WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit results showed

  1. Americans with Wings—Air show institution in the United States%Americans with Wings——Air show institution in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步云

    2016-01-01

    Wright Brother's first flying machine's flight in 1903 declared the advent of aviation age. Further stimulated by two world wars, aviation technologies have become the most advanced ones among human's manufacturing industries. In order to feed the industries' demand for human intelligence, various interactions between aviation staff and other social members were developed. Consequently, certain kind of aviation culture has been cultivating. In this paper, the author will make an introduction of aviation culture in the United States, and focus on the most representative content of that culture, the air show institution in United States.

  2. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...... polymorphism (AFLP), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the influence of variable surface protein (Vsp) profiles on the profiles generated with molecular typing techniques was studied. Both AFLP and RAPD separated the isolates into two distinct groups, but PFGE showed less...

  3. Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

  4. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  5. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  6. Neonatal Intensive-Care Unit Graduates Show Persistent Difficulties in an Intradimensional Shift Card Sort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rossi, Vanessa; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.; Flory, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) graduates, a group at risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, performed an intradimensional shift card sort at 34, 42, 51, and 60 months to assess executive function and to examine effects of individual risk factors. In the "silly" game, children sorted cards…

  7. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.;

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...

  8. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  9. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F. Patrick; Suaya, Jose A.; Ray, G. Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L.; Mera, Robertino M.; Close, Nicole M.; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants. PMID:26669861

  10. Maps showing ground-water units and withdrawal, Basin and Range Province, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B.T.; Bedinger, M.S.; Mikels, John

    1984-01-01

    This report on ground-water units and withdrawal in the Basin and Range province of Texas (see index map) was prepared as part of a program of the U.S. Geological Survey to identify prospective regions for further study relative to isolation of high-level nuclear waste (Bedinger, Sargent, and Reed, 1984), utilizing program guidelines defined in Sargent and Bedinger (1984). Also included in this report are selected references on pertinent geologic and hydrologic studies of the region. Other map reports in this series contain detailed data on ground-water quality, surface distribution of selected rock types, tectonic conditions, areal geophysics, Pleistocene lakes and marshes, and mineral and energy resources.

  11. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  12. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

  13. Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp

  14. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive care hospitalization by ...

  15. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Jimura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval” (Jimura et al., 2016 [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article.

  16. Results from an absolute gravity survey in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Faller, J. E.; Gschwind, J.

    1983-01-01

    Using the recently completed JTLA absolute gravity meter, we made a survey of twelve sites in the United States. Over a period of eight weeks, the instrument was driven a total distance of nearly 20,000 km to sites in California, New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, Maryland and Massachusetts. The time spent in carrying out a measurement at a single location was typically one day. We report the results of the measurements in this survey along with earlier measurements made with the instrument, discuss the measurement accuracy and compare our results with other measurements. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20480

  17. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice.

  18. FES Training in Aging: interim results show statistically significant improvements in mobility and muscle fiber size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Kern

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial process that is characterized by decline in muscle mass and performance. Several factors, including reduced exercise, poor nutrition and modified hormonal metabolism, are responsible for changes in the rates of protein synthesis and degradation that drive skeletal muscle mass reduction with a consequent decline of force generation and mobility functional performances. Seniors with normal life style were enrolled: two groups in Vienna (n=32 and two groups in Bratislava: (n=19. All subjects were healthy and declared not to have any specific physical/disease problems. The two Vienna groups of seniors exercised for 10 weeks with two different types of training (leg press at the hospital or home-based functional electrical stimulation, h-b FES. Demografic data (age, height and weight were recorded before and after the training period and before and after the training period the patients were submitted to mobility functional analyses and muscle biopsies. The mobility functional analyses were: 1. gait speed (10m test fastest speed, in m/s; 2. time which the subject needed to rise from a chair for five times (5x Chair-Rise, in s; 3. Timed –Up-Go- Test, in s; 4. Stair-Test, in s; 5. isometric measurement of quadriceps force (Torque/kg, in Nm/kg; and 6. Dynamic Balance in mm. Preliminary analyses of muscle biopsies from quadriceps in some of the Vienna and Bratislava patients present morphometric results consistent with their functional behaviors. The statistically significant improvements in functional testings here reported demonstrates the effectiveness of h-b FES, and strongly support h-b FES, as a safe home-based method to improve contractility and performances of ageing muscles.

  19. Watts Bar Unit 2 Startup Results with VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gentry, Cole A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stimpson, Shane G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ritchie, John A. [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    CASL members TVA, Westinghouse, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory have successfully completed a detailed simulation of the initial startup of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 2 (WBN2) using the advanced reactor simulation tools known as VERA. WBN2 is the first commercial power reactor to join the nation’s electrical grid in over two decades, and the modern core design and availability of data make it an excellent benchmark for CASL. Calculations were performed three months prior to the startup, and in the first blind application of VERA to a new reactor, predicted criticality and physics parameters very close to those later measured by TVA. Subsequent calculations with the latest version of VERA and using exact measurement conditions improved the results even further.

  20. PIE results on MOX fuel irradiated in MIHAMA Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamate, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan). Mihama Power Station; Abeta, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Kosaka, Y. [Nuclear Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Abe, Y. [Japan Atomic Power Co. (Japan); Kuwahara, H. [Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the results of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) on the MOX fuel rods irradiated in the Japanese commercial PWR, MIHAMA Unit 1. The objective of the PIE is not only to confirm the fuel integrity but also to build up the irradiation data base for MOX fuel design. After three cycles irradiation up to the assembly burnup of 23 GWd/t, they were examined at the site and further PIE was carried out on eight MOX fuel rods at a hot laboratory. The non-destructive test results of PIE proved the integrity of the MOX fuel rods up to the burnup of about 25GWd/t, and revealed the similar irradiation behaviour of dimensional change with the standards UO{sub 2} fuel rods. Results of the following destructive tests also revealed the similar irradiation behaviour of FGR, fuel pellet dimensional change and cladding oxidation with the standard UO{sub 2} fuel, and confirmed no abnormality in microstructure changes of fuel pellets. (author).

  1. Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Gibson, Marc A.; Geng, Steven M.; Sanzi, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The Fission Surface Power (FSP) Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) is a system-level demonstration of fission power technology intended for use on manned missions to Mars. The Baseline FSP systems consists of a 190 kWt UO2 fast-spectrum reactor cooled by a primary pumped liquid metal loop. This liquid metal loop transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal loops designed to isolate fission products in the primary loop from the balance of plant. The intermediate liquid metal loops transfer heat to four Stirling Power Conversion Units (PCU), each of which produce 12 kWe (48 kW total) and reject waste heat to two pumped water loops, which transfer the waste heat to titanium-water heat pipe radiators. The FSP TDU simulates a single leg of the baseline FSP system using an electrically heater core simulator, a single liquid metal loop, a single PCU, and a pumped water loop which rejects the waste heat to a Facility Cooling System (FCS). When operated at the nominal operating conditions (modified for low liquid metal flow) during TDU testing the PCU produced 8.9 kW of power at an efficiency of 21.7 percent resulting in a net system power of 8.1 kW and a system level efficiency of 17.2 percent. The reduction in PCU power from levels seen during electrically heated testing is the result of insufficient heat transfer from the NaK heater head to the Stirling acceptor, which could not be tested at Sunpower prior to delivery to the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The maximum PCU power of 10.4 kW was achieved at the maximum liquid metal temperature of 875 K, minimum water temperature of 350 K, 1.1 kg/s liquid metal flow, 0.39 kg/s water flow, and 15.0 mm amplitude at an efficiency of 23.3 percent. This resulted in a system net power of 9.7 kW and a system efficiency of 18.7 percent.

  2. Effective results for unit equations over finitely generated domains

    CERN Document Server

    Evertse, Jan-Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Let A be a commutative domain containing Z which is finitely generated as a Z-algebra, and let a,b,c be non-zero elements of A. It follows from work of Siegel, Mahler, Parry and Lang that the equation (*) ax+by=c has only finitely many solutions in elements x,y of the unit group A* of A, but the proof following from their arguments is ineffective. Using linear forms in logarithms estimates of Baker and Coates, in 1979 Gy\\H{o}ry gave an effective proof of this finiteness result, in the special case that A is the ring of S-integers of an algebraic number field. Some years later, Gy\\H{o}ry extended this to a restricted class of finitely generated domains A, containing transcendental elements. In the present paper, we give an effective finiteness proof for the number of solutions of (*) for arbitrary domains A finitely generated over Z. In fact, we give an explicit upper bound for the `sizes' of the solutions x,y, in terms of defining parameters for A,a,b,c. In our proof, we use already existing effective finiten...

  3. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Stories in Spanish about aspects of the history, culture, and daily life of Mexican Americans are included in this reading book developed by Edgewood School District Bilingual Program in San Antonio, Texas, for students in grade four through secondary school. "Escaparate" is the third of eight units being developed in this reading and language…

  4. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Stories in Spanish about aspects of the history, culture, and daily life of Mexican Americans are included in this reading book developed by Edgewood School District Bilingual Program in San Antonio, Texas, for students in grade four through secondary school. "Escaparate" is the third of eight units being developed in this reading and language…

  5. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  6. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-02-15

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  7. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Brito Lopes

    Full Text Available This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs. Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA, back-fat thickness (BF, and rump fat thickness (RF, registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3 (P < 0.001. Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1 were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs. Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  8. Unit cell sparger test program and analysis of test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Song, C. H.; Cho, S.; Yoon, Y. J

    2003-11-01

    This report presents the results of test data from CPT-3 test and the effect of important parameters on the IRWST load. The object of CPT-3 test is to determine the influence of air mass in the piping on the IRWST (In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank) boundary during an operation of Safety Depressurization and Vent System (SDVS). The test was conducted from an initial system pressure of 15.2 MPa, a steam temperature of 343.3 .deg. C, and an air mass of 3.34 lb. Following valve actuation, the pressure within the discharge line underwent pressure transient due to high pressure steam from the pressurizer and the discharged high pressure air formed air bubbles, which expanded and compressed periodically in the simulated IRWST. Air bubble oscillation was terminated within 2 s into the test. The magnitude of the pressure wave during the air clearing period was inversely proportional to the distance and very abrupt pressure spikes were observed in case the distance from the sparger holes to the submerged structure was less than 0.9 m. After the isolation valves were closed, the water in the simulated IRWST was considered to rise up to the 2.4m from the water surface in the quench tank. The amount of air mass in the piping, water temperature in the simulated IRWST, air temperature in the piping had not significant effect on the pressure loading during an air clearing period. However, the opening time of the isolation valve, steam mass flow rate, and submergence of an sparger have been shown to have great effects on the pressure loading during an air clearing period. 2 % of sparger flow area seems to be sufficient for the vacuum breaker area to mitigate the water hammering caused by abrupt water level rising during valve closure.

  9. COMPARISON OF NOVORONEZH UNIT 5 NPP AND SOUTH UKRAINE UNIT 1 NPP LEVEL I PRA RESULTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MUSICKI,Z.; GINSBERG,T.

    2002-04-18

    This paper describes a study undertaken to explain the risk profile differences in the results of PRAs of two similar WER-1000 nuclear power plants. The risk profile differences are particularly significant in the area of small steam/feedwater line breaks, small-small LOCAs, support system initiators and containment bypass initiators. A top level (limited depth) approach was used in which we studied design differences, major assumptions, data differences, and also compared the two PRA analyses on an element-by-element basis in order to discern the major causative factors for the risk profile differences. We conclude that the major risk profile differences are due to differences in assumptions and engineering judgment (possibly combined with some design and data differences) involved in treatment of uncertain physical phenomena (primarily sump plugging in LOCAs and turbine building steaming effects in secondary system breaks). Additional major differences are attributable to support system characteristics.

  10. Go For It七年级下Unit 11 What do you think of game shows?教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任亚茹

    2012-01-01

    <正>Ⅰ.Analysis of the teaching material内容分析This is the first class in Section A of Unit11.The language goal is to practice telling one’s preferences or opinions about events.This is a topic that students will be very interested in.In this unit,students will learn some names of different kinds of TV shows and movies,the related popular culture and the way of showing opinions.What do you think of...?It is a question used to ask for others’opinions in Section A.

  11. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  12. Reception of Talent Shows in Denmark: First Results from a Trans-National Audience Study of a Global Format Genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    of format adaptation, the musical talent show genre has been particularly successful in crossing cultural borders. Formats such as Idols, X Factor and Voice have sold to a large variety of countries, covering all continents. Such global reach inevitably raises the question of the genre’s audience appeal......This paper will discuss the methodology and present the preliminary findings of the Danish part of a trans-national, comparative audience study of the musical talent show genre undertaken in Denmark, Finland, Germany and Great Britain in Spring 2013. Within the international business model...... that television formats to a considerable degree are adapted according to national audiences and, hence, national cultural tastes. And in our research approach, we do recognize that musical talent shows appear to contribute to ‘imagining the nation’ (Anderson 1983), often even mentioning the nation in the title...

  13. Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlotshwa, S.; Verver, J.; Sithole-Niang, I.; Prins, M.; Kammen, van A.; Wellink, J.

    2002-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed

  14. Results and simulation of the prototype detection unit of KM3NeT-ARCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugon C.M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT-ARCA is a deep sea high energy neutrino detector. A detection unit prototype was deployed in the future KM3NeT-ARCA deep-sea site, off of the Sicilian coast. This detection unit is composed of a line of 3 digital optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes on each one. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. The results of the calibration of this detection unit and its simulation are presented and discussed.

  15. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Henry B. Wilson, MD, FACS

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch princi...

  16. Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry B. Wilson, MD, FACS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch principles with a self-retaining retractor system that holds promise to decrease infectious complications of breast reconstruction.

  17. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yihong; Cao, Zhenning; Bao, Ning; Li, Jianbo; Wang, Jun; Geng, Tao; Lin, Hao; Lu, Chang

    2012-06-28

    Conventional electroporation has been conducted by employing short direct current (dc) pulses for delivery of macromolecules such as DNA into cells. The use of alternating current (ac) field for electroporation has mostly been explored in the frequency range of 10kHz-1MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10Hz-10kHz), the transmembrane potential does not vary with the frequency. In this report, we utilized a flow-through electroporation technique that employed continuous 10Hz-10kHz ac field (based on either sine waves or square waves) for electroporation of cells with defined duration and intensity. Our results reveal that electropermeabilization becomes weaker with increased frequency in this range. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100-1000Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency is determined by combined effects from electrophoretic movement of DNA in the ac field, dependence of the DNA/membrane interaction on the ac frequency, and variation of transfection under different electropermeabilization intensities. The fact that ac electroporation in this frequency range yields high efficiency for transfection (up to ~71% for Chinese hamster ovary cells) and permeabilization suggests its potential for gene delivery.

  18. Expression of results in quantum chemistry physical chemistry division commission on physicochemical symbols, terminology and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase """"atomic units"""" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitte

  19. Getting carried away: a note showing baseline observation carried forward (BOCF) results can be calculated from published complete-cases results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K A; Affuso, O; Beasley, T M; Allison, D B

    2012-06-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in obesity are plagued by missing data due to participant dropouts. Most methodologists and regulatory bodies agree that the primary analysis of such RCTs should be based on the intent-to-treat (ITT) principle, such that all randomized subjects are included in the analysis, even those who dropped out. Unfortunately, some authors do not include an ITT analysis in their published reports. Here we show that one form of ITT analysis, baseline observation carried forward (BOCF), can be performed utilizing only information available in a published complete-case (CC) analysis, permitting readers, editors, meta-analysts and regulators to easily conduct their own ITT analyses when the original authors do not report one. We mathematically derive a simple method for estimating and testing treatment effects using the BOCF to allow a more conservative comparison of treatment effects when there are dropouts in a clinical trial. We provide two examples of this method using available CC analysis data from reported obesity trials to illustrate the application for readers who wish to determine a range of treatment effects based on published summary statistics. Commonly used CC analyses may lead to inflated type I error rates and/or treatment effect estimates. The method described herein can be useful for researchers who wish to estimate a conservative range of plausible treatment effects based on limited reported data. Limitations of this method are discussed.

  20. The results of Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, R. H.; Alnachoukati, O.; Barrington, J.; Ennin, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2004, the Phase III Oxford Medial Partial Knee is used to treat anteromedial osteoarthritis (AMOA) in patients with an intact anterior cruciate ligament. This unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is relatively new in the United States, and therefore long-term American results are lacking. Patients and Methods This is a single surgeon, retrospective study based on prospectively collected data, analysing a consecutive series of primary UKAs using the Phase III mobile-bearing Oxford Knee and Phase III instrumentation. Between July 2004 and December 2006, the senior author (RHE) carried out a medial UKA in 173 patients (213 knees) for anteromedial osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis (AVN). A total of 95 patients were men and 78 were women. Their mean age at surgery was 67 years (38 to 89) and mean body mass index 29.87 kg/m2 (17 to 62). The mean follow-up was ten years (4 to 11). Results Survivorship of the Oxford UKA at ten years was 88%, using life table analysis. Implant survivorship at ten years was 95%. The most common cause for revision was the progression of osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment. The mean knee score element of the American Knee Society Score (AKSS) was 50 pre-operatively and increased to 93 post-operatively. The mean AKSS function score was 56 pre-operatively rising to 78 post-operatively Conclusion This ten-year follow-up study of the Oxford UKA undertaken in the United States shows good survivorship and excellent function in a wide selection of patients with AMOA and AVN. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(10 Suppl B):34–40. PMID:27694514

  1. VIRUS characterization development and results from first batches of delivered units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indahl, Briana L.; Hill, Gary J.; Drory, Niv; Gebhardt, Karl; Tuttle, Sarah; Ramsey, Jason; Ziemann, Greg; Chonis, Taylor; Peterson, Trent; Peterson, Andrew; Vattiat, Brian L.; Li, Huan; Hao, Lei

    2016-08-01

    The Visible Integral Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), the instrument for the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), consists of 78 replicable units, each with two integral field spectrographs. Each spectrograph has its own 2kx2k CCD detector with 15 micron pixels. Following alignment, the final stage prior to deployment of each unit is characterization of the 156 spectrograph channels and their CCDs. We describe the laboratory calibration system and scripting that automates this process. Both fiber and continuous (non-spatially modulated) input slits are utilized. Photon transfer curves are made to measure the gain and read noise of each CCD. Pixel flats are also made to correct for pixel-to-pixel QE variations. Relative throughput measurements of each unit are made using the same lab fiber bundle for consistency, and fiber profiles are characterized for later use by the CURE data reduction package. Replicable unit instruments provide a cost effective solution for scaling up instruments for large and extremely large class telescopes. Because VIRUS is the first massively replicated instrument, we have the opportunity to examine the end result of variations in the manufacturing processes that go into production. This paper presents the characterization setup for VIRUS units and compares the performance and variability of processed units with specifications for HETDEX.

  2. Econometric methods for life-testing of capital units and results for regulated public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The dissertation pertains to regulated public utilities that purchase capital units when the service lives of these units are random. Chapter II develops the econometric tools needed to analyze the data generated in such an instance. Results concerning the existence, consistency and asymptotic normality of a maximum likelihood estimator are derived. Chapter III contains a small model of a regulated public utility. Key components are assumptions of a fixed capital stock, random served lives for capital units, a tax environment where current tax laws concerning depreciation expense and investment tax credits are considered and a regulatory constraint of the type contained in the classic literature of Averch and Johnson (1962). Objectives are established for both regulatories and investors. It is assumed that each of these economic agents chooses from units which differ in terms of efficiency, purchase price, and durability. It is demonstrated that the objectives of regulators and investors may be different with respect to the choice of capital units, depending on current tax laws, and that this phenomenon is related to the results of Averch and Johnson. Chapter IV contains an application. Data were obtained for power transformers and the objectives of regulators and investors were evaluated. It was shown that differences in the expected service lives of these units is a key consideration.

  3. Latest results in strapdown airborne gravimetry using an iMAR RQH unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, D.; Becker, M; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of four recent airborne gravity campaigns, carried out between October 2013 and October 2015. For the measurements, a strapdown inertial measurement unit, type iMAR RQH 1003, was used in combination with a geodetic two-frequency GNSS receiver (Javad Delta). A cen...

  4. [Medical entomology for the Armed services: preliminary results from the medical entomology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, F; Girod, R

    2004-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases constitutes a threat to the operational capability of armed forces personnel operating outside or stationed overseas. To take this risk into account, the French armed forces medical corps created a medical entomology unit in 2003. The primary function of this unit is to monitor the entomological status of French military bases in sub-Saharan Africa (identification of vectors, study of vector behavior, and measurement of resistance to insecticides) as a means of maintaining an effective vector-control strategy. The French medical entomology unit takes part in the Impact Vector project aimed at evaluating the vector-borne disease risks for troops in combat situations, contributes its expertise to the investigation of epidemic disease, and participates in the development of a global strategy for vector-control for the armed services. To improve understanding and control of vector-borne disease risks, the unit provides basic training in medical entomology to army physicians, veterinarians, and pharmacists as well as to others involved in control programs. The purpose of this article is to present the results of the unit's first activities: investigation of a malaria epidemic that occurred in Ivory Coast in 2003, measurement of malaria exposure over a 4-month period in a combat group on duty in rural Africa, and initial evaluation of control techniques (spraying around living quarters and use of insecticide-impregnated battle dress).

  5. Results of Clinicians Using a Therapeutic Robotic System in an Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical rehabilitation is an area where robotics could contribute significantly to improved motor return for individuals following a stroke. This paper presents the results of a preliminary randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a robot system used in the rehabilitation of the paretic arm following a stroke. Methods The study's objectives were to explore the efficacy of this new type of robotic therapy as compared to standard physiotherapy treatment in treating the post-stroke arm; to evaluate client satisfaction with the proposed robotic system; and to provide data for sample size calculations for a proposed larger multicenter RCT. Twenty clients admitted to an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit were randomly allocated to one of two groups, an experimental (robotic arm therapy) group or a control group (conventional therapy). An occupational therapist blinded to patient allocation administered two reliable measures, the Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI-7) and the Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment of the Arm and Hand (CMSA) at admission and discharge. For both groups, at admission, the CMSA motor impairment stage of the affected arm was between 1 and 3. Results Data were compared to determine the effectiveness of robot-assisted versus conventional therapy treatments. At the functional level, both groups performed well, with improvement in scores on the CAHAI-7 showing clinical and statistical significance. The CAHAI-7 (range7-49) is a measure of motor performance using functional items. Individuals in the robotic therapy group, on average, improved by 62% (95% CI: 26% to 107%) while those in the conventional therapy group changed by 30% (95% CI: 4% to 61%). Although performance on this measure is influenced by hand recovery, our results showed that both groups had similar stages of motor impairment in the hand. Furthermore, the degree of shoulder pain, as measured by the CMSA pain inventory scale, did not worsen for either group over the

  6. Results of Clinicians Using a Therapeutic Robotic System in an Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca Susan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical rehabilitation is an area where robotics could contribute significantly to improved motor return for individuals following a stroke. This paper presents the results of a preliminary randomized controlled trial (RCT of a robot system used in the rehabilitation of the paretic arm following a stroke. Methods The study's objectives were to explore the efficacy of this new type of robotic therapy as compared to standard physiotherapy treatment in treating the post-stroke arm; to evaluate client satisfaction with the proposed robotic system; and to provide data for sample size calculations for a proposed larger multicenter RCT. Twenty clients admitted to an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit were randomly allocated to one of two groups, an experimental (robotic arm therapy group or a control group (conventional therapy. An occupational therapist blinded to patient allocation administered two reliable measures, the Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI-7 and the Chedoke McMaster Stroke Assessment of the Arm and Hand (CMSA at admission and discharge. For both groups, at admission, the CMSA motor impairment stage of the affected arm was between 1 and 3. Results Data were compared to determine the effectiveness of robot-assisted versus conventional therapy treatments. At the functional level, both groups performed well, with improvement in scores on the CAHAI-7 showing clinical and statistical significance. The CAHAI-7 (range7-49 is a measure of motor performance using functional items. Individuals in the robotic therapy group, on average, improved by 62% (95% CI: 26% to 107% while those in the conventional therapy group changed by 30% (95% CI: 4% to 61%. Although performance on this measure is influenced by hand recovery, our results showed that both groups had similar stages of motor impairment in the hand. Furthermore, the degree of shoulder pain, as measured by the CMSA pain inventory scale, did not worsen for

  7. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  8. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagi Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3′′, instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  9. Effect of a laboratory result pager on provider behavior in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, L; Stavroudis, Ta; Miller, Re; Lehmann, Hp; Lehmann, Cu

    2011-01-01

    A computerized laboratory result paging system (LRPS) that alerts providers about abnormal results ("push") may improve upon active laboratory result review ("pull"). However, implementing such a system in the intensive care setting may be hindered by low signal-to-noise ratio, which may lead to alert fatigue. To evaluate the impact of an LRPS in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Utilizing paper chart review, we tallied provider orders following an abnormal laboratory result before and after implementation of an LRPS. Orders were compared with a predefined set of appropriate orders for such an abnormal result. The likelihood of a provider response in the post-implementation period as compared to the pre-implementation period was analyzed using logistic regression. The provider responses were analyzed using logistic regression to control for potential confounders. The likelihood of a provider response to an abnormal laboratory result did not change significantly after implementation of an LRPS. (Odds Ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.63-1.30, p-value 0.58) However, when providers did respond to an alert, the type of response was different. The proportion of repeat laboratory tests increased. (26/378 vs. 7/278, p-value = 0.02). Although the laboratory result pager altered healthcare provider behavior in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, it did not increase the overall likelihood of provider response.

  10. [Contributions and results of lipo-structure in repair and rejuvenation of frontal anatomical unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichery, A; Mojallal, A; Voulliaume, D; Comparin, J-P; Foyatier, J-L

    2009-04-01

    Forehead is the most large anatomical unit of face. It includes forehead and anterior part of temple. Deteriorations of frontal anatomical units are numerous, ageing forehead has atrophy with eyebrow ptosis. In this work, we want to estimate contribution of lipo-structure in repair and rejuvenation of frontal anatomical unit (FAU). We present seven cases of repair of FAU and three cases of rejuvenation of the forehead. Results are satisfactory, particularly about frontal band. Results are questionable about Lipo-structure of temple. Applications of Lipo-structure in plastic and aesthetic surgery of the forehead are huge. Lipo-structure is the reference technique of volumetric filling. It is preferred to other techniques as flaps (pediculed or free) or materials, because it is a safe, easy and efficient technique, which permits large fillings. In aesthetic surgery, Lipo-structure gives volume to eyebrow region and fills root of the nose. It can be used with injections of botulinum toxin A. Lipo-structure of forehead takes part in rejuvenation of eye and nose. In conclusion, lipo-structure is actually the major technique of filling with a large implication in plastic and aesthetic surgery of FAU.

  11. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  12. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrumented Dolosse. Static stresses, wave-generate stresses due to impacts were studied as well as model...

  13. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  14. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  15. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  16. Obligatory course unit! Trainee astronomers learn to communicate their future scientific results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2008-06-01

    A scientist must not only do science, but must also know how to communicate it. It is possible that he or she even ends up becoming devoted professionally either to outreach or to teaching. Therefore, the Master's Degree Course in Astrophysics, created by the University of La Laguna (ULL) with the collaboration of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), includes in its programme the four-month core course unit Communicating Astronomy: Professional Results and Educational Practice (in Spanish, Comunicación de Resultados Cientificos y Didactica de la Astronomia), that is worth three ECTs. In this poster, I present the results of our experience from the academic year 2006-2007, in which seventeen Master's students, in addition to learning the skills necessary to communicating their results within the scientific community, have also studied the language of popularisation in a practical and fun way through role-playing as science writers and schoolteachers in the classroom.

  17. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) space suits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing re-generable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solid-amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA is the first RCA unit implementing radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or subambient atmosphere.

  18. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  19. First results from fringe tracking with the PRIMA fringe sensor unit

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Menardi, S; Schmid, C; Di Lieto, N; Delplancke, F; Frahm, R; Gomes, N; Haguenauer, P; Leveque, S; Morel, S; Mueller, A; Duc, T Phan; Schuhler, N; van Belle, G; 10.1117/12.856896

    2010-01-01

    The fringe sensor unit (FSU) is the central element of the phase referenced imaging and micro-arcsecond astrometry (PRIMA) dual-feed facility for the Very Large Telescope interferometer (VLTI). It has been installed at the Paranal observatory in August 2008 and is undergoing commissioning and preparation for science operation. Commissioning observations began shortly after installation and first results include the demonstration of spatially encoded fringe sensing and the increase in VLTI limiting magnitude for fringe tracking. However, difficulties have been encountered because the FSU does not incorporate real-time photometric correction and its fringe encoding depends on polarisation. These factors affect the control signals, especially their linearity, and can disturb the tracking control loop. To account for this, additional calibration and characterisation efforts are required. We outline the instrument concept and give an overview of the commissioning results obtained so far. We describe the effects of...

  20. [Preliminary results of a screening programme by mobile units in the province of Liege].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordenne, W; Parmentier, J C; Maassen, P; Bartsch, P

    1997-06-01

    The goal of the mass screening of breast cancer undertaken under the authority of the Province of Liège is to focus the action on rural communities. For this reason, mobile vans equipped with X-Ray dedicated units are used. The main difficulty of this programme is to reach a massive participation of the population. It varies up to now from 45% to 20% in the different visited villages. During the 42 first months of functioning, 16,207 mammographies were carried out in women aged from 40 to 69; 69 cancers were discovered in apparently healthy women plus 10 cases of epithelial hyperplasia with atypias. These first results are quite encouraging. The main task of this continuing programme will be to reach a better participation of the population.

  1. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Guia Para El Maestro (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Teacher's Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Instructions for use of "Escaparate," the third of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by Edgewood School District's Bilingual Program, San Antonio, Texas, are given in this teacher guide. Originally intended for grades four through six, the program may be used from fourth grade to secondary school in Spanish reading and…

  2. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Cuaderno de Trabajo (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Workbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Exercises, tests, puzzles, enrichment activities, maps, and games are included in this student workbook for "Escaparate," the third in a series of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by the Bilingual Program of Edgewood School District, San Antonio, Texas. The publication can be used as ditto sheets for duplicating or in…

  3. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Cuaderno de Trabajo (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Workbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Exercises, tests, puzzles, enrichment activities, maps, and games are included in this student workbook for "Escaparate," the third in a series of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by the Bilingual Program of Edgewood School District, San Antonio, Texas. The publication can be used as ditto sheets for duplicating or in…

  4. Escaparate. Programa de lectura y ensenanza del lenguaje, Unidad C. Guia Para El Maestro (Show Window. Reading and Language Learning Program, Unit C. Teacher's Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Instructions for use of "Escaparate," the third of eight Spanish reading and language instruction units developed by Edgewood School District's Bilingual Program, San Antonio, Texas, are given in this teacher guide. Originally intended for grades four through six, the program may be used from fourth grade to secondary school in Spanish reading and…

  5. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Gladys

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity.

  6. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  7. Estimating mercury emissions resulting from wildfire in forests of the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jackson P; Kane, Tyler J; Obrist, Daniel; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R

    2016-10-15

    Understanding the emissions of mercury (Hg) from wildfires is important for quantifying the global atmospheric Hg sources. Emissions of Hg from soils resulting from wildfires in the Western United States was estimated for the 2000 to 2013 period, and the potential emission of Hg from forest soils was assessed as a function of forest type and soil-heating. Wildfire released an annual average of 3100±1900kg-Hgy(-1) for the years spanning 2000-2013 in the 11 states within the study area. This estimate is nearly 5-fold lower than previous estimates for the study region. Lower emission estimates are attributed to an inclusion of fire severity within burn perimeters. Within reported wildfire perimeters, the average distribution of low, moderate, and high severity burns was 52, 29, and 19% of the total area, respectively. Review of literature data suggests that that low severity burning does not result in soil heating, moderate severity fire results in shallow soil heating, and high severity fire results in relatively deep soil heating (wood>foliage>litter>branches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Results and analysis of saltstone cores taken from saltstone disposal unit cell 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    As part of an ongoing Performance Assessment (PA) Maintenance Plan, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has developed a sampling and analyses strategy to facilitate the comparison of field-emplaced samples (i.e., saltstone placed and cured in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU)) with samples prepared and cured in the laboratory. The primary objectives of the Sampling and Analyses Plan (SAP) are; (1) to demonstrate a correlation between the measured properties of laboratory-prepared, simulant samples (termed Sample Set 3), and the field-emplaced saltstone samples (termed Sample Set 9), and (2) to validate property values assumed for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) PA modeling. The analysis and property data for Sample Set 9 (i.e. six core samples extracted from SDU Cell 2A (SDU2A)) are documented in this report, and where applicable, the results are compared to the results for Sample Set 3. Relevant properties to demonstrate the aforementioned objectives include bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC), and radionuclide leaching behavior.

