness ratio of factors on lysozyme variations followed in descending order by seasonal temperature (main factor), reproductive activity and migration with negligible effect and the lysozyme level was not significantly different in male and female Caspian kutum.

  8. Searching for the simplest structural units to describe the three-dimensional structure of proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, András; Csizmadia, Imre G.

    Ab initio computations have been carried out during the past several years on diamides of single amino acids (HCO-NHCHR-CONH2 where R=H (glycine), -CH3 (alanine), -CH(CH3)2 (valine) and -CH2OH (serine)) exploring all possible backbone and side chain conformations. Selected conformations were studied in our laboratory on threonine (R=CH(CH3)OH), cystein (R=CH2-SH) and phenyl-alanine (R=CH2-CH5H6) diamides. Tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa- and hepta-amide systems of poly-L-alanine (H-(CONH-CHCH3-CONH)n-H 2≤n≤6) were also investigated at selected backbone conformations. All these studies confirmed the results of multidimensional conformation analyses: the jth amino acid residue in a polypeptide has a maximum of nine (9) discrete backbone conformations. These structures correspond to nine conformational centres on the 2D-Ramachandran map. On the basis of this rinding, it can be shown that the folded secondary structure of any protein with known internal coordinates, can be described in terms of these nine discrete conformation types.

  9. Total blood mercury levels and depression among adults in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Hin H Ng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a neurotoxicant linked with psychiatric symptoms at high levels of exposure. However, it is unclear whether an association is present at the low exposure levels in the US adult population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional associations of total blood mercury and depression were assessed in 6,911 adults age ≥20 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2005-2008. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to assess depression (high likelihood of a depressive spectrum disorder diagnosis; score 5-27. RESULTS: Unadjusted survey weighted logistic regression suggested that higher total blood mercury was associated with lower odds of depression (Odds Ratio  = 0.49, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.36-0.65, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. This association largely disappeared after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (income-poverty ratio, education, marital status. However, in age-stratified analyses, this inverse relationship remained in older adults (age ≥40 even after adjustment for sociodemographic variables. Simulation analyses adjusting for expected confounding effects of fish intake suggested that the inverse relationship among older adults may be plausibly attributed to residual confounding (Odds Ratio  = 0.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.50-1.12, comparing the highest and lowest mercury quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: Higher total blood mercury was not associated with increased odds of depression. The lower odds of depression in older adults with higher total blood mercury may be due to residual confounding.

  10. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression.

  11. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5 were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7 that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.

  12. Calcium, amylase, glucose, total protein concentrations, flow rate, pH and buffering capacity of saliva in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Soares Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate qualitative and quantitative changes in the saliva of individuals undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. METHODS: Salivary samples were collected from 50 individuals divided in two groups: Experimental Group - patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (n=25; and Control Group - subjects with no orthodontic appliances (n=25. Salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, amylase activity, concentrations of total proteins, calcium and glucose were measured in all salivary samples. RESULTS: There was a reduction in salivary pH and buffering capacity and an increase in the concentration of calcium ions in the experimental group (p<0.05; there was also an increase in glucose, amylase and protein concentrations in the saliva of the Experimental Group, but the differences were insignificant. There was insignificant correlation between calcium ion concentration and salivary flow or between buffering capacity and salivary flow. CONCLUSION: The saliva of individuals with fixed orthodontic appliances had lower pH, buffering capacity and calcium concentration than that of individuals without any type of orthodontic appliance. These oral changes are enough to cause tooth demineralization. Patients with orthodontic appliances should adopt additional oral hygiene procedures.

  13. Master Amino acid Pattern as sole and total substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N; Karbalai, M; Valente, C; Moras, G

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a sole and total substitute of dietary proteins to 500 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' body nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP regimen, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, the sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also prevented were those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, and decreased libido. The use of MAP in conjunction with the ANC/OMP also allowed for mean weight loss of 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) per week, achieved through reduction of excessive fat tissue and elimination of excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment.

  14. Estimation of the optimum standardized ileal digestible total sulfur amino acid to lysine ratio in late finishing gilts fed low protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenfeng; Zhu, Jinlong; Zeng, Xiangfang; Liu, Xutong; Thacker, Philip; Qiao, Shiyan

    2016-01-01

    A total of 90 gilts were used to investigate the effects of various standard ileal digestible (SID) total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) to lysine (Lys) ratios on the performance and carcass characteristics of late finishing gilts receiving low crude protein (CP) diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids (CAA). Graded levels of crystalline methionine (Met) (0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8 or 1.1 g/kg) were added to the basal diet to produce diets providing SID TSAA to Lys ratios of 0.48, 0.53, 0.58, 0.63 or 0.68. At the termination of the experiment, 30 gilts (one pig per pen) with an average body weight (BW) of 120 kg were killed to evaluate carcass traits. Increasing the SID TSAA to Lys ratio increased average daily gain (ADG) (linear and quadratic effect, P < 0.05), improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linear and quadratic effect, P < 0.05) and decreased serum urea nitrogen (SUN) concentration (linear and quadratic effect, P < 0.05) of finishing gilts. No effects were obtained for carcass traits. The optimum SID TSAA to Lys ratios to maximize ADG as well as to minimize FCR and SUN levels were 0.57, 0.58 and 0.53 using a linear-break point model and 0.64, 0.62 and 0.61 using a quadratic model. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  16. Early discharge and home intervention reduces unit costs after total hip replacement: results of a cost analysis in a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Eyjolfur; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Jonsson, Halldor; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Matthiasson, Thorolfur; Jonsson, Brynjolfur Y

    2008-09-01

    Total hip replacement (THR) is a common and costly procedure. The number of THR is expected to increase over the coming years. Two pathways of postoperative treatment were compared in a randomized study. Fifty patients from two hospitals were randomized into a study group (SG) of 27 patients receiving preoperative and postoperative education programs, as well as home visits from an outpatient team. A control group (CG) of 23 patients received "conventional" rehabilitation augmented by a stay at a rehabilitation center if needed. All costs for the two groups both in hospitals and after discharge were collected and analyzed. On average total costs for the SG were $8,550 and $11,952 for the CG, a 28% cost reduction. Total inpatient costs were $5,225 for the SG and $6,515 for the CG. In a regression analysis the group difference is statistically significant. Adjusting for changes in the Oxford Hip Score gives effective costs (C/E). The ratio of the SGs C/E to the CGs is 0.60. That is a cost-effectiveness gain of 40%. A shorter hospital stay augmented with better preoperative education and home treatment appears to be more effective and costs less than the traditional in hospital pathway of treatment.

  17. Effect of supplementing orchardgrass herbage with a total mixed ration or flaxseed on fermentation profile and bacterial protein synthesis in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D

    2013-05-01

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of supplementing fresh herbage with a total mixed ration (TMR) or flaxseed on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial N synthesis. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each fermentor was fed a total of 70 g of dry matter/d of 1 of 4 diets: (1) 100% freeze-dried orchardgrass herbage (Dactylis glomerata L.; HERB), (2) 100% freeze-dried TMR (100TMR), (3) 50% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 50% TMR (50TMR), or (4) 90% orchardgrass herbage supplemented with 10% ground flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.; FLAX). Preplanned, single degree of freedom orthogonal contrasts were constructed to assess the effects of feeding system (HERB vs. 100TMR), herbage supplementation (HERB vs. 50TMR + FLAX), and herbage supplemental source (50TMR vs. FLAX). Compared with the HERB diet, the 100TMR diet significantly reduced apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. Herbage supplementation with 50TMR or FLAX significantly reduced or tended to reduce apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber, suggesting that replacing high-quality, highly digestible fresh herbage with forage TMR likely caused depressions in nutrient digestibilities. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids, molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and isovalerate, as well as the acetate:propionate ratios were all significantly higher in fermentors fed 100TMR compared with HERB, likely in response to enhanced supply of fermentable energy. In general, feeding system, herbage supplementation, and type of supplementation did not affect N metabolism in the present study. The few significant changes in N metabolism (e.g., flows of total N and non-NH3-N) were primarily linked to increased fermentor N supply with feeding herbage-based diets (HERB and FLAX). Although TMR-based diets decreased nutrient digestibility slightly, TMR

  18. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. I. A review of Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromý, Vratislav; Vinklárková, Bára; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    We found previously that albumin-calibrated total protein in certified reference materials causes unacceptable positive bias in analysis of human sera. The simplest way to cure this defect is the use of human-based serum/plasma standards calibrated by the Kjeldahl method. Such standards, commutative with serum samples, will compensate for bias caused by lipids and bilirubin in most human sera. To find a suitable primary reference procedure for total protein in reference materials, we reviewed Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine. We found two methods recommended for total protein in human samples: an indirect analysis based on total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. The methods found will be assessed in a subsequent article.

  19. Variabilidade genética para teor de proteína bruta em grãos de aveia Genetic variability for total grain protein in oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da utilização dos grãos de aveia na alimentação humana tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar genótipos com alta qualidade de grãos. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar a variabilidade genética para o caráter teor de proteína bruta de grãos em genótipos cultivados de aveia, introduções silvestres de A. fatua L., A. sterilis L. e em populações híbridas de A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. Os resultados revelaram uma ampla variabilidade genética para o caráter dentro dos grupos estudados. As diferenças observadas entre os genótipos cultivados parecem ocorrer devido a constituição genotípica diferenciada. O grupo silvestre de A. sterilis L. foi, em média, superior aos demais, sendo que a introdução I-325 se destacou pelo alto teor de proteína. O comportamento similar entre as introduções de A. fatua L. pode ser atribuído a coleta de introduções de apenas uma região, o que reduziu a variabilidade genética. Foram encontrados híbridos artificiais entre A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. com alto teor de proteína e características desejáveis do grupo cultivado.The increased use of oat grains as human food has stimulated plant breeders to select genotypes with high grain quality. This work aimed to identify and characterize genetic variability for total grain protein in cultivated oat and introductions of A. fatua L., A. sterilis L. and hybrid populations from A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L.. The results showed a large genetic variability for the trait in the studied groups. Differences among cultivated oat genotypes may be attributed to different genetic constitution. A. sterilis L. group showed high protein content specially with the introduction of I-325. Genotypes from A. fatua L. showed similar low levels of protein probably because the narrow range of regions sampled in this study. Some hybrids from A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. showed high protein content and

  20. Absolute quantification of the total and anti-drug antibody-bound concentrations of recombinant human α-glucosidase in human plasma using protein-G extraction and LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronsema, Kees J; Bischoff, Rainer; Pijnappel, W W M Pim; Ploeg, Ans T van der; van de Merbel, Nico C

    2015-01-01

    The administration of protein-based pharmaceuticals can cause the in vivo formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) which may reduce the efficacy of the therapy by binding to the protein drug. An accurate determination of the total and ADA-bound concentrations of the drug gives information on the ext

  1. Effect of a common reference plasma on the inter-laboratory variation of the measurement of total and free protein S: a collaborative study of the Dutch Working Group on Haemostasis Laboratory Diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.; Verbruggen, H.W.; Weerd, B. de; Dool, E.J. den; Oerle, R. van

    2002-01-01

    The comparability of test results for protein S between laboratories is hampered by a high inter-laboratory variability. The effect of the use and type of common reference plasma on the inter-laboratory variability of the total and free protein S measurement was evaluated. The results of 10 plasma

  2. Effect of salinity on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa genotypes inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti strains under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fazaeli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of salinity and bacterial inoculation on some growth indices and total protein content of alfalfa (Medicago sativa using a factorial completely randomized design with three replications. The effect of three salinity levels (0, 6 and 12 dS/m induced by a mixture of NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 salts on growth indices and protein content of three alfalfa genotypes (Hamadani, Gharahyonjeh and Gharghalogh at three levels of inoculation with Sinorhizobium meliloti bacteria (no inoculation, inoculation with salinity-tolerant strain and inoculation with salinity-sensitive strain was investigated. After the isolation and purification of alfalfa-symbiotic-bacteria from alfalfa fields in Tehran province, two isolates of S. meliloti, one salinity-resistant and the other one salinity-sensitive, which are effective in symbiosis with alfalfa, were selected. Analysis of the results showed that by increasing the salinity level, the shoot and root dry weight, number of active nodules, and nitrogen (N concentration were decreased significantly (P<0.01. Inoculation with salinity-resistant strain of S. meliloti caused significant increase in shoot and root dry weight, number of active nodules, and N concentration of plants. Moreover, under saline conditions, the salinity-resistant S. meliloti strain increased significantly most alfalfa growth-indices and yield compared to control (without inoculation and inoculation with salinity-sensitive bacteria. There was no significant difference among alfalfa genotypes in yield and other growth indices under saline conditions. In general, the R59 isolate seems to be the best isolate of S. meliloti for greenhouse-grown alfalfa in saline conditions.

  3. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  4. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    of GH-binding protein, free and total IGF-I, free IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 were significantly reduced; total IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-4 levels were unchanged; and IGFBP-1 was increased. No increased IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity could be detected in AN. In conclusion, the mechanisms responsible...

  5. Circulating levels of osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis randomized to etanercept alone or in combination with methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H.; Sørensen, Steen; Østergaard, Mikkel;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether circulating levels of osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (total sRANKL), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) change in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during...

  6. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  7. THE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF THE TOTAL SAPONIN OF DIPSACUS ASPEROIDES ON THE APOPTOSIS OF HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS INDUCED BY β-AMYLOID PROTEIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱亦华; 杨杰; 胡海涛; 刘勇; 杨广德; 曹云新; 任惠民

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the total saponin of Dipsacus asperoides (tSDA) and ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) on the apoptosis of primary cultured hippocampal neurons induced by β-amyloid protein (Aβ). Methods Primary cultured hippocampal neurons, the cultures were pretreated with tSDA and GRb1 on 10d for 24 hours respectively. Then the cultures were treated with 35μmol·L-1 Aβ25-35 for 24 hours, observed the changing of survival rate of neurons and the apoptosis of neurons with biochemical analysis combining immunofluorescent cytochemical double-staining technique. Results Hippocampal neurons were treated with 35μmol*L-1 Aβ for 24 hours, and survival rate of neurons downed to 52.6%. When neurons were pretreated by tSDA and GRb1, survival rate of neurons increased 11% to 15%. The findings of immunofluorescent cytochemical double-staining indicated that apoptotic neurons were obviously more than that of the blank group, reaching 43.9%.When neurons were pretreated by tSDA and GRb1, apoptotic neurons were downed to 16.6%, 10.8% respectively. Conclusion tSDA had the same effects as GRb1, protecting the neurons, antagonizing neurotoxicity of Aβ, increasing survival rate of neurons, and reducing apoptotic neurons induced by Aβ.

  8. Elevated C-Reactive Protein Is Associated with Cognitive Decline in Outpatients of a General Hospital: The Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Watanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We aimed to determine whether the concentration of serum C-reactive protein (CRP is associated with cognitive function in an adult Japanese population. Methods: Participants of this cross-sectional study were from a subgroup of the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST; n = 454; mean age, 70.5 years. The cognitive state was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and those with an MMSE score APOE allele. Results: Of the 454 participants, 94 (20.7% were cognitively declined. Relative to the lowest (first quartile of CRP concentration, adjusted ORs were 1.29 (95% CI 0.61-2.75 for the second, 1.78 (95% CI 0.82-3.86 for the third, and 3.05 (95% CI 1.45-6.42 for the highest (fourth quartiles (p for trend = 0.018. When data were stratified by sex, the association between CRP concentration and cognitive decline was observed only in women. Conclusion: Our findings suggest an association between higher CRP concentration and lower cognitive function. Chronic inflammation may affect cognitive function in adults, in particular women.

  9. Improving the batch-to-batch reproducibility of microbial cultures during recombinant protein production by regulation of the total carbon dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenzsch, Marco; Gnoth, Stefan; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2007-03-10

    Batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes performed during the manufacturing processes of biologics can be increased by operating the cultures at feed rate profiles that are robust against typically arising disturbances. Remaining randomly appearing deviations from the desired path should be suppressed automatically by manipulating the feed rate. With respect to the cells' physiology it is best guiding the cultivations along an optimal profile of the specific biomass growth rate mu(t). However, there are two problems that speak for further investigations: Upon severe disturbances that may happen during the fermentation, the biomass concentration X may significantly deviate from its desired value, then a fixed mu-profile leads to a diminished batch-to-batch reproducibility. Second, the specific growth rate cannot easily be estimated online to a favourably high accuracy, hence it is difficult to determine the deviations in mu from the desired profile. The alternative discussed here solves both problems by keeping the process at the corresponding total cumulative carbon dioxide production-profile: it is robust against distortions in X and the controlled variable can accurately be measured online during cultivations of all relevant sizes. As compared to the fermentation practice currently used in industry, the experimental results, presented at the example of a recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli cells, show that CPR-based corrections lead to a considerably improved batch-to-batch reproducibility.

  10. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the total protein content of protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28 subjected to vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poobathy, Ranjetta; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Xavier, Rathinam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-07-01

    Dendrobium sonia-28 is an important ornamental orchid in the Malaysian flower industry. However, the genus faces both low germination rates and the risk of producing heterozygous progenies. Cryopreservation is currently the favoured long-term storage method for orchids with propagation problems. Vitrification, a frequently used cryopreservation technique, involves the application of pretreatments and cryoprotectants to protect and recover explants during and after storage in liquid nitrogen. However, cryopreservation may cause osmotic injuries and toxicity to cryopreserved explants from the use of highly concentrated additives, and cellular injuries from thawing, devitrification and ice formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring during dehydration and cryopreservation, may also cause membrane damage. Plants possess efficient antioxidant systems such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes to scavenge ROS during low temperature stress. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium sonia-28 were assayed for the total protein content, and both SOD and CAT activities, at each stage of a vitrification exercise to observe for deleterious stages in the protocol. The results indicated that cryopreserved PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 underwent excessive post-thawing oxidative stress due to decreased levels of the CAT enzyme at the post-thawing recovery stage, which contributed to the poor survival rates of the cryopreserved PLBs.

  11. Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: direct clinical biochemistry without reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Torben E; Höskuldsson, Agnar T; Bjerrum, Poul J; Verder, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars; Bratholm, Palle S; Christensen, Bo; Jensen, Lene S; Jensen, Maria A B

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurement of chemical constituents in complex biologic matrices without the use of analyte specific reagents could be a step forward toward the simplification of clinical biochemistry. Problems related to reagents such as production errors, improper handling, and lot-to-lot variations would be eliminated as well as errors occurring during assay execution. We describe and validate a reagent free method for direct measurement of six analytes in human plasma based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Blood plasma is analyzed without any sample preparation. FTIR spectrum of the raw plasma is recorded in a sampling cuvette specially designed for measurement of aqueous solutions. For each analyte, a mathematical calibration process is performed by a stepwise selection of wavelengths giving the optimal least-squares correlation between the measured FTIR signal and the analyte concentration measured by conventional clinical reference methods. The developed calibration algorithms are subsequently evaluated for their capability to predict the concentration of the six analytes in blinded patient samples. The correlation between the six FTIR methods and corresponding reference methods were 0.87triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KO Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG∆cobS∆cbiA and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr of Gallinarum (SG. In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4. At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG∆cobS∆cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI and 24 hours after (1 DAI, and three (3 DAI, five (5 DAI, seven (7 DAI ten (10 DAI, and fifteen (15 DAI days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain.

  13. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction.

  14. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  15. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  16. Analysis of the Causes of Elevated C-Reactive Protein Level in the Early Postoperative Period After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Won; Kim, Dong Hwan; Oh, Won Seuk; Sim, Jae Ang; Lee, Yong Seuk; Lee, Beom Koo

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as a screening test for acute periprosthetic joint infection has high sensitivity and low specificity. We performed the present study to analyze the causes of elevated CRP levels in the early postoperative period after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). This study is intended to help the postoperative care of patients through understanding the factors associated with postoperative elevation of CRP. The records for 627 patients who underwent primary TKA between January 2005 and May 2013 were examined. We excluded 50 patients for whom TKA with inflammatory arthritis or revision TKA was performed. We measured serial CRP levels during the 4-week early postoperative period in all included cases to find the cases that showed a CRP pattern of elevation-depression-elevation (a bimodal pattern). We analyzed the causes of re-elevated CRP levels in patients with a bimodal pattern of CRP change. Of the 577 included patients, 76 showed bimodal CRP elevation patterns. Eighteen elevations were caused by postoperative infections (periprosthetic infection), 10 by cardiovascular problems, 11 by gastrointestinal problems, 12 by urologic problems, 10 by respiratory problems, and 15 had unknown origins. Our study shows that elevated CRP levels after TKA can have various causes. Although there may be other causes for an elevated CRP, it is essential to perform a work-up for prosthetic joint infections. In addition, there seems to be a need to evaluate noninfectious causes and infection of other sites, in addition to periprosthetic infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Bernardo Henrique Ferraz; Silva Junior, Cyro Teixeira da; Chibante, Antonio Monteiro da Silva; Cardoso, Gilberto Perez

    2010-01-01

    To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF) and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF) exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with the classical criterion in terms of diagnostic yield. This was an observational, cross-sectional study with a within-subject design, comprising 181 patients with pleural effusion treated at two university hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2003 and 2006. The diagnostic parameters included in the classical criterion were identified, as were those included in the new criterion. Of the 181 patients, 152 and 29 were diagnosed with pleural exudates and pleural transudates, respectively. For the classical criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of pleural exudates were, respectively, 99.8%, 68.6%, and 94.5%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of pleural transudates were 76.1%, 90.1%, and 87.6%. For the new criterion (cut-off points set at 3.4 g/dL for TP-PF and 328.0 U/L for LDH-PF), the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of exudates were, respectively, 99.4%, 72.6%, and 99.2%, whereas the corresponding values for the diagnosis of transudates were 98.5%, 83.4%, and 90.0%. The accuracy of the new criterion for the diagnosis of pleural exudates was significantly greater than was that of the classical criterion (p = 0.0022). The diagnostic yield was comparable between the two criteria studied. Therefore, the new classification criterion can be used in daily practice.

  18. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG Brix % ≤ 8.5% showed optimal sensitivity (100%) and specificity (89.2%) to predict FPT. At the same IgG cut-point, an STP value of ≤ 52 g/L showed a similar sensitivity (100%) and specificity (80.4%) to predict FPT. Brix refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted.

  19. Association between heat shock protein 70 gene polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in intensive care unit patients with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the following study is to evaluate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70 gene, gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- and medical intensive care unit (MICU stay and organ failure in sepsis. Materials and Methods: MICU patients with sepsis were genotyped for rs1061581, rs2227956, rs1008438 and rs1043618 polymorphisms in HSP70 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or allele-specific PCR. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA expression of IL-6 and TNF- were quantitated in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Outcomes were recorded. Results: 108 patients (48 male aged 40.7 ± 16.0 (mean ± standard deviation years included H1N1 infection (36, scrub typhus (29 and urosepsis (12. Seventy-one (65.7% had dysfunction of three or more organ systems, 66 patients (61.1% were treated by mechanical ventilation, 21 (19.4% needed dialysis. ICU stay was 9.3 ± 7.3 days. Mortality was 38.9%. One or more SNPs were noted in 101/108 (93.5% and organ failure was noted in only 1/7 patients without a single SNP. The A allelotypes of rs1061581 and rs1008438 were associated with hematological dysfunction (P = 0.03 and 0.07 and longer ICU stay (P = 0.05 and 0.04, whereas IL-6 and TNF- mRNA levels were associated with central nervous system dysfunction. Conclusions: HSP70 genotypes may determine some adverse outcomes in patients with sepsis.

