WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit showed significantly

  1. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  2. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  3. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.

    2014-01-01

    90 samples that were taken from locations across Denmark during three years. These sequences could be grouped into 173 non-singleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of which 21 OTUs, identified as belonging to genera such as Fusarium, Alternaria, Cladosporium. Phaeosphaeria and Microdochium, were...... the 21 core OTUs into three clusters: cluster 1 consisting of saprotrophs, cluster 2 consisting mainly of yeasts and saprotrophs and cluster 3 consisting of wheat pathogens. Principal component extraction showed that the Fusarium graminearum group was inversely related to OTUs of clusters 1 and 2....

  4. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  5. Circulating TRAIL shows a significant post-partum decline associated to stressful conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Zauli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL may be important in the physiopathology of pregnancy, we tested the hypothesis that TRAIL levels change at delivery in response to stressful conditions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a longitudinal study in a cohort of 73 women examined at week 12, week 16, delivery and in the corresponding cord blood (CB. Serum TRAIL was assessed in relationship with maternal characteristics and to biochemical parameters. TRAIL did not vary between 12 (67.6±27.6 pg/ml, means±SD and 16 (64.0±16.2 pg/ml weeks' gestation, while displaying a significant decline after partum (49.3±26.4 pg/ml. Using a cut-off decline >20 pg/ml between week 12 and delivery, the subset of women with the higher decline of circulating TRAIL (41.7% showed the following characteristics: i nullipara, ii higher age, iii operational vaginal delivery or urgent CS, iv did not receive analgesia during labor, v induced labor. CB TRAIL was significantly higher (131.6±52 pg/ml with respect to the corresponding maternal TRAIL, and the variables significantly associated with the first quartile of CB TRAIL (<90 pg/ml were higher pre-pregnancy BMI, induction of labor and fetal distress. With respect to the biochemical parameters, maternal TRAIL at delivery showed an inverse correlation with C-reactive protein (CRP, total cortisol, glycemia and insulin at bivariate analysis, but only with CRP at multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Stressful partum conditions and elevated CRP levels are associated with a decrease of circulating TRAIL.

  6. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Petty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease.

  7. Americans with Wings—Air show institution in the United States%Americans with Wings——Air show institution in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步云

    2016-01-01

    Wright Brother's first flying machine's flight in 1903 declared the advent of aviation age. Further stimulated by two world wars, aviation technologies have become the most advanced ones among human's manufacturing industries. In order to feed the industries' demand for human intelligence, various interactions between aviation staff and other social members were developed. Consequently, certain kind of aviation culture has been cultivating. In this paper, the author will make an introduction of aviation culture in the United States, and focus on the most representative content of that culture, the air show institution in United States.

  8. The genome-scale metabolic extreme pathway structure in Haemophilus influenzae shows significant network redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papin, Jason A; Price, Nathan D; Edwards, Jeremy S; Palsson B, Bernhard Ø

    2002-03-07

    Genome-scale metabolic networks can be characterized by a set of systemically independent and unique extreme pathways. These extreme pathways span a convex, high-dimensional space that circumscribes all potential steady-state flux distributions achievable by the defined metabolic network. Genome-scale extreme pathways associated with the production of non-essential amino acids in Haemophilus influenzae were computed. They offer valuable insight into the functioning of its metabolic network. Three key results were obtained. First, there were multiple internal flux maps corresponding to externally indistinguishable states. It was shown that there was an average of 37 internal states per unique exchange flux vector in H. influenzae when the network was used to produce a single amino acid while allowing carbon dioxide and acetate as carbon sinks. With the inclusion of succinate as an additional output, this ratio increased to 52, a 40% increase. Second, an analysis of the carbon fates illustrated that the extreme pathways were non-uniformly distributed across the carbon fate spectrum. In the detailed case study, 45% of the distinct carbon fate values associated with lysine production represented 85% of the extreme pathways. Third, this distribution fell between distinct systemic constraints. For lysine production, the carbon fate values that represented 85% of the pathways described above corresponded to only 2 distinct ratios of 1:1 and 4:1 between carbon dioxide and acetate. The present study analysed single outputs from one organism, and provides a start to genome-scale extreme pathways studies. These emergent system-level characterizations show the significance of metabolic extreme pathway analysis at the genome-scale.

  9. Music programs designed to remedy burnout symptoms show significant effects after five weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Vera; Terris, Darcey D; Fischer, Claudia; Schuessler, Marc N; Ottowitz, Gernot; Titscher, Georg; Fischer, Joachim E; Thayer, Julian F

    2009-07-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that music interventions can lessen symptoms of depression. Depression and burnout are closely related. We hypothesized that specially designed receptive music therapy programs and protocols might reduce the symptoms of burnout. In a four-arm randomized, placebo- and waiting-list-controlled double-blind study, including 150 participants, two specific music programs significantly reduced burnout symptoms after 5 weeks. The effects were maintained over a long time period. This newly developed method of receptive music therapy was also evaluated for the treatment of depression and dysthymia, with significant outcomes.

  10. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.;

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...

  11. The genus Drosophila is characterized by a large number of sibling species showing evolutionary significance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BASHISTH N. SINGH

    2016-12-01

    Mayr (1942) defined sibling species as sympatric forms which are morphologically very similar or indistinguishable, but which possess specific biological characteristics and are reproductively isolated. Another term, cryptic species has also been used for such species. However, this concept changed later. Sibling species are as similar as twins. This category does not necessarily include phylogenetic siblings as members of a superspecies. Since the term sibling species was defined by Mayr, a large number of cases of sibling species pairs/groups have been reported and thus they are widespread in the animal kingdom.However, they seem to be more common in some groups such as insects. In insects, they have been reported in diptera, lepidoptera, coleoptera, orthoptera, hymenoptera and others. Sibling species are widespread among the dipteran insects and as such are well studied because some species are important medically (mosquitoes), genetically (Drosophila) and cytologically(Sciara and Chironomus). The well-studied classical pairs of sibling species in Drosophila are: D. pseudoobscura and D. persimilis, and D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Subsequently, a number of sibling species have been added to these pairs and a large number of other sibling species pairs/groups in different species groups of the genus Drosophila have been reported in literature. The present review briefly summarizes the cases of sibling species pairs/groups in the genus Drosophila with their evolutionary significance.

  12. FES Training in Aging: interim results show statistically significant improvements in mobility and muscle fiber size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by decline in muscle mass and performance. Several factors, including reduced exercise, poor nutrition and modified hormonal metabolism, are responsible for changes in the rates of protein synthesis and degradation that drive skeletal muscle mass reduction with a consequent decline of force generation and mobility functional performances. Seniors with normal life style were enrolled: two groups in Vienna (n=32 and two groups in Bratislava: (n=19. All subjects were healthy and declared not to have any specific physical/disease problems. The two Vienna groups of seniors exercised for 10 weeks with two different types of training (leg press at the hospital or home-based functional electrical stimulation, h-b FES. Demografic data (age, height and weight were recorded before and after the training period and before and after the training period the patients were submitted to mobility functional analyses and muscle biopsies. The mobility functional analyses were: 1. gait speed (10m test fastest speed, in m/s; 2. time which the subject needed to rise from a chair for five times (5x Chair-Rise, in s; 3. Timed –Up-Go- Test, in s; 4. Stair-Test, in s; 5. isometric measurement of quadriceps force (Torque/kg, in Nm/kg; and 6. Dynamic Balance in mm. Preliminary analyses of muscle biopsies from quadriceps in some of the Vienna and Bratislava patients present morphometric results consistent with their functional behaviors. The statistically significant improvements in functional testings here reported demonstrates the effectiveness of h-b FES, and strongly support h-b FES, as a safe home-based method to improve contractility and performances of ageing muscles.

  13. Significantly reducing registration time in IGRT using graphics processing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Objective For online IGRT, rapid image processing is needed. Fast parallel computations using graphics processing units (GPUs) have recently been made more accessible through general purpose programming interfaces. We present a GPU implementation of the Horn and Schunck method...... respiration phases in a free breathing volunteer and 41 anatomical landmark points in each image series. The registration method used is a multi-resolution GPU implementation of the 3D Horn and Schunck algorithm. It is based on the CUDA framework from Nvidia. Results On an Intel Core 2 CPU at 2.4GHz each...... registration took 30 minutes. On an Nvidia Geforce 8800GTX GPU in the same machine this registration took 37 seconds, making the GPU version 48.7 times faster. The nine image series of different respiration phases were registered to the same reference image (full inhale). Accuracy was evaluated on landmark...

  14. Significant United States Earthquakes, 1568-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains the locations and attributes of significant, historic earthquakes that caused deaths, property damage, and geological effects, or were...

  15. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy shows significant differences between spectra of undifferentiated and polynucleated FLG 29.1 dried cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Salvatore; Benvenuti, Susanna; Conti, Antonio; Benedetti, Enzo; Bramanti, Emilia; Rossi, Ilaria; Benedetti, Edoardo

    1994-02-01

    In a recent study made on cultures of human leukaemic cells (FLG 29.1 cell line) we were able to detect, by IR microspectroscopy, some significant IR spectroscopic variations following differentiation of cells towards osteoclastic-like behavior. The present study was undertaken on the same cell line in order to monitor biochemical structure variations following fusion induced by polyetilenglycole (PEG), using FTIR microspectroscopy. The finger-print region of all the spectra was retained and normalized according to a new regression procedure. Eleven bands were selected and total band power and mean power per unit frequency were compared with the corresponding reference session bands by a Dunnett's T test. Significant differences were found in both the tested variables only between treated and untreated cells, in 6 bands.

  16. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...... polymorphism (AFLP), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the influence of variable surface protein (Vsp) profiles on the profiles generated with molecular typing techniques was studied. Both AFLP and RAPD separated the isolates into two distinct groups, but PFGE showed less...

  17. Depressive symptoms and pain evaluations among persons with chronic pain: catastrophizing, but not pain acceptance, shows significant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elizabeth J; Ness, Timothy J; Doleys, Daniel M; Baños, James H; Cianfrini, Leanne; Richards, J Scott

    2009-12-15

    Cognitive factors such as catastrophic thoughts regarding pain, and conversely, one's acceptance of that pain, may affect emotional functioning among persons with chronic pain conditions. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of both catastrophizing and acceptance on affective ratings of experimentally induced ischemic pain and also self-reports of depressive symptoms. Sixty-seven individuals with chronic back pain completed self-report measures of catastrophizing, acceptance, and depressive symptoms. In addition, participants underwent an ischemic pain induction procedure and were asked to rate the induced pain. Catastrophizing showed significant effects on sensory and intensity but not affective ratings of the induced pain. Acceptance did not show any significant associations, when catastrophizing was also in the model, with any form of ratings of the induced pain. Catastrophizing, but not acceptance, was also significantly associated with self-reported depressive symptoms when these two variables were both included in a regression model. Overall, results indicate negative thought patterns such as catastrophizing appear to be more closely related to outcomes of perceived pain severity and affect in persons with chronic pain exposed to an experimental laboratory pain stimulus than does more positive patterns as reflected in measures of acceptance.

  18. Pomalidomide shows significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with a major impact on the tumor microenvironment in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhimin; Qiu, Yushi; Personett, David; Huang, Peng; Edenfield, Brandy; Katz, Jason; Babusis, Darius; Tang, Yang; Shirely, Michael A; Moghaddam, Mehran F; Copland, John A; Tun, Han W

    2013-01-01

    Primary CNS lymphoma carries a poor prognosis. Novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Pomalidomide (POM) is a novel immunomodulatory drug with anti-lymphoma activity. CNS pharmacokinetic analysis was performed in rats to assess the CNS penetration of POM. Preclinical evaluation of POM was performed in two murine models to assess its therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma. The impact of POM on the CNS lymphoma immune microenvironment was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. In vitro cell culture experiments were carried out to further investigate the impact of POM on the biology of macrophages. POM crosses the blood brain barrier with CNS penetration of ~ 39%. Preclinical evaluations showed that it had significant therapeutic activity against CNS lymphoma with significant reduction in tumor growth rate and prolongation of survival, that it had a major impact on the tumor microenvironment with an increase in macrophages and natural killer cells, and that it decreased M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophages and increased M1-polarized macrophages when macrophages were evaluated based on polarization status. In vitro studies using various macrophage models showed that POM converted the polarization status of IL4-stimulated macrophages from M2 to M1, that M2 to M1 conversion by POM in the polarization status of lymphoma-associated macrophages is dependent on the presence of NK cells, that POM induced M2 to M1 conversion in the polarization of macrophages by inactivating STAT6 signaling and activating STAT1 signaling, and that POM functionally increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Based on our findings, POM is a promising therapeutic agent for CNS lymphoma with excellent CNS penetration, significant preclinical therapeutic activity, and a major impact on the tumor microenvironment. It can induce significant biological changes in tumor-associated macrophages, which likely play a major role in its therapeutic activity against CNS

  19. Polyphenols from blossoms of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. show significant anti-complement and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Huang, Chun-Ling; Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Chao-Yang

    2017-09-24

    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. (CAVA) was traditionally used as a digestant or expectorant in China. Crude polyphenols (CAVAP-W) extracted from blossoms of CAVA were mainly composed of eriocitrin/neoeriocitrin, eriocitrin/neoeriocitrin, rhoifolin, hesperidin, naringin, rutin, veronicastroside, neohesperidin and hesperetin by LC-MS analysis. CAVAP-W showed significant anti-complement and anti-inflammatory effects. Due to the close relationship between anti-complement and anti-inflammatory activity, the anti-inflammatory effect was further investigated and the results showed that CAVAP-W significantly suppressed production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharides-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, CAVAP-W inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and NF-κB activation through suppressing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) P65, degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα, phosphorylation of IκKBɑ/ß, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38, and activation of COX-2, thereby exerting the anti-inflammatory effects.

  20. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-02-15

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  1. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  2. Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Hussin A; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A; Yusof, Rohana

    2016-03-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 μM for MEFE, 18 μM for MECLO and 10 μM for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 μM, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 μM. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neonatal Intensive-Care Unit Graduates Show Persistent Difficulties in an Intradimensional Shift Card Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rossi, Vanessa; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.; Flory, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) graduates, a group at risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, performed an intradimensional shift card sort at 34, 42, 51, and 60 months to assess executive function and to examine effects of individual risk factors. In the "silly" game, children sorted cards…

  4. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.;

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...

  5. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  6. A large population histology study showing the lack of association between ALT elevation and significant fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Kay Seto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We determined the association between various clinical parameters and significant liver injury in both hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative patients. METHODS: From 1994 to 2008, liver biopsy was performed on 319 treatment-naïve CHB patients. Histologic assessment was based on the Knodell histologic activity index for necroinflammation and the Ishak fibrosis staging for fibrosis. RESULTS: 211 HBeAg-positive and 108 HBeAg-negative patients were recruited, with a median age of 31 and 46 years respectively. 9 out of 40 (22.5% HBeAg-positive patients with normal ALT had significant histologic abnormalities (necroinflammation grading ≥ 7 or fibrosis score ≥ 3. There was a significant difference in fibrosis scores among HBeAg-positive patients with an ALT level within the Prati criteria (30 U/L for men, 19 U/L for women and patients with a normal ALT but exceeding the Prati criteria (p = 0.024. Age, aspartate aminotransferase and platelet count were independent predictors of significant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients with an elevated ALT by multivariate analysis (p = 0.007, 0.047 and 0.045 respectively. HBV DNA and platelet count were predictors of significant fibrosis in HBeAg-negative disease (p = 0.020 and 0.015 respectively. An elevated ALT was not predictive of significant fibrosis for HBeAg-positive (p = 0.345 and -negative (p = 0.544 disease. There was no significant difference in fibrosis staging among ALT 1-2 × upper limit of normal (ULN and > × 2 ULN for both HBeAg-positive (p = 0.098 and -negative (p = 0.838 disease. CONCLUSION: An elevated ALT does not accurately predict significant liver injury. Decisions on commencing antiviral therapy should not be heavily based on a particular ALT threshold.

  7. Maps showing ground-water units and withdrawal, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mikels, John

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water units and withdrawal in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  8. Even mild cases of paediatric Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis show significant long-term proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudorache, Elena; Azema, Christine; Hogan, Julien; Wannous, Hala; Aoun, Bilal; Decramer, Stéphane; Deschênes, Georges; Ulinski, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a common cause of paediatric renal disease in children, representing 10-15% of paediatric glomerulonephritis. This study examined the long-term outcome of biopsy-proven HSP nephritis to identify correlations between disease development and treatment. Patients from three French centres were retrospectively analysed. We followed up 142 patients aged from 2 to 10.5 years with HSP nephritis, graded according to the International Study Group of Kidney Disease in Childhood classification. Mean (±SD) age at presentation was 7.6 ± 2.8 years. Nephrotic range proteinuria was present in 28% of patients with Grade II lesions, 60% with Grade III and 90% with Grade IV. Significant proteinuria (>0.5 g/L) was found in nine of 48 patients 3 years after renal biopsy, eight of 25 patients after 5 years and three of 14 patients after 10 years. There was no correlation between the proteinuria risk at 3, 5 or 10 years and the initial histological lesion or treatment modality. Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB) was linked to lower proteinuria, especially if it was started precociously. Even mild forms of HSP nephritis risk significant long-term proteinuria. Very early introduction of ACEi/ARB may improve the long-term outcome independent of histological lesions. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Immunosuppression using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus: pilot study shows significant cognitive and affective improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, U E; Heger, J; Willbring, M; Domula, M; Matschke, K; Tugtekin, S M

    2009-12-01

    Immunosuppression using calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is accompanied by neuropsychiatric side effects, which counteract longevity and quality of life benefits in 10% to 28% of patients. Following the availability of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, it became possible to replace CNI without increasing the risk of acute graft rejection. mTOR, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase family, is a downstream target of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Preclinical evidence has implicated the mTOR pathway in synaptic plasticity and fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation. In the present study we prospectively evaluated the psychiatric outcomes of CNI-free immunosuppression in adult maintenance heart transplant recipients (n = 9; age: 66.1 +/- 6.1) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Trail Making Tests A and B, Digit Span (DS), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Four weeks after switching to CNI-free immunosuppression using everolimus, BDI (Z = -1.14; P = .048), Trail Making tests A and B (Z = -2.52; P = .012), WMS-R (Z = 2.37; P = .018), and SCL-90-R (Z = -2.37; P = .018) were all significantly improved while DS (Z = -1.18; P = .236) and HAMD (Z = -0.595; P = .552) remained unchanged. This report describes favorable psychiatric outcome variables using everolimus in maintenance heart transplant recipients. CNI-free immunosuppression with everolimus might provide significant improvement in memory, concentration, and overall psychiatric symptoms among heart transplant recipients.

  10. Human and animal isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica show significant serotype-specific colonization and host-specific immune defense properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa; Dersch, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans.

  11. Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition activity against dengue virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A Rothan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1 and plectasin (PLSN were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 0.5±0.1 μM. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 μM. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities.

  12. Summary of significant floods in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1970 through 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Charles A.; Aldridge, Byron N.; Ross, Heather C.

    2001-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of significant floods that occurred throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands during 1970 through 1989. A summary of most devastating floods according to amount of damage and lives lost is provided for each year. State-by-state compilations include a description of the general hydroclimatology and conditions that produce significant floods, a description of climate and basin characteristics that significantly affect maximum flows, tables of data that compare each significant flood during 1970 through 1989 with the maximum flood for the entire period of record at selected streamflow-gaging stations, and maps showing the location of the streamflow-gaging stations.

  13. Groupthink: a significant threat to the homeland security of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ricciuti, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The groupthink psychological phenomenon prevalent in the homeland security enterprise is a significant threat to the United States. Homeland security is vulnerable to groupthink because its leaders frequently share similar backgrounds, work histories, and world-views. This similarity minimizes the chance of outside perspectives being introduced to the decision-making process, which insulates leadership from external ideas. This researc...

  14. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive care hospitalization by ...

  15. United States Marine Corps Career Designation Board: Significant Factors in Predicting Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Total Force Data Warehouse USMC United States Marine Corps USNA United States Naval Academy WTI Weapons and Tactics Instructor XO...Tactics Instructor ( WTI ), Professional Military Education (PME) complete, and Special Education/Advanced Degree Programs’ graduates had a

  16. Analysis of Significance of Unite Examination of AFP and DNA Polymorphism of P3 Promoter of IGF-ⅡGene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Su; ZHANG Feng-chun; SUN Chang-jiang; LIU Cheng-bai; ZHUANG Jiang-xing; ZHANG Jin

    2004-01-01

    The DNA of P3 promoter region of IGF-Ⅱ gene was obtained by means of PCR technique. The examination of DNA polymorphism by restriction endonuclease BstE Ⅱ and the examination of AFP by bioluminescence immunoassay technique were carried out. The results have a significant difference(P<0.005). But the positive rate of AFP is higher than that of DNA polymorphism. The experimental result shows that the change of the DNA polymorphism of IGF-Ⅱis not the only carcinogenic factor. The suggested unite examination is the best method for the diagnosis of the primary hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  18. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  19. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F. Patrick; Suaya, Jose A.; Ray, G. Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L.; Mera, Robertino M.; Close, Nicole M.; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  20. Significant Independent Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency in Inpatients and Outpatients of a Nephrology Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Bentli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Kidney disease was found to be a major risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in a population study of patients hospitalized. The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency inpatients and outpatients in a nephrology department during fall and to evaluate effect of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels and previous supplementation of cholecalciferol on vitamin D status. Methods. We studied 280 subjects in total, between October and January. The subjects were recruited from the following two groups: (a inpatients and (b outpatients in nephrology unit. We examined previous documentary evidence of vitamin D supplementation of the patients. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among these 280 patients was 62,1% (174 patients. Fifty-three patients (18.9% had severe vitamin D deficiency, 121 patients (43.2% moderate vitamin D deficiency, and 66 patients (23.6% vitamin D insufficiency. In logistic regression analysis female gender, not having vitamin D supplementation history, low serum albumin, and low blood urea nitrogen levels were significant independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency while no association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine, eGFR, and being hospitalized was found. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency, seems to be an important problem in both inpatients and outpatients of nephrology. Monitoring serum 25(OHD concentrations regularly and replacement of vitamin D are important. Women in Turkey are at more risk of deficiency and may therefore need to consume higher doses of vitamin D.

  1. Are biogenic emissions a significant source of summertime atmospheric toluene in rural Northeastern United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. White

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Summertime atmospheric toluene enhancements at Thompson Farm in the rural northeastern United States were unexpected and resulted in a toluene/benzene seasonal pattern that was distinctly different from that of other anthropogenic volatile organic compounds. Consequentially, three hydrocarbon sources were investigated for potential contributions to the enhancements during 2004–2006. These included: 1 increased warm season fuel evaporation coupled with changes in reformulated gasoline (RFG content to meet U.S. EPA summertime volatility standards, 2 local industrial emissions and 3 local vegetative emissions. The contribution of fuel evaporation emission to summer toluene mixing ratios was estimated to range from 16 to 30 pptv d−1, and did not fully account for the observed enhancements (20–50 pptv in 2004–2006. Static chamber measurements of alfalfa, a crop at Thompson Farm, and dynamic branch enclosure measurements of loblolly pine trees in North Carolina suggested vegetative emissions of 5 and 12 pptv d−1 for crops and coniferous trees, respectively. Toluene emission rates from alfalfa are potentially much larger as these plants were only sampled at the end of the growing season. Measured biogenic fluxes were on the same order of magnitude as the influence from gasoline evaporation and industrial sources (regional industrial emissions estimated at 7 pptv d−1 and indicated that local vegetative emissions make a significant contribution to summertime toluene enhancements. Additional studies are needed to characterize the variability and factors controlling toluene emissions from alfalfa and other vegetation types throughout the growing season.

  2. Significance of Geological Units of the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, as Seen by Ambient Noise Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Růžek, Bohuslav; Valentová, Lubica; Gallovič, František

    2016-05-01

    Broadband recordings of 88 seismic stations distributed in the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, and covering the time period of up to 12 years were processed by a cross-correlation technique. All correlograms were analyzed by a novel approach to get both group and phase dispersion of Rayleigh and Love waves. Individual dispersion curves were averaged in five distinct geological units which constitute the Bohemian Massif (Saxothuringian, Teplá-Barrandean, Sudetes, Moravo-Silesian, and Moldanubian). Estimated error of the averaged dispersion curves are by an order smaller than the inherent variability due to the 3D distribution of seismic velocities within the units. The averaged dispersion data were inverted for 1D layered velocity models including their uncertainty, which are characteristic for each of the geological unit. We found that, overall, the differences between the inverted velocity models are of similar order as the variability inside the geological units, suggesting that the geological specification of the units is not fully reflected into the S-wave propagation velocities on a regional scale. Nevertheless, careful treatment of the dispersion data allowed us to identify some robust characteristics of the area. The vp to vs ratio is anomalously low (~1.6) for all the units. The Moldanubian is the most rigid and most homogeneous part of the Bohemian Massif. Middle crust in the depth range of ~3-15 km is relatively homogeneous across the investigated region, while both uppermost horizon (0-3 km) and lower crust (>15 km) exhibit lower degree of homogeneity.