  9. Preliminary test results from the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, Mark H.; Macelroy, R. D.; Blackwell, C. C.; Borchers, B. A.; Drews, M. E.; Longabaugh, J. R.; Yendler, B. S.; Zografos, A. I.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the NASA Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Program, a CELSS Test Facility (CTF) is being planned for installation on the Space Station. The CTF will be used to provide data on the productivity and efficiency of a variety of CELSS higher plant crops grown in the microgravity environment of the Space Station. Tight environmental control will be maintained while data on gas exchange rates and biomass accumulation rates are collected. In order to obtain an early realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary to provide the environmental conditions specified for CTF crop productivity experiments, an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) has been designed, constructed and is in the process of subsystem and system testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The EDU is a ground test-bed which will be used to characterize the integrated performance of major subsystem technologies, to evaluate hardware candidates and control strategies required for the CTF, and to further define the ability to meet CTF requirements within present Space Station constraints. This paper reviews the functional requirements for the EDU, and focuses on the performance evaluation and test results of the various subsystems. Preliminary integrated performance results and control system operation are addressed, and plans for future science and technology testing are discussed.

  10. In the United States, "Opt-Out" States Show No Increase in Access to Anesthesia Services for Medicare Beneficiaries Compared with Non-"Opt-Out" States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Eric C; Miller, Thomas R; Halzack, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, anesthesia care can be provided by anesthesiologists or nurse anesthetists. Since 2001, 17 states have exercised their right to "opt-out" of the federal requirement that a physician supervise the administration of anesthesia by a nurse anesthetist, with the majority citing increased access to anesthesia care as the rationale for their decision. By using Medicare data, we found that most (4 of 5) cohorts of "opt-out" states likely experienced smaller growth in anesthesia utilization rates compared with non-"opt-out" states, suggesting that opt-out was not associated with an increase in access to anesthesia care.

  11. Chronic idiopathic anal pain. Results of a diagnostic-therapeutic protocol in a colorectal referral unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armañanzas, Laura; Arroyo, Antonio; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; López, Alberto; Santos, Jair; Moya, Pedro; Gómez, María Amparo; Candela, Fernando; Calpena, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic anal pain (CIAP) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Its study and management still lack a standardized protocol. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results obtained with the diagnostic-therapeutic protocol established in our service. We performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CIAP at the Colorectal Unit of the General University Hospital of Elche, between 2005 and 2011. We evaluated 57 patients with a diagnosis of chronic anal pain for functional anorectal disease (FAD). After the application of our diagnostic protocol, final diagnosis of chronic anal pain (CAP) was achieved in 43 cases (75%), including 22 cases of descending perineum syndrome, 12 of proctalgia fugax, 2 of pudendal neuritis and 7 of coccydynia. In 14 patients exclusion diagnosis of CIAP was established. Among the therapies used on patients with CIAP, biofeedback combined with conservative measures improved symptoms in 43% of the cases. Sacral nerve stimulation was assessed in patients who did not respond to other treatments. Through proper anamnesis, physical examination and complementary tests, a specific diagnosis of the cause of CAP by FAD can be achieved, reducing exclusion diagnosis of CIAP to 25% of cases. Conservative measures combined with biofeedback achieved an improvement in pain in more than 40% of the cases of CIAP in our study. Sacral nerve stimulation can be considered as a treatment option in refractory cases. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological responses to space: results of the experiment ``exobiological unit'' of ERA on EURECA I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.; Eschweiler, U.; Reitz, G.; Wehner, J.; Willimek, R.; Strauch, K.

    Spores of different strains of Bacillus subtilis and the Escherichia coli plasmid pUC19 were exposed to selected conditions of space (space vacuum and/or defined wavebands and intensities of solar ultraviolet radiation) in the experiment ER 161 ``Exobiological Unit'' of the Exobiology Radiation Assembly (ERA) on board of the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA). After the approximately 11 months lasting mission, their responses were studied in terms of survival, mutagenesis in the his (B. subtilis) or lac locus (pUC19), induction of DNA strand breaks, efficiency of DNA repair systems, and the role of external protective agents. The data were compared with those of a simultaneously running ground control experiment. The survival of spores treated with the vacuum of space, however shielded against solar radiation, is substantially increased, if they are exposed in multilayers and/or in the presence of glucose as protective, whereas all spores in ``artificial meteorites'', i.e. embedded in clays or simulated Martian soil, are killed. Vacuum treatment leads to an increase of mutation frequency in spores, but not in plasmid DNA. Extraterrestrial solar ultraviolet radiation is mutagenic, induces strand breaks in the DNA and reduces survival substantially; however, even at the highest fluences, i.e. 3 x 10^8 Jm^-2, a small but significant fraction of spores survives the insolation. Action spectroscopy confirms results of previous space experiments of a synergistic action of space vacuum and solar UV radiation with DNA being the critical target.

  13. Stroke units: research and reality. Results from the National Sentinel Audit of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use data from the 2001–2 National Stroke Audit to describe the organisation of stroke units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and to see if key characteristics deemed effective from the research literature were present.

  14. Assembly and test results of the AOF laser guide star units at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, W.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Dupuy, C.; Gago, F.; Guidolin, I. M.; Guzman, R.; Holzloehner, R.; Kern, L.; Kirchbauer, J.-.; Lewis, S.; Lizon, J.-.; McLay, S.; Pfrommer, T.; Quattri, M.; Quentin, J.; Ridings, R.

    2014-08-01

    The Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) is part of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility, in which one of the VLT telescopes, UT4, is transformed in an adaptive telescope-equipped with a deformable secondary mirror, two adaptive optics systems at the Nasmyth focii and four sodium laser guide star modular units. In this paper we present the design, the assembly and validation test performed so far in Europe on the first laser guide star unit.

  15. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments.

  16. Standalone BISON Fuel Performance Results for Watts Bar Unit 1, Cycles 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pawlowski, Roger [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stimpson, Shane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-07

    The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) is moving forward with more complex multiphysics simulations and increased focus on incorporating fuel performance analysis methods. The coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics capabilities within the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS) have become relatively stable, and major advances have been made in analysis efforts, including the simulation of twelve cycles of Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) operation. While this is a major achievement, the VERA-CS approaches for treating fuel pin heat transfer have well-known limitations that could be eliminated through better integration with the BISON fuel performance code. Several approaches are being implemented to consider fuel performance, including a more direct multiway coupling with Tiamat, as well as a more loosely coupled one-way approach with standalone BISON cases. Fuel performance typically undergoes an independent analysis using a standalone fuel performance code with manually specified input defined from an independent core simulator solution or set of assumptions. This report summarizes the improvements made since the initial milestone to execute BISON from VERA-CS output. Many of these improvements were prompted through tighter collaboration with the BISON development team at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A brief description of WBN1 and some of the VERA-CS data used to simulate it are presented. Data from a small mesh sensitivity study are shown, which helps justify the mesh parameters used in this work. The multi-cycle results are presented, followed by the results for the first three cycles of WBN1 operation, particularly the parameters of interest to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) screening (fuel-clad gap closure, maximum centerline fuel temperature, maximum/minimum clad hoop stress, and cumulative damage index). Once the mechanics of this capability are functioning, future work will target cycles with

  17. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse...... model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7...... weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose...

  18. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  19. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS.

  20. Groundwater Quality Data in the Mojave Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,500 square-mile Mojave (MOJO) study unit was investigated from February to April 2008, as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). MOJO was the 23rd of 37 study units to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basin Project. The MOJO study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated ground water used for public water supplies within MOJO, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 59 wells in San Bernardino and Los Angeles Counties. Fifty-two of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seven were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]) naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, and activities of tritium and carbon-14), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled

  1. Predictors of postoperative pulmonary complications after liver resection: Results from a tertiary care intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Hom Choudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pulmonary complication (PPC is a serious complication after liver surgery and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the intensive care unit (ICU. Therefore, the early identification of risk factors of PPCs may help to reduce the adverse outcomes. Objective: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the predictors of PPCs in patients undergoing hepatic resection. Design: Retrospective, observational. Methods: The patients admitted after hepatic resection in the gastrosurgical ICU of our institute between October 2009 and June 2013 was identified. The ICU charts were retrieved from the database to identify patients who developed PPCs. A comparison of risk factors was made between the patients who developed PPC (PPC group against the patients who did not (no-PPC group. Results: Of 117 patients with hepatic resection, 28 patients developed PPCs. Among these, pneumonia accounted for 12 (42.8% followed by atelectasis in 8 (28.5% and pleural effusion in 3 (10.7%. Among the patients developing PPCs, 16 patients were over a 70-year-old (57.1%, 21 patients were smokers (75% and 8 patients (28.5% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The requirement for blood transfusion and duration of mechanical ventilation were greater in the patients developing PPC (2000 ± 340 vs. 1000 ± 210 ml; 10 ± 4.5 vs. 3 ± 1.3 days. Conclusion: Old age, chronic smoking, COPD, increased blood product transfusion, increased duration of mechanical ventilation and increased length of ICU stay increased the relative risk of PPC, presence of diabetes and occurrence of surgical complications (leak, dehiscence, etc. were independent predictive variables for the development of PPC.

  2. New multi-country evidence on purchasing power parity: multivariate unit root test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.J. Groen (Jan)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a likelihood-based multivariate unit root testing framework is utilized to test whether the real exchange rates of G10 countries are non-stationary. The framework uses a likelihood ratio statistic which combines the information across all involved countries while retaining

  3. Employment in Adults with Down Syndrome in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumin, Libby; Schoenbrodt, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no current data about employment/unemployment of adults with Down syndrome in the United States. The data that exists includes adults with Down syndrome as part of the larger group of people with disabilities or people with intellectual disability. Method: This study used a survey to investigate paid and volunteer employment,…

  4. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…

  5. 76 FR 4290 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of First...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... synthetic material or woven material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are... innerspring. Pocketed and non-pocketed innerspring units are included in this definition. Non-pocketed innersprings are typically joined together with helical wire and border rods. Non-pocketed innersprings...

  6. 77 FR 21961 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... synthetic material or woven material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are... innerspring. Pocketed and non-pocketed innerspring units are included in this definition. Non-pocketed innersprings are typically joined together with helical wire and border rods. Non-pocketed innersprings...

  7. Modeling Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy Loss Resulting from Tobacco Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M.; Anderson, John P.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development of a model for estimating the effects of tobacco use upon Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) and to estimate the impact of tobacco use on health outcomes for the United States (US) population using the model. Method: We obtained estimates of tobacco consumption from 6 years of the National Health Interview…

  8. Economic Literacy in the United States, Germany, and Austria: Results of Cross National Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Volker; Beck, Klaus

    Designed to assess the economic literacy of high school students in Austria, Germany, and the United States, this research study involved the administration of an economic literacy test and gathering data on attitudes toward economics, on intelligence, and on moral maturity. The main focus of the research was a comparison between 11th and 12th…

  9. Rapamycin and chloroquine: the in vitro and in vivo effects of autophagy-modifying drugs show promising results in valosin containing protein multisystem proteinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB, frontotemporal dementia (FTD, more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP. Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem

  10. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Appro...

  11. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melius, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hettinger, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mulcahy, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, is defined in this report as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity.

  12. A Successfully Treated Case of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Causing Severe Anemia and Localized Peritonitis Showing Angina Pectoris Resulting in Watershed Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihide Sehara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke following acute myocardial infarction is a rare but a serious complication. Because the pathophysiology of stroke is dynamic, it is often hard to identify the cause of stroke. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man with ischemic stroke following angina pectoris caused by severe anemia and localized peritonitis due to gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small intestine. On admission, he showed consciousness disturbance, fever, and left hemiplegia. The electrocardiogram on admission showed ST-segment depression in V2 to V6 which was normalized 4 hours later. The ultrasound cardiogram showed the mild hypokinesis in the apical portion of left ventricle which was also normalized later. The magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed ischemic stroke in watershed area between right anterior and middle cerebral arteries area and stenosis of distal portion of right middle cerebral artery. The computed tomography of abdomen showed a mass of small intestine. We decided to perform curative surgery after transfusion and successfully resected the mass of the small intestine, which was revealed to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST. This is a successfully treated case of GIST in which the complicated pathophysiology of watershed cerebral infarction following angina pectoris might be clearly revealed.

  13. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  14. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  15. Design of an Integral Field Unit for MUSE, and Results from Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Florence; Henault, Francois; Renault, Edgard; Bacon, Roland; Dubois, Jean-Pierre

    2006-11-01

    The research and development activity on image slicer systems for integral field spectroscopy has increased in recent years, allowing the simultaneous observation on the same detector matrix of two-dimensional sky maps and the spectral decomposition of light. Nowadays, image slicers lead to possible applications on future instrumentation for ground- and space-based telescopes, covering a spectral domain ranging from UV to mid-IR wavelengths. Among such projects, MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is an integral field spectrograph proposed by the European Southern Observatory for its second-generation Very Large Telescope instrumentation. MUSE combines a 1'×1' field of view, with a spectral resolution reaching 3000 and a spatial sampling of 0.2" provided by an adaptive optics system. MUSE operates in the visible and near-IR wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm) and is composed of 24 identical integral field units; each one incorporates an advanced image slicer made up of a combination of mirrors and ``minilens'' arrays, a spectrograph, and a detector. This paper describes the optical design of the MUSE image slicer, which complies with top-level requirements at a reasonable cost. The optical manufacturing technique, based on an original method of assembly using molecular adhesion, is presented. Finally, we focus on the optical tests of the prototype both at a system level and at the level of individual optical elements.

  16. Kinds of damage that could result from a great earthquake in the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, M.G.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12 a series of three great earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid, Missouri seismic zone in the central United States. In addition to the three principal shocks, at least 15 other earthquakes of intensity VIII or more occurred within a year of the first large earthquake on December 16, 1811. The three main shocks were felt over the entire eastern United States. They were strong enough to cause minor damage cause minor damage as far away as Indiana and Ohio on the north, the Carolinas on the east, and southern Mississippi to the south. They were strong enough to cause severe or structural damage in parts of Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas. A later section in this article describes what happened in the epicentral region. Fortunately, few people lived in the severely shaken area in 1811; that is not the case today. What would happen if a series of earthquakes as large and numerous as the "New Madrid" earthquakes were to occur in the New Madrid seismic zone today?

  17. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  18. Self-referral to chest pain units: results of the German CPU-registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Bernd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Riemer, Thomas; Münzel, Thomas; Haude, Michael; Maier, Lars S; Schmitt, Claus; Schumacher, Burghard; Mudra, Harald; Hamm, Christian; Senges, Jochen; Voigtländer, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Chest pain units (CPUs) are increasingly established in emergency cardiology services. With improved visibility of CPUs in the population, patients may refer themselves directly to these units, obviating emergency medical services (EMS). Little is known about characteristics and outcomes of self-referred patients, as compared with those referred by EMS. Therefore, we described self-referral patients enrolled in the CPU-registry of the German Cardiac Society and compared them with those referred by EMS. From 2008 until 2010, the prospective CPU-registry enrolled 11,581 consecutive patients. Of those 3789 (32.7%) were self-referrals (SRs), while 7792 (67.3%) were referred by EMS. SR-patients were significantly younger (63.6 vs. 70.1 years), had less prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, but more previous percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Acute coronary syndromes were diagnosed less frequently in the SR-patients (30.3 vs. 46.9%; pCPU as a self-referral are younger, less severely ill and have more non-coronary problems than those calling an emergency medical service. Nevertheless, 30% of self-referral patients had an acute coronary syndrome.

  19. Intercultural Education in Italy and in the United States: the Results of a Binational Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Manuela CONTINI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consistency and the complexity of the migration fluxes towards Italy, their degree of stabilization, as well as the increase of migration families and the presence of first and second generations in the Italian scholastic system, require new educational policies and choices on behalf of the decision makers. The characteristics and the specificity of the migration fluxes and of the different persons and families that are oriented towards Italy, involve educational strategies that are able to combine needs and cultural models that are quite articulate. The United States, throughout its history, has also experienced similar societal transformations which continue to be the driving force to the creation of new policies that can respond to a new multicultural society. The paper presents a thorough analysis on the topics of the new educational needs expressed by new generations that live and make experiences in multi-ethnic social and scholastic contexts. Such a theme is framed within the wider context of globalization processes, of the widening of the European Union, of the presence on the territory of the Union of people and citizens originally immigrated and the questions on belonging and social cohesion. In specific, the study discuss the school policies for intercultural integration adopted in Italy and with reference to educational policies implemented in other European countries and in bilingual schools in the United States: welcoming practices for immigrant students in the schools; relationship between immigrant families and schools; practices of learning/teaching Italian as second language; promoting multilinguism approach; promoting social relation between students in the classroom, to prevent discrimination; team work between teachers; school networks; network between schools and local entities; intercultural education.

  20. Randomised control trial showed that delayed cord clamping and milking resulted in no significant differences in iron stores and physical growth parameters at one year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shivam; Jaiswal, Vijay; Singh, Dharamveer; Jaiswal, Prateek; Garg, Amit; Upadhyay, Amit

    2016-11-01

    Placental redistribution has been shown to improve haematological outcomes in the immediate neonatal period and early infancy. This study compared the effects of delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM) on haematological and growth parameters at 12 months of age. This was a follow-up study of a randomised control trial, conducted in a tertiary care paediatric centre from August 2013 to August 2014. We studied 200 apparently healthy Indian infants randomised at birth to receive DCC for 60-90 seconds or UCM. The outcome measures were iron status and physical growth parameters at 12 months. Of the 200 babies, 161 completed the follow-up and baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. The mean haemoglobin in the DCC group (102.2 (17.2) g/L and serum ferritin 16.44 (2.77) μg/L) showed no significant differences to the UCM group (98.6 (17.1) g/L and 18.2 (2.8) μg/L) at one year. In addition, there were no significant differences in weight, height and mid-upper arm circumference in the two groups. Term-born Indian infants who had DCC at 60-90 seconds or UCM showed no significant differences in ferritin and haemoglobin levels and growth parameters at 12 months of age. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government

  2. Showing results? An analysis of the perceptions of internal and external stakeholders of the public performance communication by the Belgian and Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Galetzka, Mirjam; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, Erwin

    2008-01-01

    Information Quarterly, 15: 153–156). In Belgium and the Netherlands, one Performance measurement and communicating about it with the broader public is not self-evident if one looks at public services organizations (Hernon, 1998 P. Hernon, The government performance and results act. Government Inform

  3. The relevance of external quality assessment for molecular testing for ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer: results from two pilot rounds show room for optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Tembuyser

    Full Text Available Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012-2013.Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images.Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images.There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing.

  4. CONSUMPTION TRENDS OF RESCUE ANTI-PSYCHOTICS FOR DELIRIUM IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS (ICU DELIRIUM) SHOW INFLUENCE OF CORRESPONDING LUNAR PHASE CYCLES: A RETROSPECTIVE AUDIT STUDY FROM ACADEMIC UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Pallekonda, Vinay; Thomas, Ronald; Mckelvey, George; Ghoddoussi, Farhad

    2015-02-01

    The etiology of delirium in intensive care units (ICU) is usually multi-factorial. There is common "myth" that lunar phases affect human body especially human brains (and minds). In the absence of any pre-existing studies in ICU patients, the current retrospective study was planned to investigate whether lunar phases play any role in ICU delirium by assessing if lunar phases correlate with prevalence of ICU delirium as judged by the corresponding consumptions of rescue anti-psychotics used for delirium in ICU. After institutional review board approval with waived consent, the daily census of ICU patients from the administrative records was accessed at an academic university's Non-Cancer Hospital in a Metropolitan City of United States. Thereafter, the ICU pharmacy's electronic database was accessed to obtain data on the use of haloperidol and quetiapine over the two time periods for patients aged 18 years or above. Subsequently the data was analyzed for whether the consumption of haloperidol or quetiapine followed any trends corresponding to the lunar phase cycles. A total of 5382 pharmacy records of haloperidol equivalent administrations were analyzed for this study. The cumulative prevalence of incidents of haloperidol equivalent administrations peaked around the full moon period and troughed around the new moon period. As compared to male patients, female patients followed much more uniform trends of haloperidol equivalent administrations' incidents which peaked around the full moon period and troughed around the new moon period. Further sub-analysis of 70-lunar cycles across the various solar months of the total 68-month study period revealed that haloperidol equivalent administrations' incidents peaked around the full moon periods during the months of November-December and around the new moon periods during the month of July which all are interestingly the major holiday months (a potential confounding factor) in the United States. Consumption trends of rescue

  5. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  6. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  7. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A; Frankel, Wendy L; Hammond, Cynthia D; Baird, Maureen E; Mele, Jennifer M; Stoner, Gary D; Fromkes, John J

    2006-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of a number of cancers of epithelial origin, including esophageal cancer. Dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) has significantly inhibited chemically induced oral, esophageal, and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Likewise, berry extracts added to cell cultures significantly inhibited cancer-associated processes. Positive results in preclinical studies have supported further investigation of berries and berry extracts in high-risk human cohorts, including patients with existing premalignancy or patients at risk for cancer recurrence. We are currently conducting a 6-mo chemopreventive pilot study administering 32 or 45 g (female and male, respectively) of LBRs to patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant esophageal condition in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium changes to a metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium. BE's importance lies in the fact that it confers a 30- to 40-fold increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a rapidly increasing and extremely deadly malignancy. This is a report on interim findings from 10 patients. To date, the results support that daily consumption of LBRs promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with BE.

  8. Summary results of the first United States manned orbital space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J. H. Jr

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes the principal findings of the first United States manned orbital space flight in light of the flight mission. Consideration is given to the coordinated tracking network, recovery forces and to the spacecraft and its several functional systems. These include mechanisms for heat protection, escape maneuvers, spacecraft control, power supply, communications, life support and landing. A few difficulties encountered in the flight and deviations from the planned sequence are described. Craft preparation, aeromedical studies, flight plan and particularly flight observations--including the color, light, horizon visibility by day and by night, cloud formations and sunrise and sunset effects are given in some detail. The general conclusion from the MA-6 flight is that man can adapt well to new conditions encountered in space flight and that man can contribute importantly to mission reliability and toward mission achievement through his capacities to control the spacecraft and its multiple systems contribute to decision making and adaptation of programming as well as to direct exploratory and experimental observations.

  9. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Online Pre-Lab Assessments Compared with Written Pre-Lab Assignments Requiring Experimental Result Prediction Shows No Difference in Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Suchman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Exam performance was compared for students who hand wrote questions designed to prepare them for daily lab activities in a senior level virology laboratory course versus those who answered questions created to mirror the written questions on-line.  No significant difference was noted in exam scores on any of the three midterms, written final exam, nor the practical exam.  Neither was there a significant difference in the quality of the laboratory reports turned in as evidenced by similar average scores over four years.  These results indicate that using online pre-labs to prepare students for the laboratory sessions leads to equivalent learning as answering handwritten pre-lab assignments.  Online pre-labs significantly reduced the amount of grading without reducing student learning, allowing a reduction in the number of teaching assistants required per section.

  11. Cells exposed to a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine tract show no sign of ion channel formation: results arguing against the ion channel hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremølle, Anne; Grunnet, Morten; Hasholt, Lis

    2003-01-01

    tract to form ion channels in two cell types. Whole cell current from Xenopus oocytes was recorded using two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, and whole cell current from CHO-K1 cells was recorded by patch-clamp technique. The fragment with an expanded polyglutamine sequence induced no change......Ion channels formed by expanded polyglutamine tracts have been proposed to play an important role in the pathological processes leading to neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and other CAG repeat diseases. We tested the capacity of a huntingtin fragment containing an expanded polyglutamine...... in the currents recorded in any of the two expression systems, indicating no changes in ion channel activity. The results therefore argue against the proposed hypothesis of expanded polyglutamines forming ion channels....

  12. Construction of PREMUX and preliminary experimental results, as preparation for the HCPB breeder unit mock-up testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Annabattula, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Department of Mechanical Engineering (India); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PREMUX has been constructed as preparation for a future out-of-pile thermo-mechanical qualification of a HCPB breeder unit mock-up. • The rationale and constructive details of PREMUX are reported in this paper. • PREMUX serves as a test rig for the new heater system developed for the HCPB-BU mock-up. • PREMUX will be used as benchmark for the thermal and thermo-mechanical models developed in ANSYS for the pebble beds of the HCPB-BU. • Preliminary results show the functionality of PREMUX and the good agreement of the measured temperatures with the thermal model developed in ANSYS. - Abstract: One of the European blanket designs for ITER is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket. The core of the HCPB-TBM consists of so-called breeder units (BUs), which encloses beryllium as neutron multiplier and lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder in form of pebble beds. After the design phase of the HCPB-BU, a non-nuclear thermal and thermo-mechanical qualification program for this device is running at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Before the complex full scale BU testing, a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) has been constructed, which consists of a slice of the BU containing the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed. PREMUX is going to be operated under highly ITER-relevant conditions and has the following goals: (1) as a testing rig of new heater concept based on a matrix of wire heaters, (2) as benchmark for the existing finite element method (FEM) codes used for the thermo-mechanical assessment of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed, and (3) in situ measurement of thermal conductivity of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed during the tests. This paper describes the construction of PREMUX, its rationale and the experimental campaign planned with the device. Preliminary results testing the algorithm used for the temperature reconstruction of the pebble bed are reported and compared qualitatively with first analyses

  13. Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnoldo Piccardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC. Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (CeCT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse.

  14. Very prolonged stay in the intensive care unit after cardiac operations: early results and late survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Shuli; Bitran, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Tauber, Rachel; Merin, Ofer

    2013-07-01

    Prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay is a surrogate for advanced morbidity or perioperative complications, and resource utilization may become an issue. It is our policy to continue full life support in the ICU, even for patients with a seemingly grim outlook. We examined the effect of duration of ICU stay on early outcomes and late survival. Between 1993 and 2011, 6,385 patients were admitted to the ICU after cardiac surgery. Patients were grouped according to length of stay in the ICU: group 1, 2 days or less (n = 4,631; 73%); group 2, 3 to 14 days (n = 1,423; 22%); group 3, more than 14 days (n = 331; 5%). Length of stay in ICU for group 3 patients was 38 ± 24 days (range, 15 to 160; median 31). Clinical profile and outcomes were compared between groups. Patients requiring prolonged ICU stay were older, underwent more complex surgery, had greater comorbidity, and a higher predicted operative mortality (p < 0.0001). They had a higher incidence of adverse events and increased mortality (p < 0.0001). Of the 331 group 3 patients, 60% were discharged: survival of these patients at 1, 3, and 5 years was 78%, 65%, and 52%, respectively. Operative mortality as well as late survival of discharged patients was proportional to duration of ICU stay. Current technology enables keeping sick patients alive for extended periods of time. Nearly two thirds of patients requiring prolonged ICU leave hospital, and of these, 50% attain 5-year survival. These data support offering full and continued support even for patients requiring very prolonged ICU stay. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of a survey on albumin use in clinical practice in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estébanez-Montiel, M B; Quintana-Díaz, M; García de Lorenzo y Mateos, A; Blancas Gomez-Casero, R; Acosta-Escribano, J; Marcos-Neira, P

    2014-10-01

    Human albumin solutions are used in a number of disorders, though their indications are not clear in all circumstances. These solutions are costly, and their benefit has not been established in all settings. It is therefore interesting to assess the presence of albumin solutions in the daily clinical practice of critical care professionals. To report the standard clinical practices and to describe the variability of albumin solutions use in critically ill patients. A survey sent by e-mail to Spanish and South American Intensive Care Units (ICUs) Planning and execution during the year 2012. A questionnaire comprising 35 questions. Fifty-seven surveys were analyzed. The use of albumin solutions was sporadic or negligible in critically ill patients (96.5%). The exceptions were patients with liver disease (87.7% of the responders administered albumin to these patients). A high percentage of professionals claimed to know the available scientific evidence on the use of albumin in patients with liver disease (82.5%) and in patients without liver disease (77.2%). Only 5.3% of the responders preferred to rely on their own experience to establish the indications of albumin use. The use of albumin solutions is infrequent in ICUs, except in patients with liver disease. Evidence-based knowledge on albumin use is declared to be extensive in ICUs. As a rule, opinions on the use of albumin solutions are based on the scientific recommendations, especially in patients with liver disease. Professional experience rarely prevails over the published clinical guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the Western San Joaquin Valley study unit, 2010 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Landon, Matthew K.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    , concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. Most inorganic constituents detected in groundwater samples from the 39 grid wells were detected at concentrations less than health-based benchmarks. Detections of organic and special-interest constituents from grid wells sampled in the WSJV study unit also were less than health-based benchmarks. In total, VOCs were detected in 12 of the 39 grid wells sampled (approximately 31 percent), pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 9 grid wells (approximately 23 percent), and perchlorate was detected in 15 grid wells (approximately 38 percent). Trace elements, major and minor ions, and nutrients were sampled for at 39 grid wells; most concentrations were less than health-based benchmarks. Exceptions include two detections of arsenic greater than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US) of 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L), 20 detections of boron greater than the CDPH notification level (NL-CA) of 1,000 μg/L, 2 detections of molybdenum greater than the USEPA lifetime health advisory level (HAL-US) of 40 μg/L, 1 detection of selenium greater than the MCL-US of 50 μg/L, 2 detections of strontium greater than the HAL-US of 4,000 μg/L, and 3 detections of nitrate greater than the MCL-US of 10 μg/L. Results for inorganic constituents with non-health-based benchmarks (iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate, and TDS) showed that iron concentrations greater than the CDPH secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL-CA) of 300 μg/L were detected in five grid wells. Manganese concentrations greater

  17. Latest results in strapdown airborne gravimetry using an iMAR RQH unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, D.; Becker, M; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard

    2016-01-01

    ). A centralized Kalman-Filter in combination with an RTS-smoother is used to estimate three-dimensional gravity disturbances, i.e. also including the deflections of the vertical (vector gravimetry). A thermal correction is applied to the QA2000 accelerometers in order to remove most of the long term drifts......, relaxing the common requirement of an adjustment of the strapdown gravity data. Results were evaluated based on cross-over statistics, indicating standard deviations in the range from 1.0 to 1.4 mGal (without adjustment). This is an excellent result for strapdown gravimetry, clearly reaching the accuracy...... level of the classical instruments and thereby emphasizing the large potential of strapdown gravimetry for future campaigns...

  18. A systematic review and meta-analysis of three-unit fixed dental prostheses: are the results of two abutment implants comparable to the results of two abutment teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, C W P; Raghoebar, G M; Kerdijk, W; Boven, C; Cune, M S; Meijer, H J A

    2017-09-23

    The purpose of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the performance of three-unit bridges on teeth with three-unit bridges on implants, evaluating survival of the bridges, survival of the teeth or implants, condition of the hard and soft tissues surrounding the supports, complications and patient-reported outcome measures after a mean observation period of at least 1 year. A literature search was conducted using a combination of the search terms: fixed partial denture and fixed dental prostheses. An electronic search for data published until January 2017 was undertaken using the Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomized or not, interventional or observational, which evaluated the results of three-unit FDPs (fixed dental prostheses) on either two implants or two abutment teeth. The search identified 1686 unique references. After applying eligibility criteria 66 articles were included in the analysis. A total of 1973 three-unit FDPs were supported by teeth, and 765 were implant-supported. No significant differences were found either in the survival of the supporting abutments (P=0.52; 99% versus 98.7% survival per year) or in the survival of the prostheses (P=0.34; 96.4% versus 97.4% survival per year). Both treatments show an almost equally low complication rate, but there is a low level of reporting of hard and soft tissue conditions and patient-reported outcome measures. It is concluded that implant-supported three-unit FDPs seem to be a reliable treatment with survival rates not significantly different from the results of teeth-supported three-unit FDPs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

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    Yan Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA, using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  20. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  1. Discordant results from reverse sequence syphilis screening--five laboratories, United States, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    CDC recommends syphilis serologic screening with a nontreponemal test, such as the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, to identify persons with possible untreated infection; this screening is followed by confirmation using one of several treponemal tests. Recently, the availability of automatable treponemal enzyme and chemiluminescence immunoassays (EIA/CIA) has led some laboratories to adopt a reverse sequence of screening in which a treponemal EIA/CIA is performed first, followed by testing of reactive sera with a nontreponemal test. To better understand the performance of reverse sequence screening for syphilis, CDC analyzed data from five laboratories that used reverse sequence screening during 2006-2010. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that among sera reactive on initial screening with a treponemal EIA/CIA, 56.7% had a nonreactive RPR test. Among these discordant sera, 31.6% also were nonreactive by treponemal testing using Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) or fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS) tests. Among discordant sera, the rate of nonreactive confirmatory treponemal tests was 2.9 times higher in a population with low prevalence of syphilis, suggesting that the low-prevalence population had a higher percentage of false-positive test results. Although CDC continues to recommend the traditional algorithm with reactive nontreponemal tests confirmed by treponemal testing, in this report CDC offers additional recommendations if reverse sequence syphilis screening is used.

