WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit test soda

  1. Sugared soda consumption and dental caries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, K E; Burt, B A; Eklund, S A

    2001-10-01

    Because of the complexity of the caries process, the potential cariogenicity of specific food items is difficult to assess. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between sugared soda consumption and caries. Dietary and dental examination data from the 1988-94 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were used. From the food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour recall data, significant associations between DMFS and soda consumption were generally seen in persons over age 25. No differences in DMFS, relative to soda consumption, were seen in persons under age 25, or in analyses of dfs for children under age 12. The observed associations could be due to the cumulative effects of the long-term consumption of sugared soda. The absence of apparent effects of sugared soda consumption in younger people may also be related to the increased use of fluorides since the 1960s.

  2. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of Tropical Soda Apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An open-field experiment was conducted to asses the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buen...

  3. Soda-Anthraquinone Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murr.) Rind Linerboard and Corrugated Medium Paper: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Mubarak Sa'adon, Amir; Ika Sukarno, Khairil; Fadrol Hisham Yusoff, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    A preliminary test was conducted to investigate the characteristics of linerboard and corrugated medium paper made from durian rind waste. Naturally dried durian rinds were pulped according to Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with a condition of 20% active alkali, 0.1% AQ, 7:1 liquor to material ratio, 120 minutes cooking time and 170°C cooking temperature. The linerboard and corrugated medium paper with a basis weight of 120 gsm were prepared and evaluated according to Malaysian International Organization for Standardization (MS ISO) and Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). The results indicate that the characteristics of durian rind linerboard are comparable with other wood or non-wood based paper and current commercial paper. However, low CMT value for corrugated medium and water absorptiveness quality for linerboard could be improved in future. Based on the bulk density (0.672 g/cm3), burst index (3.12 kPa.m2/g) and RCT (2.00 N.m2/g), the durian rind has shown a good potential and suitable as an alternative raw material source for linerboard industry.

  4. Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

  5. Baking soda overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda loading ... Baking soda contains sodium bicarbonate. ... Symptoms of baking soda overdose include: Constipation Convulsions Diarrhea Feeling of being full Frequent urination Irritability Muscle spasms Muscle weakness Vomiting

  6. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  7. Links between purchase location and stable isotope ratios of bottled water, soda, and beer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Lesley A; Valenzuela, Luciano O; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-06-23

    This study investigated the impact of purchase location on the stable isotope ratios of beverages by measuring the delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of bottled water, soda, beer, and tap water collected across the contiguous United States. Measured beverage delta(2)H and delta(18)O values generally fit the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), suggesting region-of-origin information is recorded in beverage water. Tap water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were strongly correlated with the stable isotope ratios of bottled water and soda purchased in the same location. Beer water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were also correlated with tap water, although not as strongly. Variability in delta(2)H and delta(18)O values among beverages purchased at a single location ranged from 2 to 41 per thousand and from 0.3 to 5.2 per thousand, respectively, but was generally moderate in most locations. It was concluded that the isotopic composition of local tap water is a reasonable proxy for consumers' fluid intake in most U.S. cities.

  8. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carpenter, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brandon, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zavala, Bernie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these

  9. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different degre

  10. Corrosion effects on soda lime glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although soda lime glass is the most common used transparent material in architecture, little is known about the corrosion effects on long term strength and the interaction between corrosion and defects. Extensive testing on soda lime bars under different environmental conditions and different

  11. Pilot-scale treatability testing -- Recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from decontamination and decommissioning activities: Soda blasting demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the nature and magnitude of decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) obligations at its sites. With disposal costs rising and available storage facilities decreasing, DOE is exploring and implementing new waste minimizing D and D techniques. Technology demonstrations are being conducted by LMES at a DOE gaseous diffusion processing plant, the K-25 Site, in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The gaseous diffusion process employed at Oak Ridge separated uranium-235 from uranium ore for use in atomic weapons and commercial reactors. These activities contaminated concrete and other surfaces within the plant with uranium, technetium, and other constituents. The objective of current K-25 D and D research is to make available cost-effective and energy-efficient techniques to advance remediation and waste management methods at the K-25 Site and other DOE sites. To support this objective, O`Brien and Gere tested a decontamination system on K-25 Site concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous waste. A scouring system has been developed that removes fixed hazardous and radioactive surface contamination and minimizes residual waste. This system utilizes an abrasive sodium bicarbonate medium that is projected at contaminated surfaces. It mechanically removes surface contamination while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are captured and dissolved in water and treated using physical/chemical processes. Pilot-scale testing of this soda blasting system and bench and pilot-scale treatment of the generated residuals were conducted from December 1993 to September 1994.

  12. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  13. Baking Soda and Vinegar Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Zachary, Christopher; Tran, Quoc

    2009-01-01

    Rocket experiments demonstrating conservation of momentum will never fail to generate enthusiasm in undergraduate physics laboratories. In this paper, we describe tests on rockets from two vendors that combine baking soda and vinegar for propulsion. The experiment compared two analytical approximations for the maximum rocket height to the…

  14. A multicenter, observational study of lanreotide depot/autogel (LAN) in patients with acromegaly in the United States: 2-year experience from the SODA registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Roberto; Gordon, Murray B; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Ioachimescu, Adriana G; Carver, Don W; Mirakhur, Beloo; Cox, David; Molitch, Mark E

    2017-07-24

    This analysis evaluates the 2-year effectiveness and safety of lanreotide depot/autogel (LAN), as well as treatment convenience and acromegaly symptom relief, from the Somatuline(®) Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) registry, a post-marketing, open-label, observational, multicenter, United States registry study. Patients with acromegaly treated with LAN were eligible for enrollment. Demographics, LAN dose, extended dosing interval (EDI) (interval of injections ≥42 days), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), glycated hemoglobin, adverse events (AEs), injection convenience, and symptom data were collected. As of September 29, 2014, 241 patients were enrolled in SODA. IGF-1 levels below age- and gender-adjusted upper normal limit (ULN) were achieved in 71.2% at month (M) 12 and 74.4% at M24; GH ≤2.5 µg/L in 83.3% at M12 and 80.0% at M24; GH <1.0 µg/L in 61.7% at M12 and 61.4% at M24. Both IGF-1 < ULN and GH ≤2.5 µg/L were achieved in 65.0% at M12 and 54.8% at M24; both IGF-1 < ULN and GH < 1.0 µg/L were achieved in 51.7 and 42.9% at M12 and M24, respectively. EDI regimen was 5.0% at baseline and 12.0% at M24. At M24, acromegaly symptoms appeared stable or improved. The most common AE was arthralgia (25.7%). Among 106 serious AEs reported by 42 patients, 10 were deemed related to therapy in 9 patients. At M24, 73.1% of patients rated LAN as convenient. SODA indicates 2-year biochemical control with majority of patients achieving both IGF-1 < ULN and GH ≤2.5 µg/L. LAN was generally well tolerated with no new or unexpected safety signals reported during the observation period. clinicaltrials.gov Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT00686348.

  15. Nonlinear relationship between the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response and the Al/B ratio in a soda-lime aluminoborosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Rahmat Ullah; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of Al/B ratio on the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response. In an aluminoborosilicate soda-lime glass based on a modified International Simple Glass, ISG-3, the Al/B ratio varied from 0 to 0.55 (in mole fractions). In agreement with various models of the PCT response as a function of glass composition, we observed a monotonic increase of B and Na releases with decreasing Al/B mole ratio, but only when the ratio was higher than 0.05. Below this value (Al/B < 0.05), we observed a sharp decrease that we attribute to B in tetrahedral coordination.

  16. Nonlinear relationship between the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response and the Al/B ratio in a soda-lime aluminoborosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, Rahmat Ullah; Hrma, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the effect of A1/B ratio on the Product Consistency Test (PCT) response. In an aluminoborosilicate soda-lime glass based on a modified International Simple Glass, ISG-3, the A1/B ratio varied from 0 to 0.55 (in mole fractions). In agreement with various models of the PCT response as a function of glass composition, we observed a monotonic increase of B and Na releases with decreasing A1/B mole ratio, but only when the ratio was higher than 0.05. Below this value (A1/B < 0.05), we observed a sharp decrease that we attribute to B in tetrahedral coordination.

  17. Baking Soda Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the basic principles of baking soda chemistry including the chemical composition of baking soda, its acid-base properties, the reaction of bicarbonate solution with calcium ions, and a description of some general types of chemical reactions. Includes a science activity that involves removing calcium ions from water. (LZ)

  18. An update on the dangers of soda pop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplowitz, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    The consumption of soda pop in the United States continues to increase in alarming proportions with consequent drastic effects on the dentition of many people. Patients should be asked about how much soda pop they ingest. Parents should be counseled on the effects of soda pop demineralization and begin to limit the amounts given to children at home and in schools. The dental team has the expertise and training to intervene with diet counseling, home care instructions and professionally applied fluoride to decrease the potential ravages of soda pop.

  19. Microbial Flocculant for Nature Soda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Peiyong; Zhang, Tong; Chen, Cuixian

    2004-03-31

    Microbial flocculant for nature soda has been studied. Lactobacillus TRJ21, which was able to produce an excellent biopolymer flocculant for nature soda, was obtained in our lab. The microbial flocculant was mainly produced when the bacteria laid in stationary growth phase. Fructose or glucose, as carbon sources, were more favorable for the bacterial growth and flocculant production. The bacteria was able to use ammonium sulfate or Urea as nitrogen to produce flocculant, but was not able to use peptone effectively. High C/N ratio was more favorable to Lactobacillus TRJ21 growth and flocculant production than low C/N ratio. The biopolymer flocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide and protein with a molecular weight 1.38x106 by gel permeation chromatography. It was able to be easily purified from the culture medium by acetone. Protein in the flocculant was tested for the flocculating activity ingredient by heating the flocculant.

  20. Soda consumption and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study1234

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: The frequency of soda consumption remains high in the United States. Soda consumption has been associated with poor bone health in children, but few studies have examined this relation in adults, and to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation of soda consumption with risk of hip fractures.

  1. Functional microbiology of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.L.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and

  2. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS HIV Testing in the United States HIV Testing in the United States Jun 23, 2017 ... States or for refugees. 27 Insurance Coverage of HIV Testing HIV testing that is “medically necessary” – recommended ...

  3. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  4. Fractal Loop Heat Pipe Performance Comparisons of a Soda Lime Glass and Compressed Carbon Foam Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, David; Silk, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares heat flux performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) wick structure fabricated from compressed carbon foam with that of a wick structure fabricated from sintered soda lime glass. Each wick was used in an LHP containing a fractal based evaporator. The Fractal Loop Heat Pipe (FLHP) was designed and manufactured by Mikros Manufacturing Inc. The compressed carbon foam wick structure was manufactured by ERG Aerospace Inc., and machined to specifications comparable to that of the initial soda lime glass wick structure. Machining of the compressed foam as well as performance testing was conducted at the United States Naval Academy. Performance testing with the sintered soda lime glass wick structures was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Heat input for both wick structures was supplied via cartridge heaters mounted in a copper block. The copper heater block was placed in contact with the FLHP evaporator which had a circular cross-sectional area of 0.88 cm(sup 2). Twice distilled, deionized water was used as the working fluid in both sets of experiments. Thermal performance data was obtained for three different Condenser/Subcooler temperatures under degassed conditions. Both wicks demonstrated comparable heat flux performance with a maximum of 75 W/cm observed for the soda lime glass wick and 70 W /cm(sup 2) for the compressed carbon foam wick.

  5. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  6. Functional microbiology of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Banciu, Horia L; Muyzer, Gerard

    2015-06-01

    Soda lakes represent unique permanently haloalkaline system. Despite the harsh conditions, they are inhabited by abundant, mostly prokaryotic, microbial communities. This review summarizes results of studies of main functional groups of the soda lake prokaryotes responsible for carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling, including oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs, aerobic chemolithotrophs, fermenting and respiring anaerobes. The main conclusion from this work is that the soda lakes are very different from other high-salt systems in respect to microbial richness and activity. The reason for this difference is determined by the major physico-chemical features of two dominant salts - NaCl in neutral saline systems and sodium carbonates in soda lakes, that are influencing the amount of energy required for osmotic adaptation.

  7. Practical unit testing with JUnit and Mockito

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczanowski, Tomek

    2013-01-01

    This book explains in detail how to implement unit tests using two very popular open source Java technologies: JUnit and Mockito. It presents a range of techniques necessary to write high quality unit tests - e.g. mocks, parametrized tests and matchers. It also discusses trade-offs related to the choices we have to make when dealing with some real-life code issues. The book stresses the importance of writing readable and maintainable unit tests, and puts a lot of stress on code quality. It shows how to achieve testable code and to eliminate common mistakes by following the Test Driven Development approach. Every topic discussed in the book is illustrated with code examples, and each chapter is accompanied by some exercises. By reading this book you will: Grasp the role and purpose of unit tests Write high-quality, readable and maintainable unit tests Learn how to use JUnit and Mockito (but also other useful tools) Avoid common pitfalls when writing unit tests Recognize bad unit tests, a...

  8. Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000888.htm Calorie count - sodas and energy drinks To use the sharing features on this page, ... to have a few servings of soda or energy drinks a day without thinking about it. Like other ...

  9. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  10. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  11. The History of Soda Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵余燕

    2007-01-01

    <正>The name soda water tells something of its origins in US.Naturally carbonated(含二氧化碳的)water flows out of the ground in mineral springs around the world.These mineral springs have attracted people in

  12. Differential performance of tropical soda apple and its biological control agent Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in open and shaded habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth has been released since 2003 in the southeastern United States for biological control of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum Dunal. In Florida, G. boliviana can be found on tropical soda apple growing in open pastures as well as in shady wooded areas...

  13. The Untapped Power of Soda Taxes: Incentivizing Consumers, Generating Revenue, and Altering Corporate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Roache

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, soda taxes are gaining momentum as powerful interventions to discourage sugar consumption and thereby reduce the growing burden of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Evidence from early adopters including Mexico and Berkeley, California, confirms that soda taxes can disincentivize consumption through price increases and raise revenue to support government programs. The United Kingdom’s new graduated levy on sweetened beverages is yielding yet another powerful impact: soda manufacturers are reformulating their beverages to significantly reduce the sugar content. Product reformulation – whether incentivized or mandatory – helps reduce overconsumption of sugars at the societal level, moving away from the long-standing notion of individual responsibility in favor of collective strategies to promote health. But as a matter of health equity, soda product reformulation should occur globally, especially in low- and middleincome countries (LMICs, which are increasingly targeted as emerging markets for soda and junk food and are disproportionately impacted by NCDs. As global momentum for sugar reduction increases, governments and public health advocates should harness the power of soda taxes to tackle the economic, social, and informational drivers of soda consumption, driving improvements in food environments and the public’s health.

  14. The Cost Implications of Replacing Soda Lime with Amsorb Plus in Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Ahmed; Stephen Mannion

    2011-01-01

    Background and Goal of the Study. Desiccated soda lime is known to produce toxic compounds when interacting with volatile anesthetic agents. Amsorb Plus does not produce these but is more expensive per unit weight. Materials and Methods. In a prospective cross-over study, we evaluated the cost of using soda lime (Spherasorb, Intersurgical, UK) and Amsorb Plus. In four operating theatres over two 4-week periods, one for each product, we measured sevoflurane consumption, amount of absorbent use...

  15. Production of water-free soda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.A.M.; Geertman, R.M.; Oosterhof, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    A process is presented in which anhydrous soda is crystallized and worked up to produce anhydrous soda crystals with a bulk density from 1300 to 1600 kg/m<3>. The process is characterized in that a solvent is used that allows the crystals to be formed and handled at atomspheric pressure in the prese

  16. Production of water-free soda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.A.M.; Geertman, R.M.; Oosterhof, H.; Witkamp, G.J.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    A process is presented in which anhydrous soda is crystallized and worked up to produce anhydrous soda crystals with a bulk density from 1300 to 1600 kg/m<3>. The process is characterized in that a solvent is used that allows the crystals to be formed and handled at atomspheric pressure in the

  17. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark D.; Ghayoomie, S. Vahid; Larson, Stephen D.; Gerkin, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models. PMID:27635225

  18. 27 CFR 21.102 - Caustic soda, liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caustic soda, liquid. 21....102 Caustic soda, liquid. (a) The liquid caustic soda may consist of either 50 percent or 73 percent by weight sodium hydroxide in aqueous solution. The amount of caustic soda used shall be such...

  19. Caustic Soda Will Be Oversupply in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liqin

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid output increase There are more than 220 caustic soda producers in China today. At the end of 2006 the capacity of caustic soda in China was 17.61 million t/a. The output of caustic soda was 15.118 million tons in 2006, an increase of 19.0% over 2005 and 1.331 million tons were exported, an increase of 55.8%. Production increased fastest in Northwest China, with growth 51.9% faster than 2005. The output in East China grew 22.9% and 22.3% in Southwest China, both higher than the national average level.

  20. [Modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after regular soda and diet soda intake in the State of Querétaro, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalde-Mendoza, Liliana; Moreno-González, Yazmín Esmeralda

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the modification of fasting blood glucose in adults with diabetes mellitus type 2 after intake of regular soda and diet soda. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in clinics of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Querétaro, México. We included 80 patients with diabetes (mean weight 74.2 +/- 13.66, BMI 30.5 +/- 4.305, waist 98.2 +/- 12.9 and time evolution of diabetes 3.8 +/- 3.009) who were asked to come with fasting for 8 hours and without taking any medicine before testing. They were divided into two groups of 40 subjects, to whom was measured fasting blood glucose after the ingestion of 200 ml of diet soda (with aspartame and acesulfame potassium) or regular soda (without sweetener) we measure glucose at 10, 15 and 30 minutes. For statistical analysis performed we used Student's t-test for dependent and independent samples, and paired t-test, and chi square test (chi2). Capillary glucose levels at 10 minutes were -34.52 and -25.41%, at 15 minutes -48.8 and -36.2% and at 30 minutes 57.75 and 43.6% of absolute and relative differences, with p = 0.000. In conclusion, according to the observations, diet soda doesn't increased blood glucose levels, with a significant difference in fasting decreased at 30 minutes.

  1. Unit Test Frameworks Tools for High-Quality Software Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hamill, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This is the only book to explore unit testing as a language-independent, standalone development methodology. It covers the theory and methodology of unit test frameworks, offers instruction in unit test development, provides useful code examples in both Java and C++, and details the most commonly used frameworks from the XUnit family, including JUnit for Java, CppUnit for C++, and NUnit for .NET. It also includes the complete source code for CppUnit for C++ and NUnit for .NET.

  2. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  3. How state taxes and policies targeting soda consumption modify the association between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Taber

    Full Text Available Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1 estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2 determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors..Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11 and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05 if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference  =  -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76. However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.

  4. Effect of thermal treatments on sputtered silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings on soda-lime glasses: ionic exchange and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraris, M.; Ferraris, S., E-mail: sara.ferraris@polito.it; Miola, M.; Perero, S.; Balagna, C.; Verne, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering (Italy); Gautier, G. [IMAMOTER Institute for Agricultural and Earthmoving Machines (Italy); Manfredotti, Ch.; Battiato, A.; Vittone, E. [University of Torino, Physics Department, NIS Excellence Centre and CNISM (Italy); Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler FBK (Italy); Bogdanovic, I. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Experimental Physics Department (Croatia)

    2012-12-15

    Silver nanocluster/silica composite coatings were deposited on both soda-lime and silica glasses by radio frequency (RF) co-sputtering. The effect of thermal treatments on the microstructure in the range of 150-450 Degree-Sign C were examined by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Time of Flight-Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. Sodium/silver ionic exchange was evidenced for coatings sputtered on soda-lime substrates after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C; presence of silver ions and/or silver nanoclusters, nanocluster size and their position inside the sputtered layers will be discussed for as-deposited and heated coatings on both substrates. The antibacterial activity of all coatings was determined against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by disk diffusion method and colonies forming units count; in agreement with microstructural results, the antibacterial activity present on all coatings was slightly reduced after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. All coatings have been submitted to humidity plus UV ageing and sterilization by autoclave, gamma ray and ethylene oxide gas. Tape resistance (ASTM D3359-97) tests have been done on each coating before and after ageing and sterilizations, revealing a good adhesion on soda-lime substrates, except for those aged in humidity plus UV and sterilized by autoclave. Scratch tests and nanoindentation tests have been done on each coating, as-deposited and after heating at 450 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness was improved by heating only when coatings were deposited on silica. The heating of coatings deposited on soda-lime substrates gave opposite effect on their hardness.

  5. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women. An observational experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two commercial breaks consisting of soda or water commercials. Their actual soda consumption while watching the movie clip was examined. An analysis of variance was used to examine the effects of commercial condition on soda consumption. Thirst and first glass consumed before the first commercial break were added as covariates in the analyses. Results indicated that participants assigned to the condition with soda commercials consumed 1.3 ounces more soda than participants in the water commercial condition. Exposure to soda commercials while watching a movie can have a strong influence on increasing sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women.

  6. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-07-22

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic Unit Pump Test Bench Development and Pump Properties Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; HUANG Ying; ZHANG Fu-jun; ZHAO Chang-lu

    2006-01-01

    A unit pump test bench is developed on an in-line pump test platform. The bench is composed of pump adapting assembly, fuel supply subsystem, lubricating subsystem and a control unit. A crank angle domain injection control method is given out and the control accuracy can be 0.1° crank degree. The bench can test bot h mechanical unit pump and electronic unit pump. A test model-PLD12 electronic unit pump is tested. Full pump delivery map and some influence factors test is d one. Experimental results show that the injection quantity is linear with the de livery angle. The quantity change rate is 15% when fuel temperature increases 30℃. The delivery quantity per cycle increases 30mg at 28V drive voltage. T he average delivery difference for two same type pumps is 5%. Test results show that the bench can be used for unit pump verification.

  8. Lanreotide extended-release aqueous-gel formulation, injected by patient, partner or healthcare provider in patients with acromegaly in the United States: 1-year data from the SODA registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Roberto; Woodmansee, Whitney W; Molitch, Mark; Gordon, Murray B; Lomax, Kathleen G

    2014-02-01

    Lanreotide depot (LD; commercial name Somatuline(®) Depot) is an injectable, extended-release formulation of the synthetic somatostatin analog (SSA) lanreotide. In recent clinical trials, LD was found to be suitable for self or partner administration, avoiding the need to travel to a medical facility. The Somatuline(®) Depot for Acromegaly (SODA) study is an ongoing, multicenter, observational study in the US investigating the efficacy, safety, convenience and symptom relief provided by LD in patients with acromegaly. Sub-analyses explore outcomes according to who administered the injection: patient, partner, healthcare provider (HCP) or a combination. Data reported here reflect one year of patient experience. Patients are eligible for inclusion if they have a diagnosis of acromegaly, are treated with LD and can give signed informed consent. Baseline data include patient demographics, previous acromegaly treatment and investigations, GH and IGF-I levels, LD dose and dose adjustment frequency. Symptom frequency, injection pain and treatment convenience are assessed using patient-reported questionnaires. As of 18 April 2012, 166 patients had enrolled in SODA. Most (72 %) achieved normal IGF-I levels after 12 months of LD treatment. Disease control was similar in self or partner injectors and in patients who received injections from their HCP, although self or partner injecting was deemed more convenient. LD was well-tolerated irrespective of who performed the injection. Self injection led to more injection-site reactions, but this did not increase the rate of treatment interruption. Acromegaly symptoms remained stable. Biochemical, safety and convenience data support the clinical validity of injecting LD at home.

  9. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  10. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  11. 21 CFR 573.1020 - Yellow prussiate of soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow prussiate of soda. 573.1020 Section 573.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Additive Listing § 573.1020 Yellow prussiate of soda. Yellow prussiate of soda...

  12. On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary to the thesis “On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils” Alexey Grum-Grzhimaylo The presented thesis addresses aspects of biology and evolution of fungi that were recovered from saline soda soils. The work highlights the fact that saline soda soils are populated by a

  13. On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary to the thesis “On the biology and evolution of fungi from soda soils” Alexey Grum-Grzhimaylo The presented thesis addresses aspects of biology and evolution of fungi that were recovered from saline soda soils. The work highlights the fact that saline soda soils are populated by a

  14. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.30 Examinations subsequent to unit tests. (a) After satisfactory... deformation or failure. (c) For subsequent tests such parts of the gear shall be dismantled or...

  15. Mastering Unit testing using Mockito and JUnit

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2014-01-01

    A practical and easy-to-follow, yet comprehensive, guide to learning advanced JUnit testing. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive, there are more details of the concepts used. This book is for you if you are a developer with some experience in Java application development as well as a basic knowledge of JUnit testing. But for those whose skill set is void of any prior experience with JUnit testing, the book also covers basic fundamentals to get you acquainted with the concepts before putting them into practise.

  16. Cross-sectional association between soda consumption and body mass index in a community-based sample of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eney, Anna E; Tsang, Siny; Delaney, Joseph A; Turkheimer, Eric; Duncan, Glen E

    2017-08-22

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, such as soda, have been shown to play an important role in weight gain. Although soda consumption has been associated with body mass index (BMI) in many studies, it has been difficult to ascertain a true causal relationship between soda consumption and BMI for two reasons. First, findings have been based largely on observational and cross-sectional studies, with much less evidence from randomized controlled trials. Second, the reported relationships may be confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors that affect both soda consumption and BMI. In the present study, we used the twin design to better understand the relationship between soda consumption and BMI by accounting for measured and unmeasured confounds in non-experimental data. Associations from genetically informed tests in twins are considered "quasi-causal," suggesting that our confidence in the causal underpinning of the association between soda consumption and BMI has been strengthened. We hypothesized that the association between soda consumption and BMI would be significant both between and within twins. This was a cross sectional study of 5787 same sex adult twin pairs (18-97 years, 66% female) from the community based Washington State Twin Registry. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to investigate associations between soda consumption and BMI in the population (the phenotypic association between exposure and outcome among all twins treated as individuals) and within pairs of identical and fraternal twins (the quasi-causal association controlling for between pair genetic and environmental confounds). Among all twins, there was a significant phenotypic association between soda consumption and BMI that held when controlling for age, sex, race, annual household income, and education level (P consumption on BMI was greatly reduced and no longer significant, with a large genetic confound in both men and women (P consumption was associated

  17. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  18. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated card, and mailing to lab for testing. Identification number on card is used when phoning for ... Policy Powered by WordPress.com VIP Follow Us Facebook Twitter Feeds Get the Latest on Health Policy ...

  19. Unit testing as a teaching tool in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peláez Canek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit testing in the programming world has had a profound impact in the way modern complex systems are developed. Many Open Source and Free Software projects encourage (and in some cases, mandate the use of unit tests for new code submissions, and many software companies around the world have incorporated unit testing as part of their standard developing practices. And although not all software engineers use them, very few (if at all object their use. However, there is almost no research available pertaining the use of unit tests as a teaching tool in introductory programming courses. I have been teaching introductory programming courses in the Computer Sciences program at the Sciences Faculty in the National Autonomous University of Mexico for almost ten years, and since 2013 I have been using unit testing as a teaching tool in those courses. The intent of this paper is to discuss the results of this experience.

  20. Can soda fountains be recommended in hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaberny, Iris F; Kaiser, Peter; Sonntag, Hans-Günther

    2006-09-01

    Mineral water (soda water) is very popular in Germany. Therefore, soda fountains were developed as alternatives to the traditional deposit bottle system. Nowadays, different systems of these devices are commercially available. For several years, soda fountains produced by different companies have been examined at the University Hospital of Heidelberg. In 1998, it was possible for the first time to observe and evaluate one of these systems over a period of 320 days in a series of microbiological examinations. The evaluation was implemented on the basis of the German drinking water regulation (Anonymous, 1990. Gesetz über Trinkwasser und Wasser für Lebensmittelbetriebe (Trinkwasserverordnung - TrinkwV) vom 12. Dezember 1990. Bundesgesetzblatt 66, 2613ff). Initially, the bacteria counts exceeded the reference values imposed by the German drinking water regulation in almost 50% of the analyses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in almost 38% of the samples. After a re-arrangement of the disinfection procedure and the removal of the charcoal filter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was not detectable any more. However, the bacteria counts still frequently exceeded the reference values of the German drinking water regulation. Following our long-term analysis, we would not recommend soda fountains in high-risk areas of hospitals. If these devices are to be used in hospitals, the disinfection procedures should be executed in weekly or fortnightly intervals and the water quality should be examined periodically.

  1. United States Ski Team Fitness Testing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettman, Larry R.

    Presented is a fitness profile designed to identify the individual athlete's strengths and weaknesses. Specifically, the areas of fitness examined are a) muscular strength; b) cardiovascular respiratory function; c) body composition; and d) motor abilities, agility, and speed. The procedures in the testing program involve the following: a) the…

  2. Quick setup of unit test for accelerator controls system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, W.; D' Ottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Nemesure, S.; Morris, J.

    2011-03-28

    Testing a single hardware unit of an accelerator control system often requires the setup of a program with graphical user interface. Developing a dedicated application for a specific hardware unit test could be time consuming and the application may become obsolete after the unit tests. This paper documents a methodology for quick design and setup of an interface focused on performing unit tests of accelerator equipment with minimum programming work. The method has three components. The first is a generic accelerator device object (ADO) manager which can be used to setup, store, and log testing controls parameters for any unit testing system. The second involves the design of a TAPE (Tool for Automated Procedure Execution) sequence file that specifies and implements all te testing and control logic. The sting third is the design of a PET (parameter editing tool) page that provides the unit tester with all the necessary control parameters required for testing. This approach has been used for testing the horizontal plane of the Stochastic Cooling Motion Control System at RHIC.

  3. Cleaner production in the ammonia-soda industry: an ecological and economic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikowski, T; Buczkowski, R; Lemanowska, E

    2004-12-01

    Five methods to reduce the negative influence of soda ash factories on the natural environment are presented: 1. obtaining calcium-magnesium phosphates by treating the suspension from raw brine purification with orthophosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)), 2. production of precipitated chalk from soda processing waste, 3. production of gypsum and semi-brine, 4. desulphurisation of fume gases from the factory power plant, 5. utilization of distiller waste. The tests, accomplished on a laboratory scale, showed the high efficiency of these methods. Economic analysis has proved that only four out of the five presented processes can have a positive financial effect on soda ash factories, as well as being well justified economically. The value of two of the innovations presented is confirmed by their implementation in factories.

  4. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects.

  5. ENERGY EFFICIENT AND SAFE VALVE TESTING UNIT USING WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhivya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The valve testing unit is a high pressure test equipment to test the valve manufactured in industries. Valves are tested to ensure that they sustain high pressure in the range of 10000 to 15000 PSI for the required amount of time without any leakage. It has few drawbacks such as inefficient usage of power, fatal accidents due to the proximity of the users with the testing unit to note the valve pressure during operation. It is much dangerous for the industry personnel to note the valve pressure for every minute during operation. There are chances of bolts fitted in the valve thrown away due to the issues in the bolt fittings and the immense pressure inside the valve. Therefore in order to avoid fatal accidents andto improve the industrial safety an efficient valve testing unit is designed and developed using ZigBee wireless transmission technology. The proposed efficient pressure monitoring unit uses emerging technologies like ZigBee, RFID along with ARM 7 processor. The proposed system uses LabVIEW software to develop the monitoring unit in PC. ZigBee wireless transmission technology is used for remote monitoring of valve pressure for every minute. RFID module is used for uniquely identifying the valve and to track the test results. The proposed unit saves energy by sending a signal to turn off the air driven booster pump once the prescribed pressure level is reached. Theproposed unit also indicates the oil level of the test unit which avoids the manual intervention to verify the oil level and also detects issues in the bolts fitted in the valve by using a distance sensor which is to avoid fatal accidents by stopping the valve testing unit.

  6. Improving Size and Power in Unit Root Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Jansson, Michael

    of recent contributions to improve upon both size and power of unit root tests and in so doing the approach of using rigorous statistical optimality criteria in the development of such tests is stressed. In addition to presenting tests where improved size can be achieved by modifying the standard Dickey......A frequent criticism of unit root tests concerns the poor power and size properties that many of such testsexhibit. However, the past decade or so intensive research has been conducted to alleviate these problems and great advances have been made. The present paper provides a selective survey......-Fuller class of tests, the paper presents theory of optimal testing and the construction of power envelopes for unit root tests underdifferent conditions allowing for serial correlation, deterministic components, assumptions regarding the initial condition, non-Gaussian errors, and the use of covariates....

  7. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-27

    Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students' in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional longitudinal research is needed to confirm this

  8. A New Symmetrical Unit for Breakwater Armour: First Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salauddin, M.; Broere, A.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Bijl, E.

    2015-01-01

    A new and symmetrical single layer armour unit, the crablock, has been designed in the UAE. One breakwater was reconstructed with crablock, but very limited testing had been performed. Just to become more acquainted with this new unit, pre-competitive research at a university has been performed,

  9. Unit cell sparger test program and analysis of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Song, C. H.; Cho, S.; Yoon, Y. J

    2003-11-01

    This report presents the results of test data from CPT-3 test and the effect of important parameters on the IRWST load. The object of CPT-3 test is to determine the influence of air mass in the piping on the IRWST (In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank) boundary during an operation of Safety Depressurization and Vent System (SDVS). The test was conducted from an initial system pressure of 15.2 MPa, a steam temperature of 343.3 .deg. C, and an air mass of 3.34 lb. Following valve actuation, the pressure within the discharge line underwent pressure transient due to high pressure steam from the pressurizer and the discharged high pressure air formed air bubbles, which expanded and compressed periodically in the simulated IRWST. Air bubble oscillation was terminated within 2 s into the test. The magnitude of the pressure wave during the air clearing period was inversely proportional to the distance and very abrupt pressure spikes were observed in case the distance from the sparger holes to the submerged structure was less than 0.9 m. After the isolation valves were closed, the water in the simulated IRWST was considered to rise up to the 2.4m from the water surface in the quench tank. The amount of air mass in the piping, water temperature in the simulated IRWST, air temperature in the piping had not significant effect on the pressure loading during an air clearing period. However, the opening time of the isolation valve, steam mass flow rate, and submergence of an sparger have been shown to have great effects on the pressure loading during an air clearing period. 2 % of sparger flow area seems to be sufficient for the vacuum breaker area to mitigate the water hammering caused by abrupt water level rising during valve closure.

  10. Tonopah Test Range Summary of Corrective Action Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald B. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and Corrective Action Units (CAUs) at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) may be placed into three categories: Clean Closure/No Further Action, Closure in Place, or Closure in Progress.

  11. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    Seemingly absent from the arsenal of currently available "nearly efficient" testing procedures for the unit root hypothesis, i.e. tests whose local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope, is a test admitting a (quasi-)likelihood ratio interpretation. We...... show that the likelihood ratio unit root test derived in a Gaussian AR(1) model with standard normal innovations is nearly efficient in that model. Moreover, these desirable properties carry over to more complicated models allowing for serially correlated and/or non-Gaussian innovations....

  12. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Research on Test Unit for Determining Cooling Characteristics of Quenchants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin-lin; ZHANG Wei-min; CHEN Nai-lu; LIU Zhan-cang; LIU Yang

    2004-01-01

    According to ASTM Designation DXXXX Standard Test Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quenchants by Cooling Curve Analysis with Agitation (Drayton Unit), a test unit was designed using which the cooling characteristics of a quenchant at different flow rates and different temperatures can be determined. We discussed the effects of flow rate and temperature on cooling characteristics of fast speed quenching oil. The results show that this unit can be well used for determining cooling characteristics of quechants at different flow rates and different temperatures. At the same time our investigation can provide a reference to the establishment of a standard for determination of cooling characteristics of quenchants with agitation.

  14. Nearly Efficient Likelihood Ratio Tests for Seasonal Unit Roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    that these tests are "nearly efficient" in the sense of Elliott, Rothenberg, and Stock (1996), i.e. that their local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope. Currently available nearly efficient testing procedures for seasonal unit roots are regression-based and require...

  15. A review of United Nations tests for explosivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.K.; Mak, W.A.; Whitmore, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    In attempting to develop a closed pressure vessel test for assessing explosivity, arising from propagation of detonation, deflagration or thermal explosion, some difficulties were encountered in relation to United Nations test methods. This led to a review of these methods and comparisons of their p

  16. The Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, I.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Heijligers, B.M.R.; Netten, B.D.; Schackmann, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site is presented. It consists of a sensor platform and V2I communication platform with full coverage of the test site. A service platform enables applications to make use of these facilities. The RSU will be used both for the imp

  17. United States nuclear tests, July 1945 through September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Several tests conducted during Operation Dominic involved missile launches from Johnston Atoll. Several of these missile launches were aborted, resulting in the destruction of the missile and nuclear device either on the pad or in the air.