  20. Determinação do valor protéico de células íntegras, autolisado total e extrato de levedura (Saccharomyces sp. Determination of protein value of integral cells, total autolisate and yeast extract (Saccharomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Simone Dias VILELA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomassa de células de levedura, limpa e desamargada, bem como seus derivados autolisado total e extrato de levedura, desidratados em spray dryer foram analisados por ensaio biológico com ratos da linhagem Wistar, em crescimento, para determinação do valor nutritivo da proteína e avaliação do impacto da utilização desses produtos, como única fonte de proteína, nos níveis séricos de triacilgliceróis, colesterol total, ácido úrico e de Lipoproteína de Alta Densidade-colesterol. Células íntegras, autolisado total e extrato de levedura não diferiram estatisticamente (p.Clean and debittered yeast cells biomass and its derivatives, total autolisate and extract, after dehydration (spray dryer, were used in a bioassay with wistar rats for determination of protein nutritive value and evaluation of the impact of the yeast products on the blood serum levels of uric acid, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol and High Density Lipoproteins-cholesterol. Integral cells, total autolisate and yeast extract did not differ statistically (p <= 0.05 regarding Protein Efficiency Ratio and Net Protein Ratio, which were significantly lower than the casein value. The growth promoting capacity was higher for casein, followed by integral cells, yeast extract and total autolisate, in decreasing order of magnitude. Net protein utilization values confirmed the Protein Efficiency Ratio and Net Protein Ratio results. Yeast products protein nutritive value was statistically identical but inferior to casein value. On the whole, the nutritive value of the yeast products protein ranked between 80-85% of the casein value. Uric acid serum concentration increased in the rats fed the diets containing yeast products, but the values remained in the range considered of normality for rats. The diet containing yeast autolisate produced a reduction of the triacylglycerols content, which was not observed in the other diets. For total cholesterol and High Density

  1. Measurement of neonatal equine immunoglobulins for assessment of colostral immunoglobulin transfer: comparison of single radial immunodiffusion with the zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum electrophoresis, refractometry for total serum protein, and the sodium sulfite precipitation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, G E; Ardans, A A; Ginno, D; Trommershausen-Smith, A

    1978-02-01

    Four procedures for assessment of adequacy of colostral immunoglobulin (Ig) transfer in foals were evaluated. Results of zinc sulfate turbidity test, serum electrophoresis, total serum protein refractometry, and sodium sulfite precipitation test were compared with immunoglobulin G content determined by single radial immunodiffusion. The zinc sulfate turbidity test gave acceptable results for IgG, except that hemolyzed serum samples gave higher than expected values. A correction factor for hemolyzed serum was found to be useful. Serum electrophoresis was a satisfactory method of estimating IgG content. Total serum protein values may not be a valid basis for estimating IgG content, inasmuch as postsuckling total protein values were found to decrease in some foals in which passive transfer of IgG had been adequate. Sodium sulfite precipitation reactions were too unpredictable to be of value for determination of neonatal IgG concentration.

  2. 美国高校全面质量管理实践研究及启示%The practice and enlightenment of the total quality management of United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会会

    2013-01-01

    在高等教育大众化发展阶段,美国高校在行政管理部门和教学部门及课堂控制等领域实践了全面质量管理理论。这一举措成功应对了规模扩大与质量提高的矛盾、学生发展和社会需要的矛盾及激烈的校际竞争。随着高等教育大众化进程的深入,诸类矛盾在我国日益突出。美国高校全面质量管理实践为我国高等教育提供了借鉴。%In the development stage of the popularization of higher education, the United States practice the theory of total quality management in administrative departments and teaching departments and classroom control field. The move successfully deals with the contradiction between scale and the quality improvement, the contradiction of the student development and social needs, and the fierce competition among schools. With the further popularization of higher education, all kinds of contradictions have become increasingly prominent in China. The total quality management experience of United States provide the reference.

  3. Cryopreserved CD34(+) Cell Dose, but Not Total Nucleated Cell Dose, Influences Hematopoietic Recovery and Extensive Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Single-Unit Cord Blood Transplantation in Adult Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takaaki; Kato, Seiko; Oiwa-Monna, Maki; Tanoue, Susumu; Ogawa, Miho; Isobe, Masamichi; Tojo, Arinobu; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    Low cryopreserved total nucleated cell (TNC) dose in a cord blood (CB) unit has been shown to be associated with engraftment failure and mortality after single-unit cord blood transplantation (CBT) in adults. Although CB banks offer specific characteristics of cryopreserved cell dose, such as TNC, CD34(+) cells, and colony-forming unit for granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), the impact of each cell dose on engraftment and outcomes after single-unit CBT in adults remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed the results of 306 CBTs for 261 adult patients in our institution between 1998 and 2016. The median age was 43 years (range, 16 to 68), the median actual body weight (ABW) was 56.2 kg (range, 36.2 to 104.0), the median ideal body weight (IBW) was 62.3 kg (range, 39.7 to 81.3), the median TNC dose was 2.46 × 10(7)/ABW kg (range, 1.07 to 5.69), the median CD34(+) cell dose was .91 × 10(5)/ABW kg (range, .15 to 7.75), and the median CFU-GM dose was 24.46 × 10(3)/ABW kg (range, .04 to 121.81). Among patients who achieved engraftment, the speed of neutrophil, platelet, and red blood cell engraftment significantly correlated with CD34(+) cell dose, but not with TNC and CFU-GM dose, based on both ABW and IBW. In multivariate analysis, the incidence of extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was significantly higher in patients receiving the highest CD34(+) cell dose, based on both ABW and IBW. Nevertheless, no cell dose was associated with survival, transplantation-related mortality, and relapse. In conclusion, cryopreserved CD34(+) cell dose was the best predictor for hematopoietic recovery and extensive chronic GVHD after CBT. The cryopreserved CD34(+) cell dose should be used for unit selection criteria in single-unit CBT for adults. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  5. Using the effects of maternal nutritional indicators (hemoglobin and total protein) on baby's birth weight outcome to forecast a paradigm shift toward increased levels of non-communicable diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Yakubu, Nyandaiti; Yusuph, Haruna; Alfred, Marshall; Bazza, Buba; Lamurde, Abdullahi Suleiman

    2013-01-01

    Maternal malnutrition can lead to low birth weight in babies, which puts them at risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life. Evidence from developed countries has shown that low birth weight is associated with a predisposition to higher rates of non-communicable diseases later in life. However, information on this is lacking in developing countries. Thus, this work studied the effects of maternal nutritional indicators (hemoglobin and total protein) on birth weight outcome of babies to forecast a paradigm shift toward increased levels of non-communicable diseases in children. Mother-baby pairs were enrolled in this study using systematic random sampling. Maternal haemogblobin and total proteins were measured using micro-hematocrit and biuret methods, and birth weights of their babies were estimated using the bassinet weighing scale. Of the 168 (100%) babies that participated in this study, 122 (72.6%) were delivered at term and 142 (84.5%) had normal birth weights. Mean comparison of baby's birth weight and maternal hemoglobin was not significant (P = 0.483), that for maternal total protein was also not significant (P = 0.411). Even though positive correlation coefficients were observed between birth weight of babies, maternal hemoglobin and total proteins, these were however not significant. Maternal nutrition did not contribute significantly to low birth weight in our babies. Therefore, association between maternal nutrition and low birth weight to predict future development of non-communicable diseases in our study group is highly unlikely. However, we recommend further work.

  6. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J;

    1999-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3...

  7. Apolipoprotein B/A-I and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios both predict cardiovascular events in the general population independently of nonlipid risk factors, albuminuria and C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, P.J.W.H.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Hillege, J. L.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B/A-I ratios predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The extent to which these associations are modified by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and albuminuria is largely

  8. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J; Fisker, S; Hangaard, J; Hansen-Nord, M; Hagen, C

    1999-04-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis. The present study was performed to examine the levels of free IGFs in AN and to clarify whether AN is associated with increased IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity. In 24 patients and 10 age-matched controls, the fasting serum concentrations of free IGF-I and -II were measured using ultrafiltration by centrifugation. In addition, GH, GH-binding protein, total IGFs, IGFBP-1 to -4, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity were measured. The IGFBPs were measured by both immunoassays and Western ligand blotting. Twelve of the patients were restudied 3 months after a minor increase in body mass index. In AN, the levels of GH-binding protein, free and total IGF-I, free IGF-II, and IGFBP-3 were significantly reduced; total IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-4 levels were unchanged; and IGFBP-1 was increased. No increased IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity could be detected in AN. In conclusion, the mechanisms responsible for the adaption of the GH-IGF-IGFBP axis in AN may be different from other catabolic conditions, because the low levels of free and total IGF-I in AN are not associated with increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis.

  9. 水溶液全循环尿素装置扩能改造中存在的问题及处理%Existing Problems and Handling in Revamp for Capacity Increase of Aqueous Solution Total Recycle Urea Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦怀云; 张雷; 王克立

    2011-01-01

    针对水溶液全循环尿素装置存在的蒸汽和液氨消耗较高的问题,采取了相应的改造措施.扩能改造后,吨尿素氨耗降低4~5 kg、蒸汽耗降低150 kg,效果明显.%In view of the problems of high steam and liquid ammonia consumption existing in an aqueous solution total recycle urea unit, relevant revamp measures are taken. After the revamp for capacity increase the consumption of ammonia per ton of urea decreases by 4 ~ 5 kg, steam by 150 kg,with remarkable results.

  10. 300 MW机组磨煤机总风门优化控制的应用研究%Research on the Application of Optimization Control in Total Air Damper of Coal Pulverizers in 300 MW Power Generation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜烈伟

    2013-01-01

    通过分析总风门控制回路及其执行机构的现场环境,找到了造成韶关电厂300 MW机组磨煤机总风门故障的原因.针对故障原因,提出了解决气缸内活塞在全开位置不固定的方案.该方案重新设计了控制原理图,完善了行程开关检测方式.实际运行证明,该方案能够满足机组负荷需求,保证了锅炉安全运行,达到了节能降耗的目的.%Through analyzing the site environment of the control loop and its actuator, the causes of the malfunctions of the total air damper of coal pulverizers in 300 MW power generating unit of Shaoguan power plant are found. In accordance with the causes of malfunctions, the strategy for solving the problem of unfixed fully open position of piston in air cylinder is proposed. The control principle of the strategy has been redesigned, the detection pattern of the travel switch is improved. The practical operation verifies that the correctness of the design scheme meets the load demand of the unit, ensures the safety operation of boiler, and reaches the goal of energy conservation.

  11. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  12. Níveis de proteína na dieta de bovinos Nelore de três condições sexuais: consumo, digestibilidades total e parcial, produção microbiana e parâmetros ruminais Increasing crude protein levels in diets of Nellore cattle: intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2007-08-01

    .Twelve Nellore cattle fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to investigate the effects of increasing dietary crude protein level (7, 10, 13, and 15% on intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis, degradabilities of corn silage, corn starch, and cottonseed meal, and ruminal metabolism. Animals were blocked by sexual category (heifers, bulls and steers averaging 254.8, 285.1, and 265.6 kg of body weight, respectively and then assigned to one out of three Latin squares. Samples were incubated in the rumen of one animal of each sexual category to estimate ingredient degradability after determination of DM, CP and NDF in the incubation residues. Ruminal fluid was collected before and after-feeding to determine pH and concentration of ammonia while ruminal samples for bacterial isolation were taken 6 hours post-feeding. Blood (BUN and urine (UU were also collected for measurement of urea concentration. The degradation rates of DM and CP were both lower in corn silage than on corn starch and cottonseed meal. The interaction sexual condition x dietary crude protein level was not significant for nutrient intake. With the exception of EE and NFC, no other significant effect of dietary CP level was observed for daily intake of nutrients. Increasing dietary CP level affected total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and NFC and also resulted in higher concentrations of BUN and UU. A significant dietary crude protein level x collection time interaction was observed for ruminal NH3 but not for ruminal pH. It was concluded that increasing dietary CP levels affected intake and total tract digestibility of most nutrients.

  13. Effect of repeat unit structure and molecular mass of lactic acid bacteria hetero-exopolysaccharides on binding to milk proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Johnny; HarÐarson, HörÐur Kári; Khan, Sanaullah

    2017-01-01

    -exopolysaccharides (HePSs) of 0.14–4.9 MDa from lactic acid bacteria to different milk proteins (β-casein, κ-casein, native and heat-treated β-lactoglobulin) at pH 4.0–5.0. Maximum binding capacity (RUmax) and apparent affinity (KA,app) were HePS- and protein-dependent and varied for example 10- and 600-fold......Interactions of exopolysaccharides and proteins are of great importance in food science, but complicated to analyze and quantify at the molecular level. A surface plasmon resonance procedure was established to characterize binding of seven structure-determined, branched hetero...

  14. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Bjerregaard, L. J.; Deharveng, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Welch, A. A.; Crowe, F. L.; Wirfalt, E.; Hellstrom, V.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Linseisen, J.; Steffen, A.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Larranaga, N.; Ferrari, P.; Contiero, P.; Frasca, G.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Misirli, G.; Kosti, M.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a

  15. ANS complex of St John’s wort PR-10 protein with 28 copies in the asymmetric unit: a fiendish combination of pseudosymmetry with tetartohedral twinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sliwiak, Joanna [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); Dauter, Zbigniew [National Cancer Institute, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kowiel, Marcin [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland); McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY (United Kingdom); Jaskolski, Mariusz, E-mail: mariuszj@amu.edu.pl [Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan (Poland); A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland)

    2015-04-01

    Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from H. perforatum, was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The asymmetric unit of the tetartohedrally twinned crystal contains 28 copies of the protein arranged in columns with noncrystallographic sevenfold translational symmetry and with additional pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum), was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The highly pseudosymmetric crystal has 28 unique protein molecules arranged in columns with sevenfold translational noncrystallographic symmetry (tNCS) along c and modulated X-ray diffraction with intensity crests at l = 7n and l = 7n ± 3. The translational NCS is combined with pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. The crystal was a perfect tetartohedral twin, although detection of twinning was severely hindered by the pseudosymmetry. The structure determined at 2.4 Å resolution reveals that the Hyp-1 molecules (packed as β-sheet dimers) have three novel ligand-binding sites (two internal and one in a surface pocket), which was confirmed by solution studies. In addition to 60 Hyp-1-docked ligands, there are 29 interstitial ANS molecules distributed in a pattern that violates the arrangement of the protein molecules and is likely to be the generator of the structural modulation. In particular, whenever the stacked Hyp-1 molecules are found closer together there is an ANS molecule bridging them.

  16. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, Henriette Pia; Jacobsen, S; Jensen, T;

    2007-01-01

    with sandwich ELISA; serum total sRANKL concentration was determined using a two-site sandwich ELISA; and hsCRP was analysed by turbidimetry in 300 Danish blood donors (183 M and 117 F) with a median age of 43 years (range 18-64 years). Variability due to biological variation and sampling time was studied...

  17. Detecting thermal hysteresis activity of the total protein in insects with differential scanning calorimetry%应用差示扫描量热法检测昆虫总蛋白的热滞活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宁宁; 宋希明; 邹元平; 郝树广; 许永玉; 王宪辉

    2013-01-01

    产生抗冻蛋白是寒带昆虫抵御低温的重要机制之一,但检测其活性仍存在一些困难,尤其对于个体较小的昆虫样品.为了探索差示扫描量热法是否适于检测昆虫总蛋白的热滞活性,本研究利用差示扫描量热法对黄粉虫Tenebrio molitor幼虫的总蛋白和血淋巴分别进行了热滞活性检测.结果表明:黄粉虫总蛋白的热滞活性(0.49~0.98℃)要低于血淋巴(2.54 ~4.34C).通过这种方法,进一步检测了3种在内蒙古大兴安岭林区采集到的越冬昆虫:稠李巢蛾Yponomeuta evonymallus幼虫、舞毒蛾Lymantria dispar卵和落叶松八齿小蠹Ips subelongatus成虫.结果发现,它们都存在热滞活性,其中稠李巢蛾的热滞活性为0.34 ~0.43℃,舞毒蛾的热滞活性为0.35~0.42℃,落叶松八齿小蠹的热滞活性为0.37 ~0.40℃,说明这3种昆虫能以产生抗冻蛋白的方式作为越冬策略之一.本研究表明通过差示扫描量热法检测昆虫总蛋白是否存在热滞活性来判断抗冻蛋白的存在是可行的.%Producing antifreeze proteins is one of the most important mechanisms underlying insect cold tolerance. However, detecting the activity of antifreeze proteins still has some difficulties, especially when only a few of insect samples are available from fields. In order to explore if differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) can be used to detect thermal hysteresis activity ( THA) of the total protein in insects, the THA of the total protein and hemolymph from Tenebrio molitor larvae was detected by DSC. The results showed that the THA of the total protein (0. 49 -0. 98t ) is lower than that of hemolymph (2. 54 -4. 341) in T. molitor. In addition, we collected three overwintering insect species (Lymantria dispar larvae, Yponomeuta evonymallus eggs and Ips subelongatus adults) in the Daxing' anling Forest Region in Inner Mongolia, and then prepared their total protein. Using DSC, the THA of the total protein from the three

  18. Study on the fatty oil and total protein of processed Croton using TCM's method and Uyghur Medicine's method respectively%中维医巴豆霜脂肪油和总蛋白质的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜林; 黄文娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Comparing the fatty oil component and total protein content of two different processing of Crowns. Methods: Using petioleum ether to distill the fatty oil and using GC-MS method to mensure the component; using biurea method to mensure the total proteins content. Results: The result of fatty oil content of unprocessed Croton, processed Croton using TCM's method and Uyghur medicine's method convinced 15,17, 21 kinds component and the concentration is 58.84%, 19.17%, 38.80%; the total protein concentration is 35.375, 22.395, 21.425mg/g respectively. Conclusion: After processing, the component of processed Croton has been increased, the mutual component's concentration is different; the total proteins and the fatty oil decreased sharply.%目的:研究巴豆采用中维医不同方法炮制后脂肪油及总蛋白质的变化.方法:采用石油醚冷浸法测定脂肪油含量;GC-MS法分析测定脂肪油成分;双缩脲法测定总蛋白的含量.结果:生巴豆、中医传统巴豆霜、维医巴豆霜的脂肪油含量分别为58.84%、19.17%、38.80%;GC-MS分析确认了15、17、21个成分及含量;总蛋白含量分别为35.375、22.395、21.425mg/g.结论:巴豆炮制后脂肪油的成分有所增加,共有成分含量增减不一;脂肪油和总蛋白的含量明显降低.

  19. The association between oxidative stress, activator protein-1, inflammatory, total antioxidant status and artery stiffness and the efficacy of olmesartan in elderly patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qunwei; Han, Limin; Du, Qiufan; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Shenghua; Shen, Xiangqian

    This study investigated the change of oxidative stress, activator protein-1 (AP-1), inflammatory, total antioxidant status (TAS) and artery stiffness, and explored the relationship between these characteristics and the efficacy of olmesartan intervention in elderly patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension (EH). In total, 386 elderly patients with EH and 353 normotensive controls were recruited. All study subjects had oxidative stress markers, AP-1, inflammatory factors, TAS and brancial-ankle artery pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) measured. In total, 193 elderly patients with EH were randomized to olmesartan and were matched with 193 normotensive controls to observe the change of index above mentioned before and after the treatment. Compared with the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and TAS were significantly reduced in patients with EH, and malondialdehyde (MDA), AP-1, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1), heart rate, endothelin-1 (ET-1), TAS and ba-PWV were significantly increased (P olmesartan, SOD and TAS were increased, while BP, heart rate, AP-1 and inflammatory factors were reduced with significant improvement in ba-PWV (P Olmesartan may increase TAS, yet inhibit oxidative stress, AP-1, inflammatory, and heart rate with improved artery stiffness in elderly hypertensive patients.

  20. Molecular dynamics of protein A and a WW domain with a united-residue model including hydrodynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipska, Agnieszka G.; Seidman, Steven R.; Sieradzan, Adam K.; Giełdoń, Artur; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2016-05-01

    The folding of the N-terminal part of the B-domain of staphylococcal protein A (PDB ID: 1BDD, a 46-residue three-α-helix bundle) and the formin-binding protein 28 WW domain (PDB ID: 1E0L, a 37-residue three-stranded anti-parallel β protein) was studied by means of Langevin dynamics with the coarse-grained UNRES force field to assess the influence of hydrodynamic interactions on protein-folding pathways and kinetics. The unfolded, intermediate, and native-like structures were identified by cluster analysis, and multi-exponential functions were fitted to the time dependence of the fractions of native and intermediate structures, respectively, to determine bulk kinetics. It was found that introducing hydrodynamic interactions slows down both the formation of an intermediate state and the transition from the collapsed structures to the final native-like structures by creating multiple kinetic traps. Therefore, introducing hydrodynamic interactions considerably slows the folding, as opposed to the results obtained from earlier studies with the use of Gō-like models.

  1. Espectrofotometria de proteínas totais em plasma de sangue bovino por análise em fluxo Spectrophotometry of total protein in bovine blood plasma by flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Caseri de Luca

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A concentração de proteína total em plasma é um parâmetro utilizado no controle da saúde e nutrição animal, sendo que a faixa de concentração considerada normal para animais em bom desenvolvimento situa-se entre 60 e 85 g L -1. Os métodos analíticos propostos para esta determinação geralmente apresentam como limitação a excessiva manipulação das amostras. Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um procedimento de análises em fluxo para a determinação de proteína total em plasma de sangue bovino, empregando o método do Biureto. O sistema em fluxo, constituído por um injetor comutador automático e uma válvula solenóide de três vias controlados por um microcomputador, foi projetado visando permitir diluição em linha das amostras. Um fator de diluição era estimado procedendo-se a diluição em linha de uma solução com concentração conhecida de albumina e este fator era empregado para o cálculo final das concentrações das amostras após diluição em linha. As soluções das amostras eram inseridas através da válvula solenóide, a qual permitia precisas diluições, diminuindo operações manuais. A faixa analítica estabelecida foi entre 2,5 e 20,0 g L-1, e considerando a diluição gerada, amostras de plasma bovino contendo entre 12,5 e 100,0 g L-1 de proteína total puderam ser analisadas. O procedimento apresentou desvio padrão relativo de 2,8 %, e a freqüência analítica alcançada foi de 76 determinações por hora. Os resultados foram comparados com o método tradicional de análises (Biureto e não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas a 95%.Total protein concentration in plasma samples is normally used as a parameter to control animal health and nutritional conditions. Normal concentration levels are in the range of 60 to 85 g L-1 total protein for animals of good development. The methods proposed for its determination generally present as a disadvantage an excessive

  2. The influence of the ratio of protein energy to total energy in the feed on the activity of protein synthesis in vitro, the level of ribosomal RNA and the RNA-DNA ratio in white trunk muscle of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, E; Rosenlund, G

    1984-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) were fed diets containing protein energy to total energy levels (PE/TE) of 10.0, 20.6, 29.6, 38.4, 56.2 and 74.1% for 21 days. Ribosomes were isolated from the white trunk muscle tissue, the capacity for protein synthesis in vitro determined and related to muscle tissue wet weight rRNA and DNA. Protein concentrations of less than 47.4% PE/TE in the diets reduce the ribosomal capacity for protein synthesis per g wet weight and per mg DNA, and the tissue contents of rRNA and ratio of rRNA/DNA. The capacity for muscle protein synthesis in vitro is a significant and sensitive parameter of protein inadequacy in fish diets.