  2. Results of a national survey of high-frequency fish consumers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stackelberg, Katherine; Li, Miling; Sunderland, Elsie

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to contaminants in fish may be associated with adverse health outcomes even as fish consumption is generally considered beneficial. Risk assessments conducted to support regulatory analyses rely on quantitative fish consumption estimates. Here we report the results of a national survey of high-frequency fish consumers (n = 2099) based on a survey population statistically representative of ~17.6 million U.S. individuals consuming three or more fish meals per week. The survey was conducted during 2013 using an on-line survey instrument. Total fish consumption averaged 111g/day from market, restaurant and self-caught sources. Depending on the season, the incidence of individuals reporting consumption of self-caught species ranged between 10-12% of our high-frequency fish consuming demographic, averaging approximately 30g/day and comprising 23% of total fish consumption from all sources of fish. Recreational or self-caught consumption rates vary regionally and are poorly understood, particularly for high-frequency consumers, making it difficult to support national-scale assessments. A divergence between sport-fishing and harvesting of fish as a food-staple is apparent in survey results given differences in consumption patterns with income and education. Highest consumption rates were reported for low income respondents more likely to harvest fish as a food staple. By contrast, the incidence of self-caught fish consumption was higher with income and education although overall consumption rates were lower. Regional differences were evident, with respondents from the East-South Central and New England regions reporting lowest consumption rates from self-caught fish on the order of 12-16g/day and those from Mountain, Pacific and Mid-Atlantic regions reporting highest rates ranging from 44 to 59g/day. Respondent-specific consumption rates together with national-level data on fish tissue concentrations of PCBs, MeHg, and PFOS suggest that 10-58% of respondents

  3. Temporal variation in United States firearm injuries 1993-2008: results from a national data base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall T. Loder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: There are few studies that address temporal variation in firearm associated injuries. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the temporal variation in the types and patterns of injuries associated with firearm use from a national data base. Methods: The database used was the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research Firearm Injury Surveillance Study 1993-2008. Emergency department visits associated with firearm use were analyzed for month and day of the week for various demographic variables. Statistical analyses were performed using SUDAAN 10™ software to give national estimates. Temporal variation by month or day was assessed using histograms, circular distributions, and cosinor analyses. Variation by month and day combined were analyzed using three dimensional contours. Results: There were an estimated 1,841,269 injuries. Circular analyses demonstrated a non-uniform distribution for all parameters for both month and day of injury (p less than 0.001. The overall peak was September 15 with several exceptions. Injuries from BB guns had a peak on May 22, a diagnosis of a foreign body on July 11, and patients aged 10 to 14 years on April 9.The peak day was always Saturday/Sunday when significant variation existed. There were many different patterns for month and day combined. Some were “a rapidly rising high mountain starting at sea level” (hunting, or others a “series of mountain ranges starting from a high plain or steppe” (hospital admissions. Conclusions: This study provides altogether new information regarding temporal variation for injuries associated with firearms in the USA. These results can be used to assist medical resource allocation and prevention campaigns. Education campaigns can be emphasized before the peaks for which prevention is desired (eg. BB gun prevention campaigns should be concentrated in March, prior to the April/May peak.

  4. Management of Male Breast Cancer in the United States: A Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Emma C., E-mail: emma.fields@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); DeWitt, Peter [Colorado Biostatistics Consortium, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Fisher, Christine M.; Rabinovitch, Rachel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze the stage-specific management of male breast cancer (MBC) with surgery and radiation therapy (RT) and relate them to outcomes and to female breast cancer (FBC). Methods and Materials: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for all primary invasive MBC and FBC diagnosed from 1973 to 2008. Analyzable data included age, race, registry, grade, stage, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, type of surgery, and use of RT. Stage was defined as localized (LocD): confined to the breast; regional (RegD): involving skin, chest wall, and/or regional lymph nodes; and distant: M1. The primary endpoint was cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: A total of 4276 cases of MBC and 718,587 cases of FBC were identified. Male breast cancer constituted 0.6% of all breast cancer. Comparing MBC with FBC, mastectomy (M) was used in 87.4% versus 38.3%, and breast-conserving surgery in 12.6% versus 52.6% (P<10{sup −4}). For males with LocD, CSS was not significantly different for the 4.6% treated with lumpectomy/RT versus the 70% treated with M alone (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-3.61; P=.57). Postmastectomy RT was delivered in 33% of males with RegD and was not associated with an improvement in CSS (HR 1.11; 95% CI 0.88-1.41; P=.37). There was a significant increase in the use of postmastectomy RT in MBC over time: 24.3%, 27.2%, and 36.8% for 1973-1987, 1988-1997, and 1998-2008, respectively (P<.0001). Cause-specific survival for MBC has improved: the largest significant change was identified for men diagnosed in 1998-2008 compared with 1973-1987 (HR 0.73; 95% CI 0.60-0.88; P=.0004). Conclusions: Surgical management of MBC is dramatically different than for FBC. The majority of males with LocD receive M despite equivalent CSS with lumpectomy/RT. Postmastectomy RT is greatly underutilized in MBC with RegD, although a CSS benefit was not demonstrated. Outcomes for MBC are improving, attributable to improved

  5. Haemodynamic Monitoring in the Intensive Care Unit: Results from a Web-Based Swiss Survey

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    Nils Siegenthaler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this survey was to describe, in a situation of growing availability of monitoring devices and parameters, the practices in haemodynamic monitoring at the bedside. Methods. We conducted a Web-based survey in Swiss adult ICUs (2009-2010. The questionnaire explored the kind of monitoring used and how the fluid management was addressed. Results. Our survey included 71% of Swiss ICUs. Echocardiography (95%, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC: 85%, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD (82% were the most commonly used. TPTD and PAC were frequently both available, although TPTD was the preferred technique. Echocardiography was widely available (95% but seems to be rarely performed by intensivists themselves. Guidelines for the management of fluid infusion were available in 45% of ICUs. For the prediction of fluid responsiveness, intensivists rely preferentially on dynamic indices or echocardiographic parameters, but static parameters, such as central venous pressure or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, were still used. Conclusions. In most Swiss ICUs, multiple haemodynamic monitoring devices are available, although TPTD is most commonly used. Despite the usefulness of echocardiography and its large availability, it is not widely performed by Swiss intensivists themselves. Regarding fluid management, several parameters are used without a clear consensus for the optimal method.

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity: results from 10 years in a single neonatal intensive care unit

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    Inês Coutinho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a vasoproliferative disorder of the retina of preterm newborns and is an important and preventable cause of visual impairment in childhood. This study aimed to assess the incidence and main risk factors associated with the development of ROP in the last 10 years at Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca in Lisbon, Portugal.Methods: Observational and retrospective study conducted between 2005 and 2014 at Hospital Prof. Doctor Fernando Fonseca. The study included newborns of gestational age < 32 weeks. We analyzed maternal, prenatal and neonatal factors associated with the development of ROP. Statistical analysis were performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS® software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed and a multiple logistic regression model was carried out with a significance level α = 0.05.Results: 527 premature infants with a gestational age < 32 weeks were studied, of which 165 developed ROP. 60 of these patients needed treatment. In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for the development of ROP were maternal infection in pregnancy, low birth weight, low gestational age, low Apgar score at 5 minutes, need for oxygen therapy until the 28th day of life, a high score on the CRIB and SNAPPE2 scales, use of surfactant, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus, peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and neonatal sepsis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for ROP were the presence of neonatal sepsis, respiratory distress syndrome, persistence of patent ductus arteriosus and a high score on the neonatal SNAPPE2 scale.Conclusions: We found a ROP incidence rate of 31.3%, with risk factors similar to those observed in other studies.

  7. Clinical practice audit concerning antimicrobial prophylaxis in paediatric neurosurgery: results from a German paediatric oncology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Katja; Simon, Arne; Graf, Norbert; Schöpe, Jakob; Oertel, Joachim; Linsler, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP) has been identified as an important target for internal audits, concerning the judicious use of antibiotics. Paediatric oncology patients with brain tumours face an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery and receive routine PAP in this setting. All patients younger than 18 years admitted to the paediatric oncology centre (POC) with a neurosurgical intervention. Systematic audit of routine clinical data is divided in two groups: retrospective (Jan 01, 2012-March 31, 2014) and prospective (April 01, 2014-March 31, 2015) referring to an internal PAP guideline, invented in Jan. 2014). Surveillance of SSI up to 30 days after the operation with standard criteria (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, USA). In total, 53 neurosurgical operations were analysed in 33 paediatric oncology patients. Twelve patients received more than one operation. The detailed analysis of PAP revealed prophylactic cefuroxim doses about 30 mg/kg instead of 50 mg/kg and no repeated dosing in operations lasting longer than 4 h. In addition, Cefotaxim, which is not indicated as PAP in neurosurgery, was used instead of Cefuroxim (or Ampicillin-Sulbactam) in 23 % of all cases in the retrospective and 18 % of all cases in the prospective audit. PAP for more than 3 doses (>24 h) was administered in 66 % in the retrospective group and in 60 % in the prospective group (p = n.s.). In both groups, no SSI was detected. This first comprehensive audit of PAP in paediatric oncology patients undergoing neurosurgery outlines significant opportunities to improve clinical practice in terms of correct dosing, the correct choice of the antibiotic, a correct timing schedule and a shorter duration of PAP. In addition, our results illustrate in detail the challenges in clinical practice when an evidence-based approach to improve a standard workflow has to be implemented.

  8. Infection Prevention and Control Programs in United States Nursing Homes: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Stone, Patricia W.; Castle, Nicholas; Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Monika; Larson, Elaine L.; Dick, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (1) obtain a national perspective of the current state of nursing home (NH) infection prevention and control (IPC) programs and (2) examine differences in IPC program characteristics for NHs that had and had not received an infection control deficiency citation. Design A national cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled NHs was conducted and responses were linked with Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reporting (CASPER) and NH Compare data. Setting Surveys were completed and returned by 990 NHs (response rate 39%) between December 2013 and December 2014. Participants The person in charge of the IPC program at each NH completed the survey. Measurements The survey consisted of 34 items related to respondent demographics, IPC program staffing, stability of the workforce, resources and challenges, and resident care and employee processes. Facility characteristics and infection control deficiency citations were assessed using CASPER and NH Compare data. Results Most respondents had at least two responsibilities in addition to those related to infection control (54%) and had no specific IPC training (61%). While many practices and processes were consistent with infection prevention guidelines for NHs, there was wide variation in programs across the US. About 36% of responding facilities had received an infection control deficiency citation. NHs that received citations had infection control professionals with less experience (P = .01) and training (P = .02) and were less likely to provide financial resources for continuing education in infection control (P = .01). Conclusion The findings demonstrate that a lack of adequately trained infection prevention personnel is an important area for improvement. Furthermore, there is a need to identify specific evidence-based practices to reduce infection risk in NHs. PMID:26712489

  9. Exposures of aquatic organisms to the organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos resulting from use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, W Martin; Giddings, Jeffrey M; Purdy, John; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of CPY in surface waters are an integral determinant of risk to aquatic organisms. CPY has been measured in surface waters of the U.S. in several environmental monitoring programs and these data were evaluated to characterize concentrations, in relation to major areas of use and changes to the label since 2001, particularly the removal of domestic uses. Frequencies of detection and 95th centile concentrations of CPY decreased more than fivefold between 1992 and 2010. Detections in 1992-2001 ranged from 10.2 to 53%, while 2002-2010 detections ranged from 7 to 11%. The 95th centile concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.056 j.lg L -I in 1992-2001 and 0.006-0.008 j.lg L -I in 2002-2010.The greatest frequency of detections occurred in samples from undeveloped and agricultural land-use classes. Samples from urban and mixed land-use classes had the smallest frequency of detections and 95th centile concentrations, consistent with the cessation of most homeowner uses in 2001. The active metabolite of CPY, CPYO, was not detected frequently or in large concentrations. In 10,375 analyses from several sampling programs conducted between 1999 and 2012, only 25 detections (0.24% of samples) of CPYO were reported and estimated concentrations were less than the LOQ.Although the monitoring data on CPY provide relevant insight in quantifying the range of concentrations in surface waters, few monitoring programs have sampled at a frequency sufficient to quantify the time-series pattern of exposure. Therefore,numerical simulations were used to characterize concentrations of CPY in water and sediment for three representative high exposure environments in the U.S. Thefate of CPY in the environment is dependent on a number of dissipation and degradation processes. In terms of surface waters, fate in soils is a major driver of the potential for runoff into surface waters and results from a number of dissipation studies in the laboratory were characterized. Aerobic

  10. Aging as a predictor of nursing workload in Intensive Care Unit: results from a Brazilian Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Nogueira, Lilia de Souza; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo E; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito; Machado, Selma Pinheiro; Oliveira, Elaine Machado de; Andolhe, Rafaela; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2017-04-03

    ón NAS. Cada año de edad aumenta la puntuación NAS en 0,081 puntos (p=0,015). Sin embargo, la edad no resultó un buen predictor de la puntuación NAS (AbC=0,394; p=0,320). El cuidado de los adultos mayores en UCI se asocia con un aumento de la CTE en comparación con los adultos. El envejecimiento puede considerarse un factor asociado, pero no un buen predictor de la CTE en UCI.

  11. The Digital Signal Processing Platform for the Low Frequency Aperture Array: Preliminary Results on the Data Acquisition Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldi, Giovanni; Mattana, Andrea; Pastore, Sandro; Alderighi, Monica; Zarb Adami, Kristian; Schillirò, Francesco; Aminaei, Amin; Baker, Jeremy; Belli, Carolina; Comoretto, Gianni; Chiarucci, Simone; Chiello, Riccardo; D'Angelo, Sergio; Dalle Mura, Gabriele; De Marco, Andrea; Halsall, Rob; Magro, Alessio; Monari, Jader; Roberts, Matt; Perini, Federico; Poloni, Marco; Pupillo, Giuseppe; Rusticelli, Simone; Schiaffino, Marco; Zaccaro, Emanuele

    A signal processing hardware platform has been developed for the Low Frequency Aperture Array component of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA). The processing board, called an Analog Digital Unit (ADU), is able to acquire and digitize broadband (up to 500MHz bandwidth) radio-frequency streams from 16 dual polarized antennas, channel the data streams and then combine them flexibly as part of a larger beamforming system. It is envisaged that there will be more than 8000 of these signal processing platforms in the first phase of the SKA, so particular attention has been devoted to ensure the design is low-cost and low-power. This paper describes the main features of the data acquisition unit of such a platform and presents preliminary results characterizing its performance.

  12. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  13. Visual Mapping of Sedimentary Facies Can Yield Accurate And Geomorphically Meaningful Results at Morphological Unit to River Segment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Wyrick, J. R.; Jackson, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Long practiced in fisheries, visual substrate mapping of coarse-bedded rivers is eschewed by geomorphologists for inaccuracy and limited sizing data. Geomorphologists perform time-consuming measurements of surficial grains, with the few locations precluding spatially explicit mapping and analysis of sediment facies. Remote sensing works for bare land, but not vegetated or subaqueous sediments. As visual systems apply the log2 Wentworth scale made for sieving, they suffer from human inability to readily discern those classes. We hypothesized that size classes centered on the PDF of the anticipated sediment size distribution would enable field crews to accurately (i) identify presence/absence of each class in a facies patch and (ii) estimate the relative amount of each class to within 10%. We first tested 6 people using 14 measured samples with different mixtures. Next, we carried out facies mapping for ~ 37 km of the lower Yuba River in California. Finally, we tested the resulting data to see if it produced statistically significant hydraulic-sedimentary-geomorphic results. Presence/absence performance error was 0-4% for four people, 13% for one person, and 33% for one person. The last person was excluded from further effort. For the abundance estimation performance error was 1% for one person, 7-12% for three people, and 33% for one person. This last person was further trained and re-tested. We found that the samples easiest to visually quantify were unimodal and bimodal, while those most difficult had nearly equal amounts of each size. This confirms psychological studies showing that humans have a more difficult time quantifying abundances of subgroups when confronted with well-mixed groups. In the Yuba, mean grain size decreased downstream, as is typical for an alluvial river. When averaged by reach, mean grain size and bed slope were correlated with an r2 of 0.95. At the morphological unit (MU) scale, eight in-channel bed MU types had an r2 of 0.90 between mean

  14. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    , radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes and dissolved noble gases also were measured to provide a dataset that will be used to help interpret the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater in subsequent reports. In total, 221 constituents were investigated for this study. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells in the CAMP study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 90 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. All organic constituents and most inorganic constituents that were detected in groundwater samples from the 90 grid wells

  15. Caregiver’s overload as a result of the admission of mental patients to a subacute unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosario Andueza Doce

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Knowing the level of emotional overload which the main informal caregiver of a mentally ill person has to undergo when admitted to a subacute unit, and valuing the existence of mood disorders (anxiety or depression in the caregiver himself/herself, along with the impact for the caregiver of the patient admitted in a subacute unit. Method: A descriptive and transversal study carried out from a sample of 32 main caregivers of patients in the Unite of the Subacute in the Psyquiatric Hospital of Zaldibar, during 2010, being the measure instruments for that purpose the Zarit Scales for Caregiver Burden and the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS. Results: The level of overload presented by a 53% of these caregivers is intense, coupled by a predominantly anxious mood with an average of 5.34 on the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS. After admission, 69% of these caregivers reduce the overlead, and 59.5% improve in both anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The task of caring falls primarily on parents who expressed particularly fear for the future of their sons and daughters, and feel that they depend heavely on them wich generate a lot of overload.

  16. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey

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    Vale Claire L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs, meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86% were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31% had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development

  17. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  18. Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehab Jabir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older. The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40. Seven patients (8.24% required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60% required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18% required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60. Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries.

  19. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Range-Coastal Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    the 70 wells sampled, 3 surface-water samples were collected in streams near 2 of the sampled wells in order to better comprehend the interaction between groundwater and surface water in the area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-TCP), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], and alkalinity), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, stable isotopes of sulfur in dissolved sulfate, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance), and dissolved gases (including noble gases) also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 298 constituents and field water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix-spikes) were collected at approximately 3 to 12 percent of the wells in the SCRC study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples generally were less than 10 percent relative and/or standard deviation, indicating acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 84

  20. Resultados do Balance Rehabilitation Unit na Vertigem Posicional Paroxística Benigna Results from the Balance Rehabilitation Unit in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Akemi Kasse

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A posturografia é um instrumento útil e novo para o estudo da influência das doenças vestibulares no equilíbrio corporal. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados da posturografia estática do Balance Rehabilitation Unit (BRU em idosos com Vertigem Postural Paroxística Benigna (VPPB pré e pós a manobra de Epley. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo de 20 pacientes idosos com diagnóstico de VPPB. Os pacientes foram submetidos à posturografia estática do BRU, e o limite de estabilidade (LE e a área de elipse foram medidos. Aplicou-se também o questionário "Dizziness Handicap Inventory" versão brasileira (DHI para verificar a eficácia do tratamento. RESULTADOS: 80% pacientes eram do gênero feminino, com a média etária de 68,15 anos. Após a manobra, o LE aumentou significantemente (p=0,001. A área de elipse nas condições de conflitos sensoriais, visuais e vestibulares da BRU (condições 2,7,8,9 e o escore do DHI diminuíram significantemente (pPosturography is a useful new tool to study the influence of vestibular diseases on balance. AIM: to compare the results from the Balance Rehabilitation Unit (BRU static posturography in elderly patients with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV, before and after Epley's maneuver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a prospective study of 20 elderly patients with a diagnosis of BPPV. The patients underwent static posturography and the limit of stability (LE and ellipse area were measured. We also applied the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI questionnaire to study treatment effectiveness. RESULTS: 80% were females, with a mean age of 68.15 years. After the maneuver, the LE increased significantly (p=0.001. The elliptical area of somatosensory, visual and vestibular conflicts (2,7,8,9 situations in BRU and the DHI scores decreased significantly (p<0.05 after treatment. CONCLUSION: the study suggests that elderly patients with BPPV may present static postural control impairment and that the maneuver

  1. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, and arsenic, chromium, and iron species); and radioactive constituents (radon-222 and gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stables isotopes of inorganic carbon and boron dissolved in water, isotope ratios of dissolved strontium, tritium activities, and carbon-14 abundances) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 281 constituents and water-quality indicators were measured. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 12 percent of the wells in the Santa Barbara study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 82 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH and to non-regulatory benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by

  3. Field application of moment-based wavefront sensing to in-situ alignment and image quality assessment of astronomical spectrographs: results and analysis of aligning VIRUS unit spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah E.; Noyola, Eva; Peterson, Trent; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Teague introduced a phase retrieval method that uses the image shape moments. More recently, an independent study arrived at a similar technique, which was then applied to in-situ full-field image-quality evaluation of spectroscopic systems. This moment-based wavefront sensing (MWFS) method relies on the geometric relation between the image shape moments and the geometric wavefront modal coefficients. The MWFS method allows a non-iterative determination of the modal coefficients from focus-modulated images at arbitrary spatial resolutions. The determination of image moments is a direct extension of routine centroid and image size calculation, making its implementation easy. Previous studies showed that the MWFS works well in capturing large low-order modes, and is quite suitable for in-situ alignment diagnostics. At the Astronomical Instrumentation conference in 2012, we presented initial results of the application of the moment-based wavefront sensing to a fiber-fed astronomical spectrograph, called VIRUS (a set of replicated 150 identical integral-field unit spectrographs contained in 75 unit pairs). This initial result shows that the MWFS can provide accurate full-field image-quality assessment for efficiently aligning these 150 spectrographs. Since then, we have assembled more than 24 unit pairs using this technique. In this paper, we detail the technical update/progress made so far for the moment-based wavefront sensing method and the statistical estimates of the before/after alignment aberrations, image-quality, and various efficiency indicators of the unit spectrograph alignment process.

  4. Groundwater-quality data for the Sierra Nevada study unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Nevada study unit: granitic, metamorphic, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks. One natural spring that is not used for drinking water was sampled for comparison with a nearby primary grid well in the same cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA] and perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major ions, total dissolved solids, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (radium isotopes, radon-222, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, and uranium isotopes). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-14, strontium isotopes, and tritium), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells sampled for each analysis, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection, handling, and analytical procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, with few exceptions. Matrix-spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to finished drinking water that is served to the consumer, not to untre

  5. Reentry response of the light weight radioisotope heater unit resulting from a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist maneuver accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    Reentry analyses consisting of ablation response, thermal response and thermal stress response have been conducted on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit for Galileo/VEEGA reentry conditions. Sequential ablation analyses of the LWRHU aeroshell, the fuel clad, and the fuel pellet have been conducted in reentry regimes where the aeroshell has been deemed to fail. The failure criterion for ablation is assumed to be recession corresponding to 50% of the wall thickness (the design criterion recommended in the DOE Overall Safety Manual). Although the analyses have been carried far beyond this limit (as presented and discussed herein), JHU/APL endorses the position that failure may occur at the time that this recession is achieved or at lower altitudes within the heat pulse considering the uncertainties in the aerodynamic, thermodynamic, and thermo-structural analyses and modeling. These uncertainties result mainly because of the high energies involved in the VEEGA reentries compared to orbital decay reentries. Risk evaluations should consider the fact that for shallow flight paths the unit may disassemble at high-altitude as a result of ablation or may remain intact until it impacts with a clad that had been molten. 80 refs., 46 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks or replicates, or samples for matrix spikes) were collected from approximately 26 percent of the wells, and the analyses of these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control results showed that the quality of the environmental data was good, with low bias and low variability, and as a result, less than 0.1 percent of the analytes detected in ground-water samples were censored. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is delivered (or, supplied) to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were reported at concentrations below their established health-based thresholds. VOCs, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds were detected in about 33 percent or less of the 42 SCRV grid wells. Concentrations of all detected organic constituents were below established health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected in approximately 12 percent of the SCRV grid wells; all concentrations reported were below the NL-CA threshold. Additional constituents, including major ions, trace elements, and nutrients were collected at 26 wells (16 grid wells and 10 understanding wells) of the 53 wells sampled f

  7. What rheumatologists in the United States think of complementary and alternative medicine: results of a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curlin Farr A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to describe prevailing attitudes and practices of rheumatologists in the United States toward complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments. We wanted to determine whether rheumatologists' perceptions of the efficacy of CAM therapies and their willingness to recommend them relate to their demographic characteristics, geographic location, or clinical practices. Methods A National Institutes of Health-sponsored cross-sectional survey of internists and rheumatologists was conducted regarding CAM for treatment of chronic back pain or joint pain. In this study we analyzed responses only from rheumatologists. Response items included participant characteristics and experience with 6 common CAM categories, as defined by the National Institutes of Health. Descriptive statistics were used to describe attitudes to CAM overall and to each CAM category. Composite responses were devised for respondents designating 4 or more of the 6 CAM therapies as "very" or "moderately" beneficial or "very likely" or "somewhat likely" to recommend. Results Of 600 rheumatologists who were sent the questionnaire, 345 responded (58%; 80 (23% were women. Body work had the highest perceived benefit, with 70% of respondents indicating benefit. Acupuncture was perceived as beneficial by 54%. Most were willing to recommend most forms of CAM. Women had significantly higher composite benefit and recommend responses than men. Rheumatologists not born in North America were more likely to perceive benefit of select CAM therapies. Conclusions In this national survey of rheumatologists practicing in the United States, we found widespread favorable opinion toward many, but not all, types of CAM. Further research is required to determine to what extent CAM can or should be integrated into the practice of rheumatology in the United States.

  8. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  9. Groundwater-quality data in the Klamath Mountains study unit, 2010: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    radioactivity, and microbial indicators (total coliform and Escherichia coli [E. coli]). Isotopic tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, isotopic ratios of dissolved strontium in water, and stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon), dissolved noble gases, and age-dating tracers (tritium and carbon-14) were measured to help identify sources and ages of sampled groundwater. Quality-control samples (field blanks, replicate sample pairs, and matrix spikes) were collected at 13 percent of the sites in the KLAM study unit, and the results were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. Field blank samples rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample collection or analysis was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. More than 99 percent of the replicate pair samples were within acceptable limits of variability. Matrix-spike sample recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 91 percent of the compounds. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and CDPH, and to non-health-based benchmarks established for aesthetic concerns by the CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or non-compliance with those benchmarks. All concentrations of organic constituents from grid sites

  10. Treatment and follow-up results of children with electrical burn who observed in burn intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Aliosmanoğlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical burns are infrequent relative to other injuries, but they are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess management and follow-up results of pediatric patients’ who observed in intensive care unit and also review the precautions for preventing electrical burns.Materials and methods: Totally 22 patients aged under 17 years who were observed in the burn intensive care unit of Şanlıurfa Education and Research Hospital during the period between July 2009-October 2010. Cases were investigated retrospectively. The patients’ age, gender, total burn surface area, length of stay in hospital, musculo-skeletal system complication, cardiovascular system complication, kidney damage and attempts were recorded.Results: Of the 22 cases, 19 (86.3% were male and 3 (13.7% were female. The mean age of the patients was 11.5 years. In 10 (45.4% children burns were occurred in workplace and working area and 12 (54.6% were occurred in the home environment. Depth of burns were third degree in 10 (45.4% children and second degree in 12 (54.6%. The mean percentage of burn surface area was 25.9%. The mean length of stay in hospital was 17 days. Debridement and grafting were performed to 12 (54.6% cases and 10 (45.4% children were treated with dressings. No patient had increased creatinine kinase levels, oliguria, myoglobuinuria and arrhythmia. The mean hospitalization time was 17 days.Conclusion: Nearly half of patients underwent debridement plus grafting. None of our patients developed renal failure other severe system dysfunction.

  11. Results from tests of the system for automatically controlling frequency and power of the PGU-450 power unit at the kaliningrad TETs-2 cogeneration station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, V. A.; Manevskaya, O. A.; Melamed, A. D.

    2008-10-01

    The structure of the system and the results of tests for checking the preparedness of the power unit for common primary control of the network frequency are described. An analysis of the results is presented, and an assessment is made of whether the PGU-450 unit can participate in selective primary and automatic secondary control of frequency and power.

  12. Validation of WIMS-AECL/(MULTICELL)/RFSP system by the results of phase-B test at Wolsung-II unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, In Seob; Min, Byung Joo; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The object of this study is the validation of WIMS-AECL lattice code which has been proposed for the substitution of POWDERPUFS-V(PPV) code. For the validation of this code, WIMS-AECL/(MULTICELL)/RFSP (lattice calculation/(incremental cross section calculation)/core calculation) code system has been used for the Post-Simulation of Phase-B physics Test at Wolsung-II unit. This code system had been used for the Wolsong-I and Point Lepraeu reactors, but after a few modifications of WIMS-AECL input values for Wolsong-II, the results of WIMS-AECL/RFSP code calculations are much improved to those of the old ones. Most of the results show good estimation except moderator temperature coefficient test. And the verification of this result must be done, which is one of the further work. 6 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  13. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids, and alkalinity) were collected at all 170 sites. In addition to these constituents, the samples from grid wells were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine, or NDMA), radioactive constituents (radon-222 and gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity), and geochemical and age-dating tracers (stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon-14 abundances, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, and tritium activities).Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 11 percent of the wells in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. With the exception of trace elements, blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample-collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Low concentrations of some trace elements were detected in blanks; therefore, the data were re-censored at higher reporting levels. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. The median values of matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), but were only approximately 64 percent for pesticides and pesticide degradates.The sample-collection protocols used in this study were designed to obtain representative samples of groundwater. The quality of groundwater can differ from the quality of drinking water because water chemistry can change as a result of contact with plumbing systems or the atmosphere; because of treatment

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    , replicates, laboratory matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination was not a noticeable source of bias in the data for the ground-water samples. Differences between replicate samples were within acceptable ranges, indicating acceptably low variability. Matrix spike recoveries were within acceptable ranges for most constituents. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, or blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Comparisons between data collected for this study and drinking-water thresholds are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance or noncompliance with regulatory thresholds. Most constituents that were detected in ground-water samples were found at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. VOCs were detected in less than one-third and pesticides and pesticide degradates in just over one-half of the grid wells, and all detections of these constituents in samples from all wells of the MSACV study unit were below health-based thresholds. All detections of trace elements in samples from MSACV grid wells were below health-based thresholds, with the exceptions of arsenic and boro

  15. Patient Safety Culture in Nephrology Nurse Practice Settings: Results by Primary Work Unit, Organizational Work Setting, and Primary Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Beth; Kear, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety culture is critical to the achievement of patient safety. In 2014, a landmark national study was conducted to investigate patient safety culture in nephrology nurse practice settings. In this secondary analysis of data from that study, we report the status of patient safety culture by primary work unit (chronic hemodialysis unit, acute hemodialysis unit, peritoneal dialysis unit) and organizational work setting (for-profit organization, not-for-profit organization), and compare the perceptions of direct care nurses and managers/administrators on components of patient safety culture.