  18. Soda Cans Metamaterial: A Subwavelength-Scaled Phononic Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Lemoult

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photonic or phononic crystals and metamaterials, due to their very different typical spatial scales—wavelength and deep subwavelength—and underlying physical mechanisms—Bragg interferences or local resonances—, are often considered to be very different composite media. As such, while the former are commonly used to manipulate and control waves at the scale of the unit cell, i.e., wavelength, the latter are usually considered for their effective properties. Yet we have shown in the last few years that under some approximations, metamaterials can be used as photonic or phononic crystals, with the great advantage that they are much more compact. In this review, we will concentrate on metamaterials made out of soda cans, that is, Helmholtz resonators of deep subwavelength dimensions. We will first show that their properties can be understood, likewise phononic crystals, as resulting from interferences only, through multiple scattering effects and Fano interferences. Then, we will demonstrate that below the resonance frequency of its unit cell, a soda can metamaterial supports a band of subwavelength varying modes, which can be excited coherently using time reversal, in order to beat the diffraction limit from the far field. Above this frequency, the metamaterial supports a band gap, which we will use to demonstrate cavities and waveguides, very similar to those obtained in phononic crystals, albeit of deep subwavelength dimensions. We will finally show that multiple scattering can be taken advantage of in these metamaterials, by correctly structuring them. This allows to turn a metamaterial with a single negative effective property into a negative index metamaterial, which refracts waves negatively, hence acting as a superlens.

  19. The Power of Unit Root Tests Against Nonlinear Local Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demetrescu, Matei; Kruse, Robinson

    of Econometrics 112, 359-379) in comparison to the linear Dickey-Fuller test. To this end, we consider different adjustment schemes for deterministic terms. We provide asymptotic results which imply that the error variance has a severe impact on the behavior of the tests in the nonlinear case; the reason...... by simulation. Furthermore, our own simulation results suggest that the user-specied adjustment scheme for deterministic components (e.g. OLS, GLS, or recursive adjustment) has a much higher impact on the power of unit root tests than accounting for nonlinearity, at least under local (linear or nonlinear......This article extends the analysis of local power of unit root tests in a nonlinear direction by considering local nonlinear alternatives and tests built specically against stationary nonlinear models. In particular, we focus on the popular test proposed by Kapetanios et al. (2003, Journal...

  20. How State Taxes and Policies Targeting Soda Consumption Modify the Association between School Vending Machines and Student Dietary Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Renee Vuillaume; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors. Methods: Data on school vending machine access and student diet we...

  1. STATIC TESTS OF UNCONVENTIONAL PROPULSION UNITS FOR ULTRALIGHT AIRPLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Helmich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents static tests of a new unconventional propulsion unit for small aviation airplanes. Our laboratory stand – a fan drive demonstrator – enables us to compare various design options. We performed experiments to verify the propulsion functionality and a measurement procedure to determine the available thrust of the propulsion unit and its dependence on engine speed. The results used for subsequent optimization include the operating parameters of the propulsion unit, and the temperature and velocity fields in parts of the air duct.

  2. STRESS RELAXATION AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF SODA-LIME GLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.W.Bao; Y.F.Han; F.T.Gong

    2004-01-01

    Stress relaxation of glass is a dualism effect, it often lead to strength degradation in strengthened glass, but on the other hand, it improves the reliability and stressuniformity of glasses. In this work, stress relaxation of soda-lime glass was investigated using three-point bending tests at 400-560℃ which is near the brittle to ductile transition temperature, for enhancing the safety of glass productions and exploring the most economic anneal process. The experimental results show that the speed of stress relaxation increases but the ultimate stress decreases with increasing temperature. The stress uniformity of the glass samples before and after anneal was examined using spherical indentation at arranged testing points. It indicates that the scatter of the local strength measured by the Hertzian indentation is smaller in the anneal glass than in initial specimen, so that the estimated Weibull modulus for the anneal specimen is higher. Furthermore, the strength evaluation by Hertzian indentation and statistical analysis was presented.

  3. Tests and studies on improved innovativeness of sand reclamation units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pezarski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was raising the innovativeness of sand reclamation units through application of a new material - austempered ductile iron (ADI - for elements exposed to abrasion wear and impacts. Methods used for casting of ADI blades for disk-type reclamation units were described along with the results of tests and measurements of the obtained hardness, strength and microstructure. The ready ADI castings of blades were next subjected to performance tests to compare them with the conventionally made cast steel blades operating under industrial conditions. The obtained results of the tests confirmed high properties and numerous benefits offered by ADI respetive of cast steel used as a material for elements of sand reclamation units.

  4. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumpt...

  5. Systematic Unit Testing in a Read-eval-print Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Lisp programmers constantly carry out experiments in a read-eval-print loop.  The experimental activities convince the Lisp programmers that new or modified pieces of programs work as expected.  But the experiments typically do not represent systematic and comprehensive unit testing efforts...... how to use a test repository for other purposes than testing.  As a concrete contribution we show how to use test cases as examples in library interface documentation.  It is hypothesized---but not yet validated---that the tool will motivate the Lisp programmer to take the transition from casual...

  6. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996). As suggested by Eco (1999), I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific ...

  7. China First Full-scale Comprehensive Drilling Test Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ailin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The full-scale comprehensive drilling test unit built in Daqing Oilfields is the first one in China which can simulate the bottom-hole environments and the working conditions of drilling string with well depth up to 6 000 m.

  8. U.S. High School Kids Abandoning Sweetened Sodas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC team said. Despite declines in soda consumption, "intake of other sugar-sweetened beverages, including energy drinks and sports drinks, ... Dietary Guidelines for Americans currently recommends no-added-sugar beverages such ... decline in soda intake was seen across all subgroups -- boys and girls, ...

  9. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  10. Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children's body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; Powell, Lisa M; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2010-05-01

    Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption.

  11. Light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Rinehart, G. H.; Herrera, A.; Lopez, B.; Lynch, C.; Moniz, P.

    1998-01-01

    The light-weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) is a 238PuO2-fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. Los Alamos National Laboratory designed, fabricated, and safety tested the LWRHU. The heat source consists of a hot-pressed 238PuO2 fuel pellet, a Pt-30Rh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a fineweave-pierced fabric graphite aeroshell assembly. To compare the performance of the LWRHUs fabricated for the Cassini mission with the performance of those fabricated for the Galileo mission, and to determine a failure threshold, two types of impact tests were conducted. A post-reentry impact test was performed on one of 180 flight-quality units produced for the Cassini mission and a series of sequential impact tests using simulant-fueled LWRHU capsules were conducted respectively. The results showed that deformation and fuel containment of the impacted Cassini LWRHU was similar to that of a previously tested Galileo LWRHU. Both units sustained minimal deformation of the aeroshell and fueled capsule; the fuel was entirely contained by the platinum capsule. Sequential impacting, in both end-on and side-on orientations, resulted in increased damage with each subsequent impact. Sequential impacting of the LWRHU appears to result in slightly greater damage than a single impact at the final impact velocity of 50 m/s.

  12. Sugary soda consumption and albuminuria: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease rates rose following widespread introduction of high fructose corn syrup in the American diet, supporting speculation that fructose harms the kidney. Sugar-sweetened soda is a primary source of fructose. We therefore hypothesized that sugary soda consumption was associated with albuminuria, a sensitive marker for kidney disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Design was a cross-sectional analysis. Data were drawn from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999-2004. The setting was a representative United States population sample. Participants included adults 20 years and older with no history of diabetes mellitus (n = 12,601; after exclusions for missing outcome and covariate information (n = 3,243, the analysis dataset consisted of 9,358 subjects. Exposure was consumption of two or more sugary soft drinks, based on 24-hour dietary recall. The main outcome measure was Albuminuria, defined by albumin to creatinine ratio cutpoints of >17 mg/g (males and >25 mg/g (females. Logistic regression adjusted for confounders (diet soda, age, race-ethnicity, gender, poverty. Interactions between age, race-ethnicity, gender, and overweight-obesity were explored. Further analysis adjusted for potential mediators: energy intake, basal metabolic rate, obesity, hypertension, lipids, serum uric acid, smoking, energy expenditure, and glycohemoglobin. Alternative soda intake definitions and cola consumption were employed. RESULTS: Weighted albuminuria prevalence was 11%, and 17% consumed 2+ sugary soft drinks/day. The confounder-adjusted odds ratio for sugary soda was 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.74. Associations were modified by gender (p = 0.008 and overweight-obesity (p = 0.014. Among women, the OR was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.53; the OR among males was not significant. In the group with body mass under 25 kg/m(2, OR = 2.15 (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 3.25. Adjustment for potential

  13. Intestinal preparation for colon enema with fosfo-soda fleet versus the conventional method; Preparazione intestinale per clisma del colon mediante fosfo-soda fleet: studio comparativo con il sistema tradizionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchioli Caldazza, A.; Celi, G.; De Franco, A.; Parrella, A.; Minordi, L.M.; Marano, P. [Rome Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy). Ist. di radiologia

    1999-05-01

    The authors evaluate the possible optimization of a well-tolerated and versatile method of intestinal preparation able to adequately free the lumen and consequently improve diagnostic results with a lower risk of prolonged hospital stay for incorrectly prepared patients. They examined 40 patients, namely 20 men and 20 women referred to the Institute of radiology of the 'Sacro Cuore' Catholic University of Rome (Italy), Gastrointestinal tract unit, to undergo double contrast colonic enema. The statistical analysis of all data was performed with Wilcoxon test. Intestinal preparation with fosfo-soda fleet appeared to be definitely better than the conventional method relative to tolerance, while providing similarly satisfactory data relative to the other parameters. [Italian] Lo studio si propone di valutare la possibilita' di ottimizzare una tecnica di preparazione intestinale estremamente tollerabile e versatile che permetta di ottenere l'adeguata liberazione del lume del contenuto con conseguente miglioramento del risultato diagnostico e riduzione del rischio del prolungamento della durata dell'ospedalizzazione dei pazienti non idoneamente preparati. Sono stati valuati 40 pazienti, 20 maschi e 20 femmine, afferenti alla struttura dell'Istituto di radiologia dell'Universita' Cattolica del Sacro Cuore-Unita' apparato gastrointestinale, per essere sottoposti a clisma del colon con doppio mdc. Tutti i dati sono stati valutati statisticamente mediante test di Wilcoxon. La preparazione intestinale effettuata somministrando fosfo-soda fleet si e' dimostrata superiore rispetto a quella tradizionale per la variabile tollerabilita', fornendo contemporaneamente dati sovrapponibili a quelli del sistema tradizionale, soddisfacenti in assoluto, riguardo agli altri parametri esaminati.

  14. Sponsorship of National Health Organizations by Two Major Soda Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Daniel G; Siegel, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a pervasive public health problem in the U.S. Reducing soda consumption is important for stemming the obesity epidemic. However, several articles and one book suggest that soda companies are using their resources to impede public health interventions that might reduce soda consumption. Although corporate sponsorship by tobacco and alcohol companies has been studied extensively, there has been no systematic attempt to catalog sponsorship activities of soda companies. This study investigates the nature, extent, and implications of soda company sponsorship of U.S. health and medical organizations, as well as corporate lobbying expenditures on soda- or nutrition-related public health legislation from 2011 to 2015. Records of corporate philanthropy and lobbying expenditures on public health legislation by soda companies in the U.S. during 2011-2015 were found through Internet and database searches. From 2011 to 2015, the Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo were found to sponsor a total of 95 national health organizations, including many medical and public health institutions whose specific missions include fighting the obesity epidemic. During the study period, these two soda companies lobbied against 29 public health bills intended to reduce soda consumption or improve nutrition. There is surprisingly pervasive sponsorship of national health and medical organizations by the nation's two largest soda companies. These companies lobbied against public health intervention in 97% of cases, calling into question a sincere commitment to improving the public's health. By accepting funding from these companies, health organizations are inadvertently participating in their marketing plans. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  16. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  17. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young women: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  18. Exposure to soda commercials affects sugar-sweetened soda consumption in young woman: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the direct effects of television commercials advertising soda on actual sugar-sweetened soda consumption among young women. An experimental-observational study design was used, in which 51 female students (ages 18-29) were exposed to a 35-min movie clip, interrupted by two

  19. Reference Excitation Unit for Micro-Vibration Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Dan; Hughes, Ben; Wagner, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The verification of hardware, in particular with respect to micro-vibration requirements, is challenging for both numerical simulation and experimental methodology. A commonly used test approach is to measure the interface reaction forces, torques, accelerations, velocities or displacements in all six degrees of freedom generated by the unit under test. In Europe, several test facilities exist to measure these generated micro-vibration forces based on dynamometer, pendulum and reverse pendulum principles. All these facilities and test setups need to be validated and calibrated with traceability to recognized international standards to ensure validity of the measurement results. Ideally, inter-facility comparisons would be conducted with identical excitation input signals and identical boundary conditions to increase confidence in the validity of the measurement produced by different facilities. To facilitate this requirement, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) - the UK’s national measurement institute, is developing a reference vibration excitation unit that will be capable of generating vibrations, linear or angular, of known amplitude and direction traceable to international standards. This activity is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of a Technology Research Study. This paper covers the design of the unit and how the vibrations generated will be traceable to international standards.

  20. Evaluation of 3 dental unit waterline contamination testing methods

    OpenAIRE

    Porteous, Nuala; Sun, Yuyu; Schoolfield, John

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found inconsistent results from testing methods used to measure heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental unit waterline (DUWL) samples. This study used 63 samples to compare the results obtained from an in-office chairside method and 2 currently used commercial laboratory HPC methods (Standard Methods 9215C and 9215E). The results suggest that the Standard Method 9215E is not suitable for application to DUWL quality monitoring, due to the detection of limited n...

  1. Evaluation of in-office dental unit waterline testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Tomline, Nancy; Ruby, John D; Dasanayake, Ananda P

    2012-01-01

    In-office dental unit waterline (DUWL) testing systems are commercially available for monitoring DUWL bacteria. The current study compared Aquasafe, Petrifilm, and Heterotrophic Plate Count Sampler (HPCS) with R2A plating methodology, considered the gold standard for enumerating heterotrophic bacteria in potable water. Samples were collected from 20 dental units. Heterotrophic bacterial counts of ≤500 CFUs/mL were used as the cut-off for assessing in-office testing compared to R2A laboratory plating. Validity was assessed using sensitivity and specificity, along with positive and negative predictive values. Results were also compared using concordance and kappa statistics. All in-office tests demonstrated 100% specificity and positive predictive values, while sensitivity and negative predictive values were low (Petrifilm, 57%/50%; HPCS, 50%/46%; Aquasafe, 21%/35%). Concordance and kappa values for agreement with R2A plating were as follows: Petrifilm 70% (κ = 0.44), HPCS 65% (κ = 0.38), and Aquasafe 45% (κ = 0.14). In-office DUWL testing with Aquasafe, Petrifilm, and HPCS agreed poorly with R2A plating methodology and is not valid or reliable as a means of accurately monitoring bacterial density in DUWL. These in-office test systems should not be used for assessing compliance with the ADA and CDC standard for acceptable heterotrophic bacterial counts in DUWLs (≤500 CFUs/mL).

  2. Sugar-sweetened soda consumption, hyperuricemia, and kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomback, Andrew S; Derebail, Vimal K; Shoham, David A; Anderson, Cheryl A; Steffen, Lyn M; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V

    2010-04-01

    The metabolism of high-fructose corn syrup used to sweeten soda drinks may lead to elevations in uric acid levels. Here we determined whether soda drinking is associated with hyperuricemia and, as a potential consequence, reduced kidney function. At baseline, 15,745 patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study completed a dietary questionnaire and had measurements of their serum creatinine and uric acid. After 3 and 9 years of follow-up, multivariate odds ratios from logistic regressions for binary outcome of hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease (eGFR less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) were evaluated. Compared to participants who drank less, consumption of over one soda per day was associated with increased odds of prevalent hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease. The odds ratio for chronic kidney disease significantly increased to 2.59 among participants who drank more than one soda per day and had a serum uric acid level over 9.0 mg/dl. In longitudinal analyses, however, drinking more than one soda per day was not associated with hyperuricemia or chronic kidney disease. Neither preexistent hyperuricemia nor development of hyperuricemia modified the lack of association between soda drinking and incident chronic kidney disease. Thus our study shows that high consumption of sugar-sweetened soda was associated with prevalent but not incident hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease.

  3. Development of Soda Residue Concrete Expansion Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bao-min; WANG Li-jiu; M F Mohd Zain; F C Lai

    2003-01-01

    A new type of concrete expansion agent has been successfully developed for the first time in the world by utilizing an industrial waste residue-soda residue and an industrial wasteliquor.Adding 3%-6% of the agent into Portland cement enables a shrinkage-compensating concrete to be prepared.Mortar and concrete containing this expansion agent have better shrinkage-compensating and mechanical properties.The raw materials component,production process,technical properties,micro-analysis of mortar made with this expansion agent,mechanism of expansion and research results are described in this article.The experimental results show that the new type of concrete expansion agent accords with the standard and its main mineral component is xCaO-ySO3-zAl2O3.

  4. Systematic Unit Testing in a Read-eval-print Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    .  Rather, the experiments are quick and dirty one shot validations which do not add lasting value to the software, which is being developed.  In this paper we propose a tool that is able to collect, organize, and re-validate test cases, which are entered as expressions in a read-eval-print loop......Lisp programmers constantly carry out experiments in a read-eval-print loop.  The experimental activities convince the Lisp programmers that new or modified pieces of programs work as expected.  But the experiments typically do not represent systematic and comprehensive unit testing efforts.......  The process of collecting the expressions and their results imposes only little extra work on the programmer.  The use of the tool provides for creation of test repositories, and it is intended to catalyze a much more systematic approach to unit testing in a read-eval-print loop.  In the paper we also discuss...

  5. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  6. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  7. Testing for purchasing power parity in 21 African countries using several unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choji, Niri Martha; Sek, Siok Kun

    2017-04-01

    Purchasing power parity is used as a basis for international income and expenditure comparison through the exchange rate theory. However, empirical studies show disagreement on the validity of PPP. In this paper, we conduct the testing on the validity of PPP using panel data approach. We apply seven different panel unit root tests to test the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis based on the quarterly data on real effective exchange rate for 21 African countries from the period 1971: Q1-2012: Q4. All the results of the seven tests rejected the hypothesis of stationarity meaning that absolute PPP does not hold in those African Countries. This result confirmed the claim from previous studies that standard panel unit tests fail to support the PPP hypothesis.

  8. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  9. Numerical distribution functions of fractional unit root and cointegration tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKinnon, James G.; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    We calculate numerically the asymptotic distribution functions of likelihood ratio tests for fractional unit roots and cointegration rank. Because these distributions depend on a real-valued parameter, b, which must be estimated, simple tabulation is not feasible. Partly due to the presence...... of this parameter, the choice of model specification for the response surface regressions used to obtain the numerical distribution functions is more involved than is usually the case. We deal with model uncertainty by model averaging rather than by model selection. We make available a computer program which, given...

  10. Damage Development in Confined Borosilicate and Soda-Lime Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    Elmira, NY). BF is a borosilicate glass manufactured by Schott Glass using a float process. SP float glass is a crystal clear, soda-lime glass . This...2005. 22 21. ASTM £494, "Technique for Measuring Ultrasonic Velocity in Materials", July 2001. 22. Schott Glass , Borofloat 33 Thermal Properties...21945 Damage Development in Conf"med Borosilicate and Soda-Lime Glasses Kathryn A. Dannemann1, Charles E. Anderson. Jr. 1, Sidney Chocron1, James

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage but not diet soda consumption is positively associated with progression of insulin resistance and prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have shown an inconsistent relationship between habitual beverage consumption and insulin resistance and prediabetes. Objective: The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), rather than diet soda,...

  12. Microbiology of Lonar Lake and other soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Kumaresan, Deepak; Hunger, Sindy; Drake, Harold L; Murrell, J Colin; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-03-01

    Soda lakes are saline and alkaline ecosystems that are believed to have existed throughout the geological record of Earth. They are widely distributed across the globe, but are highly abundant in terrestrial biomes such as deserts and steppes and in geologically interesting regions such as the East African Rift valley. The unusual geochemistry of these lakes supports the growth of an impressive array of microorganisms that are of ecological and economic importance. Haloalkaliphilic Bacteria and Archaea belonging to all major trophic groups have been described from many soda lakes, including lakes with exceptionally high levels of heavy metals. Lonar Lake is a soda lake that is centered at an unusual meteorite impact structure in the Deccan basalts in India and its key physicochemical and microbiological characteristics are highlighted in this article. The occurrence of diverse functional groups of microbes, such as methanogens, methanotrophs, phototrophs, denitrifiers, sulfur oxidizers, sulfate reducers and syntrophs in soda lakes, suggests that these habitats harbor complex microbial food webs that (a) interconnect various biological cycles via redox coupling and (b) impact on the production and consumption of greenhouse gases. Soda lake microorganisms harbor several biotechnologically relevant enzymes and biomolecules (for example, cellulases, amylases, ectoine) and there is the need to augment bioprospecting efforts in soda lake environments with new integrated approaches. Importantly, some saline and alkaline lake ecosystems around the world need to be protected from anthropogenic pressures that threaten their long-term existence.

  13. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat.

  14. Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-09-01

    From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

  15. Improved CPAS Photogrammetric Capabilities for Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Bretz, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on two key improvements to the photogrammetric analysis capabilities of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the Orion vehicle. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) system deploys Drogue and Pilot parachutes via mortar, where an important metric is the muzzle velocity. This can be estimated using a high speed camera pointed along the mortar trajectory. The distance to the camera is computed from the apparent size of features of known dimension. This method was validated with a ground test and compares favorably with simulations. The second major photogrammetric product is measuring the geometry of the Main parachute cluster during steady-state descent using onboard cameras. This is challenging as the current test vehicles are suspended by a single-point attachment unlike earlier stable platforms suspended under a confluence fitting. The mathematical modeling of fly-out angles and projected areas has undergone significant revision. As the test program continues, several lessons were learned about optimizing the camera usage, installation, and settings to obtain the highest quality imagery possible.

  16. Evaluation of smear layer removal by bicarbonate soda, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite with a new model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Natalie; Abbott, Paul; Castro Salgado, Jacqueline; Firth, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Various methods are used to evaluate irrigants. The primary aim was to develop a model for preliminary testing of potential irrigants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of bicarbonate soda on smear layer by comparing it with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Extracted human single-canal teeth were halved, and a uniform filing method was used to create smear layer. The following solutions were then applied - distilled water (control), 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTAC and bicarbonate soda at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Some samples had multiple solutions in different sequences. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Representative images were scored based on the degree of smear layer remaining. Results were analysed with the SAS system, using the GENMOD procedure. Complete smear layer was found in samples treated with all solutions except EDTAC used alone. There were no significant differences between the sequences, EDTAC/NaOCl/EDTAC and NaOCl/EDTAC/NaOCl. There were no significant differences between groups with and without bicarbonate soda. In conclusion, the model was effective for testing chemical effects on solutions on smear layer. Bicarbonate soda did not remove smear layer and provided no additional cleaning effects after EDTAC and NaOCl.

  17. Evaluation of 3 dental unit waterline contamination testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, Nuala; Sun, Yuyu; Schoolfield, John

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found inconsistent results from testing methods used to measure heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental unit waterline (DUWL) samples. This study used 63 samples to compare the results obtained from an in-office chairside method and 2 currently used commercial laboratory HPC methods (Standard Methods 9215C and 9215E). The results suggest that the Standard Method 9215E is not suitable for application to DUWL quality monitoring, due to the detection of limited numbers of heterotrophic organisms at the required 35°C incubation temperature. The results also confirm that while the in-office chairside method is useful for DUWL quality monitoring, the Standard Method 9215C provided the most accurate results.

  18. Design and test hardware for a solar array switching unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, A. R.; Cho, B. H.; Sable, D.; Lee, F. C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the control of a pulse width modulated (PWM) type sequential shunt switching unit (SSU) for spacecraft applications. It is found that the solar cell output capacitance has a significant impact on SSU design. Shorting of this cell capacitance by the PWM switch causes input current surges. These surges are minimized by the use of a series filter inductor. The system with a filter is analyzed for ripple and the control to output-voltage transfer function. Stable closed loop design considerations are discussed. The results are supported by modeling and measurements of loop gain and of closed-loop bus impedance on test hardware for NASA's 120 V Earth Observation System (EOS). The analysis and modeling are also applicable to NASA's 160 V Space Station power system.

  19. Effect of diet orange soda on urinary lithogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumorok, Nicola T; Asplin, John R; Eisner, Brian H; Stoller, Marshall L; Goldfarb, David S

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that certain beverages decrease urinary lithogenicity by increasing urine citrate excretion. Diet Sunkist Orange soda had the highest concentration of citrate and total alkali content among 12 diet sodas previously assayed. We studied the effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda consumption on urinary chemistry. Nine healthy men and women ages 26-54 years completed the study. During the control period, subjects drank 36 oz of water for 3 days in addition to their own, self-selected diet and recorded a food diary. During the study period, the subjects drank three 12-oz cans of Diet Sunkist Orange soda a day instead of water, and replicated their diets from the control period. In each period, the subjects performed 24-h urine collections on days 2 and 3. Urine chemical analysis was performed, including urinary citrate levels and pH. Diet Sunkist Orange soda increased urinary citrate excretion by 60 mg/day, which was not statistically significant (95% CI -75 to 195, P value 0.34). There was no significant change in pH from the control period to the study period (pH: 6.29-6.21; 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.25, P = 0.30). Urine volumes and creatinine excretions were not significantly different between the control and study periods. Despite the relatively high citrate and total alkali content of Diet Sunkist Orange soda, the volume consumed in this study (36 oz per day) did not provide sufficient potential base to significantly alter urine composition in healthy subjects with normocitraturia. The effect of Diet Sunkist Orange soda on urinary chemistry in patients with hypocitraturia and nephrolithiasis is not likely to have a clinically significant effect to prevent calcium or uric acid stones.

  20. [Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria in soda lake stratified sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourova, T P; Grechnikova, M A; Kuznetsov, V V; Sorokin, D Yu

    2014-01-01

    Various previously developed techniques for DNA extraction from the samples with complex physicochemical structure (soils, silts, and sediments) and modifications of these techniques developed in the present work were tested. Their usability for DNA extraction from the sediments of the Kulunda Steppe hypersaline soda lakes was assessed, and the most efficient procedure for indirect (two-stage) DNA extraction was proposed. Almost complete separation of the cell fraction was shown, as well as the inefficiency of nested PCR for analysis of the clone libraries obtained from washed sediments by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Analysis of the clone library obtained from the cell fractions of stratified sediments (upper, medium, and lower layers) revealed that in the sediments of Lake Gorchina-3 most eubacterial phylotypes belonged to the class Clostridia, phylum Firmicutes. They were probably specific for this habitatand formed a new, presently unknown high-rank taxon. The data obtained revealed no pronounced stratification of the spe- cies diversity of the eubacterial component of the microbial community inhabiting the sediments (0-20 cm) in the inshore zone of Lake Gorchina-3.

  1. THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE OF A SODA LIME GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. MALOU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the thermal shock of a three millimeters thickness soda lime glass using the hot-cold thermal shock technique. The cooling was made by ambient air jet on previously warmed samples. The heat transfer coefficient was about 600 W/°C.m2 (Biot number β = 0.3. The thermal shock duration was fixed at 6 seconds. The hot temperature was taken between 100°C and 550°C while the cold temperature of the air flux was kept constant at 20°C. The acoustic emission technique was used for determining the failure time and the critical temperature difference (ΔTC. By referring to experimental results, thermal shock modelling computations are conducted. Our aim is especially focused on the fracture initiation moments during the cooling process and on the crack initiation sites. The used modeling is based on the local approach of the thermal shock during the experimental data treatment. For each test, the temperature profile and the transient stress state through the samples thickness are determined. By applying the linear superposition property of the stress intensity factors, evolution of the stress intensity factor KI in function of the pre-existing natural flaws in the glass surface is established. The size of the critical flaw is determined by the linear fracture mechanics laws. Computation results confirm the experimental values of the critical difference temperature obtained that is the source of the glass degradation.

  2. Near Earth Asteroid Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 30x20x10cm (6U) cubesat reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m2 solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA will launch to date. NEA Scout is a secondary payload currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis furthered understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system and matured an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. This paper will address design, fabrication, and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. From optical properties of the sail material to folding and spooling the single 86m2 sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  3. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  4. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, Psoda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain.

  5. 77 FR 38857 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal..., Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Normal Atmosphere Cleanup Systems..., entitled, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of...

  6. Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii.

  7. State Policies Targeting Junk Food in Schools: Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Effect of Policy Change on Soda Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Murray, David M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. Methods. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000–2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Results. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.17, −0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = −0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. Conclusions. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile. PMID:21778484

  8. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents closure activities for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543, Liquid Disposal Units, according to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 543 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2007). CAU 543 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada (Figure 1), and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 06-07-01, Decon Pad; CAS 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 15-04-01, Septic Tank; CAS 15-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; CAS 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; CAS 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping; and CAS 06-07-01 is located at the Decontamination Facility in Area 6, adjacent to Yucca Lake. The remaining CASs are located at the former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm in Area 15. The purpose of this CR is to provide a summary of the completed closure activities, to document waste disposal, and to present analytical data confirming that the remediation goals were met. The closure alternatives consisted of closure in place for two of the CASs, and no further action with implementation of best management practices (BMPs) for the remaining five CASs.

  10. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  11. Custom Unit Pump Design and Testing for the EVA PLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the pre-flight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion , and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated between 40 and 240 lbm/hr flowrate, 35 to 100 F

  12. Caffeine content of energy drinks, carbonated sodas, and other beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Rachel R; Goldberger, Bruce A; Cone, Edward J

    2006-03-01

    The caffeine content of 10 energy drinks, 19 carbonated sodas, and 7 other beverages was determined. In addition, the variability of the caffeine content of Coca-Cola fountain soda was evaluated. Caffeine was isolated from the samples by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The caffeine concentration of the caffeinated energy drinks ranged from none detected to 141.1 mg/serving. The caffeine content of the carbonated sodas ranged from none detected to 48.2 mg/serving, and the content of the other beverages ranged from < 2.7 to 105.7 mg/serving. The intra-assay mean, standard deviation, and % coefficient of variation for the Coca-Cola fountain samples were 44.5, 2.95, and 6.64 mg/serving, respectively.

  13. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material.

  14. The Beatability of Wheat Straw Soda and Monoethanolamine Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the beatability of soda and monoethanolamine pulps was compared. The refining of pulps was done in pilot scale Voith refiner Model LR 40. The results show that the maximum tensile and burst indices of monothanolamine pulp are reached with consumption of 70 kWh energy in pilot scale Voith refiner and the increasing of energy more than this level has the adverse effect on these indices. In the case of soda pulp increasing the energy up to 500 kWh has the linear relationship with tensile and burst indices. In comparison to monoethanolamine pulp, the refining of soda pulp is more difficult and needs more energy. Using monoethanolamine pulp resulted in saving of energy by 70-80 % to reach the optimum strength indices.

  15. Influence of sun and shade conditions on Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) abundance and feeding activity on tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a perennial invasive weed species which has become a serious problem in both agricultural and natural areas of the southeastern United States. A field survey was conducted at a ranch in Madison County, Florida, to assess the effect of sun and shade condi...

  16. Approach of Separately Applying Unit Testing to AspectJ Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Hai-bo; LU Yan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A unit testing approach for AspectJ programs is proposed to separately test aspect units which have their own states. In the approach, aspects under test are converted to classes before execution of unit testing. In the conversion process, the context information passed through pointcut is transformed into advices, then the advices are converted to class member methods, and conflicts in the conversion result, if any, are resolved finally. The unit testing process consists of generating test cases, executing test cases and checking results.

  17. Glass-Forming Ability of Soda Lime Borate Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, J.C.; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the composition dependence of glass-forming ability (GFA) of a series of iron-containing soda lime borate liquids by substituting Na2O for B2O3. We have characterized GFA by measuring the glass stability against crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC......). The results show that the GFA decreases when substituting Na2O for B2O3. Moreover, we find that there is no direct link between the kinetic fragility and GFA for the soda lime borate series studied herein. We have also discovered and clarified a striking thermal history dependence of the glass stability...

  18. 40 CFR 430.20 - Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. 430.20 Section 430.20 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Bleached Papergrade Kraft and Soda Subcategory § 430.20 Applicability; description of the bleached papergrade kraft and soda subcategory. The provisions of this subpart apply...

  19. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which... in operation, and remain stopped during operation of the engine as an auxiliary power unit (“APU...

  20. Design, Fabrication and Test of an Integrated Built-In-Test (BIT) Control Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    II 00 00 Im 0. N 0x tot ui 0 J~f C * 0 a I CL c. .4 cL’ U)J 00 in8 Three cables provide the interface between the B17 control unit and the power...5. Replace module and test again. Line 6. Blank STO ,I S On A-8 I Sample pin P36 wit nounce:ctr. Lin 4.A Blankv Ye No Most NegativeYe L n 3 Fault in

  1. Preliminary test results from the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, Mark H.; Macelroy, R. D.; Blackwell, C. C.; Borchers, B. A.; Drews, M. E.; Longabaugh, J. R.; Yendler, B. S.; Zografos, A. I.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is being planned for installation on the Space Station. The CTF will be used to provide data on the productivity and efficiency of a variety of CELSS higher plant crops grown in the microgravity environment of the Space Station. Tight environmental control will be maintained while data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation rates are collected. In order to obtain an early realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary to provide the environmental conditions specified for CTF crop productivity experiments, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) has been designed, constructed and is in the process of subsystem and system testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The EDU is a ground test-bed which will be used to characterize the integrated performance of major subsystem technologies, to evaluate hardware candidates and control strategies required for the CTF, and to further define the ability to meet CTF requirements within present Space Station constraints. This paper reviews the functional requirements for the EDU, and focuses on the performance evaluation and test results of the various subsystems. Preliminary integrated performance results and control system operation are addressed, and plans for future science and technology testing are discussed.

  2. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum, is a small shrub native to tropical regions of Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina. This weed was first found in Florida in 1988. In May 2003, a leaf feeding beetle, Gratiana boliviana, from South America was released in Florida as a biological control agent of tro...

  3. Using Soda Cans to Teach Physical Science Students about Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Michael J.; Humphreys, Teari C.; LaPorte, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, physical science students measured the mass of several soda cans, measured the mass and volume of water displaced when these cans were placed in water, and determined whether these cans sank or floated in water. Then, the students plotted graphs of the mass of displaced water versus the volume of displaced water, the mass of…

  4. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  5. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  6. Studies on Fast Remediation of Soda Meadow Alkaline Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Lianren; SUN Yankun; LI Dawei

    2010-01-01

    Researches on models of remediation quickly in soda meadow alkaline soil, and dynamic variation of water-salt in saline soil of Zhaozhou County were studied systematically from 2001 to 2006. Realize the vegetation cover of those years through the artificial planting, mixed seeding lymc grass (Elymus dahuricus Turcz) and melilot in the mode of rotary tillage and deep loosening in lower and medium saline soils. The results showed that there was remarkable relationship between net evaporation (difference of precipitation and evaporation) and total salt content in the soil. The net evaporation could be used as a new method to forecast the dynamics variation of salt to ensure the pasture optimum sowing time. Realize the autumnal vegetation cover of those years through direct planting on the bourgeon layer of soda meadow alkaline soil, on the other hand, the covered pasture made the function of restraining salt and alkaline content to realize the biology reverse succession quickly. Forage seeds were seeded directly on the seeding bed of soda alkaline meadow at the end of July. In fall of the same year, a certain amount of biomass was obtained. The model, which has remarkable economical efficiency and use widely, represented the innovative model for the fast vegetation restoration on the soda alkaline meadow soil.

  7. JTst - An Automated Unit Testing Tool for Java Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Z.  Zamli; Nor A.M.   Isa

    2008-01-01

    Software testing is an integral part of software development lifecycle. Lack of testing can often lead to disastrous consequences including lost of data, fortunes, and even lives. Despite its importance, current software testing practice lacks automation, and is still primarily based on highly manual processes from the generation of test cases up to the actual execution of the test. Although the emergence of helpful automated testing tools in the market is blooming, their adoptions are lackin...

  8. Cream Soda. The rhythm of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work I will focus my attention on a specific manga, Cream Soda by Adachi Mitsuru (1996. As suggested by Eco (1999, I will analyze this single work keeping in mind that it belongs to a medium and some genre practiced through this medium, but focusing my attention on the specific syntax of the speech of Adachi. This means that in this work I won’t talk about manga in general or in itself, at least, not in the foreground and in the first instance, but I will consider Adachi’s specific execution of the art of manga. This work will start from the analysis of single panels, and their relationship with each other inside the page layout, following the critical path indicated by Thierry Groensteen (1999, and will be then accompanied by the analysis of images and texts contained inside those panels, with special regard to their relationship with each other and with images and texts contained in other panels, following the lead of Barbieri (1995 and Pellitteri (1998.