  3. Brucellosis in the United States: Role and Significance of Wildlife Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory programs for brucellosis in domestic livestock have been active in the United States for almost 80 years. Wildlife reservoirs of brucellosis include bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) for B. abortus whereas B. suis is the predominant species infecting feral swine. The...

  4. Functional Roles and Social Roles: Adolescents' Significant Others in the United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; And Others

    This study examined the quality of relations characterizing adolescents' social environments and related variations in the quality of relations to associates' social roles and to the gender and culture of both associates and subjects. It investigated whether adolescents from Japan and from the United States described their relationships with…

  5. Database of significant deposits of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Keith R.; DeYoung, Jr., John H.; Ludington, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the largest mineral deposits contain most of the known mineral endowment (Singer and DeYoung, 1980). Sometimes called giant or world-class deposits, these largest deposits account for a very large share of historic and current mineral production and resources in industrial society (Singer, 1995). For example, Singer (1995) shows that the largest 10 percent of the world’s gold deposits contain 86 percent of the gold discovered to date. Many mineral resource issues and investigations are more easily addressed if limited to the relatively small number of deposits that contain most of the known mineral resources. An estimate of known resources using just these deposits would normally be sufficient, because considering smaller deposits would not add significantly to the total estimate. Land-use planning should treat mainly with these deposits due to their relative scarcity, the large share of known resources they contain, and the fact that economies of scale allow minerals to be produced much more cheaply from larger deposits. Investigation of environmental and other hazards that result from mining operations can be limited to these largest deposits because they account for most of past and current production.

  6. Randomised control trial showed that delayed cord clamping and milking resulted in no significant differences in iron stores and physical growth parameters at one year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shivam; Jaiswal, Vijay; Singh, Dharamveer; Jaiswal, Prateek; Garg, Amit; Upadhyay, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Placental redistribution has been shown to improve haematological outcomes in the immediate neonatal period and early infancy. This study compared the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM) on haematological and growth parameters at 12 months of age. This was a follow-up study of a randomised control trial, conducted in a tertiary care paediatric centre from August 2013 to August 2014. We studied 200 apparently healthy Indian infants randomised at birth to receive DCC for 60-90 seconds or UCM. The outcome measures were iron status and physical growth parameters at 12 months. Of the 200 babies, 161 completed the follow-up and baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. The mean haemoglobin in the DCC group (102.2 (17.2) g/L and serum ferritin 16.44 (2.77) μg/L) showed no significant differences to the UCM group (98.6 (17.1) g/L and 18.2 (2.8) μg/L) at one year. In addition, there were no significant differences in weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference in the two groups. Term-born Indian infants who had DCC at 60-90 seconds or UCM showed no significant differences in ferritin and haemoglobin levels and growth parameters at 12 months of age. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

  8. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Stories in Spanish about aspects of the history, culture, and daily life of Mexican Americans are included in this reading book developed by Edgewood School District Bilingual Program in San Antonio, Texas, for students in grade four through secondary school. "Escaparate" is the third of eight units being developed in this reading and language…

  9. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Stories in Spanish about aspects of the history, culture, and daily life of Mexican Americans are included in this reading book developed by Edgewood School District Bilingual Program in San Antonio, Texas, for students in grade four through secondary school. "Escaparate" is the third of eight units being developed in this reading and language…

  10. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Muhummad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emirates. Sample data and ordinary least square (OLS regression techniques are applied to delineate factors influencing consumers’ awareness about organic food. The results from this regression analysis highlight the importance of specific socioeconomic determinants that change awareness about organic food products in United Arab Emirates (UAE households. This study finds that awareness about organic food is influenced more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation and age. These research findings apply to other economies and societies that have an increasing per capita spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive to information provided about organic food. Therefore, these results are important to these research beneficiaries including food marketing planners, researchers, and agricultural and food policy makers.

  11. The Significance of Education for Mortality Compression in the United States*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dustin C.; Hayward, Mark D.; Montez, Jennifer Karas; Humme, Robert A.; Chiu, Chi-Tsun; Hidajat, Mira M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of old-age mortality trends assess whether longevity improvements over time are linked to increasing compression of mortality at advanced ages. The historical backdrop of these studies is the long-term improvements in a population's socioeconomic resources that fueled longevity gains. We extend this line of inquiry by examining whether socioeconomic differences in longevity within a population are accompanied by old-age mortality compression. Specifically, we document educational differences in longevity and mortality compression for older men and women in the United States. Drawing on the fundamental cause of disease framework, we hypothesize that both longevity and compression increase with higher levels of education and that women with the highest levels of education will exhibit the greatest degree of longevity and compression. Results based on the Health and Retirement Study and the National Health Interview Survey Linked Mortality File confirm a strong educational gradient in both longevity and mortality compression. We also find that mortality is more compressed within educational groups among women than men. The results suggest that educational attainment in the United States maximizes life chances by delaying the biological aging process. PMID:22556045

  12. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

  13. A dual acting compound releasing nitric oxide (NO) and ibuprofen, NCX 320, shows significant therapeutic effects in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciorati, Clara; Miglietta, Daniela; Buono, Roberta; Pisa, Viviana; Cattaneo, Dario; Azzoni, Emanuele; Brunelli, Silvia; Clementi, Emilio

    2011-09-01

    A resolutive therapy for muscular dystrophies, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases leading to muscular degeneration and in the severe forms to death, is still lacking. Since inflammation and defects in nitric oxide generation are recognized key pathogenic events in muscular dystrophy, we have analysed the effects of a derivative of ibuprofen, NCX 320, belonging to the class of cyclooxygenase inhibiting nitric oxide donator (CINOD), in the α-sarcoglycan null mice, a severe mouse model of dystrophy. NCX 320 was administered daily in the diet for 8months starting 1month from weaning. Muscle functional recovery was evaluated by free wheel and treadmill tests at 8months. Serum creatine kinase activity, as well as the number of diaphragm inflammatory infiltrates and necrotic fibres, was measured as indexes of skeletal muscle damage. Muscle regeneration was evaluated in diaphragm and tibialis anterior muscles, measuring the numbers of centronucleated fibres and of myogenic precursor cells. NCX 320 mitigated muscle damage, reducing significantly serum creatine kinase activity, the number of necrotic fibres and inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, NCX 320 stimulated muscle regeneration increasing significantly the number of myogenic precursor cells and regenerating fibres. All these effects concurred in inducing a significant improvement of muscle function, as assessed by both free wheel and treadmill tests. These results describe the properties of a new compound incorporating nitric oxide donation together with anti-inflammatory properties, showing that it is effective in slowing muscle dystrophy progression long term. Of importance, this new compound deserves specific attention for its potential in the therapy of muscular dystrophy given that ibuprofen is well tolerated in paediatric patients and with a profile of safety that makes it suitable for chronic treatment such as the one required in muscular dystrophies.

  14. Wind energy as a significant source of electricity for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, R.G.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses wind energy and its potential to significantly impact the generation of electricity within the US. The principles and the equipment used to convert wind energy to electricity are described, as is the status of current technology. Markets and production projections are given. There is discussion of the advances required to reduce the selling cost of electricity generated from the wind from today`s price of about $0.05 per kilowatt-hour to full cost-competitiveness with gas- and coal-based electricity.

  15. Yearly variation of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9 grown outdoors, which showed a significant increase after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, S; Nakano, A; Kenmochi, M; Yamamoto, I; Murai, M; Takahashi, E; Yamaguchi, A; Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, M; Sugiyama, K; Yogo, A; Yazaki, T; Okumura, M; Shima, N; Satoh, M; Yoshimoto, M; Xiao, L Z

    1996-02-01

    Scoring of spontaneous somatic pink mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9, a heterozygote for flower color (blue/pink; the blue color being dominant), was carried out for 11 years on plants grown outdoors, during the period of May 11-31 (for 3 weeks) in every year from 1982 to 1992. Weekly and yearly variations of the spontaneous mutation frequency were observed, and such variations could mostly be correlated to the difference in temperature. That is, the mutation frequency was generally higher in the weeks and years when the temperature was relatively low, showing the strongest negative correlation with the average minimum temperature. The variations were also correlated to the diurnal temperature difference, the mutation frequency being higher with larger diurnal temperature difference in general. However, the mutation frequency observed in 1986 was exceptionally higher than that expected from the temperature for this year, and was very significantly higher than for other years. The scoring of mutation frequency was thus continued in 1986 for an additional 4 weeks (June 1-28), and it was confirmed that such higher mutation frequencies lasted for 6 weeks in total. The exceptionally high mutation frequency seemed to be related to the radioactive fallout which occurred in early to mid May of 1986, even in Japan, after the serious nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, and also to the biological concentrations of radioactive nuclides which subsequently occurred, although it was difficult to conclude this definitely. The mutation frequency in 1987 was second highest, and was also significantly higher than the lowest mutation frequency observed in 1990.

  16. The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia D.; Bouma, Johan; Wallinga, Jakob; Tittonell, Pablo; Smith, Pete; Cerdà, Artemi; Montanarella, Luca; Quinton, John N.; Pachepsky, Yakov; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bardgett, Richard D.; Moolenaar, Simon; Mol, Gerben; Jansen, Boris; Fresco, Louise O.

    2016-04-01

    In this forum paper we discuss how soil scientists can help to reach the recently adopted UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the most effective manner. Soil science, as a land-related discipline, has important links to several of the SDGs, which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and the ecosystem services that are linked to those functions (see graphical abstract in the Supplement). We explore and discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally, in terms of our procedures and practices, and externally, in terms of our relations with colleague scientists in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the following steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole: (i) embrace the UN SDGs, as they provide a platform that allows soil science to demonstrate its relevance for realizing a sustainable society by 2030; (ii) show the specific value of soil science: research should explicitly show how using modern soil information can improve the results of inter- and transdisciplinary studies on SDGs related to food security, water scarcity, climate change, biodiversity loss and health threats; (iii) take leadership in overarching system analysis of ecosystems, as soils and soil scientists have an integrated nature and this places soil scientists in a unique position; (iii) raise awareness of soil organic matter as a key attribute of soils to illustrate its importance for soil functions and ecosystem services; (iv) improve the transfer of knowledge through knowledge brokers with a soil background; (v) start at the basis: educational programmes are needed at all levels, starting in primary schools, and emphasizing practical, down-to-earth examples; (vi) facilitate communication with the policy arena by framing research in terms that resonate with politicians in terms of the policy cycle or by considering drivers, pressures and responses affecting impacts of land

  17. The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Bouma, Johan; Wallinga, Jakob; Tittonell, Pablo; SMith, Pete; Cerda, Artermi; Montanarella, Luca; Quinton, John; Pachepsky, Yakov; van der Putten, Wim; BArdgett, Richard; Moolenaar, Simon; Mol, Gerben; Janssen, Boris; Fresco, Louise

    2017-04-01

    In this research we discuss how soil scientists can help to reach the recently adopted UN Sustainable Development Goals in the most effective manner. Soil science, as a land-related discipline has important links to several of the SDGs which are demonstrated through the functions of soils and the ecosystem services that are linked to those functions. We explore and discuss how soil scientists can rise to the challenge both internally, in terms of our procedures and practices, and externally in terms of our relations with colleague scientists in other disciplines, diverse groups of stakeholders and the policy arena. To meet these goals we recommend the following steps to be taken by the soil science community as a whole: (i) Embrace the UN Sustainable Development Goals, as they provide a platform that allows soil science to demonstrate its relevance for realizing a sustainable society by 2030; (ii) Show the specific value of soil science: Research should explicitly show how using modern soil information can improve the results of inter- and trans-disciplinary studies on SDGs related to food security, water scarcity, climate change, biodiversity loss and health threats; (iii) Given the integrative nature of soils, soil scientists are in a unique position to take leadership in overarching systems-analyses of ecosystems; (iii) Raise awareness of soil organic matter as a key attribute of soils to illustrate its importance for soil functions and ecosystem services; (iv) Improve the transfer of knowledge through knowledge brokers with a soil background; (v) Start at the basis: educational programs are needed at all levels, starting in primary schools, and emphasizing practical, down-to-earth examples; (vi) Facilitate communication with the policy arena by framing research in terms that resonate with politicians in terms of the policy cycle or by considering drivers, pressures and responses affecting impacts of land use change; and finally (vii) All this is only possible

  18. Paleoclimatic significance of Late Quaternary eolian deposition on the Piedmont and High Plains, Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Steven L.; Oglesby, Robert; Markgraf, Vera; Stafford, Thomas

    1995-06-01

    Presently stabilized dune systems on the piedmont of eastern Colorado and adjacent High Plains have been repeatedly re-activated during the past 20,000 years. Radiocarbon and thermoluminescence age estimates indicate eolian activity late in the last glacial cycle ca. 20,000-12,000 yr B.P. and subsequent episodes of dune reactivation at ca. 6000, 4500 and 1000 yr B.P. Pollen analysis from aggraded buried soil A horizons show a shift from grasses and shrubs to goosefoot, a disturbance indicator. The association of maximum goosefoot levels with the coarsest part of the buried A horizon immediately prior to burial by eolian sand indicates a substantial reduction in grass and dominance of shrubs with onset of eolian activity. The vegetation change and eolian depositional sequence indicates a reduction in plant coverage with regional drought, possibly augmented by bison grazing and surface heating effects. We infer an increase in summer monsoonal precipitation between 13,000 and 9000 yr B.P. reflecting a heightened land-to-sea temperature gradient associated with rising summer solar-insolation values and a meltwater cooled Gulf of Mexico. Dune reactivation in the middle and late Holocene appears to be independent of summer insolation values, but rather reflects a small (< 10°) easterly shift of the Bermuda High and western ridge aloft, difficult parameters to link to a cause and to resolve with climate models.

  19. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don’t know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Fisher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC. Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%–49.7%] of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%–76.6%] of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1 that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2 data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3 data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/.

  20. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don't know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G Brooke; Peng, Roger; Leek, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%-49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%-76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/.

  1. A randomized trial in a massive online open course shows people don’t know what a statistically significant relationship looks like, but they can learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron; Anderson, G. Brooke; Peng, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Scatterplots are the most common way for statisticians, scientists, and the public to visually detect relationships between measured variables. At the same time, and despite widely publicized controversy, P-values remain the most commonly used measure to statistically justify relationships identified between variables. Here we measure the ability to detect statistically significant relationships from scatterplots in a randomized trial of 2,039 students in a statistics massive open online course (MOOC). Each subject was shown a random set of scatterplots and asked to visually determine if the underlying relationships were statistically significant at the P < 0.05 level. Subjects correctly classified only 47.4% (95% CI [45.1%–49.7%]) of statistically significant relationships, and 74.6% (95% CI [72.5%–76.6%]) of non-significant relationships. Adding visual aids such as a best fit line or scatterplot smooth increased the probability a relationship was called significant, regardless of whether the relationship was actually significant. Classification of statistically significant relationships improved on repeat attempts of the survey, although classification of non-significant relationships did not. Our results suggest: (1) that evidence-based data analysis can be used to identify weaknesses in theoretical procedures in the hands of average users, (2) data analysts can be trained to improve detection of statistically significant results with practice, but (3) data analysts have incorrect intuition about what statistically significant relationships look like, particularly for small effects. We have built a web tool for people to compare scatterplots with their corresponding p-values which is available here: http://glimmer.rstudio.com/afisher/EDA/. PMID:25337457

  2. Surgical management of pneumothorax: significance of effective admission or communication strategies between the district general hospitals and specialized unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad I; Martin-Ucar, Antonio E; Nakas, Apostolos; Waller, David A

    2011-11-01

    A preoperative delay in emergency surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax is associated with a poor outcome after surgery and a prolonged hospital stay. To reduce preoperative delays, all tertiary referrals from district general hospitals to our thoracic surgery unit were processed through a 'clinical decisions unit' (CDU). Prior to the establishment of the CDU, these patients were added to a waiting list for a surgical bed. This study has reviewed the effect of this change in admission policy on the efficiency of treatment for non-elective spontaneous pneumothorax. An intergroup comparison (pre-CDU group vs. post-CDU group) was made of the following parameters: referral to transfer time, transfer to surgery time and length of inpatient stay in the referring and tertiary hospitals. There were no significant differences in gender, diagnosis, treatment in the referring hospitals, postoperative clinical outcome, or indications for or type of surgery. The total length of inpatient stay in the referring and tertiary hospitals was significantly reduced for the post-CDU group (12 vs. 15 days; P<0.001), which was attributed to the earlier transfer of patients (18 vs. 78 hours; P<0.001) hours. Allowing surgical access to a traditional medical admission unit is therefore, cost-effective and significantly improves the efficiency of non-elective pneumothorax surgery.

  3. Go For It七年级下Unit 11 What do you think of game shows?教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任亚茹

    2012-01-01

    <正>Ⅰ.Analysis of the teaching material内容分析This is the first class in Section A of Unit11.The language goal is to practice telling one’s preferences or opinions about events.This is a topic that students will be very interested in.In this unit,students will learn some names of different kinds of TV shows and movies,the related popular culture and the way of showing opinions.What do you think of...?It is a question used to ask for others’opinions in Section A.

  4. Human papillomavirus shows highly variable prevalence in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and no significant correlation to p16INK4a overexpression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Sanne Høxbroe; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; von Buchwald, Christian

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This review investigates the role of p16(INK4a) as a marker of transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the regional prevalence of HPV in ESCC. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched...... countries. HPV DNA was detected in 12.0% (n = 161) of 1347 specimens, and p16(INK4a) was detected in 33.9% (n = 209) of 617 specimens. The HPV presence varied from 0% to 70% among the studies. The prevalence of p16(INK4a) overexpression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative specimens demonstrated...... no statistically significant difference, neither for the combined data (p = 0.7507) nor for any individual study, and detection of p16(INK4a) overexpression did not affect the odds of tumors being HPV positive (odds ratio = 1.0666 with 95% confidence interval 0.7040-1.6157). In a pooled analysis, the sensitivity...

  5. The Brazos River (Texas) Sequence Shows Significant Cooling in the Waning Stages of the Tsunami Surges Caused by the Chicxulub Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, J.; Vellekoop, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazos river K-Pg sequences are among the best preserved and studied in the world, yet any interpretation remains highly controversial. Most researchers, however, agree that the coarse clastic deposits are the direct result of a train of Chicxulub impact triggered tsunami surges. Alternative interpretations such as low stand deposits or (super) storm deposits lack sedimentological support. The entire impact related deposit starts with a strong ground shaking from the impact-induced earthquake, disintegrating unconsolidated uppermost Maastrichtian muds, and opening 0.5m deep and 5 m long fissures filled with spherule-rich debris. The disintegrated debris has been taken up in a coarse mass-flow, just underlying the first coarse tsunami deposit containing impact spherules from Chicxulub. One to four distinct tsunami surges follow the basal surge, each leaving a graded coarse to medium sand deposit assembled from coarse debris strewn on the local seafloor such as glauconitic pellets, fish-debris and near coastal foraminifers. The medium-grained sand layers are typically cross-bedded in linguoid and linguoid-climbing current-ripple sets, indicating a dominant S to SE seaward directed flow. Such climbing ripple-sets are found in most tsunami deposits in NE Mexico. These climbing ripples indicate an extremely high suspension load, quickly settling on the seafloor in the waning tsunami surge backflow-currents. Occasionally, the climbing ripple directions are reversed, showing the upflow direction of the incoming tsunami surge. Such linguoid climbing ripple sets have often been mistaken for storm-wave induced hummocky cross-bedding (HCS), leading to storm-deposit hypotheses. The final phase of settling out of the tsunami surges, may be re-suspension due to impact-triggered storms in the Gulf, is represented by continuously graded, very fine-grained sand to silt deposit. This is initially a hard 10 cm thick silty lime-mudstone layer with plant debris, grading into drab

  6. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  7. A prospective echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients in the United States: prevalence and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudha Ramasubbu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kumudha Ramasubbu1, Anita Deswal1, Cheryl Herdejurgen2, David Aguilar1, Adaani E Frost21Section of Cardiology, Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA; 2Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USABackground: Pulmonary hypertension (PH, a disease which carries substantial morbidity and mortality, has been reported to occur in 25%–45% of dialysis patients. No prospective evaluation of the prevalence or clinical significance of PH in chronic dialysis patients in the United States (US has been undertaken.Methods: Echocardiograms were performed prospectively in chronic hemodialysis patients prior to dialysis at a single dialysis center. PH was defined as a tricuspid regurgitant jet ≥2.5 m/s and “more severe PH” as ≥3.0 m/s. Clinical outcomes recovered were all-cause hospitalizations and death at 12 months.Results: In a cohort of 90 patients, 42 patients (47% met the definition of PH. Of those, 18 patients (20% met the definition of more severe PH. At 12 months, mortality was significantly higher in patients with PH (26% compared with patients without PH (6%. All-cause hospitalizations were similar in patients with PH and without PH. Echocardiographic findings suggesting impaired left ventricular function and elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure were significantly associated with PH.Conclusion: This prospective cross-sectional study of a single dialysis unit suggests that PH may be present in nearly half of US dialysis patients and when present is associated with increased mortality. Echocardiographic findings demonstrate an association between elevated filling pressures, elevated pulmonary artery pressures, and higher mortality, suggesting that the PH may be secondary to diastolic dysfunction and compounded by volume overload.Keywords: renal failure, pulmonary hypertension, diastolic dysfunction

  8. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  9. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students' Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula.

  10. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  11. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  12. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  13. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  14. The Significance of Language Study in Library and Information Science: A Comparison of Two Programs in the United States and Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Charlotte; Faires, Debbie; Hirsh, Sandra; Carranza, Nítida

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study evaluated the role of foreign language study within the Library and Information Science (LIS) curriculum of two programs in the United States and Honduras. The purpose of this research was to understand the significance and usefulness of language courses from the perspective of the students enrolled. Students who had…

  15. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Guia Para El Maestro (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Teacher's Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Instructions for use of "Escaparate," the third of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by Edgewood School District's Bilingual Program, San Antonio, Texas, are given in this teacher guide. Originally intended for grades four through six, the program may be used from fourth grade to secondary school in Spanish reading and…

  16. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Cuaderno de Trabajo (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Workbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Exercises, tests, puzzles, enrichment activities, maps, and games are included in this student workbook for "Escaparate," the third in a series of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by the Bilingual Program of Edgewood School District, San Antonio, Texas. The publication can be used as ditto sheets for duplicating or in…

  17. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Cuaderno de Trabajo (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Workbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Exercises, tests, puzzles, enrichment activities, maps, and games are included in this student workbook for "Escaparate," the third in a series of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by the Bilingual Program of Edgewood School District, San Antonio, Texas. The publication can be used as ditto sheets for duplicating or in…

  18. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Guia Para El Maestro (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Teacher's Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Instructions for use of "Escaparate," the third of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by Edgewood School District's Bilingual Program, San Antonio, Texas, are given in this teacher guide. Originally intended for grades four through six, the program may be used from fourth grade to secondary school in Spanish reading and…

  19. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    . These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures.

  20. In the United States, "Opt-Out" States Show No Increase in Access to Anesthesia Services for Medicare Beneficiaries Compared with Non-"Opt-Out" States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Eric C; Miller, Thomas R; Halzack, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, anesthesia care can be provided by anesthesiologists or nurse anesthetists. Since 2001, 17 states have exercised their right to "opt-out" of the federal requirement that a physician supervise the administration of anesthesia by a nurse anesthetist, with the majority citing increased access to anesthesia care as the rationale for their decision. By using Medicare data, we found that most (4 of 5) cohorts of "opt-out" states likely experienced smaller growth in anesthesia utilization rates compared with non-"opt-out" states, suggesting that opt-out was not associated with an increase in access to anesthesia care.