  16. Transformation of the multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinic into a multidisciplinary diabetic foot day unit: results from a service evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, Chris A; Mustafa, Omar G; Bates, Maureen; Vivian, Gill; Mulholland, Nicola; Elias, David; Huang, Dean Y; Deane, Colin; Cavale, Naveen; Kavarthapu, Venu; Rashid, Hisham; Edmonds, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The natural history of the diabetic foot is aggressive and complex. To counteract this, we describe the transformation of a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Clinic into a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Day Unit, which delivers an emergency open access system for patients, with a "one-stop," same day service in which investigations are performed, results reviewed and treatment implemented. It also provides joint clinics with vascular, orthopaedic, and plastic surgeons and specialized clinics for casting of complex neuropathic feet and for the administration of intravenous or intramuscular antibiotics on the same day. The aim was to document these increasingly wide-ranging facilities by undertaking a retrospective evaluation over a 6-week period, with analysis of notes, investigations, and an anonymous patient satisfaction survey. The clinic was visited by 597 patients who attended in 1076 appointments, of which 112 (10.4%) were emergency visits; these patients attended the clinic without a booked appointment but via an open access policy, 93 of whom were known to the clinic, but 19 were new self-referred patients to the service. Furthermore, 197 (18%) were seen in a Joint Vascular Diabetic Foot Clinic and 98 (9%) were seen in a Joint Orthopaedic Plastic Diabetic Foot Clinic, 570 (53%) were seen in an Active Ulcer Clinic and 97 (9%) in a Total Contact Casting Clinic. Forty-five percent of patients were prescribed antibiotics, including 188 (76%) as oral and 45(18%) as intravenous antibiotics and 15(6%) as intramuscular injections. Of the 1076 appointments, 150 (14%) patients were in the foot clinic for more than 4 hours. Sixty (10%) patients were reviewed 4 or more times over the 6-week period. Only 22 (2%) were admitted to hospital. Of the 125 survey responders, 98% were satisfied with this service, which has evolved from a Diabetic Foot Clinic into a Multidisciplinary Diabetic Foot Day Unit.

  17. Analysing the Hydraulic Actuator-based Knee Unit Kinematics and Correlating the Numerical Results and Walking Human Knee Joint Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Trukhanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art machinery development enables people with lost lower limb to continue their previous life despite a loss. International companies dealing with this area pursue a minimization of human behaviour problems because of amputation. Researches to create an optimal design of the artificial knee joint are under way.The work task was to define analytical relationships of changing kinematic parameters of the human walking on the flat surface such as an angle of the knee joint, knee point (moment, definition of reduced knee actuator (A load, as well as to compare obtained results with experimental data.As an A in created design, the article proposes to use a controlled shock absorber based on the hydraulic cylinder.A knee unit is a kinematic two-tier mechanism. One of the mechanism links performs rotational motion, and the other is rotation-translational to provide a rotation of the first one.When studying the hydraulic actuator device dynamics, as a generalized coordinate a coordinate of the piston x (or ρ position is chosen while in the study of link movements an angle β is preferable.Experimental data are obtained for a human with the body weight of 57.6 kg walking on the flat surface to estimate a value of the knee joint angle, speed, acceleration, torque, and capacity in the knee joint and are taken from the published works of foreign authors.A trigonometric approximation was used for fitting the experimental data. The resulting dependence of the reduced load on the stock of A is necessary to perform the synthesis of A. The criterion for linear mechanisms mentioned in the D.N. Popov’s work is advisable to use as a possible criterion for optimization of A.The results obtained are as follows:1. Kinematics linkage mechanism is described using relationships for dependencies of its geometrical parameters, namely a cylinder piston stroke x (or ρ and a links angle β.2. Obtained polynomials of kinematic relationships allow a synthesis of

  18. Characteristics of neonatal units that care for very preterm infants in Europe: results from the MOSAIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Reempts, Patrick; Gortner, Ludwig; Milligan, David

    2007-01-01

    intensive care beds. Level II units were less specialized, but some provided mechanical ventilation (57%) or high-frequency ventilation (20%) or had neonatal surgery facilities (17%). Sixty-nine percent of level III and 36% of level I or II units had continuous medical coverage by a qualified pediatrician...

  19. 43 CFR 44.55 - Can a unit of general local government protest the results of payment computations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a unit of general local government... Secretary of the Interior FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS State and Local Governments' Responsibilities After the Department Distributes Payments § 44.55 Can a unit of general local government...

  20. Incentivizing Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption: Results of a United States Pilot Study of the "Food Dudes" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengreen, Heidi J.; Madden, Gregory J.; Aguilar, Sheryl S.; Smits, Rochelle R.; Jones, Brooke A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preliminary evaluation in the United States (US) of a school-based fruit and vegetable (F/V) intervention, known as the "Food Dudes" (FD) program, developed in the United Kingdom. Methods: Over 16 days (Phase 1), elementary-school children (n = 253) watched short videos featuring heroic peers (the FD) eating F/V and received a…

  1. Results after implementation of a protocol on the incidence of urinary tract infection in an intensive care unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Anna Letícia; de Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio; Nacer, Daiana Terra; Aguiar, Cynthia Adalgisa Mesojedovas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the results of urinary tract infection incidence, by means of the rate of indwelling urethral catheter use, and to identify microorganisms in urine cultures and surveillance cultures before and after the implementation of a clinical protocol for intensive care unit patients . Method: urinary tract infection is defined as a positive urine culture > 105 CFU/mL, notified by the hospital infection control service, six months before and after the implementation of the protocol. The sample consisted of 47 patients, 28 reported before and 19 after implementation. The protocol established in the institution is based on the Ministry of Health manual to prevent healthcare-related infections; the goal is patient safety and improving the quality of health services. Results: a negative linear correlation was observed between the later months of implementation and the reduction of reported cases of urinary tract infection, using the Spearman rank order coefficient (p = 0.045), and a reduction in the number of urine culture microorganisms (p = 0.026) using the Fisher exact test. Conclusion: educational interventions with implementation protocols in health institutions favor the standardization of maintenance of the invasive devices, which may reduce colonization and subsequent infections. PMID:27627125

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    ground water. A quality-control sample (blank, replicate, or matrix spike) was collected at approximately one quarter of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the quality-control information resulted in V-coding less than 0.1 percent of the data collected. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is supplied to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic purposes (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Most constituents detected in ground-water samples were at concentrations below drinking-water thresholds. Volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and pesticide degradates were detected in less than one-third of the grid well samples collected. All VOC and pesticide concentrations measured were below health-based thresholds. Potential waste-water indicators were detected in less than half of the wells sampled, and no detections were above health-based thresholds. Perchlorate was detected in seven grid wells; concentrations from two wells were above the CDPH maximum contaminant level (MCL-CA). Most detections of trace elements in samples collected from COA Study Unit wells were below water-quality thresholds. Exceptions include five samples of arsenic that were above the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL-US), two detections of boron above the CDPH notification level (NL-CA), and two detections of mol

  3. Groundwater-Quality Data in the South Coast Interior Basins Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Ray, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 653-square-mile South Coast Interior Basins (SCI) study unit was investigated from August to December 2008, as part of the Priority Basins Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basins Project was developed in response to Legislative mandates (Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act 1999-00 Fiscal Year; and, the Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 [Sections 10780-10782.3 of the California Water Code, Assembly Bill 599]) to assess and monitor the quality of groundwater used as public supply for municipalities in California, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). SCI was the 27th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA Priority Basins Project. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies within SCI, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 54 wells within the three study areas [Livermore, Gilroy, and Cuyama] of SCI in Alameda, Santa Clara, San Benito, Santa Barbara, Ventura, and Kern Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and 19 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids (TDS), and alkalinity

  4. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  5. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Irish critical care units: results of a pilot prevalence survey, June 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, K

    2012-11-10

    The epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in Ireland is changing, with an increase in the number of reported cases in late 2010 and early 2011. Reported cases were predominantly linked to critical care units. In June 2011, a four-week national pilot survey took place in 40 Irish critical care units (37 adult and three paediatric) to examine the prevalence of rectal carriage of CPE and inform national CPE screening guidelines. A total of 760 screening swabs were taken over the study period, and CPE were not detected in any of the participating critical care units.

  6. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time.

  7. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  8. Inverse spectral results for Schr\\"odinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in L^P spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    We consider the Schr\\"odinger operator on $[0,1]$ with potential in $L^1$. We prove that two potentials already known on $[a,1]$ ($a\\in(0,{1/2}]$) and having their difference in $L^p$ are equal if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently large. The result here is to write down explicitly this number in terms of $p$ (and $a$) showing the role of $p$.

  9. International system of units traceable results of Hg mass concentration at saturation in air from a newly developed measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R; Zampella, Mariavittoria; Brown, Richard J C; Ent, Hugo; Horvat, Milena; Paredes, Eduardo; Tunc, Murat

    2014-08-05

    Data most commonly used at present to calibrate measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in air come from a relationship known as the "Dumarey equation". It uses a fitting relationship to experimental results obtained nearly 30 years ago. The way these results relate to the international system of units (SI) is not known. This has caused difficulties for the specification and enforcement of limit values for mercury concentrations in air and in emissions to air as part of national or international legislation. Furthermore, there is a significant discrepancy (around 7% at room temperature) between the Dumarey data and data calculated from results of mercury vapor pressure measurements in the presence of only liquid mercury. As an attempt to solve some of these problems, a new measurement procedure is described for SI traceable results of gaseous Hg concentrations at saturation in milliliter samples of air. The aim was to propose a scheme as immune as possible to analytical biases. It was based on isotope dilution (ID) in the liquid phase with the (202)Hg enriched certified reference material ERM-AE640 and measurements of the mercury isotope ratios in ID blends, subsequent to a cold vapor generation step, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The process developed involved a combination of interconnected valves and syringes operated by computer controlled pumps and ensured continuity under closed circuit conditions from the air sampling stage onward. Quantitative trapping of the gaseous mercury in the liquid phase was achieved with 11.5 μM KMnO4 in 2% HNO3. Mass concentrations at saturation found from five measurements under room temperature conditions were significantly higher (5.8% on average) than data calculated from the Dumarey equation, but in agreement (-1.2% lower on average) with data based on mercury vapor pressure measurement results. Relative expanded combined uncertainties were estimated following a model based approach. They ranged from 2

  10. Sedation at endoscopic units in Galicia: results of the "Sociedad Gallega de Patología Digestiva" inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubiella Fernández, J; Lancho Seco, A; Echarri Piudo, A; Ulloa Rocha, J L; Fernández Seara, J

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the human and material resources available for sedation, and the usual manner of handling them at endoscopic units in Galicia. A prospective and descriptive study based on the performance, distribution, and analysis of a clinical practice inquiry. We requested information about endoscopies performed, available means for sedation, sedation monitoring, and level of sedation used in each procedure. Our inquiry was answered by twenty endoscopic units (thirteen were in public hospitals, and eleven performed complex procedures). Of these units, 80% had a pulse oximeter, 42% had continuous electrocardiography, 40% had a defibrillator, and 45% had a recovery area. The drug most commonly used in gastroscopies was midazolam (76%), and the combination midazolam-meperidine was most frequent in both colonoscopies (72%) and ERCPs (60%). An anesthesiologist was usually available for certain procedures in 15% of units, and as an exception in 65%. Of those inquired, 35% wished to have a full-time anesthesiologist in the unit, 25% wished to have an anesthetist only for certain procedures, and 35% on an exceptional basis. Finally, endoscopists considered that 83% of therapeutical gastroscopies, 87% of therapeutical colonoscopies, 98% of ERCPs, 95% of enteroscopies, and 98% of echoendoscopies deserved sedation. Although endoscopists consider that endoscopic procedures should benefit from sedation in a high proportion, the available resources to safely monitor patients are inadequate in some units.

  11. Groundwater-quality data in the Monterey–Salinas shallow aquifer study unit, 2013: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Davis, Tracy A.

    2016-09-01

    constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids, and alkalinity) were collected at all 170 sites. In addition to these constituents, the samples from grid wells were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine, or NDMA), radioactive constituents (radon-222 and gross-alpha and gross-beta radioactivity), and geochemical and age-dating tracers (stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon-14 abundances, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, and tritium activities).Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 11 percent of the wells in the Monterey–Salinas Shallow Aquifer study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. With the exception of trace elements, blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample-collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Low concentrations of some trace elements were detected in blanks; therefore, the data were re-censored at higher reporting levels. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. The median values of matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), but were only approximately 64 percent for pesticides and pesticide degradates.The sample-collection protocols used in this study were designed to obtain representative samples of groundwater. The quality of groundwater can differ from the quality of drinking water because water chemistry can change as a result of contact with plumbing systems or the atmosphere; because of treatment

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  14. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  15. Groundwater Quality Data for the Tahoe-Martis Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Munday, Cathy; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Tahoe-Martis study unit was investigated in June through September 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the Tahoe-Martis study unit (Tahoe-Martis) and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in El Dorado, Placer, and Nevada Counties. Forty-one of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 11 were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, strontium isotope ratio, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen of water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 240 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) each were collected at 12 percent of the wells, and the

  16. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Colorado River Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 188-square-mile Colorado River Study unit (COLOR) was investigated October through December 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the technical project lead. The Colorado River study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within COLOR, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 28 wells in three study areas in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. Twenty wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the Study unit; these wells are termed 'grid wells'. Eight additional wells were selected to evaluate specific water-quality issues in the study area; these wells are termed `understanding wells.' The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichlorpropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents. Concentrations of naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, approximately 220 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at

  17. Midwife-attended births in the United States, 1990-2012: results from revised birth certificate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Data on attendance at birth by midwives in the United States have been available on the national level since 1989, allowing for the documentation of long-term trends. New items on payer source and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) from a 2003 revision of the birth certificate provide an opportunity to examine additional aspects of US midwifery practice. The data in this report are based on records on birth attendant gathered as part of the US National Standard Certificate of Live Birth from a public use Web site, Vital Stats (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/VitalStats.htm), which allows users to create and download specialized tables. Analysis of new items on prepregnancy BMI and birth payer source are limited to the 38 states (86% of US births) that adopted the revised birth certificate by 2012. Between 1989 and 2012, the proportion of all births attended by certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) increased from 3.3% to 7.9%. The proportion of vaginal births attended by CNMs reached an all-time high of 11.9%. Births attended by "other midwives" (typically certified professional midwives) rose to a peak of 28,343, or 0.7% of all US births. The distribution of payer source for CNM-attended births (44% Medicaid; 44% private insurance; 6% self-pay) is very similar to the national distribution, whereas the majority (53%) of births attended by other midwives are self-pay. Women whose births are attended by other midwives are less likely (13%) to have a prepregnancy BMI in the obese range than women attended by CNMs (19%) or overall (24%). The total number of births attended by CNMs and other midwives has remained steady or grown at a time when total US births have declined, resulting in the largest proportions of midwife-attended births in the quarter century that such data have been collected. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: results of a national pilot study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro J; Brain, Richard A; Usenko, Sascha; Mottaleb, Mohammad A; O'Donnell, John G; Stahl, Leanne L; Wathen, John B; Snyder, Blaine D; Pitt, Jennifer L; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Dobbins, Laura L; Brooks, Bryan W; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being increasingly reported in a variety of biological matrices, including fish tissue; however, screening studies have presently not encompassed broad geographical areas. A national pilot study was initiated in the United States to assess the accumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish sampled from five effluent-dominated rivers that receive direct discharge from wastewater treatment facilities in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; and West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. Fish were also collected from the Gila River, New Mexico, USA, as a reference condition expected to be minimally impacted by anthropogenic influence. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of pharmaceuticals revealed the presence of norfluoxetine, sertraline, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, and carbamazepine at nanogram-per-gram concentrations in fillet composites from effluent-dominated sampling locations; the additional presence of fluoxetine and gemfibrozil was confirmed in liver tissue. Sertraline was detected at concentrations as high as 19 and 545 ng/g in fillet and liver tissue, respectively. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of personal care products in fillet composites revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at maximum concentrations of 2,100 and 290 ng/g, respectively, and trace levels of triclosan. In general, more pharmaceuticals were detected at higher concentrations and with greater frequency in liver than in fillet tissues. Higher lipid content in liver tissue could not account for this discrepancy as no significant positive correlations were found between accumulated pharmaceutical concentrations and lipid content for either tissue type from any sampling site. In contrast, accumulation of the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide was significantly related to lipid content. Results suggest that the detection of

  19. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  20. Validation of genotype cluster investigations for Mycobacterium tuberculosis: application results for 44 clusters from four heterogeneous United States jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Larry D; Vempaty, Padmaja; Nguyen, Duc T M; Tapia, Jane; Sharnprapai, Sharon; Ghosh, Smita; Kammerer, J Steven; Miramontes, Roque; Cronin, Wendy A; Graviss, Edward A

    2016-10-21

    Tracking the dissemination of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains using genotyped Mtb isolates from tuberculosis patients is a routine public health practice in the United States. The present study proposes a standardized cluster investigation method to identify epidemiologic-linked patients in Mtb genotype clusters. The study also attempts to determine the proportion of epidemiologic-linked patients the proposed method would identify beyond the outcome of the conventional contact investigation. The study population included Mtb culture positive patients from Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts and Houston, Texas. Mtb isolates were genotyped by CDC's National TB Genotyping Service (NTGS) from January 2006 to October 2010. Mtb cluster investigations (CLIs) were conducted for patients whose isolates matched exactly by spoligotyping and 12-locus MIRU-VNTR. CLIs were carried out in four sequential steps: (1) Public Health Worker (PHW) Interview, (2) Contact Investigation (CI) Evaluation, (3) Public Health Records Review, and (4) CLI TB Patient Interviews. Comparison between patients whose links were identified through the study's CLI interviews (Step 4) and patients whose links were identified earlier in CLI (Steps 1-3) was conducted using logistic regression. Forty-four clusters were randomly selected from the four study sites (401 patients in total). Epidemiologic links were identified for 189/401 (47 %) study patients in a total of 201 linked patient-pairs. The numbers of linked patients identified in each CLI steps were: Step 1 - 105/401 (26.2 %), Step 2 - 15/388 (3.9 %), Step 3 - 41/281 (14.6 %), and Step 4 - 28/119 (30 %). Among the 189 linked patients, 28 (14.8 %) were not identified in previous CI. No epidemiologic links were identified in 13/44 (30 %) clusters. We validated a standardized and practical method to systematically identify epidemiologic links among patients in Mtb genotype clusters, which can be integrated into the TB control and

  1. Orofacial pain in young adults and associated childhood and adulthood factors: results of the population study, Wales, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Kenealy, Pamela; Kingdon, H Anne; Mohlin, Benght; Pilley, J Richard; Mwangi, Caroline W; Hunter, Lindsay; Richmond, Steve; Shaw, William C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial pain (OFP) among young adults (30-31 years old) and to determine the effect of childhood and adulthood risk factors on the occurrence of OFP. Prospective cohort study to investigate dental and social effects of malocclusion and effectiveness of orthodontic treatment was conducted in Wales, United Kingdom. At 20-year follow-up 337 subjects aged 30-31 participated (74% from previous follow-up aged 19-20 and 33% from the baseline) and were asked about OFP. The prevalence of OFP was 23% (95% CI: 19%, 28%). Childhood factors, socio-demographic, lifestyle, health behavior factors, history of orthodontic treatment and tooth wear were not associated with OFP. Participants with OFP were more likely to report that their teeth did not fit together properly [odds ratio (OR) = 12.4, 95% CI: 2.7-56.5) and reported previous trauma to the jaws (2.3; 1.3-4.2). Both diurnal and nocturnal teeth clenching and grinding were significantly associated with OFP (3.1; 1.4-7.1). Participants with frequent headaches had increased risk of having OFP (3.7; 1.6-8.4) while having reported 4-10 types of pain in other parts of the body other than the head, was associated with OR = 9.2 (3.7-23.0). An increased tendency to have OFP was seen in those individuals with higher levels of psychological distress (2.3; 1.4-3.9), high score on Life Event Inventory (2.6; 1.3-5.3), depressive symptoms (2.2; 1.2-4.0) and stress (2.2; 1.2-4.0). High self-esteem associated with lower risk of OFP (0.5; 0.3-0.9). This study shows that OFP is frequently reported by young adults aged 30-31 and supports a multifactorial etiology with factors from many domains, including local mechanical factors, psychological and co-morbidities. However, none of the childhood factors considered in this study were associated with OFP in adulthood.

  2. Incorporating induced seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model: results of the 2014 workshop and sensitivity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Ellsworth, William L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Holland, Austin A.; Anderson, John G.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Model for the conterminous United States was updated in 2014 to account for new methods, input models, and data necessary for assessing the seismic ground shaking hazard from natural (tectonic) earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Model project uses probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to quantify the rate of exceedance for earthquake ground shaking (ground motion). For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Model assessment, the seismic hazard from potentially induced earthquakes was intentionally not considered because we had not determined how to properly treat these earthquakes for the seismic hazard analysis. The phrases “potentially induced” and “induced” are used interchangeably in this report, however it is acknowledged that this classification is based on circumstantial evidence and scientific judgment. For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Model update, the potentially induced earthquakes were removed from the NSHM’s earthquake catalog, and the documentation states that we would consider alternative models for including induced seismicity in a future version of the National Seismic Hazard Model. As part of the process of incorporating induced seismicity into the seismic hazard model, we evaluate the sensitivity of the seismic hazard from induced seismicity to five parts of the hazard model: (1) the earthquake catalog, (2) earthquake rates, (3) earthquake locations, (4) earthquake Mmax (maximum magnitude), and (5) earthquake ground motions. We describe alternative input models for each of the five parts that represent differences in scientific opinions on induced seismicity characteristics. In this report, however, we do not weight these input models to come up with a preferred final model. Instead, we present a sensitivity study showing uniform seismic hazard maps obtained by applying the alternative input models for induced seismicity. The final model will be released after

  3. Altering Public University Admission Standards to Preserve White Group Position in the United States: Results from a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L.

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies a theoretical mechanism that could potentially affect public university admissions standards in a context of demographic change. I explore how demographic changes at a prestigious public university in the United States affect individuals' evaluations of college applications. Responding to a line graph that randomly displays a…

  4. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... HTSUS subheadings are provided for convenience and customs purposes, our written description of the...-specific (or customer- specific) ad valorem assessment rates based on the ratio of the total amount of the... have calculated importer-specific (or customer-specific) per- unit assessment rates by aggregating...

  5. Regional Warming from Aerosol Removal over the United States: Results from a Transient 2010-2050 Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, L. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Rind, D.

    2012-01-01

    We use a general circulation model (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM 3) to investigate the regional climate response to removal of aerosols over the United States. We perform a pair of transient 2010e2050 climate simulations following a scenario of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, with and without aerosols over the United States and with present-day aerosols elsewhere. We find that removing U.S. aerosol significantly enhances the warming from greenhouse gases in a spatial pattern that strongly correlates with that of the aerosol. Warming is nearly negligible outside the United States, but annual mean surface temperatures increase by 0.4e0.6 K in the eastern United States. Temperatures during summer heat waves in the Northeast rise by as much as 1e2 K due to aerosol removal, driven in part by positive feedbacks involving soil moisture and low cloud cover. Reducing U.S. aerosol sources to achieve air quality objectives could thus have significant unintended regional warming consequences.

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  7. Continental-scale patterns in soil geochemistry and mineralogy: results from two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, L.G.; Cannon, W.F.; Eberl, D.D.; Smith, D.B.; Kilburn, J.E.; Horton, J.D.; Garrett, R.G.; Klassen, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) initiated a pilot study that involved collection of more than 1500 soil samples from 221 sites along two continental transects across Canada and the United States. The pilot study was designed to test and refine protocols for a soil geochemical survey of North America. The two transects crossed a wide array of soil parent materials, soil ages, climatic conditions, landforms, land covers and land uses. Sample sites were selected randomly at approximately 40-km intervals from a population defined as all soils of the continent. At each site, soils representing 0 to 5 cm depth, and the O, A, and C horizons, if present, were collected and analyzed for their near-total content of over 40 major and trace elements. Soils from 0–5 cm depth were also collected for analysis of organic compounds. Results from the transects confirm that soil samples collected at a 40-km spacing reveal coherent, continental- to subcontinental-scale geochemical and mineralogical patterns that can be correlated to aspects of underlying soil parent material, soil age and climate influence. The geochemical data also demonstrate that at the continental-scale the dominance of any of these major factors that control soil geochemistry can change across the landscape. Along both transects, soil mineralogy and geochemistry change abruptly with changes in soil parent materials. However, the chemical influence of a soil’s parent material can be obscured by changing climatic conditions. For the transects, increasing precipitation from west to east and increasing temperature from north to south affect both soil mineralogy and geochemistry because of climate effects on soil weathering and leaching, and plant productivity. Regional anomalous metal concentrations can be linked to natural variations in soil parent materials, such as high Ni and Cr in soils developed on ultramafic rocks in California or high P in soils formed on

  8. Pressure Ulcers in the United States' Inpatient Population From 2008 to 2012: Results of a Retrospective Nationwide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karen; Rock, Kathryn; Nazzal, Munier; Jones, Olivia; Qu, Weikai

    2016-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are common, increase patient morbidity and mortality, and costly for patients, their families, and the health care system. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the impact of pressure ulcers on short-term outcomes in United States inpatient populations and to identify patient characteristics associated with having 1 or more pressure ulcers. The US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was analyzed using the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) diagnosis codes as the screening tool for all inpatient pressure ulcers recorded from 2008 to 2012. Patient demographics and comorbid conditions, as identified by ICD-9 code, were extracted, along with primary outcomes of length of stay (LOS), total hospital charge (TC), inhospital mortality, and discharge disposition. Continuous variables with normal distribution were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation. Group comparisons were performed using t-test or ANOVA test. Continuous nonnormal distributed variables such as LOS and TC were expressed in terms of median, and nonparametric tests were used to compare the differences between groups. Categorical data were presented in terms of percentages of the number of cases within each group. Chi-squared tests were used to compare categorical data in different groups. For multivariate analysis, linear regressions (for continuous variable) and logistic regression (for categorical variables) were used to analyze the possible risk factors for the investigated outcomes of LOS, TC, inhospital mortality, and patient disposition. Coefficients were calculated with multivariate regression with all included patients versus patients with pressure ulcers alone. The 5-year average number of admitted patients with at least 1 pressure ulcer was determined to be 670 767 (average overall rate: 1.8%). Statistically significant differences between patients with and without pressure ulcers were observed for

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  10. The Howard Zinn Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2012-01-01

    Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the United States" is the nation's best-known work of American history. It is also the nation's best-selling survey of American history, having sold two million copies since its publication in 1980 and still selling about 125,000 paperback copies yearly. The fifth and current edition covers America up…

  11. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Antelope Valley Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 1,600 square-mile Antelope Valley study unit (ANT) was investigated from January to April 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within ANT, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 57 wells in Kern, Los Angeles, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-six of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and one additional well was selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding well). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline additives and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, fumigants, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity, radium isotopes, and radon-222). Naturally occurring isotopes (strontium, tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. In total, 239 constituents and water-quality indicators (field parameters) were investigated. Quality

  12. Groundwater-Quality Data in the Madera-Chowchilla Study Unit, 2008: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile Madera-Chowchilla study unit (MADCHOW) was investigated in April and May 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within MADCHOW, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of groundwater quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Madera, Merced, and Fresno Counties. Thirty of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and five more were selected to provide additional sampling density to aid in understanding processes affecting groundwater quality (flow-path wells). Detection summaries in the text and tables are given for grid wells only, to avoid over-representation of the water quality in areas adjacent to flow-path wells. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], low-level 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane [DBCP] and 1,2-dibromoethane [EDB], pesticides and pesticide degradates, polar pesticides and metabolites, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], perchlorate, and low-level 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), and radioactive constituents (uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta particle activities). Naturally occurring isotopes and geochemical tracers (stable isotopes of hydrogen

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Army Physical Readiness Test Results of AMEDD Units Without Formal Physical Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    on active duty. Another reason is that physical fitness is an integral part of many units’ daily training regimen. With the emphasis now on Total...departure from previous physical fitness programs. Individual programs account for differences in age and sex , and enable soldiers to establish personal...for the Army.6 Within the U.S. Army, the component of physical fitness is governed by AR 350-15. This regulation directs that all Active Army personnel

  14. A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Alonso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

  15. [The posturological department as clinical support for occupational medicine: clinical cases and results of a hospital unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centemeri, R; D'Orso, M I; Latocca, R; Pagani, W; Cesana, G C

    2007-01-01

    The posturologic visit is a not widely known medical method for the evaluation and the therapy of low back pain. We describe the clinical and instrumental method followed in our posturological clinical unit organized jointly by hospital and university and the clinical cases evaluated in two years. An individual diagnostic evaluation and a personal therapy allowed an almost generalized complete remission of the symptoms and a very low number of reactivation of low back pain after a follow up of one years.

  16. A Show of Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S.-South Korea joint military exercise highlights mounting security concerns in Northeast Asia The United States and South Korea held a joint naval and air exercise,codenamed Invincible Spirit,in the Sea of Japan on My 25-28. The exercise,which involved 20 ships and submarines including the U.S.aircraft carrier USS George Washington,as well as 200 aircraft and 8,000 troops, was the biggest between the two countries since 1976.

  17. Influence of 2000-2050 climate change on particulate matter in the United States: results from a new statistical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Murray, Lee T.

    2017-03-01

    We use a statistical model to investigate the effect of 2000-2050 climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) air quality across the contiguous United States. By applying observed relationships of PM2. 5 and meteorology to the IPCC Coupled Model Intercomparision Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) archives, we bypass some of the uncertainties inherent in chemistry-climate models. Our approach uses both the relationships between PM2. 5 and local meteorology as well as the synoptic circulation patterns, defined as the singular value decomposition (SVD) pattern of the spatial correlations between PM2. 5 and meteorological variables in the surrounding region. Using an ensemble of 19 global climate models (GCMs) under the RCP4.5 scenario, we project an increase of 0.4-1.4 µg m-3 in annual mean PM2. 5 in the eastern US and a decrease of 0.3-1.2 µg m-3 in the Intermountain West by the 2050s, assuming present-day anthropogenic sources of PM2. 5. Mean summertime PM2. 5 increases as much as 2-3 µg m-3 in the eastern United States due to faster oxidation rates and greater mass of organic aerosols from biogenic emissions. Mean wintertime PM2. 5 decreases by 0.3-3 µg m-3 over most regions in the United States, likely due to the volatilization of ammonium nitrate. Our approach provides an efficient method to calculate the potential climate penalty on air quality across a range of models and scenarios. We find that current atmospheric chemistry models may underestimate or even fail to capture the strongly positive sensitivity of monthly mean PM2. 5 to temperature in the eastern United States in summer, and they may underestimate future changes in PM2. 5 in a warmer climate. In GEOS-Chem, the underestimate in monthly mean PM2. 5-temperature relationship in the east in summer is likely caused by overly strong negative sensitivity of monthly mean low cloud fraction to temperature in the assimilated meteorology ( ˜ -0.04 K-1) compared to the weak sensitivity implied by satellite

  18. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  19. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix B - Assessment Results by State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  20. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  1. 11 th fuel reload of the Unit 1, leadership with results; 11a recarga de combustible de la Unidad 1, liderazgo con resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, R.H. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: hsr98581@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-01

    At the moment the companies with world class, the formation of intellectual capital is a strategy to reach the excellence; the Management of Nucleo electric Centrals (GCN), aware of this strategy to achieve the mission commended, it establishes that it is decisive the leadership among their collaborators for the achievement of the goals. The obtained results in the 11 th reload of the Unit 1 are a sample of as how the leaders and collaborators when making work in team they have achieved the best results (collective dose and reload duration), until today in what is the history of the commercial operation of the Unit 1. (Author)

  2. Results after implementation of a protocol on the incidence of urinary tract infection in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Anna Letícia; Oliveira, Ana Lúcia Lyrio de; Nacer, Daiana Terra; Aguiar, Cynthia Adalgisa Mesojedovas

    2016-09-09

    to compare the results of urinary tract infection incidence, by means of the rate of indwelling urethral catheter use, and to identify microorganisms in urine cultures and surveillance cultures before and after the implementation of a clinical protocol for intensive care unit patients . urinary tract infection is defined as a positive urine culture > 105 CFU/mL, notified by the hospital infection control service, six months before and after the implementation of the protocol. The sample consisted of 47 patients, 28 reported before and 19 after implementation. The protocol established in the institution is based on the Ministry of Health manual to prevent healthcare-related infections; the goal is patient safety and improving the quality of health services. a negative linear correlation was observed between the later months of implementation and the reduction of reported cases of urinary tract infection, using the Spearman rank order coefficient (p = 0.045), and a reduction in the number of urine culture microorganisms (p = 0.026) using the Fisher exact test. educational interventions with implementation protocols in health institutions favor the standardization of maintenance of the invasive devices, which may reduce colonization and subsequent infections. comparar os resultados da incidência de infecção do trato urinário, por meio da taxa de utilização do cateter vesical de demora e identificar os micro-organismos na urocultura e cultura de vigilância antes e após a implementação de um protocolo assistencial em pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. definiu-se infecção do trato urinário pacientes com urocultura positiva >105 UFC/mL, notificados pelo Serviço de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar, seis meses antes e após a implementação do protocolo. A amostra foi constituída por 47 pacientes, sendo 28 notificados antes e 19 após. O protocolo, criado na instituição, é baseado no manual do Ministério da Saúde na prevenção de

  3. High energy SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschimitter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-08-15

    Single event upset (SEU) cross sections and total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions in order to simulate the actual operation of each part. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rate for a 500-km orbit during quiet solar conditions, the King 1972 solar flare, and the August 4, 1972, event modeled by Adams et al. 16 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. High energy proton SEU test results for the commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessor and R3010 floating point unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaeffer, D.L.; Kimbrough, J.R.; Denton, S.M.; Kaschmiter, J.L.; Wilburn, J.W.; Davis, R.W.; Colella, N.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Holtkamp, D.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on proton single event upset (SEU) cross sections and proton total dose hardness of commercially available MIPS R3000 microprocessors (CPU) and R3010 floating point units (FPU) that were obtained by exposing these parts to 256 MeV protons from the linear accelerator (LINAC) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Parts from several manufacturers were tested. The CPUs and FPUs were tested dynamically during radiation exposure with specially designed assembly language codes which exercised a subset of the available instructions. Cross sections derived from the SEU data were used to calculate expected upset rates for a 500-km, 60-degree inclination, orbit during quiet solar conditions and during the August 4, 1972, King solar flare event.