    The analysis of the elements that this text brings together to create a coherent narrative, and those elements it will not, will show that to properly understand Adachi’s manga the reader must recognize the fictional nature of what he is reading and his function as co-author of the story. Obviously this reflection is based on a first level or narrative interpretation of the text because it is starting from this basic layer that all the other layers can be explored. This is also the reason why this work provides a punctual examination of the single panels.

    The analysis here proposed will also demonstrate that, despite many panels open up to different levels of readings, the activation of the second or third level of reading is not a given. It will also become evident, though, that if one stops at a first level reading, the most obvious one, the text in question isn’t really fulfilled according to its author’s expectations: the reader’s high engagement

  9. Lithographic fabrication of soda-lime glass based microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, L.; Norarat, R.; Napari, M.; Kivistö, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Chienthavorn, O. [Department of Chemistry and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Whitlow, H.J., E-mail: harry.whitlow@he-arc.ch [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Institut des Microtechnologies Appliquées Arc, Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Grise 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Department of Chemistry and the Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2013-07-01

    Glass is an important material for chemical processing and analysis because of its relatively low cost, mechanical strength, chemical inertness, optical transparency, and electrical insulation and temperature resistance far beyond that of most polymeric materials. We have investigated techniques for direct writing with MeV ions on soda-lime glass as well as capping procedures to form closed buried channels suitable for high-pressure driven flow. Exposure and development of open-channel structures was studied using a combination of programmable proximity aperture lithography and different developers. Unlike our previous work on MeV ion beam lithography of natural silica where an 8% w/v HF in aqueous solution was used as a developer, it was found that 6% w/v HF + 0.5% w/v HCl was an effective developer. Addition of HCl to the developer was necessary, presumably to dissolve oxide residues that were insoluble in HF solution. Different capping and bonding procedures to create closed channels that are strong enough to withstand high hydrostatic pressure have also been tested. It was found that capping to create a closed channel could be achieved after thorough cleaning. This was followed by activation in ∼32% w/v NH{sub 4}OH or ∼30% w/v H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solution, drying on a hot plate and bonded under uniaxial pressure in a furnace ramped up and down at 1 °C/min to 575 °C. Activation in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was found to give better bonding. Other methods using HF lead to poor bonding due to oxide precipitation.

  10. Arsenic, Prokaryotes, and Closed Basin Soda Lakes of the Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    A number of saline, alkaline soda lakes in the Great Basin and Mojave Desert of the United States have unusually high concentrations of inorganic arsenic dissolved in their brine-waters. The arsenic originates from natural rather than anthropogenic sources, namely volcanic hydrothermal inputs. When this influx is coupled with evapo-concentration and the unique chemical behavior of arsenic oxyanions in alkaline waters, it results in extremely elevated As concentrations. For example, the salinity and arsenate levels of 3 comparable soda lakes (pH 9.8) are: Big Soda Lake, NV (27 g/L; 20 uM), Mono Lake, CA (90 g/L; 200 uM), and Searles Lake, CA (340 g/L; 3,900 uM). The arsenic oxidation state changes from As5+ (arsenate) to As3+ (arsenite) with vertical transition from their oxygenated surface water to their anoxic bottom water. Similar phenomena occur in their littoral sediments. These lakes also harbor active populations of prokaryotes that achieve these As redox changes either by using arsenate as an electron acceptor for respiration, or by employing arsenite as a chemoautotrophic electron donor. Diverse microorganisms have been identified in these systems that are involved in the biogeochemical cycling of arsenic therein, and in situ studies made with radiotracer (73As) and other means showed that these redox reactions occur at rapid rates. However, other than their use for waterfowl hunting (Big Soda Lake), as a region of scenic beauty (Mono Lake), or as a resource for the chemical industry (Searles Lake), there is little concern about the arsenic in these systems because the waters are not potable and their chemistry is too extreme to allow for the presence of fish. Nonetheless, microbial processes that govern arsenic biogeochemistry can greatly influence the hydrologic mobility and toxicity of this element in freshwater systems, such as drinking water aquifers. Moreover, anthropogenic inputs of arsenic can also occur in closed basin lakes in this region, such as

  11. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-11-05

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity.

  12. 76 FR 82323 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... COMMISSION Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units AGENCY: Nuclear...-1274, ``Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of....'' This guide applies to the design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption...

  13. Purification of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf soda lignin with acidified water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Hua, Chia Chin

    2014-09-01

    In this current study, the soda lignins from empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kenaf core were recovered by two step precipitation method. The objective of this research is to study the purity of lignin by washing the lignins with acidified water. The purified lignins were undergone characterization by FT-IR, Uv-Vis and XRD. The FT-IR analysis shows that kenaf core has Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit meanwhile EFB has Hydroxyphenyl(H), Guaiacyl(G) and Syringyl(S) unit of lignin. As for XRD analysis, the non-purified shows that the existence of impurities which is salt (NaCl). The UV analysis shows the higher absorbance which lead to the purity of lignin.

  14. SERVICE TEST OF CONTROLLER, DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE, PIPELINE PUMP UNIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nineteen test items were operated for a total of 1,182 hours at Fort Lee, Virginia and at Hachinoehe POL Storage Area, Hachinohe, Japan, and were...satisfactory with respect to familiarization and training, maintenance and safety. The test items were suitable with respect to compatibility with...related equipment. The test items were unsatisfactory with respect to operational performance, durability and reliability.

  15. Demographic and behavioral factors associated with daily sugar-sweetened soda consumption in New York City adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Matte, Thomas D; Van Wye, Gretchen; Young, Candace; Frieden, Thomas R

    2008-05-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the relations of socioeconomic and behavioral factors to frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soda among New York City (NYC) adults and the relation of frequent consumption to body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). Data from the 2005 NYC Community Health Survey, a population-based telephone survey, were analyzed. Frequent consumption was defined as drinking one or more 12-oz servings of sugar-sweetened soda on an average day; 9,865 adults, aged 18 years and older, provided valid responses. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with frequent consumption, and linear regression models were used to assess the relation of frequent consumption to BMI. An estimated 27.5% of NYC adults are frequent sugar-sweetened soda consumers. Frequent consumption is independently associated with low household income (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-2.1 for or =600% federal poverty level) and with ethnic group and nativity (e.g., OR = 3.1, 95% CI 2.6-3.7 for U.S.-born blacks vs. whites). Men report more consumption then women, but an association of less education with frequent consumption is stronger among women. Adjusting for demographics, frequent consumption is associated with more television viewing and with less physical activity. Adjusting for demographics and behaviors, frequent consumption was associated with higher BMI among women (0.7 BMI units, 95% CI 0.1-1.2) but not among men. Disparities in sugar-sweetened soda consumption mirror obesity disparities. Improved surveillance and interventions are needed to better quantify and reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, especially in groups most impacted by obesity.

  16. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  17. 14 CFR 120.123 - Drug testing outside the territory of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug testing outside the territory of the... OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Drug Testing Program Requirements § 120.123 Drug testing outside the territory of the United States. (a) No part of the testing process (including specimen collection...

  18. Step Stress Testing of Receiver/Transmitter Units. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    CondVitio with plotter. STEP-STPESS TEST MSN’ 1030 PLO7 3 OF 3 COMPOLETE ST: 01 i23191 ;0 TEMP. CTEP-STRESS TEST t4SNi c~ 170 _E_1 I L VEL 10 :5-rn nut ...medium caramel brown after Stress- Step testing. The area around 04 through Q6 and Q9, show some darkening also. 3 Deep test probe marks found at...area of contact is made with R4 body. The conformal coating on C4 is darker than other tantalum capacitors and is a light caramel brown in color. 13

  19. A three-axis flight simulator. [for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, M. G.

    1975-01-01

    A simulator is described, which was designed for testing and evaluating inertial measuring units, and flight platforms. Mechanical and electrical specifications for the outer, middle, and inner axis are presented. Test results are included.

  20. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  1. Haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Kuenen, Johannes Gijs

    2005-09-01

    The existence of chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) capable of growth in an extremely alkaline and saline environment has not been recognized until recently. Extensive studies of saline, alkaline (soda) lakes located in Central Asia, Africa and North America have now revealed the presence, at relatively high numbers, of a new branch of obligately autotrophic SOB in these doubly extreme environments. Overall more than 100 strains were isolated in pure culture. All of them have the potential to grow optimally at around pH 10 in media strongly buffered with sodium carbonate/bicarbonate and cannot grow at pHbacteria, dominating in hyposaline steppe soda lakes of Central Asia. The genus Thioalkalivibrio includes mostly slowly growing species better adapted to life in hypersaline conditions and with a more versatile metabolism. It includes denitrifying, thiocyanate-utilizing and facultatively alkaliphilic species.

  2. Design and test of a flywheel energy storage unit for spacecraft application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormack, A., III; Notti, J. E., Jr.; Ruiz, M. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper summarizes the design and test of a development flywheel energy storage device intended for spacecraft application. The flywheel unit is the prototype for the rotating assembly portion of an Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS). The paper includes a general description of the flywheel unit; specific design characteristics for the rotor and bearings, motor-generators, and electronics; an efficiency analysis; and test results for a research unit.

  3. 10 CFR 430.24 - Units to be tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... representation of the test data and calculations of a mechanical vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The major components in the refrigeration cycle must be modeled as “fits” to manufacturer performance data or...

  4. Uniform Tests of File Converters Using Unit Cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    and easy tool. This allows BRL–CAD to act as a hub for conversion and, in turn, increases the number of users of BRL–CAD. The converters all work...Design FASTGEN Fast Shotline Generator GDiff Geometry Differences GUI graphical user interface STL STereoLithography 6 1 DEFENSE... user to convert from different geometry file types. The goal of this project is to create a uniform test for every file converter. This test is the

  5. A Simple Ballistic Material Model for Soda-Lime Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    for soda-lime glass devel- oped and parameterized in the previous sections is next imple- mented in a VUMAT Material User Subroutine of the commercial...each element. The essential features of the coupling between the ABAQUS/ Explicit finite-element solver and the VUMAT Material User Subroutine at...state as well as values of the material state variables at the end of the time increment are determined within the VUMAT and returned to the ABAQUS

  6. An application of SODA methodology in student accommodation problems

    OpenAIRE

    E. Teimoury; H. Gitinavard; Mousavi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The one of the main problems that students have faced with are the accommodation problems. In this paper, we review problems that may occur in university systems. Also, we use strategic options development and analysis method (SODA) to represent the accommodation problems and to create an agreement between student and staff. This method can help us with achieving goals; because in the same situation, there are different viewpoints for various reasons. By plotting the cognitive maps of involve...

  7. Commentary: Soda taxes, obesity, and the shifty behavior of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ryan D

    2011-06-01

    Rising obesity is a threat to public health, and taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in order to reduce consumption and thus caloric intake could be a viable policy response. But raising the price of SSB calories will raise the quantity demanded of relatively cheaper calories, and net effect on obesity is unclear. I review the evidence on shifting calorie demand and discuss the viability of soda taxes to achieve improvements in public health.

  8. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K.

    2012-06-01

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s-1. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  9. Command decoder unit. [performance tests of data processing terminals and data converters for space shuttle orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The design and testing of laboratory hardware (a command decoder unit) used in evaluating space shuttle instrumentation, data processing, and ground check-out operations is described. The hardware was a modification of another similar instrumentation system. A data bus coupler was designed and tested to interface the equipment to a central bus controller (computer). A serial digital data transfer mechanism was also designed. Redundant power supplies and overhead modules were provided to minimize the probability of a single component failure causing a catastrophic failure. The command decoder unit is packaged in a modular configuration to allow maximum user flexibility in configuring a system. Test procedures and special test equipment for use in testing the hardware are described. Results indicate that the unit will allow NASA to evaluate future software systems for use in space shuttles. The units were delivered to NASA and appear to be adequately performing their intended function. Engineering sketches and photographs of the command decoder unit are included.

  10. Ecomorphological variability of Arthrospira fusiformis (Cyanoprokaryota) in African soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaggwa, Mary Nakabungo; Burian, Alfred; Oduor, Steve Omondi; Schagerl, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The filamentous spirally coiled cyanoprokaryote Arthrospira fusiformis is found in extremely high densities in tropical soda lakes acting as driving force of the food web. We studied pronounced temporal morphological changes of Arthrospira in Kenyan soda lakes, Nakuru and Bogoria, and identified underlying key factors. Cell (diameter and height) and filament (height of coil, coil diameter, and number) dimensions were measured from weekly samples collected over a period of 16 months. In both lakes, medium-sized cells and large, widely coiled filaments prevailed most. Percentage of large, widely coiled filaments was promoted by elevated levels of soluble reactive phosphorus, wind speed, temperature and conductivity and the opposite for small filaments. Large, narrow-coiled filaments were associated with an increase in mainly Arthrospira-grazing zooplankton and cyanophage infections. Widely coiled spirals were promoted by increased turbulences. Based on fluorescence measurements, we found widely coiled filaments representing high vitality. From this study we were able to demonstrate for the first time morphological patterns of Arthrospira in nature. Arthrospira morphotypes are suitable for indicating the biological status in soda lakes as they are subjective and therefore reflective of what is happening in its habitat. Additionally, this outcome might be also of interest for commercial 'Spirulina' farms in enhancing high-quality production.

  11. ACR testing of a dedicated head SPECT unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensakovic, William F; Hough, Matthew C; Kimbley, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-08

    Physics testing necessary for program accreditation is rigorously defined by the ACR. This testing is easily applied to most conventional SPECT systems based on gamma camera technology. The inSPira HD is a dedicated head SPECT system based on a rotating dual clamshell design that acquires data in a dual-spiral geometry. The unique geometry and configuration force alterations of the standard ACR physics testing protocol. Various tests, such as intrinsic planar uniformity and/or resolution, do not apply. The Data Spectrum Deluxe Phantom used for conventional SPECT testing cannot fit in the inSPira HD scanner bore, making (currently) unapproved use of the Small Deluxe SPECT Phantom necessary. Matrix size, collimator type, scanning time, reconstruction method, and attenuation correction were all varied from the typically prescribed ACR instructions. Visible spheres, sphere contrast, visible rod groups, uniformity, and root mean square (RMS) noise were measured. The acquired SPECT images surpassed the minimum ACR requirements for both spatial resolution (9.5 mm spheres resolved) and contrast (6.4 mm rod groups resolved). Sphere contrast was generally high. Integral uniformity was 4% and RMS noise was 1.7%. Noise appeared more correlated than in images from a conventional SPECT scanner. Attenuation-corrected images produced from direct CT scanning of the phantom and a manufacturer supplied model of the phantom demonstrated negligible differences.

  12. Turbine efficiency test on a large hydraulic turbine unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN ZongGuo; ZHOU LingJiu; WANG ZhengWei

    2012-01-01

    The flow rate measurements are the most difficult part of efficiency tests on prototype hydraulic turbines.Among the numerous flow rate measurement methods,the Winter Kennedy method is preferred for measuring turbine flow rates,since it is convenient,practical and economical.This paper describes efficiency tests on a large 300 MW Francis turbine,with the flow rate measured using the Winter Kennedy method and the Winter Kennedy flow rate coefficient calibrated using the Gibson method.The measured turbine efficiency curve is then compared with the curve provided by the manufacturer.The CFD calculations including the spiral case are then used to analyze the influence with the coefficient K and index n in the Winter Kennedy flow rate formula on the flow rate measurement.The uncertainty values of n and K are a key reason for the differences between the curves obtained from the efficiency test and the curves provided by the manufacturer.

  13. BRCA mutation genetic testing implications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Soley; Arun, Banu

    2017-02-01

    BRCA mutation carriers have a very high risk of breast and ovarian cancer by age 70, in the ranges 47%-66% and 40%-57%, respectively. Additionally, women with BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer also have an elevated risk of other or secondary malignancies. Fortunately, the breast and ovarian cancer outcome for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is at least as good as for non-carriers with chemoprevention, prophylactic surgeries and appropriate use of therapies. Therefore, identification of those who might have a mutation is important so that genetic counseling, testing, screening and prevention strategies can be applied in a timely manner. This article reviews the impact of genetic testing in general, timing of genetic testing after diagnosis and prior knowledge of mutation status in BRCA carriers with newly diagnosed breast cancer. Additionally, risk-reducing surgeries including the prophylactic contralateral mastectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the sensitivity of BRCA-defective breast cancer cell lines to differential chemotherapeutic agents will be discussed.

  14. Metadata and Buckets in the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.; Robbins, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs), and discuss the role of metadata in SODA. The premise of the SODA model is to "push down" many of the functionalities generally associated with archives into the data objects themselves. Thus the data objects become "smarter", and the archives "dumber". In the SODA model, archives become primarily set managers, and the objects themselves negotiate and handle presentation, enforce terms and conditions, and perform data content management. Buckets are our implementation of smart objects, and da is our reference implementation for dumb archives. We also present our approach to metadata translation for buckets.

  15. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  16. Efficient Market Hypothesis in South Africa: Evidence from Linear and Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the weak form efficient market hypothesis (EMH for five generalized stock indices in the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE using weekly data collected from 31st January 2000 to 16th December 2014. In particular, we test for weak form market efficiency using a battery of linear and nonlinear unit root testing procedures comprising of the classical augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF tests, the two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR unit root tests described in Enders and Granger (1998 as well as the three-regime unit root tests described in Bec, Salem, and Carrasco (2004. Based on our empirical analysis, we are able to demonstrate that whilst the linear unit root tests advocate for unit roots within the time series, the nonlinear unit root tests suggest that most stock indices are threshold stationary processes. These results bridge two opposing contentions obtained from previous studies by concluding that under a linear framework the JSE stock indices offer support in favour of weak form market efficiency whereas when nonlinearity is accounted for, a majority of the indices violate the weak form EMH.

  17. Intex Tests Performed on Hydro Unit no2 from HPP Ruieni before and after Refurbishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Cuzmoş

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents the results of index tests performed on HPP Ruieni hydro unit no 2 before and after refurbishment, using for discharge measurements the Winter-Kennedy method.

  18. Novel exposure units for at-home personalized testing of electromagnetic sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huss, Anke; Murbach, Manuel; van Moorselaar, Imke; Kuster, Niels; van Strien, Rob; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Slottje, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies on electromagnetic hypersensitivity have been criticized regarding inflexibility of choice of exposure and of study locations. We developed and tested novel portable exposure units that can generate different output levels of various extremely low frequency magnetic fie

  19. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-12-01

    This document list chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. Revision 15, dated December 2000.

  20. United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-09-01

    This document lists chronologically and alphabetically by name all nuclear tests and simultaneous detonations conducted by the United States from July 1945 through September 1992. This is Revision 16, dated September 2015.

  1. Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity. PMID:22583859

  2. Bubbling over: soda consumption and its link to obesity in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Jones, Malia; Yu, Hongjian; Goldstein, Harold

    2009-09-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in both adults and children in the last three decades in the n California, 62% of adolescents ages 12-17 and 41% of children ages 2-11 drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage every day. In addition, 24% of adults drink at least one soda or other sweetened beverage on an average day. Adults who drink soda occasionally (not every day) are 15% more likely to be overweight or obese, and adults who drink one or more sodas per day are 27% more likely to be overweight or obese than adults who do not drink soda, even when adjusting for poverty status and race/ethnicity. This policy brief, produced collaboratively by the California Center for Public Health Advocacy and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research, examines soda consumption in California by cities and counties using data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005). In addition, the brief investigates whether there is an association between soda consumption and the prevalence of overweight and obesity. There are major differences in soda consumption rates by geographic area in California, suggesting that social and environmental factors affect the consumption of soda. Also, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher among those who drink one or more sodas or other sweetened beverages every day than among those who do not consume these soft drinks. Establishing public policies that focus on reducing soda consumption could contribute to reversing California's increasing overweight and obesity problem.

  3. Preparation of soda-lime glass using rock wool waste; Preparacao de vidros sodo-calcicos utilizando residuo de la de rocha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, F.C.; Della, V.P. [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Ballmann, T.J.S.; Folgueras, M.V. [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Junkes, J.A., E-mail: janajunkes@gmail.com [Centro Universitario Tiradentes, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Discarded by the mining industry during the maintenance stoppages of pelletizing furnaces, rock wool has in its composition SiO{sub 2} (56%), Na{sub 2} O (12%) and CaO (7%) propitious for obtaining soda-lime glasses. Under this focus, this work developed soda-lime glasses formulations, using as main raw-material rock wool waste in proportions from 50 to 100% by adjusting the chemical composition of the formulations with sand, sodium and calcium carbonates, as silica, soda and lime sources, respectively. In some formulations the sodium carbonate was replaced by sodium sulfate, which acts as a refining agent, improving homogenization and reducing the bubble formation during the melting. Initially, the raw-materials were evaluated by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The tests showed that the rock wool waste has potential to be used in soda-lime glasses production, however, the chemical composition must be corrected. After knowing the waste potential, seven mixtures were prepared and molten at 1550 °C for 1 to 2 h. It has been found that the maximum rock wool waste percentage that can be used is between 60 and 80%, and that the 2 h melting time resulted in more homogeneous glasses and fewer bubbles according to the addition of sodium sulfate which is efficient for bubbles removal. (author)

  4. Panel Unit Root Test with Nonlinear Mean Reversion and Smooth Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Chi Keung Marco; Chau, Frankie; Deesomsak, Rataporn

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends the unit root test of Christopoulos and Leòn-Ledesma (2010) to accommodate not only structural breaks and non-linear mean reversion, but also the contemporaneous cross-sectional dependence commonly found in panel dataset. The proposed test presents good finite sample properties and its applications on four major ASEAN countries’ real exchange rates show that the unit root hypothesis could be rejected, supporting their long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) again...

  5. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  6. Testing of the United Stirling 4-95 solar Stirling engine on test bed concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelving, H. G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives with the testing, test set-ups, component designs, and the results of the testing of the solar Stirling engine in a parabolic dish system are presented. The most important tests are characterization of receivers, full day performance of complete system, cavity and aperture window test including influence from windeffects, control system tests, radiator system tests and special temperature measurements with infrared camera. The influence on performance of flux distribution depnding on concentrator alignment, and the optimum receiver operating criteria when balancing flux and temperatures on cooled receiver surface while avoiding flux on uncooled surfaces are also discussed.

  7. Testing of the United Stirling 4-95 solar Stirling engine on test bed concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelving, H. G.

    1984-03-01

    The objectives with the testing, test set-ups, component designs, and the results of the testing of the solar Stirling engine in a parabolic dish system are presented. The most important tests are characterization of receivers, full day performance of complete system, cavity and aperture window test including influence from windeffects, control system tests, radiator system tests and special temperature measurements with infrared camera. The influence on performance of flux distribution depnding on concentrator alignment, and the optimum receiver operating criteria when balancing flux and temperatures on cooled receiver surface while avoiding flux on uncooled surfaces are also discussed.

  8. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  9. Tratamiento de sodas gastadas sulfhídricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fierro Franco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Una solución práctica a un problema de contaminación, en el cual se cumplen más de los objetivos previstos ya que la "Joda gastada" se puede reutilizar en varias plantas. Para este fin se realizó una caracterización de las "sodas gastadas sulfhidricas" y tres tratamientos a nivel de laboratorio y planta piloto: neutralización, aireación catalizada y oxidación catalizada.

  10. Improvement in hardness of soda-lime-silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Riya; De, Moumita; Roy, Sudakshina; Dey, Arjun; Biswas, Sampad K.; Middya, Tapas Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop K. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata-700032, CSIR (India); Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032 (India); CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata-700032, CSIR (India)

    2012-06-05

    Hardness is a key design parameter for structural application of brittle solids like glass. Here we report for the first time the significant improvement of about 10% in Vicker's hardness of a soda-lime-silica glass with loading rate in the range of 0.1-10 N.s{sup -1}. Corroborative dark field optical and scanning electron microscopy provided clue to this improvement through evidence of variations in spatial density of shear deformation band formation as a function of loading rate.

  11. Panel Unit Root Tests by Combining Dependent Values: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuguang Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a systematic comparison of the performance of four commonly used value combination methods applied to panel unit root tests: the original Fisher test, the modified inverse normal method, Simes test, and the modified truncated product method (TPM. Our simulation results show that under cross-section dependence the original Fisher test is severely oversized, but the other three tests exhibit good size properties. Simes test is powerful when the total evidence against the joint null hypothesis is concentrated in one or very few of the tests being combined, but the modified inverse normal method and the modified TPM have good performance when evidence against the joint null is spread among more than a small fraction of the panel units. These differences are further illustrated through one empirical example on testing purchasing power parity using a panel of OECD quarterly real exchange rates.

  12. Unit root tests in time series, v.1 key concepts and problems

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, Kerry, Professor

    2011-01-01

    Testing for a unit root is now an essential part of time series analysis. Indeed no time series study in economics, and other disciplines that use time series observations, can ignore the crucial issue of nonstationarity caused by a unit root. However, the literature on the topic is large and often technical, making it difficult to understand the key practical issues. This volume provides an accessible introduction and a critical overview of tests for a unit root in time series, with extensive practical examples and illustrations using simulation analysis. It presents the concepts that enable

  13. Testing iOS apps with HadoopUnit rapid distributed GUI testing

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone users have come to expect high-quality apps. This has increased the importance of software testing in mobile software development. Unfortunately, testing apps-particularly the GUI-can be very time-consuming. Exercising every user interface element and verifying transitions between different views of the app under test quickly becomes problematic. For example, execution of iOS GUI test suites using Apple's UI Automation framework can take an hour or more if the app's interface is complicated. The longer it takes to run a test, the less frequently the test can be run, which in turn re

  14. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic characterization of tropical soda apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple mosaic virus (TSAMV) was first identified in tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum), a noxious weed, in Florida in 2002. This report provides the first full genome sequence of TSAMV. The full genome sequence of this virus will enable research scientists to develop additional spec...

  15. Economic impact of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) on Florida cattle production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A written survey administered to 3,500 Florida cattle producers in 2006 documented tropical soda apple, as the most common pasture weed across the state of Florida. Over 80% of the survey respondents reported tropical soda apple on their ranches, and over 65% declared the plant to be a major proble...

  16. Natronobacillus azotifigens gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic diazotrophic haloalkaliphile from soda-rich habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Zadorina, E.V.; Kravchenko, I.K.; Boulygina, E.S.; Tourova, T.P.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation were obtained in microoxic enrichments from soda soils in south-western Siberia, north-eastern Mongolia, and the Lybian desert (Egypt). The same organisms were obtained in anoxic enrichments with glucose from soda lake sediments in the Kulunda Step

  17. APPLICATION OF SURFACTANTS AS PULPING ADDITIVES IN SODA PULPING OF BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Hamzeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of several non-ionic commercial surfactants and their dosage on soda pulping and ECF bleaching of soda and soda-surfactant pulps of bagasse were investigated. The properties of bleachable pulps obtained with conventional soda and with soda-surfactants were studied and compared. The results showed application of surfactants during the soda pulping of bagasse decreased kappa number and improved the yield and brightness of resulting pulp. Using the surfactants reduced alkali consumption during pulping. The bleaching experiments showed that the pulps obtained with the three types of applied surfactants namely, ELA-2, FAE-20, and PEG1000 could be easily bleached with D0ED1 or D0EpD1 sequences. The addition of most used surfactants in soda pulping of bagasse led to higher brightness in comparison to reference pulp with the same bleaching sequence. Strength properties of bleached pulps obtained with surfactants were higher than the pulp obtained with conventional soda pulping.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide and caustic soda: Dancing with a dragon while bleaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Carl Houtman; Kolby Hirth

    2013-01-01

    When hydrogen peroxide is mixed with caustic soda, an auto-accelerating reaction can lead to generation of significant amounts of heat and oxygen. On the basis of experiments using typical pulp mill process concentration and temperatures, a relatively simple kinetic model has been developed. Evaluation of these model results reveals that hydrogen peroxide-caustic soda...

  19. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity.

  20. Study of the counting rate capability of MRPC detectors built with soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, R.; Margoto Rodríguez, O.; Park, W.; Rodríguez Rodríguez, A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-09-01

    We report the results of three MRPC detectors built with soda lime glass and tested in the T10 beam line at CERN. The detectors consist of a stack of 280 μm thick glass sheets with 6 gaps of 220 μm . We built two identical MRPCs, except one had the edges of glass treated with resistive paint. A third detector was built with one HV electrode painted as strips. The detectors' efficiency and time resolution were studied at different particle flux in a pulsed beam environment. The results do not show any improvement with the painted edge technique at higher particle flux. We heated the MRPCs up to 40 °C to evaluate the influence of temperature in the rate capability. Results from this warming has indicated an improvement on the rate capability. The dark count rates show a significant dependence with the temperature.

  1. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, padvertising and overweight/obesity. PMID:23305548

  2. What contributes to excessive diet soda intake in eating disorders: appetitive drive, weight concerns, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive diet soda intake is common in eating disorders. The present study examined factors contributing to excessive intake in a sample of individuals with lifetime eating disorders based on proposed DSM-5 criteria (n = 240) and non-eating disorder controls (n = 157). Individuals with eating disorders, particularly bulimia nervosa, consumed more diet soda than controls. Eating disorder symptoms that reflect increased appetitive drive or increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake. Increased weight concerns were associated with increased diet soda intake when levels of appetitive drive were high, but not when they were low. Results highlight the importance of monitoring diet soda intake in individuals with eating disorders and may have implications for the maintenance of dysregulated taste reward processing in bulimia nervosa.

  3. Microbial diversity and biogeochemical cycling in soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Berben, Tom; Melton, Emily Denise; Overmars, Lex; Vavourakis, Charlotte D; Muyzer, Gerard

    2014-09-01

    Soda lakes contain high concentrations of sodium carbonates resulting in a stable elevated pH, which provide a unique habitat to a rich diversity of haloalkaliphilic bacteria and archaea. Both cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have aided the identification of key processes and genes in the microbially mediated carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur biogeochemical cycles in soda lakes. In order to survive in this extreme environment, haloalkaliphiles have developed various bioenergetic and structural adaptations to maintain pH homeostasis and intracellular osmotic pressure. The cultivation of a handful of strains has led to the isolation of a number of extremozymes, which allow the cell to perform enzymatic reactions at these extreme conditions. These enzymes potentially contribute to biotechnological applications. In addition, microbial species active in the sulfur cycle can be used for sulfur remediation purposes. Future research should combine both innovative culture methods and state-of-the-art 'meta-omic' techniques to gain a comprehensive understanding of the microbes that flourish in these extreme environments and the processes they mediate. Coupling the biogeochemical C, N, and S cycles and identifying where each process takes place on a spatial and temporal scale could unravel the interspecies relationships and thereby reveal more about the ecosystem dynamics of these enigmatic extreme environments.

  4. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  5. 40 CFR 63.443 - Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. 63.443 Section 63.443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Paper Industry § 63.443 Standards for the pulping system at kraft, soda, and semi-chemical processes. (a... operator of each pulping system using a semi-chemical or soda process subject to the requirements of...

  6. Three-dimensional mapping of equiprobable hydrostratigraphic units at the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirley, C.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data are used with the sequential indicator simulation algorithm of Gomez-Hernandez and Srivastava to produce multiple, equiprobable, three-dimensional maps of informal hydrostratigraphic units at the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit, Nevada Test Site. The upper 50 percent of the Tertiary volcanic lithostratigraphic column comprises the study volume. Semivariograms are modeled from indicator-transformed geophysical tool signals. Each equiprobable study volume is subdivided into discrete classes using the ISIM3D implementation of the sequential indicator simulation algorithm. Hydraulic conductivity is assigned within each class using the sequential Gaussian simulation method of Deutsch and Journel. The resulting maps show the contiguity of high and low hydraulic conductivity regions.

  7. New multi-country evidence on purchasing power parity: multivariate unit root test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.J. Groen (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a likelihood-based multivariate unit root testing framework is utilized to test whether the real exchange rates of G10 countries are non-stationary. The framework uses a likelihood ratio statistic which combines the information across all involved countries while retaining

  8. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  9. Test Format and the Variation of Gender Achievement Gaps within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Sean; Fahle, Erin; Kalogrides, Demetra; Podolsky, Anne; Zarate, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates the existence of gender achievement gaps and the variation in the magnitude of these gaps across states. This paper characterizes the extent to which the variation of gender achievement gaps on standardized tests across the United States can be explained by differing state accountability test formats. A comprehensive…

  10. Connecting Girls and Science: A Feminist Teacher Research Study of a High School Prenatal Testing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Elaine Virginia

    1998-01-01

    Explores how a dozen high school girls express their relationship to and understanding of prenatal testing and its possible place in their lives and the lives of others in the context of a short unit on prenatal testing in a semester-long genetics course. Contains 57 references. (DDR)

  11. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  12. Intellectual Maturity of Children as Measured by the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test: United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Information is reported on the intellectual maturity of children 6 through 11 years of age in the United States as estimated from the 1963 Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test data obtained in the Health Examination Survey of 1963-1965. Consideration is limited in this first report of a series of reports on these test findings to age and sex…

  13. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Heru Setianto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996 test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003 and Kruse (2011. The nonlinear unit root test procedure fail to rejects the null hypothesis of unit root for the indices, suggesting that Jakarta Islamic Index characterized by random walk process supporting the theory of efficient market hypothesis. In addition, Lumsdaine and Papel (LP test identified significant structural breaks in the index series.

  14. 77 FR 60481 - Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Design, Inspection, and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-Accident..., and Testing Criteria for Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Post-accident Engineered-Safety... design, inspection, and testing of air filtration and iodine adsorption units of...

  15. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems... entitled ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

  16. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... excess calcium supplements or certain antacids, that contain calcium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) Parathyroid glands do ... More 25-hydroxy vitamin D test Bone tumor Calcium ... level Malabsorption Milk-alkali syndrome Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I Multiple ...

  17. Development and testing of INSPIRE themes Addresses (AD and Administrative Units (AU managed by COSMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Med

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Main content of this article is to describe implementing INSPIRE themes Addresses and Administrative Units in Czech Republic. Themes were implemented by Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre. Implementation contains developing GML files with data and designing its structure, developing and testing of INSPIRE services and preparing metadata for data and services. Besides harmonised INSPIRE themes COSMC manages also non-harmonised themes Cadastral map (KM and Units eXtended (UX.

  18. Assembly and test results of the AOF laser guide star units at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, W.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Dupuy, C.; Gago, F.; Guidolin, I. M.; Guzman, R.; Holzloehner, R.; Kern, L.; Kirchbauer, J.-.; Lewis, S.; Lizon, J.-.; McLay, S.; Pfrommer, T.; Quattri, M.; Quentin, J.; Ridings, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) is part of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility, in which one of the VLT telescopes, UT4, is transformed in an adaptive telescope-equipped with a deformable secondary mirror, two adaptive optics systems at the Nasmyth focii and four sodium laser guide star modular units. In this paper we present the design, the assembly and validation test performed so far in Europe on the first laser guide star unit.

  19. Fat Tail Model for Simulating Test Systems in Multiperiod Unit Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Marmolejo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Chambers-Mallows-Stuck method for simulating stable random variables in the generation of test systems for economic analysis in power systems. A study that focused on generating test electrical systems through fat tail model for unit commitment problem in electrical power systems is presented. Usually, the instances of test systems in Unit Commitment are generated using normal distribution, but in this work, simulations data are based on a new method. For simulating, we used three original systems to obtain the demand behavior and thermal production costs. The estimation of stable parameters for the simulation of stable random variables was based on three generally accepted methods: (a regression, (b quantiles, and (c maximum likelihood, choosing one that has the best fit of the tails of the distribution. Numerical results illustrate the applicability of the proposed method by solving several unit commitment problems.

  20. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  1. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  2. Autocodecovergen: Prototype Of Data Driven Unit Test Genration Tool That Guarantees 100% Code Coverage For C#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpit Christi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unit testing has become an integral part of software development process as it ensures all your individualfunctions behave in a way they should behave. Obtaining 100% code coverage out of unit test suit isessential to ensure that all code paths are covered. This paper proposes a tool AutoCodeCoverGen thatguarantees 100% code coverage. It also discusses the core idea behind tool and evolution of the tool.Also, it shows how the tool differs from existing tools and what benefits it reaps for its users.

  3. Clinical utility of the Hopkins Competency Assessment Test on an inpatient geropsychiatry unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Kirsten M; Lund, Brian C; McAdams, Jimmie D; Yates, William R

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the clinical use of routine administration of the Hopkins Competency Assessment Test on an inpatient geropsychiatry unit. The purpose was to determine whether the Hopkins Competency Assessment Test results influenced the psychiatrist's capacity assessment or confidence in that determination. The test was administered to all patients admitted voluntarily during an 18-week period. The attending psychiatrist determined treatment consent capacity and rated confidence in that determination, before and after review of the test results. Fifty seven patients were assessed. After review of the test results, the psychiatrist's capacity rating changed in only 2 (3.5%) cases. However, the test increased the psychiatrist's confidence ratings, particularly among the patients with cognitive impairment. The Hopkins Competency Assessment Test is not suited for routine administration among geropsychiatry inpatients. However, the test may serve a role as a supplementary tool for assessing treatment consent capacity among patients with evidence of cognitive impairment.