  3. Survey of commercially available chocolate- and cocoa-containing products in the United States. 2. Comparison of flavan-3-ol content with nonfat cocoa solids, total polyphenols, and percent cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Flannigan, Nancy; Ou, Boxin; Lee, C Y; Smith, Nancy; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-14

    A survey of a broad range of chocolate- and cocoa-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to provide a more detailed analysis of flavan-3-ol monomers, oligomers, and polymers, which can be grouped into a class of compounds called procyanidins. Samples consisted of the three or four top-selling products within the following six categories: natural cocoa powder, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized for percent fat (% fat), percent nonfat cocoa solids (% NFCS), antioxidant level by ORAC, total polyphenols, epicatechin, catechin, total monomers, and flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers (procyanidins). On a gram weight basis epicatechin and catechin content of the products follow in decreasing order: cocoa powder > baking chocolate > dark chocolate = baking chips > milk chocolate > chocolate syrup. Analysis of the monomer and oligomer profiles within product categories shows there are two types of profiles: (1) products that have high monomers with decreasing levels of oligomers and (2) products in which the level of dimers is equal to or greater than the monomers. Results show a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.834) of epicatechin to the level of % NFCS and also very good correlations for N = 2-5 oligomers to % NFCS. A weaker correlation was observed for catechin to % NFCS (R(2) = 0.680). Other analyses show a similar high degree of correlation with epicatechin and N = 2-5 oligomers to total polyphenols, with catechin being less well correlated to total polyphenols. A lesser but still good correlation exists between the calculated percent cacao (calcd % cacao) content, a proxy for percent cacao, and these same flavanol measures, with catechin again showing a lesser degree of correlation to calcd % cacao. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that the products group discretely into five classes: (1) cocoa powder, (2) baking chocolate, (3) dark

  4. Protein kinase A induces recruitment of active Na+,K+-ATPase units to the plasma membrane of rat proximal convoluted tubule cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Maria Luisa; Rousselot, Martine; Chibalin, Alexander V; Bertorello, Alejandro M; Favre, Hervé; Féraille, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of control of Na+,K+-ATPase activity by the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway in rat proximal convoluted tubules. For this purpose, we studied the in vitro action of exogenous cAMP (10−3 M dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) or 8-bromo-cAMP) and endogenous cAMP (direct activation of adenylyl cyclases by 10−5 M forskolin) on Na+,K+-ATPase activity and membrane trafficking.PKA activation stimulated both the cation transport and hydrolytic activity of Na+,K+-ATPase by about 40 %. Transport activity stimulation was specific to the PKA signalling pathway since (1) db-cAMP stimulated the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake in a time- and dose-dependent fashion; (2) this effect was abolished by addition of H-89 or Rp-cAMPS, two structurally different PKA inhibitors; and (3) this stimulation was not affected by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) by GF109203X. The stimulatory effect of db-cAMP on the hydrolytic activity of Na+,K+-ATPase was accounted for by an increased maximal ATPase rate (Vmax) without alteration of the efficiency of the pump, suggesting that cAMP-PKA pathway was implicated in membrane redistribution control.To test this hypothesis, we used two different approaches: (1) cell surface protein biotinylation and (2) subcellular fractionation. Both approaches confirmed that the cAMP-PKA pathway was implicated in membrane trafficking regulation. The stimulation of Na+,K+-ATPase activity by db-cAMP was associated with an increase (+40 %) in Na+,K+-ATPase units expressed at the cell surface which was assessed by Western blotting after streptavidin precipitation of biotinylated cell surface proteins. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the increased expression in pump units at the cell surface which was accompanied by a decrease (-30 %) in pump units located in the subcellular fraction corresponding to early endosomes.In conclusion, PKA stimulates Na+,K+-ATPase activity, at least in part, by increasing the number of

  5. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties.

  6. Low-protein diet for chronic kidney disease in the Caserta Local Health Unit: the SaniARP Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Troncone

    2015-06-01

    disease has increased. Currently, these products are not yet contemplated in the essential levels of assistance but the Italian regions deliver, low-protein food discretionally using their own funds. The Campania Region, in 2010, interrupted the distribution of these products. With the exception of Caserta which took up distribution again in 2013. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe an initiative put in place by Caserta which has decided to invest in prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A treatment plan for the distribution designed by a team of in-house nephrologists and data are recorded using Saniarp, a web-based platform. RESULTS: In the observation period patients with a prescription of low-protein food products were 869. The mean age was 61 years. The average cost patient / month for the nutritional treatment was 59 Euro. The average cost patient / month for any type of drug was 632 Euro. In particular, 48 Euro for EPO, 277 Euro for Chelate Agents, 16 Euro for antihypertensive therapy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The policy put in place by the LHU Caserta improved care of kidney patients. The results available to date are still incomplete and do not enable us to clearly assess the benefits both in clinical and economic terms which can be produced by a low-protein diet in kidney patients. In the perspective of third party payers to budget this expense it appears entirely sustainable especially in view of the fact that this dietary treatment might delay the onset of dialysis therapy and lead to lower comorbidity for the patient.

  7. Custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total pelo método ABC The mean cost of collection of whole blood units by the ABC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia M. A. Ubiali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Os procedimentos em hemoterapia são complexos e caros. Exigem processos controlados e validados, equipamentos calibrados e monitorados e insumos qualificados, validados e inspecionados antes e durante o uso. Isto acarreta, além dos gastos diretos, gastos indiretos especificamente relacionados à garantia da qualidade e da segurança transfusionais, além dos gastos indiretos usuais de qualquer produto ou serviço. Procurando avaliar com maior aproximação estes custos e buscando evitar as distorções das apropriações de custos por rateios, o presente estudo utilizou o sistema de Custeio Baseado em Atividades - ABC, para apurar o custo médio do Módulo de Coleta de sangue total no Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto - SP, unidade sede, no primeiro semestre de 2006. O maior impacto no custo médio apurado se deveu aos custos monetários diretos, entretanto os custos indiretos não foram desprezíveis. O custo médio obtido para desempenho das atividades que compõem o Módulo de Coleta foi de R$ 35,20, que é 68,75% superior ao valor pago na tabela SIA/SUS para este módulo. A metodologia desenvolvida pode ser aplicada aos outros procedimentos dos serviços de hemoterapia, permitindo a avaliação dos custos de seus processos, evitando desperdícios, aprimorando o seu funcionamento e gerando evidências objetivas que demonstrem os custos reais da hemoterapia de qualidade para as instâncias financiadoras públicas e privadas.The procedures in hemotherapy are complex and expensive. They demand a controlled and validated process. They also require calibrated and monitored equipment and qualified and validated materials, inspected before and during use. This causes, apart from direct expenses, indirect expenses related to the guarantee of quality and transfusional safety, as well as the usual indirect costs of any product or service. The present study used the Activity-Based Costing system - ABC, to find the mean cost of collection of whole blood

  8. 元宝枫及同属植物种子总蛋白质含量和氨基酸的测定%Measurment of total protein and amino acid in Acer truncatum Bunge seeds and same generic plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏希颖; 吕居娴; 李映丽

    2004-01-01

    An analysis and determination are made of the contents of the total protein and the components of 19 kinds of amino acids in the Acer truncatum Bunge. And the same generic plants are analyzed. The results show that there is a very high protein content in the seeds of Acer truncatum Bunge and the same generic plants. Moreover, the higher contents of Glu. and Arg. is a peculiarity of the components of amino acids in the seeds of Acer truncatum Bunge and the same generic plants.%对元宝枫及同属植物种子总蛋白质含量和氨基酸的组成进行了分析测定,结果表明元宝枫及同属植物种子含有较高的蛋白质,且其氨基酸的组成以谷氨酸、精氨酸含量较高为特点.

  9. Optimization of Extraction Technology of Lotus Seed Total Protein by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化莲子总蛋白提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏琨; 郑铁松

    2012-01-01

    The extraction of total protein from lotus seed was studied. Tris-HC1 buffer was selected as the best extract. According to the single-factor experiments, three levels of the factors (the ratio of buffer to solid, extraction time and temperature) were selected for the Box-Behnken factorial design to establish a quadric regression equation for describing the yield of total protein. By response surface analysis and the actual operation, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: the ratio of buffer to solid of 7.2:1, extraction time of 2.4 h and extraction temperature of 11.1℃, the extraction yield of total protein was 81.35%, resenting a relative error of less than 0.5 %.%为优化莲子总蛋白的提取工艺,首先确定了最佳提取液为Tris-Hcl缓冲液;在单因素试验的基础上,采用Box-Behnken试验设计方法,研究液料比、提取时间和提取温度对莲子总蛋白提取率的影响,建立总蛋白提取率的二次回归方程,并对其工艺参数进行优化。结合实际操作的研究结果表明:提取莲子总蛋白的最佳工艺参数为液料比7.2:1,提取时间2.4h,提取温度11.1℃,总蛋白的提取率达到81.35%,与回归模型的相对误差小于0.5%。

  10. On Pinellia ternate Total Protein Extraction Technology and Antibacterial Effect of Pinellia ternate Lectin%半夏蛋白的提取工艺及其凝集素的抑菌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小团; 严静; 高鸿; 吴能表

    2015-01-01

    The result of univariate test and orthogonal comparative test haveshowed the influence of various conditions on pinellia total protein's concentration during the extraction process .According to the result , the better extraction way of Pinellia total protein has been conducted in this study :firstly ,weighed some fresh Pinellia tubers ,treat them with ultrasonic wave for 20 min ,extracted one time with 1 .5% NaCl so‐lution for 6h at 4 ℃ ,then took the supernatant after centrifuging ,finally Pinellia total protein was got af‐ter ammonium sulphate precipitation .The lectin was extracted from the Pinellia total protein through DE‐AE‐Sepharose FF ion‐exchange liquid chromatography ,then the lectin's hemagglutination activity and its antibacterial effect was detected .This antibacterial test shows that the inhibitory effect of Pinellia lectin on Staphylococcus aureusis significant ,but its inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli is general .%运用正交试验和单因素比较试验,探讨半夏蛋白提取过程中各条件对蛋白质量浓度的影响,优化半夏总蛋白的分离纯化工艺.用DEAE‐Sepharose FF离子交换层析对半夏凝集素进行分离、纯化、凝血鉴定,并进行抑菌效果的探究.建立半夏总蛋白的最佳提取工艺:称取适量新鲜半夏块茎,超声波处理20 min ,用1.5% NaCl溶液在4℃下静置抽提6h,提取1次后离心取上清并进行硫酸铵沉淀得到半夏总蛋白.凝集素对金黄色葡萄球菌的抑制效果明显,对大肠杆菌的抑制效果一般.

  11. 山西安泽青翘中总蛋白质氨基酸和微量元素分析%Total protein, amino acids and trace elements in green fructus forsythiae from Anze, Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳晓华; 高丽; 李敏; 薛慧清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the total protein, amino acid and trace elements in green Fructus forsythiae from Anze, Shanxi province, and to assess the nutritional composition for offering the rationales for development and utilization in a comprehensive manner. Methods The total protein was assayed by Kjeldahl's approach, the amino acid components were assessed by an automatic analyzer and the trace elements (Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb) were detected by atomic absorption spectrometry, respectively. Results The content of total protein was 6.87% and the total content of amino acids 6.54%. Seventeen amino acid components were identified in green Fructus forsythiae, in which the content of essential amino acids accounted for 39.20% of all amino acids and 2.57% as required for the body. The trace elements comprised of calcium (2380 μg/g), iron (188 μg/g), zinc and copper. Lead was not detected. Conclusion Supplemented with an abundance of protein, amino acids and trace elements, green Fructus forsythiae from Anze, Shanxi province may be the raw material for health care and medical purposes and has considerable potential to be further explored.%目的 测定山西安泽青翘的总蛋白质、氨基酸、微量元素含量,对其营养价值进行评价,为综合开发利用青翘资源提供依据.方法 采用凯氏定氮法测定总蛋白质,氨基酸自动分析仪测定氨基酸组分,原子吸收法测定钙(Ca),铁(Fe),锌(Zn),铜(Cu),铅(Pb).结果 测得青翘总蛋白含量为6.87%,青翘含有17种氨基酸,氨基酸总量为6.54%,其中人体必需氨基酸总量为2.57%,占总氨基酸的39.20%.青翘含有Ca,Fe,Zn,Cu微量元素,其中Ca为2 380 μg/g,Fe为188μg/g,Pb未检出.结论 山西安泽青翘含有较丰富的蛋白质、多种氨基酸和微量元素,为具有营养价值的保健及药用原料,具有良好的开发利用前景.

  12. Studies on the Renaturation with Simultaneous Purification of Recombinant Human Proinsulin with Unit of Simultaneous Renaturation and Purification of Protein in Semi-preparative Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan BAI; Yu KONG; Xin Du GENG

    2003-01-01

    The renaturation and purification of recombinant human proinsulin (rh-proinsulin) expressed in E. Coli with the unit of simultaneous renaturation and purification of protein (USRPP) in semi-preparative scale was studied. The result shows that rh-proinsulin extracted with 8.0 mol/L urea can be renatured and purified simultaneously in 45 minutes with the USRPP (10×50 mm ID). The purity of rh-proinsulin was found to be more than 90% and the mass recovery to be more than 80%. The renaturation effect of rh-proinsulin with the USRPP was tested by enzyme cleavage for obtaining insulin. In addition, the result was further confirmed with RPLC, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, and MALDI-TOF, respectively.

  13. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA, has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations.We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86 for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94 for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95 for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88 for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend 0.50. Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95

  14. Fish protein hydrolysate production from sardine solid waste by crude pepsin enzymatic hydrolysis in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhabiles, M.S.; Abdi, N. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Drouiche, N., E-mail: nadjibdrouiche@yahoo.fr [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Silicon Technology Development Unit (UDTS) 2, Bd Frantz Fanon BP140, Alger-7 Merveilles, 16000 (Algeria); Lounici, H. [National Polytechnic school of Algiers, B.P. 182-16200, El Harrach, Algiers (Algeria); Pauss, A. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Goosen, M.F.A. [Alfaisal University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Mameri, N. [University of Technology of Compiegne, Departement Genie chimique,B.P. 20.509, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France)

    2012-05-01

    The aims of the study were to optimize the production a fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid waste using crude pepsin, and to scale up the process in a bioreactor coupled to an ultrafiltration unit for product recovery. Results showed that the crude pepsin prepared by autolysis of the mucous membranes of a sheep stomach at optimal conditions (i. e. pH = 1.5-2 and incubation time of 6 h) could be satisfactory used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of fish solid waste. The optimal conditions for enzymatic reaction were: temperature 48 Degree-Sign C, and pH 1.5. The scale up of the enzymatic hydrolysis and the coupling of the reactor an ultrafiltration unit to concentrate the hydrolysate gave good results with a rejection coefficient for the protein hydrolysate product in the range of 90%. The volumetric concentration factor was 2.5, with a permeate flux of 200 L m{sup -2} bar{sup -1}. However, the results also suggest that the ultrafiltration product concentration process may be operating beyond the critical flux at which point irreversible membrane fouling occurs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluating to produce a (FPH) by enzymatic hydrolysis of sardine solid wastes was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of key parameters for optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis have been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Valorization of sardine waste was realized by enzymatic hydrolysis process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performances of this enzyme gave comparable results to those obtained with commercial pepsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nutritional quality of the FPH produced appears to be satisfactory.

  15. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes fontes de proteína Intake, apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with different protein sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas dos Santos Pina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, organizados de acordo com os dias em lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes protéicas na dieta sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite. Utilizou-se silagem de milho como volumoso, na proporção de 60% da MS total. Os concentrados foram constituídos de diferentes fontes protéicas (FS - farelo de soja; FA38 - farelo de algodão 38% PB; FA28 - farelo de algodão 28% PB e FSU - farelo de soja + 5% de uréia/sulfato de amônia na MS do concentrado. Os consumos de MS e MO não diferiram entre as dietas, mas os de NDT foram maiores na dieta controle. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CD da MS e MO foram menores para as dietas FA38, FA28 e FSU. A produção de leite (PL, corrigida ou não para 3,5% (PLC de gordura, o teor e a produção de gordura do leite não foram influenciados pelas diferentes fontes protéicas, mas a eficiência de utilização da MS e do nitrogênio dietético para a PL e o teor e a produção de proteína do leite foram inferiores para as dietas contendo farelo de algodão em relação àquela com FS. Vacas com produção média de 25 kg de leite/dia podem ser alimentadas com dietas contendo 5% de uréia/sulfato de amônia na MS do concentrado ou farelo de algodão (38% PB quando utilizada silagem de milho como volumoso na proporção de 60% da MS total das dietas.Twelve Holstein lactating dairy cows were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to three replicated 4 x 4 Latin square to evaluate the effect of different protein sources on intake, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A basal corn silage diet (60% of the total dry matter was fed plus one of the following proteins sources (dry matter basis: soybean meal (SBM, cottonseed meal with 38% of crude protein (CSM38, cottonseed meal with 28% of crude protein (CSM28, or

  16. Proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos: digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais Rumen degradable protein on bovine diet: total and partial nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ferreira Caldas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa (450 kg portadores de cânula ruminal e duodenal, recebendo dietas com níveis de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR de 50, 60, 65 e 70%, associadas a uma fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal (farinha de varredura de mandioca, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 × 4 para se avaliarem as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes, a concentração de amônia e o pH ruminal. Foi utilizada, como indicador do fluxo duodenal e fecal, a cinza insolúvel em ácido. Não foi observado efeito do nível de PDR sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade total, digestibilidade ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não-estruturais e energia bruta. O aumento do nível de PDR na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade total e ruminal da proteína bruta e reduziu a digestibilidade intestinal desse nutriente como porcentagem do digerido. Não houve efeito dos níveis de PDR no pH ruminal, no entanto, maior concentração ruminal de amônia foi observada para as dietas com maior teor de PDR. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o aumento no teor de PDR acarretou maior produção de nitrogênio na forma de amônia, independentemente da presença da fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal, contudo, o aporte de proteína intestinal foi semelhante para todas as dietas.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein steers (450 kg were fed diets with rumen degradable protein (RDP levels of 50.0 60.0 65.0 and 70.0% associated with a high ruminal degradability starch (cassava by-product meal were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin square design for the evaluation of total and partial digestibility of the nutrients, ruminal ammonia concentration and pH. The acid insoluble ash was used as a marker of the duodenal and fecal flow. No effects were observed on the level of RDP on total digestibility coefficient, ruminal digestibility and

  17. Free protein S level as a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke in a prospective cohort study of healthy United Kingdom men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Dror, Gie; Cooper, Jackie A; Humphries, Steve E; Drenos, Fotios; Ireland, Helen A

    2011-10-15

    Plasma protein S (PS) levels are reportedly low in patients with venous thrombosis but high in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. The authors examined the association between free PS concentration and CHD or stroke risk and assessed risk in combination with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Free PS concentration was determined in 6 annual visits among 3,052 middle-aged (49-64 years) United Kingdom men from the Second Northwick Park Heart Study, with 297 CHD events from 1989 to 2005. The highest (vs. first) quintile was associated with a significantly increased CHD risk after adjustment for all other risk factors and correction for regression dilution bias (hazard ratio = 1.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 3.16; P = 0.024). Models that included all well-known risk factors plus PS quintiles improved prediction of CHD (net reclassification improvement (NRI) = 7.0% (P = 0.007), category-less NRI (>0) = 22.1% (P < 0.001)), and the likelihood ratio statistic increased significantly (P = 0.018). The increase in CHD risk was particularly strong when subjects also had high CRP levels. There was no association between free PS level and stroke risk. This study confirms the independent association of elevated free PS levels with future risk of CHD, although elevated PS levels added only modestly to prediction metrics. The novel finding of increased CHD risk, particularly when CRP and PS levels are high, requires further study.

  18. A triclinic crystal structure of the carboxy-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid protein with four molecules in the asymmetric unit reveals a novel packing interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Ayala; Yaniv, Oren; Berger, Or; Bacharach, Eran; Gazit, Ehud; Frolow, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The Gag precursor is the major structural protein of the virion of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Capsid protein (CA), a cleavage product of Gag, plays an essential role in virus assembly both in Gag-precursor multimerization and in capsid core formation. The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of CA contains 20 residues that are highly conserved across retroviruses and constitute the major homology region (MHR). Genetic evidence implies a role for the MHR in interactions between Gag precursors during the assembly of the virus, but the structural basis for this role remains elusive. This paper describes a novel triclinic structure of the HIV-1 CA CTD at 1.6 Å resolution with two canonical dimers of CA CTD in the asymmetric unit. The canonical dimers form a newly identified packing interface where interactions of four conserved MHR residues take place. This is the first structural indication that these MHR residues participate in the putative CTD–CTD interactions. These findings suggest that the molecules forming this novel interface resemble an intermediate structure that participates in the early steps of HIV-1 assembly. This interface may therefore provide a novel target for antiviral drugs. PMID:23722834

  19. 应用于自动生化分析仪的尿总蛋白试剂的评价%Evaluation on Urinary Total Protein Reagent Used in Automatic Biochemical Analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何健; 陈秀英

    2014-01-01

    Objective The main aim is to evaluate the reagent for quantitative colorimetric analysis of urinary total protein used in automatic biochemical analyzer. Methods Urinary total protein reagent was evaluated for precision and linearity using Hitachi 7170A automatic biochemical analyzer, and the results were compared with those by manual method. Results The results indicated nice intra-batch and inter-batch reproducibility, and the linear range was 4.2g/L, which was close to the linear range labeled in the instruction provided in the kit. While in the comparison manual tests, r =0.998 and the regression equation was Y=0.9496X+0.1791, P>0.05, which indicate no significant differences between the two methods. Conclusion The urinary total protein used in automatic biochemical analyzer is rapid, precise, convenient and cost-efficient, so it could be used widely as a manual alternative method for determination of urinary proteins.%目的:对应用于全自动生化分析仪的定量比色分析尿总蛋白试剂进行评价。方法使用日立7170A全自动生化分析仪对尿总蛋白试剂进行精密度、线性及与手工法进行对比试验的评价。结果批内及批间重复性皆较好,线性范围为4.2g/L接近试剂盒说明书标明的线性范围,与手工法对比试验中,r=0.998,回归方程Y=0.9496X+0.1791,P>0.05,两方法之间无显著性差异。结论使用于全自动生化分析仪的尿总蛋白试剂,具有快速、准确、简便、成本低等优点,可代替手工法测定尿蛋白,易于广泛应用。

  20. 蠕形螨全蛋白提取及相对分子量鉴定%Extraction of total proteins from demodex and qualification of their molecular weights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓丽; 郭淑玲; 苏磊; 冯玉新; 袁方曙

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨蠕形螨全蛋白提取方法,初步分析蠕形螨蛋白组分。方法采用自制裂解液和RIPA裂解液分别提取蠕形螨全蛋白,通过十二烷基硫酸钠聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳( SDS-PAGE)分离比较蛋白提取效果,用基质辅助激光解析电离飞行时间质谱(MALDI-TOF-MS)鉴定部分蛋白质条带,Mascot检索软件查询NCBInr数据库,对蠕形螨蛋白组分进行初步分析。结果自制裂解液提取蠕形螨蛋白的效果优于 RIPA裂解液。经数据库检索比对出21种可信蛋白,其中170 kD条带比对出的蛋白为肌动蛋白和胞质肌动蛋白,130 kD条带比对出的蛋白为谷氨酰胺连接酶和腺苷酰转移酶;15 kD以下条带比对出的蛋白大部分为组蛋白。结论自制裂解液液氮研磨法可提取到较高质量的蠕形螨全蛋白,实验提取并分析了蠕形螨的蛋白质组成,为蠕形螨蛋白组学研究奠定基础。%Objective To establish the optimal extraction method of demodex protein and to analyze its components. Methods Demodex proteins were extracted by self-made lysate and RIPA lysate, and the extraction effects were evalu-ated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ( SDS-PAGE) .Partial protein stripes were identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF-MS ) .The NCBInr database was searched by Mascot software to analyze the components of demodex protein.Results The extraction effect of self-made lysate was better than that of RIPA protein lysate.A total of 21 proteins were primarily identified. Conclusion The protein components of demodex were extracted in our experiment, which is helpful for the future study on demodex proteomics.