  5. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  6. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992-2003 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah S. Huber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA. The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15 with the highest number of lithi- um samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R2 = 0.226, P <0.001 dur- ing the study period. These findings differ from the Austrian study and suggest a need for further research accounting also for the impact of geographical variation.

  7. Relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America: results of a 1992-2003 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Rebekah S; Kim, Namkug; Renshaw, Carl E; Renshaw, Perry F; Kondo, Douglas G

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic dosages of lithium are known to reduce suicide rates, which has led to investigations of confounding environmental risk factors for suicide such as lithium in groundwater. It has been speculated that this might play a role in the potential relationship between suicide and altitude. A recent study in Austria involving geospatial analysis of lithium in groundwater and suicide found lower levels of lithium at higher altitudes. Since there is no reason to suspect this correlation is universal given variation in geology, the current study set out to investigate the relationship between altitude and lithium in groundwater in the United States of America (USA). The study utilised data extracted from the National Water-Quality Assessment programme implemented by the United States Geological Survey that has collected 5,183 samples from 48 study areas in USA for the period of 1992 to 2003. Lithium was the trace-element of interest and 518 samples were used in the current analyses. Due to uneven lithium sampling within the country, only the states (n=15) with the highest number of lithium samples were included. Federal information processing standard codes were used to match data by county with the mean county altitude calculated using altitude data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The study was controlled for potential confounding factors known to affect levels of lithium in groundwater including aquifer, aquifer type, lithology, water level and the depths of wells. The levels of lithium in groundwater, increased with altitude (R(2) = 0.226, P accounting also for the impact of geographical variation.

  8. Variability in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury in the United Kingdom: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werndle, Melissa C; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Sedgwick, Philip; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2012-03-20

    The aim of this study was to examine how traumatic spinal cord injury is managed in the United Kingdom via a questionnaire survey of all neurosurgical units. We contacted consultant neurosurgeons and neuroanesthetists in all neurosurgical centers that manage patients with acute spinal cord injury. Two clinical scenarios-of complete and incomplete cervical spinal cord injuries-were given to determine local treatment policies. There were 175 responders from the 33 centers (36% response rate). We ascertained neurosurgical views on urgency of transfer, timing of surgery, nature and aim of surgery, as well as neuroanesthetic views on type of anesthetic, essential intraoperative monitoring, drug treatment, and intensive care management. Approximately 70% of neurosurgeons will admit patients with incomplete spinal cord injury immediately, but only 40% will admit patients with complete spinal cord injury immediately. There is no consensus on the timing or even the role of surgery for incomplete or complete injuries. Most (96%) neuroanesthetists avoid anesthetics known to elevate intracranial pressure. What was deemed essential intraoperative monitoring, however, varied widely. Many (22%) neuroanesthetists do not routinely measure arterial blood pressure invasively, central venous pressure (85%), or cardiac output (94%) during surgery. There is no consensus among neuroanesthetists on the optimal levels of arterial blood pressure, or oxygen and carbon dioxide partial arterial pressure. We report wide variability among U.K. neurosurgeons and neuroanesthetists in their treatment of acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Our findings reflect the lack of Class 1 evidence that early surgical decompression and intensive medical management of patients with spinal cord injury improves neurological outcome.

  9. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  10. Exploring Strategies of Assessment and Results in the Spanish Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and the United Kingdom Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The strategies of student evaluation and the patterns of results are compared for The Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of The United Kingdom. Both universities operate a system of undergraduate subject credits leading to a degree, but the length of the courses of the two systems differ. UNED…

  11. Exploring Strategies of Assessment and Results in the Spanish Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and the United Kingdom Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The strategies of student evaluation and the patterns of results are compared for The Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of The United Kingdom. Both universities operate a system of undergraduate subject credits leading to a degree, but the length of the courses of the two systems differ. UNED…

  12. Ground-Based Measurement Experiment and First Results with Geosynchronous-Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer Engineering Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Bingham, Gail E.; Huppi, Ronald J.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Zollinger, Lori J.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Tansock, Joseph J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Hooker, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The geosynchronous-imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (GIFTS) engineering demonstration unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. It measures the infrared spectrum in two spectral bands (14.6 to 8.8 microns, 6.0 to 4.4 microns) using two 128 x 128 detector arrays with a spectral resolution of 0.57 cm(exp -1) with a scan duration of approximately 11 seconds. From a geosynchronous orbit, the instrument will have the capability of taking successive measurements of such data to scan desired regions of the globe, from which atmospheric status, cloud parameters, wind field profiles, and other derived products can be retrieved. The GIFTS EDU provides a flexible and accurate testbed for the new challenges of the emerging hyperspectral era. The EDU ground-based measurement experiment, held in Logan, Utah during September 2006, demonstrated its extensive capabilities and potential for geosynchronous and other applications (e.g., Earth observing environmental measurements). This paper addresses the experiment objectives and overall performance of the sensor system with a focus on the GIFTS EDU imaging capability and proof of the GIFTS measurement concept.

  13. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  14. Hemoglobinopathy carrier prevalence in the United Arab Emirates: first analysis of the Dubai Health Authority premarital screening program results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhoul, Khawla M; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alraei, Rafeeiah F

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy carriers in United Arab Emirates (UAE) nationals subjected to mandatory premarital screening in Dubai over a 4-year period. Data from UAE nationals who underwent premarital screening by the Dubai Health Authority between January 2007 and December 2010 were collected and analyzed. Premarital screening in Dubai is based on complete blood counts (CBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the 6,420 UAE nationals screened, 8.5% (n = 545) were suspected to be carriers. The following carrier frequencies were observed: β-thalassemia (β-thal), 4.56% (n = 293); Hb S [β6(A3)Glu→Val, GAG>GTG; HBB: c.20A>T], 2.9% (n = 186); Hb D-Punjab [β121(GH4)Glu→Gln, GAA>CAA; HBB: c.364G>C], 0.78% (n = 50); Hb Lepore (δβ hybrid gene) with an undetermined molecular genotype, 0.17% (n = 11); Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.79G>A], 0.03% (n = 2); and hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (HPFH), 0.016% (n = 1). Hb E-Hb S and Hb E-β-thal also occurred at a rate of 0.016% (n = 1) each; and 0.87% (n = 56) subjects were suspected of carrying silent β-thal. The prevalence of β-thal trait was consistent with the prevalence published by others in the region. Silent β-thal is challenging for screening programs, and is expected to arise in populations with a high prevalence of β-thal carriers. The prevalence of Hb S trait observed in this study was lower than that in other reports for the region. New cases of β-thal major (β-TM) still arise because many fertile couples got married before the screening programs were implemented, and pregnancy termination is not widely practiced in the UAE due to religious restraints. Moreover, some couples choose not to have prenatal diagnosis (PND) or pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), even if they are aware of their risk status. The prevalence of β-thal trait in the UAE is high. This justifies efforts to control the disease by

  15. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  16. Estimates of mercury flux into the United States from non-local and global sources: results from a 3-D CTM simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Drewniak

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of Hg concentration and deposition in the United States to emissions in China was investigated by using a global chemical transport model: Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART. Two forms of gaseous Hg were included in the model: elemental Hg (HG(0 and oxidized or reactive Hg (HGO. We simulated three different emission scenarios to evaluate the model's sensitivity. One scenario included no emissions from China, while the others were based on different estimates of Hg emissions in China. The results indicated, in general, that when Hg emissions were included, HG(0 concentrations increased both locally and globally. Increases in Hg concentrations in the United States were greatest during spring and summer, by as much as 7%. Ratios of calculated concentrations of Hg and CO near the source region in eastern Asia agreed well with ratios based on measurements. Increases similar to those observed for HG(0 were also calculated for deposition of HGO. Calculated increases in wet and dry deposition in the United States were 5–7% and 5–9%, respectively. The results indicate that long-range transcontinental transport of Hg has a non-negligible impact on Hg deposition levels in the United States.

  17. Estimates of mercury flux into the United States from non-local and global sources : results from a 3-D CTM simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Streets, D.; Kim, M.; Crist, K.; Ohio Univ.

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of Hg concentration and deposition in the United States to emissions in China was investigated by using a global chemical transport model: Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers (MOZART). Two forms of gaseous Hg were included in the model: elemental Hg (HG(0)) and oxidized or reactive Hg (HGO). We simulated three different emission scenarios to evaluate the model's sensitivity. One scenario included no emissions from China, while the others were based on different estimates of Hg emissions in China. The results indicated, in general, that when Hg emissions were included, HG(0) concentrations increased both locally and globally. Increases in Hg concentrations in the United States were greatest during spring and summer, by as much as 7%. Ratios of calculated concentrations of Hg and CO near the source region in eastern Asia agreed well with ratios based on measurements. Increases similar to those observed for HG(0) were also calculated for deposition of HGO. Calculated increases in wet and dry deposition in the United States were 5-7% and 5-9%, respectively. The results indicate that long-range transcontinental transport of Hg has a non-negligible impact on Hg deposition levels in the United States.

  18. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  19. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  20. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  1. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  2. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  3. Results of an Assessment to Identify Potential Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture on American Indian Reservations in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Brummer, Fara Ann; Hill, George C.; Lewis, Steve; Hebb, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports the results of survey research conducted with tribal producers between 2011 and 2012 on 19 of the largest American Indian reservations in Idaho, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, and Washington. The purpose of the research was to identify potential barriers to sustainable agriculture on reservation lands. This…

  4. Results of an Assessment to Identify Potential Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture on American Indian Reservations in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Brummer, Fara Ann; Hill, George C.; Lewis, Steve; Hebb, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports the results of survey research conducted with tribal producers between 2011 and 2012 on 19 of the largest American Indian reservations in Idaho, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, and Washington. The purpose of the research was to identify potential barriers to sustainable agriculture on reservation lands. This…

  5. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  6. [Results obtained by a mobile handicap-prevention unit at the Institut de Léprologie de Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, C; Grauwin, M Y; Mane, I; Cartel, J L

    1995-01-01

    Of 584 leprosy patients known at the Institut de Léprologie Appliquée de Dakar because they suffered a nerve lesion with or without chronic plantar ulcer (CPU), 242 (41%) could be followed-up during a mean period of time of 8.2 years (range: 5 and 10 years) by the means of the mobile disability prevention team (health education, medical care and shoe workshop). Every two months a visit of the patients, at their home town, was organized, with the purpose to assess whether they could actually put into practice the foot and hand as having been trained for. At the same time, further advice and encouragement were given to the patients. Adapted footwear was brought to the patient, at reduced fee, the foot prints and special moulds having been taken during the previous visit. The local health worker were responsible for light surgical cares. Among the 242 followed-up patients: of 107 without CPU at beginning, 90 (84%) remained so, of 135 with CPU at beginning, 57 (42%) were cured, of 135 with CPU at beginning, 74 (55%) remained stable (no worsening), the last 21, of whom 17 showed severe foot deformities but without CPU, worsened (all presented one or more CPU at the last control). Of the 242 patients, 221 (91%) remained stable or showed substantial improvement. Therefore, it must be emphasized that careful follow-up of patients is essential to insure the improvement or care of CPU as well as to prevent the onset, worsening or reappearance of CPU. Such follow-up must consist of cares, health education and special shoe wearing.

  7. The presence of resilience is associated with a healthier psychological profile in intensive care unit (ICU) nurses: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Jones, Jacqueline; Newman, Julia; McFann, Kim K; Rothbaum, Barbara; Moss, Marc

    2012-03-01

    ICU nurses are repeatedly exposed to work related stresses resulting in the development of psychological disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder and burnout syndrome. Resilience is a learnable multidimensional characteristic enabling one to thrive in the face of adversity. In a national survey, we sought to determine whether resilience was associated with healthier psychological profiles in intensive care unit nurses. Surveys were mailed to 3500 randomly selected ICU nurses across the United States and included: demographic questions, the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Overall, 1239 of the mailed surveys were returned for a response rate of 35%, and complete data was available on a total of 744 nurses. Twenty-two percent of the intensive care unit nurses were categorized as being highly resilient. The presence of high resilience in these nurses was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, symptoms of anxiety or depression, and burnout syndrome (resilience was independently associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (presilience was independently associated with a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and burnout syndrome in intensive care unit nurses. Future research is needed to better understand coping mechanisms employed by highly resilient nurses and how they maintain a healthier psychological profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Youth Fitness in the United States: Baseline Results from the NFL PLAY 60 FITNESSGRAM Partnership Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Candelaria, Norma; Anderson, Katelin

    2015-09-01

    To assess age- and sex-specific patterns of 6 health-related fitness components in youth, baseline data from the NFL PLAY 60 FITNESSGRAM Partnership Project were analyzed. A total of 192,848 students from 1st through 12th grade in 725 schools completed the standard FITNESSGRAM testing in 2010-2014, including assessments of aerobic capacity (AC), body mass index (BMI), upper body strength and endurance, trunk extensor strength and flexibility, abdominal strength and endurance, and flexibility. Individual data were aggregated by grade and sex. Age- and sex-specific health-related criterion-referenced standards were used to classify fitness results into the healthy fitness zone (HFZ), needs improvement zone, or needs improvement health risk. The proportion of youth meeting the HFZ for AC varied considerably by grade for both boys (62.1%-37.6%) and girls (49.1%-26.1%) among 1st-12th grade. There was less variability by age and sex for achievement of the BMI HFZ (ranged from 52.7%-65.0%). The prevalence of achievement was similar for the remaining fitness components. Significantly lower achievement was found in the middle school years for BMI HFZ in both sexes and for AC HFZ achievement in boys. Continuous age-related lower HFZ achievement was evident in girls for AC. The results provide updated health-related fitness profiles for US youth and identify the critical ages when youth fitness levels start to decline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P. [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute Inc., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  10. Risk-based immunization policies and tuberculosis screening practices for animal care and research workers in the United States: survey results and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigler, Benjamin J; Cooper, Donna R; Hankenson, F Claire

    2012-01-01

    A national survey was conducted to assess immunization practices and tuberculosis screening methods for animal care and research workers in biomedical settings throughout the United States. Veterinarians (n = 953) were surveyed via a web-based mechanism; completed surveys (n = 308) were analyzed. Results showed that occupational health and safety programs were well-developed, enrolling veterinary, husbandry, and research staff at rates exceeding 90% and involving multiple modalities of health assessments and risk communication for vaccine-preventable diseases. Most (72.7%) institutions did not store serum samples from animal research personnel. More than half of the institutions housed nonhuman primates and maintained tuberculosis screening programs, although screening methods varied. Immunization protocols included various recommended or required vaccines that differed depending on job duties, type of institution, and nature of scientific programs. A single case of an identified vaccine-preventable illness in a laboratory worker was noted. Tetanus toxoid was the predominant vaccine administered (91.7%) to animal care and research workers, followed by hepatitis B (54.8%), influenza (39.9%), and rabies (38.3%). For some immunization protocols, an inconsistent rationale for administration was evident. Indications that animal care and research workers are unprotected from work-related etiologic agents did not emerge from this survey; rather, existing guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and available biologics seem sufficient to address most needs of the laboratory animal research community. Institutions should commit to performance-based standards in parallel with context-specific risk assessment methods to maintain occupational health and safety programs and practices appropriate to their needs.

  11. Intermittent versus continuous renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury patients admitted to the intensive care unit: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Robert L; Elseviers, Monique M; Van der Niepen, Patricia; Hoste, Eric; Malbrain, Manu L; Damas, Pierre; Devriendt, Jacques

    2009-02-01

    There is uncertainty on the effect of different dialysis modalities for the treatment of patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This controlled clinical trial performed in the framework of the multicentre SHARF 4 study (Stuivenberg Hospital Acute Renal Failure) aimed to investigate the outcome in patients with AKI, stratified according to severity of disease and randomized to different treatment options. This was a multicentre prospective randomized controlled trial with stratification according to severity of disease expressed by the SHARF score. ICU patients were eligible for inclusion when serum creatinine was >2 mg/dL, and RRT was initiated. The selected patients were randomized to intermittent (IRRT) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). A total of 316 AKI patients were randomly assigned to IRRT (n = 144) or CRRT (n = 172). The mean age was 66 (range 18-96); 59% were male. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed a mortality of 62.5% in IRRT compared to 58.1% in CRRT (P = 0.430). No difference between IRRT and CRRT could be observed in the duration of ICU stay or hospital stay. In survivors, renal recovery at hospital discharge was comparable between both groups. Multivariate analysis, including the SHARF score, APACHE II and SOFA scores for correction of disease severity, showed no difference in mortality between both treatment modalities. This result was confirmed in pre-specified subgroup analysis (elderly, patients with sepsis, heart failure, ventilation) and after exclusion of possible confounders (early mortality, delayed ICU admission). Modality of RRT, either CRRT or IRRT, had no impact on the outcome in ICU patients with AKI. Both modalities need to be considered as complementary in the treatment of AKI (Clinical Trial: SHARF 4, NCT00322933, http://ClinicalTrials.gov).

  12. A model–data intercomparison of simulated runoff in the contiguous United States: results from the North America Carbon Regional and Continental Interim-Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Schwalm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the water cycle are expected under current global environmental change. Robust assessment of these changes at global scales is confounded by shortcomings in the observed record. Modeled assessments yield conflicting results which are linked to differences in model structure and simulation protocol. Here we compare simulated runoff from six terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs, five reanalysis products, and one gridded surface station product with observations from a network of stream gauges in the contiguous United States (CONUS from 2001 to 2005. We evaluate the consistency of simulated runoff with stream gauge data at the CONUS and water resource region scale, as well as examining similarity across TBMs and reanalysis products at the grid cell scale. Mean runoff across all simulated products and regions varies widely (range: 71–356 mm yr-1 relative to observed continental-scale runoff (209 mm yr-1. Across all 12 products only two are within 10% of the observed value and only four exhibit Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency values in excess of 0.8. Region-level mismatch exhibits a weak pattern of overestimation in western and underestimation in eastern regions; although two products are systematically biased across all regions. In contrast, bias in a temporal sense, within region by water year, is highly consistent. Although gridded composite TBM and reanalysis runoff show some regional similarities for 2001–2005 with CONUS means, individual product values are highly variable. To further constrain simulated runoff and to link model-observation mismatch to model structural characteristics would require watershed-level simulation studies coupled with river routing schemes, standardized forcing data, and explicit consideration of water cycle management.

  13. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  14. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  15. Clinical prospective evaluation of zirconia-based three-unit posterior fixed dental prostheses: Up-to ten-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Alexis; Bindl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Only a few studies exist, which assess the clinical long-term behavior of all-ceramic FDPs in the posterior region. The aim of the present prospective clinical study was to evaluate the clinical performance of posterior three-unit FDPs manufactured from Y-TZP after a service period up to 10 years. 55 patients received 59 three-unit FDPs in the posterior region of the maxilla or mandible. Abutment teeth were prepared and full-arch impressions were taken. Definitive casts were fabricated and optically scanned. Frameworks were fabricated with computer-aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) technology. Y-TZP frameworks were veneered and adhesively luted to the abutment teeth. Baseline and follow-up examinations (service time: ≥ 48 months) were recorded by applying modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) rating criteria. Cumulative survival rate was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier. Percentage of biological and technical complication was calculated. Fifty-three patients with 57 FDPs attended the last follow-up visit and a mean observation period of the remaining was 6.3 ± 1.9 years was calculated. Biological complications occurred in 17.5%, technical complications in 28% of the FDPs. The 10-year cumulative survival rate amounted 85.0%. Three FDPs failed to survive, two due to a root fracture of the abutment tooth and one due to secondary caries. Three-unit FDPs made from Y-TZP, veneered with ceramic offer a treatment option with a high rate of chipping. However, the manufacturing processes nowadays are modified in order to avoid this complication. The results of the present investigation suggest that three-unit Y-TZP posterior FDPs may are a possible treatment option. However, a high rate of chipping can be expected. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The genetics of multiple sclerosis: principles, background and updated results of the United Kingdom systematic genome screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chataway, J; Feakes, R; Coraddu, F; Gray, J; Deans, J; Fraser, M; Robertson, N; Broadley, S; Jones, H; Clayton, D; Goodfellow, P; Sawcer, S; Compston, A

    1998-10-01

    22q. This result further highlights the genetic complexity of multiple sclerosis. What can now be inferred is that a gene of major effect is excluded from 95% of the genome and one with a moderate role from 65%, whereas genes which make a very small biological contribution cannot be discounted from any region. The available results suggest that multiple sclerosis depends on independent or epistatic effects of several genes each with small individual effects, rather than a very few genes of major biological importance.

  17. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard; Barkley, Russell; Biederman, Joseph; Conners, C. Keith; Demler, Olga; Faraone, Stephen V.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Howes, Mary J.; Secnik, Kristina; Spencer, Thomas; Ustun, T. Bedirhan; Walters, Ellen E.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite growing interest in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about prevalence or correlates. METHODS A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability sub-sample (n = 3199) of 18–44 year old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 NCS-R respondents, over-sampling those with a positive screen. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD. RESULTS Estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD is 4.4%. Significant correlates include being male, previously married, unemployed, and Non-Hispanic White. Adult ADHD is highly comorbid with many other NCS-R/DSM-IV disorders and is associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases are untreated, although many obtain treatment for other comorbid mental and substance disorders. CONCLUSIONS Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD. Research is needed to determine whether effective treatment would reduce the onset, persistence, and severity of disorders that co-occur with adult ADHD. PMID:16585449

  18. Subjective well-being of mental health nurses in the United Kingdom: Results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Jennifer; Jones, Julia; Drey, Nicholas

    2016-11-23

    The aim of the present study was to measure the subjective well-being of a group of 225 UK registered mental health nurses (MHN) using three survey measures, and to identify whether certain demographic and workplace factors correlated with subjective well-being measure scores. An online survey incorporating the subjective well-being questions used by the Office for National Statistics, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale was administered to members of two professional bodies for MHN. There was good consistency between the three subjective well-being measures, each demonstrating that UK MHN had a relatively low subjective well-being. Apart from the Office for National Statistics question, 'Overall, to what extent do you feel the things you do in your life are worthwhile?', demographic and workplace factors did not correlate with subjective well-being measure scores, although the characteristics of being male, living alone, and being aged 40-49 years were associated with lower mean scores on all three measures. The findings of the exploratory study suggest that a similar study should be undertaken with a larger representative population of MHN, and that qualitative research should explore why and how UK MHN have relatively low subjective well-being. The limitations of this study, namely the response rate and sample representativeness, mean that the results of the present study must be tested in further research on the MHN population.

  19. Results of examination of the TGMP-314 boiler superheaters of the power-generating units at Kashira state district power plant using a magnetic ferrite meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachev, V. A.; Pshechenkova, T. P.; Shumovskaya, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The results of investigating the elemental composition of the scale and the metal of a tube circuit from the austenitic steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti are presented. The superheater is part of the high-pressure convection steam superheater of a TGMP-314 supercritical-pressure gas-and-oil-fired once-through boiler that had been operated for a long period of time. A structurally transformed layer, poor in iron, manganese, and chromium and rich in nickel was detected on the outer surface. The layer consisted predominantly of the FeNi3 phase with ferromagnetic properties. The heat-resistance test of the steel in contact with ash that simulated the combustion products of fuel oil showed that the higher the temperature and the longer the test time, the higher the content of the ferritic phase in the layer was. The established pattern of the structural transformations underlies a method for nondestructive control of the thermal nonuniformity and detection of "worst" tube circuits of superheaters from austenitic steel. The magnetic ferritometry complements the conventional selective thickness gauging that does not characterize the condition of the heating surfaces of hightemperature steel grades to the full extend. Data on damageability of high-pressure convection superheaters and low-pressure second-stage convection superheaters with rarefied tube banks of TGMP-314 boilers are presented. The damage is caused by overheating resulting from the nonuniform temperature field at the inlet and by the nonuniform flue gas velocity field in rarefied superheater banks. Sections of the tube circuits from the steel grade 12Cr18Ni12Ti, outlet superheater stages of the TGMP-314 boiler of the power-generating units at Kashira SDPP were examined using an MF-51NTs AKASKAN magnetic ferrite meter. Thermal nonuniformity was established and the "worst" superheater tube circuits were detected. It was shown that the zones with the "worst" and damaged tube circuits coincide. The results of examining

  20. Children’s School-Breakfast Reports and School-Lunch Reports (in 24-hour Dietary Recalls): Conventional and Reporting-Error-Sensitive Measures Show Inconsistent Accuracy Results for Retention Interval and for Breakfast Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Albert F.; Hitchcock, David B.; Royer, Julie A.; Puryear, Megan P.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Smith, Alyssa L.

    2017-01-01

    Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on accuracy of fourth-grade children’s reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-hour recalls), and accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly-selected fourth-grade children at 10 schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and interviewed under one of eight conditions (two RIs [short (prior-24-hour recall obtained in afternoon); long (previous-day recall obtained in morning)] crossed with four prompts [forward (distant-to-recent), meal-name (breakfast, etc.), open (no instructions), reverse (recent-to-distant)]). Each condition had 60 children (half girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure—report rate—and reporting-error-sensitive measures—correspondence rate and inflation ratio—were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio—but not report rate—showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short than long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select short RIs to maximize accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID:26865356

  1. Results of the 2008-2009 International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence Survey and a 3-year, acute care, unit-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanGilder, Catherine; Amlung, Stephanie; Harrison, Patrick; Meyer, Stephanie

    2009-11-01

    The National Quality Forum has identified a pressure ulcer as a hospital-acquired condition (HAC) that is high-cost and high-volume and may be preventable with implementation of evidence-based guidelines. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services no longer reimburses acute care facilities for the ancillary cost of facility-acquired (FA) ulcers. Benchmarking patient safety indicators, such as FA, may help facilities reduce pressure ulcer rates. The purpose of this observational, cross-sectional cohort study was to report the International Pressure Ulcer Prevalence Survey (IPUP) in the United States in 2008 and 2009. In addition, previously collected data (2006/2007) were used to evaluate and report general and unit-specific prevalence rates in acute care facilities. The overall prevalence and FA pressure ulcer rates were 13.5% and 6% (2008, N = 90,398) and 12.3 and 5% (2009, N = 92,408), respectively. In 2008 and 2009, overall prevalence rates were highest in long-term acute care (22%). FA rates were highest in adult intensive care units (ICUs) and ranged from 9.2% (general cardiac care unit [CCU]) to 12.1% (medical ICU) in 2008 and from 8.8% (general CCU) to 10.3% (surgical ICU) in 2009. In 2009, 3.3% of ICU patients developed severe FA ulcers (Stage III, Stage IV, eschar/unable to stage, or deep tissue injury). In 2009, approximately 10% (n = 1,631) of all ulcers were described as device-related. The most common anatomic locations for device-related ulcers were the ear (20%) and sacral/coccyx region (17%). Both the overall and FA pressure ulcer prevalence rates were lower in 2008 and 2009 than in 2006 and 2007. Results indicate that, although overall prevalence trends are encouraging, there is a stark contrast from the desired state, especially in adult ICUs.

  2. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Donzelli, Sabrina; Zaina, Fabio; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary...

  3. Unit 5 Do you want to watch a game show?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    重点词汇1.mind v.介意;对(某事)烦恼mind通常用于疑问句、否定句或条件句中,其后可接名词、代词或动词ing形式。We don’t mind this heat.我们不在乎炎热。Do you mind taking care of my cat?你介意照顾我的猫吗?拓展mind还可作名词,意为"思想、主意"。Do you want to change your mind?你想改变你的主意吗?短语keep...in mind记住……never mind不要紧make up one’s mind决心;决定

  4. The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental results showing its dependence on age, gender and health conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Barra, Orazio A

    2013-01-01

    Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...

  5. Groundwater-quality data in the Bear Valley and Selected Hard Rock Areas study unit, 2010: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater indicator compounds [WICs]), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), and inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon [DOC], major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, and arsenic and iron species), and uranium and other radioactive constituents (radon-222 and activities of tritium and carbon-14). Isotopic tracers (of hydrogen and oxygen in water, of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate, of dissolved boron, isotopic ratios of strontium in water, and of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon) and dissolved noble gases (argon, helium-4, krypton, neon, and xenon) were measured to help identify the sources and ages of sampled groundwater. In total, groundwater samples were analyzed for 289 unique constituents and 8 water-quality indicators in the BEAR study unit. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicate pairs, or matrix spikes) were collected at 13 percent of the sites in the BEAR study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data from the groundwater samples. Blank samples rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, indicating that contamination from sample collection or analysis was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate pair samples all were within acceptable limits of variability. Matrix-spike sample recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 84 percent of the compounds. This study did not evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations

  6. Changes in Perceptions of Opioids Before and After Admission to Palliative Care Units in Japan: Results of a Nationwide Bereaved Family Member Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Miyazaki, Tamana; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify perspectives of bereaved family members regarding opioids and compare perceptions before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey for bereaved family members in 100 inpatient palliative care units was administered. Participants were 297 bereaved family members of patients who used opioids. Many bereaved family members had misconceptions of opioids before admission. There was improvement after bereavement, but understanding remained low. Respondents less than 65 years old showed significantly greater decreases in misconceptions regarding opioids compared to older generations, after bereavement. Bereaved family members who were misinformed about opioids by physicians were significantly more likely to have misconceptions about opioids. Educational interventions for physicians are needed to ensure that they offer correct information to the general population.