  4. Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical shadowgraphy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASAD Y B S R; BARNWAL S; NAIK P A; YADAV Y; PATIDAR R; KAMATH M P; UPADHYAY A; BAGCHI S; KUMAR A; JOSHI A S; GUPTA P D

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of shock waves in soda lime glass, which is a transparent material, has been studied using the optical shadowgraphy technique. The time-resolved shock velocity information has been obtained (1) in single shot, using the chirped pulse shadowgraphy technique, with a temporal resolution of tens of picoseconds and (2) in multiple shots, using conventional snapshot approach, with a second harmonic probe pulse. Transient shock velocities of $(5–7) \\times 10^{6}$ cm/s have been obtained. The scaling of the shock velocity with intensity in the $2 \\times 10^{13}–10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$ range has been obtained. The shock velocity is observed to scale with laser intensity as $I^{0.38}$. The present experiments also show the presence of ionization tracks, generated probably due to X-ray hotspots from small-scale filamentation instabilities. The results and various issues involved in these experiments are discussed

  5. Autotrophic microbial arsenotrophy in arsenic-rich soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Saltikov, Chad W.; Stolz, John F.; Hollibaugh, James T.

    2017-01-01

    A number of prokaryotes are capable of employing arsenic oxy-anions as either electron acceptors [arsenate; As(V)] or electron donors [arsenite; As(III)] to sustain arsenic-dependent growth (‘arsenotrophy’). A subset of these microorganisms function as either chemoautotrophs or photoautotrophs, whereby they gain sufficient energy from their redox metabolism of arsenic to completely satisfy their carbon needs for growth by autotrophy, that is the fixation of inorganic carbon (e.g. HCO3−) into their biomass. Here we review what has been learned of these processes by investigations we have undertaken in three soda lakes of the western USA and from the physiological characterizations of the relevant bacteria, which include the critical genes involved, such as respiratory arsenate reductase (arrA) and the discovery of its arsenite-oxidizing counterpart (arxA). When possible, we refer to instances of similar process occurring in other, less extreme ecosystems and by microbes other than haloalkaliphiles.

  6. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF A SODA LIME GLASS THERMAL SHOCK RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert FANTOZZI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively to the as received soda lime glass samples, the strength distribution after thermal shocks showed the appearance of a second branch in the Weibull curves. This branch is observed for temperature differences (ΔT equal or higher than the critical temperature difference (ΔTc for both water and motor oil cooling baths. The dispersion is more spread out in these two baths in comparison with the olive oil bath probably because of more pronounced slow crack growth effect. The Weibull modulus varies according to the used cooling bath and the considered temperature difference. In the case of thermal shock caused by air blast cooling at T = 20°C, a bimodal distribution is observed for only the critical state. The initial cracking time, obtained by acoustic emission, corresponds to the unstable propagation of the most critical defect. The number of cracks induced by thermal shock is proportional to the number of acoustic events.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-05-03

    The general purpose of this Corrective Action Investigation Plan is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. Located in Areas 6 and 15 on the NTS, CAU 543 is comprised of a total of seven corrective action sites (CASs), one in Area 6 and six in Area 15. The CAS in Area 6 consists of a Decontamination Facility and its components which are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the farm. Sources of possible contamination at Area 6 include potentially contaminated process waste effluent discharged through a process waste system, a sanitary waste stream generated within buildings of the Decon Facility, and radiologically contaminated materials stored within a portion of the facility yard. At Area 15, sources of potential contamination are associated with the dairy operations and the animal tests and experiments involving radionuclide uptake. Identified contaminants of potential concern include volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and radionuclides. Three corrective action closure alternatives - No Further Action, Close in Place, or Clean Closure - will be recommended for CAU 543 based on an evaluation of all the data quality objective-related data. Field work will be conducted following approval of the plan. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  8. Cold-end Subsystem Testing for the Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell; Gibson, Marc; Ellis, David; Sanzi, James

    2013-01-01

    The Fission Power System (FPS) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) consists of a pumped sodium-potassium (NaK) loop that provides heat to a Stirling Power Conversion Unit (PCU), which converts some of that heat into electricity and rejects the waste heat to a pumped water loop. Each of the TDU subsystems is being tested independently prior to full system testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The pumped NaK loop is being tested at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; the Stirling PCU and electrical controller are being tested by Sunpower Inc.; and the pumped water loop is being tested at Glenn. This paper describes cold-end subsystem setup and testing at Glenn. The TDU cold end has been assembled in Vacuum Facility 6 (VF 6) at Glenn, the same chamber that will be used for TDU testing. Cold-end testing in VF 6 will demonstrate functionality; validated cold-end fill, drain, and emergency backup systems; and generated pump performance and system pressure drop data used to validate models. In addition, a low-cost proof-of concept radiator has been built and tested at Glenn, validating the design and demonstrating the feasibility of using low-cost metal radiators as an alternative to high-cost composite radiators in an end-to-end TDU test.

  9. Siddhartha: Domain-specific unit test generation for "low-testibility" programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Arthur Alexander

    This Dissertation validates the hypothesis that domain-specific language (DSL) methodology can provide essential automation support for specification-based testing (SBT) of computer program units expressed in difficult-to-test (i.e., "low-testability"), domain-specific design styles. This Dissertation presents Siddhartha, an extension to DSL methodology for development of program synthesizers to support SBT methods in novel application domains. Synthesizers map formal test data specifications (TestSpecs) into unit test driver procedures (Drivers). Both TestSpecs and Driver reference designs are represented via DSLs. Synthesizer development is iterative and example-driven. A Domain Designer applying the Siddhartha methodology in a novel application domain first selects a collection of general, example TestSpecs, then manually codes a collection of corresponding Drivers. Each Driver is expressed in a different reference design that specifically accommodates difficult-to-test, domain-specific program unit under test (UUT) design styles. After selecting the most promising Driver reference design, the set of (TestSpec, Driver) pairs become test cases for the synthesizer under development. The Domain Designer then designs a TestSpec→Driver translation function. The translation function maps TestSpecs to Driver kernels in the selected reference design. The translation function design simplifies DSL development by modularizing both TestSpec and Driver reference design DSLs into syntactic productions. This effectively optimizes DSL representations to support efficient TestSpec→Driver synthesis. This Dissertation validates the hypothesis by answering the question "What are the relative costs and benefits of applying DSL methods to generate requirements-based and regression Drivers for a flight control system expressed in Ada?" Costs and benefits are measured with respect to manually coded Drivers, which are arguably equivalent to Drivers generated by a general

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 375: Area 30 Buggy Unit Craters, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 375 is located in Areas 25 and 30 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 375 comprises the two corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 25-23-22, Contaminated Soils Site • 30-45-01, U-30a, b, c, d, e Craters Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination present at the CAU 375 CASs is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). This document details an investigation plan that will provide for the gathering of sufficient information to evaluate and recommend CAAs. Corrective Action Site 25-23-22 is composed of the releases associated with nuclear rocket testing at Test Cell A (TCA). Test Cell A was used to test and develop nuclear rocket motors as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station from its construction in 1958 until 1966, when rocket testing began being conducted at Test Cell C. The rocket motors were built with an unshielded nuclear reactor that produced as much as 1,100 kilowatts (at full power) to heat liquid hydrogen to 4,000 degrees Fahrenheit, at which time the expanded gases were focused out a nozzle to produce thrust. The fuel rods in the reactor were not clad and were designed to release fission fragments to the atmosphere, but due to vibrations and loss of cooling during some operational tests, fuel fragments in excess of planned releases became entrained in the exhaust and spread in the immediate surrounding area. Cleanup efforts have been undertaken at times to collect the fuel rod fragments and other contamination. Previous environmental investigations in the TCA area have resulted in the creation of a number of use restrictions. The industrial area of TCA is encompassed by a fence and is currently posted as a radioactive material area. Corrective Action Site 30-45-01 (releases associated with the Buggy Plowshare test) is located in Area 30 on Chukar Mesa. It was a

  11. Pilot unit testing of scale inhibitors at geopressured energy well sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouche, R.J.; Matson, M.L.; Matson, J.V.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L. (eds.)

    1981-01-01

    The skid-mounted pilot unit is a smaller version of the main surface equipment used at geothermal geopressured well sites. It will be used to monitor the effectiveness of scale and corrosion inhibitors for the preventing of scaling and corrosion in the main surface equipment. The pilot unit will model the main surface equipment with respect to pressure, flow velocities, and scale inhibitor injection. The pilot unit will also operate under other conditions for optimization determination. Scaling tendencies will be monitored by specially shaped mild steel coupons placed at critical locations throughout the pilot unit. The coupons will be checked at regular intervals, and analysis will include visual, weight and EDAX-SEM analysis. Various scale inhibitors will be tested over a large range of dosage levels in order to screen inhibitors and their effectiveness for water with particular quality parameters.

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  13. Acoustic monitoring systems tests at Indian Point Unit 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.R.; Rao, G.V.; Craig, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the results of a program to test acoustic monitoring systems on Indian Point Unit No. 1 under actual plant operating conditions, less the reactor core. The two types of systems evaluated were the monitoring of acoustic emissions generated by growing flaws and the monitoring of acoustic signals from leaks.

  14. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  15. Ground test challenges in the development of the Space Shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, N. H.; Lance, R. J.; Weary, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional aircraft hydraulic system design approach was selected to provide fluid power for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Developing the power unit, known as the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), to drive the hydraulic pumps presented a major technological challenge. A small, high speed turbine drive unit powered by catalytically decomposed hydrazine and operating in the pulse mode was selected to meet the requirement. Because of limitations of vendor test facilities, significant portions of the development, flight qualification, and postflight anomaly testing of the Orbiter APU were accomplished at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) test facilities. This paper discusses the unique requirements of attitude, gravity forces, pressure profiles, and thermal environments which had to be satisfied by the APU, and presents the unique test facility and simulation techniques employed to meet the ground test requirements. In particular, the development of the zero-g lubrication system, the development of necessary APU thermal control techniques, the accomplishment of integrated systems tests, and the postflight investigation of the APU lube oil cooler behavior are discussed.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 is located in Areas 18 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises the five corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on October 20, 2009, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 374.

  17. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  18. Cosmo Cassette: A Microfluidic Microgravity Microbial System For Synthetic Biology Unit Tests and Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Aaron J.

    2013-01-01

    Although methods in the design-build-test life cycle of the synthetic biology field have grown rapidly, the expansion has been non-uniform. The design and build stages in development have seen innovations in the form of biological CAD and more efficient means for building DNA, RNA, and other biological constructs. The testing phase of the cycle remains in need of innovation. Presented will be both a theoretical abstraction of biological measurement and a practical demonstration of a microfluidics-based platform for characterizing synthetic biological phenomena. Such a platform demonstrates a design of additive manufacturing (3D printing) for construction of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to be used in experiments carried out in space. First, the biocompatibility of the polypropylene chassis will be demonstrated. The novel MFCs will be cheaper, and faster to make and iterate through designs. The novel design will contain a manifold switchingdistribution system and an integrated in-chip set of reagent reservoirs fabricated via 3D printing. The automated nature of the 3D printing yields itself to higher resolution switching valves and leads to smaller sized payloads, lower cost, reduced power and a standardized platform for synthetic biology unit tests on Earth and in space. It will be demonstrated that the application of unit testing in synthetic biology will lead to the automatic construction and validation of desired constructs. Unit testing methodologies offer benefits of preemptive problem identification, change of facility, simplicity of integration, ease of documentation, and separation of interface from implementation, and automated design.

  19. Is Current Account of Turkey Sustainable ? Evidence from Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Taştan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, current account sustainability of Turkey is analyzed in a nonlinear framework. Various nonlinear unit root tests have been used to test for structural break, sign and size nonlinearity. We have tested structural break and size nonlinearity separately and structural break-sign and size-sign nonlinearities simultaneously. Only considering the size nonlinearity, we have found that the current account of Turkey is sustainable. Thus, the size nonlinearity, in other words the speed of reversion to equilibrium, is essential for the current account sustainability of Turkey. We have also found that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium is symmetric, while considering size and sign nonlinearities simultaneously.

  20. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 204: STORAGE BUNKERS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 6, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as CAU 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. CAU 330 consists of the following CASs: CAS 06-02-04, Underground Storage Tank (UST) and Piping CAS 22-99-06, Fuel Spill CAS 23-01-02, Large Aboveground Storage Tank (AST) Farm CAS 23-25-05, Asphalt Oil Spill/Tar Release

  1. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 200-BP-5 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump and treat testing at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. This treatability test plan has been prepared in response to an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), as documented in Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement, Ecology et al. 1989a) Change Control Form M-13-93-03 (Ecology et al. 1994) and a recent 200 NPL Agreement Change Control Form (Appendix A). The agreement also requires that, following completion of the activities described in this test plan, a 200-BP-5 Operable Unit Interim Remedial Measure (IRM) Proposed Plan be developed for use in preparing an Interim Action Record of Decision (ROD). The IRM Proposed Plan will be supported by the results of this treatability test plan, as well as by other 200-BP-5 Operable Unit activities (e.g., development of a qualitative risk assessment). Once issued, the Interim Action ROD will specify the interim action(s) for groundwater contamination at the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. The treatability test approach is to conduct a pilot-scale pump and treat test for each of the two contaminant plumes associated with the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit. Primary contaminants of concern are {sup 99}Tc and {sup 60}Co for underwater affected by past discharges to the 216-BY Cribs, and {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239/240}Pu, and Cs for groundwater affected by past discharges to the 216-B-5 Reverse Well. The purpose of the pilot-scale treatability testing presented in this testplan is to provide the data basis for preparing an IRM Proposed Plan. To achieve this objective, treatability testing must: Assess the performance of groundwater pumping with respect to the ability to extract a significant amount of the primary contaminant mass present in the two contaminant plumes.

  2. Regular-soda intake independent of weight status is associated with asthma among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Blanck, Heidi M; Sherry, Bettylou; Jones, Sherry Everett; Pan, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Limited research shows an inconclusive association between soda intake and asthma, potentially attributable to certain preservatives in sodas. This cross-sectional study examined the association between regular (nondiet)-soda intake and current asthma among a nationally representative sample of high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 15,960 students (grades 9 through 12) with data for both regular-soda intake and current asthma status. The outcome measure was current asthma (ie, told by doctor/nurse that they had asthma and still have asthma). The main exposure variable was regular-soda intake (ie, drank a can/bottle/glass of soda during the 7 days before the survey). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios for regular-soda intake with current asthma after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, weight status, and current cigarette use. Overall, 10.8% of students had current asthma. In addition, 9.7% of students who did not drink regular soda had current asthma, and 14.7% of students who drank regular soda three or more times per day had current asthma. Compared with those who did not drink regular soda, odds of having current asthma were higher among students who drank regular soda two times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62) and three or more times per day (adjusted odds ratio=1.64; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.16). The association between high regular-soda intake and current asthma suggests efforts to reduce regular-soda intake among youth might have benefits beyond improving diet quality. However, this association needs additional research, such as a longitudinal examination.

  3. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  4. Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Daniel M.

    2012-12-01

    The United States has established that transient irradiation testing is needed to support advanced light water reactors fuel development. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated an effort to reestablish this capability. Restart of the Transient Testing Reactor (TREAT) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is being considered for this purpose. This effort would also include the development of specialized test vehicles to support stagnant capsule and flowing loop tests as well as the enhancement of postirradiation examination capabilities and remote device assembly capabilities at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility. It is anticipated that the capability will be available to support testing by 2018, as required to meet the DOE goals for the development of accident-tolerant LWR fuel designs.

  5. Near Earth Asteroid Scout Solar Sail Engineering Development Unit Test Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Few, Alexander; Wilson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout project is a 6U reconnaissance mission to investigate a near Earth asteroid utilizing an 86m(sub 2) solar sail as the primary propulsion system. This will be the largest solar sail NASA has launched to date. NEA Scout is currently manifested on the maiden voyage of the Space Launch System in 2018. In development of the solar sail subsystem, design challenges were identified and investigated for packaging within a 6U form factor and deployment in cis-lunar space. Analysis was able to capture understanding of thermal, stress, and dynamics of the stowed system as well as mature an integrated sail membrane model for deployed flight dynamics. Full scale system testing on the ground is the optimal way to demonstrate system robustness, repeatability, and overall performance on a compressed flight schedule. To physically test the system, the team developed a flight sized engineering development unit with design features as close to flight as possible. The test suite included ascent vent, random vibration, functional deployments, thermal vacuum, and full sail deployments. All of these tests contributed towards development of the final flight unit. This paper will address several of the design challenges and lessons learned from the NEA Scout solar sail subsystem engineering development unit. Testing on the component level all the way to the integrated subsystem level. From optical properties of the sail material to fold and spooling the single sail, the team has developed a robust deployment system for the solar sail. The team completed several deployments of the sail system in preparation for flight at half scale (4m) and full scale (6.8m): boom only, half scale sail deployment, and full scale sail deployment. This paper will also address expected and received test results from ascent vent, random vibration, and deployment tests.

  6. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  7. Evaluation of SPACE code for natural circulation test of Hanbit unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyun; Kim, Minhee [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants) has been developed by KHNP with the cooperation with KEPCO E and C and KAERI. SPACE code is expected to be applied to the safety analysis for LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and Non-LOCA scenarios. SPACE code solves two-fluid, three-field governing equations and programmed with C++ computer language using object-oriented concepts. To evaluate the analysis capability for the passive cooling phenomenon in the actual nuclear power plant, a natural circulation test of Hanbit unit 2 was simulated with SPACE code. To evaluate the analysis capability for the passive cooling phenomenon in the actual nuclear power plant, a natural circulation test of Hanbit unit 2 was simulated with SPACE code. The major parameters of natural circulation in transient are well predicted in SPACE calculations when compared to the plant data. The SPACE code has sufficient capability to simulate passive cooling phenomena.

  8. Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) Unit Test Report For HPAC Version 6.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ronald W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division; Morris, Robert W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division; Sulfredge, Charles David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Division

    2015-12-01

    This is a unit test report for the Nuclear Facility Accident (NFAC) model for the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) version 6.3. NFAC’s responsibility as an HPAC component is three-fold. First, it must present an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) by which users can view and edit the definition of an NFAC incident. Second, for each incident defined, NFAC must interact with RTH to create activity table inputs and associate them with pseudo materials to be transported via SCIPUFF. Third, NFAC must create SCIPUFF releases with the associated pseudo materials for transport and dispersion. The goal of NFAC unit testing is to verify that the inputs it produces are correct for the source term or model definition as specified by the user via the GUI.

  9. [Testing system design and analysis for the execution units of anti-thrombotic device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhelong; Cui, Haipo; Shang, Kun; Liao, Yuehua; Zhou, Xun

    2015-02-01

    In an anti-thrombotic pressure circulatory device, relays and solenoid valves serve as core execution units. Thus the therapeutic efficacy and patient safety of the device will directly depend on their performance. A new type of testing system for relays and solenoid valves used in the anti-thrombotic device has been developed, which can test action response time and fatigue performance of relay and solenoid valve. PC, data acquisition card and test platform are used in this testing system based on human-computer interaction testing modules. The testing objectives are realized by using the virtual instrument technology, the high-speed data acquisition technology and reasonable software design. The two sets of the system made by relay and solenoid valve are tested. The results proved the universality and reliability of the testing system so that these relays and solenoid valves could be accurately used in the antithrombotic pressure circulatory equipment. The newly-developed testing system has a bright future in the aspects of promotion and application prospect.

  10. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  11. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  12. Soda-lime glass behavior under laser shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loison, D.; Guin, J.-P.; Sangleboeuf, J.-C.; Nivard, M.; Lescoute, E.; Sollier, A.; Seisson, G.; Hebert, D.; Berthe, L.; Boustie, M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and modeling the behavior of glass is an issue for certain aeronautical, military and civil applications. For example, parts of satellites and shuttles are made of glasses. During their lifetime, they are subjected to potentially damaging high velocity impacts. To determine the behavior of these structures during and after impact we used instrumented laser driven shock loading performed on high power intensity laser facilities. Transverse shadowgraphs of the front wave propagating inside the transparent material are collected at different times. These shadowgraphs provide information regarding the shock wave velocity. PDV or VISAR measurements provide time-resolved free surface velocity to determine material velocity when the shock wave breakout occurs. For some laser shots, shock wave corresponds to elastic wave then Hugoniot elastic limit may be determined. Under high pressure conditions glass permanently densifies and traces of such a plastic deformation are looked for on the path of the shock wave. Those experimental data are necessary to characterize the material behavior under such conditions and to model the mechanical behavior of glass structures. In this presentation we will present experimental results obtained for soda-lime silica glass samples loaded by laser induced shock.

  13. SODA-AQ PULPING OF PAULOWNIA WOOD AFTER HYDROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A trihybrid clone of Paulownia fortunei x tormentosa x elongata was used for pulp and paper production using the soda-anthraquinone (AQ process, comparing the results with those from Paulownia fortunei. An autohydrolysis process had been previously carried out on this raw material. A composite central experimental design and a multiple regression were used for modeling and optimizing the process. A valuable liquid phase could be obtained from the autohydrolysis process of Paulownia, trying to minimize cellulose degradation for pulp and paper production. A compromise to maximize the glucan and minimize the xylan contents in the postautohydrolysis solid phase could be achieved at 187.5ºC and 15 minutes. A suitable cellulosic pulp with kappa number ranging from 12.2 to 69.2 and ISO brightness from 18.2 to 30.6% presented better results than those from other studies. Regarding handsheets physical properties (tensile index 37.3 N•m/g and viscosity (848 cm3/g, significant improvements could be obtained when compared with previous results of a similar process using Paulownia fortunei or Paulownia elongata.

  14. Another Look at the Draft Mil-Std-1540E Unit Random Vibration Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, E.; Peterson, A. J..; Davis, D.

    2012-07-01

    The draft Mil-Std-1540E has been updated to reflect lessons learned since its publication as an SMC Standard in 2008, [1], and an earlier Aerospace Corporation Technical Report released in 2006, [2]. This paper discusses the technical rationale supporting some of the unit random vibration test requirements to provide better insight into their derivation and application to programs. It is intended that these requirements be tailored for each program to reflect the customer risk profile. Several tailoring options are provided and a two phase test strategy is discussed to highlight its applicability to utilizing heritage hardware in new applications.

  15. Potential of alternative sorbents for desulphurization: from laboratory tests to the full-scale combustion unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbyszek Szeliga; Dagmar Juchelkova; Bohumir Cech; Pavel Kolat; Franz Winter; Adam J. Campen; Tomasz S. Wiltowski [Technical University of Ostrava (VSB), Ostrava (Czech Republic). Department of Energy Engineering

    2008-09-15

    At present, natural limestone is used for the desulphurization of waste gases from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is important to save all primary resources, such as limestone, for the future. The researchers focused on finding alternative sorbents for the purpose of desulphurization in a dry additive method, which would become the alternative for natural limestone. This paper is primarily focused on desulphurization tests of selected substances. Tests were initially conducted on the laboratory scale, followed by pilot and full-scale combustion units. 15 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Measured Test-Driven Development: Using Measures to Monitor and Control the Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dubinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Test Driven Development (TDD from cognitive and social perspectives. Based on our analysis, we suggest a technique for controlling and monitoring the TDD process by examining measures that relate to the size and complexity of both code and tests. We call this approach Measured TDD. The motivation for TDD arose from practitioners' tendency to rush into code production, skipping the required testing needed to manufacture quality products. The motivation for Measured TDD is based on difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying TDD. Specifically, with the need to frequently refactor the unit, after every few test and code steps have been performed. We found that the suggested technique enables developers to gain better control over the development process.

  17. The interactions of Tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) (TSA) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of TSA since...

  18. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) space suits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing re-generable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solid-amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA is the first RCA unit implementing radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or subambient atmosphere.

  19. SU-E-P-46: Clinical Acceptance Testing and Implementation of a Portable CT Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFrance, M; Marsh, S; Hicks, R; O’Donnell-Moran, G [Baystate Health Systems, Inc., Springfield, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Planning for the first installation in New England of a new portable CT unit to be used in the Operating Room required the integration of many departments including Surgery, Neurosurgery, Information Services, Clinical Engineering, Radiology and Medical Physics/Radiation Safety. Acceptance testing and the quality assurance procedures were designed to optimize image quality and patient and personnel radiation exposure. Methods: The vendor’s protocols were tested using the CT Dosimetry phantoms. The system displayed the CTDIw instead of the CTDIvol while testing the unit. Radiation exposure was compared to existing CT scanners from installed CT units throughout the facility. Brainlab measures all 4 periphery slots on the CT Dosimetry phantom. The ACR measures only the superior slot for the periphery measurement. A comprehensive radiation survey was also performed for several locations. Results: The CTDIvol measurements were comparable for the following studies: brain, C-Spine, and sinuses. However, the mobile CT measurements were slightly higher than other CT units but within acceptable tolerance if measured using the ACR method.Based on scatter measurements, it was determined if any personnel were to stay in the OR Suite during image acquisition that the appropriate lead apron and thyroid shields had to be worn.In addition, to reduce unnecessary scatter, there were two mobile 6 foot wide shields (1/16″ lead equivalent) available to protect personnel in the room and adjacent areas. Conclusion: Intraoperative CT provides the physician new opportunities for evaluation of the progression of surgical resections and device placement at the cost of increasing the amount of trained personnel required to perform this procedure. It also brings with it challenges to keep the radiation exposure to the patients and staff within reasonable limits.

  20. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Fox, Caroline S; Jacques, Paul F; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease affects ∼30% of US adults, yet the role of sugar-sweetened beverages and diet soda on these diseases remains unknown. We examined the cross-sectional association between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda and fatty liver disease in participants of the Framingham Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. Fatty liver disease was defined using liver attenuation measurements generated from computed tomography in 2634 participants. Alanine transaminase concentration, a crude marker of fatty liver disease, was measured in 5908 participants. Sugar-sweetened beverage and diet soda intake were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Participants were categorized as either non-consumers or consumers (3 categories: 1 serving/month to sugar-sweetened beverages or diet soda. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, Framingham cohort, energy intake, alcohol, dietary fiber, fat (% energy), protein (% energy), diet soda intake, and body mass index, the odds ratios of fatty liver disease were 1, 1.16 (0.88, 1.54), 1.32 (0.93, 1.86), and 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) across sugar-sweetened beverage consumption categories (p trend=0.04). Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was also positively associated with alanine transaminase levels (p trend=0.007). We observed no significant association between diet soda intake and measures of fatty liver disease. In conclusion, we observed that regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was associated with greater risk of fatty liver disease, particularly in overweight and obese individuals, whereas diet soda intake was not associated with measures of fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This... software elements if those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing...

  2. Liquid-based cytology test use by office-based physicians: United States, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Esther; Saraiya, Mona; Roland, Katherine B

    2011-06-01

    In the United States, liquid-based cytology (LBC) has become a common screening method for cervical cancer. However, the extent of LBC use, and how it varies by patient and practice characteristics, is unknown. This report describes the ordering and provision of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests, with a major focus on the extent to which LBC has supplanted conventional cytology. The type of Pap test is examined for visits made to primary care physicians in 2006-2007 by females aged 15-64. Estimates of Pap test cytology use (both LBC and conventional) are based on combined data from the 2006-2007 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), an annual nationally representative survey of visits to nonfederal office-based physicians in the United States, as well as on information reported by sample physicians in Cervical Cancer Screening Supplements fielded as part of NAMCS during the same years. In 2006-2007, LBC was used in approximately 75% of Pap tests for which the type of cytology was known. LBC was less likely to be used for Medicare patients than for privately insured patients, although LBC use did not vary significantly according to the other patient or practice characteristics examined. The high percentage of LBC use by office-based physicians in 2006-2007 confirms the widespread use of this screening method among primary care providers, as has been reported in the literature.

  3. Full-scale performance testing and evaluation of unitized curtain walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unitized curtain wall systems have been widely seen on high-rise buildings’ facades by bringing benefits with regard to ease of construction, lightness, etc. However, some design and application problems related to structural and infiltration performance of a facade system might arise during its life cycle, which is difficult for the building to compensate. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the structural and infiltration performance of the two identically detailed and produced unitized curtain wall system mock-ups. In order to understand long-term environmental effects on the curtain wall system, a fatigue process was applied on one system in addition to the standard test procedures, while the standard test procedure was applied on the other reference specimen. The tests on the two identical specimens were conducted in accordance with TS EN 13830 and AAMA 501.4 Standards. As a result of air infiltration and wind load resistance tests, air infiltration and frontal deflection values on the facade surface were obtained. Hence, experimental performance of the systems was compared and the effect of the fatigue procedure on the facade performance was evaluated.  

  4. Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 443 are specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada and includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA The CNTA is located north of U.S. Highway 6, approximately 30 miles north of Warm Springs in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1). Three emplacement boreholes, UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, were drilled at the CNTA for underground nuclear weapons testing. The initial underground nuclear test, Project Faultless, was conducted in borehole UC-1 at a depth of 3,199 feet (ft) (975 meters) below ground surface on January 19, 1968. The yield of the Project Faultless test was estimated to be 0.2 to 1 megaton (DOE 2004). The test resulted in a down-dropped fault block visible at land surface (Figure 2). No further testing was conducted at the CNTA, and the site was decommissioned as a testing facility in 1973.

  5. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  6. Modeling and experimental testing activity of the Voltage Optimization Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Hu, Junjie; Marinelli, Mattia

    cost investments of to the system operator, thus a proactive tap algorithm is developed and tested in this project, relying on local measurements. In addition, we also compared the experimental result with the one simulated in the DigSilent PowerFactory software environment (the software used...... the voltage problems in presence of photovoltaic distributed generation, using Bistrup distribution grid (DONG Energy) as a test case. This second report presents the experimental results of the testing activity of the Voltage Optimization Unit (VOU), i.e., a distribution transformer with single-phase on......-load tap changers (OLTC) in an experimental low voltage grid. Both the transformer internal behavior and its effective operations under different unbalanced bidirectional power flow conditions have been investigated. Moreover, different control logics are analyzed based on their control objectives and control...

  7. A Complete Automation of Unit Testing for JavaScript Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alshraideh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Program testing is expensive and labor intensive, often consuming more than half of the total development costs, and yet it is frequently not done well and the results are not always satisfactory. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic test data generation tool that aims to completely automate unit testing of JavaScript functions. The methodology: In order to use the proposed tool, the tester annotates the files that contain the class to be tested. Moreover, the tester must specify the test data coverage criterion to be used, either branch coverage or mutation analysis. However, the tool is then integrated into the JavaScript compiler and test generation is invoked by a command line option. Also, the code to be tested is parsed into an abstract syntax tree from which the test tool generates a program dependency graph for the function under test. However, if mutation analysis coverage is required, the abstract syntax tree for a meta-mutant program is also generated. To provide guidance for the test data search, the function under test instrumented in accordance with the coverage criterion. Branch predicate expressions are always instrumented, in the case of mutation coverage, mutated statements are also instrumented. Compilation then continues from the modified abstract syntax tree to generate instrumented executables that were loaded into the test data search module. Results: The experiment done in our study by using the proposed tool for branch coverage shows that the most effective result for string equality was obtained using the edit distance fitness function, while no significant difference was found in the fitness function for string ordering. Through exhaustive mulation coverage 8% are found to be equivalent. Conclusion: By having a complete automation it reduces the cost of software testing dramatically and also facilitates continuous testing. It is reported that at least 50% of the total software

  8. Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic and thermotolerant actinomycete isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanpuram, Vishnuvardhan Reddy; Mothe, Thirumala; Mohammed, Farooq

    2015-02-01

    An alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain AC3(T), was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified that the strain belongs to the class Actinobacteria and was most closely related to Streptomyces sodiiphilus JCM 13581(T) (96.4 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii DSM 42122(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces albus NRRL B-2365(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T) (96.0 %), Streptomyces fimbriatus NBRC 15411(T) (95.9 %) and other members of the genus Streptomyces (cream substrate and white aerial mycelia on most tested media. The optimum pH for growth was determined to be 9.5-10.0 with no growth at pH 7.0. The DNA G+C content of strain AC3(T) was determined to be 71.2 mol %. The results of the polyphasic analysis allowed a clear differentiation of strain AC3(T) from all other members of the genus Streptomyces. Strain AC3(T) is thus considered to represent a novel member of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AC3(T) (=KCTC 29497(T) = JCM 30167(T)).

  9. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesser Lenard I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has shown that neighborhood characteristics are associated with obesity prevalence. While food advertising in periodicals and television has been linked to overweight and obesity, it is unknown whether outdoor advertising is related to obesity. Methods To test the association between outdoor food advertising and obesity, we analyzed telephone survey data on adults, aged 18–98, collected from 220 census tracts in Los Angeles and Louisiana. We linked self-reported information on BMI and soda consumption with a database of directly observed outdoor advertisements. Results The higher the percentage of outdoor advertisements promoting food or non-alcoholic beverages within a census tract, the greater the odds of obesity among its residents, controlling for age, race and educational status. For every 10% increase in food advertising, there was a 1.05 (95% CI 1.003 - 1.093, p Conclusions There is a relationship between the percentage of outdoor food advertising and overweight/obesity.

  10. Studies on the Potential of Waste Soda Lime Silica Glass in Glass Ionomer Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. W. Francis Thoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are produced through acid base reaction between calcium-fluoroaluminosilicate glass powder and polyacrylic acid (PAA. Soda lime silica glasses (SLS, mainly composed of silica (SiO2, have been utilized in this study as the source of SiO2 for synthesis of Ca-fluoroaluminosilicate glass. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the potential of SLS waste glass in producing GIC. Two glasses, GWX 1 (analytical grade SiO2 and GWX 2 (replacing SiO2 with waste SLS, were synthesized and then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX. Synthesized glasses were then used to produce GIC, in which the properties were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and compressive test (from 1 to 28 days. XRD results showed that amorphous glass was produced by using SLS waste glass (GWX 2, which is similar to glass produced using analytical grade SiO2 (GWX 1. Results from FT-IR showed that the setting reaction of GWX 2 cements is slower compared to cement GWX 1. Compressive strengths for GWX 1 cements reached up to 76 MPa at 28 days, whereas GWX 2 cements showed a slightly higher value, which is 80 MPa.

  11. Iron oxide coating films in soda-lime glass by triboadhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J. O.; Arjona, M. J. [Boulevard Bahia s/n esq. Ignacio Comonfort, Chetumal (Mexico); Rodriguez-Lelis, J. M. [Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    In the triboadhesion process the coating material is passed through a rotating cotton mop and the substrate to be coated. The cotton mop rotates at high velocity and exerts pressure on the surface of the substrate. The combined effect of pressure and velocity of the coating mop on the substrate increases its temperature close to the melting point, allowing deposition and diffusion of the coating material within the substrate. After it is deposited, its particles are embedded within the base material forming a thin film composite. The amount of the coating material deposited on the substrate has its maximum at the surface and then decreases as a function of the local temperature within the base material. Bearing this in mind, in the present work, triboadhesion is employed to deposit iron oxide in a substrate of soda-lime glass, with the purpose of determining the feasibility of using this technique for solar control coatings. It was found, through electronic scan microscopy, that a composite material film is formed following the coating direction. Reflectance and transmittance tests were carried out on the glass samples. A 20% difference was found in the visible spectral region (VIS), and a reduction between 10 and 20% in the Near Infrared Region (NIR). These results showed that the triboadhesion is a promising technique for the application of thin films for solar control or solar cells

  12. Unit Testing Using Design by Contract and Equivalence Partitions, Extreme Programming and Agile Processes in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming [1] and in particular the idea of Unit Testing can improve the quality of the testing process. But still programmers need to do a lot of tiresome manual work writing test cases. If the programmers could get some automatic tool support enforcing the quality of test cases then t...... then the overall quality of the software would improve significantly....

  13. Unit Testing Using Design by Contract and Equivalence Partitions, Extreme Programming and Agile Processes in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per

    2003-01-01

    Extreme Programming [1] and in particular the idea of Unit Testing can improve the quality of the testing process. But still programmers need to do a lot of tiresome manual work writing test cases. If the programmers could get some automatic tool support enforcing the quality of test cases...