  1. Study of protein stoichiometry by single-molecule imaging with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy%应用全内反射单分子荧光成像研究蛋白复合物亚基组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程茗; 李楠; 方晓红

    2012-01-01

    细胞的生化过程大都是由蛋白复合物完成的,研究蛋白复合物亚基的组成对于了解蛋白质的结构和生物学功能具有重要的意义,然而如何准确确定蛋白复合物中蛋白质亚基的数量(stoichiometry)仍然是一个挑战.近年来,活细胞体系单分子荧光成像技术的不断发展为原位实时动态地研究蛋白质的结构和性质提供了新的手段.本文主要介绍了应用活细胞全内反射单分子荧光成像技术表征细胞膜区蛋白复合物组成的3种方法,包括单分子漂白步数分析、荧光强度统计分布以及蛋白运动分析,并结合其基本原理介绍了这几种方法在活细胞体系膜蛋白研究中的应用.%Most of cellular processes are realized by protein complexes, and the study of subunits composition of protein complexes is very important for the understanding of protein structure and biological function. However, accurate determination of protein stoichiometry under the physiological conditions is still a challenge. In recent years, the development of single-molecule fluorescence imaging of living cells offers a new approach to characterize protein in real time. In this review, we first introduce the basic principle of imaging single-molecule in living cells by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and then discuss the application of single-molecule TIRFM to study the plasma membrane protein complex in three ways, including the analysis of photobleaching step, the statistical distribution of fluorescence intensity and the dynamics of protein diffusion.

  2. DS926 Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina -- Polygon regions for the 10,000 mg/l total dissolved solids boundary feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital surfaces and thicknesses of selected hydrogeologic units of the Floridan aquifer system were developed to define an updated hydrogeologic framework as part...

  3. IMBALANCES IN PROTEIN METABOLISM IN CRITICAL CARE PATIENT WITH SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME AT ADMISSION IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouharras El Idrissi, Hicham; Molina López, Jorge; Pérez Moreno, Irene; Florea, Daniela Ioana; Lobo Támer, Gabriela; Herrera-Quintana, Lourdes; Pérez De La Cruz, Antonio; Rodríguez Elvira, Manuel; Planells Del Pozo, Elena María

    2015-12-01

    Antecedentes: el trauma y las infecciones severas causan cambios metabólicos notables en los pacientes con SRIS como una respuesta adaptativa dirigida a controlar la enfermedad subyacente, la reparación del tejido dañado y para sintetizar sustratos. Si el ataque es intenso y sostenido y el paciente tiene un estado nutricional comprometido puede evolucionar a insuficiencia orgánica múltiple y muerte. Objetivo: evaluación del estado nutricional proteico y la participación de las proteínas y los factores inflamatorios en pacientes críticamente enfermos. Método: estudio analítico observacional multicéntrico en pacientes enfermos críticos en la admisión en la UCI. Resultados y discusión: los pacientes mostraron alteraciones en los parámetros nutricionales clínicos que confirman su situación hipercatabólica, mostrando malnutrición a la admisión en UCI, donde el 42,9% tenían niveles plasmáticos de prealbúmina por debajo de la referencia. Los aminoácidos se encuentran por debajo de los valores de referencia y el 99% de los pacientes presentaron bajos niveles plasmáticos de transferrina. Se observaron diferencias significativas en los niveles de proteína total, ferritina y transferrina ajustados por los niveles de PCR, siendo mayor cuando los pacientes presentaron altos valores de inflamación, en el caso de la ferritina, y lo opuesto para el resto de parámetros. Al estratificar por las puntuaciones APACHE y SOFA de acuerdo a la gravedad baja, media y alta, los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en creatinina, urea y transferrina, siendo menor cuanto mayor era el grado de severidad para la transferrina. Conclusión: la enfermedad crítica se caracteriza por un alto grado de estrés y la degradación acelerada de proteínas que causan malnutrición, inflamación sistémica y la disfunción de órganos, con una asociación significativa entre albúmina, ferritina y transferrina.

  4. Differential changes in free and total insulin-like growth factor I after major, elective abdominal surgery: the possible role of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaerbaek, C; Frystyk, J; Orskov, H; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, P; Jensen, M B; Laurberg, S; Møller, N; Flyvbjerg, A

    1998-07-01

    Major surgery is accompanied by extensive proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Proteolysis of IGFBP-3 is generally believed to increase IGF bioavailability due to a diminished affinity of the IGFBP-3 fragments for IGFs. We have investigated 18 patients undergoing elective ileo-anal J-pouch surgery. Patients were randomized to treatment with GH (12 IU/day; n = 9) or placebo (n = 9) from 2 days before to 7 days after operation. Free IGF-I and IGF-II were measured by ultrafiltration of serum, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity was determined by a [125I]recombinant human IGFBP-3 degradation assay. In the GH-treated group, total IGF-I increased preoperatively by 99%. Postoperatively, total IGF-I decreased by 48% (placebo) and 52% (GH). Immunoassayable IGFBP-3 decreased by 27% (placebo) and 26% (GH). In the placebo-treated group, free IGF-I was unchanged throughout the study. In the GH-treated group, free IGF-I increased by 277% preoperatively and remained elevated after operation. IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity increased by 63-73% after operation. The relative elevations of free IGF-I levels despite decreased total IGF-I levels could thus relate to augmented IGFBP-3 proteolysis.

  5. Protsome analysis of the total protein in Vibrio cholerae by 2-DE%霍乱弧菌O1群有毒株和无毒株的蛋白质谱特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守义; 刘俊华; 张欣强; 胡玉山; 李钏华; 王鸣

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the different proteins of human and environment Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and TOF-TOF-MS. Methods Total cellular pro-tein was extracted by lysate from V. cholerae, and proteins were separated by 2-DE under immobilized pH gradients(IPG), then electrophoregrams were dealed with coomassie brilliant blue, and analyzed by Im-ageMaster 2D Elite 5.0, finally the different protein spots were identified by TOF-TOF-MS. Results High repetitive 2-DE maps were obtained. 2-DE and image analysis revealed 1032±22 protein spots, and PI value was among 4.00 to 7.20. Matching spots were 1025±24 in two repeats electrophoregrams and matching ratio was 96.30%. Conclusion The different protein spots were successfully established with high quality and sharpness separation by 2-DE and TOF-TOF-MS, which stands as a valuable resource for proteomics re-search of V. cholerae.%目的 利用双向电泳和质谱鉴定技术探讨环境和人体中霍乱弧菌蛋白表达的差异.方法 利用适当的裂解液处理霍乱弧菌,提取全菌蛋白;采用pH梯度等电聚焦对全菌蛋白进行双向电泳;考马斯亮蓝染色后获得双向电泳图谱,并利用ImageMaster 2D Elite 5.0图像分析软件进行分析,所得的数据采用SPSS15.0进行统计分析,找出差异蛋白;在此基础上,胰蛋白酶消化这些特殊差异蛋白,并进行质谱(MALDI-TOF-MS)分析.结果 获得1032±22个蛋白斑点,蛋白主要集中在等电点(PI)4.00~7.20之间,重复胶的匹配点数为1025±24,匹配率为96.30%;发现了有明显差异的21个蛋白点,并用质谱鉴定了其中4种蛋白.结论 获得了环境和人体中霍乱弧菌蛋白的差异表达蛋白.

  6. 凝胶过滤色谱和Bradford法测定发酵类抗生素中蛋白残留量%Gel Filtration Chromatography Combined with Bradford Method for Determination of Total Residual Protein in Ferment Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明哲; 马仕洪; 胡昌勤

    2004-01-01

    目的以发酵类抗生素盐酸林可霉素为例,建立一个快速、简单、灵敏度高的可用于发酵类抗生素中蛋白残留量控制的方法.方法利用凝胶过滤色谱(GFC)首先将蛋白质与抗生素分离,收集蛋白组分,再利用蛋白检测方法Bradford法(考马氏亮兰染色法)对残留的蛋白进行定量;色谱柱为SuperdexTM Peptide HR 10/30;检测波长为214 nm;流速为1 mL·min-1;流动相为0.01 mol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲液;进样量为500 μL.结果本方法蛋白(BSA)的平均回收率大于90%,蛋白浓度在0-12 μg·mL-1之间符合曲线方程y=-0.002 4x2 + 0.064 2x + 0.002 9,r2=0.999 9; 检测限为3 ng·mL-1(相当于盐酸林可霉素中蛋白的残留量为7×10-7).结论本方法简便,快速,灵敏,可以用于控制发酵类抗生素中蛋白的残留量.%Aim A novel method has been developed for evaluation of the levels of total residual protein in antibiotics produced by fermentation using gel filtration chromatography (GFC) combined with Bradford assay based on determination of residual protein in lincomycin hydrochloride. Methods The chromatographic conditions were SuperdexTM peptide column, 0.01 mol*L-1 phosphate buffer solution as mobile phase, and flow rate of 1 mL·min-1. Five hundred microliters of lincomycin hydrochloride solution (3 g of lincomycin hydrochloride dissolved in 10 mL of mobile phase) was injected into the chromatograph and the eluted solution was collected between 6 min and 14.5 min (protein eluted from column within this period), and the residual content of total protein in the eluted solution was assayed using Bradford assay method. Results The average recovery was more than 90% for bovine serum albumin, the calibration equation for the range of 0-12 μg·mL-1 of protein was y=-0.002 4x2+0.064 2x+0.002 9, r2=0.999 9, RSD=0.1%-0.9%, and the LOD and LOQ were 3 and 10 ng·mL-1 of protein, respectively. Conclusion The novel method for determining the residual protein in ferment antibio

  7. Whole-cell protein profiles are useful for distinguishing enterococcal species recovered from clinical specimens Los perfiles de proteínas totales son útiles para distinguir especies de enterococos recuperados de muestras clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell protein analysis was performed for differentiating 150 enterococcal isolates to the species level, which had previously been identified by extended phenotypic conventional tests. Whole-cell protein profile (WCPP showed a high degree of similarity within species and comparison between species revealed important differences in band profiles. All Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates were properly located into their corresponding species, regardless of their clinical source and susceptibility pattern. Moreover, WCPP allowed relocation of some isolates that had erroneously been identified by the usual conventional scheme (i.e. two atypical arginine-negative E. faecalis isolates. WCPP proved to be a simple method to ascertain the various enterococcal species, especially those other than E. faecalis, and may be a suitable tool for high-complexity or reference clinical laboratories.La comparación del perfil de proteínas totales permitió agrupar 150 aislamientos de enterococos dentro de la especie en la que habían sido ubicados por el esquema convencional de pruebas bioquímicas. Los patrones de proteínas totales, comparados visualmente, se mantuvieron con alto grado de similitud intraespecie y revelaron diferencias notorias en la comparación interespecie. Todos los aislamientos de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, independientemente de los sitios de aislamiento, cuadro clínico del paciente, biotipo o antibiotipo, fueron fácilmente encuadrados en su especie. Asimismo, el estudio del perfil de proteínas totales de enterococos permitió reubicar taxonómicamente aislamientos que habían sido incorrectamente identificados por los métodos bioquímicos convencionales, como por ejemplo dos aislamientos atípicos de E. faecalis arginina negativos. Dado que la metodología empleada es económica y rápida, la comparación de perfiles de proteínas totales en SDS-PAGE podría ser considerada una herramienta

  8. Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordek, A

    2011-03-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory signs of infection studied by us (concentration of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, immature-to-total neutrophil ratio) were not discriminatory, confirming the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin measurements in nosocomial infections of the neonate with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Proteínas totais do liquido cefalorraqueano obtido por punção da cisterna magna: valores normais. Variações ligadas ao sexo Total protein content of normal cisternal cerebrospinal fluid: Variations related to sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Singer Vermes

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Aplicando o método de Lowry, determinamos as proteínas totais do LCR considerado normal de 98 pessoas: 58 do sexo masculino e 40 do feminino. Todas as amostras de LCR foram obtidas por punção da cisterna magna (LCR-SO. Mediante tratamento estatístico dos valores obtidos, estabelecemos as taxas normais de proteinorraquia cisternal para a população mista: limite superior de 40,36 mg/100 ml, valor médio de 26,78 mg/100 e limite inferior de 13,20 mg/100 ml. Estes valores são superiores àqueles referidos na literatura. Foi verificado que a proteinorraquia total é, em média, significantemente maior nos indivíduos do sexo masculino, que nos de feminino. Consequentemente estabelecemos em separado os níveis normais de proteínas totais do LCR-SO para pessoas do sexo masculino e feminino. As taxas médias de proteínas totais do LCR-SO de pessoas do sexo masculino e feminino são de 28,76 e 23,91 mg/100 ml, respectivamente; os limites normais vão de 16,96 a 47,13 mg/100 ml para o sexo masculino e de 14,76 a 42,76 mg/100 ml para o sexo feminino.The total protein content of CSF collected from the cisterna magna (cisternal fluid of 98 patients (58 males and 40 females with no neurological diseases was determined by the colorimetric method devised by Lowry and co-workers. This method has been previously chosen based mainly on it's sensitivity, accuracy and low fluid consumption. The CSF samples were normal with regard to pressure, color, citology and it's content in glucose, chloride and urea. Complement fixation tests for syphilis and cisticercosis, as well as the globulin tests (Pandy, Nonne — Appelt and Takata-Ara were negative. The average value and the normal range of cisternal fluid total protein was calculated for the mixed population (males and females. The mean protein value was 26.78 mg/100 ml, the lower and upper limits were respectively 13.20 and 40.36 mg/100 ml. These data are higher than those stated in some publications, and

  10. Implantação de controle estatístico em determinação de nitrogênio total e proteína bruta em peito de frango = Implementation of statistical control in the determination of total nitrogen and crude protein in chicken breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi aprimorar a qualidade analítica em laboratório de controle físico-químico de alimentos por meio da implantação de controle estatístico de processo em análise de nitrogênio total e proteína bruta de peito de frango. Foi avaliado oteor de proteína em 15 amostras de peito de frango obtidas de um mesmo lote, fornecido por uma empresa de abate e industrialização de frango de corte, localizada na região Oeste do Paraná. Após a confecção do gráfico de controle, semanalmente amostras de peito defrango foram utilizadas para se avaliar o desempenho do analista, materiais, reagentes e equipamentos empregados na análise de proteína. Outros controles utilizados para se garantir a qualidade dessa análise foram calibração da bureta no próprio laboratório, uso de padrão certificado de amostra liofilizada, à base de carne, fornecido pelo SENAI-Chapecó, Estado de Santa Catarina, e participação em Programa de Ensaio de Proficiência (PEP. Otrabalho possibilitou mostrar que o gráfico de controle é apenas uma técnica contida no processo de Gestão da Qualidade e fornece subsídios para a tomada de decisões, visando à melhoria contínua.The objective of this work was to improve analytical quality in a physical-chemical food control laboratory by implementing statistical process control of the process to analyze total nitrogen and crude protein in chicken breast. Protein content was evaluated in 15 samples of chicken breast obtained from the same batch, supplied by a poultry slaughter and industrialization company located in western Paraná. After creating the control graph, weekly samples of chicken breast were used to evaluate the performance of the analyst, material, agents and equipments applied in the protein analysis. Other controls applied to assure the quality of this analysis werecalibration buret calibration in the laboratory, use of the certified standard of lyophilized meat sample, supplied

  11. 复方雄蚕蛾胶囊中总多糖和蛋白质含量测定%Determination of Total Polysaccharides Content and Protein Content in Bombycidae Hung Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿耘; 马超英; 李子阳; 杨超; 罗丽勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the quality standard of bombycidae hung capsule. Method:The contents of Total Polysaccharides were determined by phenol-sulfuric method[1],the detection wavelength was 490nm,from 0.02~0. Lg · L-1, The Linear Relationship was good between Concentrations and Absorbency of Total Polysaccharides (r=0.9984);The content of Protein were determined by Micro - Kjeldahl method[2]. Result: The average contents of Total Polysaccharides was determined 5.9%, the average content of Proteinin was determined 51.3%, from Bombycidae hung Capsule. Conclusion :The above method for the quantification was proved to have the advantages of simple operation, rapidity, high sensitivity and fine repetition, and it should be helpful for monitoring the quality control methods of Bombycidae hung Capsule.%目的:建立复方雄蚕蛾胶囊质量控制的定性定量方法.方法:总多糖含量测定采用苯酚-硫酸显色法[1],在490nm波长处测定吸收度,在0.02~0.1g·L-1范围内,其质量浓度与吸光度线性关系良好( r=0.9984);蛋白质含量测定采用凯氏定氮法[2].结果:复方雄蚕蛾胶囊中总多糖的平均含量为5.9%,蛋白质平均含量为51.3%.结论:该方法操作简便、快速、灵敏度高和重复性好,可以作为复方雄蚕蛾胶囊的质量控制的定性定量方法.

  12. Influência da forma de administração e da quantidade fornecida de colostro sobre a concentração de proteína total e de suas frações eletroforéticas no soro sangüíneo de bezerros da raça Holandesa Influence of volume and method of administration of colostrum on total protein and eletrophoretic serum fractions in Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the amount of colostrum (two and four liters and methods of colostrum feeding (direct suckling from the cow, feeding colostrum using nipple bottle, and no feeding colostrum on different blood traits. Thirty two Holstein calves (four groups of eight animals each were randomly allotted to four treatments: treatment 1 - calves were hand fed four liters of colostrum; treatment 2 - calves were hand fed two liters of colostrum; treatment 3 - calves were fed colostrum directly from the cow, and treatment 4 - calves were not fed colostrum. Higher values of total serum protein, betaglobulins and gamaglobulins were observed in the calves after 24 hours of colostrum feeding. No differences among animals fed colostrum directly from the cow and hand fed two or four liters of colostrum were observed for total protein and eletrophoretic fractions. However lower values of total and eletrophoretic fractions were observed for calves that were not fed colostrum.

  13. EFFECT OF TREATED WATER WITH POLYMERIC BIGUANIDE (VANTOCIL IB, UPON THE ERITHROCYTE PARAMETERS AND TOTAL PLASMA PROTEINS OF BROILERS EFEITO DA ÁGUA TRATADA COM BIGUANIDA POLIMÉRICA (VANTOCIL IB SOBRE O QUADRADO ERITROCITÁRIO E PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS TOTAIS DE FRANGO DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirson Vieira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of treated water with polymeric biguanide (Vantocil IB, with different dilutions, upon the erithrocyte parameters and total plasma proteins of broilers. Five treatments and four repetitions were carried out, with a total of 200 broilers. Group 1: not treated water - negative witness; Group 2: sodium hypoclorite with treated water (0.4 - 0.6 ppm - positive witness; Group 3: polymeric biguanide treated water (Vantocil IB - 1:2000; Group 4: polymeric biguanide treated water (Vantocil IB - 1:4000; Group 5: polymeric biguanide treated water (Vantocil IB - 1:6000. The experimental unit was represented by ten broilers, and the experiment was conducted from July to August, 1995, during 42 days. At the end blood was spooned by puncture cardiac of one broiler of each group. The total plasma proteins was quantified for refratometric method, the average of the treatments did not differ statistically (p < 0.05 for the Tukey Test.

    KEY-WORDS: Blood; erithrocyte parameters; total plasma proteins.

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de avaliar o efeito do tratamento da água com biguanida polimérica (Vantocil IB, em diferentes diluições, sobre o quadro eritrocitário e proteínas plasmáticas totais de frangos de corte. Foram ensaiados cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, com um total de 200 aves. Grupo 1 - Água não tratada - testemunha negativa; Grupo 2 - Água tratada com hipoclorito de sódio (0,4 - 0,6 ppm - testemunha positiva; Grupo 3 - Água tratada com biguanida polimérica (Vantocil IB - 1:2000; Grupo 4 - Água tratada com biguanida polim

  14. Consumo, digestibilidade total, produção de proteína microbiana e balanço de nitrogênio em dietas com subprodutos de frutas para ruminantes Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2011-05-01

    -product of fresh fruit (pineapple, guava, papaya, mango and passion fruit used in the diet for bovines partly replacing corn silage on intake and total nutrient digestibility, on the production of microbial protein and the nitrogen balance and on prediction of digestible fractions and total digestible nutrients (TDN of these by-products. All animals received corn silage and the urea/ammonium sulfate (9:1 mixture so diets would remain isonitrogenous. The intakes of dry matter (DM (kg/day, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and TDN, and the digestibility of CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and ether extract (EE were affected by the source of the by-product. There was an effect for the level of inclusion of products in the digestibility of CP and EE. The by-products of papaya, mango and pineapple showed energy values of 23.1, 18.0 and 7.1% respectively, higher than corn silage. The source of the by-product influenced urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and production of microbial protein, in addition to the intake (g/day, the excretion in feces and urine (g/day of nitrogen compounds and nitrogen balance (g/day. The level of inclusion of the by-product in the diet affect the urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and microbial protein production. The by-products of pineapple, papaya and mango have energy value higher than corn silage and they can partly replace energy concentrates in diets for ruminants. The by-product of passion fruit has the potential to partly replace roughage in the diets of ruminants. The by-product of guava has use limitations in diets of ruminants.

  15. Restricted total stability and total attractivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zappala'

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the new concepts of restricted total stability and total attractivity is formulated. For this purpose the classical theory of Malkin with suitable changes and the theory of limiting equations, introduced by Sell developed by Artstein and Andreev, are used. Significant examples are presented.

  16. Quantitative changes associated with calving in the levels of bovine immunoglobulins in selected body fluids. I. Changes in the levels of IgA, IgGl and total protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J E; Kiddy, C A; Pierce, C S; Rock, C A

    1972-07-01

    Levels of bovine IgA, IgG1 and total protein (TP) were determined in serum, saliva, tears and individual quarter lacteal secretions of six Holstein-Friesian cows sampled from six weeks before to four weeks after parturition. Hierarchal analyses of variance indicated significant variations among weeks, cows and quarters of the udder. A precipitous but non proportional drop in the levels of IgA and IgA1 in lacteal secretions occurred at calving. There was a concomitant increase in IgG1, and decrease in IgA, in serum. Correlation studies supported the concept of selective transport of IgG1 from serum to lacteal secretions in regulated amounts independent of serum IgG1 levels. Changes in the IgG1/TP ratio of serum and lacteal secretions supported the idea of a decrease in the selective transport mechanism. Correlation studies and estimations of secretory IgA (SIgA) in serum suggest that serum IgA is derived from IgA synthesized in secretory tissues. Highly significant correlations between IgA and IgG1 levels in all secretions postpartum suggest that local IgA synthesis and either IgG1 transport or local IgG1 synthesis are initiated by the same stimuli. Although some of the variation in the level reported for IgA and IgG1 in secretions resulted from protein dilution, much of the variation represents physiological differences between individual animals and tissues in the same animal. An IgG2/IgG1 ratio approaching that of serum occurred in a mastitic quarter of one cow. IgA was the principal immunoglobulin in saliva and tears, comprised a greater proportion of the immunoglobulin in milk whey than in prepartum lacteal secretions and was a minor immunoglobulin in bovine serum.

  17. Quantitative Changes Associated with Calving in the Levels of Bovine Immunoglobulins in Selected Body Fluids I. Changes in the Levels of IgA, IgG1 and Total Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. E.; Pierce, C. S.; Rock, C. A.; Kiddy, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Levels of bovine IgA, IgG1 and total protein (TP) were determined in serum, saliva, tears and individual quarter lacteal secretions of six Holstein-Friesian cows sampled from six weeks before to four weeks after parturition. Hierarchal analyses of variance indicated significant variations among weeks, cows and quarters of the udder. A precipitous but non proportional drop in the levels of IgA and IgA1 in lacteal secretions occurred at calving. There was a concomitant increase in IgG1, and decrease in IgA, in serum. Correlation studies supported the concept of selective transport of IgG1 from serum to lacteal secretions in regulated amounts independent of serum IgG1 levels. Changes in the IgG1/TP ratio of serum and lacteal secretions supported the idea of a decrease in the selective transport mechanism. Correlation studies and estimations of secretory IgA (SIgA) in serum suggest that serum IgA is derived from IgA synthesized in secretory tissues. Highly significant correlations between IgA and IgG1 levels in all secretions postpartum suggest that local IgA synthesis and either IgG1 transport or local IgG1 synthesis are initiated by the same stimuli. Although some of the variation in the level reported for IgA and IgG1 in secretions resulted from protein dilution, much of the variation represents physiological differences between individual animals and tissues in the same animal. An IgG2/IgG1 ratio approaching that of serum occurred in a mastitic quarter of one cow. IgA was the principal immunoglobulin in saliva and tears, comprised a greater proportion of the immunoglobulin in milk whey than in prepartum lacteal secretions and was a minor immunoglobulin in bovine serum. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4261838

  18. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle.