  7. Improvements made to the Bruce A upgraders and heavy water cleanup system as part of the Bruce A Units 1 and 2 restart project and commissioning results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davloor, R., E-mail: ram.davloor@brucepower.com [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada); Steinberg, G.; Boddy, C. [SNC Lavalin Nuclear, Oakville, Ontario (Canada); Rocci, D. [Aecon Nuclear, Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    As part of the Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, major modifications and maintenance were completed on the heat transport and moderator upgraders and the heavy water cleanup system. This represents the first time that major rehabilitation has been done to such systems in a CANDU nuclear station for the purpose of life extension. Prior to shutdown in 1997, the upgraders and cleanup system significantly underperformed against the stated design. The rehabilitation, which included major design changes and implementation of new systems, resulted in the upgraders exceeding design throughput and making product with quality much better than specified. This paper describes the work done, results from inspections and follow-up, and performance data from commissioning. (author)

  8. Evaluation of real-time data obtained from gravimetric preparation of antineoplastic agents shows medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact: Results of a large-scale, multicentre, multinational, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkola, R; Czejka, M; Bérubé, J

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality especially with antineoplastic drugs, owing to their narrow therapeutic index. Gravimetric workflow software systems have the potential to reduce volumetric errors during intravenous antineoplastic drug preparation which may occur when verification is reliant on visual inspection. Our aim was to detect medication errors with possible critical therapeutic impact as determined by the rate of prevented medication errors in chemotherapy compounding after implementation of gravimetric measurement. A large-scale, retrospective analysis of data was carried out, related to medication errors identified during preparation of antineoplastic drugs in 10 pharmacy services ("centres") in five European countries following the introduction of an intravenous workflow software gravimetric system. Errors were defined as errors in dose volumes outside tolerance levels, identified during weighing stages of preparation of chemotherapy solutions which would not otherwise have been detected by conventional visual inspection. The gravimetric system detected that 7.89% of the 759 060 doses of antineoplastic drugs prepared at participating centres between July 2011 and October 2015 had error levels outside the accepted tolerance range set by individual centres, and prevented these doses from reaching patients. The proportion of antineoplastic preparations with deviations >10% ranged from 0.49% to 5.04% across sites, with a mean of 2.25%. The proportion of preparations with deviations >20% ranged from 0.21% to 1.27% across sites, with a mean of 0.71%. There was considerable variation in error levels for different antineoplastic agents. Introduction of a gravimetric preparation system for antineoplastic agents detected and prevented dosing errors which would not have been recognized with traditional methods and could have resulted in toxicity or suboptimal therapeutic outcomes for patients undergoing anticancer treatment.

  9. Short term results of complete (D3) vs. standard (D2) mesenteric excision in colon cancer shows improved outcome of complete mesenteric excision in patients with TNM stages I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storli, K E; Søndenaa, K; Furnes, B; Nesvik, I; Gudlaugsson, E; Bukholm, I; Eide, G E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the new method of complete mesocolic excision (CME) with a high (apical) vascular tie (D3 resection) had an immediate effect compared with a conventional (standard) approach even in those patients without lymph node metastases. A cohort of 189 consecutive patients with tumour-nodal-metastasis (TNM) stages I-II and a mean age of 73 years were operated on in the period from January 2007 to December 2008 in three community teaching hospitals. The CME approach (n = 89), used in hospital A, was compared to the standard technique used (n = 105) in two other hospitals, B and C. Lymph node yields from the specimens were used as a surrogate measure of radical resections. Outcome was analysed after a median follow-up of 50.2 months. In-hospital mortality rate was 2.8 % in the CME group and 8.6 % in the standard group. The 3-year overall survival (OS) in the CME group was 88.1 versus 79.0 % (p = 0.003) in the standard group, and the corresponding disease-free survival (DFS) was 82.1 versus 74.3 % (p = 0.026). Cancer-specific survival was 95.2 % in the CME group versus 90.5 % in the standard group (p = 0.067). Age, operative technique, and T category were significant in multiple Cox regressions of OS and DFS. Compared with the standard (D2) approach, introduction of CME surgical management of colon cancer resulted in a significant immediate improvement of 3-year survival for patients with TNM stage I-II tumours as assessed by OS and DFS.

  10. Reentry response of the lightweight radioisotope heater unit resulting from a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter gravity assist maneuver accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Reentry analyses consisting of ablation response, thermal response and thermal stress response have been conducted on the Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) for Cassini/Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter-Gravity-Assist (VVEJGA) reentry conditions. Sequential ablation analyses of the LWRHU aeroshell, and the fuel pellet have been conducted in reentry regimes where the aeroshell has been deemed to fail. The failure criterion for ablation is generally assumed to be recession corresponding to 75% and 100% of the wall thickness. The 75% recession failure criteria allows for uncertainties that result mainly because of the high energies involved in the VVEJGA reentries compared to orbital decay reentries. Risk evaluations should consider the fact that for shallow flight paths the unit may disassemble at high-altitude as a result of ablation or may remain intact with a clad that had been molten. Within the limitations of the methodologies and assumptions of the analyses, the results indicate that: (1) For a side-on stable LWRHU reentry, aeroshell ablation failures occur for all reentry angles. (2)For a side-on spinning LWRHU reentry, aeroshell ablation failures are minimal. (3) For the tumbling LWRHU reentry, the aeroshell survives for most angles. (4) For the thermostructural analyses, using both a 1% and 5% allowable strain, all reentry angles and orientations examined resulted in small localized failures, but aeroshell breach is not predicted for any case. The analyses included in this report concentrate on VVEJGA reentry scenarios. Analyses reported previously have demonstrated that the LWRHU has adequate design margin to survive reentry from orbital decay scenarios and most injection scenarios at speeds up to escape speeds. The exception is a narrow range of flight path angles that produce multiple skip trajectories which may have excessive ablation.

  11. Novel recurrent chromosomal aberrations detected in clonal plasma cells of light chain amyloidosis patients show potential adverse prognostic effect: first results from a genome-wide copy number array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Martin; Hegenbart, Ute; Hinderhofer, Katrin; Hose, Dirk; Seckinger, Anja; Bochtler, Tilmann; Hemminki, Kari; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Schönland, Stefan O; Jauch, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the deposition of abnormal amyloid fibrils in multiple organs, thus impairing their function. In the largest cohort studied up to now of 118 CD138-purified plasma cell samples from previously untreated immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis patients, we assessed in parallel copy number alterations using high-density copy number arrays and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH). We used fluorescence in situ hybridization probes for the IgH translocations t(11;14), t(4;14), and t(14;16) or any other IgH rearrangement as well as numerical aberrations of the chromosome loci 1q21, 8p21, 5p15/5q35, 11q22.3 or 11q23, 13q14, 15q22, 17p13, and 19q13. Recurrent gains included chromosomes 1q (36%), 9 (24%), 11q (24%), as well as 19 (15%). Recurrent losses affected chromosome 13 (29% monosomy) and partial losses of 14q (19%), 16q (14%) and 13q (12%), respectively. In 88% of patients with translocation t(11;14), the hallmark chromosomal aberration in AL amyloidosis, a concomitant gain of 11q22.3/11q23 detected by iFISH was part of the unbalanced translocation der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32) with the breakpoint in the CCND1/MYEOV gene region. Partial loss of chromosome regions 14q and 16q were significantly associated to gain 1q. Gain 1q21 detected by iFISH almost always resulted from a gain of the long arm of chromosome 1 and not from trisomy 1, whereas deletions on chromosome 1p were rarely found. Overall and event-free survival analysis found a potential adverse prognostic effect of concomitant gain 1q and deletion 14q as well as of deletion 1p. In conclusion, in the first whole genome report of clonal plasma cells in AL amyloidosis, novel aberrations and hitherto unknown potential adverse prognostic effects were uncovered. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Estimated 2017 refrigerant emissions of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States resulting from automobile air conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasavva, Stella; Luecken, Deborah J; Waterland, Robert L; Taddonio, Kristen N; Andersen, Stephen O

    2009-12-15

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf, also known as HFO-1234yf). We have developed a spatially and temporally resolved inventory of likely future HFC refrigerant emissions from the U.S. vehicle fleet in 2017, considering regular, irregular, servicing, and end-of-life leakages. We estimate the annual leak rate emissions for each leakage category for a projected 2017 U.S. vehicle fleet by state, and spatially apportion these leaks to a 36 km square grid over the continental United States. This projected inventory is a necessary first step in analyzing for potential atmospheric and ecosystem effects, such as ozone and trifluoroacetic acid production, that might result from widespread replacement of HFC-134a with HFC-1234yf.

  13. Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis......, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy...... in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical...

  14. Results of Water and Sediment Toxicity Tests and Chemical Analyses Conducted at the Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Waste Unit, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-06-02

    The Central Shops Burning Rubble Pit Operable Unit consists of two inactive rubble pits (631-1G and 631-3G) that have been capped, and one active burning rubble pit (631-2G), where wooden pallets and other non-hazardous debris are periodically burned. The inactive rubble pits may have received hazardous materials, such as asbestos, batteries, and paint cans, as well as non-hazardous materials, such as ash, paper, and glass. In an effort to determine if long term surface water flows of potentially contaminated water from the 631-1G, 631-3G, and 631-2G areas have resulted in an accumulation of chemical constituents at toxic levels in the vicinity of the settling basin and wetlands area, chemical analyses for significant ecological preliminary constituents of concern (pCOCs) were performed on aqueous and sediment samples. In addition, aquatic and sediment toxicity tests were performed in accordance with U.S. EPA methods (U.S. EPA 1989, 1994). Based on the results of the chemical analyses, unfiltered water samples collected from a wetland and settling basins located adjacent to the CSBRP Operable Unit exceed Toxicity Reference Values (TRVs) for aluminum, barium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, and vanadium at one or more of the four locations that were sampled. The water contained very high concentrations of clay particles that were present as suspended solids. A substantial portion of the metals were present as filterable particulates, bound to the clay particles, and were therefore not biologically available. Based on dissolved metal concentrations, the wetland and settling basin exceeded TRVs for aluminum and barium. However, the background reference location also exceeded the TRV for barium, which suggests that this value may be too low, based on local geochemistry. The detection limits for both total and dissolved mercury were higher than the TRV, so it was not possible to determine if the TRV for mercury was exceeded. Dissolved metal levels of chromium, copper

  15. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in the Astronomical Unit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hideyoshi Arakida

    2012-06-01

    We will investigate the influence of the inhomogeneity of the Universe, especially that of the Lemaître–Tolman–Bondi (LTB) model, on a gravitationally bound local system such as the solar system.We concentrate on the dynamical perturbation to the planetary motion and derive the leading order effect generated from the LTB model. It will be shown that there appear not only a well-known cosmological effect arisen from the homogeneous and isotropic model, such as the Robertson–Walker (RW) model, but also the additional terms due to the radial inhomogeneity of the LTB model. We will also apply the obtained results to the problem of secular increase in the astronomical unit, reported by Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004), and imply that the inhomogeneity of the Universe cannot have a significant effect for explaining the observed dAU/d = 15 ± 4 [m/century].

  16. Modeling of the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit-2) accident with MELPROG/TRAC and calculation results for Phases 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motley, F.E.; Jenks, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Work has been performed to develop a Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) simulation model for MELPROG/TRAC capable of predicting the observed plant behavior that took place during the accident of March 1979. A description of the TMI-2 plant model is presented and calculation results through 174 min of the accident are discussed. Using the ICBC boundary conditions, the calculation predicts pressurizer draining and core recovering prior to fuel-rod damage. A parametric calculation (reduced makeup flow) is currently underway and is in better agreement with the observed plant behavior. Efforts are underway to resolve current discrepancies and proceed with an accurate simulation through Phases 3 and 4 of the accident (174-227 min and 227-300 min, respectively). 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Continuous fields of land cover for the conterminous United States using Landsat data: First results from the Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, M.C.; Egorov, A.; Roy, D.P.; Potapov, P.; Ju, J.; Turubanova, S.; Kommareddy, I.; Loveland, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) layers of 30 m percent tree cover, bare ground, other vegetation and probability of water were derived for the conterminous United States (CONUS) using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data sets from theWeb-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) project. Turnkey approaches to land cover characterization were enabled due to the systematic WELD Landsat processing, including conversion of digital numbers to calibrated top of atmosphere reflectance and brightness temperature, cloud masking, reprojection into a continental map projection and temporal compositing. Annual, seasonal and monthly WELD composites for 2008 were used as spectral inputs to a bagged regression and classification tree procedure using a large training data set derived from very high spatial resolution imagery and available ancillary data. The results illustrate the ability to performLandsat land cover characterizations at continental scales that ar einternally consistent while retaining local spatial and thematic detail. ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis.

  18. Insulin Pump and CGM Usage in the United States and Germany: Results of a Real-World Survey With 985 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Weber, Dietmar; Faber-Heinemann, Gabriele; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-06-12

    This survey collected and evaluated user responses about routine tasks and preferences regarding insulin pumps and infusion sets (IIS) with comparison of intercountry differences between the United States (US) and Germany (GER), chosen for their large insulin pump populations. A total of 985 subjects (534 US, 451 GER; 60% female) with type 1 diabetes on pump therapy anonymously answered 20 pump-related questions. US subjects also answered 11 questions about continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) usage. Length of use of insulin cartridges is shorter in US than in GER, mean (SD) 4.3 (5.0) versus 5.3 (3.2) days (P insulin cartridges (7.3% for >3 days vs. 7.7% for pump wearers stated that they were "very satisfied" with their pump (49% US vs. 45% GER, ns). However, 98% would recommend the pump to others (95% vs. 93%, ns). Analysis of CGM questions showed that 297 (60%) of 496 US responders currently wore one. Of these, 84% said they would recommend CGM to others. CGM wearers who stated they were "very satisfied" with their CGM had lower HbA1c than those who said they were "partly satisfied" (6.9% vs. 7.2%). This survey shows interesting differences in real-world use of insulin pumps in 2 large markets, and suggests areas where insulin pumps and CGMs might be improved. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Experience gained from the development and results from tests of the equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration and intermediate steam separation and reheating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sintsova, T. G.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Golubev, E. A.; Bik, S. P.; Tren'kin, V. B.

    2014-06-01

    The equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration, intermediate separation, and steam reheating (ISSR) systems is described and the results of their static and dynamic tests are presented. It was shown from an analysis of test results that the equipment of the regeneration and ISSR systems produce the design thermal and hydraulic characteristics in static and dynamic modes of its operation. Specialists of the Central boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association have developed procedures and computer programs for calculating the system of direct-contact horizontal low-pressure heaters (connected according to the gravity circuit arrangement jointly with the second-stage electrically-driven condensate pumps) and the ISSR system, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The drawbacks of the layout solutions due to which cavitation failure of the pumps may occur are considered. Technical solutions aimed at securing stable operation of the equipment of regeneration and ISSR systems are proposed. The process arrangement for heating the chamber-type high-pressure heaters adopted at the Kalinin NPP is analyzed. The version of this circuit developed at the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association that allows the heating rate equal to 1°C/min to be obtained is proposed.

  20. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Appendix B - Assessment results by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in Appendix B. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  1. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  2. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  3. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  4. RESULTS FROM ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND STRIP EFFLUENT COALESCER ELEMENTS FROM RADIOACTIVE OPERATIONS OF THE MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-06-28

    The coalescer elements for the Strip Effluent (SE) acid within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) experienced elevated differential pressure drop during radioactive operations. Following the end of operations for the first Macrobatch campaign and soon after start of the second Macrobatch campaign, personnel removed the coalescer media and provided to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for diagnostic investigation of the causes of reduced flow. This report summarizes those studies. Two Strip Effluent (SE) coalescers were delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). One was removed from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) between processing of Macrobatch 1 and 2 (coalescer 'Alpha'), and the second was removed from MCU after processing of {approx}24,000 gallons of salt solution (coalescer 'Beta'). Both coalescers underwent the same general strip acid flush program to reduce the dose and were delivered to SRNL for analysis of potential occluding solids. Analysis of Coalescer Alpha indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids and aluminosilicate solids, while analysis of Coalescer Beta indicates the presence of aluminum hydroxide solids, but no aluminosilicates. Leaching studies on sections of both coalescers were performed. The results indicate that the coalescers had different amounts of solids present on them at the time of removal. Finally, samples of free liquids retrieved from both coalescers indicate no excessive amounts of CSSX solvent present. Given the strip acid flushing that occurred in the SE coalescers, the solids we detected on the coalescers are probably indicative of a larger quantity of these solids present before the strip acid flushing. Under this scenario, the excessive pressure drops are due to the solids and not from organic fouling.

  5. Web-Based STAR E-Learning Course Increases Empathy and Understanding in Dementia Caregivers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiland, Franka; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Kevern, Peter; Abiuso, Francesca; Bengtsson, Johan; Giuliano, Angele; Duca, Annalise; Sanders, Jennifer; Basnett, Fern; Nugent, Chris; Kingston, Paul; Dröes, Rose-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background The doubling of the number of people with dementia in the coming decades coupled with the rapid decline in the working population in our graying society is expected to result in a large decrease in the number of professionals available to provide care to people with dementia. As a result, care will be supplied increasingly by untrained informal caregivers and volunteers. To promote effective care and avoid overburdening of untrained and trained caregivers, they must become properly skilled. To this end, the European Skills Training and Reskilling (STAR) project, which comprised experts from the domains of education, technology, and dementia care from 6 countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Malta, Romania, and the United Kingdom), worked together to create and evaluate a multilingual e-learning tool. The STAR training portal provides dementia care training both for informal and formal caregivers. Objective The objective of the current study was to evaluate the user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR with informal caregivers, volunteers, and professional caregivers. Methods For 2 to 4 months, the experimental group had access to the STAR training portal, a Web-based portal consisting of 8 modules, 2 of which had a basic level and 6 additional modules at intermediate and advanced levels. The experimental group also had access to online peer and expert communities for support and information exchange. The control group received free access to STAR after the research had ended. The STAR training portal was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial among informal caregivers and volunteers in addition to professional caregivers (N=142) in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Assessments were performed with self-assessed, online, standardized questionnaires at baseline and after 2 to 4 months. Primary outcome measures were user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR on knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of caregivers regarding dementia

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    nitrate in the study unit. In total, nearly 400 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain acceptable water quality. Regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the raw ground water were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory health-based thresholds established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) and thresholds established for aesthetic concerns (secondary maximum contaminant levels, SMCL-CA) by CDPH. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in more than 80 percent of USAW grid wells. Most VOCs detected were at concentrations far less than thresholds established for drinking water to protect human health; however, six wells had VOC concentrations above health-based thresholds. Twenty-four of the 85 VOCs investigated were detected in the study unit;11 were detected in more than 10 percent of the wells. The VOCs detected above health-based thresholds in at least one well were dibromochloropropane (DBCP), tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride, and 1,1-dichoroethene. Pesticide compounds were detected in more than 75 percent of the grid wells. However, of the 134 different pesticide compounds investigated, 13 were detected at concentrations greater than their respective long-term method detection limits, and only 7 compounds (all herbicides or herbicide degradates) were detected in more than 10 percent of the wells. No pesticide compound was detected above its health-based threshold, although thresholds exist for fewer than half of the pesticide compounds investigat

  7. Zero-inflated modeling of fish catch per unit area resulting from multiple gears: Application to channel catfish and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, A.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Wikle, C.K.; Gentry, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries studies often employ multiple gears that result in large percentages of zero values. We considered a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model with random effects to address these excessive zeros. By employing a Bayesian ZIP model that simultaneously incorporates data from multiple gears to analyze data from the Missouri River, we were able to compare gears and make more year, segment, and macrohabitat comparisons than did the original data analysis. For channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, our results rank (highest to lowest) the mean catch per unit area (CPUA) for gears (beach seine, benthic trawl, electrofishing, and drifting trammel net); years (1998 and 1997); macrohabitats (tributary mouth, connected secondary channel, nonconnected secondary channel, and bend); and river segment zones (channelized, inter-reservoir, and least-altered). For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, the mean CPUA was significantly higher for benthic trawls and drifting trammel nets; 1998 and 1997; tributary mouths, bends, and connected secondary channels; and some channelized or least-altered inter-reservoir segments. One important advantage of our approach is the ability to reliably infer patterns of relative abundance by means of multiple gears without using gear efficiencies. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  8. Unified treatment algorithm for the management of crotaline snakebite in the United States: results of an evidence-informed consensus workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerns William P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Envenomation by crotaline snakes (rattlesnake, cottonmouth, copperhead is a complex, potentially lethal condition affecting thousands of people in the United States each year. Treatment of crotaline envenomation is not standardized, and significant variation in practice exists. Methods A geographically diverse panel of experts was convened for the purpose of deriving an evidence-informed unified treatment algorithm. Research staff analyzed the extant medical literature and performed targeted analyses of existing databases to inform specific clinical decisions. A trained external facilitator used modified Delphi and structured consensus methodology to achieve consensus on the final treatment algorithm. Results A unified treatment algorithm was produced and endorsed by all nine expert panel members. This algorithm provides guidance about clinical and laboratory observations, indications for and dosing of antivenom, adjunctive therapies, post-stabilization care, and management of complications from envenomation and therapy. Conclusions Clinical manifestations and ideal treatment of crotaline snakebite differ greatly, and can result in severe complications. Using a modified Delphi method, we provide evidence-informed treatment guidelines in an attempt to reduce variation in care and possibly improve clinical outcomes.

  9. A randomized controlled clinical trial of 3-unit posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDP) with layered or pressed veneering ceramics: 3-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naenni, Nadja; Bindl, Andreas; Sax, Caroline; Hämmerle, Christoph; Sailer, Irena

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present pilot study was to test whether or not posterior zirconia-ceramic fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) with pressed veneering ceramic exhibit less chipping than FDPs with layered veneering ceramics. Forty patients (13 female, 27 male; mean age 54 years (range 26.1-80.7 years) in need of one maxillary or mandibular three-unit FDP in the second premolar or molar region were recruited and treated at two separate centers at the University of Zurich according to the same study protocol. The frameworks were made out of zirconia using a CAD/CAM system (Cerec Sirona, Bensheim, Germany). The patients were randomly assigned to either the test group (zirconia frameworks veneered with pressed ceramic; IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20) or the control group (layered veneering ceramic; IPS e.max Ceram, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein; n=20). All FDPs were adhesively cemented and evaluated at baseline (i.e., cementation), at 6 months and at 1 and 3 years of clinical service. The survival of the reconstruction was recorded. The technical outcome was assessed using modified United States Public Health Services (USPHS) criteria. The biologic parameters analyzed at abutment teeth and analogous non-restored teeth included probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque control record (PCR), bleeding on probing (BOP), and tooth vitality (CO2). Data was descriptively analyzed and survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier statistics. 36 patients (25 female, 11 male; mean age 52.3 years) with 18 test and 18 control FDPs were examined after a mean follow-up of 36 months (95% CI: 32.6-39.1 months). Comparison of groups was done by Crosstabulation showing even distribution of the respective restored teeth amidst the groups. Survival rate was 100% for both test and control FDPs. Chipping of the veneering ceramic tended to occur more frequently in test (n=8; 40%) than in control (n=4; 20%) FDPs, albeit not significantly (p=0.3). No further

  10. Comparison of the Results of the Whole Core Decay Power Using the ORIGEN Code and ANS-1979 for the Uljin Unit 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Eun Hyun; Jeong, Hae Sun; Kim, Dong Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    When a detailed tracking of the nuclide is not required-, i.e., only the whole core decay heat information is required, then the RN package is not activated and the DCH package is solely used, whereas both the RN and DCH packages are used when we need a fission product transport simulation and location information. For DCH only mode, there are four options to calculate the whole core decay heat calculation for the time after a shut-down. The first is using a summation of the decay heat data from ORIGEN-based fission product inventories for the representative BWRs and PWRs, which are scaled if necessary. The second is using the ANS-1979 standard for the decay heat power. The third is using a user-specified tabular function of the whole-core decay as a function of time. The fourth is using a user-specified control function to define the decay heat. In this research, for option 2, the ANS-1979 standard for the whole core decay heat calculation is compared with the result of the ORIGEN calculation for Uljin Unit 6 after arranging the ORIGEN result based on the mass, radioactivity, and decay heat for the elements and nuclides. The MELCOR code is currently using the ANS-1979 standard, the lasted version for decay heat in ANS standards is not mainly dealt with in this research. The goal of the examination is to find the necessity of changing old standard for the enhancement of the accuracy. The ANS-1979 is an old standard about decay heat, thus recent standards which are ANSI/ANS-5.1-1994 and ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 should be investigated in the long term research. This research has certain drawback in that the mere multiplication of the number of assemblies is done for the whole core decay heat calculation in the arrangement of the ORIGEN result.

  11. Effect of a multi-level intervention on nurse—patient communication in the intensive care unit: Results of the SPEACS trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Mary Beth; Garrett, Kathryn L.; Tate, Judith A.; DiVirgilio, Dana; Houze, Martin P.; Demirci, Jill R.; George, Elisabeth; Sereika, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the impact of two levels of intervention on communication frequency, quality, success, and ease between nurses and intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Design Quasi-experimental, 3-phase sequential cohort study: (1) usual care, (2) basic communication skills training (BCST) for nurses, (3) additional training in augmentative and alternative communication devices and speech language pathologist consultation (AAC + SLP). Trained observers rated four 3-min video-recordings for each nurseepatient dyad for communication frequency, quality and success. Patients self-rated communication ease. Setting Two ICUs in a university-affiliated medical center. Participants 89 intubated patients awake, responsive and unable to speak and 30 ICU nurses. Main results Communication frequency (mean number of communication acts within a communication exchange) and positive nurse communication behaviors increased significantly in one ICU only. Percentage of successful communication exchanges about pain were greater for the two intervention groups than the usual care/control group across both ICUs (p = .03) with more successful sessions about pain and other symptoms in the AAC + SLP group (p = .07). Patients in the AAC SLP intervention group used significantly more AAC methods (p = .002) and rated communication at high difficulty less often (p communication skills training, materials and SLP consultation intervention in the ICU. PMID:24495519

  12. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  13. Experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in the emergency unit Part 2: Discussion of results and literature control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Skhosana

    2009-04-01

    medekodeerder geanaliseer. Hoofkategorieë, subkategorieë en temas is geïdentifiseer. Deelnemers het uitdrukking gegee aan hulle emosies, uitdagings, die houding en gedrag van polisiebeamptes, teenstrydighede in riglyne en behoefte-identifikasie. Aanbevelings is dat multidissiplinêre spanlede betrokke moet wees by gemeenskapsaktiwiteite en dat die gemeenskap moet deelneem aan sake wat verband hou met seksuele aanranding. Die regering moet duidelike riglyne ontwikkel wat op landelike en stedelike Suid-Afrika van toepassing is. Gesondheidsorgwetenskappe moet daarop gerig wees om meer forensiese verpleegkundiges op te lei. Alle toepaslike departemente moet saamwerk om die komplikasies te verlig wat deur voorvalle van seksuele aanranding veroorsaak word.

    How to cite this article:

    Skhosana, R.M. & Peu, M.D., 2009, 'Experiences of health care providers managing sexual assault victims in an emergency unit Part 2: Discussion of results and literature control', Health SA Gesondheid 14(1, Art. #481, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hsag.v14i1.481

  14. Socio-economic factors and virological suppression among people diagnosed with HIV in the United Kingdom: results from the ASTRA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Burch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United Kingdom, rates of virological suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART are very high, but there remain a small but significant number of people on ART with detectable viraemia. The impact of socio-economic factors on virological suppression has been little studied. Materials and Methods: We used data from ASTRA, a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of >3000 individuals from 8 clinics in the United Kingdom in 2011–2012, linked to clinical records to address this question. Included participants had received ART for >6 months with a recorded current viral load (VL (latest at the time of questionnaire. Participants provided data on demographic factors: gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity and age; and socio-economic factors: UK birth/English reading ability, employment, housing, education and financial hardship. To assess non-adherence, participants were asked if in the past 3 months, they had missed ART for ≥2 days at a time. Virological suppression was defined as VL≤50 cps/mL. For each socio-economic factor, we calculated prevalence ratios using modified Poisson regression, first adjusting for demographic factors, then also for non-adherence. Results: A total of 2445 people fulfilled the inclusion criteria (80% male, 69% MSM, median age: 46 years, median CD4 count: 556 cells/mm3; 10% (234/2445 had VL>50 cps/mL. After adjusting for demographic factors, non-fluent English, not being employed, not home owning, education below university level and increasing financial hardship were each associated with higher prevalence of VL>50 cps/mL. Additional adjustment for non-adherence largely attenuated each association, but did not fully explain them (see Table 1. After adjustment for non-adherence and demographic factors, younger age was also associated with VL>50 cps/mL: for each additional 10 years an individual was 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.92 times as likely to have VL>50 cps/mL (p=0.0019. Adjusted prevalence ratios for

  15. Clinical usefulness and patient satisfaction with a musculoskeletal ultrasound clinic: results of a 6-month pilot service in a Rheumatology Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebes, Carlos; Harvie, John P; Wilson, Alison; Duthie, Janet; Bowen, Fran; Steven, Malcolm

    2016-12-01

    There is no agreement among the rheumatology community in how to implement the musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) technique in the Rheumatology Divisions. To test the perceived usefulness of the MSUS, under consensus indications, for referring colleagues for the clinical management of their patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) and to score the satisfaction level of the patients with different aspects of the ultrasound (US) examination, after attend to the MSUS clinic. A written questionnaire-based survey regarding the usefulness and satisfaction with the implementation of a pilot MSUS clinic in a Rheumatology Unit. Over a 6-month period, 43 patients attended 10 MSUS clinics. Referral agreed indications were: US assisting in early/subclinical diagnosis (35 %), decision making with patient treatment (44 %), monitoring of disease activity/treatment response (39 %) and US-guided injection (11 %). Average scores of the referrers regarding usefulness of the information provided for the US for these indications were 8.0, 8.3, 8.7 and 8.6, respectively, with a high score of 9.0 regarding the valuable support of the US for the management of their patients with IA. Patient satisfaction scores in responders (44 %) were averaged 9.5 and higher for receiving an adequate explanation of the US procedure, indications, US findings and their significance, lack of discomfort and length of the appointment. The average score was slightly lower (8.5) for the waiting time frame for the appointment for the MSUS examination. The referrers expressed a perception of usefulness of our pilot US clinic, under previous consensus indications, for the clinical management of their patients with IA. In addition, this MSUS clinic seemed to show a good acceptability and a high satisfaction scores for the patients.

  16. Neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation devices, techniques and team roles: 2011 survey results of the United States' Extracorporeal Life Support Organization centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-12-01

    In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a combination of both. Of the centers using centrifugal pumps, 51% reported that they do not use a compliance bladder in the circuit. The majority (95%) of roller pump users reported using a compliance bladder and 97% reported using Tygon" S-97-E tubing in the raceway of their ECMO circuits. Silicone membrane oxygenators were reportedly used by 25% of the respondents, 5% reported using micro-porous hollow fiber oxygenators (MPHF), 70% reported using polymethylpentene (PMP) hollow fiber oxygenators and 5% reported using a combination of the different types. Some form of in-line blood monitoring was used by 88% of the responding centers and 63% of responding centers reported using a circuit surface coating. Anticoagulation monitoring via the activated clotting time (ACT) was reported by 100% of the reporting centers. The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) was reported by 53% of the responding centers with 82% of those centers using a crystalloid primed circuit to initiate ECPR. A cooling protocol was used by 77% of the centers which have an ECPR program. When these data are compared with surveys from 2002 and 2008 it shows that the use of silicone membrane oxygenators continues to decline, the use of centrifugal pumps continues to increase and ECMO personnel continues to be comprised of multidisciplinary groups of dedicated allied health care professionals.

  17. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  18. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to

  19. Results of the 2005-2008 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology Survey of Chief Residents in the United States: Clinical Training and Resident Working Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai, E-mail: gondi@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Bernard, Johnny Ray [Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Jabbari, Siavash [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Amorim Bernstein, Karen L. de [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Dad, Luqman K. [SUNY Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Li, Linna [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Poppe, Matthew M. [University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Hospital (United States); Strauss, Jonathan B. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Chollet, Casey T. [Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To document clinical training and resident working conditions reported by chief residents during their residency. Methods and Materials: During the academic years 2005 to 2006, 2006 to 2007, and 2007 to 2008, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide survey of all radiation oncology chief residents in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to assess changes in clinical training and resident working conditions over time. Results: Surveys were completed by representatives from 55 programs (response rate, 71.4%) in 2005 to 2006, 60 programs (75.9%) in 2006 to 2007, and 74 programs (93.7%) in 2007 to 2008. Nearly all chief residents reported receiving adequate clinical experience in commonly treated disease sites, such as breast and genitourinary malignancies; and commonly performed procedures, such as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical experience in extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy increased over time (p < 0.001), whereas clinical experience in endovascular brachytherapy (p <0.001) decreased over time. The distribution of gynecologic and prostate brachytherapy cases remained stable, while clinical case load in breast brachytherapy increased (p = 0.006). A small but significant percentage of residents reported receiving inadequate clinical experience in pediatrics, seeing 10 or fewer pediatric cases during the course of residency. Procedures involving higher capital costs, such as particle beam therapy and intraoperative radiotherapy, and infrequent clinical use, such as head and neck brachytherapy, were limited to a minority of institutions. Most residency programs associated with at least one satellite facility have incorporated resident rotations into their clinical training, and the majority of residents at these programs find them valuable experiences. The majority of residents reported working 60 or fewer hours per week on required clinical duties

  20. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) Job Search and Career Planning Survey of Graduating Residents in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattes, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdm9007@nyp.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Kharofa, Jordan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Zeidan, Youssef H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Tung, Kaity [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Gondi, Vinai [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Central Dupage Hospital Cancer Center, Warrenville, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. Methods and Materials: In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. Conclusions: The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use.