  14. HIV Testing Among Internet-Using MSM in the United States: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Meredith; Jones, Amanda M; Bowles, Kristina; DiNenno, Elizabeth A; Tregear, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    Regular HIV testing enables early identification and treatment of HIV among at-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Characterizing HIV testing needs for Internet-using MSM informs development of Internet-facilitated testing interventions. In this systematic review we analyze HIV testing patterns among Internet-using MSM in the United States who report, through participation in an online study or survey, their HIV status as negative or unknown and identify demographic or behavioral risk factors associated with testing. We systematically searched multiple electronic databases for relevant English-language articles published between January 1, 2005 and December 16, 2014. Using meta-analysis, we summarized the proportion of Internet-using MSM who had ever tested for HIV and the proportion who tested in the 12 months preceding participation in the online study or survey. We also identified factors predictive of these outcomes using meta-regression and narrative synthesis. Thirty-two studies that enrolled 83,186 MSM met our inclusion criteria. Among the studies reporting data for each outcome, 85 % (95 % CI 82-87 %) of participants had ever tested, and 58 % (95 % CI 53-63 %) had tested in the year preceding enrollment in the study, among those for whom those data were reported. Age over 30 years, at least a college education, use of drugs, and self-identification as being homosexual or gay were associated with ever having tested for HIV. A large majority of Internet-using MSM indicated they had been tested for HIV at some point in the past. A smaller proportion-but still a majority-reported they had been tested within the year preceding study or survey participation. MSM who self-identify as heterosexual or bisexual, are younger, or who use drugs (including non-injection drugs) may be less likely to have ever tested for HIV. The overall findings of our systematic review are encouraging; however, a subpopulation of MSM may benefit from targeted outreach. These

  15. Where there's a will: can highlighting future youth-targeted marketing increase support for soda taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sungjong; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2014-12-01

    Amid concern about high rates of obesity and related diseases, the marketing of nutritionally poor foods to young people by the food industry has come under heavy criticism by public health advocates, who cite decades of youth-targeted marketing in arguing for reforms. In light of recent evidence that the same event evokes stronger emotional reactions when it occurs in the future versus the past, highlighting youth-targeted marketing that has yet to occur may evoke stronger reactions to such practices, and perhaps, greater support for related health policy initiatives. In a between-subjects experiment, Web participants (N = 285) read that a major soda company had already launched (past condition) or was planning to launch (future condition) an advertising campaign targeting children. Measures included support for a soda tax and affective responses to the company's actions. Greater support for the soda tax was observed in the future condition than in the past condition. Moreover, participants in the future condition reported heightened negative emotions about the company's actions, which mediated the observed effect on soda tax support. The same action undertaken by the food industry (here, marketing soda to children) may evoke stronger negative emotions and greater support for a health policy initiative when it is framed prospectively rather than retrospectively.

  16. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods: The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results: The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  17. Histological effects of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on kidney of adult Wister rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Health concerns over soda pop drinks have been severally report. However, histological perspectives are not very common. Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate histological effect of chronic consumption of soda pop drinks on the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Materials and methods : The rats of both sexes (n = 24, with average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatment (A & B (n=16 and Control (c (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment group (A received a brand of soda pop drink on a daily basis for thirty days. The rats in treatment group (B received another brand of soda drink, while the control group (C received equal amount of water for the same period. The rats were given the drinks as well as feeds liberally for thirty days, and sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The kidney was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histological study. Results : The findings indicate that rats in the treated groups (A&B showed some varying degree of distortion and disruption of the renal structure. There are observable diffuse signs of glomerulonephritis with some congestion and tubular necrosis as compared to the control group. Conclusion : Chronic consumption of soda pop drinks may affect the microanatomy of the kidney of adult Wistar rats. Further study aimed at corroborating these observations in humans is warranted.

  18. Liquid Acquisition Device Hydrogen Outflow Testing on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Engineering Design Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Greg; Statham, Geoff; Garces, Rachel; Cartagena, Will

    2015-01-01

    As part of the NASA Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Engineering Design Unit (EDU) testing with liquid hydrogen, screen-channel liquid acquisition devices (LADs) were tested during liquid hydrogen outflow from the EDU tank. A stainless steel screen mesh (325x2300 Dutch T will weave) was welded to a rectangular cross-section channel to form the basic LAD channel. Three LAD channels were tested, each having unique variations in the basic design. The LADs fed a common outflow sump at the aft end of the 151 cu. ft. volume aluminum tank, and included a curved section along the aft end and a straight section along the barrel section of the tank. Wet-dry sensors were mounted inside the LAD channels to detect when vapor was ingested into the LADs during outflow. The use of warm helium pressurant during liquid hydrogen outflow, supplied through a diffuser at the top of the tank, always led to early breakdown of the liquid column. When the tank was pressurized through an aft diffuser, resulting in cold helium in the ullage, LAD column hold-times as long as 60 minutes were achieved, which was the longest duration tested. The highest liquid column height at breakdown was 58 cm, which is 23 less than the isothermal bubble-point model value of 75 cm. This paper discusses details of the design, construction, operation and analysis of LAD test data from the CPST EDU liquid hydrogen test.

  19. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu Subsidence Crater Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shannon Parsons

    1999-03-01

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). The subsidence crater was used as a land disposal unit for radioactive and hazardous waste from 1973 to 1988. Site disposal history is supported by memorandums, letters, and personnel who worked at the Nevada Test Site at the time of active disposal. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil form the tip of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that lead has been removed to concentrations be low regulatory action level. The area will then be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed, and certified by an independent professional engineer as to having followed the approved Closure Plan.

  20. Design and Test Plans for a Non-Nuclear Fission Power System Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Palac, Donald; Gibson, Marc; Houts, Michael; Warren, John; Werner, James; Poston, David; Qualls, Arthur Lou; Radel, Ross; Harlow, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Energy (DOE) team is developing concepts and technologies for affordable nuclear Fission Power Systems (FPSs) to support future exploration missions. A key deliverable is the Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU). The TDU will assemble the major elements of a notional FPS with a non-nuclear reactor simulator (Rx Sim) and demonstrate system-level performance in thermal vacuum. The Rx Sim includes an electrical resistance heat source and a liquid metal heat transport loop that simulates the reactor thermal interface and expected dynamic response. A power conversion unit (PCU) generates electric power utilizing the liquid metal heat source and rejects waste heat to a heat rejection system (HRS). The HRS includes a pumped water heat removal loop coupled to radiator panels suspended in the thermal-vacuum facility. The basic test plan is to subject the system to realistic operating conditions and gather data to evaluate performance sensitivity, control stability, and response characteristics. Upon completion of the testing, the technology is expected to satisfy the requirements for Technology Readiness Level 6 (System Demonstration in an Operational and Relevant Environment) based on the use of high-fidelity hardware and prototypic software tested under realistic conditions and correlated with analytical predictions.

  1. Testing of the Engineering Model Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.; Fox, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field (GRC) in Cleveland, OH and the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL have designed and developed an Engineering Model (EM) Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU) for the Fluids Combustion Facility, (FCF) experiments to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS power distribution system for the FCF's space experiments'test and telemetry hardware. Furthermore. it is proposed to be the common power interface for all experiments. The EPCU is a three kilowatt 12OVdc-to-28Vdc converter utilizing three independent Power Converter Units (PCUs), each rated at 1kWe (36Adc @ 28Vdc) which are paralleled and synchronized. Each converter may be fed from one of two ISS power channels. The 28Vdc loads are connected to the EPCU output via 48 solid-state and current-limiting switches, rated at 4Adc each. These switches may be paralleled to supply any given load up to the 108Adc normal operational limit of the paralleled converters. The EPCU was designed in this manner to maximize allocated-power utilization. to shed loads autonomously, to provide fault tolerance. and to provide a flexible power converter and control module to meet various ISS load demands. Tests of the EPCU in the Power Systems Facility testbed at GRC reveal that the overall converted-power efficiency, is approximately 89% with a nominal-input voltage of 12OVdc and a total load in the range of 4O% to 110% rated 28Vdc load. (The PCUs alone have an efficiency of approximately 94.5%). Furthermore, the EM unit passed all flight-qualification level (and beyond) vibration tests, passed ISS EMI (conducted, radiated. and susceptibility) requirements. successfully operated for extended periods in a thermal/vacuum chamber, was integrated with a proto-flight experiment and passed all stability and functional requirements.

  2. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  3. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  4. Advanced Motor Control Test Facility for NASA GRC Flywheel Energy Storage System Technology Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Hofmann, Heath; Mackin, Michael; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the flywheel test facility developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center with particular emphasis on the motor drive components and control. A four-pole permanent magnet synchronous machine, suspended on magnetic bearings, is controlled with a field orientation algorithm. A discussion of the estimation of the rotor position and speed from a "once around signal" is given. The elimination of small dc currents by using a concurrent stationary frame current regulator is discussed and demonstrated. Initial experimental results are presented showing the successful operation and control of the unit at speeds up to 20,000 rpm.

  5. Acoustic emission monitoring of hot functional testing: Watts Bar Unit 1 Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, P.H.; Dawson, J.F.; Friesel, M.A.; Harris, J.C.; Pappas, R.A.

    1984-06-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of selected pressure boundary areas at TVA's Watts Bar, Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during hot functional preservice testing is described in this report. The report deals with background, methodology, and results. The work discussed here is a major milestone in a program supported by NRC to develop and demonstrate application of AE monitoring for continuous surveillance of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate growing flaws. The subject work demonstrated that anticipated problem areas can be overcome. Work is continuing toward AE monitoring during reactor operation.

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). CAU 490 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and includes for Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) Fire Training Area (CAS 03-56-001-03BA); (2) Station 44 Burn Area (CAS RG-56-001-RGBA); (3) Sandia Service Yard (CAS 03-58-001-03FN); and (4) Gun Propellant Burn Area (CAS 09-54-001-09L2).

  7. The 5th surveillance testing for Kori unit 1 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwun Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-08-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed primarily by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and Westinhouse corporation partially involved in testing and calculation data evaluation in order to obtain reliable test result. Fast neutron fluences for capsule V, T, S, R and P were 5.087E+18, 1.115E+19, 1.228E+19, 2.988E+19, and 3.938E+19n/cm2, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.940 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 7% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.9846E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 17th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 24, 32, 40 and 48EFPY would reach 3.0593E+19, 4.0695E+19, 5.0797E+19 and 6.0900E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. PTS analysis for Kori unit 1 showed that 27.93EFPY was the threshold value for 300 deg F requirement. 71 refs., 33 figs., 52 tabs. (Author)

  8. Unit testing, model validation, and biological simulation [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal P. Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the software industry has gone hand in hand with the development of tools and cultural practices for ensuring the reliability of complex pieces of software. These tools and practices are now acknowledged to be essential to the management of modern software. As computational models and methods have become increasingly common in the biological sciences, it is important to examine how these practices can accelerate biological software development and improve research quality. In this article, we give a focused case study of our experience with the practices of unit testing and test-driven development in OpenWorm, an open-science project aimed at modeling Caenorhabditis elegans. We identify and discuss the challenges of incorporating test-driven development into a heterogeneous, data-driven project, as well as the role of model validation tests, a category of tests unique to software which expresses scientific models.

  9. Test-bed for compact ventilation units; Pruefstand fuer Kompaktlueftungsgeraete fuer Komfortlueftung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furter, R.; Helfenfinger, D.; Huber, H.; Wenger, L.

    2005-12-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) by the University of Applied Sciences in Lucerne, Switzerland takes a look at the testing facility at the university that is used to test compact ventilation systems. These feature heat-recovery and return-air heat-pumps and are used in housing built to low energy-consumption standards such as the Swiss 'Minergie' and 'Minergie-P' standards. The primary goal is a technically comprehensive testing programme for compact ventilation units with heat recovery and heat pumps, which can nevertheless be carried out at reasonable cost. In addition to thermal and flow measurements, acoustic measurements are also carried out. The authors quote that the overall assessment provided can also include service and maintenance, materials used and possible problems with thermal bridges. The test installation is described and the testing regulations used are elaborated, as are the various factors that can be measured and examined. First results are presented and a review of work to be done at the European level is discussed.

  10. Detecting and isolating faults of an air-handling unit using on- line diagnostic tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakanen, J. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    On-line diagnostic testing is one choice, when practical and robust fault detection and isolation methods are considered for automated processes. Performing a test means exciting a process by means of prescribed input signals, supervising responses and comparing results with a process model. An on-line diagnostic test is repeated similarly every time, in similar process conditions, making modelling an uncomplicated task. Fault detection is a direct consequence of the comparison, but fault isolation is based on elementary constraints, decomposed from the process model. A rough description of a fault can be achieved by heuristic reasoning, which enables application of the method in practice. A more specified fault description is accomplished by learning from old solutions. The reasoner accumulates information making decisions of the classifier gradually more precise through acquired experience. The method is best for successive installations, in which knowledge can be cumulated. On-line diagnostic tests are generic in character, but in this paper they are configured for an air handling unit of an office building and applied in its preheating subprocess. The paper presents the development, simulation and field tests of the fault detection and isolation method and its configuration as a part of a diagnostic system. (orig.) (35 refs.)

  11. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  12. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA). Version 2.0: User's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.; Zsoldos, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 2.0, is discussed. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system that consists of six program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an Evans and Sutherland PS300 graphics workstation. In the current version, three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. Circular and rectangular, off nadir, fixed and scanning sensors are supported. One module produces an interactive three dimensional animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently, Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  13. Radiation Tolerance Qualification Tests of the Final Source Interface Unit for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Dénes, E; Futó, E; Kerék, A; Kiss, T; Molnár, J; Novák, D; Soós, C; Tölyhi, T; Van de Vyvre, P

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Detector Data Link (DDL) is a high-speed optical link designed to interface the readout electronics of ALICE sub-detectors to the DAQ computers. The Source Interface Unit (SIU) of the DDL will operate in radiation environment. Previous tests showed that a configuration loss of SRAM-based FPGA devices may happen and the frequency of undetected data errors in the FPGA user memory area is also not acceptable. Therefore, we redesigned the SIU card using another FPGA based on flash technology. In order to detect bit errors in the user memory we added parity check logic to the design. The new SIU has been extensively tested using neutron and proton irradiation to verify its radiation tolerance. In this paper we summarize the design changes, introduce the final design, and the results of the radiation tolerance measurements on the final card.

  14. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  15. The 5th surveillance testing for Kori unit 2 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwon Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 5th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Kori unit 2 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules V, R, P, T and N are 2.837E+18, 1.105E+19, 2.110E+19, 3.705E+19 and 4.831E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of measurement/calculation, was 0.918 for the 1st through 5th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 11.6% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.898E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 15th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 4.203E+19, 5.232E+19, 6.262E+19 and 7.291E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Kori unit 2 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 49 refs., 35 figs., 48 tabs. (Author)

  16. The 4th surveillance testing for Kori unit 3 reactor vessel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Ok; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sam Lai; Choi, Kwun Jae; Gong, Un Sik; Chang, Jong Hwa; Joo, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok; Hong, Joon Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    Surveillance testing for reactor vessel materials is performed in order to evaluate the irradiation embrittlement due to neutrons during operation and set the condition of safe operation of nuclear reactor. The 4th surveillance testing was performed completely by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute at Taejeon after the capsule was transported from Kori site including its removal from reactor. Fast neutron fluences for capsules were calculated and various testing including mechanical and chemistry analysis were performed in order to evaluate the integrity of Kori unit 3 reactor vessel during the operation until life time. The evaluation results are as follows; Fast neutron fluences for capsules U, V, X and W are 4.983E+18, 1.641E+19, 3.158E+19, and 4.469E+19n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The bias factor, the ratio of calculation/measurement, was 0.840 for the 1st through 4th testing and the calculational uncertainty, 12% satisfied the requirement of USNRC Reg.Guide DG-1053, 20%. The best estimated neutron fluence for reactor vessel inside surface was 1.362E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the end of 12th fuel cycle and it was predicted that the fluences of vessel inside surface at 32, 40, 48 and 56EFPY would reach 3.481E+19, 4.209E+19, 5.144E+19 and 5.974E+19n/cm{sup 2} based on the current calculation. The result through this analysis for Kori unit 3 showed that there would be no problem for the pressurized thermal shock(PTS) during the operation until design life. 48 refs., 35 figs., 41 tabs. (Author)

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box

  18. Successful biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanales: Solanaceae) in Florida: A review of key program components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is a small shrub native to South America that is invasive in pastures and conservation areas across Florida. Dense patches of tropical soda apple not only reduce cattle stocking rates and limit their movement, but also serve as reservoirs for pests of solan...

  19. Design of the Wendelstein 7-X inertially cooled Test Divertor Unit Scraper Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold, E-mail: lumsdainea@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boscary, Jean [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany); Fellinger, Joris [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany); Harris, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hölbe, Hauke; König, Ralf [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany); Lore, Jeremy; McGinnis, Dean [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Neilson, Hutch; Titus, Peter [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, Princeton, NJ (United States); Tretter, Jörg [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The justification for the installation of the Test Divertor Unit Scraper Element is given. • Specially designed operational scenarios for the component are presented. • Plans for the design of the component are detailed. - Abstract: The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator is scheduled to begin operation in 2015, and to achieve full power steady-state operation in 2019. Computational simulations have indicated that for certain plasma configurations in the steady-state operation, the ends of the divertor targets may receive heat fluxes beyond their qualified technological limit. To address this issue, a high heat-flux “scraper element” (HHF-SE) has been designed that can protect the sensitive divertor target region. The surface profile of the HHF-SE has been carefully designed to meet challenging engineering requirements and severe spatial limitations through an iterative process involving physics simulations, engineering analysis, and computer aided design rendering. The desire to examine how the scraper element interacts with the plasma, both in terms of how it protects the divertor, and how it affects the neutral pumping efficiency, has led to the consideration of installing an inertially cooled version during the short pulse operation phase. This Test Divertor Unit Scraper Element (TDU-SE) would replicate the surface profile of the HHF-SE. The design and instrumentation of this component must be completed carefully in order to satisfy the requirements of the machine operation, as well as to support the possible installation of the HHF-SE for steady-state operation.

  20. Leak rate and burst test data for McGuire Unit 1 steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherburne, P.A. [B& W Nuclear Service Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Frye, C.R. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Mayes, D.B. [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1992-12-31

    To support the development of tube plugging criteria that would allow tubes with through-wall cracks to remain in service, sections of 12 tubes were removed from the McGuire Unit-1 steam generators. These tubes were sent to B&W Nuclear Service Company for metallographic examination and for determination of burst pressure and leak rate at both operating and faulted conditions. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) had degraded these tubes in the tube-to-tubesheet roll transitions. To measure primary-to-secondary leakage at pressures and temperatures equivalent to those in the McGuire Unit-1 steam generators, an autoclave-based test loop was designed and installed at the Babcock & Wilcox Lynchburg Research Center. Sections of the tube containing the roll transitions were then installed in the autoclave and actual primary- to-secondary leakage was measured at 288{degrees}C (550{degrees}F) and at 9 and 18.3 MPa (1300 and 2650 psi) pressure differentials. Following the leak test, the tubes were pressurized internally until the tube wall ruptured. Leak rate, burst pressure, and eddy-current information were then correlated with the through-wall crack lengths as determined by metallographic examination. Results confirm the ability to measure the crack length with eddy-current techniques. Results also support analytical and empirical models developed by the nuclear industry in calculating critical crack lengths in roll transitions.

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Lloyd

    2006-10-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 540 is located within Areas 12 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-44-01, ER 12-1 Well Site Release; CAS 12-99-01, Oil Stained Dirt; CAS 19-25-02, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-04, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-05, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-06, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-07, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-08, Oil Spills (3); and CAS 19-44-03, U-19bf Drill Site Release. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action for the CASs within CAU 540. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: (1) Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination; (2) Performed closure activities to address the presence of substances regulated by 'Nevada Administrative Code' 445A.2272 (NAC, 2002); and (3) Documented Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 540 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 143: Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2002-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 25 Contaminated Waste Dumps (CWD), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 143 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [FFACO] (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 143: Area 25, Contaminated Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. CAU 143 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-23-09 CWD No.1, and 25-23-03 CWD No.2. The Area 25 CWDs are historic disposal units within the Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD), and Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) compounds located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The R-MAD and E-MAD facilities originally supported a portion of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Area 25 of the NTS. CWD No.1 CAS 25-23-09 received solid radioactive waste from the R-MAD Compound (East Trestle and West Trench Berms) and 25-23-03 CWD No.2 received solid radioactive waste from the E-MAD Compound (E-MAD Trench).

  3. RCGVS design improvement and depressurization capability tests for Ulchin nuclear power plant units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kang Sik; Seong, Ho Je; Jeong, Won Sang; Seo, Jong Tae; Lee, Sang Keun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Keun Hyo; Choi, Kwon Sik; Oh, Chul Sung [Korea Electric Power Cooperation, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The Reactor Coolant Gas Vent System(RCGVS) design for Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4) has been improved from the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (YGN 3 and 4) based on the evaluation results for depressurization capability tests performed at YGN 3 and 4. There has been a series of plant safety analyses for Natural Circulation Cooldown(NCC) event and thermo-dynamic analyses with RELAP5 code for the steam blowdown phenomena in order to optimize the orifice size of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS. Based on these analyses results, the RCGVS orifics size for UCN 3 and 4 has been reduced to 9/32 inch from the 11/32 inch for YGN 3 and 4. The depressurization capability tests, which were performed at UCN 3 in order to verify the FSAR NCC analysis results, show that the RCGVS depressurization rates are being within the acceptable ranges. Therefore, it is concluded that the orificed flow path of UCN 3 and 4 RCGVS is adequately designed, and can provide the safety-grade depressurization capability required for a safe plant operation. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  4. Developing and testing a tool to measure nurse/physician communication in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Saint, Sanjay; Forman, Jane; Fletcher, Carol E; Keith, Rosalind; Krein, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study, conducted in 3 intensive care units (ICUs) at 1 Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, was to develop tools and procedures to measure nurse/physician communication in future studies. We used mixed methods in a multistaged approach. Qualitative data came from 4 observations of patient care rounds and 8 interviews with nurses and physicians. Quantitative data came from anonymous surveys distributed to nurses in all 3 ICUs (n = 66). We administered the Safety Organizing Scale to measure nurses' self-reported behaviors that enable a safety culture. Analysis of variance was the main statistical test. Qualitative data were used to create an observation data collection tool and a working protocol, to measure nurse/physician communication in a future study. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the 3 units (f = 4.57, P = 0.02). There also were significant differences on 4 of 9 items of the Safety Organizing Scale. Using mixed methods, we gained multiple perspectives that helped us to clarify and validate the context and content of communication. Quantitative analysis showed significant differences between the 3 ICUs in nurses' perceptions of a safety culture. According to qualitative analyses, nurses from the unit which reported the weakest safety culture also were the least satisfied in their communication with physicians. Qualitative analyses corroborated quantitative findings and demonstrated the importance of contextual influences on nurse/physician communication. Through the tools and protocol we created, more realistic strategies to promote effective communication between nurses and physicians may be developed and tested in future studies.

  5. Nonlinear behaviour of the Chinese SSEC index with a unit root: Evidence from threshold unit root tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xi-Yuan; Song, Fu-Tie; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the behaviour of the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite (SSEC) index for the period from 1990:12 to 2007:06 using an unconstrained two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) model with a unit root developed by Caner and Hansen. The method allows us to simultaneously consider nonstationarity and nonlinearity in time series that has regime switching. Our finding indicates that the Shanghai stock market exhibits nonlinear behaviour with two regimes and has unit roots in both regimes. The important implications of the threshold effect in stock markets are also discussed.

  6. The Near Mallett Unit Foveal Suppression Test: a cross-sectional study to establish test norms and relationship with other optometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sosena T W; Evans, Bruce J W

    2007-01-01

    When the binocular system comes under prolonged stress in decompensated heterophoria, a small suppression area can develop at the fovea. This foveal suppression (FS) may be an adaptation to eliminate symptoms. The near Mallett unit (NMU) is a hand-held instrument that contains a binocular status test for detecting and quantifying FS. We measured FS in a cross-sectional study of 131 patients to investigate the normal range of responses. A ratio scoring method was devised which considers the number of letters read with dichoptic viewing when binocularly fused (b) and under monocular (m) conditions, using the formula 100 x (m - b)/m. The 95th percentile value of the FS ratios was calculated as the limit of the normal range and this gave a value for the right eye (RE; 33%), left eye (LE; 43%) and total (38%). This result shows that statistically significant FS occurs when a patient can read approximately one line further in the test monocularly, compared to under fused dichoptic conditions. A statistically significant correlation was found between absolute values of horizontal aligning prism (associated heterophoria on the NMU) and FS ratio. Some limitations of the FS test and unexpected results became apparent during our research and an abnormal result on the test does not always indicate a binocular vision anomaly. Nonetheless, we feel that the test can provide useful information when the results are taken in the context of other clinical tests. Our results are used to develop recommendations and clinical guidelines for using the FS test, and to make suggestions for improvements in future designs of the test.

  7. Structural adaptation of Salsola soda L. (Chenopodiaceae from inland and maritime saline area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dubravka M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic analysis of leaf and stem in two populations of Salsola soda was carried out in order to examine mechanism of anatomical adaptations to environmental condition on saline habitats and to determine if there exists a morpho-anatomical differentiation between populations from maritime and inland saline area. Analysis included 26 quantitative characters of leaf and stem. The results showed that both populations exhibited halomorphic and xeromorphic adaptations, which refered to ecological plasticity and adaptations of plants to their habitats. Our research also showed that S. soda had quite a stable morphoanatomical structure, since only quantitative changes were recorded. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002

  8. Food environments near home and school related to consumption of soda and fast food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2011-07-01

    In California, more than 2 million adolescents (58%) drink soda or other sugar-sweetened beverages every day, and more than 1.6 million adolescents (46%) eat fast food at least twice a week. Adolescents who live and go to school in areas with more fast food restaurants and convenience stores than healthier food outlets such as grocery stores are more likely to consume soda and fast food than teens who live and go to school in areas with healthier food environments. State and local policy efforts to improve the retail food environment may be effective in improving adolescents' dietary behaviors.

  9. Study on Processing Technology of Moringa oleiferaSoda Cracker%辣木苏打饼干的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡钰; 史文斌; 苏琳琳; 李守岭; 林兴文

    2016-01-01

    [目的]确定辣木苏打饼干最佳工艺配方。[方法]以辣木粉为主要原料,通过单因素和正交试验研究辣木粉、酵母、食用油、NaH-CO34种物质添加量对辣木苏打饼干品质的影响。[结果]各因素对辣木苏打饼干品质影响大小依次为辣木粉添加量、食用油添加量、NaHCO3添加量、酵母添加量,得出辣木苏打饼干最佳配方为辣木粉添加量350 g/kg,酵母添加量18 g/kg,食用油添加量170 g/kg,NaH-CO3添加量6 g/kg,制作出的辣木苏打饼干口感酥脆,具有辣木的特征香味。[结论]该试验所得工艺配方可为辣木苏打饼干的工业化生产提供理论指导。%Objective] The optimal preparation technique for Moringa oleifera soda biscuit was determined.[Method] With Moringa oleifera powder as main material,based on the single-factor and orthogonal test,effects of the amount of Moringa oleifera powder,yeast,edible oil,NaHCO3 on soda biscuit taste were studied.[Result] The order of factors influencing sensory evaluation was Moringa oleifera powder,edible oil,NaHCO3 , yeast.The optimum conditions were as follows:the amount of Moringa oleifera powder 350 g/kg,yeast 18 g/kg,edible oil 170 g/kg and NaHCO3 6 g/kg.Under the above conditions,the crackers were obtained with crisp taste and unique flavor.[Conclusion] The study can provide theoretical guidance for the industrial processing of Moringa oleifera soda biscuit.

  10. A note on self-normalized Dickey-Fuller test for unit root in autoregressive time series with GARCH errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-rong; ZHANG Li-xin

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the unit root test for AR (p) model with GARCH errors is considered. The Dickey-Fuller test statistics are rewritten in the form of self-normalized sums, and the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics is derived under the weak conditions.

  11. Motivation and Engagement in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and China: Testing a Multi-Dimensional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory factor…

  12. Motivation and Engagement in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and China: Testing a Multi-Dimensional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory…

  13. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 130: Storage Tanks Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 130: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. The corrective action sites (CASs) within CAU 130 are located within Areas 1, 7, 10, 20, 22, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Unit 130 is comprised of the following CASs: • 01-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 07-02-01, Underground Storage Tanks • 10-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 20-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 20-99-05, Tar Residue • 22-02-02, Buried UST Piping • 23-02-07, Underground Storage Tank This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective action investigations and provides data confirming that the closure objectives for CASs within CAU 130 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implemented any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly disposed of corrective action and investigation-derived wastes. From August 4 through September 30, 2008, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 130, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were: • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent, implement appropriate corrective actions, confirm that no residual contamination is present, and properly dispose of wastes. Constituents detected during the closure activities were evaluated against final action levels to identify

  17. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  18. Using information theory to identify redundancy in common laboratory tests in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon; Maslove, David M

    2015-07-31

    Clinical workflow is infused with large quantities of data, particularly in areas with enhanced monitoring such as the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Information theory can quantify the expected amounts of total and redundant information contained in a given clinical data type, and as such has the potential to inform clinicians on how to manage the vast volumes of data they are required to analyze in their daily practice. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to quantify the amounts of redundant information associated with common ICU lab tests. We analyzed the information content of 11 laboratory test results from 29,149 adult ICU admissions in the MIMIC II database. Information theory was applied to quantify the expected amount of redundant information both between lab values from the same ICU day, and between consecutive ICU days. Most lab values showed a decreasing trend over time in the expected amount of novel information they contained. Platelet, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine measurements exhibited the most amount of redundant information on days 2 and 3 compared to the previous day. The creatinine-BUN and sodium-chloride pairs had the most redundancy. Information theory can help identify and discourage unnecessary testing and bloodwork, and can in general be a useful data analytic technique for many medical specialties that deal with information overload.

  19. Mineralogic Zonation Within the Tuff Confining Unit, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Prothro

    2005-09-01

    Recently acquired mineralogic data from drill hole samples in Yucca Flat show that the tuff confining unit (TCU) can be subdivided into three mineralogic zones based on the relative abundances of primary and secondary mineral assemblages. These zones are (1) an upper zone characterized by the abundance of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite with lesser amounts of felsic and clay minerals; (2) a middle zone with felsic minerals dominant over clinoptilolite and clay minerals; and (3) a basal argillic zone where clay minerals are dominant over felsic minerals and clinoptilolite. Interpretation of the mineralogic data, along with lithologic, stratigraphic, and geophysical data from approximately 500 drill holes, reveals a three-layer mineralogic model for the TCU that shows all three zones are extensive beneath Yucca Flat. The mineralogic model will be used to subdivide the TCU in the Yucca Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, resulting in a more accurate and versatile framework model. In addition, the identification of the type, quantity, and distribution of minerals within each TCU layer will permit modelers to better predict the spatial distribution and extent of contaminant transport from underground tests in Yucca Flat, at both the level of the hydrologic source term and the corrective action unit.

  20. Predicting hydrophobic solvation by molecular simulation: 1. Testing united-atom alkane models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Miguel; Garrido, Nuno M; Simões, Carlos J V; Silva, Cândida G; Brito, Rui M M

    2017-03-05

    We present a systematic test of the performance of three popular united-atom force fields-OPLS-UA, GROMOS and TraPPE-at predicting hydrophobic solvation, more precisely at describing the solvation of alkanes in alkanes. Gibbs free energies of solvation were calculated for 52 solute/solvent pairs from Molecular Dynamics simulations and thermodynamic integration making use of the IBERCIVIS volunteer computing platform. Our results show that all force fields yield good predictions when both solute and solvent are small linear or branched alkanes (up to pentane). However, as the size of the alkanes increases, all models tend to increasingly deviate from experimental data in a systematic fashion. Furthermore, our results confirm that specific interaction parameters for cyclic alkanes in the united-atom representation are required to account for the additional excluded volume within the ring. Overall, the TraPPE model performs best for all alkanes, but systematically underpredicts the magnitude of solvation free energies by about 6% (RMSD of 1.2 kJ/mol). Conversely, both GROMOS and OPLS-UA systematically overpredict solvation free energies (by ∼13% and 15%, respectively). The systematic trends suggest that all models can be improved by a slight adjustment of their Lennard-Jones parameters. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Understanding the Functional Central Limit Theorems with Some Applications to Unit Root Testing with Structural Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Aquino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of different unit root statistics is by now a standard practice in empirical work. Even when it is a practical issue, these statistics have complex nonstandard distributions depending on functionals of certain stochastic processes, and their derivations represent a barrier even for many theoretical econometricians. These derivations are based on rigorous and fundamental statistical tools which are not (very well known by standard econometricians. This paper aims to fill this gap by explaining in a simple way one of these fundamental tools: namely, the Functional Central Limit Theorem. To this end, this paper analyzes the foundations and applicability of two versions of the Functional Central Limit Theorem within the framework of a unit root with a structural break. Initial attention is focused on the probabilistic structure of the time series to be considered. Thereafter, attention is focused on the asymptotic theory for nonstationary time series proposed by Phillips (1987a, which is applied by Perron (1989 to study the effects of an (assumed exogenous structural break on the power of the augmented Dickey-Fuller test and by Zivot and Andrews (1992 to criticize the exogeneity assumption and propose a method for estimating an endogenous breakpoint. A systematic method for dealing with efficiency issues is introduced by Perron and Rodriguez (2003, which extends the Generalized Least Squares detrending approach due to Elliot et al. (1996. An empirical application is provided.

  2. The Relative Abundance of Desert Tortoises on the Nevada Test Site within Ecological Landform Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Roy; Rautenstrauch, Kurt R.; Hall, Derek B.; Ostler, W. Kent

    1998-09-01

    Sign-survey transects were sampled in 1996 to better determine the relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These transects were sampled within ecological land-form units (ELUs), which are small, ecologically homogeneous units of land. Two-hundred and six ELUs were sampled by walking 332 transects totaling 889 kilometers (km) (552 miles [mi]). These ELUs covered 528 km{sup 2} (204 mi{sup 2}). Two-hundred and eighty-one sign were counted. An average of 0.32 sign was found per km walked. Seventy percent of the area sampled had a very low abundance of tortoises, 29 percent had a low abundance, and 1 percent had a moderate abundance. A revised map of the relative abundance of desert tortoise on the NTS is presented. Within the 1,330 km{sup 2} (514 mi{sup 2}) of desert tortoise habitat on the NTS, 49 percent is classified as having no tortoises or a very low abundance, 18 percent has a low or moderate abundance, 12 percent is unclassified land being used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, and the remaining 21 percent still has an unknown abundance of desert tortoises. Based on the results of this work, the amount of tortoise habitat previously classified as having an unknown or low-moderate abundance, and on which clearance surveys and on-site monitoring was required, has been reduced by 20 percent.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-28

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Septic Systems” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank · CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool · CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks · CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  4. Stress mitigation of x-ray beamline monochromators using topography test unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, J.; Waldschmidt, G.; Baldo, P.; Macrander, A.; Koshelev, I.; Huang, R.; Maj, L.; Maj, A.; Univ. of Chicago; Northeastern Ohio Univ. Coll. of Medicine; Rosalind Franklin Univ. of Medicine and Science

    2007-01-01

    Silicon and diamond monochromators (crystals), often used in the Advanced Photon Source X-ray beamlines, require a good quality surface finish and stress-free installation to ensure optimal performance. The device used to mount the crystal has been shown to be ajor contributing source of stress. In this case, an adjustable mounting device is an effective method of reducing stresses and improve the rocking curve to levels much closer to ideal. Analysis by a topography test unit has been used to determine the distribution of stresses and to measure the rocking curve, as well as create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the process of measuring these stresses and manipulating the mounting device and crystal to create a substantially improved monochromator.

  5. Closure Report for Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit 524 Nevada Test Site Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2000-11-01

    This Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 524 summarizes the disposition of four Corrective Action Sites (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The table listed in the report provides a description of each CAS and the status of its associated waste as listed in the ''Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996). Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Form for each CAS are included as Attachment A. Two of the sites required sampling for waste disposal purposes, CAS 25-22-18 and 25-22-20. The material sampled at these two sites were found to be not hazardous. Results of the sampling are included in Attachment B.

  6. Processing techniques for data from the Kuosheng Unit 1 shakedown safety-relief-valve tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Rompel, S.L.; Weaver, H.J.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes techniques developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laobratory, Livermore, CA for processing original data from the Taiwan Power Company's Kuosheng MKIII Unit 1 Safety Relief Valve Shakedown Tests conducted in April/May 1981. The computer codes used, TPSORT, TPPLOT, and TPPSD, form a special evaluation system for treating the data from its original packed binary form to ordered, calibrated ASCII transducer files and then to production of time-history plots, numerical output files, and spectral analyses. Using the data processing techniques described, a convenient means of independently examining and analyzing a unique data base for steam condensation phenomena in the MARKIII wetwell is described. The techniques developed for handling these data are applicable to the treatment of similar, but perhaps differently structured, experiment data sets.