  19. Effects of Calcium Fructoborate on Levels of C-Reactive Protein, Total Cholesterol, Low-Density Lipoprotein, Triglycerides, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1: a Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoveanu, Otilia-Constantina; Mogoşanu, George Dan; Bejenaru, Cornelia; Bejenaru, Ludovic Everard; Croitoru, Octavian; Neamţu, Johny; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Reyes-Izquierdo, Tania; Biţă, Andrei; Scorei, Iulia Daria; Scorei, Romulus Ion

    2015-02-01

    Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been reported as supporting healthy inflammatory response. In this study, we assess the effects of CFB on blood parameters and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy subjects. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Participants received placebo or CFB at a dose of 112 mg/day (CFB-1) or 56 mg/day (CFB-2) for 30 days. Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were determined before and after supplementation. CFB-1 showed a reduction in blood levels of CRP by 31.3 % compared to baseline. CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced LDL levels by 9.8 and 9.4 %, respectively. CFB-1 decreased blood homocysteine by 5.5 % compared with baseline, whereas CFB-2 did not have a significant effect. Blood levels of TG were reduced by 9.1 and 8.8 % for CFB-1 and CFB-2, respectively. Use of both CFB-1 and CFB-2 resulted in significantly reduced IL-6 levels, when compared within and between groups. IL-1β was reduced by 29.2 % in the CFB-1 group. Finally, CFB-1 and CFB-2 reduced MCP-1 by 31 and 26 %, respectively. Our data indicate that 30-day supplementation with 112 mg/day CFB (CFB-1) resulted in a significant reduction of LDL, TG, TC, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, and CRP. HDL levels were increased, when compared to baseline and placebo. These results suggest that CFB might provide beneficial support to healthy cardiovascular systems by positively affecting these blood markers (ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN90543844; May 24, 2012 ( http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN90543844 )).

  20. Rehabilitation for total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman, Scott; Rubin, Lee E

    2013-05-01

    Total hip and knee replacement are two of the most common and successful elective surgeries preformed in the United States each year. Preoperative medical preparation and postoperative rehabilitation are equally important to a successful outcome. Physical deconditioning, tobacco use, obesity and medical co-morbidities can adversely affect outcomes and should be addressed before any elective procedure. Formal postoperative therapy is geared towards the specific surgery and is aimed at returning the patient to independent activity.

  1. Benefits of pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn) fruit extracts to weight changes, total protein, and uric acid in white rats (Rattus norvegicus) as an animal model of acute renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primarizky, Hardany; Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The occurrence of acute renal failure (ARF) cases continues to increase every year. Some of the cases are due to nephrotoxic effect caused by overdose of antibiotic consumption or abuse of the drug, gentamicin. An antibiotic therapy that can be used to overcome in such a case is the pomegranate extracts. However, until now, studies using pomegranate for cases of ARF have not been done. This study aims to determine changes in body weight, the levels of total protein (TP), and the levels of serum uric acid (UA) as a result of the pomegranate extract consumption. Materials and Methods: A total number of 32 rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into four groups randomly. One group was assigned as the control group (P0) and given intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline and 0.3% carboxy methyl cellulose sodium (CMC) Na; P1 was provided with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 0.3% CMC Na orally, P2 was supplied with 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and ellagic acid in 0.3% CMC Na, and P3 was given 80 mg/kg bw/i.p. gentamicin and 150 mg/kg bw pomegranate extract in 0.3% CMC Na. The provision of treatment was carried out in 8 days and followed by making the overthrow of body weight and blood sampling for the examination of study variables. Results: The results taken by doing the analysis of variance method for the four treatment groups show that the control group (P0) has significant differences from P1, P2, and P3 (ppomegranate extracts in the treatment of nephrotoxicity toward rats is effective to maintain normal body weight, normal TP levels, and the UA blood serum of the rats. As this study is a preventive therapy, it needs further researches about the effective dose as a curative therapy, its level of effectiveness and its long-term side effects. PMID:27956780

  2. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  3. Short-chain fatty acid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition alters intestinal structure, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) mRNA and protein, and proglucagon mRNA abundance in normal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappenden, K A; Drozdowski, L A; Thomson, A B; McBurney, M I

    1998-07-01

    Intestinal adaptation is a complex physiologic process that is not completely understood. Intravenous short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) enhance intestinal adaptation after 80% enterectomy in rats. The purpose of this study was to examine rapid responses to SCFA-supplemented total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in the normal small intestine. After jugular catheterization, 31 Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 258 +/- 3 g) were randomly assigned to receive standard TPN or an isoenergetic, isonitrogenous TPN solution supplemented with SCFAs (TPN+SCFA). Intestinal samples were obtained after 24 or 72 h of nutrient infusion. TPN+SCFA for 24 h increased (P SCFA for 72 h increased (P SCFA infusion and returned to levels seen with control TPN by 72 h. Glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) mRNA was significantly higher (P SCFA groups at both time points when compared with control TPN groups. Ileal GLUT2 protein abundance in the 72-h TPN+SCFA group was significantly higher (P SCFA than after 24 h, whereas the 24- and 72-h TPN groups did not differ. In summary, SCFAs led to rapid changes in ileal proglucagon and glucose transporter expression in rats receiving TPN and provide insights into therapeutic management of individuals with short bowel syndrome or intestinal malabsorption syndromes.

  4. Comparison of isorhamnetin absorption properties in total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. with its pure form in a Caco-2 cell model mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Duan, Jingze; Fu, Qingxue; Xia, Mengxin; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guowen; Wu, Tao; Ji, Guang

    2015-06-20

    Total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (TFH) are extracted from the widely distributed thorny bush Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Isorhamnetin (IS) is one of the representative ingredients in TFH. In this study, the absorption properties of IS in TFH and its pure form were compared through transepithelial transport and cellular uptake experiments in a Caco-2 cell model. Our results show that the absorption properties of IS in TFH and its pure form were remarkably different: (1) Both PappAB and PappBA of IS in TFH were dramatically increased compared with those of IS pure form; consequently, its Pratio was 2.3-fold higher than that of IS; (2) Both the accumulation and efflux of IS in TFH were significantly enhanced compared with the single compound. One likely reason for these differences is that the multiple components in TFH significantly down regulated the mRNA expression level of MRP2, which lead to a decrease in the protein level of MRP2, based on western blotting and RT-PCR assays. This study highlights the significant differences in the absorption properties of flavonoid components in different forms and the potential multi-component interactions in TFH.

  5. 小麦饲粮中添加木聚糖酶对肉鹅血糖和血清总蛋白水平的影响%Effect of Wheat Based Diet Supplemented with Xylanase on Blood Sugar and Total Protein in Serum of Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳丽; 史东辉; 杨桂芹

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The effects of wheat based diet supplemented with xylarmse on blood sugar and total protein in serum of geese were studied. [Method] By using the randomized design of single factor, the 1-day-old healthy goslings were divided into 6 groups and fed with corn based diet, wheat based diet and wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase at different concentrations respectively, the contents of blood sugar and total protein in serum were determined. [Result] The wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase could increase the blood sugar and total protein in serum of geese and wheat based diet supplemented with 0.2% xylanase generated the best effect, which was higher than those of corn based diet group. As for the concentration of protein in senun, wheat based diet supplemented with O. 2% xylarmse was significantly different from corn based diet and wheat based diet. [Conclusion] The wheat based diet supplemented with xylanase could enhance geese production.

  6. EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

    KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
    Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28

  7. Pharmacokinetics of gestodene and ethinylestradiol in 14 women during three months of treatment with a new tri-step combination oral contraceptive: serum protein binding of gestodene and influence of treatment on free and total testosterone levels in the serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnz, W; Baumann, A; Staks, T; Dibbelt, L; Knuppen, R; Jütting, G

    1993-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of gestodene (GEST) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) were determined in 14 healthy women (age 18 to 32 years) during a treatment period of three months with a new tri-step combination oral contraceptive (Milvane). Prior to this treatment period, the same women received a single administration of a coated tablet containing 0.1 mg GEST together with 0.03 mg EE2. There was a wash-out phase of one week between both treatments. Following single dose administration, a mean terminal half-life of 18 h was observed for GEST. The total clearance was 0.9 ml x min-1 x kg-1 and the volume of distribution was 84 l. During a treatment cycle, GEST levels in the serum accumulated by a factor of 8 as compared to single dose administration. Steady-state drug levels were reached during the second half of each cycle. As compared to single dose administration, the following changes were observed for GEST at the end of treatment cycles one and three: prolonged terminal half-life (20 to 22 h), reduced total (0.16 ml x min-1 x kg-1) and free clearance (ca. 27 ml x min-1 x kg-1), reduced volume of distribution (ca. 18 l). A concomitant EE2-induced increase in the SHBG concentrations by a factor of three as compared to pretreatment values was observed during a treatment cycle and appeared to be mainly responsible for the changes in the pharmacokinetics of GEST. Marked changes were also seen for the serum protein binding of GEST. After single dose administration, the free fraction of GEST was 1.3% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 69.4% and 29.3%, respectively. At the end of cycle one, the free fraction was only 0.6% and the fractions bound to SHBG and albumin were 81.4% and 18.0%, respectively. There was no difference in corresponding pharmacokinetic parameters and in the serum protein binding of GEST at the end of cycles one and three. On the last day of treatment cycles one and three, the AUC(0-4h) values of EE2 were 299.2 and 278.1 pg x ml-1 x h, respectively

  8. Avaliação do desempenho de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição parcial ou total ao farelo de soja Evaluation of the performance of female rabbits fed on canola meal in partial and total substitution of crude protein by soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial and total substitution of soybean meal crude protein (SBM by canola meal (CM on live weight (LW, daily weight gain (DWG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion (FC in female rabbits are provided. Rabbits were evaluated from weaning period (43 days of age to adult life when they are capable of reproduction (150 days of age. Forty-eight White New Zealand females were used and distributed in four treatments. SBM was substituted at 00%, 33%, 66% and 100% levels by CM. The partial or total substitution of SBM by CM did not change (P > 0.05 the LW after 70 days old. Dunnett’s test showed that, independently of substitution level, FC of animals fed on meal with 33% SBM substitution by CM from age 43 to 90 days and 43 to 150 days was worse than that of animals fed on reference meal. LW120, DWG of 43 – 120-day-old animals receiving 33% SBM substitution by CM and LW150 and DWG of 43 – 150-day-old animals receiving meal with SBM substitution by 33% and 66% of CM were lower than those for animals that received reference meal. Excluding the reference meal, SBM substitution by CM during the periods in which animals were 43 - 120 days old and 43 - 150 days old caused an increase of DFI. Independently of level of inclusion as a substitute for SBM, results show that CM worsened the animals’ performance.Objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos da substiuição parcial e total do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola sobre o peso, ganho médio diário (GMD, ingestão de alimentos (IA e conversão alimentar (CA em coelhas do desmame (43 dias até a idade de reprodução (150 dias, quarente e oito coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia, foram distribuídas, inteiramente ao acaso, em um experimento com quatro tratamentos e doze repetições. O farelo de soja foi substituído em 00, 33, 66 e 100% pelo farelo de canola. A substituição parcial ou total do farelo de soja não alterarou o peso após os 70 dias de idade. Por meio do uso do teste de

  9. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  10. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  11. Suplementação de metionina e/ou lisina em rações para juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 Reduction of protein levels and methionine and/or lysine supplementation in diets and their effects in total ammonia nitrogen excretion of tambaqui juveniles (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian V. Brandão

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da redução dos níveis de proteína e a suplementação de metionina e/ou lisina em rações sobre a excreção de amônia em juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial de duas entradas: 2 níveis protéicos (25 e 20% e 4 níveis de inclusão de aminoácidos: a 0% de suplementação, b DL-Metionina (3% da PB, c L-lisina (5% da PB e d Dl-Metionina (3% da PB + L-lisina (5% da PB, com duração de 55 dias. A coleta de água das unidades experimentais ocorreu em três momentos (1º dia, 27º dia e 55º dia durante o período experimental. Nestes dias, foram realizadas 3 coletas de amostras de água para análise de amônia de cada unidade experimental (08:00 , 14:00 e 20:00 horas. Os dados de excreção de amônia foram analisados por ANOVA com medidas repetidas no tempo a 5% do nível de significância. A redução em 5% do nível de proteína na dieta gerou uma diminuição de 28,4% na excreção de amônia. Contudo, a suplementação de lisina e metionina não influenciaram esta diminuição.It was evaluated the effect of the reduction of crude protein level (CP and the lysine and/or methionine supplementation in total ammonia nitrogen excretion on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum juveniles. The experiment developed in a factorial and randomized design with two levels of protein contents (20% and 25% CP and four levels of amino acid supplementation: a Dl-methionine (0% of CP and L-lysine (0% of CP, b Dl-methionine (3% of CP, c L-lysine (5% of CP, d Dl-methionine (3% of CP + L-lysine (5% of CP, during 55 days. The water sampling from experimental units was done at 3 moments (1(0 day, 27(0 day e 55(0 day. In these days, 3 samples of each experimental unit were collected in elapsing of the time (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p.m. and 08:00 p.m.. The ammonia excretion data were analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA (p>0,05 with time as within effect. The

  12. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  13. Structural determination of functional units of the nucleotide binding domain (NBD94 of the reticulocyte binding protein Py235 of Plasmodium yoelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardina Grüber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Invasion of the red blood cells (RBC by the merozoite of malaria parasites involves a large number of receptor ligand interactions. The reticulocyte binding protein homologue family (RH plays an important role in erythrocyte recognition as well as virulence. Recently, it has been shown that members of RH in addition to receptor binding may also have a role as ATP/ADP sensor. A 94 kDa region named Nucleotide-Binding Domain 94 (NBD94 of Plasmodium yoelii YM, representative of the putative nucleotide binding region of RH, has been demonstrated to bind ATP and ADP selectively. Binding of ATP or ADP induced nucleotide-dependent structural changes in the C-terminal hinge-region of NBD94, and directly impacted on the RBC binding ability of RH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to find the smallest structural unit, able to bind nucleotides, and its coupling module, the hinge region, three truncated domains of NBD94 have been generated, termed NBD94(444-547, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793, respectively. Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy NBD94(444-547 has been identified to form the smallest nucleotide binding segment, sensitive for ATP and ADP, which became inhibited by 4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan. The shape of NBD94(444-547 in solution was calculated from small-angle X-ray scattering data, revealing an elongated molecule, comprised of two globular domains, connected by a spiral segment of about 73.1 A in length. The high quality of the constructs, forming the hinge-region, NBD94(566-663 and NBD94(674-793 enabled to determine the first crystallographic and solution structure, respectively. The crystal structure of NBD94(566-663 consists of two helices with 97.8 A and 48.6 A in length, linked by a loop. By comparison, the low resolution structure of NBD94(674-793 in solution represents a chair-like shape with three architectural segments. CONCLUSIONS: These structures give the first insight into how nucleotide binding

  14. S100 calcium binding protein B as a biomarker of delirium duration in the intensive care unit – an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan BA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Babar A Khan,1–3 Mark O Farber,1 Noll Campbell,2–5 Anthony Perkins,2,3 Nagendra K Prasad,6 Siu L Hui,1–3 Douglas K Miller,1–3 Enrique Calvo-Ayala,1 John D Buckley,1 Ruxandra Ionescu,1 Anantha Shekhar,1 E Wesley Ely,7,8 Malaz A Boustani1–3 1Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 3Regenstrief Institute, Inc., 4Wishard Health Services, Indianapolis, 5Department of Pharmacy Practice, Purdue University College of Pharmacy, West Lafayette, 6Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN, 7Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 8VA Tennessee Valley Geriatric Research Education Clinical Center (GRECC, Nashville, TN, USA Background: Currently, there are no valid and reliable biomarkers to identify delirious patients predisposed to longer delirium duration. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated S100 calcium binding protein B (S100β levels will be associated with longer delirium duration in critically ill patients. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was performed in the medical, surgical, and progressive intensive care units (ICUs of a tertiary care, university affiliated, and urban hospital. Sixty-three delirious patients were selected for the analysis, with two samples of S100β collected on days 1 and 8 of enrollment. The main outcome measure was delirium duration. Using the cutoff of <0.1 ng/mL and $0.1 ng/mL as normal and abnormal levels of S100β, respectively, on day 1 and day 8, four exposure groups were created: Group A, normal S100β levels on day 1 and day 8; Group B, normal S100β level on day 1 and abnormal S100β level on day 8; Group C, abnormal S100β level on day 1 and normal on day 8; and Group D, abnormal S100β levels on both day 1 and day 8. Results: Patients with abnormal levels of S100β showed a trend towards higher delirium duration (P=0.076; Group B (standard deviation (7.0 [3.2] days, Group C (5.5 [6.3] days, and Group D

  15. Níveis de concentrado na dieta de bovinos Nelore de três condições sexuais: consumo, digestibilidades total e parcial, produção microbiana e parâmetros ruminais Increasing dietary concentrate levels for Nellore of three sexual categories: intake, partial and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2008-05-01

    levels of concentrate - 25 or 50% and three sexual categories to evaluate intake, partial and total digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis and ruminal metabolism. The collection of ruminal fluid was done before and at 2, 4, and 6 hours post-feeding to determine pH and ammonia concentration. With the exception of EE, no other significant effect of concentrate levels and sexual categories was observed on intake and partial or total tract digestibility of nutrients. The intakes of DM, OM, EE, CP, NFC, and TDN (kg/day and DM (% BW or g/kg0.75 were affected neither by the concentrate levels nor by sexual category. Increasing dietary concentrate levels decreased NDF digestibility. Average bacterial N contents ranged from 6.91 to 7.39. No significant effect of concentrate levels and sexual category was observed on duodenal flow of nutrients and microbial efficiency excepted when expressed as gNmic/kgOMDR. Maximum ruminal NH3 concentration (14.55 mg/dL was estimated at 1.83 hours after-feeding. It was concluded that increasing dietary concentrate levels did not affect intake, partial and total tract digestibility of most nutrients and microbial protein synthesis.

  16. Qualidade total do produto Products total quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira de Almeida

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o conceito de qualidade total do produto, seus determinantes, bem como as dimensões que compõem essa qualidade. Parte-se do pressuposto de que a qualidade do produto deve ser avaliada pela satisfação total do consumidor. Para o consumidor a qualidade do produto envolve pelo menos as seguintes dimensões: a qualidade do produto em si; a qualidade do produto ao longo do tempo; a qualidade dos serviços associados ao uso do produto; e o custo do ciclo de vida do produto. O trabalho procura detalhar e discutir cada uma dessas dimensões da qualidade, tendo em vista a satisfação do consumidor.The paper concerns to the concept of product's total quality, its determinants, and the dimensions wich constitute this quality. We admit that product quality should be evaluated via consumer's total satisfaction. Product quality for consumers includes at least the following dimensions: the product quality per se; the performance of product quality over time; the quality of services related to the use of the product; and the product lifecycle costs. This study seeks to specify and to discuss each of these quality dimensions related to consumer's satisfaction.

  17. 血清总蛋白参考方法复现与常用试剂盒比对研究%Reproduction of reference method for serum total protein and evaluation of commercial reagent kits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何美琳; 翟静; 梁国威; 张捷

    2012-01-01

    目的:复现血清总蛋白测定的双缩脲参考方法(紫外分光光度法),并验证其性能.同时评价4种常用商品试剂盒.方法:参考方法的建立参照美国AACC的要求.通过参加国际临床化学与检验医学联合会(IFCC)主办的参考实验室间的国际环形比对实验(RELA)以验证其准确性.按照美国临床和实验室标准委员会(CLSI)EP-9A2方案,对4种常用商品试剂盒进行评价.结果:参考方法的CVs在0.47% ~ 0.85%间.线性方程为y=1.0022x -0.2121(r=0.9999).回收率为100.2%~102.4%.RELA比对结果在等效限内.与参考方法相比,4种商品试剂盒在医学决定点(Xc=45 g/L,60 g/L和80 g/L)处的95%可信区间位于可接受偏差范围内.结论:本实验室已复现并验证了血清总蛋白双缩脲法参考方法;4种商品试剂盒的检测结果与参考方法有差异,但仍在可接受范围内,可用于临床实验室检测.%Objective:To reproduce a reference measurement procedure and evaluate commercial reagent kits by such established procedure. Methods:The reference measurement procedure of serum total protein was established according to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry ( AACC) , and the accuracy of this procedure was verified by External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine ( RELA) held by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) . Subsequently, four commercial reagent kits were evaluated by the reproduced reference procedure following CLSI guideline EP -9A2. Results:The performance of the reproduced reference procedure was as follows; CVs ranged from 0.47% toO.85%. Linearity was Y = 1.0022X -0.2121 (r=0.9999) , and the recovery ranged from 100.2% tol02.4%. The External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine ( RELA) was applied, and the result was within the limit of equivalence. Compared with the reference method, the 95

  18. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates.

  19. Total abdominal colectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the rectum. This can cause an infection or abscess. Scarring of the connection between the small intestine ... More Crohn disease Ileostomy Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy Ulcerative colitis Patient ...

  20. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  1. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  2. Reemplazo total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2002-01-01

    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  3. Reemplazo total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2002-01-01

    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  4. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  5. Total light absorption in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that 100% light absorption can take place in a single patterned sheet of doped graphene. General analysis shows that a planar array of small lossy particles exhibits full absorption under critical-coupling conditions provided the cross section of each individual particle is comparable to the area of the lattice unit-cell. Specifically, arrays of doped graphene nanodisks display full absorption when supported on a substrate under total internal reflection, and also when lying on a dielectric layer coating a metal. Our results are relevant for infrared light detectors and sources, which can be made tunable via electrostatic doping of graphene.

  6. 冷藏对郁金香鳞茎可溶性糖和蛋白质的影响%Effect of Cold Storage of Tulip Bulb on the Contents Total Soluble Sugar and Soluble Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛洪玉; 宁国龙; 刘迪

    2012-01-01

    以郁金香鳞茎阿波罗、检阅、小黑人、普瑞斯玛、巴塞罗娜为试材,对不同冷藏处理时间的郁金香鳞茎不同部位的可溶性总糖、还原糖、蔗糖、可溶性蛋白质含量进行研究.结果表明:5个品种郁金香鳞茎在冷藏处理期间可溶性总糖、还原糖、蔗糖、可溶性蛋白质含量呈规律性变化.蔗糖是可溶性总糖的主要形式;初步认为解除休眠的过程是由外向内,通过鳞茎盘调节来实现的;5个品种郁金香鳞茎还原糖、蔗糖在第7周出现明显的波峰和拐点;检阅较其它4个品种表现出较高的可溶性糖含量和活性.%Effects of cold storage of tulip bulbs of the cultivars of Apeldoorn, Parade, Nigrita, Purissima, Banja Luka Apollo during dormancy on the contents of nutrients contained in different parts of the bulbs were investigated, such as total soluble sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, and soluble protein. . Regular changes of the nutrients were observed in the bulbs of 5 cultivars. Sucrose was the main component of the soluble sugar. It was concluded preliminarily that the dormancy breaking occurred from outside to inside through the adjustment of the bulb. The contents of reductive sugar and sucrose reached their maximum values in the seventh week of the cold storage. Cultivar Parade exhibited higher contents of soluble sugar than other 4 cultivars.

  7. Revision Total Elbow Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Miguel A; Cheung, Emilie V; Murthi, Anand M

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent technologic advances, total elbow arthroplasty has complication rates higher than that of total joint arthroplasty in other joints. With new antirheumatic treatments, the population receiving total elbow arthroplasty has shifted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to those with posttraumatic arthritis, further compounding the high complication rate. The most common reasons for revision include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, and component failure. Common mechanisms of total elbow arthroplasty failure include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, component failure, and instability. Tension band fixation, allograft struts with cerclage wire, and/or plate and screw constructs can be used for fracture stabilization.