  1. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  2. Groundwater-quality data in the North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer study unit, 2012: results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 1,850-square-mile North San Francisco Bay Shallow Aquifer (NSF-SA) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from April to August 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NSF-SA study unit was the first study unit to be sampled as part of the second phase of the GAMA-PBP, which focuses on the shallow aquifer system.

  3. Recovery of sit-to-stand function in patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness: Results from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simone; Burridge, Jane H; Pohl, Marcus; Oehmichen, Frank; Mehrholz, Jan

    2016-10-12

    To describe the time course of recovery of sit-to-stand function in patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness and the impact of recovery. A cohort study in post-acute intensive care unit and rehabilitation units. Patients with chronic critical illness and intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness were included. Sit-to-stand function was measured daily, using a standardized chair height, defined as 120% of the individual's knee height. A total of 150 patients were recruited according to the selection criteria. The primary outcome of independent sit-to-stand function was achieved by a median of 56 days (interquartile range Q1-Q3 = 32-90 days) after rehabilitation onset and a median of 113 days (Q1-Q3=70-148 days) after onset of illness. The final multivariate model for recovery of sit-to-stand function included 3 variables: age (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.99), duration of ventilation (HR=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00) and Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU) (adjusted HR=1.12 (95% CI 1.08-1.16)). Rapid recovery of sit-to-stand function for most patients with intensive-care-unit-acquired muscle weakness were seen. The variables older age and longer duration of ventilation decreased, and higher FSS-ICU increased the chance of regaining independent sit-to-stand function.

  4. Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluor...

  5. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...

  6. Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluor...

  7. Comparisons in the Organisation, Methods, and Results of the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain) and The Open University of The United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The organization, methods, and outcomes of the distance education systems at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of the United Kingdom are compared. The following topics are covered: higher education in Spain, UNED's ideology, student characteristics in both universities, organization,…

  8. Salmonella and raw shell eggs: results of a cross-sectional study of contamination rates and egg safety practices in the United Kingdom catering sector in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, R; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2005-02-01

    This study was prompted by epidemiological investigations of the unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in catering premises in England and Wales during 2002. The aims of the study, performed between April and May 2003, were to establish the rate of Salmonella contamination in raw shell eggs from catering premises, investigate any correlation between the origin and type of eggs and the presence of particular serotypes or phage types (PTs) of Salmonella, and examine the use of raw shell eggs in catering premises in the United Kingdom. A total of 34,116 eggs (5,686 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected from 2,104 catering premises, most of which were eggs produced in the United Kingdom (88%). Salmonella was isolated from 17 pools (0.3%) of eggs. Of these, 15 were Salmonella Enteritidis, which were further characterized to PTs as follows: PT6 (0.1%), PT4 (0.07%), PT12 (0.04%), PT1 (0.04%), and PT14b (0.02%). Salmonella Livingstone and Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 7 resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline were also isolated. The Salmonella contamination rate of eggs produced in the United Kingdom appears to have decreased significantly since 1995 and 1996. This trend is reflected in the decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis and, in particular, Salmonella Enteritidis PT4. The impact of the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency's advice on the use of eggs, issued in January 2003, is discussed.

  9. Comparisons in the Organisation, Methods, and Results of the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain) and The Open University of The United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The organization, methods, and outcomes of the distance education systems at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of the United Kingdom are compared. The following topics are covered: higher education in Spain, UNED's ideology, student characteristics in both universities, organization,…

  10. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  11. Clinical Features, Short-Term Mortality, and Prognostic Risk Factors of Septic Patients Admitted to Internal Medicine Units: Results of an Italian Multicenter Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Antonino; Dentali, Francesco; La Regina, Micaela; Foglia, Emanuela; Gambacorta, Maurizia; Garagiola, Elisabetta; Bonardi, Giorgio; Clerici, Pierangelo; Concia, Ercole; Colombo, Fabrizio; Campanini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies provided data on the clinical history of sepsis within internal Medicine units. The aim of the study was to assess the short-term mortality and to evaluate the prognostic risk factors in a large cohort of septic patients treated in internal medicine units. Thirty-one internal medicine units participated to the study. Within each participating unit, all admitted patients were screened for the presence of sepsis. A total of 533 patients were included; 78 patients (14.6%, 95%CI 11.9, 18.0%) died during hospitalization; mortality rate was 5.5% (95% CI 3.1, 9.6%) in patients with nonsevere sepsis and 20.1% (95%CI 16.2, 28.8%) in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 4.41, 95%CI 1.93, 10.05), immune system weakening (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.12, 3.94), active solid cancer (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.16, 3.94), and age (OR 1.03 per year, 95% CI 1.01, 1.06) were significantly associated with an increased mortality risk, whereas blood culture positive for Escherichia coli was significantly associated with a reduced mortality risk (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24, 0.88). In-hospital mortality of septic patients treated in internal medicine units appeared similar to the mortality rate obtained in recent studies conducted in the ICU setting.

  12. Results of a Prospective Multicentre Myeloablative Double-Unit Cord Blood Transplantation Trial in Adult Patients with Acute Leukaemia and Myelodysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Juliet N.; Fei, Mingwei; Karanes, Chatchada; Horwitz, Mitchell; Devine, Steven; Kindwall-Keller, Tamila L.; Holter, Jennifer; Adams, Alexia; Logan, Brent; Navarro, Willis H.; Riches, Marcie

    2017-01-01

    Summary Double-unit cord blood (CB) grafts may improve engraftment and relapse risk in adults with haematological malignancies. We performed a prospective high-dose myeloablative double-unit CB transplantation (CBT) trial in adults with high-risk acute leukaemia or myelodysplasia (MDS) between 2007 and 2011. The primary aim was to establish the one-year overall survival in a multi-centre setting. Fifty-six patients (31 acute myeloid leukaemia, 19 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 4 other acute leukaemias, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS]) were transplanted at 10 centres. The median infused total nucleated cell doses were 2.62 (larger unit) and 2.02 (smaller unit) × 107/kg. The cumulative incidence of day 100 neutrophil engraftment was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80–96). Day 180 grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence was 64% (95%CI: 51–76) and 36% (95%CI: 24–49) of patients had chronic GVHD by 3-years. At 3-years post-transplant, the transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 39% (95%CI: 26–52), and the 3-year relapse incidence was 11% (95%CI: 4–21). With a median 37-month (range 23–71) follow-up of survivors, the 3-year disease-free survival was 50% (95%CI: 37–63). Double-unit CBT is a viable alternative therapy for high-risk acute leukaemia/MDS in patients lacking a matched unrelated donor. This is especially important for minority patients. The relapse incidence was low but strategies to ameliorate TRM are needed. PMID:25272241

  13. The Association between active and passive smoking and latent tuberculosis infection in adults and children in the united states: results from NHANES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Lindsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the relationship between active and passive smoking and tuberculosis have used biomarkers to measure smoke exposure. We sought to determine the association between active and passive smoking and LTBI in a representative sample of US adults and children. METHODS: We used the 1999-2000 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES dataset with tuberculin skin test (TST data to assess the association between cotinine-confirmed smoke exposure and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI among adults ages ≥20 years (n = 3598 and children 3-19 years (n = 2943 and estimate the prevalence of smoke exposure among those with LTBI. Weighted multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the associations between active and passive smoking and LTBI. RESULTS: LTBI prevalence in 1999-2000 among cotinine-confirmed active, passive, and non-smoking adults and children was 6.0%, 5.2%, 3.3% and 0.3%, 1.0%, 1.5%, respectively. This corresponds to approximately 3,556,000 active and 3,379,000 passive smoking adults with LTBI in the US civilian non-institutionalized population in 1999-2000. Controlling for age, gender, socioeconomic status, race, birthplace (US vs. foreign-born, household size, and having ever lived with someone with TB, adult active smokers were significantly more likely to have LTBI than non-smoking adults (AOR = 2.31 95% CI 1.17-4.55. Adult passive smokers also had a greater odds of LTBI compared with non-smokers, but this association did not achieve statistical significance (AOR = 2.00 95% CI 0.87-4.60. Neither active or passive smoking was associated with LTBI among children. Among only the foreign-born adults, both active (AOR = 2.56 (95% CI 1.20-5.45 and passive smoking (AOR = 2.27 95% CI 1.09-4.72 were significantly associated with LTBI. CONCLUSIONS: Active adult smokers and both foreign-born active and passive smokers in the United States are at elevated risk for LTBI

  14. The People's Show: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Francis

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s heralded a new form of museum exhibition: "The People's Show." A light-hearted celebration of popular culture, the concept has had phenomenal success throughout the United Kingdom. Beneath the humour, however, are more complex and radical agendas relating to cultural rights. The paper explores the issues associated with the rise and possible wane of this museum-based popular cultural phenomenon.

  15. Groundwater-quality data for the Madera/Chowchilla–Kings shallow aquifer study unit, 2013–14: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.

    2017-02-03

    Groundwater quality in the 2,390-square-mile Madera/Chowchilla–Kings Shallow Aquifer study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey from August 2013 to April 2014 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program’s Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the shallow aquifer systems of the Madera, Chowchilla, and Kings subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin. The shallow aquifer system corresponds to the part of the aquifer system generally used by domestic wells and is shallower than the part of the aquifer system generally used by public-supply wells. This report presents the data collected for the study and a brief preliminary description of the results.Groundwater samples were collected from 77 wells and were analyzed for organic constituents, inorganic constituents, selected isotopic and age-dating tracers, and microbial indicators. Most of the wells sampled for this study were private domestic wells. Unlike groundwater from public-supply wells, the groundwater from private domestic wells is not regulated for quality in California and is rarely analyzed for water-quality constituents. To provide context for the sampling results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated groundwater were compared with regulatory and non-regulatory benchmarks established for drinking-water quality by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the State of California, and the U.S. Geological Survey.Of the 319 organic constituents assessed in this study (90 volatile organic compounds and 229 pesticides and pesticide degradates), 17 volatile organic compounds and 23 pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in groundwater samples; concentrations of all but 2 were less than the respective benchmarks. The fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP

  16. Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Devices, Techniques and Team Roles: 2011 Survey Results of the United States’ Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Scott; Ellis, Cory; Butler, Katie; McRobb, Craig; Mejak, Brian

    2011-01-01

    In early 2011, surveys of active Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) centers within the United States were conducted by electronic mail regarding neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) equipment and professional staff. Seventy-four of 111 (67%) U.S. centers listed in the ELSO directory as neonatal centers responded to the survey. Of the responding centers, 53% routinely used roller pumps for neonatal ECMO, 15% reported using centrifugal pumps and 32% reported using a ...

  17. Hyperbaric programs in the United States: Locations and capabilities of treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Walter; Jacoby, Laura; Simon, Olivia; Talati, Nisha; Wegrzyn, Gracelene; Jacoby, Rachelle; Proano, Jacob; Sprau, Susan E; Markovitz, Gerald; Hsu, Rita; Joo, Ellie

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the primary treatment for arterial gas embolism, decompression sickness and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Though there has been a proliferation of hyperbaric centers throughout the United States, a scarcity of centers equipped to treat emergency indications makes transport of patients necessary. To locate and characterize hyperbaric chambers capable of treating emergency cases, a survey of centers throughout the entire United States was conducted. Using Google, Yahoo, HyperbaricLink and the UHMS directory, a database for United States chambers was created. Four researchers called clinicians from the database to administer the survey. All centers were contacted for response until four calls went unreturned or a center declined to be included. The survey assessed chamber readiness to respond to high-acuity patients, including staff availability, use of medical equipment such as ventilators and intravenous infusion devices, and responding yes to treating hyperbaric emergencies within a 12-month period. Only 43 (11.9%, N = 361) centers had equipment, intravenous infusion pumps and ventilators, and staff necessary to treat high-acuity patients. Considering that a primary purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy is the treatment of arterial gas embolism and decompression sickness, more hyperbaric centers nationwide should be able to accommodate these emergency cases quickly and safely.

  18. Groundwater-quality data in the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit, 2014-2015: Results from the California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Johnson, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater samples from 95 domestic wells in Tulare and Kings Counties, California in 2014-2015. The wells were sampled for the Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit of the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project’s assessment of the quality of groundwater resources used for domestic drinking water supply. Domestic wells commonly are screened at shallower depths than are public-supply wells. The Tulare Shallow Aquifer Study Unit includes the Kaweah, Tule, and Tulare Lake subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley groundwater basin and adjacent areas of the Sierra Nevada. The study unit was divided into equal area grid cells and one domestic well was sampled in each cell. Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality parameters, volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, nutrients, major ions and trace elements, gross alpha and gross beta particle activities, noble gases, tritium, carbon-14 in dissolved inorganic carbon, stable isotopic ratios of water and dissolved nitrate, and microbial indicators.These data support the following publication:Fram, M.S., 2017, Groundwater Quality in the Shallow Aquifers of the Tulare, Kaweah, and Tule Groundwater Basins and Adjacent Highlands areas, Southern San Joaquin Valley, California: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2017–3001, 4 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/fs20173001.

  19. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  20. Results of a survey in Andalusian Endoscopy Units Resultados de una encuesta realizada a unidades de endoscopia en los hospitales andaluces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herrerías Gutiérrez

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in Spain, there is no indication of the resources that an endoscopy unit should have. As a consequence only the experience of professionals who have been working for years in this field can be used as a guide. However, there are some recent surveys on sedation in Spain that indicate how sedation is use in other units. Objectives: the objectives of the present study were: a to find out the human and material resources available in endoscopy units in Andalusia; b to analyze the number of endoscopies performed in our country; and c to identify factors that can be improved. Material and methods: in order to make an assessment of the conditions and resources of said units in Andalusia, a survey was designed for the staff of gasteroenterology department. Hospitals involved are those specified in this paper. The survey, which included 90 questions, covers all aspects concerning each unit. There are questions on the real conditions of the unit, and on what would be considered as ideal or at least as minimal requirement for each hospital or Health Area. Conclusions: even though some shortcomings were found in some hospitals, a high percentage of them have acceptable equipment. However, due to fast advances in the field of endoscopy, an improvement in the conditions should be provided, especially in aspects concerning anesthesia.Introducción: en España, no se dispone en la actualidad de una guía que sirva para saber con qué recursos debe contar una unidad de endoscopia, por lo que en algunos casos, sólo la experiencia de profesionales que llevan años trabajando en este campo sirve como norma de trabajo. Existen no obstante, algunas encuestas realizadas últimamente en nuestro país sobre la sedación en endoscopia que pueden aportar una idea de cómo se maneja la sedación en otras unidades. Objetivos: a conocer el personal y el material con el que cuentan las unidades de endoscopia encuestadas en Andalucía; b analizar el modo y n

  1. Economic impact of healthcare resource utilisation patterns among patients diagnosed with advanced melanoma in the United Kingdom, Italy, and France: results from a retrospective, longitudinal survey (MELODY study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K; Levy, A R; Lorigan, P; Maio, M; Lebbe, C; Middleton, M; Testori, A; Bédane, C; Konto, C; Dueymes, A; Sbarigia, U; van Baardewijk, M

    2012-09-01

    To describe patterns of healthcare resource utilisation and associated costs for patients with advanced melanoma in the United Kingdom (UK), Italy, and France. For patients receiving systemic treatment, or supportive care, data describing hospitalisations, hospice care, and outpatient visits were retrieved retrospectively from advanced disease diagnosis as part of a multicountry observational study. Costs were estimated by multiplying utilisation level by unit cost. In an exploratory analysis, costs were compared between individuals who died within one year of initiating first-line treatment (short-term survivors) and those with ≥ 1 year follow-up (long-term survivors). Hospitalisation costs were highest in France (€6262 per-person compared with €3225 in the UK and €2486 in Italy), reflecting higher rates of hospitalisation. In contrast, outpatient costs were highest in the UK (€782 per-person, compared with €115 in France and €72 in Italy), reflecting the highest rate and frequency of outpatient visits and the highest cost per visit. Hospitalisation rates were consistently higher during supportive care compared with systemic therapy. Roughly one-third of patients entered clinical trials and were not included in the analysis. In exploratory analysis, total costs were generally higher for long-term survivors, but monthly per-patient costs were generally lower for long-term survivors, consistent with a hypothesis that resource utilisation and costs do not necessarily increase proportionally with extended survival. Total costs associated with resource utilisation for advanced melanoma patients varied across countries. Overall cost differences were due to differences in frequency and intensity of utilisation patterns and variation in unit costs of health resources. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  3. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  4. Road traffic injuries in one local health unit in the Lazio region: results of a surveillance system integrating police and health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilloni Laura

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Different sources are available for the surveillance of Road Traffic injuries (RTI, but studied individually they present several limits. In this paper we present the results of a surveillance integrating healthcare data with the data gathered by the municipal police in the southeastern area of Rome (630,000 inhabitants during the year 2003. Methods The Municipal police RTI reports, which list the exact location, circumstances and some risk factor of the crash, were searched in the emergency visit, hospitalization and mortality databases, to integrate them with the information on health consequences. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate risk factors (crash circumstances, age ad gender of the casualty associated with hospital admission following a RTI. Mapping of RTI locations was created. The locations with higher risk of accidents with severe health consequences and at higher risk for pedestrians were identified. Results According to police records 4571 RTI occurred in 2003, 75% of which led to emergency department admissions. Sixteen percent of these emergency visits ended in hospitalization, and 44 deaths were reported within 30 days of the event, most of which occurred in young men. The people with the highest risk of hospitalization after an RTI were the cyclists, pedestrians and followed by people on two-wheeled vehicles. The type of crash with the highest risk of hospitalization was head-on collision. Geographical analyses showed four clusters with higher severity of RTI. Specific attention was paid to pedestrian injuries. Analyzing the locations of RTIs involving pedestrians permitted us to rank the most dangerous streets. The roads at high risk for pedestrians identified problems in the bus stop constructions and in the placement of the zebra pedestrian crossings. Conclusion This study proves the feasibility of an integrated surveillance system of RTI by using routinely collected local data. The high

  5. Field-Metered Data from Portable Unit Dehumidifiers in the U.S. Residential Sector: Initial Results of a Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Burke, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dominique Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-01-29

    The work described herein is intended to enrich the body of literature regarding dehumidifiers in residential settings—in particular the hours of use and energy consumption of various types of dehumidifiers. In the United States, portable unit dehumidifiers most commonly are used in basements during humid summer days in northern climates. Dehumidifier energy consumption differs among households depending on settings selected by the user, frequency of use, and conditions of operation. Although some estimates of dehumidifier use have been developed, and a few metering studies performed, there remains a paucity of metered data collected from individual households that use dehumidifiers. For this study we obtained field data on the energy consumption of dehumidifiers to supplement currently available analyses. Our goal was to obtain data from a pilot study that we could use to develop initial distributions describing the capacities and applications of dehumidifiers used in individual homes. More precisely characterizing the use of dehumidifiers in real-world applications will enable a more accurate estimate of the range of energy use in various operational modes. Our pilot field-metering exercise was aimed at compiling real-time data on the energy consumption of portable dehumidifiers in residential households in the New England and Mid-Atlantic areas. Our analysis furthers the process of developing a more precise estimate of dehumidifier energy use, which will support the evaluation of the potential energy savings and attendant costs associated with more energy efficient dehumidifiers.

  6. Disparities in ADL and IADL disabilities among elders of Hispanic subgroups in the United States: results from the National Health Interview Survey 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustasse, Alberto; Bae, Sejong; Arvidson, Cody; Singh, Karan P; Treviño, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared disability and functional limitation among elder Hispanic subgroups by using data from the 2001-2003 National Health Interview Survey (National Center for Health Statistics 2008a). The authors applied chi-square analysis for bivariate comparisons and used multiple logistic regression analyses for making comparisons, estimating odds ratios, and predicting disabilities. Results revealed a 21.4% rate of disability of any type in Hispanics. Puerto Ricans reported the highest rates of Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disabilities compared with other Hispanic subgroups (Mexicans, Cubans, Central and South Americans) and reported a higher rate than did Blacks. Cubans showed the lowest rate of IADL and any disability among Hispanics and a lower rate than did Whites. These findings highlight the high rates of intragroup variability among the U. S. Hispanic population. Among seniors, ADLs and IADLs were significant predictors of admission to nursing homes and use of paid home care, physician services, and palliative care.

  7. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  8. Mathematics beliefs and achievement of a national sample of Native American students: results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Recent mathematics assessment findings indicate that Native American students tend to score below students of the ethnic majority. Findings suggest that students' beliefs about mathematics are significantly related to achievement outcomes. This study examined relations between self-beliefs and mathematics achievement for a national sample of 130 Grade 8 Native American students from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 United States sample of (M age = 14.2 yr., SD = 0.5). Multiple regression indicated several significant relations of mathematics beliefs with achievement and accounted for 26.7% of the variance in test scores. Students who earned high test scores tended to hold more positive beliefs about their ability to learn mathematics quickly, while students who earned low scores expressed negative beliefs about their ability to learn new mathematics topics.

  9. Preventing resonance problems in speed-controlled blowers. Destruction of the blower-motor unit may result; Resonanzprobleme drehzahlgeregelter Ventilatoren vermeiden. Zerstoerung der Ventilator-Motoreinheit nicht ausgeschlossen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lexis, J.

    2004-05-01

    The economic efficiency of a ventilation depends not least on the ease with which air volumes can be adapted to changing operating conditions. Speed control is the most common method, but undesired resonance phenomena may occur in certain operating conditions. This must be prevented at all cost as resonances will cause noise problems and may even destroy the blower-motor unit. (orig.) [German] Die Wirtschaftlichkeit einer lufttechnischen Anlage wird entscheidend dadurch bestimmt, wie gut oder wie schlecht sich die Anpassung der Luftmengen an veraenderte Betriebssituationen realisieren laesst. Die am haeufigsten verwendete Methode ist die Drehzahlregelung des Ventilators. Dabei kann es unter bestimmten Betriebsbedingungen zu unerwuenschten Resonanzerscheinungen kommen. Der Betrieb eines Ventilators in diesem Bereich ist aber auf keinen Fall zulaessig, denn Resonanzen koennen zu Geraeuschproblemen und zur Zerstoerung der Ventilator-Motoreinheit fuehren. (orig.)

  10. Carbapenem-resistant Serratia marcescens isolates producing Bush group 2f beta-lactamase (SME-1) in the United States: results from the MYSTIC Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, A C; Biedenbach, D J; Winokur, P; Hacek, D M; Pfaller, M A; Jones, R N

    2001-02-01

    Two carbapenem (imipenem, meropenem)-resistant Serratia marcescens strains were isolated in the United States (Chicago, IL) through the 1999 MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection) Programme. The S. marcescens antimicrobial susceptible patterns were: susceptible to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and cefepime (MICs, 32 microg/ml) and aztreonam (MIC, > = 16 microg/ml). Each S. marcescens isolate shared an identical epidemiologic type (ribotype and PFGE) and the outer membrane protein profile was also identical to those of the wild type susceptible strains from the same medical center. The PCR utilizing bla(sme-1) primers amplified a gene product that was identified as consistent with SME-1 after DNA sequencing. Imipenem and meropenem resistance due to production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes among clinical isolates is still very rare, but microbiology laboratories should be aware of these chromosomally encoded enzymes among class C beta-lactamases producing enteric bacilli such as S. marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae.

  11. Disease distribution and outcome in troponin-positive patients with or without revascularization in a chest pain unit: results of the German CPU-Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmann, Alexander; Riemer, Thomas; Erbel, Raimund; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hamm, Christian; Haude, Michael; Heusch, Gerd; Maier, Lars S; Münzel, Thomas; Schmitt, Claus; Schumacher, Burghard; Senges, Jochen; Voigtländer, Thomas; Mudra, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to compare troponin-positive patients presenting to a chest pain unit (CPU) and undergoing coronary angiography with or without subsequent revascularization. Leading diagnosis, disease distribution, and short-term outcomes were evaluated. Chest pain units are increasingly implemented to promptly clarify acute chest pain of uncertain origin, including patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A total of 11,753 patients were prospectively enrolled into the German CPU-Registry of the German Cardiac Society between December 2008 and April 2011. All patients with elevated troponin undergoing a coronary angiography were selected. Three months after discharge a follow-up was performed. A total of 2,218 patients were included. 1,613 troponin-positive patients (72.7 %) underwent a coronary angiography with subsequent PCI or CABG and had an ACS in 96.0 %. In contrast, 605 patients (27.3 %) underwent a coronary angiography without revascularization and had an ACS in 79.8 %. The most frequent non-coronary diagnoses in non-revascularized patients were acute arrhythmias (13.4 %), pericarditis/myocarditis (4.5 %), decompensated congestive heart failure (3.7 %), Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (2.7 %), hypertensive crisis (2.4 %), and pulmonary embolism (0.3 %). During the 3-month followup, patients without revascularization had a higher mortality (12.1 vs. 4.5 %, pCPU with elevated troponin levels mostly suffer from ACS and in a smaller proportion a variety of different diseases are responsible. The short-term outcome in troponin-positive patients with or without an ACS not undergoing a revascularization was worse, indicating that these patients were more seriously ill than patients with revascularization of the culprit lesion. Therefore, an adequate diagnostic evaluation and improved treatment strategies are warranted.

  12. First results about recovery of walking function in patients with intensive care unit-acquired muscle weakness from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mückel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2015-12-23

    To describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. This is a cohort study. We included critically ill patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Post-acute ICU and rehabilitation units in Germany. We measured walking function, muscle strength, activities in daily living, motor and cognitive function. We recruited 150 patients (30% female) who fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome recovery of walking function was achieved after a median of 28.5 days (IQR=45) after rehabilitation onset and after a median of 81.5 days (IQR=64) after onset of illness. Our final multivariate model for recovery of walking function included two clinical variables from baseline: the Functional Status Score ICU (adjusted HR=1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and the ability to reach forward in cm (adjusted HR=1.02 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.04). All secondary outcomes but not pain improved significantly in the first 8 weeks after study onset. We found good recovery of walking function for most patients and described the recovery of walking function of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Sächsische Landesärztekammer EK-BR-32/13-1; DRKS00007181, German Register of Clinical Trials. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  14. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  15. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  16. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  17. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  18. Preliminary results: surveillance for Guillain-Barré syndrome after receipt of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine - United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon peripheral neuropathy causing paralysis and in severe cases respiratory failure and death. GBS often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or upper respiratory illness but, in rare cases, can follow vaccination. In 1976, vaccination against a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus was associated with a statistically significant increased risk for GBS in the 42 days after vaccination (approximately 10 excess cases per 1 million vaccinations), a consideration in halting the vaccination program in the context of limited influenza virus transmission. To monitor influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccine safety, several federal surveillance systems, including CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), are being used. In October 2009, EIP began active surveillance to assess the risk for GBS after 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Preliminary results from an analysis in EIP comparing GBS patients hospitalized through March 31, 2010, who did and did not receive 2009 H1N1 vaccination showed an estimated age-adjusted rate ratio of 1.77 (GBS incidence of 1.92 per 100,000 person-years among vaccinated persons and 1.21 per 100,000 person-years among unvaccinated persons). If end-of-surveillance analysis confirms this finding, this would correspond to 0.8 excess cases of GBS per 1 million vaccinations, similar to that found in seasonal influenza vaccines. No other federal system to date has detected a statistically significant association between GBS and 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Surveillance and further analyses are ongoing. The 2009 H1N1 vaccine safety profile is similar to that for seasonal influenza vaccines, which have an excellent safety record. Vaccination remains the most effective method to prevent serious illness and death from 2009 H1N1 influenza infection; illness from the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus has been associated with a hospitalization rate of 222 per 1 million and a death rate of 9.7 per 1 million population.

  19. Forest cover change in the upper Midwestern United States results from both climate and land use change following European settlement: Historical survey and weather records provide robust support for modeling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; McLachlan, J. S.; Dawson, A.; Dietze, M.; Paciorek, C. J.; Mladenoff, D. J.; Record, S.; Cogbill, C. V.; Hooten, M.; Ruid, M.; Jackson, S. T.

    2013-12-01

    Since European settlement, both climate and human land use have acted on forests in the upper Midwestern United States resulting in changes in forest structure and composition. The extent of these changes has been examined locally and at the state level by examining forest records from the Public Lands Survey System (PLSS), but here we bring together records of changing forest composition with weather records from the mid to late 19th century from the 19th Century Forts and Observer's Database. We are able to assign attribution for taxon range and composition shifts in the region to either land use, climate or both. We see that much of the range contraction in the region seen when comparing Forest Inventory and Analysis data with Public Land Survey System data occurs along the prairie margin, with northern forests showing greater stability in both range and composition suggesting a dominant role for land use in structuring regional vegetation. Modern forests are often less diverse than PLSS forests and the mean minimum dissimilarity between modern and PLSS-era forests is significantly higher than the minimum dissimilarity within either the PLSS-era forests or the modern (FIA) forests, indicating the possiblity that our modern forests have already become 'no-analogue' ecosystems.

  20. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  1. Graphene Oxides Show Angiogenic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Sriram, Pavithra; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Nethi, Susheel Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Chatterjee, Suvro; Suresh, Kattimuttathu Ittara; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2015-08-05

    Angiogenesis, a process resulting in the formation of new capillaries from the pre-existing vasculature plays vital role for the development of therapeutic approaches for cancer, atherosclerosis, wound healing, and cardiovascular diseases. In this report, the synthesis, characterization, and angiogenic properties of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been demonstrated, observed through several in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The results here demonstrate that the intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species as well as activation of phospho-eNOS and phospho-Akt might be the plausible mechanisms for GO and rGO induced angiogenesis. The results altogether suggest the possibilities for the development of alternative angiogenic therapeutic approach for the treatment of cardiovascular related diseases where angiogenesis plays a significant role.

  2. Development of a baby friendly non-contact method for measuring vital signs: First results of clinical measurements in an open incubator at a neonatal intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaessens, John H.; van den Born, Marlies; van der Veen, Albert; Sikkens-van de Kraats, Janine; van den Dungen, Frank A.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2014-02-01

    For infants and neonates in an incubator vital signs, such as heart rate, breathing, skin temperature and blood oxygen saturation are measured by sensors and electrodes sticking to the skin. This can damage the vulnerable skin of neonates and cause infections. In addition, the wires interfere with the care and hinder the parents in holding and touching the baby. These problems initiated the search for baby friendly 'non-contact' measurement of vital signs. Using a sensitive color video camera and specially developed software, the heart rate was derived from subtle repetitive color changes. Potentially also respiration and oxygen saturation could be obtained. A thermal camera was used to monitor the temperature distribution of the whole body and detect small temperature variations around the nose revealing the respiration rate. After testing in the laboratory, seven babies were monitored (with parental consent) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) simultaneously with the regular monitoring equipment. From the color video recordings accurate heart rates could be derived and the thermal images provided accurate respiration rates. To correct for the movements of the baby, tracking software could be applied. At present, the image processing was performed off-line. Using narrow band light sources also non-contact blood oxygen saturation could be measured. Non-contact monitoring of vital signs has proven to be feasible and can be developed into a real time system. Besides the application on the NICU non-contact vital function monitoring has large potential for other patient groups.