  1. Children born extremely preterm show significant lower cognitive, language and motor function levels compared with children born at term, as measured by the Bayley-III at 2.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsson, J; Stjernqvist, K

    2014-05-01

    To assess developmental outcomes of children aged 2.5 years born extremely preterm. As a part of the population-based Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS), 399 children born before 27 weeks of gestation and 366 control children born at term were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III), assigning scores for cognition, receptive and expressive communication, fine and gross motor functions. Based on control group means, prevalences of developmental delay in the preterm group were calculated. Mean score differences between subtests constituting the overall Bayley-III indices were analysed within both groups. After controlling for socio-demographic, child and assessment variables, analyses showed significantly lower performances of the preterm group compared with the control group on the Bayley-III subtests. Prevalence of moderate-severe delay was 10.8% in cognitive, 14.9% in receptive communication, 14.5% in expressive communication, 12.4% in fine motor and 7.0% in gross motor functions. Significant differences between performances on subtests included in the same indices were detected. Extremely preterm children show significant lower cognitive, communicative and motor function levels at 2.5 years compared with children born at term. Bayley-III assessments permit the acquisition of nuanced information about development following extreme prematurity. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. GDF11/BMP11 activates both smad1/5/8 and smad2/3 signals but shows no significant effect on proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Cheng, Feng; Du, Xue-Ting; Gao, Jin-Lai; Xiao, Xiao-Lin; Li, Na; Li, Shan-Liang; Dong, De Li

    2016-03-15

    GDF11/BMP11, a member of TGF-β superfamily, was reported to rejuvenate heart, skeletal muscle and blood vessel architecture in aged mice. However, the rejuvenative effects of GDF11 were questioned recently. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF11 on smad and non-smad signals in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the effects of GDF11 on proliferation and migration of HUVECs and primary rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs). GDF11 factor purchased from two different companies (PeproTech and R&D Systems) was comparatively studied. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions. The cell viability and migration were examined by using MTT and wound healing assays. Results showed that GDF11 activated both smad1/5/8 and smad2/3 signals in HUVECs. GDF11 increased protein expression of NADPH oxidase 4(NOX4) in HUVECs. GDF11 showed no significant effect on the protein level of p38, p-p38, ERK, p-ERK, Akt, p-Akt (Ser473) and p-Akt(Thr308), but increased the protein level of p-JNK and p-AMPK in HUVECs, and these increases were inhibited by antioxidant mitoTEMPO treatment. GDF11 slightly increased cell viability after short-term treatment and slightly decreased cell viability after long-term treatment. GDF11 showed no significant effect on cell proliferation and migration. These data indicated that the notion of GDF11 as a rejuvenation-related factor for endothelial cells needs to be cautious.

  3. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  4. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiestas, Fabian; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Martins, Silvia S; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Posada-Villa, Jose; Anthony, James C

    2010-03-23

    Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426), Colombia (n = 5,782) and the United States (USA; n = 8,228). The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO) users across these surveyed populations. The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004) and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001). This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis-related social and legal problems more

  5. A candidate gene study of serotonergic pathway genes and pain relief during treatment with escitalopram in patients with neuropathic pain shows significant association to serotonin receptor2C (HTR2C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Møller, Malik U; Christiansen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    the association between polymorphisms in genes involved in the serotonergic pathway and the effect of escitalopram on peripheral neuropathic pain. METHODS: We genotyped 34 participants from a placebo-controlled trial of escitalopram in peripheral neuropathic pain for polymorphisms in five genes: the serotonin.......047), with 75% carrying the C allele being responders. The same tendency was seen in women. Similarly, carriership of the C allele at rs6318 was associated with better pain relief during treatment with escitalopram [odds ratio (OR) 15.5, p = 0.014)] Furthermore, there was a tendency of better relief...... with increasing number of short alleles for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter (OR 5.7, p = 0.057). None of the other polymorphisms showed a significant association with treatment response to escitalopram. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that variation in the HTR2C gene is associated...

  6. CONSUMPTION TRENDS OF RESCUE ANTI-PSYCHOTICS FOR DELIRIUM IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS (ICU DELIRIUM) SHOW INFLUENCE OF CORRESPONDING LUNAR PHASE CYCLES: A RETROSPECTIVE AUDIT STUDY FROM ACADEMIC UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Pallekonda, Vinay; Thomas, Ronald; Mckelvey, George; Ghoddoussi, Farhad

    2015-02-01

    The etiology of delirium in intensive care units (ICU) is usually multi-factorial. There is common "myth" that lunar phases affect human body especially human brains (and minds). In the absence of any pre-existing studies in ICU patients, the current retrospective study was planned to investigate whether lunar phases play any role in ICU delirium by assessing if lunar phases correlate with prevalence of ICU delirium as judged by the corresponding consumptions of rescue anti-psychotics used for delirium in ICU. After institutional review board approval with waived consent, the daily census of ICU patients from the administrative records was accessed at an academic university's Non-Cancer Hospital in a Metropolitan City of United States. Thereafter, the ICU pharmacy's electronic database was accessed to obtain data on the use of haloperidol and quetiapine over the two time periods for patients aged 18 years or above. Subsequently the data was analyzed for whether the consumption of haloperidol or quetiapine followed any trends corresponding to the lunar phase cycles. A total of 5382 pharmacy records of haloperidol equivalent administrations were analyzed for this study. The cumulative prevalence of incidents of haloperidol equivalent administrations peaked around the full moon period and troughed around the new moon period. As compared to male patients, female patients followed much more uniform trends of haloperidol equivalent administrations' incidents which peaked around the full moon period and troughed around the new moon period. Further sub-analysis of 70-lunar cycles across the various solar months of the total 68-month study period revealed that haloperidol equivalent administrations' incidents peaked around the full moon periods during the months of November-December and around the new moon periods during the month of July which all are interestingly the major holiday months (a potential confounding factor) in the United States. Consumption trends of rescue

  7. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae enteric colonization acquired during intensive care unit stay: the significance of risk factors for its development and its impact on mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Marangos, Markos; Fligou, Fotini; Christofidou, Myrto; Sklavou, Christina; Vamvakopoulou, Sophia; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Filos, Kriton S

    2013-10-01

    A prospective observational study of 226 intensive care unit (ICU) patients was conducted during a 25-month period. Rectal samples were taken at day 1, 4, and 7 and, afterwards, once weekly. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified using standard techniques, whereas the presence of bla(KPC) gene was confirmed by PCR. During ICU stay, 72.6% of the patients were colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp). Male gender, prior bed occupants, and patients in nearby beds colonized with KPC-Kp, tracheotomy, number of invasive catheters inserted, and number of antibiotics administered were the major risk factors for KPC-Kp colonization. ICU mortality (35.4%) was significantly related to Simplified Acute Physiology II score and respiratory insufficiency upon admission, cortisone administration, aminoglycoside administration, confirmed KPC-Kp infection, and severe sepsis or septic shock. The high prevalence of KPC-Kp enteric carriage in ICU patients and the significant mortality associated with KPC-Kp infection dictate the importance of early identification and isolation of such carriers.

  8. Follow-up of women with cervical cytological abnormalities showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Karin; Lu, Donghao; Elfström, K Miriam; Wang, Jiangrong; Andrae, Bengt; Dillner, Joakim; Sparén, Pär

    2017-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in abnormal cervical cytology among young women in cervical cancer screening is an increasing health burden, and comparative effectiveness studies of different management options for such diagnoses are needed. The objective of the study was to compare the incidence of invasive cervical cancer, following different management options pursued after an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion index smear. In this nationwide cohort study, we included all women aged 22-50 years and resident in Sweden 1989-2011 and with at least 1 cervical smear registered during the study period (n = 2,466,671). Follow-up of a first atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytological diagnosis within 25 months was classified as repeat cytology, colposcopy/biopsy, or without further assessment. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals of subsequent cervical cancer within 6.5 years following atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion were estimated using Poisson regression by age group and management strategy. Women managed with repeat cytology within 6 months after atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology had a similar risk of cervical cancer compared with colposcopy/biopsy (incidence rate ratio, 1.1, 95% confidence interval, 0.5-2.5, and incidence rate ratio, 2.0, 95% confidence interval, 0.6-6.5, respectively) among women aged 22-27 years. For women aged 28 years and older, women managed with repeat cytology had a higher risk for cervical cancer than women managed with colposcopy/biopsy. Our findings suggest that women with a first cytological diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance/low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion up to

  9. The cultural dissemination significance of TV reality show--Tang Poetry as example%浅析电视真人秀节目的文化传播意义--以《唐诗风云会》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹

    2016-01-01

    “真人秀”节目从西方电视媒体开始,经历的高度集中的发展,以惊人的速度在中国电视上发展壮大。在当今中国真人秀节目高度密集的情况下,如何利用真人秀节目进行对外文化传播,传播中国传统文化。文章通过对陕西卫视《唐诗风云会》节目的分析,总结了节目成功的基本要素。%The "reality show" program starts from the Western TV media, has experienced a high concentration of development, with amazing speed in the development of China's television. Chinese reality show highly intensive, how to use the reality show to carry out foreign cultural communication, spread traditional Chinese culture. This paper analyzes the Shaanxi satelite TV's "Tang poetry" program, summarizes the basic elements of the success of the program.

  10. Finding of No Significant Impact & Tiered Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit R-627 - Grace Street Ditch, Douglas County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    99 REHABILITATION PROGRAM Levee Unit R-627 – Grace Street Ditch Douglas County, Nebraska December 2014 PROJECT...Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit R-627 ??? Grace Street Ditch Douglas County, Nebraska 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...UNIT R-627 – GRACE STREET DITCH BANK EROSION REPAIR PROJECT OMAHA, DOUGLAS COUNTY, NEBRASKA December 2014 In accordance with the National

  11. A Tetravalent Sub-unit Dengue Vaccine Formulated with Ionizable Cationic Lipid Nanoparticle induces Significant Immune Responses in Rodents and Non-Human Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gokul; Thoryk, Elizabeth A; Cox, Kara S; Smith, Jeffrey S; Wolf, Jayanthi J; Gindy, Marian E; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-10-05

    Dengue virus has emerged as an important arboviral infection worldwide. As a complex pathogen, with four distinct serotypes, the development of a successful Dengue virus vaccine has proven to be challenging. Here, we describe a novel Dengue vaccine candidate that contains truncated, recombinant, Dengue virus envelope protein from all four Dengue virus serotypes (DEN-80E) formulated with ionizable cationic lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Immunization studies in mice, Guinea pigs, and in Rhesus macaques, revealed that LNPs induced high titers of Dengue virus neutralizing antibodies, with or without co-administration or encapsulation of a Toll-Like Receptor 9 agonist. Importantly, LNPs were also able to boost DEN-80E specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Cytokine and chemokine profiling revealed that LNPs induced strong chemokine responses without significant induction of inflammatory cytokines. In addition to being highly efficacious, the vaccine formulation proved to be well-tolerated, demonstrating no elevation in any of the safety parameters evaluated. Notably, reduction in cationic lipid content of the nanoparticle dramatically reduced the LNP's ability to boost DEN-80E specific immune responses, highlighting the crucial role for the charge of the LNP. Overall, our novel studies, across multiple species, reveal a promising tetravalent Dengue virus sub-unit vaccine candidate.

  12. Delimiting Evolutionarily Significant Units of the Fish, Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae), from the Orinoco and Amazon River Basins with Insight on Routes of Historical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Maria Doris; Andrade-López, Juana; Farias, Izeni P; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater fish Piaractus brachypomus is an economically important for human consumption both in commercial fisheries and aquaculture in all South American countries where it occurs. In recent years the species has decreased in abundance due to heavy fishing pressure. The species occurs in the Amazon and Orinoco basins, but lack of meristic differences between fishes from the 2 basins, and extensive migration associated with reproduction, have resulted in P. brachypomus being considered a single panmictic species. Analysis of 7 nuclear microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and COI), and body shape variables demonstrated that each river basin is populated by a distinct evolutionarily significant unit (ESU); the 2 groups had an average COI divergence of 3.5% and differed in body depth and relative head length. Historical connection between the 2 basins most probably occurred via the Rupununi portal rather than via the Casiquiare canal. The 2 ESUs will require independent fishery management, and translocation of fisheries stocks between basins should be avoided to prevent loss of local adaptations or extinction associated with outbreeding depression. Introductions of fishes from the Orinoco basin into the Putumayo River basin, an Amazon basin drainage, and evidence of hybridization between the 2 ESUs have already been detected.

  13. A Tetravalent Sub-unit Dengue Vaccine Formulated with Ionizable Cationic Lipid Nanoparticle induces Significant Immune Responses in Rodents and Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Gokul; Thoryk, Elizabeth A.; Cox, Kara S.; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Wolf, Jayanthi J.; Gindy, Marian E.; Casimiro, Danilo R.; Bett, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus has emerged as an important arboviral infection worldwide. As a complex pathogen, with four distinct serotypes, the development of a successful Dengue virus vaccine has proven to be challenging. Here, we describe a novel Dengue vaccine candidate that contains truncated, recombinant, Dengue virus envelope protein from all four Dengue virus serotypes (DEN-80E) formulated with ionizable cationic lipid nanoparticles (LNPs). Immunization studies in mice, Guinea pigs, and in Rhesus macaques, revealed that LNPs induced high titers of Dengue virus neutralizing antibodies, with or without co-administration or encapsulation of a Toll-Like Receptor 9 agonist. Importantly, LNPs were also able to boost DEN-80E specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Cytokine and chemokine profiling revealed that LNPs induced strong chemokine responses without significant induction of inflammatory cytokines. In addition to being highly efficacious, the vaccine formulation proved to be well-tolerated, demonstrating no elevation in any of the safety parameters evaluated. Notably, reduction in cationic lipid content of the nanoparticle dramatically reduced the LNP’s ability to boost DEN-80E specific immune responses, highlighting the crucial role for the charge of the LNP. Overall, our novel studies, across multiple species, reveal a promising tetravalent Dengue virus sub-unit vaccine candidate. PMID:27703172

  14. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2011-11-01

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD+opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 μg/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs.

  15. The crystal structure of the streptococcal collagen-like protein 2 globular domain from invasive M3-type group A Streptococcus shows significant similarity to immunomodulatory HIV protein gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Flavia; Bachert, Beth; De Simone, Alfonso; Lukomski, Slawomir; Berisio, Rita

    2014-02-21

    The arsenal of virulence factors deployed by streptococci includes streptococcal collagen-like (Scl) proteins. These proteins, which are characterized by a globular domain and a collagen-like domain, play key roles in host adhesion, host immune defense evasion, and biofilm formation. In this work, we demonstrate that the Scl2.3 protein is expressed on the surface of invasive M3-type strain MGAS315 of Streptococcus pyogenes. We report the crystal structure of Scl2.3 globular domain, the first of any Scl. This structure shows a novel fold among collagen trimerization domains of either bacterial or human origin. Despite there being low sequence identity, we observed that Scl2.3 globular domain structurally resembles the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus type 1, an essential subunit for viral fusion to human T cells. We combined crystallographic data with modeling and molecular dynamics techniques to gather information on the entire lollipop-like Scl2.3 structure. Molecular dynamics data evidence a high flexibility of Scl2.3 with remarkable interdomain motions that are likely instrumental to the protein biological function in mediating adhesive or immune-modulatory functions in host-pathogen interactions. Altogether, our results provide molecular tools for the understanding of Scl-mediated streptococcal pathogenesis and important structural insights for the future design of small molecular inhibitors of streptococcal invasion.

  16. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzatzarakis, Manolis N. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might

  17. The carpenter fork bed, a new - and older - Black-shale unit at the base of the New Albany shale in central Kentucky: Characterization and significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, S.F.; Ettensohn, F.R.; Norby, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Black shales previously interpreted to be Late Devonian cave-fill or slide deposits are shown to be much older Middle Devonian black shales only preserved locally in Middle Devonian grabens and structural lows in central Kentucky. This newly recognized - and older -black-shale unit occurs at the base of the New Albany Shale and is named the Carpenter Fork Bed of the Portwood Member of the New Albany Shale after its only known exposure on Carpenter Fork in Boyle County, central Kentucky; two other occurrences are known from core holes in east-central Kentucky. Based on stratigraphic position and conodont biostratigraphy, the unit is Middle Devonian (Givetian: probably Middle to Upper P. varcus Zone) in age and occurs at a position represented by an unconformity atop the Middle Devonian Boyle Dolostone and its equivalents elsewhere on the outcrop belt. Based on its presence as isolated clasts in the overlying Duffin Bed of the Portwood Member, the former distribution of the unit was probably much more widespread - perhaps occurring throughout western parts of the Rome trough. Carpenter Fork black shales apparently represent an episode of subsidence or sea-level rise coincident with inception of the third tectophase of the Acadian orogeny. Deposition, however, was soon interrupted by reactivation of several fault zones in central Kentucky, perhaps in response to bulge migration accompanying start of the tectophase. As a result, much of central Kentucky was uplifted and tilted, and the Carpenter Fork Bed was largely eroded from the top of the Boyle, except in a few structural lows like the Carpenter Fork graben where a nearly complete record of Middle to early Late Devonian deposition is preserved.

  18. Landscape keys in the shaping of some very significant national parks in the United States and Mexico, and their relationship with the Spanish national parks policies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Mollá Ruiz-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    The United States of America was the nation’s pioneer in the creation of national parks and influenced with their decisions and laws, a process that in a few years, would spread worldwide. Decades later, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Mexico and Spain follow suit, influenced in different ways by the American conservationist policy. This paper offers the history of the origins of the national parks in the three countries, their attachment to the ideas of landscape at the time i...

  19. Landscape keys in the shaping of some very significant national parks in the United States and Mexico, and their relationship with the Spanish national parks policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mollá Ruiz-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States of America was the nation’s pioneer in the creation of national parks and influenced with their decisions and laws, a process that in a few years, would spread worldwide. Decades later, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Mexico and Spain follow suit, influenced in different ways by the American conservationist policy. This paper offers the history of the origins of the national parks in the three countries, their attachment to the ideas of landscape at the time imposed in the West, and the various events that took place until the figure of the national park was imposed as essential to the conservation of nature, threatened by different circumstances in the three countries and most of the planet member.

  20. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  1. The Howard Zinn Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2012-01-01

    Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" is the nation's best-known work of American history. It is also the nation's best-selling survey of American history, having sold two million copies since its publication in 1980 and still selling about 125,000 paperback copies yearly. The fifth and current edition covers America up…

  2. A Show of Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S.-South Korea joint military exercise highlights mounting security concerns in Northeast Asia The United States and South Korea held a joint naval and air exercise,codenamed Invincible Spirit,in the Sea of Japan on My 25-28. The exercise,which involved 20 ships and submarines including the U.S.aircraft carrier USS George Washington,as well as 200 aircraft and 8,000 troops, was the biggest between the two countries since 1976.

  3. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  4. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  5. Revisiting Houston and Memphis: the background histories behind the discovery of the infestation by Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the United States and their significance in the contemporary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuno, Goro

    2012-11-01

    The discovery of Aedes albopictus Skuse infestation in Texas in 1985 and subsequent global spread of this mosquito have spawned a large number of publications worldwide. The unique discovery in this episode was used tire trade as mechanism by which this exotic mosquito was introduced to the United States. While most researchers have focused their attention primarily on recent events and scientific progress, far fewer examined in depth early contributions made in the United States still very much relevant for contemporary discussion and other important subjects associated with its infestation. The first part of this review covers early background histories of research on Ae. albopictus in the institutions in the United States and of introduction of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti to the U.S. territories in the eastern Pacific as well as dengue outbreaks therein. The second part covers evolution of recognition of the importance of tire as breeding site of domesticated or peridomestic dengue vectors and of its transport in the dispersal of these mosquitoes. In the third part, the significance of vector-borne viral disease outbreak potential of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in temperate regions and a variety of problems concerning vector spread and commercial practices learned in the past are reassessed in the context of contemporary research. I further identified as byproducts of this review two potentially important epidemiological mechanisms in the transmission of dengue in temperate regions, increasing tendency of indoor activity of Ae. albopictus and massive human movement associated with unpredictable political development.

  6. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  7. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  8. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  9. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  10. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. 基性熔岩火山地层单元类型、特征及其储层意义%Types, characteristics and reservoir significance of basic lava flow units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣健; 唐华风; 王璞珺; 高有峰; 赵然磊

    2016-01-01

    Based on profile measurements, the observation of the core samples, the interpretation of detection logging and seismic profiles, three typical fields and wells in Songliao Basin were chosen, and the types, the characteristics and the stacking patterns of the volcanic units were studied. The results show that the basic lava volcanic units can be formed by the diagenesis of solidification with cooling, and can be divided into four types according to their external morphology:the braid lava flow units, the fan-like lava flow units, the tabular lava flow units, and the tube lava flow units. The first three of these lava flow units are formed by the lava effusion on the ground, and the tube lava flow units are formed by the lava flowing along the buried tube underground. The internal structure of the lava flow units can be characterized by the vesicular zones. The braid lava flow units are divided into three parts:the rich vesicular zone on the tope, the spare vesicular zone in the middle, and the base vesicular zone at the base. The fan-like lava flow units have an autoclastic breccia zone on the rich vesicular zone, and a thin dense zone under the spare vesicular zone. The tabular lava flow units have a thick dense zone under the spare vesicular zone. The tube lava flow consists of a loop columnar zone in the outer ring and an autoclastic breccia core. The volcanostratigraphy is built by the stacking of volcanic units, and the spatial and temporal distribution of the lithology, and facies and reservoir are directly controlled by the shape and stacking patterns of lava flow units, and make up three distribution modes of reservoirs: the layered, the quasi layered and the mixed-lenticular. Thus this study may provide theoretic foundation for the final target attempt to define the fine characterization of the volcanostratigraphy using outcrop, well and seismic data.%为了探索基性熔岩的火山地层单元类型、特征与叠置关系,精选中国东北3个具

  13. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  14. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  15. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  16. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  17. Unit 5 Do you want to watch a game show?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    重点词汇1.mind v.介意;对(某事)烦恼mind通常用于疑问句、否定句或条件句中,其后可接名词、代词或动词ing形式。We don’t mind this heat.我们不在乎炎热。Do you mind taking care of my cat?你介意照顾我的猫吗?拓展mind还可作名词,意为"思想、主意"。Do you want to change your mind?你想改变你的主意吗?短语keep...in mind记住……never mind不要紧make up one’s mind决心;决定

  18. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  19. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  20. 重症监护病房人工气道患者胃液真菌鉴定及意义%Significance of identification of fungi in gastric juice of patients with artificial airway in intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯永文; 吴明; 李颖; 曾晶晶; 李明利; 何云; 李丹卉; 崔曼丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the direct relationship and significance between the pH value of gastric juice and positive fungi in culture critical patients with artificial airway in intensive care unit (ICU) by analyzing and identifying the type of fungi and their sensitivity to antifungal therapy.Methods A prospective study was conducted.One hundred and sixty patients (between December,2008 and October,2011 ) with artificial airway lasting longer than 48 hours were studied in the ICU at the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University.The gastric juice specimens were collected through a nasogastric tube,their pH values were measured using precise litmus paper.These samples were divided into six groups according to their pH values:pH≤2.0,pH 2.1-3.0,pH 3.1-4.0,pH 4.1-5.0,pH 5.1-6.0 and pH 6.1-7.0,and then fungi were cultured in these specimens with different pH values.Susceptibility of different fungicide drugs were also investigated.The susceptibility of fungi to gastric juice with different pH values was also investigated.The relationship between 28-day survival rate and the presence of fungi in gastric juice was analyzed in order to analyze the relationship of the presence of fungi in gastric juice and clinical outcome.Results ① No fungal growth was found in the gastric juice with pH value lower than 4.0,and the positive rate of fungal culture was significantly increased when the pH value of gastric juice raised.② The positive rate of fungal growth was 27.9%(55/197),in which,the positive rate of Candida and non-Candida fungi was 38.2% (21/55) and 61.8% (34/55)respectively,and the difference was significant statistically ( x 2 =4.16,P<0.05).③ The fungal positive rate was 40.0% (22/55) and 60.0% (33/55) respectively,in survivors (102 cases) and non-survivors (58 cases).The percentage of Candida infection and non-Candida infection was 54.5% (12/22) and 45.5% (10/22) respectively,in survivors,and it was 27.3% (9/33) and 72.7% (24

  1. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in combination with a twice-daily lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen in HIV-infected women showed effective contraception and a lack of clinically significant interactions, with good safety and tolerability: results of the ACTG 5283 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Amneris E; Cohn, Susan E; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Weinberg, Adriana; Livingston, Elizabeth; Klingman, Karin L; Aweeka, Francesca; Watts, D Heather

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an open-label, steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of drug-drug interactions between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and twice-daily lopinavir (LPV) plus low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (LPV/r) among 24 HIV-infected women and compared the results to those for HIV-infected women receiving DMPA while on no antiretroviral therapy or on nucleosides only (n = 14 subjects from the control arm of AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] study 5093). The objectives of the study were to address the effect of LPV/r on DMPA and to address the effect of DMPA on LPV/r therapy. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis with between-group comparisons of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) PKs and within-subject comparisons of LPV and RTV PKs before and 4 weeks after DMPA dosing. Plasma progesterone concentrations were measured every 2 weeks after DMPA dosing through week 12. Although the MPA area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were statistically significantly increased in the study women on LPV/r compared to those in the historical controls, these increases were not considered clinically significant. There were no changes in LPV or RTV exposure after DMPA. DMPA was well tolerated, and suppression of ovulation was maintained. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01296152.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. The People's Show: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Francis

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s heralded a new form of museum exhibition: "The People's Show." A light-hearted celebration of popular culture, the concept has had phenomenal success throughout the United Kingdom. Beneath the humour, however, are more complex and radical agendas relating to cultural rights. The paper explores the issues associated with the rise and possible wane of this museum-based popular cultural phenomenon.