  8. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  9. Strictness and Totality Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, K. L.; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    We define a novel inference system for strictness and totality analysis for the simply-typed lazy lambda-calculus with constants and fixpoints. Strictness information identifies those terms that definitely denote bottom (i.e. do not evaluate to WHNF) whereas totality information identifies those ...

  10. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat...

  11. Free dissociable insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), total IGF-I and their binding proteins in girls with Turner syndrome during long-term growth hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, Ellen M. N.; Van Doorn, Jaap; Stijnen, Theo; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of GH treatment on free IGF-I levels in girls with Turner syndrome (TS) and to verify relationships between free IGF-I levels and total IGF-I, IGFBP-1, 2 and 3. Additionally, to analyse whether free IGF-I, total IGF-I, IGFBP-3 or its ratio were related to IGF-I bi

  12. Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) May Act as a Substrate and a Recognition Unit for CRL4CRBN and Stub1 E3 Ligases Facilitating Ubiquitination of Proteins Involved in Presynaptic Functions and Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Dolores; Rice, Richard C; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali M; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2016-08-12

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP), whose mutations cause Alzheimer disease, plays an important in vivo role and facilitates transmitter release. Because the APP cytosolic region (ACR) is essential for these functions, we have characterized its brain interactome. We found that the ACR interacts with proteins that regulate the ubiquitin-proteasome system, predominantly with the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases Stub1, which binds the NH2 terminus of the ACR, and CRL4(CRBN), which is formed by Cul4a/b, Ddb1, and Crbn, and interacts with the COOH terminus of the ACR via Crbn. APP shares essential functions with APP-like protein-2 (APLP2) but not APP-like protein-1 (APLP1). Noteworthy, APLP2, but not APLP1, interacts with Stub1 and CRL4(CRBN), pointing to a functional pathway shared only by APP and APLP2. In vitro ubiquitination/ubiquitome analysis indicates that these E3 ligases are enzymatically active and ubiquitinate the ACR residues Lys(649/650/651/676/688) Deletion of Crbn reduces ubiquitination of Lys(676) suggesting that Lys(676) is physiologically ubiquitinated by CRL4(CRBN) The ACR facilitated in vitro ubiquitination of presynaptic proteins that regulate exocytosis, suggesting a mechanism by which APP tunes transmitter release. Other dementia-related proteins, namely Tau and apoE, interact with and are ubiquitinated via the ACR in vitro This, and the evidence that CRBN and CUL4B are linked to intellectual disability, prompts us to hypothesize a pathogenic mechanism, in which APP acts as a modulator of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase(s), shared by distinct neuronal disorders. The well described accumulation of ubiquitinated protein inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases and the link between the ubiquitin-proteasome system and neurodegeneration make this concept plausible.

  13. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    The hypothesis is that cereal proteases in liquid feed degrade and convert water insoluble storage protein into water soluble protein, which may improve the digestibility of protein in pigs compared with dry feeding. Protein utilization is increased by matching the amino acid (AAs) content...... concentration was analysed in the supernatant after centrifugation. After 15 min., app. 16% of the total protein was soluble and until 8 hours an increase of 5% units was observed. However, from 8 to 48 hours it increased with 10% units for some cultivars. Based on these analyses, cultivars were selected...

  14. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The assay...

  15. Integration of agglutination assay for protein detection in microfluidic disc using Blu-ray optical pickup unit and optical fluid scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Rokon; Burger, Robert; Donolato, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for thrombin detection by combining a magnetic bead based agglutination assay and low-cost microfluidic disc. The detection method is based on an optomagnetic readout system implemented using a Blu-ray optical pickup unit (OPU) as main optoelectronic component. The ass...

  16. 运动个体如何科学摄入蛋白质%How to Conduct Protein Intake Scientifically for Motion Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉

    2011-01-01

    蛋白质是组成人体结构成分和酶等特殊的功能性物质,并在生命过程中发挥着关键性作用.它是人体的主要成份之一,也是人体内部进行各种代谢活动的物质基础.蛋白质在机体内的存在形式和作用是多样化的,与运动个体的肌肉力量和肌肉蛋白合成紧密相关.在运动过程中,骨骼肌收缩活动会影响蛋白质和氨基酸代谢,这种运动的影响还延续到运动后.%Protein is special functional material that composes structural components of human body and enzyme and so on, and it plays a crucial role in the process of life. Protein is not only one of the main ingredients of human body, but also the material base of metabolic activities in human body. The existing form and function of protein is diverse, and it is closely related to muscle protein synthesis and individual muscle strength. Activities of skeletal muscle contraction will affect protein and ami no acid metabolism in athletic process, and after exercise, the influence of the movement will continue.

  17. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  18. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  19. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  20. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  1. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  2. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  4. 未成熟与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白双向电泳的图谱分析%Total Protein Analysis of Immature and Mature Cysticerci of Taenia solium by Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    为从蛋白质水平揭示猪带绦虫入侵中间宿主家猪的免疫逃避机制,应用双向电泳技术分析未成熟与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白质表达差异,进行双向电泳图像软件分析.结果表明:未成熟猪囊尾蚴与成熟猪囊尾蚴蛋白的双向电泳凝胶上分别有(217±13)个、(241±17)个蛋白斑点,未成熟猪囊尾蚴表达上调2倍以上的蛋白有6个,下调2倍以上的蛋白有2个.%In order to explore the immune-escape mechanisms of the T. solium cysticercus on the protein level, the differentially expressed proteins of the immature and mature T. solium cysticerci were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis respectively and analyzed by ImageMaster 2D Plantinum 6. 0 software. The results showed that the immature and mature T. solium cysticerci have 217 13 and 241 17 protein spots respectively, the immature T. solium cysticerci have six proteins of more than two times upregulation and two proteins of more than two times downregulation compared to the mature T. solium cysticerci.

  5. Determination of the total concentration of highly protein-bound drugs in plasma by on-line dialysis and column liquid chromatography : application to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herráez-Hernández, R; van de Merbel, N C; Brinkman, U A

    1995-01-01

    The potential of on-line dialysis as a sample preparation procedure for compounds highly bound to plasma proteins is evaluated, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as model compounds and column liquid chromatography as the separation technique. Different strategies to reduce the degree of dr

  6. Two novel variants of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). K364R, a folding mutation, and R256T, a catalytic-site mutation resulting in a well-folded but totally inactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Linda P; Andresen, Brage S; Engel, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    Two novel rare mutations, MCAD approximately 842G-->C (R256T) and MCAD approximately 1166A-->G (K364R), have been investigated to assess how far the biochemical properties of the mutant proteins correlate with the clinical phenotype of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. When t...

  7. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  8. Algebraic totality, towards completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Finiteness spaces constitute a categorical model of Linear Logic (LL) whose objects can be seen as linearly topologised spaces, (a class of topological vector spaces introduced by Lefschetz in 1942) and morphisms as continuous linear maps. First, we recall definitions of finiteness spaces and describe their basic properties deduced from the general theory of linearly topologised spaces. Then we give an interpretation of LL based on linear algebra. Second, thanks to separation properties, we can introduce an algebraic notion of totality candidate in the framework of linearly topologised spaces: a totality candidate is a closed affine subspace which does not contain 0. We show that finiteness spaces with totality candidates constitute a model of classical LL. Finally, we give a barycentric simply typed lambda-calculus, with booleans ${\\mathcal{B}}$ and a conditional operator, which can be interpreted in this model. We prove completeness at type ${\\mathcal{B}}^n\\to{\\mathcal{B}}$ for every n by an algebraic metho...

  9. Avaliação da digestão ruminal, intestinal e total da matéria orgânica, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro de rações com diferentes fontes de proteína utilizadas em bovinos Evaluation of ruminal, intestinal and total digestion of the organic matter, crude protein in bovine rations neutral detergent fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se três novilhos Holandês Preto & Branco (±300 kg implantados com cânulas: ruminal e duodenal, distribuídos no delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3, para avaliar fontes de proteína nas rações, sobre a digestão ruminal, intestinal e total da matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações formuladas com três fontes de proteína: uréia (UR, farinha de penas (FPE e farelo de glúten de milho (FGM. Diariamente os animais eram alimentados às 8h e 16h, e nos mesmos horários introduzia-se via cânula ruminal 5 g de Cr2O3. Os períodos tiveram duração de 14 dias, sendo 11 dias para adaptação às rações e 3 dias para coleta. Foram coletadas digesta duodenal e fezes por um período de 72 horas, a cada 6 horas. As fontes de proteína não influenciaram (P > ,05 na ingestão ou nas digestões parcial ou total da MO. Entre os tratamentos houve diferenças (P 0,05 pelos tratamentos. Dessa forma, as rações com as fontes de proteína utilizadas, mesmo apresentando diferenças no potencial de degradação, as digestibilidades totais da MO, PB e FDN não sofreram efeitos.Three ruminant and duodenal fistulated steers (300 kg were used in a 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate protein sources in the rations, on the ruminant, intestinal and total digestion of the organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. The treatments were composed of three rations with: urea (UR, feather meal (FEM and corn gluten meal (CGM. The animals were fed daily at 8:00 am and 4:00 p.m. and, at the same time 5 g of Cr2O3 were introduced in the rumen. Periods lasted 14 days out of 11 days were used for adaptation to the ration and 3 days were used for the sample collection. During 72 hours duodenal contents and feces were collected, every 6 hours. The protein sources did not influence (p > 0.05 the OM intake or the partial/total digestibility. Among the treatments

  10. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Total synthesis of bryostatin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Gary E; Poudel, Yam B; Cummins, Thomas J; Rudra, Arnab; Covel, Jonathan A

    2011-02-02

    Bryostatin 1 is a marine natural product that is a very promising lead compound because of the potent biological activity it displays against a variety of human disease states. We describe herein the first total synthesis of this agent. The synthetic route adopted is a highly convergent one in which the preformed, heavily functionalized pyran rings A and C are united by "pyran annulation", the TMSOTf-promoted reaction between a hydroxyallylsilane appended to the A-ring fragment and an aldehyde contained in the C-ring fragment, with concomitant formation of the B ring. Further elaborations of the resulting very highly functionalized intermediate include macrolactonization and selective cleavage of just one of five ester linkages present.

  12. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  13. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...

  14. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  15. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  16. Total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty is most common reconstructive hip procedure in adults. In this surgery we replace some parts of the upper femur and acetabulum with biocompatible materials. The main goal of this surgery is to eliminate pain and regain full extent of joint motion, maintaining hip stability. Surgical technique, biomaterials, design of the prosthesis and fixation techniques have evolved with time adjusting to each other. After total hip arthroplasty patients’ quality of life should be improved. There are many various postoperative complications. Some of them are fatal, and some are minor, which may become manifested years after surgery. Each next surgical procedure following previous hip surgery is associated with considerably lower chances to be successful. Therefore, in primary total hip arthroplasty, preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are essential. Every orthopaedic surgeon needs to improve already adopted surgical skills applying them with precision and without compromise, with the main goal to achieve long-term durability of the selected implant. The number of total hip arthroplasties will also increase in future, and newer and higher quality materials will be used.

  17. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  18. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    is examined. It is concluded that the risk of developing carcinoma of the cervical stump is low, and no longer a weighty indication for the total in preference to the supravaginal hysterectomy as long as subsequent screening of the cervix is performed. At the same time it is important to inform the women...

  19. Total synthesis of aquatolide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saya, J.M.; Vos, K.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.

    2015-01-01

    A total synthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone aquatolide has been accomplished. The central step is an intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of an allene onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone. Other key steps are an intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to close the lactone and

  20. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise. Trea...

  1. Total Synthesis of Naloxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Xiang; WANG Jian-Ying; XU Ming

    2003-01-01

    @@ Naloxone (1) is one of the 14-hydroxyl substituted opium antagonists which are valuable medications for treat ment of opiate abuse, opiate overdose, and alcohol addiction. Here, the total synthesis of naloxone was described. We selected 2,6-dihydroxynaphalene (2) as the starting material.

  2. Total Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus in Change, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM) is frequently presented as a way to change and improve public education. This issue of "Focus in Change" examines Deming's original 14 TQM points and their application to education. Myron Tribus lays out the core philosophy of the movement and discusses its possible application to…

  3. Free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 and their relationships to the presence of diabetic retinopathy and glomerular hyperfiltration in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); M.L. Jacobs (Marloes); F.H.M. Derkx (Frans); R.F.A. Weber (Robert); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe existing literature on serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is conflicting. Free IGF-I may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total IGF-I. Recently, a validated method has

  4. Serum concentrations of free and total insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins -1 and -3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity in boys with normal or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Circulating IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels both increase in puberty where growth velocity is high. The amount of free IGF-I is dependent on the IGF-I level and on the concentrations of the specific IGFBPs. Furthermore, IGFBP-3 proteolysis regulates the bioavailability of IGF......-I. However, the concentration of free IGF-I and possible IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity in puberty has not previously been studied....

  5. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  6. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  7. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  8. Mammalian ACSF3 protein is a malonyl-CoA synthetase that supplies the chain extender units for mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Thweatt, Jennifer; Smith, Stuart

    2011-09-30

    The objective of this study was to identify a source of intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA that could be used for de novo fatty acid synthesis in mammalian mitochondria. Because mammalian mitochondria lack an acetyl-CoA carboxylase capable of generating malonyl-CoA inside mitochondria, the possibility that malonate could act as a precursor was investigated. Although malonyl-CoA synthetases have not been identified previously in animals, interrogation of animal protein sequence databases identified candidates that exhibited sequence similarity to known prokaryotic forms. The human candidate protein ACSF3, which has a predicted N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence, was cloned, expressed, and characterized as a 65-kDa acyl-CoA synthetase with extremely high specificity for malonate and methylmalonate. An arginine residue implicated in malonate binding by prokaryotic malonyl-CoA synthetases was found to be positionally conserved in animal ACSF3 enzymes and essential for activity. Subcellular fractionation experiments with HEK293T cells confirmed that human ACSF3 is located exclusively in mitochondria, and RNA interference experiments verified that this enzyme is responsible for most, if not all, of the malonyl-CoA synthetase activity in the mitochondria of these cells. In conclusion, unlike fungi, which have an intramitochondrial acetyl-CoA carboxylase, animals require an alternative source of mitochondrial malonyl-CoA; the mitochondrial ACSF3 enzyme is capable of filling this role by utilizing free malonic acid as substrate.

  9. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation...... by Tim Brown can be compared to considerations by László Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropuis on the training and education of active and capable citizens. This opens, though, some dilemmas to discuss: To what extend is the capability of creativity then a (pre)condition to be a citizen of the society wished...... for? To which degree should everyone be educated in ’design literacy’ to participate? Total design of participation is an artistic intervention in society and must be discussed in this utopian tradition....

  10. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Total Colectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwatosin J.; Carne, David; Guyton, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To present our experience with a single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy, along with a literature review of all published cases on single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy. Methods: A total of 22 cases were published between 2010 and 2011, with our patient being case 23. These procedures were performed in the United States and United Kingdom. Surgical procedures included total colectomy with end ileostomy, proctocolectomy with ileorectal anastomosis, and total proctocolectomy with ileopouch-anal anastomosis. Intraoperative and postoperative data are analyzed. Results: Twenty-two of the 23 cases were performed for benign cases including Crohns, ulcerative colitis, and familial adenomatous polyposis. One case was performed for adenocarcinoma of the cecum. The mean age was 35.3 years (range, 13 to 64), the mean body mass index was 20.1 (range, 19 to 25), mean operative time was 175.9 minutes (range, 139 to 216), mean blood loss was 95.3mL (range, 59 to 200), mean incision length was 2.61cm (range, 2 to 3). Average follow-up was 4.6 months with 2 reported complications. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic total colectomy is feasible and safe in the hands of an experienced surgeon. It has been performed for both benign and malignant cases. It is comparable to the conventional multi-port laparoscopic total colectomy. PMID:22906326

  11. Total Synthesis of (-)-Conolutinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyang; Jiang, Guangde; Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Wan, Xiaolong; Gao, Jin-Ming; Lai, Yisheng; Xie, Weiqing

    2015-09-18

    The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.

  12. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  13. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Anca ȘERBAN; Oana DUMITRAȘCU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated t...

  14. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  15. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  16. Lymphocyte Phospho-Ser-9-GSK-3β/Total GSK-3β Protein Levels Ratio Is Not Affected by Chronic Lithium or Valproate Treatment in Euthymic Patients With Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Abed N; Vainer, Ella; Agam, Galila; Bersudsky, Yuly

    2017-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibition by lithium has been well established in vitro, but proof that this biochemical effect mediates lithium's beneficial action in patients with bipolar disorder is lacking. We studied whether lymphocyte GSK-3β activity measured indirectly in lithium- or valproate (VPA)-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder is different from controls. Lymphocyte total and Ser-9-phospho-GSK-3β (inactive) levels were measured by Western blotting. Forty-seven patients with bipolar disorder and 32 age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. No significant differences were found between lithium- and VPA-treated patients and controls in phospho-GSK-3β, total GSK-3β, or their ratio. The data do not support the concept that in vivo, during chronic treatment of bipolar illness, GSK-3β is inhibited either by lithium or by VPA.

  17. Heliophysics at total solar eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-08-01

    Observations during total solar eclipses have revealed many secrets about the solar corona, from its discovery in the 17th century to the measurement of its million-kelvin temperature in the 19th and 20th centuries, to details about its dynamics and its role in the solar-activity cycle in the 21st century. Today's heliophysicists benefit from continued instrumental and theoretical advances, but a solar eclipse still provides a unique occasion to study coronal science. In fact, the region of the corona best observed from the ground at total solar eclipses is not available for view from any space coronagraphs. In addition, eclipse views boast of much higher quality than those obtained with ground-based coronagraphs. On 21 August 2017, the first total solar eclipse visible solely from what is now United States territory since long before George Washington's presidency will occur. This event, which will cross coast-to-coast for the first time in 99 years, will provide an opportunity not only for massive expeditions with state-of-the-art ground-based equipment, but also for observations from aloft in aeroplanes and balloons. This set of eclipse observations will again complement space observations, this time near the minimum of the solar activity cycle. This review explores the past decade of solar eclipse studies, including advances in our understanding of the corona and its coronal mass ejections as well as terrestrial effects. We also discuss some additional bonus effects of eclipse observations, such as recreating the original verification of the general theory of relativity.

  18. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  19. Optimal protein intake in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Robert R; Miller, Sharon L; Miller, Kevin B

    2008-10-01

    The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein, as promulgated by the Food and Nutrition Board of the United States National Academy of Science, is 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day for adults, regardless of age. This value represents the minimum amount of protein required to avoid progressive loss of lean body mass in most individuals. There is an evidence that the RDA for elderly may be greater than 0.8 g/kg/day. Evidence indicates that protein intake greater than the RDA can improve muscle mass, strength and function in elderly. In addition, other factors, including immune status, wound healing, blood pressure and bone health may be improved by increasing protein intake above the RDA. Furthermore, the RDA does not address the recommended intake of protein in the context of a balanced diet. Concerns about potential detrimental effects of increased protein intake on bone health, renal function, neurological function and cardiovascular function are generally unfounded. In fact, many of these factors are improved in elderly ingesting elevated quantities of protein. It appears that an intake of 1.5 g protein/kg/day, or about 15-20% of total caloric intake, is a reasonable target for elderly individuals wishing to optimize protein intake in terms of health and function.

  20. 地衣芽孢杆菌总蛋白双向电泳方法的建立和优化%Establishment and optimization of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total proteins from Bacillus lincheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江慎华; 陈惠; 陈静; 汪涛; 姚中平; 周英棠

    2013-01-01

    探索建立有效的地衣芽孢杆菌蛋白质组双向电泳体系,为进一步揭示地衣芽孢杆菌促进氧化葡萄糖酸杆菌产酸的作用机制奠定基础.以地衣芽孢杆菌为材料,比较蛋白质制备超声破壁时间、新型细胞裂解液、pH梯度和不同上样量对地衣芽孢杆菌蛋白双向电泳结果的影响.结果显示:采用15min超声破壁提取地衣芽孢杆菌总蛋白,选用新型蛋白质裂解,用长24cm、pH4~7的IPG胶条,在上样量为80μg进行等电聚焦,于60V 15min、120V 6h条件下进行SDS-PAGE垂直电泳,可以获得背景清晰、重复性好的双向电泳图谱.在探索出一种新型可行的新型细胞裂解液的同时,建立一套用于地衣芽孢杆菌蛋白质组分析的双向电泳方法.%A two dimensional gel electrophoresis protocol proteomic study of Bacillus lincheniformis and offer further information how Bacillus cereus stimulate the growth of Gluconobacter oxydans to produce 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG) after entering into stationary phase was established.Different parameters,including protein preparation by different ultrasonic broken time,new type lysis,pH gradient and different sample of Bacillus lincheniformis protein,were used to evaluate the effect of two-dimensional electrophoresis of Bacillus lincheniformis proteins.Results showed that the clear background and reproducibility of two dimensional gel electrophoresis were established on the condition of using 15min of ultrasonic broken extraction,selection of protein cleavage I,pH4~7 24cm IPG strips,80 μg loading volume,isoelectric focus at 60V 15min,120V 6h.The aim of this study was not only to explore a novel cell lysate in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,but also to establish a method of proteome analysis for two-dimensional electrophoresis of Bacillus licheniformis.

  1. Expression of Iron-Related Proteins at the Neurovascular Unit Supports Reduction and Reoxidation of Iron for Transport Through the Blood-Brain Barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhart, Annette; Skjørringe, Tina; Johnsen, Kasper Bendix;

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms for iron transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remain a controversy. We analyzed for expression of mRNA and proteins involved in oxidation and transport of iron in isolated brain capillaries from dietary normal, iron-deficient, and iron-reverted rats. The expression...... was also investigated in isolated rat brain endothelial cells (RBECs) and in immortalized rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells grown as monoculture or in hanging culture inserts with defined BBB properties. Transferrin receptor 1, ferrireductases Steap 2 and 3, divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1...... cells provide the machinery for receptor-mediated uptake of ferric iron-containing transferrin. Ferric iron can then undergo reduction to ferrous iron by ferrireductases inside endosomes followed by DMT1-mediated pumping into the cytosol and subsequently cellular export by ferroportin. The expression...

  2. Effect of Air Cooling and Vacuum Cooling Storage on the β-Carotene Content and Proximate Analysis (Water Content, pH, Total Protein and Content of Sugar) in Carrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningsih, T.; Martini, T.; Rini, K. S.; Okstafiyanti, L.

    2017-04-01

    The study of air cooling and vacuum cooling storage effect on the β-carotene content and proximate analysis in carrot has been studied. The aim of the research to determine the effective storage in carrot to improve the quality and the shelf life. Parameters measured during the 12 weeks of storage process were β-carotene, pH, water, sugar and protein content. Validation analysis for β-carotene method showed a good linearity (r 2 = 0.997) in a range of 0-8 mg/L and (r 2 = 0.999) in a range of 0-1 mg/L. The precision was exemplified by %RSD of 0.88%-7.48%. Mean recovery was 100.66% during accuracy studied. UV analysis revealed the LOD values were 0.009 mg/L and LOQ values were 0.032 mg/L. The decreased content of β-carotene, water, protein, and pH from carrot during vacuum cooling storage were higher than in the air cooling storage period. The sugar content for air cooling storage increased up to eight weeks and decreased at the end of storage while the vacuum cooling storage decreased from the beginning of the storage period. All the data indicates that the air cooling storage was more effective storage techniques for extending the shelf life of carrot compared to the vacuum cooling storage.