  7. Failure analysis of corrosion cracking and simulated testing for a fluid catalytic cracking unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Chen; Xiaogang Li; Chaofang Dong; Ming Li; Jinwen Yang

    2005-01-01

    The failure of a fluid catalysis and cracking unit (FCCU) in a Chinese refinery was investigated by using nondestructive detection methods, fracture surface examination, hardness measurement, chemical composition and corrosion products analysis. The results showed that the failure was caused by the dew point nitrate stress corrosion cracking. For a long operation period, the wall temperature of the regenerator in the FCCU was below the fume dew point. As a result, an acid fume NOx-SOx-H2O medium presented on the surface, resulting in stress corrosion cracking of the component with high residual stress. In order to confirm the relative conclusion, simulated testing was conducted in laboratory, and the results showed similar cracking characteristics. Finally, some suggestions have been made to prevent the stress corrosion cracking of an FCCU from re-occurring in the future.

  8. Closure Report for Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit 345 Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2000-11-01

    This Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 345 summarizes the disposition of ten Corrective Action Sites (CAS) located in Areas 2 and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The table listed in the report provides a description of each CAS and the status of its associated waste as listed in the ''Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996). Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Form for each CAS are included as Attachment A. The battery at CAS 09-24-04 required sampling for waste disposal purposes. The waste was found to be not hazardous. Results of the sampling are included in Attachment B.

  9. Closure Report for Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit 524 Nevada Test Site Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2000-11-01

    This Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 524 summarizes the disposition of four Corrective Action Sites (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The table listed in the report provides a description of each CAS and the status of its associated waste as listed in the ''Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996). Copies of the Sectored Housekeeping Site Closure Verification Form for each CAS are included as Attachment A. Two of the sites required sampling for waste disposal purposes, CAS 25-22-18 and 25-22-20. The material sampled at these two sites were found to be not hazardous. Results of the sampling are included in Attachment B.

  10. Tests on ticks from wild birds collected in the eastern United States for rickettsiae and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, C.M.; Sonenshine, D.E.; Atwood, E.L.; Robbins, C.S.; Hughes, L.E.

    1969-01-01

    Results of tests for rickettsiae and viruses on 4,266 ticks taken from more than 10,000 birds, comprising 150 species, in the eastern United States indicated the presence of two agents: Rickettsia rickettsii and an agent of the typhus group. Infection with R. rickettsii was indicated in 24 pools of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, five pools of Ixodes dentatus, one pool of Ixodes brunneus, and two pools that contained both I. dentatus and H. leporispalustris. The pools positive for R. rickettsii were from a variety of locations in the eastern U. S. The typhus-group agent was demonstrated only once, in a single pool of H. leporispalustris taken at Kent Point, Maryland. A strain of R. rickettsii was isolated from a pool of 21 larval H. leporispalustris collected at Ocean City, Maryland. This agent possessed several characteristics of other strains of low virulence isolated previously in this region by various authors.

  11. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada - Revision 0 - March 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2005-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit 214, Bunkers and Storage Areas, is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996. Corrective Action Unit 214 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5, 11, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site. The Nevada Test Site is located approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. Corrective Action Unit 214 was previously characterized in 2004, and results were presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for 214. Site characterization indicated that soil and/or debris exceeded clean-up criteria for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, pesticides, metals, and radiological contamination.

  13. The operating performance tests of power unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' in load-frequency control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojčić Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbine-governing system characteristics derived from testing hydropower unit A1 in HPP 'Zvornik' are presented. These tests give insights into the setup state and parameters of the governing system, as well as the qualitative analysis of load-frequency control response of the case study power unit within the power system of Serbia. Verification of relevant turbine-governing parameters was performed by direct application of appropriate standards and policies. The presented results can be used as a basis for the derivation of a turbine governor mathematical model and for a complete mathematical model of a hydropower unit as an element embedded in the power system.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370, T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, located in Area 4 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 370 due to the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 25, 2008, through April 2, 2009, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site and Record of Technical Change No. 1.

  15. Testing of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of <1 to 104 kPa (<0.15 to 15 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was 5.4%. At the technology demonstration unit operating temperature of 525 C the pump operated over a narrower envelope, with flow rates from 0.3 to 2.75 L/s (4.8 to 43.6 gpm), developed pressure heads from <1 to 55 kPa (<0.15 to 8 psi), and a maximum efficiency of 3.5%. The pump was supplied with three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency

  16. Biological treatment of sulfidic spent caustics under haloalkaline conditions using soda lake bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the development of a newbiotechnological process for the treatment of undiluted sulfidic spent caustics (SSC’s) using soda lake bacteria is described. SSC’s are waste solutions that are formed in the oil and gas industry due to the caustic (NaOH) scrubbing of hydrocarbon

  17. Tropical soda apple mosaic virus Identified in Solanum capsicoides in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red soda apple (Solanum capsicoides All.), a member of the Solanaceae, is a weed originally from Brazil. It is a perennial in southern Florida and is characterized by abundant prickles on stems, petioles and leaves. Prickles on stems are more dense than on its larger noxious weed relative, tropica...

  18. Imploding Soda Cans: From Demonstration to Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Jack F.

    2009-01-01

    A guided-inquiry exercise conducted in both the lecture and laboratory components of a college introductory chemistry course for non-science majors is described. The exercise gave students the opportunity to independently determine the relationship between the temperature of water in an aluminum soda can and the intensity of implosion upon placing…

  19. The Soda Can Optimization Problem: Getting Close to the Real Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premadasa, Kirthi; Martin, Paul; Sprecher, Bryce; Yang, Lai; Dodge, Noah-Helen

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing the dimensions of a soda can is a classic problem that is frequently posed to freshman calculus students. However, if we only minimize the surface area subject to a fixed volume, the result is a can with a square edge-on profile, and this differs significantly from actual cans. By considering a more realistic model for the can that…

  20. First Report of Macrophomina phaseolina Causing Leaf and Stem Blight of Tropical Soda Apple in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August 2006 progressive leaf necrosis was observed in tropical soda apple (SOLVI ) plants in Fort Pierce, FL. Leaves of the five month old plants presented progressive necrosis, then dried out and dropped. Necrosis progressed quickly from petioles through the stems and caused entire stems to di...

  1. Biological control of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in Florida: Post-release evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was released as a biological control agent against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) in Sumter County, FL in 2006. Evaluation of beetle feeding damage to TSA plants and changes in the beetle po...

  2. Lewis acid-catalyzed depolymerization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol/water mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin model compounds and soda lignin by super Lewis acidic metal triflates has been investigated in a mixture of ethanol and water at 400 °C. The strong Lewis acids convert representative model compounds for the structure-forming linkages in lignin, namely α-O-4, 5-O-4

  3. Transition metal catalyzed oxidation of Alcell lignin, soda lignin, and lignin model compounds in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Jongerius, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325840202; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a component of lignocellulosic biomass from which important aromatic compounds can potentially be obtained. In the present work, Alcell and soda lignin were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate (EMIM DEP) and subsequently oxidized using several transit

  4. Utilization of arylaliphatic nitriles by haloalkaliphilic Halomonas nitrilicus sp. nov. isolated from soda soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmura, A.; Shapovalova, A.A.; Van Pelt, S.; Van Rantwijk, F.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2008-01-01

    An enrichment culture from saline soda soils, using acetate as carbon and energy source and 2- phenylpropionitrile as nitrogen source (PPN) at pH 10, resulted in the isolation of strain ANL-αCH3. The strain was identified as a representative of the genus Halomonas in the Gammaproteobacteria. The

  5. Transition metal catalyzed oxidation of Alcell lignin, soda lignin, and lignin model compounds in ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326160256; Jongerius, A.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325840202; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a component of lignocellulosic biomass from which important aromatic compounds can potentially be obtained. In the present work, Alcell and soda lignin were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate (EMIM DEP) and subsequently oxidized using several

  6. Diversity of RuBisCO and ATP citrate lyase genes in soda lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovaleva, O.L.; Tourova, T.P.; Muyzer, G.; Kolganova, T.V.; Sorokin, D.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from six soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) and from hypersaline alkaline lakes of Wadi Natrun (Egypt) were analyzed for the presence of cbb and aclB genes encoding key enzymes Ci assimilation (RuBisCO in Calvin-Benson and ATP citrate lyase in rTCA cycles, respectively). The

  7. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional

  8. Spatial distribution of soda straws growth rates of the Coufin Cave (Vercors, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrette Yves

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Choranche Cave system (Vercors, France is an excellent locality for measuring the growth rates of large numbers soda straws. This is especially the case for the Coufin Cave, as enlargement of the cave entrance in 1875 led to a change in stalactite color from brown to white, thus providing a reliable chronomarker. The date of this brown-to-white calcite transition has been confirmed by lamina counting. We measured and georeferenced the growth-lengths of 306 soda straws in a 1m2 area of the roof of the Coufin Cave entrance chamber. Because of the very slow and sometimes inexistent water feeding of those stalactites, hydrochemistry analysis were not achieved and drop rate effect on growth were neglected; this study is based on a geomorphological and geostatistical work. By measuring a large number of soda straws in a very small area for which most of the parameters affecting stalactite growth could be considered uniform, and because flow rates are very slow (frequencies are always superior to 1 drop per half hour, we could ascribe differences in growth rates to variations in the global increase of water flow through the unsaturated matrix. Statistical and geostatistical analyses of the measurements showed that this set of similarly shaped stalactites actually consisted of three Gaussian populations with different mean growth rates: fast growth rate (FGR- mean of 0.92 mm.y-1, medium growth rate (MGR- mean of 0.47 mm.y-1 and low growth rate (LGR- 0.09 mm.y-1. Plotting the lengths and spatial distribution of the 20 longest FGR soda straws revealed that there is a rough pattern to the water flow through the cave roof. Even if no direction is statisticaly different from others, the observed directional pattern is consistent with local and regional tectonic observations. Plots of the spatial distribution of the soda straws show that FGR soda straws follow lines of regional geological stress, whereas MGR and LGR soda straws are more dispersed.

  9. Thermal modeling of step-out targets at the Soda Lake geothermal field, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Ryan Kenneth

    Temperature data at the Soda Lake geothermal field in the southeastern Carson Sink, Nevada, highlight an intense thermal anomaly. The geothermal field produces roughly 11 MWe from two power producing facilities which are rated to 23 MWe. The low output is attributed to the inability to locate and produce sufficient volumes of fluid at adequate temperature. Additionally, the current producing area has experienced declining production temperatures over its 40 year history. Two step-out targets adjacent to the main field have been identified that have the potential to increase production and extend the life of the field. Though shallow temperatures in the two subsidiary areas are significantly less than those found within the main anomaly, measurements in deeper wells (>1,000 m) show that temperatures viable for utilization are present. High-pass filtering of the available complete Bouguer gravity data indicates that geothermal flow is present within the shallow sediments of the two subsidiary areas. Significant faulting is observed in the seismic data in both of the subsidiary areas. These structures are highlighted in the seismic similarity attribute calculated as part of this study. One possible conceptual model for the geothermal system(s) at the step-out targets indicated upflow along these faults from depth. In order to test this hypothesis, three-dimensional computer models were constructed in order to observe the temperatures that would result from geothermal flow along the observed fault planes. Results indicate that the observed faults are viable hosts for the geothermal system(s) in the step-out areas. Subsequently, these faults are proposed as targets for future exploration focus and step-out drilling.

  10. Carbon monoxide production from degradation of desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane by soda lime and Baralyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z X; Eger, E I; Laster, M J; Chortkoff, B S; Kandel, L; Ionescu, P

    1995-06-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that soda lime and Baralyme brand absorbent can degrade inhaled anesthetics to carbon monoxide (CO). We examined the factors that govern CO production and found that these include: 1) The anesthetic used: for a given minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC)-multiple, the magnitude of CO production (greatest to least) is desflurane > or = enflurane > isoflurane > halothane = sevoflurane. 2) The absorbent dryness: completely dry soda lime produces much more CO than absorbent with just 1.4% water content, and soda lime containing 4.8% or more water (standard soda lime contains 15% water) generates no CO. In contrast, both completely dry Baralyme and Baralyme with 1.6% water produce high concentrations of CO, and Baralyme containing 4.7% water produces concentrations equaling those produced by soda lime containing 1.4% water. Baralyme containing 9.7% or more water and standard Baralyme (13% water) do not generate CO.3) The type of absorbent: at a given water content, Baralyme produces more CO than does soda lime. 4) The temperature: an increased temperature increases CO production. 5) The anesthetic concentration: more CO is produced from higher anesthetic concentrations. These results suggest that CO generation can be avoided for all anesthetics by using soda lime with 4.8% (or more) water or Baralyme with 9.7% (or more) water, and by using inflow rates of less than 2-3 L/min. Such inflow rates are low enough to ensure that the absorbent does not dry out.

  11. Non-Linear Advanced Control of the LHC Inner Triplet Heat Exchanger Test Unit

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco-Viñuela, E; De Prada-Moraga, C; Cristea, S

    2002-01-01

    The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will include eight interaction region final focus magnet systems, the so-called "Inner Triplet", one on each side of the four beam collision points. The Inner Triplets will be cooled in a static bath of pressurized He II nominally at 1.9 K. This temperature is a control parameter and has very severe constraints in order to avoid the transition from the superconducting to normal resistive state. The main difference in these special zones with respect to a regular LHC cell is higher dynamic heat load unevenly distributed which modifies largely the process characteristics and hence the controller performance. Several control strategies have already been tested at CERN in a pilot plant (LHC String Test) which reproduced a LHC half-cell. In order to validate a common control structure along the whole LHC ring, a Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC) has been developed and implemented in the Inner Triplet Heat Exchanger Unit (IT-HXTU) at CERN. Automation of the Inn...

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  13. Carbon capture test unit design and development using amine-based solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, Ronald W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Spenik, James L. [REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shadle, Lawrence J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Hoffman, James S. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gray, McMahan L. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Panday, Rupen [REM Engineering Services, Morgantown, WV (United States); Stehle, Richard C. [ORISE, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This study presents the design and development of a reactor system and the subsequent modifications to evaluate an integrated process to scrub carbon dioxide (CO2) from synthetic flue gas using amine based solid sorbents. The paper presents the initial system design and then discusses the various changes implemented to address the change in sorbent from a 180 μm Geldart group B material to a 115 μm Geldart group A material as well as issues discovered during experimental trials where the major obstacle in system operation was the ability to maintain a constant circulation of a solid sorbent stemming from this change in sorbent material. The system primarily consisted of four fluid beds, through which an amine impregnated solid sorbent was circulated and adsorption, pre-heat, regeneration, and cooling processes occurred. Instrumentation was assembled to characterize thermal, hydrodynamic, and gas adsorption performance in this integrated unit. A series of shakedown tests were performed and the configuration altered to meet the needs of the sorbent performance and achieve desired target capture efficiencies. Finally, methods were identified, tested, and applied to continuously monitor critical operating parameters including solids circulation rate, adsorbed and desorbed CO2, solids inventories, and pressures.

  14. Simulation of Watts Bar Unit 1 Initial Startup Tests with Continuous Energy Monte Carlo Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Andrew T [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Bekar, Kursat B [ORNL; Celik, Cihangir [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors* is developing a collection of methods and software products known as VERA, the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications. One component of the testing and validation plan for VERA is comparison of neutronics results to a set of continuous energy Monte Carlo solutions for a range of pressurized water reactor geometries using the SCALE component KENO-VI developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent improvements in data, methods, and parallelism have enabled KENO, previously utilized predominately as a criticality safety code, to demonstrate excellent capability and performance for reactor physics applications. The highly detailed and rigorous KENO solutions provide a reliable nu-meric reference for VERAneutronics and also demonstrate the most accurate predictions achievable by modeling and simulations tools for comparison to operating plant data. This paper demonstrates the performance of KENO-VI for the Watts Bar Unit 1 Cycle 1 zero power physics tests, including reactor criticality, control rod worths, and isothermal temperature coefficients.

  15. Closure plan for Corrective Action Unit 109: U-2bu subsidence crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The U-2bu subsidence crater, Corrective Action Unit 109, will be closed in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection operational permit, and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The U-2bu subsidence crater is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site. It was created in 1971 by an underground nuclear test with the name Miniata. The crater has a diameter of 288 meters (944 feet) and an approximate depth of 35 meters (115 feet). Based on the results of the analyses reported in the site characterization report, the only constituents of concern in the U-2bu subsidence crater include leachable lead and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Closure activities will include the excavation and disposal of impacted soil from the top of the crater. Upon completion of excavation, verification samples will be collected to show that the leachable lead has been removed to concentrations below the regulatory action level. After sample results show that the lead has been removed, the excavated area will be backfilled and a soil flood diversion berm will be constructed as a best management practice. An independent registered professional engineer will certify the site was closed following the approved Closure Plan. Post-closure care is not warranted for this site because closure activities will involve removal of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act constituents of concern.

  16. Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Prothro

    2008-03-01

    The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.

  17. Closure Report Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443 January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Closure Report for the subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nevada, Site. CNTA was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. Responsibility for the site’s environmental restoration was transferred from the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended 2011) and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. This Closure Report provides justification for closure of CAU 443 and provides a summary of completed closure activities; describes the selected corrective action alternative; provides an implementation plan for long-term monitoring with well network maintenance and approaches/policies for institutional controls (ICs); and presents the contaminant, compliance, and use-restriction boundaries for the site.

  18. Hydrogenolysis and Activation of Soda Lignin Using [BMIM]Cl as a Catalyst and Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengming Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reactivity of the soda lignin, an acid ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-mthylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl was used as the catalyst and solvent to degrade the soda lignin through hydrogenolysis. Structural elucidation of the lignin samples was conducted by using a combination of analytical methods including chemical analysis, ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR spectra, two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-HSQC NMR techniques, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The antioxidant activities of the lignin samples were evaluated using the diammonium 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS+ radical scavenging and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging methods. The degradation mechanism was proposed based on the characterization results. The optimal reaction condition was as follows: the concentration of [BMIM]Cl in the solution was 10 wt %, the hydrogen initial pressure was 3 MPa, and the solution was heated for 4 h at 90 °C. After the reaction, the total hydroxyl content of the soda lignin increased by 81.3%, while the phenolic hydroxyl content increased by 23.1%. At the same time, the weight-average molar mass of the soda lignin sample decreased from 8220 to 6450 g/mol with an improved antioxidant activity. In addition, approximately 56.7% of the β-O-4 linkages were degraded in the lreaction. The main effect of the acid ionic liquid [BMIM]C1 was related to the cleavage of β-O-4 linkages. This study has shown the potential of using the catalyzed soda lignin as a natural polymer antioxidant.

  19. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry Y Sorokin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. Oxidative part of the cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. They are present at high number of up to 106 viable cells/cm3 and represented by four genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira and Thioalkalibacter. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. The dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na+ - a unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotrophs. Some of the species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and 3 species out of 9 can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides. The reductive part of the cycle is also active in anoxic sediments of various soda lakes. In situ and laboratory experiments showed high sulfate reduction rates only hampered at salt-saturated conditions. The highest rates of sulfidogenesis were observed with elemental sulfur followed by thiosulfate. Formate was the most efficient electron donor with all three sulfur electron acceptors, while acetate was only utilized as an electron donor at sulfur-reducing conditions. The soda lake sulfidogenesis showed obligately alkaliphilic pH response matching the in situ conditions. Microbiological analysis showed a domination of three groups of haloalkaliphilic autotrophic SRB belonging to the order Desulfovibrionales with a clear tendency to grow by thiosulfate disproportionation even at salt-saturating conditions. Few novel representatives of the order Desulfobacterales capable of heterotrophic growth with VFA and alcohols at high pH and moderate salinity have also been found, while acetate oxidation was a function of a specialized group of haloalkaliphilic sulfur-reducing bacteria belonging to the phylum Chrysiogenetes.

  20. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sánchez-Herrera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sodA gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sodA gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sodA gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp, hsp65 (401 bp, secA1 (494 bp, gyrB (1195 bp and rpoB (401 bp. The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sodA genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sodA gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  1. Simulation Analysis as a Way to Assess the Performance of Important Unit Root and Change in Persistence Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Raúl O.; Vera-Valdés, J. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter shows a way to, using simulation analysis, assess the performance of some of the most popular unit root and change in persistence tests. The authors do this by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The findings suggest that these tests show a lower than expected performance when dealing ...

  2. Construction and psychometric testing of the EMPATHIC questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latour, Jos M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; van Dam, Nicolette A. M.; Dullaart, Eugenie; van Heerde, Marc; de Neef, Marjorie; Verlaat, Carin W. M.; van Vught, Elise M.; Hazelzet, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Structured development and psychometric testing of a parent satisfaction-with-care instrument wit

  3. Simulation Analysis as a Way to Assess the Performance of Important Unit Root and Change in Persistence Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Raúl O.; Vera-Valdés, J. Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter shows a way to, using simulation analysis, assess the performance of some of the most popular unit root and change in persistence tests. The authors do this by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The findings suggest that these tests show a lower than expected performance when dealing ...

  4. Construction and psychometric testing of the EMPATHIC questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Latour (Jos); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); M.J.I.J. Albers (Marcel); N.A.M. van Dam (Nicolette); E. Dullaart (Eugenie); M. van Heerde (Marc); M. de Neef (Marjorie); C.W.M. Verlaat (Carin); E.M. van Vught (Elise); J.A. Hazelzet (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract PURPOSE: To construct and test the reliability and validity of the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care (EMPATHIC) questionnaire measuring parent satisfaction in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: Structured development and psychometric testing of a paren

  5. Grout long radius flow testing to support Saltstone disposal Unit 5 design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.; Serrato, M. G.; Brooks, T. E. II; Huff, T. H.

    2013-02-24

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as “Saltstone”. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a “mega vault” and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (saltstone premix plus water

  6. Grout Long Radius Flow Testing to Support Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 Design - 13352

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.B.; Langton, C.A.; Serrato, M.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brooks, T.E. II; Huff, T.H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as 'Saltstone'. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a 'mega vault' and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; Saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (Saltstone premix

  7. Establishing a quality management system for unit-use testing based on NCCLS proposed guideline (EP18-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, R J; Santrach, P J; Phillips, D L

    2001-05-01

    Point of care tests often employ unit-use test devices. By their very nature (single use, disposable, self-contained) such devices present unique challenges for quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC). The proposed NCCLS guideline (EP18-P) recommends a quality management system for unit-use testing. The document addresses regulatory considerations, proposes the development of a partnership between users and manufacturers, provides a source of error matrix, and suggests practical approaches to quality monitoring, identification and management of these potential problems. The key to the success of this guideline is cooperation and open exchange of information among manufacturers, users, regulators, and accrediting agencies.

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  9. Comparative study of lignin characteristics from wheat straw obtained by soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment and effect on the following enzymatic hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haitao; Xie, Yimin; Zheng, Xing; Pu, Yunqiao; Huang, Fang; Meng, Xianzhi; Wu, Weibing; Ragauskas, Arthur; Yao, Lan

    2016-05-01

    To understand the structural changes of lignin after soda-AQ and kraft pretreatment, milled straw lignin, black liquor lignin and residual lignin extracted from wheat straw were characterized by FT-IR, UV, GPC and NMR. The results showed that the main lignin linkages were β-aryl ether substructures (β-O-4'), followed by phenylcoumaran (β-5') and resinol (β-β') substructures, while minor content of spirodienone (β-1'), dibenzodioxocin (5-5') and α,β-diaryl ether linkages were detected as well. After pretreatment, most lignin inter-units and lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) linkages were degraded and dissolved in black liquor, with minor amount left in residual pretreated biomass. In addition, through quantitative (13)C and 2D-HSQC NMR spectral analysis, lignin and LCC were found to be more degraded after kraft pretreatment than soda-AQ pretreatment. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis results showed that more cellulose in wheat straw was converted to glucose after kraft pretreatment, indicating that LCC linkages were important in the enzymatic hydrolysis process.

  10. Fractional Unit Root Tests Allowing for a Structural Change in Trend under Both the Null and Alternative Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Yeon Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers testing procedures for the null hypothesis of a unit root process against the alternative of a fractional process, called a fractional unit root test. We extend the Lagrange Multiplier (LM tests of Robinson (1994 and Tanaka (1999, which are locally best invariant and uniformly most powerful, to allow for a slope change in trend with or without a concurrent level shift under both the null and alternative hypotheses. We show that the limit distribution of the proposed LM tests is standard normal. Finite sample simulation experiments show that the tests have good size and power. As an empirical analysis, we apply the tests to the Consumer Price Indices of the G7 countries.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  12. Sensitivity of surveillance testing for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Jessica P; Peterson, Lance R; Thomson, Richard B; Miller, Becky A; Wright, Marc-Oliver; Schora, Donna M; Robicsek, Ari

    2014-11-01

    We tested intensive care unit patients for colonization with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) and compared the results with those of concurrent clinical cultures. The sensitivity of the surveillance test for detecting MDR GNB was 58.8% (95% confidence interval, 48.6 to 68.5%). Among 133 patients with positive surveillance tests, 61% had no prior clinical culture with MDR GNB.

  13. The microbial sulfur cycle at extremely haloalkaline conditions of soda lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Soda lakes represent a unique ecosystem with extremely high pH (up to 11) and salinity (up to saturation) due to the presence of high concentrations of sodium carbonate in brines. Despite these double extreme conditions, most of the lakes are highly productive and contain a fully functional microbial system. The microbial sulfur cycle is among the most active in soda lakes. One of the explanations for that is high-energy efficiency of dissimilatory conversions of inorganic sulfur compounds, both oxidative and reductive, sufficient to cope with costly life at double extreme conditions. The oxidative part of the sulfur cycle is driven by chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which are unique for soda lakes. The haloalkaliphilic SOB are present in the surface sediment layer of various soda lakes at high numbers of up to 10(6) viable cells/cm(3). The culturable forms are so far represented by four novel genera within the Gammaproteobacteria, including the genera Thioalkalivibrio, Thioalkalimicrobium, Thioalkalispira, and Thioalkalibacter. The latter two were only found occasionally and each includes a single species, while the former two are widely distributed in various soda lakes over the world. The genus Thioalkalivibrio is the most physiologically diverse and covers the whole spectrum of salt/pH conditions present in soda lakes. Most importantly, the dominant subgroup of this genus is able to grow in saturated soda brines containing 4 M total Na(+) - a so far unique property for any known aerobic chemolithoautotroph. Furthermore, some species can use thiocyanate as a sole energy source and three out of nine species can grow anaerobically with nitrogen oxides as electron acceptor. The reductive part of the sulfur cycle is active in the anoxic layers of the sediments of soda lakes. The in situ measurements of sulfate reduction rates and laboratory experiments with sediment slurries using sulfate, thiosulfate, or elemental sulfur as

  14. Abnormal test growth in benthic foraminifera from hypersaline coastal ponds of the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2014-05-01

    The living (Rose-Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera assemblage from shallow coastal ponds located in the intertidal area of the United Arab Emirate Western Region was investigated. The studied coastal ponds are located between a lagoonal area, characterized by carbonate sedimentation, and the supratidal, evaporite-dominated, sabkha. Sampling was undertaken when the maximum water depth in the ponds was 50 cm with a water temperature ranging from 27 to 35°C, a pH of 8 and a maximum salinity of 60 ppt. The sides and floor of the pond were characterized by a microbial mat. Detached blades of sea grass were present in the ponds and are inferred to have been transported into the pond either during high-tides or storm surges. Collected samples were stained with Rose-Bengal at the moment of sample collection and the living assemblage was studied. The benthic foraminifera that were present show a low-diversity assemblage. Epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera dominate the living assemblage with Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus characterizing 90% of the living assemblage and the species Spirolina areatina, S. aciculata, Sorites marginalis and Quinqueloculina spp. comprising the rest of the foraminifera community. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of anomalous tests of benthic foraminifera belonging to the genera Peneroplis, Spirolina and Sorites were observed. The anomalies included dissolution, microboring and abnormality in growth. Three different forms of abnormal shell architecture were recorded; the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress caused by instability of physical parameters (particularly high and variable salinity and temperature) in this kind of transitional marine environment. The unique presence of epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the

  15. 试述小苏打系统加液碱生产工艺%Discussion on Manufacturing Technique of Adding Liquid Caustic Soda in Baking Soda System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林戌梅

    2016-01-01

    将离子膜液碱加入小苏打生产系统进行探索试验,通过不断优化生产条件,对离子膜液碱加入小苏打系统技术进行研究,得出其生产工艺的可行性。%It has been experimented that adds ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in the production system of baking soda. With the increasing improvement of production conditions, the technique of adding ionic membrane liquid caustic soda in baking soda system has been researched. Finally, the feasibility of this technique can be obtained.

  16. Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-27

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-08-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities conducted for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites. CAU 346 is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8 and 10 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): (1) CAS 08-22-04: Drums (2); (2) CAS 08-22-11: Drums; Bucket; (3) CAS 08-24-02: Battery; (4) CAS 10-14-01: Transformer; (5) CAS 10-22-06: Drum (Gas Block); (6) CAS 10-22-10: Drum (Gas Block); (7) CAS 10-22-12: Drum (Gas Block); (8) CAS 10-22-13: Drum (Gas Block); (9) CAS 10-22-16: Drum (Gas Block); (10) CAS 10-22-22: Drum; (11) CAS 10-22-25: Drum; (12) CAS 10-22-36: Paint Can; (13) CAS 10-22-37: Gas Block; and (14) CAS 10-24-11: Battery. Closure activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or material, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each site was clean-closed by visual inspection and/or laboratory analysis of soil verification samples.

  18. Design and Testing of a Breadboard Electrical Power Control Unit for the Fluid Combustion Facility Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Lebron, Ramon C.

    1999-01-01

    The Fluid Combustion Facility (FCF) Project and the Power Technology Division at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at Lewis Field in Cleveland, OH along with the Sundstrand Corporation in Rockford, IL are jointly developing an Electrical Power Converter Unit (EPCU) for the Fluid Combustion Facility to be flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The FCF facility experiment contains three racks: A core rack, a combustion rack, and a fluids rack. The EPCU will be used as the power interface to the ISS 120V(sub dc) power distribution system by each FCF experiment rack which requires 28V(sub dc). The EPCU is a modular design which contains three 120V(sub dc)-to-28V(sub dc) full-bridge, power converters rated at 1 kW(sub e) each bus transferring input relays and solid-state, current-limiting input switches, 48 current-limiting, solid-state, output switches; and control and telemetry hardware. The EPCU has all controls required to autonomously share load demand between the power feeds and--if absolutely necessary--shed loads. The EPCU, which maximizes the usage of allocated ISS power and minimizes loss of power to loads, can be paralleled with other EPCUs. This paper overviews the electrical design and operating characteristics of the EPCU and presents test data from the breadboard design.

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  20. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  1. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  2. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from December 2009 through December 2010. It also represents the second year of the enhanced monitoring network and the 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  3. Prevalence of major risk factors and use of screening tests for cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-04-01

    Much of the suffering and death from cancer could be prevented by more systematic efforts to reduce tobacco use, improve diet, increase physical activity, reduce obesity, and expand the use of established screening tests. Monitoring the prevalence of cancer risk factors and screening is important to measure progress and strengthen cancer prevention and early detection efforts. In this review article, we provide recent prevalence estimates for several cancer risk factors, including tobacco, obesity, physical activity, nutrition, ultraviolet radiation exposure as well as human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccination coverage and cancer screening prevalence in the United States. In 2013, cigarette smoking prevalence was 17.8% among adults nationally, but ranged from 10.3% in Utah to 27.3% in West Virginia. In addition, 15.7% of U.S. high school students were current smokers. In 2011-2012, obesity prevalence was high among both adults (34.9%) and adolescents (20.5%), but has leveled off since 2002. About 20.2% of high school girls were users of indoor tanning devices, compared with 5.3% of boys. In 2013, cancer screening prevalence ranged from 58.6% for colorectal cancer to 80.8% for cervical cancer and remains low among the uninsured, particularly for colorectal cancer screening where only 21.9% of eligible adults received recommended colorectal cancer screening. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Large-Scale Pumping Test Recommendations for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.

    2010-09-08

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently assessing aquifer characterization needs to optimize pump-and-treat remedial strategies (e.g., extraction well pumping rates, pumping schedule/design) in the 200-ZP-1 operable unit (OU), and in particular for the immediate area of the 241 TX-TY Tank Farm. Specifically, CHPRC is focusing on hydrologic characterization opportunities that may be available for newly constructed and planned ZP-1 extraction wells. These new extraction wells will be used to further refine the 3-dimensional subsurface contaminant distribution within this area and will be used in concert with other existing pump-and-treat wells to remediate the existing carbon tetrachloride contaminant plume. Currently, 14 extraction wells are actively used in the Interim Record of Decision ZP-1 pump-and-treat system for the purpose of remediating the existing carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater within this general area. As many as 20 new extraction wells and 17 injection wells may be installed to support final pump-and-treat operations within the OU area. It should be noted that although the report specifically refers to the 200-ZP-1 OU, the large-scale test recommendations are also applicable to the adjacent 200-UP-1 OU area. This is because of the similar hydrogeologic conditions exhibited within these two adjoining OU locations.

  5. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Areas 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-08-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110 in accordance with the reissued (November 2000) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B operational permit NEV HW009 (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP], 2000) and the Federal Facility and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP et al., 1996). CAU 110 consists of one Corrective Action Site 03-23-04, described as the U-3ax/bl Subsidence Crater. Certifications of closure are located in Appendix A. The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 RWMS located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit was closed under the RCRA, as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet [ft{sup 3}]) of waste. NTS atmospheric nuclear device testing generated approximately 95% of the total waste volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl; 80% of the total volume was generated from the Waste Consolidation Project. Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is normally in a state of moisture deficit.

  6. DbUnit在数据库测试中的应用%Application of DbUnit in Database Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡银保

    2012-01-01

    在实现测试驱动开发过程中,DbUnit工具是专门针对数据库测试的单元测试框架,它是对JUnit的一个扩展.DbUnit测试允许程序员在整个测试过程中自由地管理和控制数据库,将其置于一个可知的状态.在明确测试机制、搭建好测试环境的基础之上,围绕数据库备份、植入测试数据集进行单元测试、使数据库恢复到测试前状态等问题进行分析和探讨,以期建立一个良好的测试流程.%In the process of realizing Test-Driven development,DbUnit tool is a kind of unit test framework especially for database testing which is an extension of JUnit.In the process of DbUnit testing,programmer can manage and control database freely,place it in a knowable state.The problems such as database backup,implanting data to test,database recovery are analyzed on the base of clearifying the test mechanism and building the test environment,so as to build a good test process.

  7. Rotor scale model tests for power conversion unit of GT-MHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxi, C.B., E-mail: baxicb1130@hotmail.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Telengator, A.; Razvi, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) combines a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) nuclear heat source with a closed Brayton gas-turbine cycle power conversion unit (PCU) for thermal to electric energy conversion. The PCU has a vertical orientation and is supported on electromagnetic bearings (EMB). The rotor scale model (RSM) tests are intended to directly model the control of EMB and rotor dynamic characteristics of the full-scale GT-MHR turbo-machine (TM). The objectives of the RSM tests are to: Bullet Confirm the EMB control system design for the GT-MHR turbo machine over the full-range of operation. Bullet Confirm the redundancy and on-line maintainability features that have been specified for the EMBs. Bullet Provide a benchmark for validation of analytical tools that will be used for independent analyses of the EMB subsystem design. Bullet Provide experience with the installation, operation and maintenance of EMBs supporting multiple rotors with flexible couplings. As with the full-scale TM, the RSM incorporates two rotors that are joined by a flexible coupling. Each of the rotors is supported on one axial and two radial EMBs. Additional devices, similar in concept to radial EMBs, are installed to simulate magnetic and/or mechanical forces representing those that would be seen by the exciter, generator, compressors and turbine. Overall, the lengths of the RSM rotor is about 1/3rd that of the full-scale TM, while the diameters are approximately 1/5th scale. The design and sizing of the rotor is such that the number and values of critical speeds in the RSM are the same as in the full-scale TM. The EMBs are designed such that their response to rotor dynamic forces is representative of the full-scale TM. The fabrication and assembly of the RSM was completed at the end of 2008. All start up adjustments were finished in December 2009. To-date the generator rotor has been supported in the EMBs and rotated up to 1800 rpm. Final tests are

  8. Investigation of migratory bird mortality associated with exposure to Soda Ash Mine tailings water in southwestern Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Soda ash is a pulverized mineral, commonly referred to as “trona”, and harvested from underground deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Four companies own 5 mining...

  9. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT) module tests.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, United Kingdom visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests with Dr Joleen Pater, SCT (Manchester). Photo 02: PPARC Council Members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests. L.t to r.: Mrs Judith Scott, Chief Executive, British Computer Society, Prof. George Efstathiou, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, Prof. Martin Ward, Director X-Ray Astronomy, of Leicester, Prof. James Stirling, Director, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham and Prof. Brian Foster, University of Bristol.