  3. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  4. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  5. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  6. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  7. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  8. The Principles of Delimiting Marine Dumping Area in the United States and Its Significance to China%美国海洋倾倒区选划原则及其对中国的借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建华

    2013-01-01

      Marine Management Research and Reserve Act and Marine Dumping Regulations are very important legislations on management of marine dumping sites in the United States .They have made de‐tailed rules on the delimiting and management of marine dumping sites .However ,Regulations of the Peo‐ple's Republic of China on Control over Dumping of Wastes in the Ocean have just made some basic and principled rules on this matter .The American far‐sighted principles will have some implications for revi‐sing our marine dumping management regulations in such aspects as public participation in marine environ‐ment management ,ecosystem‐based marine integrated management and marine regional management with‐in the framework of a large ecosystem .%  《海洋管理、研究和保护区法案》及《海洋倾废条例》是美国海洋倾废管理方面的重要法规,其中对海洋倾倒区选划的原则和管理等做了详尽的规定,《中华人民共和国海洋倾废管理条例》对海洋倾倒区选划仅做了较为基本的原则性规定,美国海洋倾倒区选划方面的前瞻性原则都为我国修订《海洋倾废管理条例》提供了诸如公众参与海洋环境治理、基于生态系统的海洋综合管理、大生态系统视角下的海洋区域管理等方面的借鉴意义。

  9. Different histopathological subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma show significantly different levels of FDG uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Annika; Hutchings, Martin; Jakobsen, Annika Loft;

    2006-01-01

    HL underwent staging FDG-PET/CT after lymph node biopsy. Maximum SUV in each patient (SUV(max/total)) and in each affected region or organ (SUV(max)) were recorded. Mean SUV(max/total) was 9.3 g/ml in seven nodular lymphocyte predominance (NLP) patients, 16.3 g/ml in 38 nodular sclerosis (NS......) patients, 20.8 g/ml in 11 mixed cellularity (MC) patients, and 19.5 g/ml in four patients with unclassified classical HL (CHL-NOS), (ANOVA, p = 0.011). Out of 780 sites (600 lymph node regions plus 180 organs), 208 sites were found to be affected with HL. Mean SUV(max) was 8.3 g/ml in the 12 sites with NLP...

  10. Small Molecules Showing Significant Protection of Mice against Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    phenyl-1H-indole-6- car - bonyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide (F4H). To a stirred solution of 3x (34 mg, 0.049 mmol) in THF/ MeOH...indole-6- car - bonyl)-2-(3-aminophenyl)thiophen-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide (F3A). To a stirred solution of 3y (15 mg, 0.022 mmol) in THF/ MeOH (0.5 mL...Application of the multimolecule and multiconformational resp methodology to biopolymers : charge derivation for DNA, RNA, and proteins. J Comput Chem

  11. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  12. Significant differences in the frequency of transcriptional units, types and numbers of repetitive elements, GC content, and the number of CpG islands between a 1010-kb G-band genomic segment on chromosome 9q31.3 and a 1200-kb R-band genomic segment on chromosome 3p21.3

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigo, Y; Isomura, M; Nishiwaki, T; Suzuki, K; Maruyama, O; Takeuchi, K; Yamane, Y; Hayashi, R; Minami, M; Hojo, Y; Uchiyama, I; Takagi, T; Nakamura, Y

    1999-01-01

    ... 3p21.3 corresponding to an R-band region. The two segments were significantly different with respect to the frequency of transcriptional units, the types and numbers of repetitive elements present, their GC content, and the number of CpG islands...

  13. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  15. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  16. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  17. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  18. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  19. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  20. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  1. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  2. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  3. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-05

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role.

  4. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2009-01-01

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

  5. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  6. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  7. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  8. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  9. Dimensionless Units in the SI

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is supposed to be coherent. That is, when a combination of units is replaced by an equivalent unit, there is no additional numerical factor. Here we consider dimensionless units as defined in the SI, {\\it e.g.} angular units like radians or steradians and counting units like radioactive decays or molecules. We show that an incoherence may arise when different units of this type are replaced by a single dimensionless unit, the unit "one", and suggest how to properly include such units into the SI in order to remove the incoherence. In particular, we argue that the radian is the appropriate coherent unit for angles and that hertz is not a coherent unit in the SI. We also discuss how including angular and counting units affects the fundamental constants.

  10. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  11. The origins and significance of contemporary terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Terrorism has been the subject of many presidential and prime ministerial statements over the years. Sixteen weeks before the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the American Secretary of State, referred to a report that indicated an 8 per cent increase in international terrorist attacks during year 2000 and stated that terrorism shows the dark side of globalization. Of the 423 recorded attacks, 200 were directed against the United States. This paper emphasizes three points to understand the significance of terrorism. First, it is necessary to understand the context within which terrorist acts are carried out, namely the modern world in its spiritual and its material dimensions. It is also necessary to understand the direction and trajectory of recent trends in terrorism and what can be done to stop it. 97 refs.

  12. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  13. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  14. Fatigue in Breakwater Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of rubble mound breakwaters depends on the hydraulic stability and the mechanical strength of the armour units. The paper deals with the important aspect of fatigue related to the strength of concrete armour units. Results showing significant fatigue from impact tests with Dolosse...... made of unreinforced and steel fibre reinforced flyash concrete are presented. Moreover universal graphs for fatigue in armour units made of conventional unreinforced concrete exposed to impact load and pulsating load are presented. The effect of fibre reinforcement and the implementation of fatigue...

  15. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  16. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  17. The great American medicine show revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, changes in the advertising and marketing of medicinal drugs have produced heated debates in the United States. With the emergence of the modern prescription drug between 1938 and 1951, concerns that once focused primarily on patients' use of over-the-counter drugs were broadened to include physicians and their "doctors' drugs" as well. The medical profession's growing control over their patients' drug choices inevitably heightened the scrutiny of their own performance as consumers. Although deeply divided over issues of the patient's role in medical decision making, consumer activists and physician reformers expressed similar concerns about the impact of aggressive pharmaceutical marketing and advertising on the doctor-patient relationship, and starting in the late 1950s they employed strikingly similar strategies to counter the new corporate "medicine show." Yet their efforts to promote a more rational use of prescription drugs have usually been too little and too late to offset the effectiveness of pharmaceutical advertising and mar-keting activities.

  18. “以小说见才学者”辨正及其小说史叙述意义--兼及“才学小说”的概念使用%Reviewing Lu Xun’s Concept of“Showing Caixue Through Fiction Writing”and Its Significance for Constructing Chinese Fiction History:With a View on How to Apply the Concept of Caixue Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温庆新

    2014-01-01

    In his Zhonguo xiaoshuo shilue中国小说史略,Lu Xun鲁迅 devotes a special chapter to these four novels:Yesou puyan野叟曝言,Jinghua yuan镜花缘,Yanshan waishi燕山外史,and Yinshi鑘史,and identifies them as novels“showing caixue才学[academic and artistic achievements] through fiction writing”. Although this identification is not based on generic and stylistic criteria and those novels are still classified into the types of Shenmo神魔novels and Shiqing世情 novels respec-tively,what Lu Xun really wants to do here is to highlight the commonality in the creative motivation shared by their authors who manage to get their own aspirations and feelings expressed between the lines in their novels;and is to explore the significance of these novels for constructing a history of Chi-nese fiction. This is the direct result from his construction of the law governing the evolution of Chinese fiction:“novels,which were started as a by-product of literary creation,become one of the profession-al literary pursuits.”There is,however,some tension between the rationale behind and the exemplifi-cation for Lu Xun’s identification of novels“showing caixue through fiction writing”,which is inevita-bly skewed towards focusing on the novelists’ writing intentions. Researchers misunderstood Lu Xun’s concept of“showing caixue through fiction writing”merely as“caixue novels”.%《中国小说史略》专篇讨论《野叟曝言》、《镜花缘》、《燕山外史》及《鑘史》四部小说并名之“以小说见才学者”时,并非基于类型归纳或文体判断而言。这些小说依旧被归入“神魔小说”或才子佳人型的“世情小说”中。鲁迅此举实为强调此类小说写作者“自寓”、“寄慨”的创作倾向,突出“以小说见才学者”创作现象于小说史的叙述意义,是其建构“从无意为小说向有意为小说演进”的小说史演进规律之目的使然。这些意图及

  19. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  20. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  1. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  2. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  3. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  4. Unit Values in International Trade and Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the unit value of traded goods representative of quality? To answer this question, we analyze unit value with respect to exporter country’s capacity to export, which is determined by its production cost, tariff, and distance. The change in a country’s export unit value is decomposed into the components associated with pure term-of-trade effect, quality effect, distance effect, and production cost effect. Our empirical results confirm that tariff, distance, and wages all significantly affect the unit values. Furthermore, by comparing CIF and FOB unit values, we show that quality is an important contributor on driving up the unit values: exporters increase unit price to distant trading partners through quality upgrading. This “Washington apple effect” is much larger than the pure distance effect or production cost increase.

  5. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  6. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  7. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...

  8. Organic Chemicals Showed Different Price Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early August 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish. With the increase of imported goods and the restart of phenol/acetone unit in Harbin Branch Company of BlueStar New Chemical Materials Co., Ltd., the market supply increased and the pace of phenol came down.

  9. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  10. Environmental lead: a survey of its possible physiological significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, H.V.

    1974-01-01

    Sources of environmental lead are discussed in a survey of diseases of the nervous system. Only 5-10 percent of the Pb ingested in food and water is absorbed, while 40-50 percent of the Pb present in inhaled air is absorbed. Air, dust, and leaded gasoline are among the sources of Pb. Normal rural air in the United States may contain 0.05 micrograms of Pb/cu m, while 0.3-2.5 may be representative of general urban areas. An urban dweller can inhale daily 60-120 micrograms of Pb, but it is not known whether 25 or 50 percent of this Pb is absorbed. Values from 0.5 to 6 percent Pb in dust are common in many large cities in Great Britain, Canada, and the United States. Evidence exists in the United States and Great Britain to show the significance of atmosphere and vegetative pollution by tetraethyl Pb discharged in the exhaust fumes of motor vehicles. It not only is a major contribution to the Pb occurring in urban air and dust but also adds indirectly, and significantly, to the Pb content of the food grown in some localities. Many diseases of the nervous system as multiple sclerosis, swayback, kuru, motor neurone disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis frequently have an unexplained association with Pb or mercury. (Author abstract modified)

  11. Significance of Shale Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman; Wenwu Xia; Nathaniel Harding

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas production from shale formations is growing exponentially in the United States. This paper introduces the five major shale formations in the United States and the technologies used to produce them. The Barnett, Haynesville,Fayetteville, Woodford, and Marcellus combined hold an estimated 978 trillion cubic feet of total gas reserves. These findings along with recent technological advances in horizontal drilling and completion methods have transformed the natural gas exploration and production industry in the U.S. and have fundamentally changed the U.S. energy picture. Specifically this paper states that the United States through the utilization of natural gas from shale can reduce its carbon emissions and can become more energy self-sufficient. Finally, the Harding & Shelton Group states in this paper that the opportunity to locate and produce shale gas in China is very similar to that which has taken place in the United States.

  12. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  13. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  14. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  15. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    CERN Document Server

    Fortnow, Lance

    2010-01-01

    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  16. Fabrics China Creation Show Hold in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On August 5-6th.the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show(one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,aiming to providing textile producers and designers a platform to show their inspirations and creative ideas in fabric design.

  17. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  18. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification.

  19. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  20. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  1. 李维汉对统战学学科建设的历史贡献及当代意义%The Historical Contribution and Contemporary Significance of Li Wei-han's Discipline Construction Thoughts for the United Front Subject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚继民

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses on Li Wei-han's historical contributions for the united front subject,which basically includes: his thought that united front is a science reveals the theoretical and political research of the united front must follow the rules,which provided theoretical and thought preparation for construction of united front subject.He was good at finding and grasping the theory thinking ability of the united front theory's growth pole,promoted the in-depth and wide researches for the united front theory,and laid a foundation for the future construction of united front subject.At present,the discipline construction for the united front subject is still an important task of workers in the united front theory research and teaching.To construct the united front theory system,and strengthen the construction of the subject has still a long way to go.%本文探讨李维汉对统一战线学学科建设的历史贡献,主要有:他关于"统一战线是一门科学"的有关思想,揭示了统一战线理论政策研究必须遵循的规律,为开启统一战线学学科建设作了理论上思想上的准备。他善于发现和把握统一战线理论增长点的理论思维能力,推动了深入、广泛地开展统一战线理论研究,为以后提出创立统战学学科建设打下了基础。当前,统战学学科建设依然是摆在广大统一战线理论科研和教学工作者面前的一项重要任务。构建统战学理论体系,加强统战学学科建设依然任重道远。

  2. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  3. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  4. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  5. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  6. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  7. Fabrics China Creation Show Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On August 5-6th,the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show (one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,

  8. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-01-01

    In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars) that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private s...

  9. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  10. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  11. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  12. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  13. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  14. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  15. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  16. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  17. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  18. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  19. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  20. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  1. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  2. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...) a

  3. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  4. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  5. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  6. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  7. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  8. 2009 Hands Across Pacific Show Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 Hands Across the Pacific Show co-sponsored by the Canadian International Cultural Exchanges (CICEX) and Hunan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(HPPAFFC) was held respectively in the Tower Hall of Tokyo,Japan from July 2 to 7 and in the Hunan Provincial Museum from August 1 to 5.Jing Dunquan,Vice President of the

  9. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat

    2006-04-01

    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  10. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  11. Two sex-chromosome-linked microsatellite loci show geographic variance among North American Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad S. Coates

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available PCR-based O. nubilalis population and pedigree analysis indicated female specificity of a (GAAAATn microsatellite, and male specificity of a CAYCARCGTCACTAA repeat unit marker. These loci were respectively named Ostrinia nubilalis W-chromosome 1 (ONW1 and O. nubilalis Z-chromosome 1 (ONZ1. Intact repeats of three, four, or five GAAAAT units are present among ONW1 alleles, and biallelic variation exists at the ONZ1 locus. Screening of 493 male at ONZ1 and 448 heterogametic females at ONZ1 and ONW1 loci from eleven North American sample sites was used to construct genotypic data. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and F-statistics indicated no female haplotype or male ONZ1 allele frequency differentiation between voltinism ecotypes. Four subpopulations from northern latitudes, Minnesota and South Dakota, showed the absence of a single female haplotype, a significant deviation of ONZ1 data from Hardy-Weinberg expectation, and low-level geographic divergence from other subpopulations. Low ONZ1 and ONW1 allele diversity could be attributed either to large repeat unit sizes, low repeat number, reduced effective population (Ne size of sex chromosomes, or the result of recent O. nubilalis introduction and population expansion, but likely could not be due to inbreeding. These sequences have been deposited in GenBank AF442958, and AY102618 to AY102620.

  12. DIY identity kit: the Great American Lesbian Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2010-01-01

    The Great American Lesbian Art Show, which opened at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles in May 1980, was conceived to increase visibility for lesbian artists, and to forge bonds among lesbians across the United States. It comprised a curated Invitational of ten artists and scores of regional GALAS events mounted simultaneously by women from Boston to Honolulu. The art on view, documented in a slide archive, staged a critique of contemporary gender norms. Participating artists represented lesbian identities that claimed universality while they reflected the artists' particularized experience of woman-identification and sexual desire.

  13. Bite my art to show your love

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye yeon

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, I came to the States for MFA program in UCSD. At first, I started making instructions for performance to communicate with people in my clumsy English, but it soon became my general process of working. In this show, I present a room surrounded by five video projections and drawings. They are documentation of performances concerning the balance of relationship. I performed two with Josh Aaron, other two with Josh Tonies, and one by myself. The performance done by myself reveals t...

  14. Showing and Saying. An Aesthetic Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein’s distinction between saying and showing and the associated thesis, what can be shown cannot be said, were crucial to his first philosophy, persisted throughout the evolution of his whole thought and played a key role in his views on aesthetics. The objective of art is access to the mystical, forcing us to become aware of the uniqueness of our own experience and life. When art is good is a perfect expression and the work of art becomes like a tautology. An important consequence of this understanding of art is the irreducibility of the aesthetic to the scientific perspective.

  15. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  16. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  17. Identification of clinically significant drug-drug interactions in cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions in cardiac intensive care units of two tertiary care ... Keywords: Pharmacy service, Drug interactions, Critical/intensive care, Adverse outcomes. Tropical .... Standard error.

  18. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  19. Figure of Beijing ABP Showing up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Last year, there were many good news from Beijing Advanced Business Park(ABP): on October 29, 2005, Xu Weiping, Chairman of the Board of ABP, was chosen as the"2005 Ten Major Chinese Administrative Person in News";On November 8,2005,CCIM (American Certified Commercial Investment Member) invited 40 world famous real estate investors to visit ABS and they showed will to cooperate; On November 22, 2005, Johnson Controls, Inc., one of World Top 500, signed the contract with Zhongguan Village Fengtai Garden that the headquarter of JCI energy administration China Branch will move to ABP to improve the energy administration and radiate all the nation; on December 10,2005, "CEO Salon" co-organized by Phoenix Satellite Television and ABP, was held in the meeting room of ABP, over 120CEOs met here to discuss the trend of China economic development and the development opportunities brought by 11th Five-Year Plan for enterprises.

  20. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  1. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  2. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  3. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  4. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC, a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1 exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2 performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3 iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. Results We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma. When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Conclusions Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes

  5. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  6. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  7. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  8. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  9. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  10. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  11. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  12. Asynchronous Capacity per Unit Cost

    CERN Document Server

    Chandar, Venkat; Tse, David

    2010-01-01

    The capacity per unit cost, or equivalently minimum cost to transmit one bit, is a well-studied quantity. It has been studied under the assumption of full synchrony between the transmitter and the receiver. In many applications, such as sensor networks, transmissions are very bursty, with small amounts of bits arriving infrequently at random times. In such scenarios, the cost of acquiring synchronization is significant and one is interested in the fundamental limits on communication without assuming a priori synchronization. In this paper, we show that the minimum cost to transmit B bits of information asynchronously is (B + \\bar{H})k_sync, where k_sync is the synchronous minimum cost per bit and \\bar{H} is a measure of timing uncertainty equal to the entropy for most reasonable arrival time distributions.

  13. MRI shows clodronate-liposomes attenuating liverinjuryinratswithsevereacutepancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Yong Zhang; Xin Sha; Li-Rong Zhang; Chuan-She Wei; Min Chen; De-Li Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed that macrophages play an important role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Activated macrophages can lead to a systemic inlfammatory response, induce lipid peroxidation, impair membrane structure, result in injury to the liver and the other extrahepatic organs, and eventually result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome by promoting excessive secretion of cytokines. Liver injury can further aggravate the systemic inlfammatory response and increase mortality by affecting the metabolism of toxins and the release of excessive inlfammatory mediators. Clodronate is a synthetic bisphosphonate, which is often used for treating bone changes caused by osteoporosis and other factors. In the current study, we created liposomes containing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) for macrophage labeling and magnetic resonance imaging, using a novel method that can bind the clodronate to induce apoptosis and deplete macrophages. METHODS: Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation. SPIO-containing liposomes and SPIO-clodronate-containing liposomes were prepared by the thin iflm method. SAP models were prepared by injection of sodium taurocholate (2 ml/kg body weight) into the subcapsular space of the pancreas. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, a SAP plus SPIO-liposome group, and a SAP plus SPIO-clodronate-containing group. Two and six hours after SAP models were available, T2-weighted MRI scans (in the same plane) of the livers of rats in each group were performed. At the end of the scans, 2 ml of blood was taken from the superior mesenteric vein to measure the levels of serum amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and IL-6. Pathological changes in the liver and pancreas were assessed. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes had a uniform size. No pathological changes in the pancreata of rats in the control group were noted. The

  14. Significant reduction of instability growth in magnetically driven liner implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kyle; Awe, Tom; Rosenthal, Steve; McBride, Ryan; Sinars, Daniel; Yu, Edmund; Robertson, Grafton; Cuneo, Mike; Savage, Mark; Knapp, Patrick; Schmit, Paul; Slutz, Steve; Blue, Brent; Schroen, Diana; Tomlinson, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on Sandia's Z facility have shown a significant reduction of instability growth in solid metallic rods driven with a ~20 MA, 100ns current pulse when thick, ~70 μm dielectric coatings were employed to mitigate nonlinear growth of the electrothermal instability. In this paper, we present new electrothermal mitigation experiments with MagLIF relevant aluminum (aspect ratio 9) and beryllium liners (aspect ratio 6). These experiments show a similar improvement in instability performance while imploding to much higher convergence ratios and undergoing much greater acceleration. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  16. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  17. [Nurses' role in the therapeutic team of stroke units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpke, Sascha; Dehning, Kathrin; Molsen, Nadine; Möhler, Ralph; Kasper, Jürgen; Meyer, Gabriele

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade, stroke units have been increasingly established in Germany. Within these units, nurses have been identified as having a crucial role in the coordination of multi-professional team activities. However, currently very little data exists to support this fact; therefore, a questionnaire was developed to assess various aspects of the nurses' role within the multi-professional team, including cooperation with other team members (e.g., communication behaviour and acceptance within the multi-professional team), contribution to team and unit organisation, and impact on patient recovery. A total of 55 multi-disciplinary staff members from three separate stroke units completed the questionnaire. Results showed that staff have comparable estimates concerning the nurses' level of interdisciplinary cooperation. As well, nurses and other non-medical staff rate nurses' contribution to unit organisation comparably high while physicians' ratings of nurses' contribution are lower. The professional groups' ratings of the nurses' contribution to patient recovery vary. The results indicate that German stroke unit nurses contribute significantly to stroke unit care by acting as coordinators of the unit organisation for various multi professional team members.

  18. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  19. State-of-the-art turbine technology enabling extremely high steam temperatures in unit R of the Boxberg power plant. Significantly contributing to a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions; Modernste Turbinentechnologie mit hoechsten Dampftemperaturen fuer das Kraftwerk Boxberg, Block R. Ein signifikanter Beitrag zur Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremmel, A.; Brandt, C. [ALSTOM Power Generation AG, Mannheim (Germany); Mandel, H. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG und Co. KG, Cottbus (Germany); Klauke, U. [Vattenfall Europe Powerconsult GmbH, Vetschau (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper will describe the steam turbo-generator set designed for the Boxberg Power Plant, Unit R. Consistent measures of improvement have been taken, based on field-proven technology. For instance, the use of state-of-the-art materials, developed by European research groups, allows the plant to be run with extremely high steam parameters. In addition, the flow configuration in the turbine is optimised in all areas. This includes the use of advanced aerodynamic profiles for the blading and an optimised design for the low-pressure last stages, combined with a downstream diffuser. (orig.)

  20. Significance of the Lausanne Covenant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Rhee

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available In his long address called “Why Lausanne?” Dr Billy Graham clearly stated the reason and purpose to have the International Congress on World Evangelization by saying that “we are met to pray, talk, plan and to advance the work of evangelism ,” and he adds: “This is a conference of evangelicals. The participants were asked to come because you are evangelical-concerned with evangelism and missions; and we here tonight stand firmly in the evangelical tradition of Biblical faith.” Here we can find two specific reasons for the congress: to discuss for furtherance of world evangelism and to bring evangelicals together for a united front of the world evangelization. For this purpose the invitations were sent to all over the world. According to statistics published officially by the congress six continents sent their representatives to the congress responding to the invitation though it was sent on individual basis: 458 from Africa, 729 from Asia, 1 115 from North and Central America, 777 from Europe, 180 from South America and 150 from Oceania. Literally it was a world-wide congress. There was never such a large gathering before on a single purpose.