  3. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  4. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  5. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  6. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  7. WW domains of the yes-kinase-associated-protein (YAP transcriptional regulator behave as independent units with different binding preferences for PPxY motif-containing ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias-Bexiga

    Full Text Available YAP is a WW domain-containing effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the object of heightened interest as a potent oncogene and stemness factor. YAP has two major isoforms that differ in the number of WW domains they harbor. Elucidating the degree of co-operation between these WW domains is important for a full understanding of the molecular function of YAP. We present here a detailed biophysical study of the structural stability and binding properties of the two YAP WW domains aimed at investigating the relationship between both domains in terms of structural stability and partner recognition. We have carried out a calorimetric study of the structural stability of the two YAP WW domains, both isolated and in a tandem configuration, and their interaction with a set of functionally relevant ligands derived from PTCH1 and LATS kinases. We find that the two YAP WW domains behave as independent units with different binding preferences, suggesting that the presence of the second WW domain might contribute to modulate target recognition between the two YAP isoforms. Analysis of structural models and phage-display studies indicate that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in binding specificity. Together, these results are relevant to understand of YAP function and open the door to the design of highly specific ligands of interest to delineate the functional role of each WW domain in YAP signaling.

  8. WW domains of the yes-kinase-associated-protein (YAP) transcriptional regulator behave as independent units with different binding preferences for PPxY motif-containing ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Bexiga, Manuel; Castillo, Francisco; Cobos, Eva S; Oka, Tsutomu; Sudol, Marius; Luque, Irene

    2015-01-01

    YAP is a WW domain-containing effector of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, and the object of heightened interest as a potent oncogene and stemness factor. YAP has two major isoforms that differ in the number of WW domains they harbor. Elucidating the degree of co-operation between these WW domains is important for a full understanding of the molecular function of YAP. We present here a detailed biophysical study of the structural stability and binding properties of the two YAP WW domains aimed at investigating the relationship between both domains in terms of structural stability and partner recognition. We have carried out a calorimetric study of the structural stability of the two YAP WW domains, both isolated and in a tandem configuration, and their interaction with a set of functionally relevant ligands derived from PTCH1 and LATS kinases. We find that the two YAP WW domains behave as independent units with different binding preferences, suggesting that the presence of the second WW domain might contribute to modulate target recognition between the two YAP isoforms. Analysis of structural models and phage-display studies indicate that electrostatic interactions play a critical role in binding specificity. Together, these results are relevant to understand of YAP function and open the door to the design of highly specific ligands of interest to delineate the functional role of each WW domain in YAP signaling.

  9. Identity and total institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubičić Milana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses a psychiatric institution resident’s identity (self- construction processes. Our quest was grounded on constructivist theoretical paradigm that sees identity as a manner a person defines oneself in accordance with offered social repertoire. In other words, the total institution milieu offers limited range of identities to its residents. On the other hand, the latter are not just passive subjects that identity is imposed upon. They are able to use a number of adjustment mechanisms to the knowledge about themselves - ranging from symbolic escape to open resistance against the imposed image about them; to obedience, and we were interested to understand the (supposed complex dynamic of identity (re-building in, so-called, special or forensic patients. In order to understand this process and attempting to discover, besides the manifest also the latent layer of the story about self, the local, or personal, identity understanding was examined.

  10. Total organic carbon analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  11. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  12. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  13. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  14. The roles of amyloid βprotein in neurovascular unit injiny%β淀粉样蛋白在神经血管单元损伤中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏微; 张微微

    2009-01-01

    β淀粉样蛋白(mlyloid-β,Aβ)沉积是脑淀粉样血管病(cerebral amyloid angiopathy,CAA)和阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)的关键病理学基础.目前的研究强调,神经血管单元细胞之间内环境的稳定是维持脑功能正常的关键.本文综述了Aβ与神经血管单元损伤的关系,期望对CAA和AD的临床防治提供一些新的思路.%The deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ is the key pathological basis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current studies emphasis that the stability of internal environment between cells of the neurovascular unit is the key to maintain normal brain function. This article reviews the relationship between the Aβand the neurovascular unit injury, and we expect to provide some new ideas for the clinical prevention and treatment of CAA and AD.

  15. Hematologic examination and total protein values of sea turtles of species Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, in captivity, from Praia do Forte, Mata de São João - Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Torres Pires

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de obter valores dos parâmetros do hemograma e de proteína plasmática total, de tartarugas marinhas da espécie Caretta caretta criadas em cativeiro, foram coletados cinco mililitros de sangue através de venopunção do seio venoso cervical dorsal de oito animais daquela espécie, utilizando como anticoagulante a heparina de sódio. Os achados hematológicos mostraram valores médios de eritrócitos de 275.000/µl (±28.030,59, volume globular de 33,12% (±2,35, concentração de hemoglobina de 8,65 g/dl (±0,80, enquanto que os índices hematimétricos encontrados foram de 725 fl (± 131,99 para volume globular médio (VGM, 198,18 pg (± 38,66 para hemoglobina globular média (HGM e de 26,10% (± 1,21 para concentração de hemoglobina globular média (CHGM. No leucograma a média do número total de leucócitos foi de 3.656/µl (±963,04, e os valores médios relativos da contagem diferencial de leucócitos foram de 59,38% (±16.27 para heterófilos, 10,38% (±6,32 para eosinófilos, 0,13% (±0.35 para basófilos, 29,25% (±17,12 para linfócitos e 0,88% (±2,10 para monócitos, sendo os valores absolutos de 2.156,87/µl (±703,49; 366,88/µl (±216,44; 2,50/µl (±7,07; 1.110,94/µl (±783,61 e 19,06/µl (± 42,34, respectivamente. O valor médio de trombócitos encontrado foi igual a 10.968,13/µl (±3.109,19 e a determinação de proteína total teve uma média de 6,5 g/dl (±0,83. Das variáveis analisadas, a contagem de eritrócitos, o volume globular médio, a hemoglobina globular média e as contagens total e diferencial de leucócitos apresentaram valores diferentes para a espécie em questão, quando comparadas com a literatura consultada.

  16. Mapping of the minimal inorganic phosphate transporting unit of human PiT2 suggests a structure universal to PiT-related proteins from all kingdoms of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøttger Pernille

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inorganic (Pi phosphate transporter (PiT family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the outer cell membranes and suggested to supply cells with Pi to maintain house-keeping functions. Alignment of protein sequences representing PiT family members from all kingdoms reveals the presence of conserved amino acids and that bacterial phosphate permeases and putative phosphate permeases from archaea lack substantial parts of the protein sequence when compared to the mammalian PiT family members. Besides being Na+-dependent Pi (NaPi transporters, the mammalian PiT paralogs, PiT1 and PiT2, also are receptors for gamma-retroviruses. We have here exploited the dual-function of PiT1 and PiT2 to study the structure-function relationship of PiT proteins. Results We show that the human PiT2 histidine, H502, and the human PiT1 glutamate, E70, - both conserved in eukaryotic PiT family members - are critical for Pi transport function. Noticeably, human PiT2 H502 is located in the C-terminal PiT family signature sequence, and human PiT1 E70 is located in ProDom domains characteristic for all PiT family members. A human PiT2 truncation mutant, which consists of the predicted 10 transmembrane (TM domain backbone without a large intracellular domain (human PiT2ΔR254-V483, was found to be a fully functional Pi transporter. Further truncation of the human PiT2 protein by additional removal of two predicted TM domains together with the large intracellular domain created a mutant that resembles a bacterial phosphate permease and an archaeal putative phosphate permease. This human PiT2 truncation mutant (human PiT2ΔL183-V483 did also support Pi transport albeit at very low levels. Conclusions The results suggest that the overall structure of the Pi-transporting unit of the PiT family proteins has remained unchanged during evolution

  17. Metabolizable protein systems in ruminant nutrition: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalatendu Keshary Das

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein available to ruminants is supplied by both microbial and dietary sources. Metabolizable protein (MP is the true protein which is absorbed by the intestine and supplied by both microbial protein and protein which escapes degradation in the rumen; the protein which is available to the animal for maintenance, growth, fetal growth during gestation, and milk production. Thus, the concept of balancing ruminant rations basing on only dietary crude protein (CP content seems erroneous. In India, ruminant rations are still balanced for digestible CP and total digestible nutrients for protein and energy requirements, respectively. Traditional feed analysis methods such as proximate analysis and detergent analysis consider feed protein as a single unit and do not take into account of the degradation processes that occur in rumen and passage rates of feed fractions from rumen to intestine. Therefore, the protein requirement of ruminants should include not only the dietary protein source, but also the microbial CP from rumen. The MP systems consider both the factors, thus predict the protein availability more accurately and precisely. This system is aptly designed to represent the extent of protein degradation in the rumen and the synthesis of microbial protein as variable functions. Feed protein fractions, i.e., rumen degradable protein and rumen undegradable protein play vital roles in meeting protein requirements of rumen microbes and host animal, respectively. With the advent of sophisticated nutrition models such as Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system, National Research Council, Agricultural Research Council, Cornell Penn Miner Dairy and Amino Cow; ration formulation has moved from balancing diets from CP to MP, a concept that describes the protein requirements of ruminantsat intestinal level, and which is available to animals for useful purposes.

  18. Dietary protein quality and malnutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönfeldt, Hettie Carina; Gibson Hall, Nicolette

    2012-08-01

    The WHO (2007) Technical Report on protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition states that the best estimate for a population average requirement is 105 mg nitrogen/kg body weight per day, or 0·66 g protein/kg body weight per day. In many developing countries protein intake falls significantly short of these values. Apart from protein quantity, protein quality including bioavailability and digestibility, from different food sources, are currently on the global agenda. The 1st International Symposium on Dietary Protein for Human Health held in Auckland, in March 2011, and the consecutive Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Expert Consultation on Dietary Protein Quality, both highlighted the importance of assessing the quality of protein from different food sources through determination of amino acid content. Throughout the developed world, animal products and cereals are the two most important sources of protein; in developing countries this order is reversed. In low income countries only 3 % of total dietary energy, as an indicator of diet composition, is derived from meat and offal, 11 % from roots and tubers and 6 % from pulses, nuts and oilseeds. The remainder of the dietary energy is mainly derived from cereal-based staple food. Although the production of livestock has increased in developing countries, the consumption of protein in these countries with people consuming the most limited amounts of protein are continually decreasing. Undernutrition, including insufficient consumption of protein, remains a persistent problem in the developing world, and although many diets within these developing countries are deficient in the quantity of protein compared to recommendations, the quality of the protein also strongly comes into focus.

  19. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  20. 双缩脲法检测奶粉中总蛋白质快速检测试纸的研制%Preparation of rapid detecting paper for total protein in milk powder by biuret method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽华; 田雨; 姜瞻梅; 田波

    2012-01-01

    研制了能够快速测定奶粉中总蛋白质含量的双缩脲检测试纸。将试纸于1.5倍标准双缩脲试剂浓度的溶液中浸泡10min,60℃干燥15min,滴加样品反应10min,放入光电检测仪,在波长560nm下检测。结果表明,本法线性范围为0~20.0mg/mL,检出限为0.85mg/mL,加标回收率为96.84%~99.23%,测定相对误差为1.01%~1.91%。用本法和凯氏定氮法同时对奶粉样品进行检测,经检验二者测定结果之间差异无统计学意义。该法操作简单、检测迅速、准确度和灵敏度高,适合奶粉中总蛋白质的现场快速检测。%A kind of testing paper which can rapidly detect the content of protein in milk powder was developed. Putting the test paper in the lipid of 1.5 times standard biuret soaks for 10min and dry for 15min in 60℃ conditions,then dropping the sample make the reaction last 10min,detected the test paper at 560nm wavelength by photoelectric detector, The results showed that this method's linear range was 0-20.0mg/mL. The detection limit reached 0.85mg/mL. The recovery of standard addition was 96.84%-99.23% and relative error was 1.01%-1.91%. Comparing the method and Kjeldahl in detecting of milk powder found that there was no statistic difference between the results. So this method can be applied to the quick determination of protein in milk powder with the advantages of simple operation, rapid detection, high accuracy and precision,

  1. Dynamic combinatorial libraries of artificial repeat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Margarita; Shumacher, Inbal; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Ashkenasy, Gonen

    2013-06-15

    Repeat proteins are found in almost all cellular systems, where they are involved in diverse molecular recognition processes. Recent studies have suggested that de novo designed repeat proteins may serve as universal binders, and might potentially be used as practical alternative to antibodies. We describe here a novel chemical methodology for producing small libraries of repeat proteins, and screening in parallel the ligand binding of library members. The first stage of this research involved the total synthesis of a consensus-based three-repeat tetratricopeptide (TPR) protein (~14 kDa), via sequential attachment of the respective peptides. Despite the effectiveness of the synthesis and ligation steps, this method was found to be too demanding for the production of proteins containing variable number of repeats. Additionally, the analysis of binding of the individual proteins was time consuming. Therefore, we designed and prepared novel dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs), and show that their equilibration can facilitate the formation of TPR proteins containing up to eight repeating units. Interestingly, equilibration of the library building blocks in the presence of the biologically relevant ligands, Hsp90 and Hsp70, induced their oligomerization into forming more of the proteins with large recognition surfaces. We suggest that this work presents a novel simple and rapid tool for the simultaneous screening of protein mixtures with variable binding surfaces, and for identifying new binders for ligands of interest.

  2. Primary total elbow arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is a challenging procedure for orthopedic surgeons. It is not performed as frequently as compared to hip or knee arthroplasty. The elbow is a nonweight-bearing joint; however, static loading can create forces up to three times the body weight and dynamic loading up to six times. For elderly patients with deformity and ankylosis of the elbow due to posttraumatic arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis or comminuted fracture distal humerus, arthroplasty is one of the option. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of primary total elbow arthroplasty in cases of crippling deformity of elbow. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 11 cases of TEA, between December 2002 and September 2012. There were 8 females and 3 males. The average age was 40 years (range 30-69 years. The indications for TEA were rheumatoid arthritis, comminuted fracture distal humerus with intraarticular extension, and posttraumatic bony ankylosis of elbow joint. The Baksi sloppy (semi constrained hinge elbow prosthesis was used. Clinico-radiological followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and then yearly basis. Results: In the present study, average supination was 70° (range 60-80° and average pronation was 70° (range 60-80°. Average flexion was 135° (range 130-135°. However, in 5 cases, there was loss of 15 to 35° (average 25° of extension (45° out of 11 cases. The mean Mayo elbow performance score was 95.4 points (range 70-100. Arm length discrepancy was only in four patients which was 36% out of 11 cases. Clinico-radiologically all the elbows were stable except in one case and no immediate postoperative complication was noted. Radiolucency or loosening of ulnar stem was seen in 2 cases (18% out of 11 cases, in 1 case it was noted after 5 years and in another after 10 years. In second case, revision arthroplasty was done, in which only ulnar hinge section, hinge screw and lock screw with hexagonal head

  3. Salivary and serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as biomarkers of periodontitis in United States veterans with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R S; Kerr, G S; Payne, J B; Mikuls, T R; Huang, J; Sayles, H R; Becker, K L; Nylén, E S

    2016-01-01

    Serum procalcitonin (ProCT) is elevated in response to bacterial infections, whereas high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a nonspecific inflammatory marker that is increased by excess adipose tissue. We examined the efficacy of ProCT and hsCRP as biomarkers of periodontitis in the saliva and serum of patients with arthritis, which is characterized by variable levels of systemic inflammation that potentially can confound the interpretation of inflammatory biomarkers. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva were collected from 33 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 50 with osteoarthritis (OA). Periodontal status was assessed by full mouth examination and patients were categorized as having no/mild, moderate or severe periodontitis by standard parameters. Salivary and serum ProCT and hsCRP concentrations were compared. BMI, diabetes, anti-inflammatory medications and smoking status were ascertained from the patient records. Differences between OA and RA in proportionate numbers of patients were compared for race, gender, diabetes, adiposity and smoking status. Serum ProCT was significantly higher in arthritis patients with moderate to severe and severe periodontitis compared with no/mild periodontitis patients. There were no significant differences in salivary ProCT or salivary or serum hsCRP in RA patients related to periodontitis category. Most of the OA and RA patients were middle aged or older, 28.9% were diabetic, 78.3% were overweight or obese, and slightly more than half were either current or past smokers. The OA and RA groups differed by race, but not gender; blacks and males were predominant in both groups. The OA and RA groups did not differ in terms of controlled or uncontrolled diabetes, smoking status or BMI. The RA patients had been prescribed more anti-inflammatory medication than the OA patients. Our results demonstrate that circulating ProCT is a more discriminative biomarker for periodontitis than serum hsCRP in patients with

  4. [Storage proteins from seeds of Pinus pinea L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Nizar; Triki, Saïda

    2007-05-01

    The Mediterranean stone pine Pinus pinea L. (gymnosperm, Pinaceae) is much appreciated for its seed production, widely used in food preparation in the Mediterranean Basin. Seeds contain 25% proteins on a dry-weight basis. Pinus pinea accumulate globulins as major storage proteins in seeds (75% of total storage proteins), composed of several subunits of 10 to 150 kDa, revealed by SDS-PAGE. The albumin fraction (15%) represents three subunits of 14, 24 and 46 kDa. Glutelins, the least soluble fraction, represents a small proportion (10%). Their constitutive units have frequent PM of 43 kDa. Prolamins also represent a very small percentage (1 to 2%).

  5. Consumo e digestibilidade total dos nutrientes e produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com teores crescentes de proteína bruta na dieta contendo cana-de-açúcar e concentados Intake and total digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition in dairy cows fed with increasing crude protein levels in the diet with sugar cane and concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabrícia de Araujo Cordeiro

    2007-12-01

    % was used and, as forage, sugar cane corrected with 1% of urea + ammonium sulfate (9:1, in the proportion of 60% (%DM. The daily average intakes of nutrients, except for EE and NFC, differed as the levels of CP increased in the diet. The protein levels in the diet did not affected the coefficients of total apparent digestibility of the nutrients. Production of fat corrected milk, 3.5% or not and its components (fat, CP and lactose, expressed in g/day, and milk urea nitrogen showed increased linear effect, while the N efficiency showed negative linear effect of the CP levels in the diet. The diet with 16% CP provided values numerically greater for intake and milk production and its components as compared to diets with lower levels of CP.

  6. FY-3气象卫星紫外臭氧总量探测仪辐亮度在轨定标与反演结果分析%Calibration in-orbit and retrieval result study of FY-3 Total Ozone Unit (TOU)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江芳; 王维和; 王咏梅; 王英鉴

    2012-01-01

    FY-3气象卫星上搭载的紫外臭氧总量探测仪TOU是我国自主开发研制的首台用于全球臭氧总量定量测量的探测仪,自发射以来已成功在轨运行近两年.由于TOU发射前辐亮度定标存在偏差,为了得到高精度的产品,TOU必须进行在轨定标.本文介绍了基于辐射传输模式计算对TOU辐亮度进行在轨道定标的方法,定标过程中用于模拟辐亮度计算的臭氧总量由与TOU观测时刻相近的国外臭氧总量探测仪器MetOp/GOME-2提供.文章将在轨定标后TOU的反演结果与AURA/OMI以及地基的产品进行比较,结果表明,用辐射传输模式对TOU辐亮度进行在轨定标的方法是可行的,反演结果能够真实地反映臭氧的时空分布特性,在全球部分地基观测站所处的位置上对TOU,OMI以及地基的臭氧总量进行比较的结果表明,TOU与OM1的相对偏差均方根约为2.52%,TOU与地基以及OMI与地基观测结果之间的相对偏差均方根分别为4.45%和3.89%.%Ultraviolet Total Ozone Unit (TOU) is one of the main payloads on FY-3 satellite and the first instrument for daily global coverage of total ozone monitoring in China. TOU has been operating in-orbit about two years. Because pre-launch calibration has serious error in high ranges of radiance, an in-orbit calibration method based on radiative transfer model calculation was introduced in the paper, the total ozone column used to calculate the simulation radiance was produced from MetOp/GOME-2. The retrieval results were compared with AURA/OMI global ozone products and ground-based ozone measurement data, the results show that the calibration method is feasible and the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics are consistent with OMI and GOME-2 products. The quantitative comparisons with ground-based measurements and AURA/OMI ozone product were made over 74 stations, the TOU total ozone retrieval has a 2.52% RMS relative error compared with AURA/OMI ozone

  7. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  8. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. A Protocol for Fast and Efficient Preparation of Genomic DNA and Total Proteins of Nosema bombycis%一种快速高效制备家蚕微孢子虫基因组DNA和总蛋白的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡顺风; 何欣怡; 何祥康; 邱海洪; 李光才; 何永强; 鲁兴萌

    2011-01-01

    家蚕微孢子虫孢子壁坚厚不易破碎,并对许多化学物质有很强的抵抗性,使用常规的核酸和蛋白抽提方法效果不够理想.研究建立玻璃珠破碎法快速制备家蚕微孢子虫基因组DNA和总蛋白的方法,采用琼脂糖凝胶电泳和SDS-PAGE分析所得DNA的完整性和所得总蛋白的差异性,并对提取蛋白进行双向电泳试验.结果表明:使用玻璃珠破碎法对微孢子虫孢子壁的破碎率可达到90%以上,基因组DNA得率约为7.65 fg/粒,总蛋白得率约为788.3fg/粒,均显著高于常用的发芽法和液氮冻融研磨法的得率.双向电泳结果显示玻璃珠破碎法能有效提取家蚕微孢子虫总蛋白,经考马斯亮蓝染色可检测到约350个蛋白点,蛋白信息丰富,可进一步用于质谱分析.%Because Nosema bombycis has thick rigid wall which is difficult to break and has high endurance to many chemicals, preparation of its DNA and total proteins with conventional methods has no satisfactory effect. Here, we present a protocol for fast and efficient preparation of genomic DNA and total proteins of Nosema bombycis with glass bead beating method. Integrity of DNA and variability of total proteins were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis and SDS-PAGE analysis. And the extracted proteins were subjected to 2D-PAGE. The results revealed that glass bead beating method could lead to over 90% breakage rate of Nosema bombycis spore wall. The yield of genomic DNA was approximately 7. 65 fg/spore and that of total proteins was approximately 788. 3 fg/spore, both of which were significantly higher than those of polar filament discharge method and liquid nitrogen freezing and grinding method. 2D-PAGE result indicated that glass bead beating method could extract total proteins of Nosema bombycis effectively, displaying 350 protein spots after staining with Coomassie brilliant blue and thus providing abundant protein information for further mass spectro-metric analysis.

  10. Determinação de proteína total e escore de aminoácidos de bromelinas extraídas dos resíduos do abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus, (L. Merril Determination of total protein and aminoacid composition of bromelain extracted from pineapple plant residues (Ananas comosus, (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice O. FREIMAN

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O abacaxi por longo tempo tem sido a fruta não cítrica mais popular nos países tropicais e sub-tropicais, principalmente pelo seu atrativo sabor e aroma, além do refrescante balanço açúcar-ácido que possui, o que certamente, determinou sua importância sócio-econômica. Além dessas características, é fonte da enzima proteolítica bromelina, um produto de alto valor comercial, que não é fabricado no Brasil. O presente trabalho objetivou a determinação do escore de aminoácidos de bromelinas extraídas das várias partes do abacaxizeiro (casca, folha, caule, coroa e polpa, com duas precipitações subseqüentes, utilizando-se como agente precipitante, o etanol p.a. Análises mostraram maior teor de proteínas na bromelina extraída da coroa. Nas duas precipitações a composição de aminoácidos das enzimas obtidas, apresentaram resultados inferiores aos da comercial.For a long time pineapple has been most popular noncitric fruit in tropical and subtropical countries, principally for its attractive flavor and aroma, besides refreshing sugar-acid balance, what certainly determined its social-economic importance. In addition to these characters, it is a source of the proteolytic bromelain enzyme , that is a high valued commercial product not made in Brazil. The present research has aimed in determination the aminoacids composition of extracted bromelain from some parts of the pineapple plant ( peel, leaf, stem, garland and pulp with two subseqüents precipitation’s using ethanol p.a. as precipitating agent. Analysis showed higher protein content in extracted bromelain from the garland. In the two precipitation’s, the aminoacids composition from the obtained enzymes presented lower results than the one from the commercial enzyme.