  10. An Analysis of the Nonlinear Spectral Mixing of Didymium and Soda-Lime Glass Beads Using Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI) Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    lime glass beads using hyperspectral imagery (HSI) microscopy Ronald G. Resmini1*, Robert S. Rand2, David W. Allen3, and Christopher J. Deloye1...materials are spherical beads of didymium glass and soda- lime glass both ranging in particle size from 63 µm to 125 µm. Mixtures are generated by...plate: 0%/100%, 25%/75%, 50%/50%, 80%/20%, and 100%/0% didymium/soda- lime . Analysis methods are linear spectral unmixing (LSU), LSU applied to

  11. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarita Zainuddin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet neural networks (WNNs were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%, ethanol concentration (15-75%, cooking temperature (150-190 ºC, and time (60-180 min on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index. Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependent variables with error less than 6% were reproduced, while satisfactory R-squared values were obtained. It thus corroborated the good fit of the WNNs model for simulating the soda-ethanol pulping process for oil palm fronds.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Gustafason

    2001-03-01

    The Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CAU consists of thee Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01 - Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02 - Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03 - Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). Characterization activities indicated that only CAS 25-07-02 (F and J Roads Pad) contained constituents of concern (COCs) above action levels and required remediation. The COCs detected were Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel, cesium-137, and strontium-90. The F and J Roads Pad may have been used for the decontamination of vehicles and possibly disassembled engine and reactor parts from Test Cell C. Activities occurred there during the 1960s through early 1970s. The F and J Roads Pad consisted of a 9- by 5-meter (m) (30- by 15-foot [ft]) concrete pad and a 14- by 13-m (46-by 43-ft) gravel sump. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Closure activities began on August 21, 2000, and ended on September 19, 2000. Waste disposal activities were completed on December 12, 2000. A total of 172 cubic meters (223 cubic yards) of impacted soil was excavated and disposed. The concrete pad was also removed and disposed. Verification samples were collected from the bottom and sidewalls of the excavation and analyzed for TPH diesel and 20-minute gamma spectroscopy. The sample results indicated that all impacted soil above remediation standards was removed. The closure was completed following the approved Corrective Action Plan. All impacted waste was disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill. All non-impacted debris was disposed in the Area 9 Construction Landfill and the Area 23 Sanitary Landfill.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  17. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  19. Laser Micro-Hole Drilling of Soda-Lime Glass with Femtosecond Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Ran; LI Yan; DOU Yan-Ping; FANG Ying; YANG Hong; GONG Qi-Huang

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses, we have drilled micro-holes from the front and rear surface of soda-lime glass in ambient air. The machined holes have small aspect ratio or irregular inner walls. When the drilling is conducted from the rear surface in contact with distilled water, a good quality micro-hole with a high aspect ratio can be obtained. The corresponding formation mechanisms are investigated.

  20. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibille, Nadine

    2011-04-19

    The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey) that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  1. Late Byzantine mineral soda high alumina glasses from Asia Minor: a new primary glass production group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schibille

    Full Text Available The chemical characterisation of archaeological glass allows the discrimination between different glass groups and the identification of raw materials and technological traditions of their production. Several lines of evidence point towards the large-scale production of first millennium CE glass in a limited number of glass making factories from a mixture of Egyptian mineral soda and a locally available silica source. Fundamental changes in the manufacturing processes occurred from the eight/ninth century CE onwards, when Egyptian mineral soda was gradually replaced by soda-rich plant ash in Egypt as well as the Islamic Middle East. In order to elucidate the supply and consumption of glass during this transitional period, 31 glass samples from the assemblage found at Pergamon (Turkey that date to the fourth to fourteenth centuries CE were analysed by electron microprobe analysis (EPMA and by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS. The statistical evaluation of the data revealed that the Byzantine glasses from Pergamon represent at least three different glass production technologies, one of which had not previously been recognised in the glass making traditions of the Mediterranean. While the chemical characteristics of the late antique and early medieval fragments confirm the current model of glass production and distribution at the time, the elemental make-up of the majority of the eighth- to fourteenth-century glasses from Pergamon indicate the existence of a late Byzantine glass type that is characterised by high alumina levels. Judging from the trace element patterns and elevated boron and lithium concentrations, these glasses were produced with a mineral soda different to the Egyptian natron from the Wadi Natrun, suggesting a possible regional Byzantine primary glass production in Asia Minor.

  2. NEWSPRINT FROM SODA BAGASSE PULP IN ADMIXTURE WITH HARDWOOD CMP PULP

    OpenAIRE

    Seed Rahman Jafari Petroudy; Hossein Resalati Mail; pejman Rezayati Charani Mail

    2011-01-01

    Based on global research and experiences producing newsprint from bagasse, the possibility of using bagasse chemical pulp in the furnish of local mill-made mixed hardwood CMP pulp was studied at laboratory scale, for making newsprint. Bagasse soda chemical pulp at digester yield of about 47% was bleached to about 60% brightness by single stage hydrogen peroxide. The effects of using up to 30% bagasse chemical pulp in a blend with hardwood CMP pulp, with or without softwood kraft pulp, were st...

  3. Development of Electrode Units for Electrokinetic Desalination of Masonry and Pilot Scale Test at Three locations for Removal of Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Skibsted, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Electrode units for electrokinetic desalination of masonry has been developed and tested in pilot scale at three different locations. The units are formed as casings with a metallic mesh electrode, and carbonate rich clay to buffer the acid produced at the anode. The case has an extra loose bottom...... which allows continuous pressure between clay and masonry so good electrical contact is remained. The electrode units were tested at three different locations, two on baked brick masonry (inside in a heated room and outside on a masonry with severe plaster peeling) and the third pilot scale experiment...... was conducted outside on a limestone masonry. The duration of the experiments was 4-8 month. Chloride concentrations were measured in drilling powder from the masonry before and after experiments. In all three masonries, the average concentrations decreased. The transport numbers for chloride was between 0...

  4. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prothro, Lance [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Drellack, Sigmund [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Townsend, Margaret [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  5. Closure Plan for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Closure Plan has been prepared for the Area 3 RWMS U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit Corrective Action Unit 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). The U-3ax/bl is a historic disposal unit within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The unit, which was formed by excavating the area between two subsidence craters (U-3ax and U-3bl), was operationally closed in 1987. The U-3ax/bl disposal unit is scheduled for permanent closure under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act as a hazardous waste landfill. Existing records indicate that, from July 1968 to December 1987, U-3ax/bl received 2.3 x 10{sup 5} cubic meters (8.12 x 10{sup 6} cubic feet) of waste. NTS nuclear device testing generated approximately 95 percent of the total volume disposed of in U-3ax/bl, the majority of which came from the Waste Consolidation Project (80 percent of the total volume) (Elletson and Johnejack, 1995). Area 3 is located in Yucca Flat, within the northeast quadrant of the NTS. The Yucca Flat watershed is a structurally closed basin encompassing an area of approximately 780 square kilometers (300 square miles). The structural geomorphology of Yucca Flat is typical of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. Yucca Flat lies in one of the most arid regions of the country. Water balance calculations for Area 3 indicate that it is continuously in a state of moisture deficit. The U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit will be closed in place by installing a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act equivalent cover. Following cover construction a fence will be installed around the cover to prevent accidental damage to the cover. Post-closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover and cover performance monitoring using Time-Domain Reflectometry arrays to monitor moisture migration in the cover. Any identified maintenance and

  6. Factors affecting production of compound A from the interaction of sevoflurane with Baralyme and soda lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z X; Kandel, L; Laster, M J; Ionescu, P; Eger, E I

    1996-04-01

    Various alkali (e.g., soda lime) convert sevoflurane to CF2=C(CF3)OCH2F, a vinyl ether called "Compound A, " whose toxicity raises concerns regarding the safe administration of sevoflurane via rebreathing circuits. In the present investigation, we measured the sevoflurane degradation and output of Compound A caused by standard (13% water) Baralyme brand absorbent and standard (15% water) soda lime, and Baralyme and soda lime having various water contents (including no water). We used a flow-through system, applying a gas flow rate relative to absorbent volume that roughly equaled the rate/volume found in clinical practice. Both absorbents, at similar water contents, temperatures, and sevoflurane concentrations, produced roughly equal concentrations of Compound A. Dry and nearly dry absorbents produced less Compound A early in exposure to sevoflurane, and more later, than standard absorbents. Increases in temperature and sevoflurane concentration increased output of Compound A. Both absorbents, especially when dry, also destroyed Compound A, the concentration exiting from absorbent resulting from a complex sum of production and destruction. We conclude that the variability of concentrations of Compound A found in clinical practice may be largely explained by the inflow rate used (i.e., by rebreathing), sevoflurane concentration, and absorbent temperature and dryness. The effect of dryness is complex, with fresh dry absorbent destroying Compound A as it is made, and with dry absorbent that has been exposed to sevoflurane for a period of time providing a sometimes unusually high output of Compound A.

  7. Extraordinary focusing of sound above a soda can array without time reversal

    CERN Document Server

    Maznev, A A; Sun, Shu-yuan; Xu, Jun; Shen, Yong; Fang, Nicholas; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Lemoult et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 064301 (2011)] used time reversal to focus sound above an array of soda cans into a spot much smaller than the acoustic wavelength in air. In this study, we show that equally sharp focusing can be achieved without time reversal, by arranging transducers around a nearly circular array of soda cans. The size of the focal spot at the center of the array is made progressively smaller as the frequency approaches the Helmholtz resonance frequency of a can from below, and, near the resonance, becomes smaller than the size of a single can. We show that the locally resonant metamaterial formed by soda cans supports a guided wave at frequencies below the Helmholtz resonance frequency. The small focal spot results from a small wavelength of this guided wave near the resonance in combination with a near field effect making the acoustic field concentrate at the opening of a can. The focusing is achieved with propagating rather than evanescent waves. No sub-diffraction-limite...

  8. MODELING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF SODA PULP FROM OIL-PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ferrer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the variables soda (0.5-3.0%, hydrogen peroxide (1.0-6.0% and time (1-5 h in the bleaching of soda pulp of empty fruit bunches (EFB from oil-palm, on the properties of bleached pulps, was studied. Polynomial and neural fuzzy models reproduced the results of brightness, kappa number, and viscosity of the pulps with errors less than 10%. By the simulation of the bleaching of pulp, using the polynomial and neural fuzzy models, it was possible to find optimal values of operating variables, so that the properties of bleached pulps differed only slightly from their best values and yet it was possible to save chemical reagents, energy, and plant size, operating with lower values of operating variables. Thus, operating with 1.13% soda concentration and 2.25% hydrogen peroxide concentration for 3 hours, a pulp with a brightness of 75.1% (8.1% below the maximum and a viscosity of 740 mL/g (10.4% less than the maximum value, was obtained.

  9. Responses of phytoplankton to experimental fertilization with ammonium and phosphate in an African soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melack, John M; Kilham, Peter; Fisher, Thomas R

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton abundance in tropical lakes is more often judged to be limited by nitrogen than phosphorus, but seldom does the evidence include controlled enrichments of natural populations. In January 1980 we performed the first experimental fertilization in an equatorial African soda lake, Lake Sonachi, a small, meromictic volcanic crater lake in Kenya. During our study the natural phytoplankton abundance was ca. 80 μg chl a/l, and the euphotic zone PO4 and NH4 concentrations were less than 0.5 μM. In the monimolimnion PO4 reached 180 μM and NH4 reached 4,600 μM. Replicate polyethylene cylinders (5 m long, 1.2 m(3)) were enriched to attain 10 μM PO4 and 100 μM NH4. Phytoplankton responses were measured as chlorophyll, cell counts and particulate N, P and C. After two days, the chlorophyll increase in the P treatment was significantly higher than the control (PLake Sonachi sample was 21 and in samples from Lakes Bogoria and Elmenteita, two shallow soda lakes in Kenya, the ratios were 12 and 70 respectively. We conclude that limitation of phytoplankton abundance by phosphorus can occur even in some tropical African soda lakes.

  10. Kinetics of dissolution of a biocide soda-lime glass powder containing silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L., E-mail: lesteban@icmm.csic.es [Materials Science Institute of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Department of Biomaterials and Bioinspired Materials (Spain); Silva, A. C. da; Mello-Castanho, S. R. [Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) (Brazil); Pacharroman, C.; Moya, J. S. [Materials Science Institute of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Department of Biomaterials and Bioinspired Materials (Spain)

    2013-02-15

    In the present study we have studied the lixiviation kinetics of silver nanoparticles, as well as the solubility of a particulate system (<30 {mu}m) composed of a glassy matrix of soda-lime glass containing 20 wt% of silver nanoparticles, under a constant flow (0.21 l/day) of deionizated water at room temperature. The kinetic of silver, CaO and SiO{sub 2} lixiviation followed a Jander model ({alpha}{sup 2}/4 Almost-Equal-To Kt). It has been proven that nanostructured soda-lime glass/nAg composed by particles <30 {mu}m with a 20 wt% of silver are a strong biocide versus Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. This soda-lime glass/nAg acts as a perfect dispenser of silver nanoparticles to the liquid media, avoiding the fast increasing of its concentration over the toxicity limit for human cells and for the environment.

  11. Wear Behaviour of Nanostructured Polymer-Based Safety Films on Soda-Lime Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Panagopoulos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour of bare and polymer-coated soda-lime glass specimens sliding against 440C stainless steel counterfaces was investigated with the aid of a pin-on-disk apparatus. The selected polymeric coatings were commercially supplied safety films, which are nowadays extensively applied on glass in the automotive and construction industry. One of their main failures is the degradation of their properties due to wear. In this work, the frictional behaviour of these coatings on glass were evaluated and compared to those of bare soda-lime glass. Correlations have been also made between the worn surfaces and weight loss in order to investigate the effect of wear conditions (speed, load on the wear behaviour of these tribosystems. In addition, during the dry wear of soda-lime glass sliding against stainless steel counterfaces, the dominant wear mechanisms were found to be localized adhesion and abrasion, whereas, in the case of the multilayered polymeric coatings localized adhesion, deformation and tearing were observed.

  12. Preliminary observation on the effect of baking soda volume on controlling odour from discarded organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamaruz-Zaman, N., E-mail: cenastaein@usm.my; Kun, Y.; Rosli, R.-N.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Approximately 50 g baking soda reduced odour concentration by 70%. • Reducing volatile acid concentration reduces odour concentration. • Ammonia has less effect on odour concentration. - Abstract: Food wastes with high moisture and organic matter content are likely to emit odours as a result of the decomposition process. The management of odour from decomposing wastes is needed to sustain the interest of residents and local councils in the source separation of kitchen wastes. This study investigated the potential of baking soda (at 50 g, 75 g and 100 g per kg food waste) to control odour from seven days stored food waste. It was found that 50 g of baking soda, spread at the bottom of 8 l food wastes bin, can reduce the odour by about 70%. A higher amount (above 100 g) is not advised as a pH higher than 9.0 may be induced leading to the volatilization of odorous ammonia. This research finding is expected to benefit the waste management sector, food processing industries as well as the local authorities where malodour from waste storage is a pressing issue.

  13. Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX): a novel neurophysiological marker for neuromuscular disorders; test-retest reliability in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuwirth, C.; Nandedkar, S.; Stalberg, E.; Barkhaus, P.E.; Carvalho, M.; Furtula, J.; Dijk, J.P. van; Baldinger, R.; Castro, J.; Costa, J.; Otto, M.; Sandberg, A.; Weber, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intra-rater and inter-rater test-retest reliability of the Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) in healthy subjects in a multicentre setting. METHODS: Six study centres applied the MUNIX technique in 66 healthy subjects. Five to six muscles (biceps brachii, BB; abductor digi

  14. Extraction of Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Alkaline Leaching Followed by Fusion of the Leaching Residue with Caustic Soda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵由才; R.Stanforth

    2004-01-01

    Extractability of zinc from two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing 24.8% and 16.8% of zinc respectively (denoted as Sample A and Sample B) were tested using direct alkaline leaching followed by fusion of the resulting leaching residues with caustic soda. The experimental results show that the extraction of zinc is heavily dependent on the contents of iron in the dusts. The higher iron content, the lower extraction of zinc is obtained. 53% and 38% of zinc can be extracted when both dusts were directly contacted with 5mol·L-1 NaOH solution for 42h. The remaining zinc left in the leaching residues, which supposed to be present as zinc ferrites, can be further leached when the residues were fused with caustic soda. Quantitative extraction of zinc can be obtained from the leaching residue of Sample A while only 85% from Sample B. The extractability of zinc from dusts wit hvarious contents of iron is compared. The production flowsheet for zinc from the dusts using the process proposed is discussed.

  15. Design, Test, and Comparative Analysis of Programmable Interface Unit Circuit Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Operational and Thermal Test Plan .... ............ . 3-2 3.3.1 Pretest Requirements and Setup ... .......... . 3-4 3.3.2 Electrical Measurements...4-9 4.3.6 Test Summary ....... ................... .. 4-14 4.4 Thermal Test Results ....... .................. 4-14 CHAPTER FIVE...temperatures to junction temperatures. 3.3 OPERATIONAL AND THERMAL TEST PLAN A test plan was established to organize the overall testing of the three PIU

  16. Estimating and verifying soil unit weight determined on the basis of SCPTu tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagińska Irena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The unit weight, as a basic physical feature of soil, is an elementary quantity, and knowledge of this parameter is necessary in each geotechnical and geo-engineering task. Estimation of this quantity can be made with both laboratory and field techniques. The paper comprises a multi-scale evaluation of unit weight of cohesive soil, based on several measurements made in nearby locations using the SCPTu static probe. The procedures used were based on the two classifications and two solutions from literature. The results were referenced to the actual values of unit weight determined with a direct procedure from undisturbed samples. The resulting solutions were the basis for proposing a new formula to determine the soil unit weight from SCPTu measurements, as well as comparative analysis using exemplary values taken from the national Polish standard.

  17. Test of the Constancy - Velocity Hypothesis: Navy Unit Functioning and Performance over 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-31

    It was found in Bowers & Krauz (1983) and Bowers, Krauz & Denison (�) that Project Upgrade rates for fleet units (the rate of occurrence of...studies documented in Bowers, Krauz & Denison (1983), it was apparent that the typical Upgrade case was a person who, starting out on an even keel in...Project Upgrade rates in Navy units. Technical Report to the Office of Naval Research, May, 1983. Bowers, D.G., and Krauz , L.S. Organizational

  18. Beyond baking soda: Demonstrating the link between volcanic eruptions and viscosity to all ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithka, I. N.; Walters, R. L.; Harpp, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Public interest in volcanic eruptions and societal relevance of volcanic hazards provide an excellent basis for successful earth science outreach. During a museum-based earth science outreach event free and open to the public, we used two new interactive experiments to illustrate the relationship between gas content, magma viscosity, and eruption style. Learning objectives for visitors are to understand: how gas drives volcanic eruptions, the differences between effusive and explosive eruption styles, viscosity's control on gas pressure within a magma reservoir, and the role of gas pressure on eruption style. Visitors apply the scientific method by asking research questions and testing hypotheses by conducting the experiments. The demonstrations are framed with real life examples of volcanic eruptions (e.g., Mt. St. Helens eruption in 1980), providing context for the scientific concepts. The first activity demonstrates the concept of fluid viscosity and how gas interacts with fluids of different viscosities. Visitors blow bubbles into water and corn syrup. The corn syrup is so viscous that bubbles are trapped, showing how a more viscous material builds up higher gas pressure. Visitors are asked which kind of magma (high or low viscosity) will produce an explosive eruption. To demonstrate an explosive eruption, visitors add an Alka-Seltzer tablet to water in a snap-top film canister. The reaction rapidly produces carbon dioxide gas, increasing pressure in the canister until the lid pops off and the canister launches a few meters into the air (tinyurl.com/nzsgfoe). Increasing gas pressure in the canister is analogous to gas pressure building within a magma reservoir beneath a volcano. The lid represents high-viscosity magma that prevents degassing, causing gas pressure to reach explosive levels. This interactive activity is combined with a display of an effusive eruption: add vinegar to baking soda in a model volcano to produce a quick-flowing eruption. These

  19. Econometric methods for life-testing of capital units and results for regulated public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The dissertation pertains to regulated public utilities that purchase capital units when the service lives of these units are random. Chapter II develops the econometric tools needed to analyze the data generated in such an instance. Results concerning the existence, consistency and asymptotic normality of a maximum likelihood estimator are derived. Chapter III contains a small model of a regulated public utility. Key components are assumptions of a fixed capital stock, random served lives for capital units, a tax environment where current tax laws concerning depreciation expense and investment tax credits are considered and a regulatory constraint of the type contained in the classic literature of Averch and Johnson (1962). Objectives are established for both regulatories and investors. It is assumed that each of these economic agents chooses from units which differ in terms of efficiency, purchase price, and durability. It is demonstrated that the objectives of regulators and investors may be different with respect to the choice of capital units, depending on current tax laws, and that this phenomenon is related to the results of Averch and Johnson. Chapter IV contains an application. Data were obtained for power transformers and the objectives of regulators and investors were evaluated. It was shown that differences in the expected service lives of these units is a key consideration.

  20. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Smith, Trever C; Small, Christina M; Thomas, Derek P; Seshu, J

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348) exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560), and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15) were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC), Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), fibronectin binding protein (BBK32), RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of the sodA

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-02

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, and consisting of three separate land withdrawal areas (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4), CAU 417 is comprised of 34 corrective action sites (CASs) including 2 underground storage tanks, 5 septic systems, 8 shaker pad/cuttings disposal areas, 1 decontamination facility pit, 1 burn area, 1 scrap/trash dump, 1 outlier area, 8 housekeeping sites, and 16 mud pits. Four field events were conducted between September 1996 and June 1998 to complete a corrective action investigation indicating that the only contaminant of concern was total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) which was found in 18 of the CASs. A total of 1,028 samples were analyzed. During this investigation, a statistical approach was used to determine which depth intervals or layers inside individual mud pits and shaker pad areas were above the State action levels for the TPH. Other related field sampling activities (i.e., expedited site characterization methods, surface geophysical surveys, direct-push geophysical surveys, direct-push soil sampling, and rotosonic drilling located septic leachfields) were conducted in this four-phase investigation; however, no further contaminants of concern (COCs) were identified. During and after the investigation activities, several of the sites which had surface debris but no COCs were cleaned up as housekeeping sites, two septic tanks were closed in place, and two underground storage tanks were removed. The focus of this CADD was to identify CAAs which would promote the prevention or mitigation of human exposure to surface and subsurface soils with contaminant

  5. Free the animals? Investigating attitudes toward animal testing in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Christopher, Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    In this study, 185 British and 143 American undergraduates completed a battery of tests that measured attitudes toward animal testing and various individual difference variables. Attitudes toward animal testing factored into two interpretable factors: general attitudes toward animal testing, and animal welfare and conditions of testing. Overall, there was support for animal testing under the right conditions, although there was also concern for the welfare of animals and the conditions under which testing takes place. There were small but significant national difference on both factors (with Americans more positive about testing and less positive about animal welfare), and a significant sex difference on the first factor (women were more negative about testing). Correlation and regression analyses showed that there were few significant individual difference predictors of both factors. These results are discussed in relation to past and future work on attitudes toward animal testing.

  6. All-atom Molecular-level Computational Simulations of Planar Longitudinal Shockwave Interactions with Polyurea, Soda-lime Glass and Polyurea/Glass Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    All-atom molecular-level computational simulations of planar longitudinal shockwave interactions with polyurea, soda- lime glass and polyurea/glass...of this paper is to study the mechanical response of polyurea, soda- lime glass (glass, for short), polyurea/glass/polyurea and glass/polyurea/glass...methods, the interaction of shockwaves with material boundaries. Keywords Polyurea, Material interface, Shockwaves, Soda- lime glass Paper type Research

  7. Analysis, design, fabrication and testing of the mini-Brayton rotating unit (Mini-BRU). Volume 1: Text and tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, F. X.

    1978-01-01

    A 500 to 2100 watt power output Mini-Brayton Rotating Unit (Mini-BRU)was analyzed, designed, fabricated and tested. Performance and test data for the various components is included. Components tested include the 2.12 in. diameter compressor, the 2.86 in. diameter turbine, the Rice alternator and the cantilevered foil-type journal and thrust bearings. Also included are results on the fabrication of a C-103 turbine plenum/nozzle assembly and on offgassing of the organic materials in the alternator stator.

  8. Structural analysis and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Kobzi, Balázs; Sinkó, Katalin; Homonnay, Zoltán [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Kuzmann, Ernő [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmany P. s., 1/A, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest 1512 (Hungary); Ristić, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, RuđerBošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, Zagreb 10000 (Croatia); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan); Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Hematite was precipitated by heat treatment of iron aluminosilicate glass. • The hematite phase shows visible light photocatalytic activity. • We could prepare an effective photocatalyst from ‘ubiquitous elements’. - Abstract: A relationship between structure and visible light-activated photocatalytic activity of iron-containing soda lime aluminosilicate (15Na{sub 2}O⋅15CaO⋅40Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅(30−x)SiO{sub 2}) glass (xNCFAS) was investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and UV–visible light absorption spectroscopy (UV–VIS). The {sup 57}Fe-Mössbauer spectrum of 11NCFAS glass measured after heat-treatment at 1000 °C for 100 min was composed of a paramagnetic doublet due to Fe{sup III}(T{sub d}) and two magnetic sextets due to regular hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hematite with larger internal magnetic field. X-ray diffraction patterns of heat-treated xNCFAS samples resulted in decrease of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and increase of Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 22}O{sub 33} or CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with alumina content. A quick decrease in methylene blue (MB) concentration from 15.6 to 4.7 μmol L{sup −1} was observed in the photocatalytic reaction test with 40 mg of heat-treated 11NCFAS glass under visible light-exposure. The largest first-order rate constant of MB decomposition (k) was estimated to be 9.26 × 10{sup −3} min{sup −1}. Tauc’s plot yielded a band gap energy (E{sub g}) of 1.88 eV for heat-treated 11NCFAS glass, which is smaller than previously reported E{sub g} of 2.2 eV for α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These results prove that addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into iron-containing soda lime silicate glass is favorable for the preparation of improved visible light-photocatalyst with ‘ubiquitous’ elements.

  9. Self-reported academic grades and other correlates of sugar-sweetened soda intake among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Sherry, Bettylou; Foti, Kathryn; Blanck, Heidi M

    2012-01-01

    High consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks has been associated with obesity and other adverse health consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the association of demographic characteristics, weight status, self-reported academic grades, and behavioral factors with sugar-sweetened soda intake among a nationally representative sample of US high school students. Analysis was based on the 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey and included 16,188 students in grades 9 through 12. The main outcome measure was daily sugar-sweetened soda intake (eg, drank a can, bottle, or glass of soda [excluding diet soda] at least one time per day during the 7 days before the survey). Nationally, 29.2% of students reported drinking sugar-sweetened soda at least one time per day. Logistic regression analyses showed factors significantly associated with sugar-sweetened soda intake at least one time per day included male sex (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.47), Hispanic ethnicity (vs whites; OR=0.81), earning mostly B, C, and D/F grades (vs mostly As; OR=1.26, 1.66, and 2.19, respectively), eating vegetables fewer than three times per day (OR=0.72), trying to lose weight (OR=0.72), sleeping 2 hours/day (OR=1.71), playing video or computer games or using a computer for other than school work >2 hours/day (OR=1.53), being physically active at least 60 minutes/day on soda consumption is associated with these behaviors to inform the design of future nutrition interventions.

  10. A Powerful Test of the Autoregressive Unit Root Hypothesis Based on a Tuning Parameter Free Statistic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard

    reflects the parameter chosen to implement the test, and (iii) since the asymptotic distribution depends on d and the test remains consistent for all d > 0, it is possible to analyze the power of the test for different values of d. The usual Phillips-Perron or Dickey-Fuller type tests are indexed...... good size properties, with finite sample power that is higher than that of Breitung's (2002) test and even rivals the (nearly) optimal parametric GLS detrended augmented Dickey-Fuller test with lag length chosen by an information criterion....

  11. Patterns of HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing among men who have sex with men couples in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W; Petroll, Andrew E

    2012-11-01

    Most men who have sex with men (MSM) within the United States acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while in a same-sex relationship. Few studies have examined HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing rates among MSM couples. Interestingly, the patterns that MSM test for HIV while in their relationships remain largely unknown. The current study helps fill this gap in knowledge by assessing HIV testing patterns and HIV and STI testing rates from a large convenience sample of Internet-using MSM couples. The current study used a cross-sectional study design to collect dyadic data from 361 MSM couples who lived throughout the United States. A novel recruitment strategy that included placing paid targeted advertisements on Facebook enrolled both men in the couple to independently complete the confidential electronic survey. Nearly half of the HIV-negative men indicated either not having been tested for HIV since their relationship started or only testing if they believed they were at risk. Few men reported testing every 3 to 4 months. HIV/STI testing rates varied among the sample of couples. Few men reported having been diagnosed with a recent STI. Testing patterns and rates were mostly similar, irrespective of whether unprotected anal intercourse was practiced within and/or outside the relationship. HIV testing and prevention services must target men who are at risk for acquiring HIV within MSM couples. To help accomplish this goal, additional research is needed to examine the specific barriers and facilitators to HIV and STI testing among MSM in couples.

  12. Brundtland's World Health Organization: a test case for United Nations reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, A

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform.

  13. Brundtland's World Health Organization: A Test Case for United Nations Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform. Imagesp30-ap31-ap39-a PMID:9925169

  14. Thermal performance measurements of sealed insulating glass units with low-E coatings using the MoWiTT (Mobile Window Thermal Test) field-test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klems, J.; Keller, H.

    1986-12-01

    Using data obtained in a mobile field-test facility, measured performance of clear and low-emissivity double-glazing units is presented for south-facing and north-facing orientations. The changes in U-value and shading coefficient resulting from addition of the low-E coating are found to agree with theoretical expectations for the cold spring test conditions. Accurate nighttime U-values were derived from the data and found to agree with calculations. Expected correlation between U-value and wind speed was not observed in the data; a plausible experimental reason for this is advanced.

  15. Detailed design and first tests of the application software for the instrument control unit of Euclid-NISP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligori, S.; Corcione, L.; Capobianco, V.; Bonino, D.; Sirri, G.; Fornari, F.; Giacomini, F.; Patrizii, L.; Valenziano, L.; Travaglini, R.; Colodro, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bonoli, C.; Chiarusi, T.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Spurio, M.; Tenti, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Laudisio, F.; Sirignano, C.; Stanco, L.; Ventura, S.; Auricchio, N.; Balestra, A.; Franceschi, E.; Morgante, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Medinaceli, E.; Guizzo, G. P.; Debei, S.; Stephen, J. B.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we describe the detailed design of the application software (ASW) of the instrument control unit (ICU) of NISP, the Near-Infrared Spectro-Photometer of the Euclid mission. This software is based on a real-time operating system (RTEMS) and will interface with all the subunits of NISP, as well as the command and data management unit (CDMU) of the spacecraft for telecommand and housekeeping management. We briefly review the main requirements driving the design and the architecture of the software that is approaching the Critical Design Review level. The interaction with the data processing unit (DPU), which is the intelligent subunit controlling the detector system, is described in detail, as well as the concept for the implementation of the failure detection, isolation and recovery (FDIR) algorithms. The first version of the software is under development on a Breadboard model produced by AIRBUS/CRISA. We describe the results of the tests and the main performances and budgets.

  16. Swim Test Requirements at Four-Year Universities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Frank; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveys of 331 four-year universities nationwide examined swim test requirements and reasons for administering or not administering swim tests. Responses from 331 returned questionnaires indicated that 5% of the schools had swim test requirements, though 25% had them previously. Lack of a physical education requirement was the most commonly cited…

  17. Steroids and Standardised Tests: Meritocracy and the Myth of Fair Play in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayles, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Steroid use in professional sports continues to receive much media attention in the United States. The predominant response to the use of steroids in professional sports is negative. Much of the opposition to steroid use focuses on the critical importance of fair play in American society. To the degree that steroids provide some players with an…

  18. Construction and preoperational test of Kashiwasaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsume, Nobuo; Noda, Hiroshi [Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Unit 6 of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the world`s first advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR), is progressing ahead of the originally established schedule since the start of its construction in September 1991, and commercial operation is scheduled to start before the end of 1996.

  19. Antigravity posture for analysis of motor unit recruitment: the "45 degree test".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petajan, J H

    1990-04-01

    The maximum number of different motor unit action potentials (MUAPs), their firing rates, and total MUAP spikes/second recorded by monopolar needle electrode were determined for the biceps brachii muscle during 45-degree elbow flexion. There were 4.2 +/- 1.6 different MUAPs exceeding 100 microV. Mean firing rate was 10.0 +/- 1.7 Hz, and total MUAP spikes/second were 40.3 +/- 18. Recordings from 16 patients with neurogenic atrophy (NA) and just detectable weakness revealed corresponding values of 3.1 +/- 1.7 different MUAPs, a mean rate of 10.2 +/- 1.5 Hz and 30.6 +/- 19 total MUAP spikes/second, not different from normal. In these patients, increased force of muscle contraction was required to activate high threshold motor units firing at high rates. In each of 4 patients just able to hold the arm against gravity, 1 or 2 "overdriven" motor units firing at a mean rate greater than 20 Hz were recorded. In 8 patients with myopathy and just detectable weakness, greater than 100 total MUAP spikes/second were recorded. Antigravity posture as a reference level of innervation has the advantage that motor unit firing rate is set about that of physiologic tremor (10-13 Hz). Its application was helpful in quantifying recruitment.

  20. Development of Test Unit for Production of Oxygen by a Regenerative Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-05-31

    inspect the unit so it was decided to cancel the plans for building the two more casos . Dec. 19W - Feb. 19»5 On December 26, 194*, I reached the Ü. S...again, another crude experiment, was carried out to determine how the humidity of the oxygen which was produced compared with cylinder oxygen. The

  1. Phasor Measurement Unit and Phasor Data Concentrator test with Real Time Digital Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diakos, Konstantinos; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2014-01-01

    network to a more reliable, secure and economic operation. The implementation of these devices though, demands the warranty of a secure operation and high-accuracy performance. This paper describes the procedure of establishing a PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit)–PDC (Phasor Data Concentrator) platform...

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 02-42-01, Condo Release Storage Yd - North; CAS 02-42-02, Condo Release Storage Yd - South; CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area; CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard; CAS 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum; CAS 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain. Closure activities were conducted from March to July 2009 according to the FF ACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 166 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, consists of seven CASs in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 166 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area, approximately 40 gal of lead shot were removed and are currently pending treatment and disposal as MW, and approximately 50 small pieces of DU were removed and disposed as LLW. (2) At CAS 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard, approximately 7.5 yd{sup 3} of soil impacted with lead and Am-241 were removed and disposed as LLW. As a BMP, approximately 22 ft{sup 3} of asbestos tile were removed from a portable building and disposed as ALLW, approximately 55 gal of oil were drained from accumulators and are currently pending disposal as HW, the portable building was removed and

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs

  4. Effects of soda-lime-silica waste glass on mullite formation kinetics and micro-structures development in vitreous ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, Nicoletta; D'Alessio, Daniela; Diella, Valeria; Pavese, Alessandro; Francescon, Ferdinando

    2013-07-30

    The effects of soda-lime waste glass, from the recovery of bottle glass cullet, in partial replacement of Na-feldspar for sanitary-ware ceramic production are discussed. Attention is paid to the mullite growth kinetics and to the macroscopic properties of the final output, the latter ones depending on the developed micro-structures and vitrification grade. Measurements have been performed by in situ high temperature X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal dilatometry, water absorption and mechanical testing. Glass substituting feldspar from 30 to 50 wt% allows one (i) to accelerate the mullite growth reaction kinetics, and (ii) to achieve macroscopic features of the ceramic output that comply with the latest technical requirements. The introduction of waste glass leads to (i) a general saving of fuel and reduction of the CO2-emissions during the firing stage, (ii) a preservation of mineral resources in terms of feldspars, and (iii) an efficient management of the bottle glass refuse by readdressing a part of it in the sanitary-ware manufacturing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening and Evaluation of Some Green Algal Strains (Chlorophyceae Isolated from Freshwater and Soda Lakes for Biofuel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramganesh Selvarajan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are photosynthetic microorganisms that can produce lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts and within short periods of time and these can be processed into both biofuels and other useful commercial products. Due to this reason microalgae are considered as a potential source of renewable energy; and one of the most important decisions in obtaining oil from microalgae is the choice of species. In this study, the potential of Chlorophyceae species isolated from freshwater and soda lakes in Hungary and Romania (Central Europe were characterized and evaluated by determining their biomass accumulation, lipid productivity, fatty acid profiles, and biodiesel properties besides protein and carbohydrate productivity. Out of nine strains tested, three accumulated more than 40% dry weight of protein, four accumulated more than 30% dry weight of carbohydrate and the strain Chlorella vulgaris LC8 accumulated high lipid content (42.1% ± 2.6% with a favorable C16-C18 fatty acid profile (77.4% as well as suitable biodiesel properties of high cetane number (57.3, low viscosity (4.7 mm2/s, lower iodine number (75.18 g I2/100 g, relative cloud point (8.8 °C and negative cold filter plugging point (−6.5 °C. Hence the new strain, Chlorella vulgaris LC8 has potential as a feedstock for the production of excellent quality biodiesel.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-27

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 104, Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 104 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 104 consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 7 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C · CAS 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 · CAS 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site · CAS 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a · CAS 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) · CAS 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) · CAS 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) · CAS 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) · CAS 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) · CAS 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth · CAS 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 · CAS 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b · CAS 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax Closure activities began in October 2012 and were completed in April 2013. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for CAU 104. The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste, mixed waste, and recyclable material. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite landfills. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office

  7. Motor unit number estimation as a complementary test to routine electromyography in the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Malgorzata; Zalewska, Ewa; Lipowska, Marta; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Szmidt-Salkowska, Elzbieta; Kaminska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Electromyographic (EMG) abnormalities that reveal denervation and reinnervation caused by lower motor neuron degeneration do not reflect the number of motor units that determines muscle strength. Consequently, motor unit activity potential (MUAP) parameters do not reflect muscle dysfunction. The aim of the study was to compare the value of motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and MUAP parameters as indicators of clinical muscle dysfunction in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and to analyze the role of MUNE as a supplement to the EMG criteria for the diagnosis of ALS. In 25 patients with ALS, MUNE by the multipoint incremental method in the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and quantitative EMG in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) were obtained. The Medical Research Council (MRC) scale was used to evaluate clinical muscle dysfunction. A strong correlation between the number of motor units evaluated by MUNE and ADM clinical function by the MRC scale was found (P<0.001). An increased value of surface-detected single motor action potential was associated with a decreased MRC score for ADM (P<0.1). No relation was found between MUAP parameters in FDI and MRC scores. Our data support the value of the MUNE method for the detection of motor unit loss in ALS, and it could be postulated that MUNE studies may be considered complementary tests for ALS in a future revision of ALS criteria.