  1. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  2. The Work Unit and Intergenerational Mobility:Is the work unit system declining?%单位与代际地位流动:单位制在衰落吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红; 刘欣

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the eontinuality of effects of work unit in intergenerational mobility in urban China based on a 1996 survey data from Wuhan city. Statistical findings suggest that the sector, rank, and size of parents' work unit have significant effects on that of their children' s first work unit since 1978, and this intergenerational inheritance of work unit is becoming more and more significant even after 1986 when dingti and ne/zhao policy was abolished. It also shows that through all history periods (1949 - 1966, 1966 - 1976, 1977 - 1986, and 1987 - 1996), despite of its increasing effects on occupational status, education has only relatively limited effects on the entrance to work units compared with that of parents' work unit. The authors conclude that the effect of work unit on social mobility has not declined, on the contrary, it is, together with education, continuously playing a role in urban Chinese citizen status attainment.

  3. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  4. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  5. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  6. Microeconomics, Private Security, and the Significance to Operational Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    MICROECONOMICS , PRIVATE SECURITY, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE TO OPERATIONAL PLANNING A Monograph by MAJ Kevin S. Clarke United... MICROECONOMICS , PRIVATE SECURITY, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE TO OPERATIONAL PLANNING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...of microeconomic principles of supply-demand theory by looking at specific conceptual variables to determine the relationship and influence on the

  7. A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallapaneni S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

  8. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...

  9. Clinicobacteriological Significance in Congenital Dacryocystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Raina, Sudhir Bhagotra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 37 eyes of 30 congenital dacryocystitis patients (7 bilateral were studied, out ofwhich 60% of patients were male and 40% female. Gram positive cocci constituted the major bacterialisolate (56.7% with Streptococcus pneumoniae (27.9% predominating. Most effective antibiotics againstthe commonest organism Streptococcus pneumoniae were Tobramycin and Gentamycin showing 100%effectivity. Staphylococcus albus 17.4% was the most common normal conjunctival commensal isolated.

  10. Prognostic significance of urinary NGAL in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel ML

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Munna Lal Patel,1 Rekha Sachan,2 Ravi Misra,3 Ritul Kamal,4 Radhey Shyam,5 Pushpalata Sachan6 1Department of Medicine, King George Medical University, Lucknow, India; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, India; 3Department of Internal Medicine, King George Medical University, Lucknow, India; 4Epidemiology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR, Lucknow, India; 5Department of Geriatric Intensive Care Unit, King George Medical University, Lucknow, India; 6Department of Physiology, Career Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a worldwide public health problem. Recently urinary NGAL (uNGAL has been proven to be a useful (potentially ideal biomarker for early detection of CKD. The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation of uNGAL with severity of renal impairment in CKD and to evaluate its prognostic value in these subjects. Methods: This was a prospective study carried out over a period of 24 months in subjects with CKD due to primary chronic glomerulonephritis. New cases of CKD stage II, III, IV aged between 18 and 65 years were enrolled as per KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines 2012. A total of 90 subjects completed the study up to the end-point. The primary follow-up end-point was 18 months, or decreased glomerular filtration rate of less than 15 mL/min. Secondary follow-up end-point was the number of subjects who expired during this period. Results: Multiple regression model of estimated glomerular filtration rate showed significant associations with log uNGAL (β=0.38, P<0.001, Ca×PO4 (β=0.60, P<0.001, hemoglobin (β=0.37, P<0.001, urine protein (β=0.34, P<0.001, serum albumin (β=0.48, P<0.001, and systolic blood pressure (β=0.76, P<0.001. Receiver operator curve for uNGAL considering the progression of CKD showed area under the curve

  11. [Nosocomial infections in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; López-Pueyo, María Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Nosocomial infections (NI) still have a high incidence in intensive care units (ICUs), and are becoming one of the most important problems in these units. It is well known that these infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and are associated with increases in the length of stay and excessive hospital costs. Based on the data from the ENVIN-UCI study, the rates and aetiology of the main nosocomial infections have been described, and include ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and both primary and catheter related bloodstream infections, as well as the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. A literature review on the impact of different nosocomial infections in critically ill patients is also presented. Infection control programs such as zero bacteraemia and pneumonia have been also analysed, and show a significant decrease in NI rates in ICUs.

  12. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argues...

  13. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  14. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  15. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  16. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  17. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  18. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Geraldine F

    2014-03-01

    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Fragmented patterns of flood change across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archfield, S. A.; Hirsch, R. M.; Viglione, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2016-10-01

    Trends in the peak magnitude, frequency, duration, and volume of frequent floods (floods occurring at an average of two events per year relative to a base period) across the United States show large changes; however, few trends are found to be statistically significant. The multidimensional behavior of flood change across the United States can be described by four distinct groups, with streamgages experiencing (1) minimal change, (2) increasing frequency, (3) decreasing frequency, or (4) increases in all flood properties. Yet group membership shows only weak geographic cohesion. Lack of geographic cohesion is further demonstrated by weak correlations between the temporal patterns of flood change and large-scale climate indices. These findings reveal a complex, fragmented pattern of flood change that, therefore, clouds the ability to make meaningful generalizations about flood change across the United States.

  20. Engineering Significant of Swelling Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Kalantari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes some of the most important swelling characters of expansive soils when used as foundation materials to support various types of civil engineering structures. Expansive soils are considered among difficult foundation materials and expand upon wetting and shrink upon losing moisture. They are considered problematic soils for architectural and civil engineers. These types of soils may cause minor to major structural damages to pavements as well as buildings. It is therefore essential to detect swelling soils from non-problematic foundation soils before any civil engineering projects are constructed over or adjacent to them. The study begins with definition of expansive soils and shows its distributions in the world as well as the basic causes for swelling potential that these type of soils poses. It is also shown that, the most probable depth of expansion to check for possible swelling potential for swelling soils is soil’s active zone. This zone is the most upper depth of expansive soil and it may extend up to 20 ft. (6 m below ground level. The moisture content of soil through active zone varies during different seasons while in lower part of expansive soil the moisture content stays constant during hot and cold season. Among various methods to check for swelling potential, plastic index and liquid limits are two most crucial factors, as these factors tend to increase, the swelling potential increase as well.

  1. Forecasting Models for Hydropower Unit Stability Using LS-SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM approach for forecasting stability parameters of Francis turbine unit. To achieve training and testing data for the models, four field tests were presented, especially for the vibration in Y-direction of lower generator bearing (LGB and pressure in draft tube (DT. A heuristic method such as a neural network using Backpropagation (NNBP is introduced as a comparison model to examine the feasibility of forecasting performance. In the experimental results, LS-SVM showed superior forecasting accuracies and performances to the NNBP, which is of significant importance to better monitor the unit safety and potential faults diagnosis.

  2. PICU脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿肠内营养摄入能量及蛋白质充分性及其与预后的关系%Prognostic significance of energy and protein adequacy provided by enteral nutrition in children with sepsis or severe sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伯梁; 钱素云

    2016-01-01

    目的:了解儿童重症监护病房( pediatric intensive care unit,PICU)内脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿经肠内营养( enteral nutrition,EN)途径摄入能量及蛋白质的充分性以及其与预后的关系。方法前瞻性观察记录2012年11月至2013年4月间首都医科大学附属北京儿童医院PICU收治的脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿每日经EN途径摄入的能量及蛋白质,分别以64 kcal · kg-1·d-1及1.5 g·kg-1·d-1作为能量及蛋白摄入标准计算充分性。按肠内摄入能量及蛋白质是否充分分组并比较其预后差异。结果共入组患儿62例,平均年龄9.37个月。经肠内途径摄入能量充分性0.84±0.38,蛋白充分性0.94±0.46,观察期内达到能量及蛋白充分摄入者分别为25例(40.32%)及29例(46.8%)。与对照组相比,肠内能量不充分组患儿年龄较大(P=0.02)、儿童危重病例评分(pediatric critical illness score, PCIS)较低(77.12±10.21 vs 82.88±7.03),而有创机械通气天数较长(P=0.03);而肠内蛋白不充分组患儿体质量较大(P=0.00),严重脓毒症比例较高(42.4% vs 17.2%,P=0.03),器官功能障碍数目(P=0.01)亦较多。肠内能量(16.2% vs 4.0%)及蛋白(15.2% vs 6.9%)摄入不充分组住院28 d病死率高于充分组。结论 PICU脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿中经肠内途径摄入能量及蛋白质不足者比例较高,且年龄及体质量偏大。肠内摄入能量不充分可能增加有创机械通气时间及住院费用,而蛋白摄入不充分可能增加脏器功能不全风险。肠内摄入能量或蛋白充分性不足可能导致PICU内脓毒症及严重脓毒症患儿病死率升高。%Objective To examine the prognostic implications of the adequacy of energy and protein intake provided by enteral nutrition ( EN) in children with sepsis or severe sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit ( PICU) . Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of consecutive

  3. A Measure of Rulers--The Importance of Units in a Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Philippa; Outhred, Lynne

    2004-01-01

    Recent publications continue to show that significant numbers of students in junior grades, while competent in basic ruler skills, seem not to have acquired important concepts about how rulers work and units of length. This paper reports on the results of a set of tasks completed by students from Grades 5 and 6. The results show that many students…

  4. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  5. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender × handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy.

  6. Writing Games: Continuity and Change in the Design and Development of Quiz Shows in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaglioni, Massimo; Fiacco, Axel

    2013-01-01

    abstractAs in the United States and in many countries across Europe, the quiz show was a founding genre for Italian television as far back as the 1950s: because of their broad appeal, such game shows as Lascia o raddoppia and Il musichiere contributed strongly to television’s burgeoning popularity d

  7. Still a Special Relationship? The Significance of United States-United Kingdom Relations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (EUROPE AND EURASIA) from the...The leading basic questions that this research will explore include the following: • Is the Special Relationship fact or fiction, romanticism or...learned reluctantly the art .”129 He contends that Blair did not learn the art of being the junior partner and confused it with subservience instead

  8. EMG power spectrum and motor unit characteristics in the masseter muscle of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkawski, S J; van Eijden, T M

    2000-04-01

    Masticatory muscles contain a large variety of motor units with different physiological and morphological properties. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a relationship exists between the mechanical and myo-electric properties of single motor units in the masseter muscle of the rabbit. It was expected that faster-contracting motor units, which usually have a relatively large number of fibers with large diameters, should have faster action potentials with larger amplitudes than slower motor units. Single motor units were stimulated. A two-dimensional force transducer registered mechanical parameters of the units. EMG electrodes were used to determine amplitude and frequency parameters of the action potentials of the same units. The results showed that faster-contracting motor units indeed produced action potentials with higher conduction velocities. However, faster motor units had no significant larger amplitude of the action potential. Small but significant positive correlations were found between the tetanic peak force and the amplitude of the action potentials. Little difference was found among the various frequency and amplitude parameters, respectively, making them equally suitable to describe the action potential. Surprisingly, a negative correlation between the amplitude and frequency parameters of the action potential was found, which may result from variability in arrival times of action potentials at the electrode site. Regional differences in the frequency parameters were found between the anterior and posterior parts of the superficial masseter.

  9. The inpatient psychiatric unit as both a safe and unsafe place: implications for absconding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; Oster, Candice; Grotto, Jessica; Gerace, Adam; Jones, Julia

    2013-08-01

    Absconding from acute psychiatric inpatient units is a significant issue with serious social, economic, and emotional costs. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the experiences of people (n = 12) who had been held involuntarily under the local mental health act in an Australian inpatient psychiatric unit, and who had absconded (or attempted to abscond) during this time. The aim of the study was to explore why people abscond from psychiatric inpatient units, drawing on published work from health geography on the significance of the person-place encounter, and in particular the concept of 'therapeutic landscapes'. The findings show that the inpatient unit is perceived as a safe or unsafe place, dependent on the dialectical relationship between the physical, individual, social, and symbolic aspects of the unit. Consumers absconded when the unit was perceived as unsafe. Forming a therapeutic relationship with staff, familiarity with the unit, a comfortable environment, and positive experiences with other consumers all supported perceptions that the unit was safe, decreasing the likelihood of absconding. Findings extend existing work on the person-place encounter within psychiatric inpatient units, and bring new knowledge about the reasons why consumers abscond. Implications for practice are discussed.

  10. Unit 23 - History of GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 55, CC in GIS; National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

    1990-01-01

    This unit provides a very brief review of some important milestones in the development of GIS. It provides early examples of spatial analysis performed with multiple theme maps, then introduces people, applications and systems that were significant in the early days of computerized cartography and spatial analysis.

  11. Division Unit for Binary Integer Decimals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Tomas; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    -recurrence algorithm to BID representation and implement the division unit in standard cell technology. The implementation of the proposed BID division unit is compared to that of a BCD based unit implementing the same algorithm. The comparison shows that for normalized operands the BID unit has the same latency......In this work, we present a radix-10 division unit that is based on the digit-recurrence algorithm and implements binary encodings (binary integer decimal or BID) for significands. Recent decimal division designs are all based on the binary coded decimal (BCD) encoding. We adapt the radix-10 digit...

  12. The Probe of Significance of Text Analysis in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the significance of text analysis in translation in regard to the analysis both inside and outside the "text", discussing the weight of analyzing lexical units and stylistic scales in translation and examining the importance of analyzing the translator's intention, the author's intention and the target language (TL) readership.

  13. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  14. Discharge characteristics of motor units during long-duration contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michael A; Holmes, Matthew R; Stuart, Douglas G; Enoka, Roger M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how long humans could sustain the discharge of single motor units during a voluntary contraction. The discharge of motor units in first dorsal interosseus of subjects (27.8 ± 8.1 years old) was recorded for as long as possible. The task was terminated when the isolated motor unit stopped discharging action potentials, despite the ability of the individual to sustain the abduction force. Twenty-three single motor units were recorded. Task duration was 21.4 ± 17.8 min. When analysed across discharge duration, mean discharge rate (10.6 ± 1.8 pulses s(-1)) and mean abduction force (5.5 ± 2.8% maximum) did not change significantly (discharge rate, P = 0.119; and abduction force, P = 0.235). In contrast, the coefficient of variation for interspike interval during the initial 30 s of the task was 22.2 ± 6.0% and increased to 31.9 ± 7.0% during the final 30 s (P < 0.001). All motor units were recruited again after 60 s of rest. Although subjects were able to sustain a relatively constant discharge rate, the cessation of discharge was preceded by a gradual increase in discharge variability. The findings also showed that the maximal duration of human motor unit discharge exceeds that previously reported for the discharge elicited in motor neurons by intracellular current injection in vitro.

  15. Significance of findings of both emergency chest X-ray and thoracic computed tomography routinely performed at the emergency unit in 102 polytrauma patients. A prospective study; Relevanz der Befunde von Thoraxroentgen und Thorax-CT im routinemaessigen Schockraumeinsatz bei 102 polytraumatisierten Patienten. Eine prospektive Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, T.; Buehne, K.H.; Haeuser, H.; Bohndorf, K. [Zentralklinikum Augsburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively whether and to what extent both thoracic computed tomography (Tx-CT) and supine X-ray of the chest (Rx-Tx) are able to show additional findings that are therapeutically relevant. Patients and Methods: According to a fixed study protocol, we performed Rx-Tx and Tx-CT in 102 consecutive, haemodynamically stable polytrauma patients (mean age, 41.2 yrs; age range, 12-93 yrs). Findings of therapeutical relevance drawn from both Tx-CT and Rx-Tx, and urgent interventions indicated by an attending trauma team were documented on a standardized evaluation sheet immediately. Any change in the patient's management that is different from routine life-saving procedures, and any therapeutical intervention done in the emergency room or elsewhere (operating theatre, angiographic facility) were considered therapeutically relevant. Results: Of 102 patients, 43 (42.2%) had a total of 51 therapeutically relevant findings. Rx-Tx alone yielded 23 relevant findings (45.1%) in 23 patients (22.5%). Of them, Tx-CT has shown additional important findings in 7 patients (30.4%). When Tx-CT alone is considered, it revealed 22 new findings of therapeutical relevance (43.2%) in 20 patients (46.5%). Altogether, Tx-CT was able to show 30 relevant findings in 27 patients, i.e., there was a therapeutical benefit for 26.5% of all polytrauma patients included. Most frequently, there was a need for chest-tube insertion (n=29). Conclusions: Polytrauma patients if haemodynamically stable may profit from computed tomography of the chest when therapeutically relevant thoracic injuries are looked for or early therapeutical interventions are to be checked. However, chest X-ray should stay as a 'front-line' screening method because of its superbly quick feasibility and availability. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die prospektive Studie soll klaeren, ob und inwieweit eine Thoraxcomputertomographie (Tx-CT) unter Schockraumbedingungen gegenueber der Roentgen

  16. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  17. Deaf Individuals Show a Leftward Bias in Numerical Bisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence suggests that deaf individuals conceive of numerical magnitude as a left-to-right-oriented mental number line, as typically observed in hearing individuals. When accessing this spatial representation of numbers, normally hearing individuals typically show an attentional bias to the left (pseudoneglect), resembling the attentional bias they show in physical space. Deaf individuals do not show pseudoneglect in representing external space, as assessed by a visual line bisection task. However, whether deaf individuals show attentional biases in representing numerical space has never been investigated before. Here we instructed groups of deaf and hearing individuals to quickly estimate (without calculating) the midpoint of a series of numerical intervals presented in ascending and descending order. Both hearing and deaf individuals were significantly biased toward lower numbers (i.e., the leftward side of the mental number line) in their estimations. Nonetheless, the underestimation bias was smaller in deaf individuals than in the hearing when bisecting pairs of numbers given in descending order. This result may depend on the use of different strategies by deaf and hearing participants or a less pronounced lateralization of deaf individuals in the control of spatial attention.

  18. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  19. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  20. Environmental activism and dynamics of unit-based pricing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert [SEOR-ECRi and Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Room H 7-25, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Gradus, Raymond [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and ECRi, De Boelelaan 1105, Room 1E-66, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    It is well-known that unit-based pricing systems have a significant effect on the quantity of collected waste. Part of this effect may, however, result from a selection bias or environmental activism effect. Based on a pooled cross-section for the Netherlands for 1998-2005 we show that despite the correction for environmental activism the effect of the weight and bag unit-based pricing system on the quantity of waste is sizeable. Moreover, this environmental activism effect is decreasing over time, so that the most environmental friendly municipalities implement unit-based pricing systems at first. In addition, we show that the volume effects of the different unit-based pricing systems are rather stable over time. Although we find some evidence for a learning effect, nearly no evidence is found for an awareness erosion effect. This means at least that the effect of unit-based pricing does not decrease over time, which is reassuring from an environmental point of view. Pricing waste helps. (author)

  1. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  2. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  5. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  6. Automatic movie skimming with story units via general tempo analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Hung; Yeh, Chia H.; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2003-12-01

    A skimming system for movie content exploration is proposed using story units extracted via general tempo analysis of audio and visual data. Quite a few schemes have been proposed to segment video data into shots with low-level features, yet the grouping of shots into meaningful units, called story units here, is important and challenging. In this work, we detect similar shots using key frames and include these similar shots as a node in the scene transition graph. Then, an importance measure is calculated based on the total length of each node. Finally, we select sinks and shots according to this measure. Based on these semantic shots, a meaningful skims can be successfully generated. Simulation results will be presented to show that the proposed video skimming scheme can preserve the essential and significant content of the original video data.

  7. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  8. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  9. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J.

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p -value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  10. On significance of VLBI/Gaia offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, L

    2016-01-01

    We have cross matched the Gaia Data Release 1 secondary dataset that contains positions of 1.14 billion objects against the most complete to date catalogue of VLBI positions of 11.4 thousand sources, almost exclusively active galactic nuclei. We found 6,064 matches, i.e. 53% radio objects. The median uncertainty of VLBI positions is a factor of 4 smaller than the median uncertainties of their optical counterparts. Our analysis shows that the distribution of normalized arc lengths significantly deviates from Rayleighian shape with an excess of objects with small normalized arc lengths and with a number of outliers. We found that 8% matches have radio optical offsets significant at 99% confidence level. Therefore, we conclude there exists a population of objects with genuine offsets between centroids of radio and optical emission.

  11. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.erasmus@gmail.com [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2013-05-15

    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  12. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  13. Physical and Visual Accessibilities in Intensive Care Units: A Comparative Study of Open-Plan and Racetrack Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mahbub; Khan, Nayma; Jones, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed.

  14. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  15. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  16. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  17. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  18. Slide shows vs graphic tablet live drawing for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaid, B

    2016-12-01

    Blackboard drawing is the traditional and still widely learned method for anatomy teachers. However, for practical reasons, more and more lessons are done using slide shows. New digital learning tools are developed to create a more attractive teaching method. The objective of this study was to compare the use of graphic tablet live drawing versus slide shows. Sixty-five second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine participated in this study during their first semester of 2013-2014 academic year. The selected lecture dealt about neuroanatomy; two brain sections were taught: median sagittal and transverse. The sagittal section was presented via a slide show. The transverse section was taught using a graphics tablet using drawing software. Students were evaluated three times: before the lecture, immediately after the lecture and 8 weeks later. Means were compared using a t-test. Scores were significantly higher immediately after the lecture and 8 weeks later tests in comparing the transverse section (using the graphics tablet) versus the sagittal section (using PowerPoint(®)). Student satisfaction regarding the use of the tablet was high. The graphics tablet is a usable and efficient drawing tool in anatomy teaching. This tool requires a specific teacher training and preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Cystinosis (ctns) zebrafish mutant shows pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmonem, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Ramzi; Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Arcolino, Fanny O.; Morgan, Joseph; Pastore, Anna; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Ny, Annelii; Lowe, Martin; de Witte, Peter A.; Baelde, Hans J.; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The human ubiquitous protein cystinosin is responsible for transporting the disulphide amino acid cystine from the lysosomal compartment into the cytosol. In humans, Pathogenic mutations of CTNS lead to defective cystinosin function, intralysosomal cystine accumulation and the development of cystinosis. Kidneys are initially affected with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction (renal Fanconi syndrome), then the disease rapidly affects glomeruli and progresses towards end stage renal failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Animal models of cystinosis are limited, with only a Ctns knockout mouse reported, showing cystine accumulation and late signs of tubular dysfunction but lacking the glomerular phenotype. We established and characterized a mutant zebrafish model with a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.706 C > T; p.Q236X) in exon 8 of ctns. Cystinotic mutant larvae showed cystine accumulation, delayed development, and signs of pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction mimicking the early phenotype of human cystinotic patients. Furthermore, cystinotic larvae showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis that could be ameliorated with cysteamine, the human cystine depleting therapy. Our data demonstrate that, ctns gene is essential for zebrafish pronephric podocyte and proximal tubular function and that the ctns-mutant can be used for studying the disease pathogenic mechanisms and for testing novel therapies for cystinosis. PMID:28198397

  20. Global Units modulo Circular Units : descent without Iwasawa's Main Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Belliard, Jean-Robert

    2009-01-01

    Iwasawa's classical asymptotical formula relates the orders of the $p$-parts $X_n$ of the ideal class groups along a $\\ZM_p$-extension $F_\\infty/F$ of a number field $F$, to Iwasawa structural invariants $\\la$ and $\\mu$ attached to the inverse limit $X_\\infty=\\limpro X_n$. It relies on "good" descent properties satisfied by $X_n$. If $F$ is abelian and $F_\\infty$ is cyclotomic it is known that the $p$-parts of the orders of the global units modulo circular units $U_n/C_n$ are asymptotically equivalent to the $p$-parts of the ideal class numbers. This suggests that these quotients $U_n/C_n$, so to speak unit class groups, satisfy also good descent properties. We show this directly, i.e. without using Iwasawa's Main Conjecture.

  1. Unsupervised segmentation with dynamical units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A Ravishankar; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Peck, Charles C; Kozloski, James R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel network to separate mixtures of inputs that have been previously learned. A significant capability of the network is that it segments the components of each input object that most contribute to its classification. The network consists of amplitude-phase units that can synchronize their dynamics, so that separation is determined by the amplitude of units in an output layer, and segmentation by phase similarity between input and output layer units. Learning is unsupervised and based on a Hebbian update, and the architecture is very simple. Moreover, efficient segmentation can be achieved even when there is considerable superposition of the inputs. The network dynamics are derived from an objective function that rewards sparse coding in the generalized amplitude-phase variables. We argue that this objective function can provide a possible formal interpretation of the binding problem and that the implementation of the network architecture and dynamics is biologically plausible.