  11. The Comparison of Different Methods on Extracting and Measuring the Total Protein of Biofilms Formed by Enterococcus faecalis%不同方法提取和测定粪肠球菌生物膜总蛋白含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何智妍; 梁景平; 黄正蔚; 姜云涛; 姜葳

    2013-01-01

    Objective:In order to measure the total protein of bacterial biofilm formed by Enterococcus faecalis ATCC33186,ultrasonication was used to extract the protein.After optimizing ultrasonic extraction conditions by different parameters,three methods commonly used to determine the protein concentration were taken.And we tried to confirm an accurate,rapid and simply method for quantifying protein in the biofilm.Methods:Ultrasonication was used to extract the protein from biofilm which was washed by PBS buffer after culturing 24 h.In order to determine the optimum ultrasonication condition,we chose different parameters as times,amplitudes,ultrasonic and interval times.After choosing the best ultrasonic treatment combined with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis,BCA,Bradford and Lowry methods were used to determine the total protein of biofilms.And we compared the data discrepancy of different methods.Results:The optimum condition of ultrasonication was ultrasonic time 2 min,Amp 20% and ultrasonic treatment for 2 s with interval of 2 s.The average concentration of total protein concentration of three times was 2299.1μg/dish by BCA,3793.8 μg/dish by Bradford,1858.0 μg/dish by Lowry.Conclusion:The optimum ultrasonic condition for protein extraction from Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was determined.The Bradford method was feasible and precise to determine the total protein concentration of bacterial biofilm.%目的:以标准菌株ATCC33186为例,用超声破碎法提取粪肠球菌生物膜中总蛋白,结合3种不同方法测定总蛋白的含量,确定一种简单快速有效的检测细菌生物膜中总蛋白含量的方法.方法:将培养24 h的生物膜加入PBS缓冲液清洗后,使用超声破碎法提取生物膜中总蛋白,选择作用时间、振幅Amp、超声和间隔时间等参数进行超声破碎,结合SDS-PAGE凝胶电泳分析蛋白电泳图谱确定最佳超声条件后,确定最佳超声条件后,使用BCA法、考马斯亮蓝Bradford法和Lowry法测定

  12. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    Five experiments were conducted to evaluate replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline AA for 7- to 12-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs (PIC TR4 × 1050) were fed a common diet for 3 d postweaning, treatment diets for 14 d (d 0 to 14), and, again, a common diet for 14 d (d 14 to 28). Treatment diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.30% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys. Experiment 1 evaluated replacing dietary fish meal with crystalline AA. For the 6 treatments, crystalline Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Ile, Val, Gln, and Gly all increased to maintain minimum AA ratios as fish meal decreased (4.50, 3.60, 2.70, 1.80, and 0.90 to 0.00%). There was no difference in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among treatments, validating a low-CP, AA-fortified diet for subsequent experiments. Experiment 2 evaluated deleting crystalline AA from a low-CP, AA-fortified diet with 6 treatments: 1) a positive control similar to the diet validated in Exp. 1, 2) positive control with l-Ile deleted, 3) positive control with l-Trp deleted, 4) positive control with l-Val deleted, 5) positive control with l-Gln and l-Gly deleted, and 6) positive control with l-Ile, l-Trp, l-Val, l-Gln, and l-Gly deleted (NC). Pigs fed the positive control or Ile deleted diet had improved (P meal was adjusted as a source of dispensable N to achieve the target Lys:CP. There were no differences in growth performance among pigs fed different Lys:CP diets. Experiment 4 evaluated increasing SID Val:Lys with Val at 57.4, 59.9, 62.3, 64.7, 67.2, and 69.6% of Lys. Average daily gain and ADFI increased (quadratic, P meal, meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing

  13. 可视化移动反应界面滴定法测定豆浆中蛋白质的含量%Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭成叶; 王后禹; 张雷; 樊柳荫; 曹成喜

    2013-01-01

    利用移动反应界面滴定(moving reaction boundary titration,MRBT)技术可视化快速准确测定豆浆中的总蛋白质含量.在MRBT中,移动反应界面(moving reaction boundary,MRB)是由阴极液中的氢氧根离子和固定在聚丙烯酰胺凝胶(polyacrylamide gel,PAG)中的豆浆蛋白质分子形成,通过酸碱指示剂来指示MRB的移动.利用MRB移动速度(VMRB)与蛋白质浓度存在的函数关系建立标准曲线.配对t检验MRBT测定结果与凯氏定氮相比在95%的置信区间内无显著性差异.MRBT测定所需时间为10 min左右,线性范围为2.0 ~14.0 g/L,检出限为0.05 g/L,日内相对标准偏差小于1.90%,日间相对标准偏差小于4.39%,回收率为97.41% ~99.91%.此外,三聚氰胺等非蛋白质氮(non-protein nitrogen,NPN)的添加,对豆浆中蛋白质的测定结果影响较小.

  14. Influence of physical and chemical properties of HTSXT-FTIR samples on the quality of prediction models developed to determine absolute concentrations of total proteins, carbohydrates and triglycerides: a preliminary study on the determination of their absolute concentrations in fresh microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano León, Esteban; Coat, Rémy; Moutel, Benjamin; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Gonçalves, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Absolute concentrations of total macromolecules (triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates) in microorganisms can be rapidly measured by FTIR spectroscopy, but caution is needed to avoid non-specific experimental bias. Here, we assess the limits within which this approach can be used on model solutions of macromolecules of interest. We used the Bruker HTSXT-FTIR system. Our results show that the solid deposits obtained after the sampling procedure present physical and chemical properties that influence the quality of the absolute concentration prediction models (univariate and multivariate). The accuracy of the models was degraded by a factor of 2 or 3 outside the recommended concentration interval of 0.5-35 µg spot(-1). Change occurred notably in the sample hydrogen bond network, which could, however, be controlled using an internal probe (pseudohalide anion). We also demonstrate that for aqueous solutions, accurate prediction of total carbohydrate quantities (in glucose equivalent) could not be made unless a constant amount of protein was added to the model solution (BSA). The results of the prediction model for more complex solutions, here with two components: glucose and BSA, were very encouraging, suggesting that this FTIR approach could be used as a rapid quantification method for mixtures of molecules of interest, provided the limits of use of the HTSXT-FTIR method are precisely known and respected. This last finding opens the way to direct quantification of total molecules of interest in more complex matrices.

  15. Counterterrorism and cybersecurity total information awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Newton

    2013-01-01

    Provides a broad survey of the United States' counterterrorism history, the use of artificial intelligence in data mining, social media and privacy, cyber attacks and prevention, and longstanding issues of war and peace Closely examines how Total Information Awareness, a governmental data mining project focused on scanning public and private data, plays an integral role in cybersecurity Analyzes recent cyberattacks across the globe orchestrated by 'hacktivist' groups, such as Anonymous

  16. 在低温锻炼中毛白杨幼苗可溶性总蛋白、RNA、DNA、RNase及抗冻性的变化%Cold Acclimation-Induced Changes in Total Soluble Protein, RNA, DNA, Rnase and Freezing Resistance in Populus tomentosa Cuttings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林善枝; 张志毅

    2002-01-01

    The changes in the contents of total soluble protein and RNA, the activity of RNase in leaves and branches of Populus tomentosa cuttings at various periods (viz: cold acclimation, deacclimation, chilling stress and the recovery after chilling stress), and the survival rate and the freezing resistance of cuttings during cold acclimation at - 3℃ were investigated. Results showed that cold acclimation not only increased the contents of total soluble protein and RNA, the survival rates and the freezing resistance of cuttings, decreased the activity of RNase, but also reduced the declining degree of total soluble protein and RNA contents, and the increasing level of RNase caused by chilling stress as compared with the controls. In addition, cold acclimation augmented the increase in the level of total soluble protein and RNA, and facilitated the decrease of RNase during the recovery periods. Further analysis found that the DNA content of all treatments kept relative stability at various periods. The changes in total soluble protein, RNA and RNase were closely related to the freezing resistance of cuttings. It appears that the increase of RNA content caused by cold acclimation-induced decrease of RNase activity may be involved in the accumulation of total soluble protein and the induction of freezing resistance of cuttings.%低温锻炼不仅提高了毛白杨幼苗存活率和抗冻性以及RNA和可溶性总蛋白的含量,降低了RNase活性,而且能减轻低温胁迫引起的RNA和可溶性总蛋白含量的下降程度和RNase活性的提高,有利于幼苗在恢复过程中RNA和可溶性总蛋白水平的迅速回升以及RNase活性的降低.进一步研究发现,DNA含量无论在低温锻炼中还是在低温胁迫下或是在随后的恢复生长期均保持相对稳定;低温锻炼所引起的RNA含量的增加,与RNase活性的降低呈明显的负相关,与可溶性总蛋白含量的增加以及幼苗抗冻性的提高成正相关.这表明低温锻炼

  17. Replacement of animal protein with vegetable protein in the diets of Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Rosa Sussel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo. Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3 with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly placed in a pond (180 m2, 1.5 m deep, 10% water renewal per day. After 63 days of cultivation, total count and individual biometrics from 20% of each experimental unit were taken. Mean weight, total length, survival, feed conversion, biomass weight gain and proximate body composition were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications. The reduction in the formulation cost achieved by increasing levels of vegetable protein compensated the slight decrease in biomass gain. Besides that, inclusion of vegetable protein resulted in greater fat deposition, suggesting future exploration of A. altiparanae as a functional food.

  18. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente total, produção e composição do leite em vacas no terço inicial da lactação alimentadas com níveis crescentes de proteína bruta no concentrado Intake, total apparent digestibility, milk production and composition in early lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein in the concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades aparentes dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas no terço inicial da lactação recebendo dietas contendo níveis crescentes (20; 23; 26 e 29% da matéria natural - MN de proteína bruta (PB no concentrado. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças (Holandês x Zebu, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos (4x4. Foram utilizados quatro períodos de 15 dias cada, considerando-se uma semana de adaptação. A dieta consistiu de 60% de silagem de milho como volumoso e 40% de concentrado. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT aumentaram linearmente, enquanto o consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF apresentou redução linear com os níveis de PB no concentrado. As digestibilidades da MS, matéria orgânica (MO, PB e FDN elevaram linearmente em função dos teores de PB. A produção de leite (PL e PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, as quantidades de gordura e proteína e suas concentrações no leite não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB no concentrado. No entanto, a PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura de 29,08 kg/dia foi numericamente superior para o nível de 26% de PB na MN do concentrado. O concentrado contendo 26% de PB utilizado na proporção de 40%, que correspondeu a 15,5% na MS da dieta total, permitiu melhores respostas na produção de leite em vacas produzindo em média 28 kg/dia de leite no terço inicial da lactação e alimentadas com silagem de milho como volumoso.The intake, total apparent digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition were evaluated in early lactation cows fed with increasing levels (20; 23; 26 and 29% natural matter - NM of crude protein (CP in concentrate. Twelve crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three latin square (4x4, in four periods of 15 days each (one week of adaptation. The feeding consisted of 60% of

  19. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  20. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  1. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  2. 蛤蟆油水溶性总蛋白对小鼠耐缺氧及抗氧化能力的影响%Affect of Oviductus Ranae's water-miscible total proteins on anti-hypoxia and antioxidation capacity of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴运明; 赵雨; 王思明; 张鑫; 张惠

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究蛤蟆油水溶性总蛋白对小鼠耐缺氧和抗氧化能力的影响。方法:记录小鼠在常压耐缺氧、亚硝酸中毒、急性脑缺血性缺氧实验中的存活时间,测定过氧化损伤模型中小鼠肝脏和血清中丙二醛(MDA)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力的变化。结果:蛤蟆油水溶性总蛋白可明显地延长亚硝酸中毒、急型脑缺血性缺氧所致小鼠存活时间,对小鼠常压耐缺氧的存活时间无明显的影响。蛤蟆油水溶性总蛋白能显著降低肝脏和血液中丙二醛(MDA)含量,提高肝脏和血液中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活力。结论:说明了蛤蟆油水溶性总蛋白具有耐缺氧和抗氧化的作用。%Objective:Studied on the effect of Oviductus Ranae's water-miscible total proteins on anti-hypoxia and anti-oxidation capacity of mice.Methods:Observed mice in bearing hypoxia at normal pressure,nitrite poisoning,acute cerebral ischemic anaerobic surviving time.Measured liver and blood serum malonaldehyde(MDA) content,superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity of changes.Results:The water-miscible total proteins can obviously extend a sodium nitrite poisoning,acute cerebral ischemic anaerobic by mice survival time.At normal pressure mice survival time didn't have some influence.Oviductus Ranae's water-miscible total proteins can significantly reduce MDA,significantly increase activity of SOD.Conclusions:The result provided the Oviductus Ranae's water-miscible total proteins had hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant effect.

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  5. 人参总皂苷对粘虫体内蛋白质含量及消化酶活性的影响%Effect of total ginsenoside on content of protein and activity of digestive enzyme of Mythimna separata larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭世强; 张爱华; 许永华; 张连学

    2013-01-01

    目的:测定人参总皂苷对粘虫Mythimna separata体内蛋白质总含量及消化酶(纤维素酶和α-淀粉酶)活性的影响,探讨人参总皂苷的生态学作用.方法:在室内模拟粘虫的自然生长条件,采用载毒叶碟法饲喂4龄粘虫,通过Folin-酚试剂盒法测定粘虫体内蛋白质总含量,二硝基水杨酸法测定α-淀粉酶活性,滤纸法测定纤维素酶活性.结果:人参总皂苷能够显著降低粘虫体内蛋白质总含量,对粘虫体内消化酶(纤维素酶和α-淀粉酶)活性具有抑制作用,并且差异性显著.处理组蛋白质总含量、纤维素酶和α-淀粉酶活性显著低于对照组,且参总皂苷对α-淀粉酶和纤维素酶活性的抑制率与人参总皂苷浓度呈正相关,即20 g·L-1组>l0g· L-1组>5 g·L-1组.结论:人参总皂苷对粘虫体内蛋白质含量和消化酶活性的抑制,可能是引起粘虫表现拒食和生长发育不良的重要原因之一.%Objective:This study aims to reveal the effect of total ginsenoside on the protein content and digestive enzyme activities of 4th-instar Mythimna separata larvae,including α-amylase and cellulose,and explore the ecological function of total ginsenoside.Method:While simulating natural growing condition indoors,4th-instar M.separata larvae were fed by poison leaf disk method.The protein content was tested by Lowry Protein Assay Kit method,the activity of α-amylase was measured by dinitrosalicylic acid test,and the activity of cellulase was determined by the filter paper method.Result:The total ginsenoside could reduce the content of protein of 4th-instar M.separata larvae significantly,and the activity of digestive enzyme,including α-amylase and cellulase.The protein content,α-amylase and cellulase activity of treatments were obviously lower than that of the control.Inhibition ratio of α-amylase and cellulase activity was positively correlated with total ginsenoside concentration:i.e.20 g · L-1 > 10 g · L-1 >5

  6. 臭氧总量探测仪(TOU)与臭氧监测仪(OMI)和SBUV/2的交叉定标及其在环境中的应用%Cross-Calibration of the Total Ozone Unit (TOU) with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and SBUV/2 for Environmental Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维和; 刘瑞霞; 郑照君; Wei Yu; 刘国扬; Lawrence E.Flynn; 张兴赢; 王咏梅; 王英鉴; 江芳; 张艳; 黄富祥; 李晓静

    2013-01-01

    基于臭氧监测仪(OMI)对FY-3A卫星臭氧总量探测仪(TOU)进行交叉定标,交叉定标的结果用于TOU全球臭氧总量的反演。OMI是搭载在美国国家航空和航天局的地球观测系统的Aura卫星上的一个仪器,将其Level 3臭氧总量产品作为辐射传输模式的输入,计算中低纬度太平洋上臭氧总量探测仪像元的辐亮度,通过回归过程计算TOU在轨辐亮度定标系数。结果显示,在轨交叉定标后,TOU反演的臭氧总量产品与OMI仪器基于TOMS-V8算法反演臭氧总量产品相比,相对偏差大约为3%,与地面观测站点测量的臭氧总量相比,相对偏差大约为了5%。TOU、太阳后向散射紫外辐射仪(SBUV/2)以及OMI反演的2010年1月份到2011年2月份期间臭氧总量的变化相当一致。%Across-sensor calibration technique is developed and applied to improve upon the prelaunch radiance calibration and characterization for the Total Ozone Unit (TOU) onboard the FengYun-3A satellite. The Level 3 products from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System Aura are used as input to a radiative transfer model to predict the TOU radiances and characterize the biases for the measurements over the Pacific Ocean in low-and midlatitudes. The coefifcients are derived from a regression algorithm to adjust the TOU radiances. It is shown that, after the measurement bias correction, the biases between the retrieved total column ozone products from the TOU with those from the OMI Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-Version 8 products and those from a set of ground-based stationmeasurements are 3%and 5%, respectively. The variations in the estimated total ozone amounts from the TOU are consistent with those derived from Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer instruments and OMI for a period from January 2010 to February 2011.

  7. TQM - Total Quality Management (Bibliography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (BIBLIOORAPHY) PREPARED BY... Total Quality Management (TQM), it is an appropriate time to provide an overview of the literature available on the topic. The Total Quality Management bibliography...Secretary 32 CFR Part 281 Total Quality Management Agency: Office of the Secretary, DOD Action: Proposed rule Summary: This proposed rule establishes

  8. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente total, produção e composição do leite em vacas no terço médio da lactação alimentadas com níveis crescentes de proteína bruta no concentrado Intake, total apparent digestibility, milk production and composition in mid lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein in the concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades aparentes dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas no terço médio da lactação recebendo dietas contendo níveis crescentes de proteína bruta (PB no concentrado (20; 23; 26 e 29% da matéria natural - MN. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos (4x4. Foram utilizados quatro períodos de 15 dias cada, sendo uma semana considerada de adaptação. A dieta consistiu de 70% de silagem de milho como volumoso e 30% de concentrado. Os consumos e as digestibilidades da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHOT, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram alterados, enquanto o consumo e a digestibilidade de PB aumentaram em função dos níveis de PB no concentrado. A produção de leite (PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, as quantidades de gordura e proteína no leite aumentaram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de PB no concentrado. No entanto, a PL de 19,21 kg/dia e a PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura de 20,74 kg/dia para o nível de 23% de PB na MN do concentrado, foram muito próximas daquelas obtidas nos níveis de 26 e 29% de PB no concentrado. O concentrado contendo 23% de PB na MN utilizado na proporção de 30%, que correspondeu a 12,3% de PB na MS da dieta total, proporcionou melhor eficiência na produção de leite em vacas produzindo em média 20 kg/dia de leite no terço médio da lactação e alimentadas com silagem de milho na proporção de 70% na MS da dieta total.Intake, total apparent digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition were evaluated in mid lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein (CP in the concentrate (20, 23, 26 and 29% natural matter-NM. Twelve Holstein crossbred lactating cows were assigned to three

  9. Pengaruh Ketebalan Media Geotextile dan Arah Aliran Slow Sand Filter Rangkaian Seri untuk Menyisihkan P Total dan N Total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuningtyas Ayuningtyas Ayuningtyas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengujian terhadap parameter-parameter yang berkaitan dengan standar kualitas air minum berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia No.492/MENKES/PER/IV/2010 pada air baku Kali Surabaya yang terlebih dahulu diolah pada unit pretreatment di IPAM Ngagel 1 Surabaya dan air yang akan diolah berasal dari outlet prasedimentasi. Air outlet prasedimentasi diolah terlebih dahulu menggunakan 4 unit roughing filter yang disusun secara seri kemudian diolah lebih lanjut ke unit slow sand filter dengan rangkaian seri. Digunakan dua variabel yaitu variasi arah aliran dan variasi ketebalan media geotextile. Media geotextile yang digunakan berjenis geotextile non woven. Ketebalan media geotextile yang digunakan sebesar 4 cm dan 6 cm sedangkan variasi arah aliran yang digunakan yaitu downflow-upflow dan downflow-downflow. Digunakan unit pengolahan slow sand filter dengan rangkaian seri sebanyak 2 reaktor. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan penambahan media geotextile di unit slow sand filter dan nantinya diharapkan supaya kandungan N total dan P total dapat diturunkan. Flow rate yang digunakan pada unit slow sand filter sebesara 0,3 m3/m2 jam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui ketebalan media geotextile dan arah aliran yang optimum pada unit slow sand filter dan menganalisis pengaruh penambahan media geotextile terhadap kualitas air hasil olahan unit slow sand filter untuk menyisihkan N total dan P total.

  10. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  11. Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment and a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap. The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de-açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia

  12. Rotational total skin and total nodal radiotherapy in mycosis fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberg, M.; Molls, M.; Langrock, J.; Muskalla, K.; Quast, U.

    1987-04-01

    The following report describes our technique of rotational total skin radiotherapy with electrons (TSER). We present stage related treatment results. Furthermore our first experiences with the combination of TSER and total nodal irradiation (TNI) are communicated.

  13. Failure of nutritional recovery after total gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, F T; Hill, G L

    1990-09-01

    Malnutrition is reported to be an inevitable consequence of total gastrectomy, although there are few data to support this contention. Six patients of median age 63 years underwent total gastrectomy for malignancy. At follow-up (median 45 months, range 25-60 months) each patient was clinically tumour-free and underwent dietary assessment, faecal fat and nitrogen measurement and routine haematological testing. Protein and fat stores, measured by neutron activation analysis and the tritiated water dilution technique, were compared with the same measurements made before operation and with predicted values. Mean (s.d.) dietary intake (2224(381) kcal day-1 and 81(15)g protein day-1) met the patients' estimated requirements. Mean(s.d.) serum albumin and faecal nitrogen values were normal but there was notable steatorrhoea (21(17) g day-1). Body composition measurements revealed profound deficiencies of body-weight (P less than 0.02), protein (P less than 0.01) and fat (P less than 0.02) before operation which were not corrected by an apparently curative total gastrectomy (P less than 0.05), although further deterioration was prevented.

  14. Fluctuation of total collagen,type Ⅰ and Ⅱ collagen protein contents in the knee joint of osteoporotic rats%骨质疏松大鼠膝关节组织总胶原、Ⅰ型及Ⅱ型胶原蛋白的含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵良军; 彭芬芬; 庄薇; 汤晓正

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies demonstrated that collagen protein plays an important role in osteocytes proliferation and differentiation,sclerotic formation and absorption, as well as matrix mineralization.OBJECTIVE: To observe the fluctuation of total collagen, type Ⅰ and Ⅱ collagen protein contents in knee joint of osteoporotic rats.METHODS: Totally 40 female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, rat knee joint cartilage and cruciate ligament were harvested at 16 weeks after bilateral ovariectomy. The protein contents of total, type Ⅰ and Ⅱ collagen were measured by micro-hydroxyproline assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Compared with the control group, the protein contents of total, type Ⅰ and Ⅱ collagen were notably decreased (P < 0.05), and the type Ⅰ/Ⅱ collagen ratio was also declined in the experimental group (P < 0.05). The results suggested that osteoporosis leads to fluctuations of total collagen, type Ⅰ, Ⅱ collagen protein contents and type Ⅰ/Ⅱ collagen ratio in knee joints, which closely relates to knee osteoarthritis.%背景:目前研究认为胶原蛋白在骨细胞的增殖与分化、骨质的形成和吸收、骨基质矿化等过程中起着非常重要的作用.目的:观察骨质疏松模型大鼠膝关节组织总胶原、Ⅰ型及Ⅱ型胶原蛋白含量变化.方法:SD雌性大鼠40只随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组大鼠行双侧卵巢切除16周后,取膝关节软骨和交叉韧带,采用微量羟脯氨酸测定法及酶联免疫吸附法测定大鼠膝关节软骨及前交叉韧带组织总胶原、Ⅰ型及Ⅱ型胶原蛋白含量.结果与结