  8. A study of the use of abstract types for the representation of engineering units in integration and test applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    Physical quantities using various units of measurement can be well represented in Ada by the use of abstract types. Computation involving these quantities (electric potential, mass, volume) can also automatically invoke the computation and checking of some of the implicitly associable attributes of measurements. Quantities can be held internally in SI units, transparently to the user, with automatic conversion. Through dimensional analysis, the type of the derived quantity resulting from a computation is known, thereby allowing dynamic checks of the equations used. The impact of the possible implementation of these techniques in integration and test applications is discussed. The overhead of computing and transporting measurement attributes is weighed against the advantages gained by their use. The construction of a run time interpreter using physical quantities in equations can be aided by the dynamic equation checks provided by dimensional analysis. The effects of high levels of abstraction on the generation and maintenance of software used in integration and test applications are also discussed.

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-01-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 124 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. Therefore, this information will not be repeated in this CR.

  10. Borehole Data Package for Nine CY 2006 Polyphosphate Treatability Testing Wells, 300-FF-5 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Bruce A.

    2007-04-12

    Nine new CERCLA groundwater monitoring wells were installed in the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit in calendar year 2006 to fulfill commitments for the EM-20 funded polyphosphate treatability test. Nine new performance monitoring wells were drilled into the uppermost unconfined aquifer, to the Hanford formation - Ringold Formation contact boundary, and completed within the permeable Hanford fm. unit 1 gravel-dominated sequence. The overall objective of the polyphosphate treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat 300 Area uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. The objective of this work was to install the performance monitoring network surrounding the existing treatability injection well C5000 (399-1-23) in support of the implementation of a field scale demonstration of the polyphosphate technology.

  11. Morphological alteration, lysosomal membrane fragility and apoptosis of the cells of Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Dutta, Manab Kumar; Acharya, Avanti; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Kumar; Ray, Sajal

    2015-12-01

    Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is a component of laundry detergent. Domestic effluent, drain water and various anthropogenic activities have been identified as major routes of sodium carbonate contamination of the freshwater ecosystem. The freshwater sponge, Eunapius carteri, bears ecological and evolutionary significance and is considered as a bioresource in aquatic ecosystems. The present study involves estimation of morphological damage, lysosomal membrane integrity, activity of phosphatases and apoptosis in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Exposure to washing soda resulted in severe morphological alterations and damages in cells of E. carteri. Fragility and destabilization of lysosomal membranes of E. carteri under the sublethal exposure was indicative to toxin induced physiological stress in sponge. Prolonged exposure to sodium carbonate resulted a reduction in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in the cells of E. carteri. Experimental concentration of 8 mg/l of washing soda for 192 h yielded an increase in the physiological level of cellular apoptosis among the semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, which was suggestive to possible shift in apoptosis mediated immunoprotection. The results were indicative of an undesirable shift in the immune status of sponge. Contamination of the freshwater aquifers by washing soda thus poses an alarming ecotoxicological threat to sponges.

  12. Effects of argon ion irradiation on nucleation and growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gangopadhyay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article explores an experimental study for nucleation and non-equilibrium growth of silver nanoparticles in a soda-glass matrix. Ion-irradiation induced recoiling of silver atoms with argon ions (at energy 100 keV facilitates nucleation as well as growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix. Small growth of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been experimentally observed after the irradiation with higher fluences of the argon ions. Role of the argon ions for the evolution of the silver nanoparticles in the soda-glass matrix has been elucidated in the present report. With increase of the argon-ion fluences, while slight athermal growth of the silver nanoparticles has been estimated, drastic increase in the optical responses and Rutherford backscattering (RBS yields of the silver nanoparticles have been observed in the sample with the maximum fluences. Possible correlations of increase of argon-ion fluences and the observed experimental results (optical and RBS, in particular have been explained in this article. Although it has been demonstrated using the silver metal film on a soda-glass substrate as a model example, the non-equilibrium approach of nucleation and ion-beam controlled growth of metal nanoparticles in a matrix should be applicable to other immiscible systems as well.

  13. Yield of routine provocative cardiac testing among patients in an emergency department-based chest pain unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Luke K; Newman, David H; Pleasant, W Andrew; Rojanasarntikul, Dhanadol; Lakoff, Daniel; Goldberg, Scott A; Duvall, W Lane; Henzlova, Milena J

    2013-06-24

    The American Heart Association recommends routine provocative cardiac testing in accelerated diagnostic protocols for coronary ischemia. The diagnostic and therapeutic yield of this approach are unknown. To assess the yield of routine provocative cardiac testing in an emergency department-based chest pain unit. We examined a prospectively collected database of patients evaluated for possible acute coronary syndrome between March 4, 2004, and May 15, 2010, in the emergency department-based chest pain unit of an urban academic tertiary care center. Patients with signs or symptoms of possible acute coronary syndrome and without an ischemic electrocardiography result or a positive biomarker were enrolled in the database. All patients were evaluated by exercise stress testing or myocardial perfusion imaging. Demographic and clinical features, results of routine provocative cardiac testing and angiography, and therapeutic interventions were recorded. Diagnostic yield (true-positive rate) was calculated, and the potential therapeutic yield of invasive therapy was assessed through blinded, structured medical record review using American Heart Association designations (class I, IIa, IIb, or lower) for the potential benefit from percutaneous intervention. In total, 4181 patients were enrolled in the study. Chest pain was initially reported in 93.5%, most (73.2%) were at intermediate risk for coronary artery disease, and 37.6% were male. Routine provocative cardiac testing was positive for coronary ischemia in 470 (11.2%), of whom 123 underwent coronary angiography. Obstructive disease was confirmed in 63 of 123 (51.2% true positive), and 28 (0.7% overall) had findings consistent with the potential benefit from revascularization (American Heart Association class I or IIa). In an emergency department-based chest pain unit, routine provocative cardiac testing generated a small therapeutic yield, new diagnoses of coronary artery disease were uncommon, and false-positive results

  14. Development and field tests of a damping controller to mitigate electromechanical oscillations on large diesel generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Fabricio G.; Barreiros, Jose A.L.; Barra, Walter Jr.; Costa, Carlos T. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Instituto de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica, Campus Universitario do Guama, CEP: 66075-900, Belem (Brazil); Ferreira, Andre M.D. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Campus Belem, Departamento de Controle e Processos Industriais, Av. Almirante Barroso, 1155 (Marco), CEP: 66093-020, Belem (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the development and field tests of a digital damping controller designed to mitigate intra-plant electromechanical oscillations via the speed governor system of fast acting units. The controller performance is assessed on an 18-MVA diesel generating unit, at Santana Power Plant (Amapa State, Amazon Region at Northern Brazil). In order to design the damping control law, a set of parametric ARX models representing the plant dynamics at several load conditions, are previously identified from data collected on field tests. The damping controller gains are calculated by using the identified ARX models parameters as inputs to a discrete-time pole-placement design method (pole-shifting) and then embedded on a DSP based microcontroller digital system, for field tests assessment. The digital damping controller modulates the diesel engine inlet valve position according to the observed oscillation on the measured electric power, using a PWM device, which is specially developed to this application. The experimental results shown the good performance of the developed controller on damping efficiently the electromechanical oscillations observed between generating units at Santana Power Plant. (author)

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-02-01

    This Closure Report presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This Closure Report complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 177 are located within Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this Closure Report is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data that confirm the corrective actions implemented for CAU 177 CASs.

  16. Field Test of the Unit Equal Opportunity Training Diagnosis and Assessment System (TDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    problem areas identified; and 3. evaluate the extent to which training has been successful in addressing and eliminating the problems initially identified...The system was viewed as having three major components: an instrument or set of instruments for acquiring assessment and evaluation data; an...report. The Ana~ysis Prgram Conversion of data from punchcard form to a final, unit-specific feedback report of the type described above requires the use

  17. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372 is located in Areas 18 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 372 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on February 10, 2009, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; Desert Research Institute, and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 372.

  19. The effects of additive outliers on tests for unit roots and cointegration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); N. Haldrup (Niels)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe properties of the univariate Dickey-Fuller test and the Johansen test for the cointegrating rank when there exist additive outlying observations in the time series are examined. The analysis provides analytical as well as numerical evidence that additive outliers may produce spurious

  20. Application of Computer Software to the Idaho Proficiency Math Test Competencies. A Unit of Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafore, Thomas Jeffrey

    The history of competency testing and legal issues related to it are reviewed briefly in light of the responsibility of school districts for providing remediation programs for students who have failed the test. The mathematics competencies of the state of Idaho are identified and keyed to four sets of readily available, secondary level Apple…

  1. Assessing human-robot performances in complex situations with unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a test battery method to investigate (relative) operational upsides and downsides of robot innovations. This method was applied to test the teleoperated Generaal robot and the NIFTi robot that could be operated in manual and semi-automatic mode for navigation and situation sensin

  2. Testing Predictive Models of Technology Integration in Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cesareo Morales

    2008-01-01

    Data from Mexico City, Mexico (N = 978) and from Texas, USA (N = 932) were used to test the predictive validity of the teacher professional development component of the Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration in a cross-cultural context. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the model. Analyses of these data yielded…

  3. LAG SELECTION OF THE AUGMENTED KAPETANIOS-SHIN-SNELL NONLINEAR UNIT ROOT TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Je Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide simulation evidence that shed light on several size and power issues in relation to lag selection of the augmented (nonlinear KSS test. Two lag selection approaches are considered-the Modified AIC (MAIC approach and a sequential General to Specific (GS testing approach Either one of these approaches can be used to select the optimal lag based on either the augmented linear Dickey Fuller test or the augmented nonlinear KSS test, resulting in four possible selection methods, namely, MAIC, GS, NMAIC and NGS. The evidence suggests that the asymptotic critical values of the KSS test tends to result in over-sizing if the (N GS method is used and under-sizing if the (N MAIC method is utilised. Thus, we recommend that the critical values should be generated from finite samples. We also find evidence that the (N MAIC method has less size distortion than the (N GS method, suggesting that the MAIC-based KSS test is preferred. Interestingly, the MAIC-based KSS test with lag selection based on the linear ADF regression is generally more powerful than the test with lag selection based on the nonlinear version.

  4. Testing Predictive Models of Technology Integration in Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cesareo Morales

    2008-01-01

    Data from Mexico City, Mexico (N = 978) and from Texas, USA (N = 932) were used to test the predictive validity of the teacher professional development component of the Will, Skill, Tool Model of Technology Integration in a cross-cultural context. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the model. Analyses of these data yielded…

  5. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-12-01

    Corrective Action Unit 367 is located in Area 10 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 367 comprises the four corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 10-45-01, U-10h Crater (Sedan) • 10-45-02, Ess Crater Site • 10-09-03, Mud Pit • 10-45-03, Uncle Crater Site The CASs in CAU 367 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive contaminants may be present in concentrations that exceed risk-based corrective action (RBCA) levels. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend CAAs for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting CAAs. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 367 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling. • Conduct radiological surveys. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis to determine the area where TED at the site exceeds FALs (i.e., corrective action boundary). • Evaluate TED to potential receptors in areas along Mercury Highway that have been impacted by a release of radionuclides from the Sedan test. • Collect and submit environmental samples for laboratory analysis related to the drilling mud within CAS 10-09-03, Mud Pit, and any encountered stains or waste as necessary to determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, collect additional step-out samples to define the extent of the contamination. • Collect samples of investigation-derived waste, as needed, for waste management purposes.

  7. USING Mg(OH2 IN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF WHEAT STRAW SODA-AQ PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlan Liu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The peroxide bleaching of high yield pulps from wood with Mg(OH2 has been developing recently in the pulp and paper industry. However, there is still a lack of data on the application of Mg(OH2 in peroxide bleaching of non-wood fibres. In this work, our purpose was to study the effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The results showed that Mg(OH2 significantly improved peroxide bleaching efficiency (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the H2O2 consumption and selectivity (expressed as the ratio between the brightness gain and the viscosity losses of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp. The brightness, viscosity, and yield of bleached pulp can be significantly enhanced by increasing the replacement ratio of Mg(OH2. However, at 100% replacement of NaOH with Mg(OH2, the brightness of bleached pulp was much lower than that of the bleached pulp with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When 24 to 73% of the NaOH was replaced with Mg(OH2, the COD of the bleaching filtrate was 11 to 38% lower than that of the NaOH as the sole alkaline source. The lower solubility and alkalinity of Mg(OH2, as well as the reduction of Cu ion content in bleached pulp were proposed as accounting for the favorable effect of Mg(OH2 on peroxide bleaching of wheat straw soda-AQ pulp.

  8. Awareness of genetic testing for cancer among United States Hispanics: the role of acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Julia E; Franco, Rebeca; Jurkowski, Janine M; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how acculturation affected awareness of genetic testing for cancer among Hispanic Americans. Subjects were 10,883 Hispanic respondents from the 2000 and 2005 National Health Interview Surveys. Acculturation was measured with language use and the length of time subjects had lived in the US. Weighted logistic regression was used to determine subjects' awareness of genetic susceptibility testing. Greater use of English (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.15-1.36) was associated with increased awareness of genetic testing. Residence in the US for less than 5 years (adjusted OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.36-0.83) was associated with lower awareness of testing. To better inform diverse American groups about genetic testing, intercultural variations and language skills must be taken into account. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 115: AREA 25 TEST CELL A FACILITY, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2006-03-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the activities performed to close CAU 115, Area 25 Test Cell A Facility, as presented in the NDEP-approved SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2004). The SAFER Plan includes a summary of the site history, process knowledge, and closure standards. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical and radiological data to confirm that the remediation goals were met and to document final site conditions. The approved closure alternative as presented in the SAFER Plan for CAU 115 (NNSA/NSO, 2004) was clean closure; however, closure in place was implemented under a Record of Technical Change (ROTC) to the SAFER Plan when radiological surveys indicated that the concrete reactor pad was radiologically activated and could not be decontaminated to meet free release levels. The ROTC is included as Appendix G of this report. The objectives of closure were to remove any trapped residual liquids and gases, dispose regulated and hazardous waste, decontaminate removable radiological contamination, demolish and dispose aboveground structures, remove the dewar as a best management practice (BMP), and characterize and restrict access to all remaining radiological contamination. Radiological contaminants of concern (COCs) included cobalt-60, cesium-137, strontium-90, uranium-234/235/236/238, and plutonium-239/240. Additional COCs included Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and asbestos.

  10. Preliminary Study on a Novel Process for Manufacturing Soda Ash from Sodium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天贵; 李佐虎

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to find a new way for utilizing the rich sodium sulfate resource to produce soda ash. A novel process is proposed which uses aqueous dichromate solution as working medium through decomposition of calcium carbonate in aqueous sodium dichromate, complex decomposition of aqueous sodium sulfate and calcium chromate, regeneration of sodium dichromate and production of sodium bicarbonate from carbonation of aqueous sodium chromate solution, processing and utilization of byproduct calcium sulfate, and production of sodium carbonate from sodium bicarbonate. The process has the features of less corrosion and pollution and low energy consumption.

  11. Low-loss single-mode integrated waveguides in soda-lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, I. V.; Kalinkin, A. A.; Saygin, M. Yu.; Abroskin, A. G.; Radchenko, I. V.; Straupe, S. S.; Kulik, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    Low-loss single-mode optical waveguide fabrication process in extra-white soda-lime glass is demonstrated. Waveguiding structures are formed in bulk substrates employing femtosecond laser writing technology. The combination of a slit beam shaping method and a multiscan fabrication process enables writing of waveguides with a well-defined symmetric cross-sectional profile. Fabricated waveguides exhibit 0.86 dB/cm propagation loss for 800-nm wavelength. Bending loss in the waveguides is addressed experimentally and compared with a model for radiation loss.

  12. The Effects of Salt Water on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth parameters of soda-lime silicate were measured in distilled and salt water of various concentrations in order to determine if stress corrosion susceptibility is affected by the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film. Past research indicates that solvents effect the rate of crack growth, however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the slow crack growth parameters A and n. However, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  13. Effects of Aqueous Solutions on the Slow Crack Growth of Soda-Lime-Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow crack growth (SCG) parameters of soda-lime-silicate were measured in distilled and saltwater of various concentrations in order to determine if the presence of salt and the contaminate formation of a weak sodium film affects stress corrosion susceptibility. Past research indicates that solvents affect the rate of crack growth; however, the effects of salt have not been studied. The results indicate a small but statistically significant effect on the SCG parameters A and n at high concentrations; however, for typical engineering purposes, the effect can be ignored.

  14. Low-loss single-mode integrated waveguides in soda-lime glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinkin, Alexander; Abroskin, Andrey; Radchenko, Igor; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Low-loss single-mode optical waveguide fabrication process in extra-white soda-lime glass is demonstrated. Waveguiding structures are formed in bulk substrates employing femtosecond laser writing technology. The combination of a slit beam-shaping method and a multiscan fabrication process enables printing of waveguides with a well-defined symmetric cross-section profile. Fabricated waveguides exhibit 0.86 dB/cm propagation loss for 800~nm wavelength. Bending loss in the waveguides are addressed experimentally and compared with a model for radiation loss.

  15. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of a soda-lime glass containing copper nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban-Tejeda, L; Pecharroman, C; Moya, J S [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Malpartida, F [Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Esteban-Cubillo, A, E-mail: jsmoya@icmm.csic.es [Tolsa S A R and D Department, Camino de Vallecas-Mejorada del Campo Km 1.6, 28031 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-16

    A low melting point soda-lime glass powder containing copper nanoparticles with high antibacterial (against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria) and antifungal activity has been obtained. Sepiolite fibres containing monodispersed copper nanoparticles (d{sub 50}{approx}30 {+-} 5 nm) were used as the source of the copper nanoparticles. The observed high activity of the obtained glass powder, particularly against yeast, has been explained by considering the inhibitory synergistic effect of the Ca{sup 2+} lixiviated from the glass on the growth of the colonies.

  16. An undergraduate experiment demonstrating the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, James T.; Whitehouse, Christopher B.; Oulton, Rupert F.; Gennaro, Sylvain D.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel undergraduate research project that highlights the physics of metamaterials with acoustic waves and soda cans. We confirm the Helmholtz resonance nature of a single can by measuring its amplitude and phase response to a sound wave. Arranging multiple cans in arrays smaller than the wavelength, we then design an antenna that redirects sound into a preferred direction. The antenna can be thought of as a new resonator, composed of artificially engineered meta-atoms, similar to a metamaterial. These experiments are illustrative, tactile, and open ended so as to enable students to explore the physics of matter/wave interaction.

  17. Characterization of Hardwood Soda-AQ Lignins Precipitated from Black Liquor through Selective Acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Hemanathan; Alén, Raimo; Sahoo, Gokarneswar

    2016-01-01

    In the development of integrated biorefinery process alternatives to produce value-added by-products, various black liquors from sulfur-free pulping processes offer potential feedstocks for recovering their main chemical constituents, lignin and aliphatic carboxylic acids. In this study, lignin fractions were obtained from silver birch (Betula pendula) soda-anthraquinone black liquor by carbonation (pH to about 8.5) or by acidification (pH to about 2) with H2SO4 after carbonation or directly....

  18. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhiza of plants spontaneously colonizing the soda heap in Jaworzno (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gucwa-Przepióra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of the mycorrhizal status of plant species spontaneously established on the soda heap located in Jaworzno (Upper Silesia, Poland are presented. Additionally, the species of arbuscular fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota extracted from field-collected rhizosphere substrate samples of the heap are showed. Arbuscular mycorrhizae were described in 17 plant species. Five Glomus spp. were recognized in the spore populations of arbuscular fungi isolated. The investigation presented in this paper for the first time revealed Centaurea stoebe and Trifolium montanum to be hosts of arbuscular fungi.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 543: Liquid Disposal Units Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 543: Liquid Disposal Units, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S Department of Defense (DoD). Corrective Action Unit 543 is located in Area 6 and Area 15 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Seven corrective action sites (CASs) comprise CAU 543 and are listed below: (1) 06-07-01, Decon Pad; (2) 15-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (3) 15-04-01, Septic Tank; (4) 15-05-01, Leachfield; (5) 15-08-01, Liquid Manure Tank; (6) 15-23-01, Underground Radioactive Material Area; and (7) 15-23-03, Contaminated Sump, Piping. Corrective Action Site 06-07-01, Decon Pad, is located in Area 6 and consists of the Area 6 Decontamination Facility and its components that are associated with decontamination of equipment, vehicles, and materials related to nuclear testing. The six CASs in Area 15 are located at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm and are related to waste disposal activities at the EPA Farm. The EPA Farm was a fully-functional dairy associated with animal experiments conducted at the on-site laboratory. The corrective action investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, video-mole surveys, and sampling of media, where appropriate. Data will also be obtained to support waste management decisions. The CASs within CAU 543 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. The seven CASs in CAU 543

  1. HIV testing among adults with mental illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B

    2014-12-01

    Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.

  2. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system positively regulates sodA in response to ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, P; Collao, B; Álvarez, R; Salinas, H; Morales, E H; Calderón, I L; Saavedra, C P; Gil, F

    2013-10-01

    In response to antibiotics, bacteria activate regulatory systems that control the expression of genes that participate in detoxifying these compounds, like multidrug efflux systems. We previously demonstrated that the BaeSR two-component system from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) participates in the detection of ciprofloxacin, a bactericidal antibiotic, and in the positive regulation of mdtA, an efflux pump implicated in antibiotic resistance. In the present work, we provide further evidence for a role of the S. Typhimurium BaeSR two-component system in response to ciprofloxacin treatment and show that it regulates sodA expression. We demonstrate that, in the absence of BaeSR, the transcript levels of sodA and the activity of its gene product are lower. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transcriptional fusions, we demonstrate that BaeR regulates sodA by a direct interaction with the promoter region.

  3. The Impact of Structural Break(s on the Validity of Purchasing Power Parity in Turkey: Evidence from Zivot-Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP in Turkey for annual data from 1953 to 2009. While results from both the ADF unit root and the DF-GLS unit root test indicate mixed results, PPP holds for Turkey with the presence of structural breaks which are obtained by Zivot and Andrews and Lagrange Multiplier unit root tests.

  4. Utilization of genetic testing among children with developmental disabilities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiely B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bridget Kiely, Sujit Vettam, Andrew Adesman Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Steven and Alexandra Cohen Children’s Medical Center of New York, New Hyde Park, NY, USA Purpose: Several professional societies recommend that genetic testing be routinely included in the etiologic workup of children with developmental disabilities. The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which genetic testing is performed in this population, based on data from a nationally representative survey.Methods: Data were analyzed from the Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, a telephone-based survey of parents and guardians of US school-age children with current or past developmental conditions. This study included 3,371 respondents who indicated that their child had an autism spectrum disorder (ASD, intellectual disability (ID, and/or developmental delay (DD at the time of survey administration. History of genetic testing was assessed based on report by the parent/s. Children were divided into the following five mutually exclusive condition groups: ASD with ID; ASD with DD, without ID; ASD only, without ID or DD; ID without ASD; and DD only, without ID or ASD. Logistic regression was used to assess the demographic correlates of genetic testing, to compare the rates of genetic testing across groups, and to examine associations between genetic testing and use of other health-care services.Results: Overall, 32% of this sample had a history of genetic testing, including 34% of all children with ASD and 43% of those with ID. After adjusting for demographics, children with ASD + ID were more than seven times as likely as those with ASD only, and more than twice as likely as those who had ID without ASD, to have undergone genetic testing. Prior specialist care (developmental pediatrician or neurologist and access to all needed providers within the previous year were associated with higher odds of genetic testing

  5. Dragon Skin - How It Changed Body Armor Testing in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    to testing, the subject test sample will be visually inspected. The hard armor plate is then inserted into the carrier (vest or shoot pack), the...rebutting claims of unfair treatment by Mr. Neal. Michael Turner, Ohio, stated, “Mr. Neil , I have got to tell you, I have been on this committee five...to do a thorough mission analysis and develop sound courses of action. From a mission analysis perspective, the following areas immediately stand

  6. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  7. Downstream Procedures and Outcomes After Stress Testing For Suspected Coronary Artery Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrick, Daniel W; Cowper, Patricia A; Shah, Bimal R; Patel, Manesh R; Jensen, Neil C; Drawz, Matthew J; Peterson, Eric D; Douglas, Pamela S

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of Americans with suspected coronary artery disease undergo non-invasive cardiac stress testing annually. Downstream procedures and subsequent outcomes among symptomatic patients without known coronary disease referred for stress testing are not well characterized in contemporary community practice. Methods We examined administrative insurance billing data from a national insurance provider from November 2004 through June 2007. After excluding patients with prior cardiac disease or chest pain evaluation, we identified 80,676 people age 40–64 years with outpatient cardiac stress testing within 30 days after an office visit for chest pain. We evaluated rates of invasive coronary angiography, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular events after stress testing. Results Within 60 days, only 8.8% of stress test patients underwent cardiac catheterization and only 2.7% underwent revascularization; within one year only 0.5% suffered death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. There were marked geographic variations in one-year rates of catheterization (3.8–14.8%) and revascularization (1.2–3.0%) across 20 hospital referral regions. Conclusions In this large national cohort of middle-aged patients without previously coded cardiac diagnosis who were referred for stress testing after outpatient chest pain evaluation, few proceeded to invasive angiography or revascularization, and subsequent cardiovascular events were infrequent. PMID:22424017

  8. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost automated (68)Gallium-labeling synthesis unit for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Pedram; Szretter, Alicia; Rushford, Laura E; Stevens, Maria; Collier, Lee; Sore, Judit; Hooker, Jacob; Mahmood, Umar

    2016-01-01

    The interest in (68)Gallium labeled PET probes continues to increase around the world. Widespread use in Europe and Asia has led to great interest for use at numerous sites in the US. One barrier to entry is the cost of the automated synthesis units for relatively simple labeling procedures. We describe the construction and testing of a relatively low-cost automated (68)Ga-labeling unit for human-use. We provide a guide for construction, including part lists and synthesis timelists to facilitate local implementation. Such inexpensive systems could help increase use around the globe and in the US in particular by removing one of the barriers to greater widespread availability. The developed automated synthesis unit reproducibly synthesized (68)Ga-DOTATOC with average yield of 71 ± 8% and a radiochemical purity ≥ 95% in a synthesis time of 25 ± 1 minutes. Automated product yields are comparable to that of manual synthesis. We demonstrate in-house construction and use of a low-cost automated synthesis unit for labeling of DOTATOC and similar peptides with (68)Gallium.

  9. North Burbank Unit Tertiary Recovery Pilot Test second annual report, May 1976--May 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trantham, J.C. (ed.)

    1977-08-01

    During the second year of the cooperative project jointly funded by Phillips Petroleum Company and the other Working Interest Owners of the North Burbank Unit together with the United States Energy Research and Development Administration, reservoir conditioning was completed on August 2, 1976, and surfactant injection was begun. The surfactant injection phase spanned a 44-day period ending September 15, 1976, and the first phase of the graded polyacrylamide slug (2500 ppM) was begun. By the end of the reporting period five phases of the polymer had been injected and the sixth, 600 ppM, was in progress. Beginning about January 1977 tertiary oil production was confirmed and the total oil rate had reached a level of 185 BPD at a water/oil ratio of 65 at the end of the project year, May 15, 1977. A total of about 14,000 bbl. of tertiary oil had been produced. Polymer injection is expected to be complete by the end of 1977 and peak oil production is anticipated about the end of the third project year.

  10. Testing the pediatric cardiac quality of life inventory in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jo; Franklin, Rodney; Brown, Kate; Cassedy, Amy; Marino, Bradley S

    2013-02-01

    To establish the validity and reliability of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory (PCQLI) for children with heart disease in the United Kingdom. Three paediatric cardiac centres recruited patients aged 8-18 years with heart disease. Patient-parent pairs completed a disease-specific paediatric cardiac quality of life measure (PCQLI), a generic quality of life measure (PedsQL4.0) and behaviour and self-perception questionnaires. Validity was assessed by correlation of PCQLI scores with heart disease severity, medical care utilization, and PedsQL, behaviour and self-perception scores, and by correlation of patient and parent PCQLI scores. Reliability was evaluated by administering the PCQLI at two time points. The study was completed by 771 patient-parent pairs. Validity was confirmed by the association of lower total PCQLI scores with more complex heart disease and a greater number of hospitalizations and cardiac surgeries (all p disease-specific quality-of-life measure for children with heart disease in the United Kingdom. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  11. Methodology for the validation of analytical methods involved in uniformity of dosage units tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2013-01-14

    Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving the quality of the end products starting from its early design stage. However, no regulatory guideline or none of the published methodologies to assess method validation propose decision methodologies that effectively take into account the final purpose of developed analytical methods. In this work a solution is proposed for the specific case of validating analytical methods involved in the assessment of the content uniformity or uniformity of dosage units of a batch of pharmaceutical drug products as proposed in the European or US pharmacopoeias. This methodology uses statistical tolerance intervals as decision tools. Moreover it adequately defines the Analytical Target Profile of analytical methods in order to obtain analytical methods that allow to make correct decisions about Content uniformity or uniformity of dosage units with high probability. The applicability of the proposed methodology is further illustrated using an HPLC-UV assay as well as a near infra-red spectrophotometric method.

  12. Shift in aggregation, ROS generation, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activities in the cells of an Indian freshwater sponge exposed to washing soda (sodium carbonate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2016-09-01

    Washing soda, chemically identified as anhydrous sodium carbonate, is a popular cleaning agent among the rural and urban populations of India which often contaminates the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of sponge Eunapius carteri. Present investigation deals with estimation of cellular aggregation, generation of ROS and activities of antioxidant enzymes, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase in the cells of E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Prolonged treatment of washing soda inhibited the degree of cellular aggregation. Experimental exposure of 8 and 16mg/l of sodium carbonate for 48h elevated the physiological level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the agranulocytes, semigranulocytes and granulocytes of E. carteri, whereas, treatment of 192h inhibited the ROS generation in three cellular morphotypes. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were recorded to be inhibited under prolonged exposure of washing soda. Washing soda mediated inhibition of ROS generation and depletion in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were indicative to an undesirable shift in cytotoxic status and antioxidative defense in E. carteri. Inhibition in the activity of lysozyme under the treatment of sodium carbonate was suggestive to a severe impairment of the innate immunological efficiency of E. carteri distributed in the washing soda contaminated habitat. Washing soda mediated inhibition in the activity of acetylcholinesterase indicated its neurotoxicity in E. carteri. Washing soda, a reported environmental contaminant, affected adversely the immunophysiological status of E. carteri with reference to cellular aggregation, oxidative stress, antioxidative defense, lysozyme and acetylcholinesterase activity.

  13. Anaerobic utilization of pectinous substrates at extremely haloalkaline conditions by Natranaerovirga pectinivora gen. nov., sp. nov., and Natranaerovirga hydrolytica sp. nov., isolated from hypersaline soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Tourova, T.P.; Panteleeva, A.N.; Kaparullina, E.N.; Muyzer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichments at pH 10, with pectin and polygalacturonates as substrates and inoculated with samples of sediments of hypersaline soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia) demonstrated the potential for microbial pectin degradation up to soda-saturating conditions. The enrichments

  14. Studies and testing of antireflective (AR) coatings for soda-lime glass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastirik, E.M.; Sparks, T.G.; Coleman, M.G.

    1978-05-01

    Experimental results on this feasibility study to establish processes for producing antireflection films on glass coverings for encapsulated solar cells are very encouraging. Efforts have been concentrated in three areas: acid etching of glass, plasma etching of glass, and acid development of sodium silicate films on glass. The best transmission to date has been achieved through the acid etching technique, while the most durable films have been produced from development of sodium silicate films. Control of the acid etching technique is presently inadequate for production implementation, and large scale application methods for sodium silicate films need further definition. While films having excellent antireflective properties have been fabricated by plasma etching techniques, all have been water soluble, disqualifying the films from a weatherability standpoint.

  15. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Timothy L. [EnergySolutions, 423 West 300 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84101 (United States); Palmer, Carl R. [TD.X Associates LP, 148 South Dowlen Road, PMB 700, Beaumont, TX 77707 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  16. Pharmaceutics, Drug Delivery and Pharmaceutical Technology: A New Test Unit for Disintegration End-Point Determination of Orodispersible Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ariana; Kok, Si Ling; Khong, Yuetmei; Chan, Sui Yung; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2015-11-01

    No standard time or pharmacopoeia disintegration test method for orodispersible films (ODFs) exists. The USP disintegration test for tablets and capsules poses significant challenges for end-point determination when used for ODFs. We tested a newly developed disintegration test unit (DTU) against the USP disintegration test. The DTU is an accessory to the USP disintegration apparatus. It holds the ODF in a horizontal position, allowing top-view of the ODF during testing. A Gauge R&R study was conducted to assign relative contributions of the total variability from the operator, sample or the experimental set-up. Precision was compared using commercial ODF products in different media. Agreement between the two measurement methods was analysed. The DTU showed improved repeatability and reproducibility compared to the USP disintegration system with tighter standard deviations regardless of operator or medium. There is good agreement between the two methods, with the USP disintegration test giving generally longer disintegration times possibly due to difficulty in end-point determination. The DTU provided clear end-point determination and is suitable for quality control of ODFs during product developmental stage or manufacturing. This may facilitate the development of a standardized methodology for disintegration time determination of ODFs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3893-3903, 2015.

  17. Testing long-distance modifications of gravity to 100 astronomical units

    CERN Document Server

    Buscaino, Brandon; Graham, Peter W; Gratta, Giorgio; Wiser, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    There are very few direct experimental tests of the inverse square law of gravity at distances comparable to the scale of the Solar System and beyond. Here we describe a possible space mission optimized to test the inverse square law at a scale of up to 100 AU. For example, sensitivity to a Yukawa correction with a strength of $10^{-7}$ times gravity and length scale of 100 AU is within reach, improving the current state of the art by over two orders of magnitude. This experiment would extend our understanding of gravity to the largest scale that can be reached with a direct probe using known technology. This would provide a powerful test of long-distance modifications of gravity including many theories motivated by dark matter or dark energy.

  18. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 563, Septic Systems, is located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 563 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) below: • 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank • 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool • 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks • 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  20. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic fabricated using soda-lime–silica waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H. [Electroceramics Group, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5–20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass–ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed. - Highlights: • A novel ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic was synthesized by an incorporation method. • The bioactive part was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass. • The doping of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} to Bioglass{sup ®} 45S5 glass–ceramic is likely to decrease bioactivity.