  2. Astronomers Make "Movie" of Radio Images Showing Supernova Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Astronomers using an international network of radio telescopes have produced a "movie" showing details of the expansion of debris from an exploding star. Their sequence of images constitutes the best determination yet made of the details of a new supernova remnant, and already has raised new questions about such events. The scientists used radio telescopes in Europe and the United States, including the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to make very high- resolution images of Supernova 1993J, which was discovered by a Spanish amateur astronomer on March 28, 1993 in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major. Their results are reported in the December 1 issue of the journal Science. The "movie" is based on five images of the supernova, made during 1993 and 1994. The work was done by: Jon Marcaide and Eduardo Ros of the University of Valencia, Spain; Antxon Alberdi of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Institute of Astrophysics at Andalucia, Spain; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Irwin Shapiro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Jose-Carlos Guirado, Dayton Jones and Robert Preston of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA; Thomas Krichbaum and Arno Witzel of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany; Franco Mantovani of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy; Antonio Rius of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Center for Advanced Studies at Blanes, Spain; Richard Schilizzi of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands; Corrado Trigilio of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Noto, Italy; and Alan Whitney of the MIT- Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts. The capability to make such high-quality images with widely

  3. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  4. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit p

  5. Performance and burnout in intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, GJ; Schaufeli, WB; LeBlanc, P; Zwerts, C; Miranda, DR

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between three different performance measures and burnout was explored in 20 Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) proved to be significantly related to nurses' perceptions of performance as well as to objectively assessed unit

  6. Groupthink: A Significant Threat to the Homeland Security of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    news/blogs/ ken - walshs-washington/2012/10/31/a-tale-of-two-storms-comparing-bush-and-obamas-hurricane-response. 142 Morton, Next–Generation Homeland... Wilber , “Dress Code Relaxed for Air Marshals,” Washington Post, August 25, 2006, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/24...Koresh had told him that he knew the raid was imminent.235 According to BATF Special Agent Ken King, no alternative plan for peacefully serving the

  7. School Choice Policies in England and the United States: An Exploration of Their Origins and Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Geoff; Edwards, Tony

    1998-01-01

    Examines similarities between English and U.S. school-choice policies, and considers explanations of any convergences: broader social changes versus policy exchanges. Discusses the utility of concepts such as postmodernism and post-Fordism, neoliberal policy networks within and between the two countries, and evidence of the use of overseas…

  8. Access to finance for micro, small and medium business units in Serbian agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlak Otilija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro, small and medium business units contribute to development of agribusiness only if adequate financial resources for founding and development are given. This paper analyzes the possibilities of financing micro, small and medium legal entities in agribusiness in Serbia, compared to large enterprises. Empirical research included a survey comprising 119 agribusiness units, grouped into three categories dependent on their size. The aim was to confirm that there are substantial differences between units of different sizes, concerning possibilities of accessing bank loans and concerning the process of evaluation of conditions for credit approval. Also, aim was to determine differences between the uses of necessary key economic measures in agribusiness. Results showed significant differences between each group of business units for the majority of the observed parameters. Consequently the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs sector and especially entrepreneurs and farmers (micro units only have limited access to financial resources and more financing costs compared to large enterprises.

  9. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  10. Children with specific language impairment show difficulties in sensory modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Marion N; Rietman, André B; Meulen, Sjoeke V D; Schipper, Maria; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a group of 116 Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) shows differences in sensory processing when compared to a control group of age-matched 4-7-year-old typical peers. The Sensory Profile-NL-a standardized questionnaire of 125 items-was completed by caregivers of children in both groups. Children with SLI differed significantly from the control group on all 14 section scores and 4 quadrant scores of the Sensory Profile-NL. The effect size of the difference in sensory modulation patterns of children with and without SLI on this measure was large (Cohen's d ≥ 0.80). Difficulties in sensory modulation can be characterized as frequent co-morbid problems in children with SLI.

  11. Dental Items of Significance, Number 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-15

    UL certiication. DISADVANTAGES: - Tips are not interchangeable with Cavitron 30K-style tips. - Depends upon unit water for irrigation . - Nonsteilizable...The unit Is reconmmended by the mnanufacturer for use In prophylaxis, periodotal and endodontic treatmnent. Somrce: PERlOglene P.O. Box 9 Foat Calms...above ADVANTAGES: "+ Completely autoclavable handpiece and cable. "+ Abilty to delver sterile irrigating solution of choice. -,.- " Good operator comfort

  12. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Real-world industries are composed from heterogeneous firms and substantial intra-industry reallocations take place, i.e. high productivity firms squeeze out low productivity firms. Previous tax-tool comparisons have not included these central forces of industry structure. This paper examines...... a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...... taxes distort relative prices, which in turn reduces average industry productivity through reallocations (the survival and increased market share of lower productivity firms). Importantly, numerical solutions of the model reveal that the relative welfare loss from using the unit tax increases...

  13. Least significant qubit algorithm for quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jianzhi; Wang, Shen; Li, Qiong

    2016-11-01

    To study the feasibility of the classical image least significant bit (LSB) information hiding algorithm on quantum computer, a least significant qubit (LSQb) information hiding algorithm of quantum image is proposed. In this paper, we focus on a novel quantum representation for color digital images (NCQI). Firstly, by designing the three qubits comparator and unitary operators, the reasonability and feasibility of LSQb based on NCQI are presented. Then, the concrete LSQb information hiding algorithm is proposed, which can realize the aim of embedding the secret qubits into the least significant qubits of RGB channels of quantum cover image. Quantum circuit of the LSQb information hiding algorithm is also illustrated. Furthermore, the secrets extracting algorithm and circuit are illustrated through utilizing control-swap gates. The two merits of our algorithm are: (1) it is absolutely blind and (2) when extracting secret binary qubits, it does not need any quantum measurement operation or any other help from classical computer. Finally, simulation and comparative analysis show the performance of our algorithm.

  14. 76 FR 5236 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Upside Down Arctic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Upside Down Arctic Realities... Down Arctic Realities,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance. The objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners...

  15. The Magnitude and Time Course of Muscle Cross-section Decrease in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Haaf, Dianne; Hemmen, Bea; van de Meent, Henk; BovendʼEerdt, Thamar J H

    2017-09-01

    Bedriddenness and immobilization of patients at an intensive care unit may result in muscle atrophy and devaluation in quality of life. The exact effect of immobilization on intensive care unit patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude and time course of muscle cross-section decrease in acute critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. An observational pilot study was performed in intensive care unit patients. Data of bilateral ultrasound muscle cross-section measurements of the knee extensors and the elbow flexors were collected. Thirty-four intensive care unit patients were included in this study; data are presented from 14 patients who were measured at least three times. Repeated measures analysis of variance shows a significant decrease in muscle cross-section over time (F1,13 = 80.40, P ≤ 0.001).The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms was significantly higher (F1,13 = 5.38, P = 0.037) than the decrease of the legs. Four weeks after intensive care unit admission, the muscle cross-section decrease had not reached an asymptote yet. The muscle cross-section decrease in bedridden intensive care unit patients is significant for a time of 2 to 4 weeks. The decrease in muscle cross-section of the arms is greater than the decrease of the legs.

  16. The significance of the integumentary profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satravaha, S; Schlegel, K D

    1987-11-01

    Profile analysis was performed on 180 Thai female subjects with ages ranging from 16 to 21 years. Seventy were of Chinese origin. The determination of the profile analysis mean values was based on the methods of Schwarz, Subtelny, Ricketts, Burstone, and Schwartz. The results were compared to Caucasian standards and to the findings of our previous study on a Javanese population. For the profile forms, our investigated groups showed mainly prognathic faces (75% to 84%). A "shift backward" profile flow dominated. We found a "prognathic face" combined with a "shift backward" in 50% to 60% of the Asian subjects analyzed. Our soft-tissue profile results (approximately 165 +/- 6 degrees) showed less convexity than that of the Caucasians and there was no significant difference in overall profile between the 2 Thai groups (approximately 134 +/- 5 degrees); this is in the range given by Subtelny (141 degrees to 131 degrees) except for that of the Javanese subjects. For the lip analysis, we listed a posterior position or a lip position upon the esthetic line between 60% to 70% of both Thai groups with respect to the upper lip and only 28% to 33% for the lower lip. The Javanese group, however, showed 90% anterior position of the upper lip and 93% of the lower lip to this line. It is significant that proper blending of the integumentary profile produces an esthetically pleasing face and this varies in different ethnic groups. A good combination could even make a "prognathic face shift backward" very acceptable as illustrated by a profile analysis of Miss Thailand, 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  18. Platelets from pulmonary hypertension patients show increased mitochondrial reserve capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quyen L.; Corey, Catherine; White, Pamela; Watson, Annie; Gladwin, Mark T.; Simon, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is systemic in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and central to disease pathogenesis. However, bioenergetic changes in PH patients and their association with disease severity remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that alteration in bioenergetic function is present in platelets from PH patients and correlates with clinical parameters of PH. Platelets isolated from controls and PH patients (n = 28) were subjected to extracellular flux analysis to determine oxygen consumption and glycolytic rates. Platelets from PH patients showed greater glycolytic rates than controls. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by significant increases in the maximal capacity for oxygen consumption, leading to enhanced respiratory reserve capacity in PH platelets. This increased platelet reserve capacity correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index in PH patients and was abolished by the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Consistent with a shift to FAO, PH platelets showed augmented enzymatic activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and electron transport chain complex II. These data extend the observation of a metabolic alteration in PH from the pulmonary vascular axis to the hematologic compartment and suggest that measurement of platelet bioenergetics is potentially useful in assessment of disease progression and severity. PMID:28289721

  19. Human hyolaryngeal movements show adaptive motor learning during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Christopherson, Heather; Lokhande, Akshay; German, Rebecca; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    The hyoid bone and larynx elevate to protect the airway during swallowing. However, it is unknown whether hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing can adjust and adapt to predict the presence of a persistent perturbation in a feed-forward manner (adaptive motor learning). We investigated adaptive motor learning in nine healthy adults. Electrical stimulation was administered to the anterior neck to reduce hyolaryngeal elevation, requiring more strength to swallow during the perturbation period of this study. We assessed peak hyoid bone and laryngeal movements using videofluoroscopy across thirty-five 5-ml water swallows. Evidence of adaptive motor learning of hyolaryngeal movements was found when (1) participants showed systematic gradual increases in elevation against the force of electrical stimulation and (2) hyolaryngeal elevation overshot the baseline (preperturbation) range of motion, showing behavioral aftereffects, when the perturbation was unexpectedly removed. Hyolaryngeal kinematics demonstrates adaptive, error-reducing movements in the presence of changing and unexpected demands. This is significant because individuals with dysphagia often aspirate due to disordered hyolaryngeal movements. Thus, if rapid motor learning is accessible during swallowing in healthy adults, patients may be taught to predict the presence of perturbations and reduce errors in swallowing before they occur.

  20. Friendly units for coldness

    CERN Document Server

    Fraundorf, P

    2006-01-01

    Measures of temperature that center around human experience get lots of use. Of course thermal physics insights of the last century have shown that reciprocal temperature (1/kT) has applications that temperature addresses less well. In addition to taking on negative absolute values under population inversion (e.g. of magnetic spins), bits and bytes turn 1/kT into an informatic measure of the thermal ambient for developing correlations within any complex system. We show here that, in the human-friendly units of bytes and food Calories, water freezes when 1/kT ~200 ZB/Cal or kT ~5 Cal/YB. Casting familiar benchmarks into these terms shows that habitable human space requires coldness values (part of the time, at least) between 0 and 40 ZB/Cal with respect body temperature ~100 degrees F, a range in kT of ~1 Cal/YB. Insight into these physical quantities underlying thermal equilibration may prove useful for budding scientists, as well as the general public, in years ahead.

  1. Calcium phosphate coating containing silver shows high antibacterial activity and low cytotoxicity and inhibits bacterial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Yoshiki, E-mail: andoy@jmmc.jp [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Miyamoto, Hiroshi [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Noda, Iwao; Sakurai, Nobuko [Research Department, Japan Medical Materials Corporation, Uemura Nissei Bldg.9F 3-3-31 Miyahara, Yodogawa-ku, Osaka 532-0003 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomonori [Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Yonekura, Yutaka; Shimazaki, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Masaki; Mawatari, Masaaki; Hotokebuchi, Takao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Surgical site infection is one of the serious complications of orthopedic implants. In order to reduce the incidence of implant-associated infections, we developed a novel coating technology of calcium phosphate (CP) containing silver (Ag), designated Ag-CP coating, using a thermal spraying technique. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy and biological safety of this coating. In vitro antibacterial activity tests showed that the growths of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are completely suppressed on Ag-CP coating. In vitro bacterial adherence tests revealed that the number of adherent bacteria on the surface of this coating is significantly less (p < 0.02) than that on the surface of the CP coating. Moreover, the Ag-CP coating completely inhibits MRSA adhesion [<10 colony-forming units (CFU)] when 10{sup 2} CFU MRSA is inoculated. On the other hand, V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were found to grow on the Ag-CP coating as well as on the CP coating in a cytotoxicity test. These results indicate that the Ag-CP coating on the surface of orthopedic implants exhibits antibacterial activity and inhibits bacterial adhesion without cytotoxicity.

  2. Clique-width of unit interval graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Lozin, Vadim V.

    2007-01-01

    The clique-width is known to be unbounded in the class of unit interval graphs. In this paper, we show that this is a minimal hereditary class of unbounded clique-width, i.e., in every hereditary subclass of unit interval graphs the clique-width is bounded by a constant.

  3. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  4. Human error: A significant information security issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    One of the major threats to information security human error is often ignored or dismissed with statements such as {open_quotes}There is not much we can do about it.{close_quotes} This type of thinking runs counter to reality because studies have shown that, of all systems threats, human error has the highest probability of occurring and that, with professional assistance, human errors can be prevented or significantly reduced Security analysts often overlook human error as a major threat; however, other professionals such as human factors engineers are trained to deal with these probabilistic occurrences and mitigate them. In a recent study 55% of the respondents surveyed considered human error as the most important security threat. Documentation exists to show that human error was a major cause of the consequences suffered at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Bhopal, and the Exxon tanker, Valdez. Ironically, causes of human error can usually be quickly and easily eliminated.

  5. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  6. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  7. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  8. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  9. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  10. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  11. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  12. Unit-Based Acute Confusion Resource Nurse: An Educational Program To Train Staff Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Carla Gene; Onega, Lisa L.; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Mobily, Paula; Wakefield, Bonnie; Kundrat, Mary; Akins, Jackie; Wadle, Karen; Mentes, Jan; Culp, Ken; Meyer, Jean; Waterman, James

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development and evaluation of an eight-hour educational program designed to prepare staff nurses to perform in a new role, the unit-based acute confusion Resource Nurse (ACRN). Tests showed that knowledge and confidence significantly increased for participants as a result of their participation in the educational program. (Author/GCP)

  13. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  14. Myopes Show Greater Visually Induced Postural Responses Than Emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Diane N; Asaad, Kristin; Hanssens, Jean-Marie; Giraudet, Guillaume; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2016-02-01

    The literature already establishes that vision plays a crucial role in postural control and that this visual dependence shows intra- and interindividual variability. However, does ametropia also have an effect on postural control? This question leads to our study, which aims primarily to determine if myopes and emmetropes behave differently in terms of postural control when subjected to visual stimulation, and secondarily, if this difference persists in the presence of barrel and pincushion distortions. The results could lead, among other things, to improved lens design. Twenty-four subjects (12 myopes of -2.00 to -9.00 diopters [D] and 12 emmetropes of -0.50 to +0.50 D), between 19 and 35 years of age, participated in the study after comprehensive eye examinations were carried out. Of the 12 myopes, the preferred type of correction was divided equally within the group. While standing in front of a projection system and fixating on an immobile point, a checkerboard stimulus was displayed in their peripheral visual field, in either a static or dynamic state. Three conditions of optical distortion (plan, pincushion, and barrel distortions) were presented to the subjects. Their postural response was measured and recorded using a system of infrared cameras and optical sensors positioned on a helmet. The results show that postural instability induced by a dynamic peripheral stimulus is higher for myopes compared with emmetropes (ANOVA Refractive Error, F1,22 = 5.92, P = 0.0235). When exposed to optical distortions, the two groups also have significant differences in postural behaviors (ANOVA Refractive Error*Optical Distortion, F2,44 = 5.67, P = 0.0064). These results suggest that refractive error could be a factor in explaining individual variations of the role of vision in postural control.

  15. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  16. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables are Significant Radio Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Groot, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. RW Sex, V603 Aql and the old nova TT Ari were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a $3\\sigma$ upper-limit of 7.8 $\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,\\rm{beam}^{-1}$). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short ($\\sim$200 s) and longer-term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization level...

  17. Object caching in corvids: incidence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena; Mioduszewska, Berenika; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Food caching is a paramount model for studying relations between cognition, brain organisation and ecology in corvids. In contrast, behaviour towards inedible objects is poorly examined and understood. We review the literature on object caching in corvids and other birds, and describe an exploratory study on object caching in ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws. The captive adult birds were presented with an identical set of novel objects adjacent to food. All three species cached objects, which shows the behaviour not to be restricted to juveniles, food cachers, tool-users or individuals deprived of cacheable food. The pattern of object interaction and caching did not mirror the incidence of food caching: the intensely food caching ravens indeed showed highest object caching incidence, but the rarely food caching jackdaws cached objects to similar extent as the moderate food caching New Caledonian crows. Ravens and jackdaws preferred objects with greater sphericity, but New Caledonian crows preferred stick-like objects (similar to tools). We suggest that the observed object caching might have been expressions of exploration or play, and deserves being studied in its own right because of its potential significance for tool-related behaviour and learning, rather than as an over-spill from food-caching research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  19. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the bonding strengths of second- and third-generation light-emitting diode light-curing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Min; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Kyung-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective With the introduction of third-generation light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in dental practice, it is necessary to compare their bracket-bonding effects, safety, and efficacy with those of the second-generation units. Methods In this study, 80 extracted human premolars were randomly divided into eight groups of 10 samples each. Metal or polycrystalline ceramic brackets were bonded on the teeth using second- or third-generation LED light-curing units (LCUs), according to the manufacturers’ instructions. The shear bond strengths were measured using the universal testing machine, and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) was scored by assessing the residual resin on the surfaces of debonded teeth using a scanning electron microscope. In addition, curing times were also measured. Results The shear bond strengths in all experimental groups were higher than the acceptable clinical shear bond strengths, regardless of the curing unit used. In both LED LCU groups, all ceramic bracket groups showed significantly higher shear bond strengths than did the metal bracket groups except the plasma emulation group which showed no significant difference. When comparing units within the same bracket type, no differences in shear bond strength were observed between the second- and third-generation unit groups. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the groups for the ARI. Conclusions The bracket-bonding effects and ARIs of second- and third-generation LED LCUs showed few differences, and most were without statistical significance; however, the curing time was shorter for the second-generation unit. PMID:27896210

  1. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  2. Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161980.html Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows ... shows. They also noted whether the shows mentioned food safety. The findings were published in the November-December ...

  3. Watershed Boundaries - WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN: 6-Digit Accounting Units, Hydrologic Units, in Indiana, (Derived from US Geological Survey, 1:24,000 Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — WATERSHEDS_HUC06_USGS_IN is a polygon shapefile showing the boundaries of accounting units (HUA) in Indiana. Accounting units are noted by a 6-digit hydrologic unit....

  4. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  5. Global Map: Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  6. Venus Flytrap Seedlings Show Growth-Related Prey Size Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Hatcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula has had a conservation status of vulnerable since the 1970s. Little research has focussed on the ecology and even less has examined its juvenile stages. For the first time, reliance on invertebrate prey for growth was assessed in seedling Venus flytrap by systematic elimination of invertebrates from the growing environment. Prey were experimentally removed from a subset of Venus flytrap seedlings within a laboratory environment. The amount of growth was measured by measuring trap midrib length as a function of overall growth as well as prey spectrum. There was significantly lower growth in prey-eliminated plants than those utilising prey. This finding, although initially unsurprising, is actually contrary to the consensus that seedlings (traps < 5 mm do not catch prey. Furthermore, flytrap was shown to have prey specificity at its different growth stages; the dominant prey size for seedlings did not trigger mature traps. Seedlings are capturing and utilising prey for nutrients to increase their overall trap size. These novel findings show Venus flytrap to have a much more complex evolutionary ecology than previously thought.

  7. Different training schedules influence platelet aggregation in show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, C; Arfuso, F; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Pietro, S Di; Bruschetta, D; Piccione, G

    2017-03-28

    Depending on the intensity, duration and type of physical exercise, equine metabolism has to adapt to nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory system requirements. In horses, exercise and training are known to have considerable effects on the mechanisms of hemostatic system involving platelet activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training schedules on platelet aggregation in 15 Italian Saddle jumping horses. Animals were divided into three equal groups: Group A was subjected to a high intensity-training program; group B to a light training program, group C included sedentary horses. From each animal, blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture at rest on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days, and afterwards, once a week, for a total of 5 weeks data recording, in order to assess the maximum degree of platelet aggregation and the initial velocity of aggregation (slope) platelet aggregation. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant effect of the different training schedules on studied parameters. The results revealed a different degree of platelet aggregation and a different initial velocity of platelet aggregation that changes during the different training schedules in horses that could represent a different protective endothelial mechanism. These findings could have an important role for a clearer knowledge of the physiological reference values of platelet aggregation and for a better interpretation of these variations during the training.

  8. Insertion Sequences show diverse recent activities in Cyanobacteria and Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile genetic elements (MGEs play an essential role in genome rearrangement and evolution, and are widely used as an important genetic tool. Results In this article, we present genetic maps of recently active Insertion Sequence (IS elements, the simplest form of MGEs, for all sequenced cyanobacteria and archaea, predicted based on the previously identified ~1,500 IS elements. Our predicted IS maps are consistent with the NCBI annotations of the IS elements. By linking the predicted IS elements to various characteristics of the organisms under study and the organism's living conditions, we found that (a the activities of IS elements heavily depend on the environments where the host organisms live; (b the number of recently active IS elements in a genome tends to increase with the genome size; (c the flanking regions of the recently active IS elements are significantly enriched with genes encoding DNA binding factors, transporters and enzymes; and (d IS movements show no tendency to disrupt operonic structures. Conclusion This is the first genome-scale maps of IS elements with detailed structural information on the sequence level. These genetic maps of recently active IS elements and the several interesting observations would help to improve our understanding of how IS elements proliferate and how they are involved in the evolution of the host genomes.

  9. Transcriptome characterization of Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) shows strong environmental acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jieqiong; WANG Xumin; CHI Shan; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Cui; CHEN Shengping; YU Jun; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Ishige okamurae, with leathery branched narrow fronds consisting of cylindrical hairs, is the typical species of the genus Ishige, which is considered as one of the most basal genera in the phylogeny of the Phaeophy-ceae. Apart from great public interest from the evolutionary respect, more attention has been brought on the abundant bioactive compounds in I. okamurae for therapeutic or economic considerations, such as di-phlorethohydroxycarmalol and ishigoside. Yet little is known about related key genes or metabolic pathways involved in I. okamurae, which calls upon us to carry out global analyses of transcriptome by next generation sequencing. Altogether, we obtained 78 583 assembled scaffolds with N50 of 1 709 nucleotides, and 25 357 unigenes with significant BLAST matches (E-value cutoff of 10-5). In terms of characterization of the tran-scriptome of I. okamurae, we focused on anti-stress metabolic pathways and synthetic routes of bioactive compounds in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the interactive organism-environment regula-tory networks. Pathway-based analysis helped us to deepen our comprehension of the interaction between I. okamurae and its surroundings, with MAPK signal pathway as an example. Furthermore, we discovered a wide range of novel putative functional proteins that could be of wide application, such as Rab family, using sequence-based transcriptome. In conclusion, transcriptome characterization of I. okamurae (Phaeophy-ceae) shows strong environmental acclimation.

  10. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  11. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  12. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  13. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  14. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  15. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  16. Military Deception: Hiding the Real - Showing the Fake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    his breakfast while reading his morning paper and listening to the international news channel. Hearing the Balkans mentioned—his area of...online renders the United States susceptible to deception. In the rush to be the first with late-breaking coverage, news networks sometimes skip analysis...has a fighting chance against future deception operations. As the general got up from his breakfast to respond to his pager, he knew it would not be

  17. EPA Report Shows Progress on E-Recycling and Identifies Opportunity to Advance G7s Recognition of Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Facts and Figures report showing progress in consumer electronics recycling in the United States. Consumer electronics re

  18. Evaluation of heat stress in dry cleaner units:A case study in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Malakouti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, heat stress is one of the most harmful physical agents in workplaces. According to the consequences of heat stress and have no information about it in Qom dry cleaner units, Iran, this study have been designed to evaluate the heat stress among workers of dry cleaner units in Qom province of Iran, in Jul-Aug 2011. Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 113 units of active dry cleaner units. WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index was selected for heat stress evaluation. In order to measure the requisite parameters, WBGT meter made of Casella Company had been used according to ISO 7243. Data had been analyzed according to Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs with SPSS V.16, using analysis of variance, independent T and LSD tests. Results: The average of WBGT index in Qom dry cleaner units of Iran were 28.98±1.64 °C. The average of WBGT index in 66.4% of units was up to 28°C. The average of relative humidity was 42.86%, the average of wet bulb temperature and globe temperature were 25.56°C and 36.72°C, respectively. The findings showed a significant correlation between the average of WBGT index and the standard recommendation level (p<0.0001. In dry cleaner units with less than 10 m2 area, heat stress was higher than other units  significantly (p<0.05. Conclusions: Heat stress in many dry cleaner units in Qom, Iran, was more than recommended OELs. Because of wet bulb and globe temperature in units were high value, the most important measures to heat controls, are technical engineering controls such as  radiation shield, insulation on boilers and modify the cooling systems.

  19. Realistic Significance and Practical Exploration of Cultivating New Professional Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunming; GONG; Hui; NI

    2013-01-01

    Firstly, the background, ways, countermeasures, problems and realistic significance of cultivating new professional farmers in China were studied, and then the mechanism for cultivating new professional farmers was discussed based on Town S. The results show that cultivating new professional farmers can fundamentally relieve "three rural issues" existing for a long time and is of great significance to rural economic development. For instance, it can integrate rural human capital and release modern productivity, increase farmers’ income and improve rural economy, increase land utilization and output per unit area, and break through the bottlenecks during agricultural development to realize agricultural modernization. According to the case study of Town S, during the process of cultivating new professional farmers, governments at all levels ought to adopt many effective measures and strengthen support to realize cultivation targets planed early.

  20. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  1. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  2. "The George Lopez Show": The Same Old Hispano?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, John

    2007-01-01

    "The George Lopez Show" is the first successful television show with a Latino in a leading role that features Hispanic material since Freddie Prinze's thirty-year-old sitcom, "Chico and the Man." This study seeks to assess how Latinos are presented on "The George Lopez Show." A content analysis reveals that the show perpetuates some of the…

  3. Cladodes, leaf-like organs in Asparagus, show the significance of co-option of pre-existing genetic regulatory circuit for morphological diversity of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2012-08-01

    Plants in the genus Asparagus have determinate leaf-like organs called cladodes in the position of leaf axils. Because of their leaf-like morphology, axillary position, and morphological variation, it has been unclear how this unusual organ has evolved and diversified. In the previous study, we have shown that cladodes in the genus Asparagus are modified axillary shoots and proposed a model that cladodes have arisen by co-option and deployment of genetic regulatory circuit (GRC) involved in leaf development. Moreover, we proposed that the alteration of the expression pattern of genes involved in establishment of adaxial/abaxial polarity has led to the morphological diversification from leaf-like to rod-like form of cladodes in the genus. Thus, these results indicated that the co-option and alteration of pre-existing GRC play an important role in acquisition and subsequent morphological diversification. Here, we present data of further expression analysis of A. asparagoides. The results suggested that only a part of the GRC involved in leaf development appears to have been co-opted into cladode development. Based on our study and several examples of the morphological diversification, we briefly discuss the importance of co-option of pre-existing GRC and its genetic modularity in the morphological diversity of plants during evolution.

  4. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows a significant association between the ATM rs1801516 SNP and toxicity after radiotherapy in 5456 breast and prostate cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Rosenstein, Barry S; Kerns, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several small studies have indicated that the ATM rs1801516 SNP is associated with risk of normal tissue toxicity after radiotherapy. However, the findings have not been consistent. In order to test this SNP in a well-powered study, an individual patient data meta-analysis was carried ou...

  5. Response to Comment on "Sphagnum Mosses from 21 Ombrotrophic Bogs in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region Show no Significant Atmospheric Contamination of “Heavy Metals”"

    OpenAIRE

    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; Duke, John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; Vile, Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; ZACCONE Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2015-01-01

    Blais and Donahue (2015) draw attention to many contemporary environmental issues and concerns regarding the industrial development of the Athabasca Bituminous Sands (ABS), most of which are outside of the scope of our original study (Shotyk et al., 2014). Here we restrict our response to the remarks they made which actually apply to our paper. The focus of our paper was the abundance and spatial variation in concentrations of “heavy metals” (selected chalcophile elements namely Ag, Cd, Pb...

  6. Allelic variants at codon 146 in the PRNP gene show significant differences in the risk for natural scrapie in Cypriot goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pelaez, A; Georgiadou, S; Simmons, M M; Windl, O; Dawson, M; Arnold, M E; Neocleous, P; Papasavva-Stylianou, P

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the association between the polymorphisms serine (S) or aspartic acid (D) at codon 146 of the PRNP gene and resistance to scrapie. All goats aged >12 months (a total of 1075 animals) from four herds with the highest prevalence of scrapie in the country were culled and tested, of which 234 (21·7%) were positive by either the rapid test or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for any of the tissues tested. The odds of scrapie infection occurring in NN146 goats was 101 [95% credible interval (CrI) 19-2938] times higher than for non-NN146 or unknown genotypes. IHC applied to lymphoreticular tissue produced the highest sensitivity (94%, 95% CrI 90-97). The presence of putatively resistant non-NN146 alleles in the Cypriot goat population, severely affected by scrapie, provides a potential tool to reduce/eradicate scrapie provided that coordinated nationwide breeding programmes are implemented and maintained over time.

  7. Immunofluorescent Analysis of Testicular Biopsies with Germ Cell and Sertoli Cell Markers Shows Significant MVH Negative Germ Cell Depletion with Older Age at Orchiopexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruili; Thorup, Jorgen; Sun, Cong;

    2014-01-01

    Undescended testis is the most common defect in male newborns. This condition is associated with increased risks of infertility and testicular malignancy due to abnormal germ cell development in the testes. Early surgery may limit such risks. We analyzed germ cell development vs age at orchiopexy...

  8. Sphagnum mosses from 21 ombrotrophic bogs in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands region show no significant atmospheric contamination of “heavy metals”

    OpenAIRE

    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; DUKE John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; Pelletier, Rick; VILE Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-01-01

    Sphagnum moss was collected from twenty-one ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs surrounding 39 open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands in Alberta (AB). 40 Compared with contemporary Sphagnum moss from four bogs in rural locations of southern 41 Germany (DE), the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl, 42 similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th and V. Except for V, 43 compared to the “cleanest”, ancient peat sa...

  9. Strategic renewal for business units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, J O

    1996-01-01

    Over the past decade, business units have increasingly taken the role of strategy formulation away from corporate headquarters. The change makes sense: business units are closer to customers, competitors, and costs. Nevertheless, business units can fail, just as headquarters once did, by losing their focus on the organization's priorities and capabilities. John Whitney--turnaround expert and professor of management at Columbia University--offers a method for refocusing companies that he calls the strategic-renewal process. The principles behind the process are straightforward, but its execution demands extensive data, rigorous analysis, and the judgment of key decision makers. However, when applied with diligence, it can produce a strategy that yields both growth and profit. To carry out the process, managers must analyze, one by one or in logical groupings, the company's customers, the products it sells, and the services it offers in light of three criteria: strategic importance, significance, and profitability. Does a given customer, product, or service mesh with the organization's goals? Is it significant in terms of current and future revenues? And is it truly profitable when all costs are care fully considered? Customers, products, and services that do not measure up, says the author, must be weeded out relentlessly. Although the process is a painstaking one, the article offers clear thinking on why-and how-to go about it. A series of exhibits takes managers through the questions they need to raise, and two matrices offer Whitney's concentrated wisdom on when to cultivate--and when to prune.

  10. VLA's Sharpened Vision Shows Details of Still-Forming Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ." Made famous in movies, commercials, magazine articles and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the world's most versatile and productive astronomical observatories since its dedication in 1980. VLA image and model of system The VLBA is a continent-wide system of 10 radio telescopes distributed across the continental United States, Hawaii and St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Dedicated in 1993, the VLBA has made important contributions to the understanding of stars in the Milky Way, the workings of distant galaxies, and to calibrating the distance scale of the universe. Both the VLA and the VLBA use multiple radio-telescope antennas to produce greater resolving power than is possible with an individual antenna. Because of the different sizes of these two arrays of antennas, they produce images showing different levels of detail. NRAO scientists and engineers have developed plans to combine the VLA with the VLBA antennas closest to it, in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona, along with a number of new antennas, to fill in a gap in resolving power that exists between the VLA and VLBA. If this plan is funded, the closer VLBA antennas and the new antennas will be connected to the VLA by fiber-optic links to produce the Expanded VLA (EVLA). "The successful linking of the Pie Town VLBA antenna to the VLA shows that we can connect these radio-telescope antennas with fiber-optic cable over long distances and make them work as a single instrument," said Claussen, who worked extensively on the project. "This has produced a valuable new capability for astronomers to use now -- as shown by our study of this young stellar system -- but it also proves that our concept for expanding the VLA is technically sound," he added. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. Potential Significance of the EU Water Framework Directive to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lars Skov Andersen; Martin Griffiths

    2009-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD) is a unique piece of legislation, which may be of great significance to on - going reforms of the water sector in China. First and foremost it unites 27 European mem- ber states behind a common goal, which is "to achieve good chemical and ecological status" of all water bodies across the EU. Other significant characteristics of the EU WFD are that (1) it sets a clear timeframe with a number of time - bound actions for member states to achieve the goal, hut leaves it to member states to achieve this goal in a decent- ralised process, which makes allowance for the different socio - economic conditions, (2) it defines the river basin as the management unit for water thus departing with the traditional fragmented management by administrative units and it appoints a single competent authority for water management within each fiver basin, thus facilitating resolution of sector conflicts, (3) it requires a financial and economic analysis of the costs of implementing the EU WFD to enable deci- sion makers to assess whether the required improvements are affordable to government and to the population within the fiver basin, and (4) it requires a structured process for information and consultation with stakeholders and the public throughout the planning and implementation process.

  12. Modeling and design of a combined transverse and axial flow threshing unit for rice harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Tang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The thorough investigation of both grain threshing and grain separating processes is a crucial consideration for effective structural design and variable optimization of the tangential flow threshing cylinder and longitudinal axial flow threshing cylinder composite units (TLFC unit of small and medium-sized (SME combine harvesters. The objective of this paper was to obtain the structural variables of a TLFC unit by theoretical modeling and experimentation on a tangential flow threshing cylinder unit (TFC unit and longitudinal axial flow threshing cylinder unit (LFC unit. Threshing and separation equations for five types of threshing teeth (knife bar, trapezoidal tooth, spike tooth, rasp bar, and rectangular bar, were obtained using probability theory. Results demonstrate that the threshing and separation capacity of the knife bar TFC unit was stronger than the other threshing teeth. The length of the LFC unit was divided into four sections, with helical blades on the first section (0-0.17 m, the spike tooth on the second section (0.17-1.48 m, the trapezoidal tooth on the third section (1.48-2.91 m, and the discharge plate on the fourth section (2.91-3.35 m. Test results showed an un-threshed grain rate of 0.243%, un-separated grain rate of 0.346%, and broken grain rate of 0.184%. Evidenced by these results, threshing and separation performance is significantly improved by analyzing and optimizing the structure and variables of a TLFC unit. The results of this research can be used to successfully design the TLFC unit of small and medium-sized (SME combine harvesters.

  13. Are freestanding midwifery units a safe alternative to obstetric units for low-risk, primiparous childbirth? An analysis of effect differences by parity in a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Louise Fischer; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-01-09

    Intrapartum complications and the use of obstetric interventions are more common in primiparous childbirth than in multiparous childbirth, leading to concern about out of hospital birth for primiparous women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity and the use of obstetric interventions differed by parity among low-risk women intending to give birth in a freestanding midwifery unit or in an obstetric unit in the North Denmark Region. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a matched cohort study including 839 low-risk women intending birth in a freestanding midwifery unit (primary participants) and 839 low-risk women intending birth in an obstetric unit (individually matched control group). Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to compute odds ratios and effect ratios with 95% confidence intervals for matched pairs stratified by parity. On no outcome did the effect of birthplace differ significantly between primiparous and multiparous women. Compared with their counterparts intending birth in an obstetric unit, both primiparous and multiparous women intending birth in a freestanding midwifery unit were significantly more likely to have an uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant and less likely to require caesarean section, instrumental delivery, augmented labour or epidural analgesia (although for caesarean section this trend did not attain statistical significance for multiparous women). Perinatal outcomes were comparable between the two birth settings irrespective of parity. Compared to multiparas, transfer rates were substantially higher for primiparas, but fell over time while rates for multiparas remained stable. Freestanding midwifery units appear to confer significant advantages over obstetric units to both primiparous and multiparous mothers, while their infants are equally safe in both settings

  14. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  15. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRESS HORMONES IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Z Zangeneh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nPsoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition characterized by inflamed and scaly lesions of skin. Whilst the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not known, psychological stress has been implicated as a potential trigger in the onset and exacerbation of the condition. Psychiatric and psychological factors play an important role in at least 30% of dermatologic disorder and pathophysiologic link between psychological stress (PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. As activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA is critical to a successful stress response, we investigated this in patients with psoriasis. This study was performed on 55 patients (40 females and 15 males visited our clinic for treatment of psoriasis in pharmacology department. We measured the rate of activation of HPA by hormonal changes. These patients displayed higher fasting blood sugar (FBS, epinephrine (Ep, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, aldosterone, prolactin, growth hormone and estradiol hormones value but diminished cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. These results show that HPA and psychoneuroendocrine hormones have a significant role in psoriasis.

  16. The vacuum impedance and unit systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kitano, M

    2006-01-01

    In electromagnetism, the vacuum impedance $Z_0$ is a universal constant, which is as important as the velocity of light $c$ in vacuum. Unfortunately, however, its significance does not seem to be appreciated so well and sometimes the presence itself is ignored. It is partly because in the Gaussian system of units, which has widely been used for long time, $Z_0$ is a dimensionless constant and of unit magnitude. In this paper, we clarify that $Z_0$ is a fundamental parameter in electromagnetism and plays major roles in the following scenes: reorganizing the structure of the electromagnetic formula in reference to the relativity; renormalizing the quantities toward natural unit systems starting from the SI unit system; and defining the magnitudes of electromagnetic units.

  17. The Emergence of a Phoneme-sized Unit of Speech Planning in Japanese-English Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eNakayama

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has revealed that the way phonology is constructed during word production differs across languages. Dutch and English native speakers are suggested to incrementally insert phonemes into a metrical frame, whereas Mandarin Chinese speakers use syllables and Japanese speakers use a unit called the mora (typically a CV cluster such as ka or ki. The present study is concerned with the question how bilinguals construct phonology in their L2 when the phonological unit size differs from the unit in their L1. Japanese-English bilinguals of varying proficiency read aloud English words preceded by masked primes that overlapped in just the onset (e.g., bark-BENCH or the onset plus vowel corresponding to the mora-sized unit (e.g., bell-BENCH. Low-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed CV priming but did not show onset priming, indicating that they use their L1 phonological unit when reading L2 English words. In contrast, high-proficient Japanese-English bilinguals showed significant onset priming. The size of the onset priming effect was correlated with the length of time spent in English-speaking countries, which suggests that extensive exposure to L2 phonology may play a key role in the emergence of a language-specific phonological unit in L2 word production.

  18. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  19. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  20. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  1. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  2. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall be served upon all persons named therein, shall...

  3. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  4. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  5. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  6. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  7. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  8. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Ways to Give Matching Gifts Donate Your Car Online Options United Way Close About UMDF Our ... Rights Reserved | UMDF Donor Privacy Policy Facebook Twitter Google+ Youtube Vimeo Instagram Email STAY UPDATED! Join the ...

  9. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  10. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  11. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  12. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  13. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  14. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Mudassar; Abd Rahman Nik Adzrieman B.

    2017-01-01

    Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows ...

  15. Interaksi Budaya Organisasi dengan Sistem Pengendalian Manajemen Terhadap Kinerja Unit Bisnis Industri Manufaktur dan Jasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peni Sawitri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Management Control System is very significant in improving the performance of companies that depend on the shape and culture of the organization. This study aims to determine the effect of interactions of organizational cultural with the process of management control systems, focussed at device controls and its mechanisms (such as evaluation and feedback system to business unit performance in manufacturing and service industries in Jakarta. Data of the study was collected via a mail survey to business unit managers who heading a strategic business unit (SBU, profit center, or of divisional in manufacturing and services companies which listed in the Jakarta Stock Exchange. The statistic method used to test the hypotheses is a multiple regression multiplicative model. The results showed that corporate culture does not strengthen the relationship between attributes and mechanisms of SPM with business unit performance.

  16. Drought in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  17. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  18. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindelevitch Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. Results First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds. Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical

  19. On combining significances. Some trivial examples

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnikov, N V

    2010-01-01

    For Poisson distribution $Pois(n, \\lambda)$ with $\\lambda \\gg 1$, $n \\gg 1$ we propose to determine significance as $S = \\frac{n_{obs}-\\lambda}{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}$. The significance $S$ coincides up to sign with often used significance. For experiments which measure the same quantities the natural but not unique rule for significance combining is $S_{comb}(S_1, S_2) = \\frac{S_1\\sigma_1+S_2\\sigma_2}{\\sqrt{\\sigma^2_1+\\sigma^2_2}}$, where $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ are variations. We also propose the rule for significances combining for the case with systematic errors.

  20. Breaking the Chain of Infection: Dental Unit Water Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amrita; Mehta, Sonia; Dang, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The air–water syringes, ultrasonic scalers, high speed air turbine handpieces are connected to dental units by a network of small-bore plastic tubes through which water and air travel to activate or cool the instruments and it had been shown that this system is extensively contaminated with microbial biofilms and pose a potential risk of infection for patients as well as dental professionals. Aim To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants in reducing the microbial colony count in water derived from Dental Unit Waterlines. Materials and Methods Five random dental units were selected and samples were collected before and after intervention with 5 disinfectants (0.02% H2O2 continuously, 0.02% H2O2 continuously with shock treatment with 0.25% H2O2 weekly, 0.12% Chlorohexidine and 12% Ethanol overnight, 1:50 Original Listerine overnight, 2% Sodium Perborate and 2% EDTA 5 minutes in morning) using different disinfection methods for 4 weeks. Samples were cultured on Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) agar for microbial counting. Results Results were recorded as Colony forming units/ml (cfu/ml) and were evaluated statistically. Results showed that all the dental unit waterlines were heavily contaminated with microbes before any intervention. After 1 day of disinfection regime the counts reduced significantly and showed progressive reduction in consecutive weeks. Goals set by ADA & CDC were ultimately achieved at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion All the disinfectants were equally effective in reducing the microbial colony count of DUWLs, irrespective of their concentration and method of disinfection. PMID:27630960

  1. China Sport Show: More Professional and on a Larger Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 26th China Sport Show will be held in New China International Exhibition Center, Beijing, from May 20 to 23, 2010. As a fast-growing sport show, it has been playing an important role in promoting the development of Chinese brands and the cooperation of the enterprises. This year, the sport show is welcoming over 1000 exhibitors and 50,000 trade visitors from over 60 countries and regions.

  2. Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narui, Jahan

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

  3. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193... show cause. An SEA, LEA or other public agency in receipt of a notice under § 300.192 that seeks an opportunity to show cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a...

  4. Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narui, Jahan

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

  5. The changing nature of flooding across the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallakpour, Iman; Villarini, Gabriele

    2015-03-01

    In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, flooding has taken a devastating societal and economic toll on the central United States, contributing to dozens of fatalities and causing billions of dollars in damage. As a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture (the Clausius-Clapeyron relation), a pronounced increase in intense rainfall events is included in models of future climate. Therefore, it is crucial to examine whether the magnitude and/or frequency of flood events is remaining constant or has been changing over recent decades. If either or both of these attributes have changed over time, it is imperative that we understand the underlying mechanisms that are responsible. Here, we show that while observational records (774 stream gauge stations) from the central United States present limited evidence of significant changes in the magnitude of floodpeaks, strong evidence points to an increasing frequency of flooding. These changes in flood hydrology result from changes in both seasonal rainfall and temperature across this region.

  6. A Study on Person Deixis Used in TV Talk Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓

    2014-01-01

    Deixis means“pointing” via language. There are many scholars who study person deixis in different discourses. However, few of them have analyzed person deixis used in TV talk show, which is more popular in our daily life. TV talk show is an important face-to-face conversation in which the participants use some person deixis to reach certain goal. This thesis studies the person deixis used in TV talk show especial y three types of unconventional usage of person deixis in the TV talk show discourse.

  7. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  8. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  9. Quantifying show jumping horse rider expertise using IMUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M; Doyle, J; Cahill, E; Caulfield, B; McCarthy Persson, U

    2010-01-01

    Horse rider ability has long been measured using horse performance, competition results and visual observation. Scientific methods of measuring rider ability on the flat are emerging such as measuring position angles and harmony of the horse-rider system. To date no research has quantified rider ability in show jumping. Kinematic analysis and motion sensors have been used in sports other than show jumping to measure the quality of motor control patterns in humans. The aim of this study was to quantify rider ability in show jumping using body-mounted IMUs. Preliminary results indicate that there are clear differences in experienced and novice riders during show jumping.

  10. [Impact of reorganization of the Hungarian system of intensive care units in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresz, Miklós

    2016-10-01

    In 2012, the Hungarian system of intensive care units was reorganized. During this process, multidisciplinary units were separated from observation units. The author analysed certain indicators of the remaining intensive care units. The study was based on reports of National Health Insurance Fund between 2000 and 2015. After reorganization the number of the multidisciplinary intensive care units decreased by 20% and the number of beds decreased by 10%. Due to the reorganization, both the case-mix index and the days of mechanical ventilation increased significantly in the multidisciplinary intensive care units. In 2000, 12% of the patients were discharged directly from the intensive care units to home, but by 2014, this figure decreased to 3%. The bed-occupancy rate of the intensive care units did not change fundamentally and it was under 80% in each calendar day. In addition to the ICD leading groups I and J, the rate of "Sine morbo" (U9990) diagnosis decreased from 0.7% to 0.2%. Similarly, the ratio of R group which describes only symptoms decreased from 1.7% to 1.1%. In contrast, between the interventions the number of fluid and electrolyte imbalances and respiratory monitoring showed more than twofold increase. These results suggest that the reorganization was effective. The activity of the intensive care units has improved significantly, without disturbing patient care. The author suggests further analysis on the basis of the same criteria for other departments and the consistent continuation of the reorganization process. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1757-1761.

  11. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Hovercraft auxiliary power units (APUs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, B.J.

    1983-08-01

    Auxiliary power units (APU) manufactured by British firms for use in hovercraft are characterized. Both diesel and gas-turbine APUs are found to be well suited to the demands of this application. The design features, dimensions, performance data, and installation requirements are discussed for the SS 90, SS 923, DA-1, BA-1, HM 5, and Gevaudan 9 APUs, as well as the TRS 18 gas-turbine smoke generator. The progress made in improving the fuel efficiency of gas turbines and reducing the weight of diesel engines is considered significant.

  13. 76 FR 4987 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Bali: Art, Ritual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Bali: Art, Ritual, Performance..., Ritual, Performance,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  14. 76 FR 12786 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Charlotte Salomon: Life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Charlotte Salomon: Life? Or Theatre... Salomon: Life? Or Theatre?'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States,...

  15. 77 FR 39319 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Bodies and Shadows...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Bodies and Shadows: Caravaggio and...: Caravaggio and His Legacy'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  16. 75 FR 80885 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Buddhist Heritage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Buddhist Heritage of Pakistan... Buddhist Heritage of Pakistan,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United...

  17. 77 FR 32711 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Messerschmidt and Modernity”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Messerschmidt and Modernity... ``Messerschmidt and Modernity,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of...

  18. 76 FR 44976 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Heroic Africans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Exhibition Determinations: ``Heroic Africans: Legendary Leaders, Iconic Sculptures'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Heroic Africans: Legendary Leaders, Iconic Sculptures,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance....

  19. 76 FR 14115 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Assorted Greek and Roman...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Assorted Greek and Roman Objects... Greek and Roman Objects'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  20. 77 FR 23318 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “African Cosmos: Stellar Arts”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``African Cosmos: Stellar Arts... Cosmos: Stellar Arts,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is...

  1. 75 FR 48736 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Kurt Schwitters: Color...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Kurt Schwitters: Color and Collage... Schwitters: Color and Collage,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States,...

  2. Power Efficient Division and Square Root Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    shows that division and square root units based on the digit-recurrence algorithm offer the best tradeoff delay-area-power. Moreover, the two operations can be combined in a single unit. Here, we present a radix-16 combined division and square root unit obtained by overlapping two radix-4 stages......Although division and square root are not frequent operations, most processors implement them in hardware to not compromise the overall performance. Two classes of algorithms implement division or square root: digit-recurrence and multiplicative (e.g., Newton-Raphson) algorithms. Previous work...

  3. Electron accelerating unit for streak image tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fangke Zong; Qinlao Yang; Houzhi Cai; Li Gu; Xiang Li; Jingjin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    An electron accelerating unit is proposed for use in streak image tubes (SITs). An SIT with this new accelerating unit was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that the accelerating unit improves both the spatial and temporal resolution. Compared to a traditional SIT, the transit time spread for electrons in the cathode-to-mesh region is reduced from 247 to 162 fs, the line width of the electron beam on the image surface is reduced from 42.7 to 26.1 m, and the temporal resolution is improved from 515 to 395 fs.

  4. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An individual applicant applying for a right-of-way under any right-of-way act, except the Act of March 3, 1891... marital status is not required. In other cases, a married woman or widow must show the date of her...

  5. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  6. TV Talk: Instant Classroom Celebrities With TV Game Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Marti

    1977-01-01

    Suggests some learning activities that can be used to capitalize on the popularity of TV game shows so that students can build their learning skills. These game show formats can also strengthen and reinforce many areas of the elementary curriculum. (Author/RK)

  7. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  8. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  9. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  10. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  11. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  12. Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

  13. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  14. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  15. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  16. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  17. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  18. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  19. 14 CFR 314.14 - Show-cause order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show-cause order. 314.14 Section 314.14... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.14 Show-cause order. When the Department makes a preliminary determination of whether the major cause of the bankruptcy...

  20. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  1. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  2. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  3. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  4. 9 CFR 354.247 - Table showing types of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table showing types of materials. 354... Sanitary Conditions and Precautions Against Contamination of Products § 354.247 Table showing types of materials. Equipment, utensils, and facilities Iron Stainless steel and monel metal Aluminum Galvanized...

  5. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  6. Effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine on microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Habib Agahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is known that dental unit waterline can be a source of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a mouthwash, chlorhexidine, in controlling microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, the water in high-speed handpieces and air/water syringes of 35 dental units in a dental school was investigated microbiologically. Five of the units and one tap water served as controls; 100-200-mL water samples were collected aseptically in sterile containers in the morning after a 2-min purge. Water reservoir bottles were emptied and 50 mL of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash was introduced into the tank. Then the water syringe was used to flush the waterline until the pink-colored chlorhexidine was observed to flow from the water syringe. Before the next day′s session and before the students used the unit, two water samples from the water syringe and water turbine was collected. The samples were transferred to the laboratory. After 48 h at 37°C, the microbial colonies were counted. The number of these colonies was evaluated using colony forming unit CFU. Data were analyzed with Mann - Whitney U test and SPSS 13.5 statistical program. The statistical significance was defined at P ≤ 0.05. Results: All 35 units were contaminated before chlorhexidine use; no contamination was detected after adding chlorhexidine to the waterlines of the units. After week 1, 28 of the 30 treated dental unit waterlines (DUWLs had values of CFU/mL less than 200. Conclusion: The present study showed that the use of chlorhexidine could reduce microbial counts in dental unit waterlines.

  7. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  8. 2008,Sporting Show Booms at the Right Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2008-01-01

    @@ The year of 2008 is the year of Olympic.The city of Beijing,being the host city for the game,implicates numerous potential business opportunities significantly,especially for the sporting goods industry.

  9. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  10. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  11. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  12. Configurations of Leadership Practices in Hospital Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2015-01-01

    shows leadership practices to be primarily embedded in the clinical work and often shared across organizational or professional boundaries. Originality/value: – This paper demonstrated how leadership practices are embedded in the everyday work in hospital units. Moreover, the analysis shows how...... and interviews with ten interdisciplinary clinical managers. Findings: – Comparing leadership as configurations of practices across four different clinical settings, the author shows how flexible and often shared leadership practices were embedded in and central to the core clinical work in all units studied...

  13. Unit distances and diameters in Euclidean spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Swanepoel, Konrad J

    2007-01-01

    We show that the maximum number of unit distances or of diameters in a set of n points in d-dimensional Euclidean space is attained only by specific types of Lenz constructions, for all d >= 4 and n sufficiently large, depending on d. As a corollary we determine the exact maximum number of unit distances for all even d >= 6, and the exact maximum number of diameters for all d >= 4, for all $n$ sufficiently large, depending on d.

  14. Recommendation for standardization of haematology reporting units used in the extended blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, M; McCafferty, R; Marsden, K; Kawai, Y; Etzell, J; Ermens, A

    2016-10-01

    It is desirable in the interest of patient safety that the reporting of laboratory results should be standardized where no valid reason for diversity exists. This study considers the reporting units used for the extended blood cell count and makes a new ICSH recommendation to encourage standardization worldwide. This work is based on a literature review that included the original ICSH recommendations and on data gathered from an international survey of current practice completed by 18 countries worldwide. The survey results show that significant diversity in the use of reporting units for the blood count exists worldwide. The use of either non-SI or other units not recommended by the ICSH in the early 1980s has persisted despite the guidance from that time. The diversity in use of reporting units occurs in three areas: the persistence in use of non-SI units for RBC, WBC and platelet counts, the use of three different units for haemoglobin concentration and the manual reporting of WBC differential, reticulocytes and nucleated RBCs when the latter are available from automated analysis or can be expressed as absolute numbers by calculation. A new recommendation with a rationale for each parameter is made for standardization of the reporting units used for the extended blood count. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  16. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  17. HEAT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT OF A GLASS MANUFACTURING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourmahabadian, M. Adelkhah, K. Azam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a common health problem throughout industry. Any heat stress evaluation requires some exposure assessment of climatic conditions, especially air temperature, humidity, and speed, along with the average temperature of the solid surroundings. In this paper workplace environmental climatic parameters were measured and then evaluated by Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, Corrected Effective Temperature, Heat Stress Index, and Allowable Exposure Time indices among 40 workers in a glass manufacturing unit in Tehran. Also, the effect of available heat control devices on heat stress indices was investigated. The results of this study showed that the obtained heat stress index in individual section and press units is exceeded from 100 (in individual section unit: 302.6, in press unit: 283.6. Also, it is found that the mean average of allowable exposure time in individual section and press units were 13.15 and 12.26 minutes exposure for one hour, respectively. No significant relationship was found between environmental parameters in three parts of body regions (height of head, abdomen and ankle except for measured air velocity in both units (P<0.007. Positive correlation was found between wet bulb globe temperature, corrected effective temperature and heat stress index indices, but negative correlation was found between allowable exposure time and other indices. Mann Whitney non-parametric test revealed significant relationships in wet bulb globe temperature, corrected effective temperature, heat stress index and allowable exposure time indices when metallic shield was used as heat absorber.

  18. Evaluation of light curing units used for polymerization of orthodontic bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Nanako; Komori, Akira; Nakahara, Rizako

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the light intensity of various light curing units, the effect of distance of the light guide, and the validity of a tapered light guide. Light curing units tested included (1) four blue light-emitting diode curing units, Lux-O-Max, LEDemetronl, Ortholux LED, and The Cure; (2) two tungsten-quartz halogen curing units, Optilux 501 and Co-bee; and (3) one plasma arc curing unit, Apollo95E. The Optilux 501 was also evaluated for combinations of normal mode and boost mode and Standard tip and Turbo tip light guide. The spectral output of each unit was measured from 300 to 600 nm with a spectroradiometer. The light intensities at distances of zero, five, 10, 15, and 20 mm were determined with the radiometer. The peak value of Ortholux LED and The Cure surpassed that of Apollo95E. The light intensity significantly decreased with distance. Although The Cure showed a higher light intensity than the LEDemetron1 at zero-mm distance, the light intensity of the LEDemetron1 was higher than that of The Cure at five to 20 mm, resulting in no significant difference. The boost mode increased light intensity at any distance. Although the Turbo tip enhanced light intensity at zero-mm distance, reduction of light intensity by Turbo tip was demonstrated at five- to 20-mm distance.

  19. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction among Health-Care Workers of Endoscopy Units in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Joo; Chun, Hoon Jai; Moon, Jeong Seop; Park, Sung Chul; Hwang, Young-Jae; Yoo, In Kyung; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-05-01

    The management of job-related stress among health-care workers is critical for the improvement of healthcare services; however, there is no existing research on endoscopy unit workers as a team. Korea has a unique health-care system for endoscopy unit workers. In this study, we aimed to estimate job stress and job satisfaction among health-care providers in endoscopy units in Korea. We performed a cross-sectional survey of health-care providers in the endoscopy units of three university-affiliated hospitals in Korea. We analyzed the job stress levels by using the Korean occupational stress scale, contributing factors, and job satisfaction. Fifty-nine workers completed the self-administered questionnaires. The job stress scores for the endoscopy unit workers (46.39±7.81) were relatively lower compared to those of the national sample of Korean workers (51.23±8.83). Job stress differed across job positions, with nurses showing significantly higher levels of stress (48.92±7.97) compared to doctors (42.59±6.37). Job stress and job satisfaction were negatively correlated with each other (R (2) =0.340, pstress and job satisfaction significantly differ according to job positions. Job demand, insufficient job control, and job insecurity are the most important stressors in the endoscopy unit.

  20. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  1. 46 CFR 4.03-65 - Significant harm to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Significant harm to the environment. 4.03-65 Section 4... MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-65 Significant harm to the environment. Significant harm to the environment means— (a) In the navigable waters of the United States, a discharge...

  2. Allorestricted cytotoxic T cells specific for human CD45 show potent antileukemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrolia, Persis J; Reid, Steven D; Gao, Liquan; Schultheis, Beate; Dotti, Gianpietro; Brenner, Malcolm K; Melo, Junia V; Goldman, John M; Stauss, Hans J

    2003-02-01

    Recent advances have made haploidentical transplantation for leukemia feasible, but the rigorous T-cell depletion used contributes to the high relapse rates observed. We have attempted to improve the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect by generating allorestricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) directed against human CD45. Such CTLs should recognize patient hematopoietic cells including leukemia, enhancing donor cell engraftment and improving the GVL effect, but they should not recognize host nonhematopoietic tissues or donor cells from the graft. Using the T2 binding assay, 4 CD45-derived peptides were found to bind HLA-A2 molecules. These peptides were used to generate cytotoxic T-cell lines from HLA-A2(-) donors by sequential stimulation with peptide-pulsed HLA-A2(+) stimulators, and the lines obtained were screened for peptide-specific cytotoxicity. Using one of these peptides (P1218), it was possible to generate peptide-specific, allorestricted CTLs in 3 of 7 responders. P1218-specific CTL lines show potent cytotoxicity against hematopoietic cell lines coexpressing HLA-A2 and CD45 but not CD45 loss variants. Studies with stable transfectants of 293 cells demonstrated recognition by P1218-specific CTLs of endogenously expressed CD45. Likewise P1218-specific CTLs recognized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HLA-A2(+) patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and leukemic blasts in HLA-A2(+) patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they were unable to lyse HLA-A2(+) fibroblasts or HLA-A2(-) normal PBMCs. Coculture of CD34(+) PBMCs and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) with P1218-specific CTL significantly inhibited colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) formation in HLA-A2(+) healthy controls and CML patients but resulted in no significant inhibition in HLA-A2(-) healthy controls. These studies demonstrate that P1218-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have potent activity against leukemic progenitors and suggest that

  3. Reki-Show Authoring Tools : Risk, Space and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hanashima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In social sciences, most events occur in specific time and space. We call such events here "Spatiotemporal Events". It is obvious that events, having always a beginning and an end, appear at a specific place or in particular space. Suppose there exists an conceptual data model regulating some rules to describe those factors, it enables us to store various spatiotemporal events as data and to refer with one another. We, therefore, define a simple spatiotemporal data model, calling "Reki-Show". We also call the information system, consisting of Reki-Show data model, "Reki-Show System", and consider Reki-Show System as the basic information system to deal with the various events in human society. Accordingly, we have recognized that it is indispensable in the future social sciences to have the database and tool for both the temporal and spatial attributes, and have been developing Reki-Show Authoring Tools based on the conceptual framework in Reki-Show System. At present, the fundamental component has been developed already through some steps, and the system is now applied to the empirical research. We would like to make a report of the outline at this stage. This paper explains the basic concept in Reki-Show (Conseptual Data Modeling, followed by the outline of the implemented system.

  4. Interleukin-8, interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α in sequential units of packed red blood cells collected from retired racing Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, S L; Claus, M; Hosgood, G; Smart, L

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesised that concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) would increase during storage in the third sequential unit (U3) of canine packed red blood cells (PRBC) collected from terminal donors in haemorrhagic shock. We further hypothesised that leucoreduction would prevent cytokine accumulation in U3 and that cytokine concentrations in U3 would be higher than in the first units (U1) collected from the same dogs. U1 and U3 were each collected from 12 anaesthetised healthy Greyhounds. Removal of leucocytes from half of each PRBC unit produced one leucoreduced (LR) and one non-leucoreduced (NLR) unit. Canine IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentrations were measured in samples collected from the units during storage on days 0, 10, 20, 30 and 37. The IL-8 concentration in U3 NLR units was significantly higher on days 10, 20, 30 and 37 than on day 0 and was significantly higher than in the LR units at all time points. The IL-1β concentration in U3 did not change over time, or between LR and NLR units. TNF-α was not detected in any unit. There were no significant differences in IL-8 or IL-1β concentrations between U3 and U1 at any time point; however, some NLR U3 units had markedly elevated IL-8 concentrations at day 37 (2060-20,682 pg/mL) compared with NLR U1 units (3369-5280 pg/mL). NLR U3 units collected from dogs in haemorrhagic shock showed a significant increase in IL-8 concentrations during storage. Leucoreduction was effective at preventing the accumulation of IL-8. There was no difference detected between U3 and U1. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Geothermal Characteristics and Geological Implications of Major Tectonic Units in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of more than 900 heat flow data in China and the surrounding seas, the authors study the geothermal characteristics of major tectonic units in China. The spatial pattern of heat flow and other thermal parameters for lithosphere exhibit significant lateral variation, originating from the Cenozoic tectonothermal activities related to the subduction of the Pacific plate and the collision between India and Asia. The mechanical strength of the crust and the seismicity of tectonic units were strongly affected by geothermal characteristics of units. The crustal eat production rate also shows the lateral heterogeneity, implying the significant lateral variation of bulk composition of the crust in China. KEY WORDS heat flow, effective elastic thickness, heat production rate of crust, China.

  6. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  7. Efficient statistical significance approximation for local similarity analysis of high-throughput time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Ai, Dongmei; Cram, Jacob; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2013-01-15

    Local similarity analysis of biological time series data helps elucidate the varying dynamics of biological systems. However, its applications to large scale high-throughput data are limited by slow permutation procedures for statistical significance evaluation. We developed a theoretical approach to approximate the statistical significance of local similarity analysis based on the approximate tail distribution of the maximum partial sum of independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. Simulations show that the derived formula approximates the tail distribution reasonably well (starting at time points > 10 with no delay and > 20 with delay) and provides P-values comparable with those from permutations. The new approach enables efficient calculation of statistical significance for pairwise local similarity analysis, making possible all-to-all local association studies otherwise prohibitive. As a demonstration, local similarity analysis of human microbiome time series shows that core operational taxonomic units (OTUs) are highly synergetic and some of the associations are body-site specific across samples. The new approach is implemented in our eLSA package, which now provides pipelines for faster local similarity analysis of time series data. The tool is freely available from eLSA's website: http://meta.usc.edu/softs/lsa. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. fsun@usc.edu.

  8. Muscle - tendon unit mechanical and morphological properties and sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafilidis, Savvas; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether sprint performance is related to the mechanical (elongation - force relationship of the tendon and aponeurosis, muscle strength) and morphological (fascicle length, pennation angle, muscle thickness) properties of the quadriceps femoris and triceps surae muscle - tendon units. Two groups of sprinters (slow, n = 11; fast, n = 17) performed maximal isometric knee extension and plantar flexion contractions on a dynamometer at 11 different muscle - tendon unit lengths. Elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius medialis and the vastus lateralis was measured using ultrasonography. We observed no significant differences in maximal joint moments at the ankle and knee joints or morphological properties of the gastrocnemius medialis and vastus lateralis between groups (P > 0.05). The fast group exhibited greater elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis at a given tendon force, and greater maximal elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis during maximum voluntary contraction (P aponeurosis showed a significant correlation with 100-m sprint times (r = -0.567, P = 0.003). For the elongation - force relationship at the gastrocnemius medialis tendon and aponeurosis, the two groups recorded similar values. It is suggested that the greater elongation of the vastus lateralis tendon and aponeurosis of the fast group benefits energy storage and return as well as the shortening velocity of the muscle - tendon unit.

  9. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  10. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudas Khilnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity. Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity. Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H 1 and H 2 antihistaminics (antagonists have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D 2 receptors antagonist, antihypertensive (AT 1 receptor antagonists, antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103, a highly selective 5-HT

  11. Asymptotic Distributions for Tests of Combined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    This paper discusses distribution theory and power computations for four common "tests of combined significance." These tests are calculated using one-sided sample probabilities or p values from independent studies (or hypothesis tests), and provide an overall significance level for the series of results. Noncentral asymptotic sampling…

  12. A Differentiated Program: Significant Curriculum Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan A.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a model for curricular adaptations for gifted students. A distinction is made between non-significant curriculum adaptations that can be easily made by the regular teacher and significant curriculum adaptations that involve deep changes in aims, content, and evaluation criteria. (Contains references.) (DB)

  13. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  14. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  15. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160594.html Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows ... There's more bad news when it comes to Zika's effect on infants: A case study suggests the ...

  16. Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161690.html Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits Early intervention reduced symptom ... may have lasting benefits for young children with autism, a new clinical trial suggests. Researchers from the ...

  17. RELATIONSHIP QUALITY AND EXHIBITOR'S PERFORMANCE IN LEISURE TRADE SHOWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ainhoa Rodríguez; María Dolores Reina; Ramón Rufín

    2015-01-01

    .... Specifically, in the case of leisure trade shows the main purpose is to stimulate the rising leisure market and meet the needs of an increasingly demanding society that calls for new forms of entertainment...

  18. Chronic Bullying Can Show Up in Report Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163318.html Chronic Bullying Can Show Up in Report Cards Study found ... 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic bullying can take a toll on kids' grades. That's ...

  19. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  20. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  1. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 February 2014 (historical) Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring that the skin’s ...

  2. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

  3. Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162290.html Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise Interactive program ... Now, insomnia might be one of them. A web-based interactive program may help chronically sleepless individuals ...

  4. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, U

    2002-03-01

    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses.

  5. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis.

  6. Therapeutic Non Thermal Plasma, Significance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wameath Sh. Abdul-Majeed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma is an electrically neutral, highly ionized gas that consists of several species (electrons, ions, reactive species, and UV light and classified into localized thermal equilibrium (LTE plasmas and non-localized thermal equilibrium (n-LTE plasmas. In LTE plasmas, the electron temperature exists in equilibrium with the gas temperature. In contrast, the electron temperature in (n- LTE plasmas can reach temperatures of 1-10 (eV while the gas temperature is kept as low as room temperature, which makes it useful for a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. ozone generation, surface treatment, .., etc. In the past decade, non thermal (cold atmospheric pressure plasmas were developed and emerged as a promising new tool for medical applications as it’s proved to be more selective in its application (e.g. selective killing of microbes. Accordingly, developments of cold atmospheric plasma devices led to the possibility to apply plasma species to heat-sensitive surfaces (e.g. human skin with precise tuning, controllability and without damage of surrounding tissue. On this basis, medical plasma proved effective for skin sterilization, wound healing and tissue regeneration, cancer treatment, malignant cell apoptosis and blood coagulation. Moreover, cold plasma is known to inactivate a wide range of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores and biofilms. Therefore it has been considered a very efficient alternative to superficially applied antibiotics or disinfectants. It’s worth noting that histological evaluation for the skin treated with atmospheric cold plasma showed that no morphological changes and no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis were detectable after plasma treatment. Other studies denoted that a limited increase in the number of DNA double-strand breaks was observed in plasma-treated excised human skin. However, varieties of a new generation handheld and battery-operated devices makes it difficult to interpret the

  7. The Worldwide Significance of Chinese Aesthetics in the Twenty-First Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Qingping

    2006-01-01

    Through comparisons between traditional Chinese and Western aesthetics,this article tries to explain the worldwide significance of Chinese aesthetic tradition in the twentyfirst century.In contrast to cognitive-rational spirit and the tendency to distinguish the subjectives and objectives of traditional Western aesthetics,traditional Chinese aesthetics shows a distinctive practical-emotional spirit and a tendency to harmoniously unite human beings with nature,and believes that beauty is,first and foremost,a free state or way (Dao) of human life;the most important thing for human beings is how to make their own lives and existence beautiful.Therefore,it puts forward some persuasive and valuable insights into beauty and art,thus playing an independent and constructive role in intercultural aesthetic dialogues of the twenty-first century.

  8. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  9. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  10. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  11. Statistical significance of trends in monthly heavy precipitation over the US

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Salil

    2011-05-11

    Trends in monthly heavy precipitation, defined by a return period of one year, are assessed for statistical significance in observations and Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations over the contiguous United States using Monte Carlo non-parametric and parametric bootstrapping techniques. The results from the two Monte Carlo approaches are found to be similar to each other, and also to the traditional non-parametric Kendall\\'s τ test, implying the robustness of the approach. Two different observational data-sets are employed to test for trends in monthly heavy precipitation and are found to exhibit consistent results. Both data-sets demonstrate upward trends, one of which is found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Upward trends similar to observations are observed in some climate model simulations of the twentieth century, but their statistical significance is marginal. For projections of the twenty-first century, a statistically significant upwards trend is observed in most of the climate models analyzed. The change in the simulated precipitation variance appears to be more important in the twenty-first century projections than changes in the mean precipitation. Stochastic fluctuations of the climate-system are found to be dominate monthly heavy precipitation as some GCM simulations show a downwards trend even in the twenty-first century projections when the greenhouse gas forcings are strong. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Information literacy is not a one-man show

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Mette; Kobow, Else; Kristensen, Anne-Kirstine Østergaard

    2015-01-01

    -teaching supports the librarian in developing pedagogical skills. Educators have diverging experiences with IL which can be a problem when challenging students on IL for their assignments. IL is everyone’s business and local dissemination of an agreed curriculum intervention throughout a programme is important....... Leadership and re-sources are also significant if the integration of IL is to be possible....

  13. Can Britain's National Curriculum Show America the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofty, John S.

    1993-01-01

    A widespread perception about falling standards prompted Margaret Thatcher's government to pass 1988 legislation mandating a national curriculum and accompanying testing system. The worst-case scenario feared by many British teachers is coming to pass: a test-driven curriculum without significant attention to teachers' assessments of student…

  14. Chocolate: A Heart-healthy Food? Show Me the Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2002-01-01

    Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.

  15. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.

    1997-01-01

    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  16. Impact of Pre-Procedure Interventions on No-Show Rate in Pediatric Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric endoscopy has evolved into an indispensable tool in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal diseases in children. However, there is limited literature focusing on quality improvement initiatives in pediatric endoscopy. The primary goal of this project was to reduce the no-show rate in the pediatric endoscopy unit. Also, we aimed to improve patient and family satisfaction with the procedure by identifying opportunities for improvement. A checklist was designed based on the potential causes of no-show. The endoscopy nurse coordinator reviewed the checklist when scheduling the procedure to identify patients at high risk for non-compliance. Once a risk factor was identified, appropriate actions were taken. She also made a pre-procedure phone call as a reminder and to address any of these risks for non-compliance if present. A patient satisfaction survey was used to identify potential areas for improvement. The no-show rate decreased from an average of 7% in the pre-intervention phase to 2% in the post-intervention phase (p = 0.009. 91% of the patients/family recorded an overall satisfaction of 4 or 5 on a scale of 1–5 5 being best. Quality improvement strategies decreased the no-show rate in the pediatric endoscopy unit. A patient satisfaction survey helped in identifying areas for improvement.

  17. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  18. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  19. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  20. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…