  3. Examining the Role of N2O5 Hydrolysis and ClNO2 Production Over the Northeast United States: Results from WINTER 2015 Aircraft Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, J.; Jaegle, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Shah, V.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Day, D. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Fiddler, M. N.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Schroder, J. C.; Sullivan, A.; Veres, P. R.; Green, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 on liquid aerosol particles plays a critical role in regulating tropospheric reactive nitrogen (NOx) availability, particle nitrate loadings, and halogen activity, which, in turn, have downwind effects on oxidant availability and ozone production. However, parameterizations of this process in regional and global models remain relatively untested. Measurements taken during the 2015 Wintertime Investigation of Transportation, Emissions, & Reactivity (WINTER) allow both empirical and theoretical calculations of the N2O5 reactive uptake coefficient (γ) and ClNO2 yield (Y) during 13 winter flights over the eastern US. We use observations of gas and particle composition as inputs to the offline thermodynamic equilibrium models, ISORROPIA II and AIM, to generate outputs of particulate aqueous phase concentrations of NO3-(aq), Cl-(aq), and H2O(l) . These outputs are used to theoretically calculate γ (N2O5) and Y(ClNO2), using the parameterizations described in Bertram & Thornton, 2009. The calculated values are then compared to the empirical counterparts to assess the validity of the parameterization's representation of temperature, humidity, and composition dependences. The updated parameterization is then used in the online GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to examine the role of wintertime multiphase chemistry in controlling the regional distribution and export of NOx and Cl-atom source downwind of the northeast United States.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  5. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Lieberman, Evan S; Snell, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1) frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2) frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized) behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment); and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment). Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects) and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  6. Detection of neonatal unit clusters of Candida parapsilosis fungaemia by microsatellite genotyping: Results from laboratory-based sentinel surveillance, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magobo, Rindidzani E; Naicker, Serisha D; Wadula, Jeannette; Nchabeleng, Maphoshane; Coovadia, Yacoob; Hoosen, Anwar; Lockhart, Shawn R; Govender, Nelesh P

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal candidaemia is a common, deadly and costly hospital-associated disease. To determine the genetic diversity of Candida parapsilosis causing fungaemia in South African neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). From February 2009 through to August 2010, cases of candidaemia were reported through laboratory-based surveillance. C. parapsilosis isolates from neonatal cases were submitted for identification by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing, antifungal susceptibility testing and microsatellite genotyping. Cluster analysis was performed using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA). Of 1671 cases with a viable Candida isolate, 393 (24%) occurred among neonates. Isolates from 143 neonatal cases were confirmed as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Many isolates were resistant to fluconazole (77/143; 54%) and voriconazole (20/143; 14%). Of 79 closely-related genotypes, 18 were represented by ≥2 isolates; 61 genotypes had a single isolate each. Seven clusters, comprised of 82 isolates, were identified at five hospitals in three provinces. Isolates belonging to certain clusters were significantly more likely to be fluconazole resistant: all cluster 7 isolates and the majority of cluster 4 (78%), 5 (89%) and 6 (67%) isolates (PCandida parapsilosis-associated candidaemia in public-sector NICUs was caused by closely related genotypes and there was molecular evidence of undetected outbreaks as well as intra-hospital transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Engebretson, Jesse; O'Rourke, Michael; Piso, Zach; Whyte, Kyle; Valles, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs (IESPs) in these issues, which we refer to as "social ethics." A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty from 81 United States colleges and universities offering IESPs (480 surveys were completed). Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that IESPs should address values in applying science to policy and management decisions. They also agreed that programs should engage students with issues related to norms of scientific practice. Agreement was slightly less strong that IESPs should train students in skills related to managing value conflicts among different stakeholders. The primary challenges to incorporating social ethics into the curriculum were related to the lack of materials and expertise for delivery, though challenges such as ethics being marginalized in relation to environmental science content were also prominent. Challenges related to students' interest in ethics were considered less problematic. Respondents believed that social ethics are most effectively delivered when incorporated into existing courses, and they preferred case studies or problem-based learning for delivery. Student competence is generally not assessed, and respondents recognized a need for both curricular materials and assessment tools.

  8. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Dunham

    Full Text Available In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1 frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2 frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment; and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment. Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  9. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  10. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  11. Fine aerosol bulk composition measured on WP-3D research aircraft in vicinity of the Northeastern United States – results from NEAQS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Warneke

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available During the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS in the summer of 2004, airborne measurements were made of the major inorganic ions and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC of the submicron (PM1.0 aerosol. These and ancillary data are used to describe the overall aerosol chemical characteristics encountered during the study. Fine particle mass was estimated from particle volume and a calculated density based on measured particle composition. Fine particle organic matter (OM was estimated from WSOC and a mass balance analysis. The aerosol over the northeastern United States (U.S. and Canada was predominately sulfate and associated ammonium, and organic components, although in unique plumes additional ionic components were also periodically above detection limits. In power generation regions, and especially in the Ohio River Valley region, the aerosol tended to be predominantly sulfate (~60% μg μg−1 and apparently acidic, based on an excess of measured anions compared to cations. In all other regions where sulfate concentrations were lower and a smaller fraction of overall mass, the cations and anions were balanced suggesting a more neutral aerosol. In contrast, the WSOC and estimated OM were more spatially uniform and the fraction of OM relative to PM mass largely influenced by sources of sulfate. The study median OM mass fraction was 40%. Throughout the study region, sulfate and organic aerosol mass were highest near the surface and decreased rapidly with increasing altitude. The relative fraction of organic mass to sulfate was similar within the boundary layer (altitude less than ~2.5 km, but was significantly higher in the free troposphere (above ~2.5 km. A number of distinct biomass burning plumes from fires in Alaska and the Yukon were periodically intercepted, mostly at altitudes between 3 and 4 km. These plumes were associated with highest aerosol concentrations of the study and were largely comprised of organic aerosol components

  12. Results of the 2012-2013 Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology (ARRO) job search and career planning survey of graduating residents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Malcolm D; Kharofa, Jordan; Zeidan, Youssef H; Tung, Kaity; Gondi, Vinai; Golden, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    To determine the timeline used by postgraduate year (PGY)-5 radiation oncology residents during the job application process and the factors most important to them when deciding on a first job. In 2012 and 2013, the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology conducted a nationwide electronic survey of PGY-5 radiation oncology residents in the United States during the final 2 months of their training. Descriptive statistics are reported. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed. Surveys were completed by 180 of 314 residents contacted. The median time to start networking for the purpose of employment was January PGY-4; to start contacting practices, complete and upload a curriculum vitae to a job search website, and use the American Society of Radiation Oncology Career Center was June PGY-4; to obtain letters of recommendation was July PGY-5; to start interviewing was August PGY-5; to finish interviewing was December PGY-5; and to accept a contract was January PGY-5. Those applying for a community position began interviewing at an earlier average time than did those applying for an academic position (P=.04). The most important factors to residents when they evaluated job offers included (in order from most to least important) a collegial environment, geographic location, emphasis on best patient care, quality of support staff and facility, and multidisciplinary approach to patient care. Factors that were rated significantly different between subgroups based on the type of position applied for included adequate mentoring, dedicated research time, access to clinical trials, amount of time it takes to become a partner, geographic location, size of group, starting salary, and amount of vacation and days off. The residents' perspective on the job application process over 2 years is documented to provide a resource for current and future residents and employers to use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the coronary care units of Piedmont in 2005: results from the PRIMA regionwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenino, Giuseppe; Chinaglia, Alessandra; Millesimo, Giorgio; Gnavi, Roberto; Picariello, Roberta; Orlando, Anna

    2008-02-01

    In Piedmont (north-western Italy) a network for emergency treatment of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction is being implemented. To provide a baseline for care assessment and quality improvement, a regionwide survey was conducted. We describe the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of patients admitted to the coronary care units (CCUs) of the Regional Health System. All patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction study. Of 818 patients (28.1% female, mean age 66 +/- 12 years), 14.3% had diabetes mellitus and 39.7% anterior myocardial infarction; 77% had their first medical contact within 3 h of symptom onset, and 53% reached full-time interventional CCUs. The 118 emergency medical system was used by 50% of patients. Median door-to-electrocardiogram time was 9 min (case for the absence of reperfusion treatment (odds ratio 2.16; 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.02), TIMI risk index >33 (odds ratio 6.78; 95% confidence interval 3.70-12.40), and chronic renal failure (odds ratio 4.96; 95% confidence interval 1.82-13.55). In Piedmont, candidates for myocardial reperfusion treatment admitted to the CCUs of the Regional Health System are about 600 per million inhabitants/year. The 118 emergency medical system is used by about half of them, and medical contact occurs within 3 h of symptom onset in most cases. Use of reperfusion treatment is frequent, the choice is related to on-site availability rather than to risk profile, and door-to-treatment times can be improved. Use of emergency transfer is limited, poorly selected, and slow.

  14. VIRUS-W: commissioning and first-year results of a new integral field unit spectrograph dedicated to the study of spiral galaxy bulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Grupp, Frank; Bender, Ralf; Drory, Niv; Arns, Jim; Barnes, Stuart; Gössl, Claus; Snigula, Jan; Hill, Gary J.; Hopp, Ulrich; Lang-Bardl, Florian; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Saglia, Roberto; Wullstein, Philipp

    2012-09-01

    In November and December 2010 we successfully commissioned a new optical fibre-based Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectrograph at the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith Telescope of the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Regular science observations commenced in spring 2011. The instrument achieves a spectral resolution of λ/Δλ = 8700 with a spectral coverage of 4850Å - 5480Å and a spectacular throughput of 37% including the telescope optics. The design is related to the VIRUS-P instrument that was developed for the HETDEX experiment, but was modified significantly in order to achieve the large spectral resolution that is needed to recover the dynamical properties of disk galaxies. In addition to the high resolution mode, VIRUS-W offers a stellar population mode with a resolution of λ/Δλ = 3300 and a spectral coverage of 4340Å - 6040Å. The IFU is comprised out of 267 150 μm-core optical fibers with a fill factor of 1/3. With a beam of f/3.65, the core diameter translates to 3.2" on sky and a large field of view of 105" x 55" that is ideally suited to study the bulge regions of local spiral galaxies. The large throughput is due to a design that operates close to the numerical aperture of the fibers, a large 200mm aperture refractive camera with no central obscuration, highly efficient volume phase holographic gratings, and a high-QE CCD. We will discuss the design, the performance and briefly present an example for the very up-to-date science that is possible with such instruments at 2m class telescopes.

  15. Patient characteristics and outcomes of a hip fracture and concomitant fracture compared with hip fracture alone: results from a United Kingdom teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Terence; Anand, Varun; Tan, Wei; Quah, Edmund; Moran, Chris; Sahota, Opinder

    2016-04-01

    A proportion of patients sustaining hip fractures present with a concomitant fracture. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between patient characteristics and clinical outcomes, in those with a hip and concomitant fracture compared with those sustaining a hip fracture alone from a clinical service registry. Cross-sectional study using data obtained from a clinical service registry (Nottingham Hip Fracture Database) on patients aged 50 and above who suffered a hip fracture between 1/1/2003 and 31/12/2012. Data was collected on patient demographics, fracture information and healthcare outcomes. 7338 patients of which 75 % were female (mean age 82 (SD 9.4), had a hip fracture with 334 (4.6 %) patients having a concomitant fracture. The majority (58 %) were distal radius or proximal humeral fractures. Only females (p = 0.002), those taking three or fewer medications (p = 0.018) and those on long term steroids (p = 0.048) were more likely to suffer a concomitant fracture. There was no difference in mortality, rates of postoperative complication, intensive care unit or care home admission between both groups. Patients with a concomitant fracture have a 16 % longer average length of stay in hospital (mean difference 1.16; 95 % CI 1.07-1.25, p fractures have similar patient characteristics, except gender, polypharmacy and long term steroid use; and outcomes to those presenting with hip fracture alone, except a longer average inpatient stay.

  16. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2009-01-01

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

  17. 30-year trends in serum lipids among United States adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys II, III, and 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jerome D; Cziraky, Mark J; Cai, Qian; Wallace, Anna; Wasser, Thomas; Crouse, John R; Jacobson, Terry A

    2010-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) II (1976 to 1980), NHANES III (1988 to 1994), and NHANES 1999 to 2006 were examined to assess trends in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), lipid-lowering medication use, and obesity. Age-adjusted decreases in TC (210 to 200 mg/dl) and LDL cholesterol (134 to 119 mg/dl) were observed. Those with high TC showed a decrease of 9% from NHANES II to NHANES 1999 to 2006, whereas those with LDL cholesterol ≥160 mg/dl showed a decrease of 8%. A significant increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was observed (50 to 53 mg/dl, p lipid medication use by those with high cholesterol increased from 16% to 38%. Mean body mass index increased from 26 to 29 kg/m(2), and prevalence of obesity doubled and was significantly associated with increased TG. In conclusion, recent favorable trends in TC and LDL cholesterol are likely due to increased awareness of high cholesterol and the greater use of lipid-lowering drugs. However, countertrends in obesity and TG levels, if continued, will likely have a negative impact on cardiovascular disease in the future.

  18. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitry Agnes I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. Methods A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Results Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%. In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P Conclusions The majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  19. Associations of Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Screen Time With Cardiovascular Fitness in United States Adolescents: Results from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Anna K; Matthews, Krystin J; Salvo, Deborah; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-03-14

    Background Most US adolescents do not meet guidelines of at least 60 daily minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Additionally, sedentary behaviors among this age group are of increasing concern. This study examined the association of movement behaviors with cardiovascular fitness among US adolescents. Methods Data from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey were used to assess the association of movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, screen time) with cardiovascular fitness among adolescent males and females. Multiple logistic regressions were used to test the independent and interactive effects of movement behaviors on cardiovascular fitness. Results Among females, physical activity was directly associated with cardiovascular fitness; no significant association was observed between sedentary behaviors and CVF. Among males, sedentary time moderated the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, such that a significant, direct association was only observed among those with high sedentary time (OR: 5.01, 95% CI: 1.60, 15.70). Conclusions Results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that among female US adolescents, physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Among males, the interaction between physical activity and sedentary time seems to be important for cardiovascular fitness. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  20. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  1. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  2. The use of prediction models of spontaneous pregnancy in in vitro fertilization units reveals differences between the expected results of public and private clinics in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbanini, Massimo; Privitera, Laura; Monzó, Ana; Higueras, Gemma; Fuster, Sonia; Garrido, Nicolás; Bosch, Ernesto; Pellicer, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the applicability of prediction models (PM) of spontaneous pregnancy (SP) in a population of infertile patients from a university-affiliated private assisted reproductive technology center (Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad) and in the reproductive medicine section of a public university hospital (La Fe), both belonging to the same city (Valencia, Spain) between January and December 2008. We calculated the probability of SP using the PM developed by Hunault et al. in our two populations, and observed an estimated probability of SP<40% or the PM applicable in approximately 97% of the studied couples, and statistical differences between pregnancy probabilities in the two settings that were mainly a result of different age, sperm quality, and referral policies, leading us to conclude that the usefulness of PMs is limited in our environment. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of Physical Properties of Carbon Materials by Results of Ablative Experiments Con-ducted in the Jets of Gas Dynamic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gorsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of hypersonic vehicles’ movement in the dense layers of the atmosphere is accompanied by the considerable combustion of heat shield, which effects on the aerodynamic, mass-inertial and centering characteristics of the product.For correct calculation of model's movement parameters it is necessary:* Using the theoretical and computation methods for determining ablative characteristics of heat-protective materials;* Taking into account all the basic physical and chemical processes, involved in their ablation, using the above mentioned methods;* Testing these techniques in the wide range of experimental data. This physic-mathematical model of carbon materials (CM aerothermochemical destruction is based on using the following:* Arrhenius equations to calculate carbon kinetic oxidation;* Langmuir-Knudsen formula to calculate the velocity of non-equilibrium carbon’s sublimation;* Carbon erosion law represented as a unique dependence of this process velocity on the gas pressure on the wall.Mathematical description of all major processes included in this formulation of the problem, contains a number of "free" parameters that can be determined only on the basis of comparison of theoretical and experimental data according to total ablation characteristics of these materials.This comparison was performed in the article applicable to the tests conditions of modern CM in the stream of electric arc plant and in combustion products of liquid-propellant rocket engines.As the result, the data of kinetic of carbon oxidation by atomic oxygen at sublimation mode of material ablation were obtained for the first time. Carbon erosion law under high pressure was established for the first time.The new approach to processing of ablation experiments is enunciated. Using this approach allows to turn this experiments for CM from comparative tests into the tests to determine ablation properties of thermal protection. Moreover, it enables us also to use the

  4. Prevalence of asthma among adult females and males in the United States: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Michelle K; Symanski, Elaine; Pompeii, Lisa A; Delclos, George L

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased over the last three decades with females exhibiting a higher prevalence of asthma than males. The objective of this study was to obtain gender-specific estimates of the prevalence of current and ever asthma and describe the relationships between risk factors and asthma by gender in US men and women ages 20 to 85. Data for this study came from two cycles (2001-2002 and 2003-2004) of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and included 9,243 eligible adults: 4,589 females and 4,654 males. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate gender-specific associations between race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), sociodemographic characteristics, and smoking habits for current asthma and ever asthma. The prevalence of current asthma was 8.8% for women and 5.8% for men, while the prevalence of ever having been diagnosed with asthma was higher (13.7% and 10.4% for women and men, respectively). Current asthma was less prevalent in Mexican American women (1.9%) and men (0.9%) born in Mexico as compared to Mexican Americans born in the U.S. (8.7% and 5.2% for women and men, respectively) or for any other ethnic group. Approximately 20% of extremely obese women and men had ever been diagnosed with asthma; among this group, 15% reported they had current asthma. Results from multiple logistic regression models indicate that extreme obesity and living in poverty were strongly associated with current and ever asthma for both women and men, as was former smoking and ever asthma for men. As compared to previous NHANES reports, our results indicate that the prevalence of asthma among U.S. adults continues to increase. Further, our findings of marked differences among subgroups of the population suggest asthma-related disparities for impoverished persons and greater prevalence of asthma among obese and extremely obese US adults.

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  6. Field Test Report: Preliminary Aquifer Test Characterization Results for Well 299-W15-225: Supporting Phase I of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2009-09-23

    This report examines the hydrologic test results for both local vertical profile characterization and large-scale hydrologic tests associated with a new extraction well (well 299-W15-225) that was constructed during FY2009 for inclusion within the future 200-West Area Groundwater Treatment System that is scheduled to go on-line at the end of FY2011. To facilitate the analysis of the large-scale hydrologic test performed at newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225 (C7017; also referred to as EW-1 in some planning documents), the existing 200-ZP-1 interim pump-and-treat system was completely shut-down ~1 month before the performance of the large-scale hydrologic test. Specifically, this report 1) applies recently developed methods for removing barometric pressure fluctuations from well water-level measurements to enhance the detection of hydrologic test and pump-and-treat system effects at selected monitor wells, 2) analyzes the barometric-corrected well water-level responses for a preliminary determination of large-scale hydraulic properties, and 3) provides an assessment of the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of newly constructed extraction well 299-W15-225. The hydrologic characterization approach presented in this report is expected to have universal application for meeting the characterization needs at other remedial action sites located within unconfined and confined aquifer systems.

  7. Effects of Breakpoint Changes on Carbapenem Susceptibility Rates ofEnterobacteriaceae: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, United States, 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Rennie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in North America have resulted in decreased levels of susceptibility for some species. In particular, reduced susceptibility to imipenem was observed for Proteus mirabilis (35% and Morganella morganii (80%. Minor decreases in susceptibility were also noted for Enterobacter species with ertapenem (5% and imipenem (4.3%, and Serratia species with imipenem (6.4%. No significant decreases in susceptibility were observed for meropenem following the breakpoint changes. There were no earlier breakpoints established for doripenem. Very few of these Enterobacteriaceae produce carbapenamase enzymes; therefore, the clinical significance of these changes has not yet been clearly determined. In conclusion, ongoing surveillance studies with in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration data are essential in predicting the need for breakpoint changes and in identifying the impact of such changes on the percent susceptibility of different species.

  8. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma treated with prolonged temozolomide and radiotherapy--results of a United Kingdom phase II trial (CNS 2007 04).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S; Howman, A; Wheatley, K; Wherton, D; Boota, N; Pizer, B; Fisher, D; Kearns, P; Picton, S; Saran, F; Gibson, M; Glaser, A; Connolly, D J A; Hargrave, D

    2013-12-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) has a dismal prognosis with no chemotherapy regimen so far resulting in any significant improvement over standard radiotherapy. In this trial, a prolonged regimen (21/28d) of temozolomide was studied with the aim of overcoming O(6)-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) mediated resistance. Forty-three patients with a defined clinico-radiological diagnosis of DIPG received radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide (75 mg/m(2)) after which up to 12 courses of 21d of adjuvant temozolomide (75-100mg/m(2)) were given 4 weekly. The trial used a 2-stage design and passed interim analysis. At diagnosis median age was 8 years (2-20 years), 81% had cranial nerve abnormalities, 76% ataxia and 57% long tract signs. Median Karnofsky/Lansky score was 80 (10-100). Patients received a median of three courses of adjuvant temozolomide, five received all 12 courses and seven did not start adjuvant treatment. Three patients were withdrawn from study treatment due to haematological toxicity and 10 had a dose reduction. No other significant toxicity related to temozolomide was noted. Overall survival (OS) (95% confidence interval (CI)) was 56% (40%, 69%) at 9 months, 35% (21%, 49%) at 1 year and 17% (7%, 30%) at 2 years. Median survival was 9.5 months (range 7.5-11.4 months). There were five 2-year survivors with a median age of 13.6 years at diagnosis. This trial demonstrated no survival benefit of the addition of dose dense temozolomide, to standard radiotherapy in children with classical DIPG. However, a subgroup of adolescent DIPG patients did have a prolonged survival, which needs further exploration.

  9. The results of a survey highlighting issues with feedback on medical training in the United Kingdom and how a Smartphone App could provide a solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Thomas G; Hood, Gill; Farrell, Tom

    2015-11-06

    Feedback drives learning in medical education. Healthcare Supervision Logbook (HSL) is a Smartphone App developed at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals for providing feedback on medical training, from both a trainee's and a supervisor's perspective. In order to establish a mandate for the role of HSL in clinical practice, a large survey was carried out. Two surveys (one for doctors undertaking specialty training and a second for consultants supervising their training) were designed. The survey for doctors-in-training was distributed to all specialty trainees in the South and West localities of the Health Education Yorkshire and the Humber UK region. The survey for supervisors was distributed to all consultants involved in educational and clinical supervision of specialty trainees at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals. The results confirm that specialty trainees provide feedback on their training infrequently-66 % do so only annually. 96 % of the specialty trainees owned a Smartphone and 45 % said that they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide daily feedback on the clinical and educational supervision they receive. Consultant supervisors do not receive regular feedback on the educational and clinical supervision they provide to trainees-56 % said they never received such feedback and 33 % said it was only on an annual basis. 86 % of consultants surveyed owned a Smartphone and 41 % said they would be willing to use a Smartphone App to provide feedback on the performance of trainees they were supervising. Feedback on medical training is recorded by specialty trainees infrequently and consultants providing educational and clinical supervision often do not receive any feedback on their performance in this area. HSL is a simple, quick and efficient way to collect and collate feedback on medical training to improve this situation. Good support and education needs to be provided when implementing this new technology.

  10. Child and parent perspectives on healthier side dishes and beverages in restaurant kids' meals: results from a national survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Lynskey, Vanessa M; Chan, Grace; Glenn, Meaghan E; Economos, Christina D

    2017-07-25

    Children frequently consume foods from restaurants; considering the quick-service sector alone, 1/3 of children eat food from these restaurants on a given day, and among these consumers, 1/3 of their daily calories come from fast food. Restaurant foods and beverages are second only to grocery store foods and beverages in their contribution to total energy intake of U.S. 4- to 11-year-olds. Shifting their restaurant consumption in healthier directions could have a positive impact on child health. In 2014 this study examined self-reported child receptivity and parent awareness of child receptivity to ordering a fruit or vegetable side dish instead of French fries; and milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda/pop with a kids' meal when eating out. Child receptivity to side dishes was compared between 2010 and 2014. An online survey was administered by Nielsen via their Harris Poll Online to a national panel of 711 parents and their 8- to 12-year-old child, as part of a larger study. Frequencies, logistic regressions, t-tests, chi-square tests, and percent agreement were used to evaluate child likelihood of ordering certain side dishes; receptivity to healthier side dish and beverage alternatives; changes in receptivity to healthier sides across years; and parent awareness. A majority of children said they were likely to order a meal with a vegetable (60%), fruit (78%), or French fry (93%) side dish. They were receptive to receiving a fruit or vegetable (FV) side dish instead of French fries (68%); or milk, water, or flavored water instead of soda (81%) with their restaurant kids' meal. Liking/taste was the most common reason for children's feelings. Child receptivity to a FV side dish instead of French fries was high in both years and significantly higher in 2014 (t = -2.12, p = 0.034). The majority of parent and child reports of child receptivity were concordant (85%). These national survey results indicate that children are receptive to FV side dishes and

  11. Mesothelioma in the United States: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER–Medicare investigation of treatment patterns and overall survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beebe-Dimmer JL

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Beebe-Dimmer,1,2 Jon P Fryzek,3 Cecilia L Yee,1,2 Tapashi B Dalvi,4 David H Garabrant,3 Ann G Schwartz,1,2 Shirish Gadgeel1,2 1Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, 3EpidStat Institute, Ann Arbor, MI, 4AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Introduction: Mesothelioma is a rare malignancy typically associated with exposure to asbestos and poor survival. The purpose of this investigation was to describe mesothelioma patient characteristics, treatment patterns, and overall survival (OS utilizing the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare database. Materials and methods: Patients in this study were diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma of the pleura or peritoneum between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009 with follow-up for survival through December 31, 2010. We examined both patient and tumor characteristics at time of diagnosis and subsequent treatment patterns (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Among patients treated with chemotherapy, we determined chemotherapy regimen and OS by line of therapy. Results: Of the 1,625 patients considered eligible for this investigation, the median age at diagnosis was 78 years. Nearly a third of patients (30% had surgery as part of their treatment and 45% were given chemotherapy. The median OS was 8 months (range 1–69 months. Among chemotherapy patients, the most commonly (67% prescribed regimen for first-line therapy was cisplatin or carboplatin (Ca/Ci combined with pemetrexed (Pe. Among those prescribed Ca/Ci + Pe as first-line therapy, retreatment with Ca/Ci + Pe (28% or treatment with gemcitabine (30% were the most common second-line therapies. Median OS for those receiving first-line chemotherapy was 7 months, and among those receiving second-line therapy median OS was extended an additional 5 months. Conclusion: Irrespective of surgical resection, mesothelioma patients

  12. Effects of preceding endoscopic mucosal resection on the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for treatment of Barrett's esophagus: results from the United States Radiofrequency Ablation Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Pasricha, S; Bulsiewicz, W J; Pruitt, R E; Komanduri, S; Wolfsen, H C; Chmielewski, G W; Corbett, F S; Chang, K J; Shaheen, N J

    2016-08-01

    The effects of preceding endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) on the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for treatment of nodular Barrett's esophagus (BE) is poorly understood. Prior studies have been limited to case series from individual tertiary care centers. We report the results of a large, multicenter registry. We assessed the effects of preceding EMR on the efficacy and safety of RFA for nodular BE with advanced neoplasia (high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma) using the US RFA Registry, a nationwide study of BE patients treated with RFA at 148 institutions. Safety outcomes included stricture, gastrointestinal bleeding, and hospitalization. Efficacy outcomes included complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CEIM), complete eradication of dysplasia (CED), and number of RFA treatments needed to achieve CEIM. Analyses comparing patients with EMR before RFA to patients undergoing RFA alone were performed with Student's t-test, Chi-square test, logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Four hundred six patients were treated with EMR before RFA for nodular BE, and 857 patients were treated with RFA only for non-nodular BE. The total complication rates were 8.4% in the EMR-before-RFA group and 7.2% in the RFA-only group (P = 0.48). Rates of stricture, bleeding, and hospitalization were not significantly different between patients treated with EMR before RFA and patients treated with RFA alone. CEIM was achieved in 84% of patients treated with EMR before RFA, and 84% of patients treated with RFA only (P = 0.96). CED was achieved in 94% and 92% of patients in EMR-before-RFA and RFA-only group, respectively (P = 0.17). Durability of eradication did not differ between the groups. EMR-before-RFA for nodular BE with advanced neoplasia is effective and safe. The preceding EMR neither diminished the efficacy nor increased complication rate of RFA treatment compared to patients with advanced neoplasia who had RFA with no preceding EMR

  13. Dimensionless Units in the SI

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is supposed to be coherent. That is, when a combination of units is replaced by an equivalent unit, there is no additional numerical factor. Here we consider dimensionless units as defined in the SI, {\\it e.g.} angular units like radians or steradians and counting units like radioactive decays or molecules. We show that an incoherence may arise when different units of this type are replaced by a single dimensionless unit, the unit "one", and suggest how to properly include such units into the SI in order to remove the incoherence. In particular, we argue that the radian is the appropriate coherent unit for angles and that hertz is not a coherent unit in the SI. We also discuss how including angular and counting units affects the fundamental constants.

  14. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  15. Groundwater-quality data in seven GAMA study units: results from initial sampling, 2004-2005, and resampling, 2007-2008, of wells: California GAMA Program Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth; Fram, Miranda S.

    2014-01-01

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The GAMA-PBP began sampling, primarily public supply wells in May 2004. By the end of February 2006, seven (of what would eventually be 35) study units had been sampled over a wide area of the State. Selected wells in these first seven study units were resampled for water quality from August 2007 to November 2008 as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw groundwater used for public water supplies within the seven study units. In the 7 study units, 462 wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Wells selected this way are referred to as grid wells or status wells. Approximately 3 years after the initial sampling, 55 of these previously sampled status wells (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for resampling. The seven resampled study units, the total number of status wells sampled for each study unit, and the number of these wells resampled for trends are as follows, in chronological order of sampling: San Diego Drainages (53 status wells, 7 trend wells), North San Francisco Bay (84, 10), Northern San Joaquin Basin (51, 5), Southern Sacramento Valley (67, 7), San Fernando–San Gabriel (35, 6), Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins (91, 11), and Southeast San Joaquin Valley (83, 9). The groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N

  16. Groundwater-quality data in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts study unit, 2008-2010--Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Wright, Michael T.; Beuttel, Brandon S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally-occurring inorganic constituents (trace elements, nutrients, major and minor ions, silica, total dissolved solids [TDS], alkalinity, and species of inorganic chromium), and radioactive constituents (radon-222, radium isotopes, and gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity). Naturally-occurring isotopes (stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, boron, and strontium in water, stable isotopes of carbon in dissolved inorganic carbon, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of sampled groundwater. In total, 223 constituents and 12 water-quality indicators were investigated. Three types of quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and matrix spikes) were collected at up to 10 percent of the wells in the CLUB study unit, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. Field blanks rarely contained detectable concentrations of any constituent, suggesting that contamination from sample collection procedures was not a significant source of bias in the data for the groundwater samples. Replicate samples generally were within the limits of acceptable analytical reproducibility. Median matrix-spike recoveries were within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent) for approximately 85 percent of the compounds. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, untreated groundwater typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. Regulatory benchmarks apply to water that is delivered to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. However, to provide some context for the results, concentrations of constituents measured in the untreated

  17. The great American medicine show revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, changes in the advertising and marketing of medicinal drugs have produced heated debates in the United States. With the emergence of the modern prescription drug between 1938 and 1951, concerns that once focused primarily on patients' use of over-the-counter drugs were broadened to include physicians and their "doctors' drugs" as well. The medical profession's growing control over their patients' drug choices inevitably heightened the scrutiny of their own performance as consumers. Although deeply divided over issues of the patient's role in medical decision making, consumer activists and physician reformers expressed similar concerns about the impact of aggressive pharmaceutical marketing and advertising on the doctor-patient relationship, and starting in the late 1950s they employed strikingly similar strategies to counter the new corporate "medicine show." Yet their efforts to promote a more rational use of prescription drugs have usually been too little and too late to offset the effectiveness of pharmaceutical advertising and mar-keting activities.

  18. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    constituents (volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), and natural inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements). Isotopic tracers (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) also were measured to help identify processes affecting groundwater quality and the sources and ages of the sampled groundwater. More than 200 constituents and water-quality indicators were measured during the trend sampling period.Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix-spikes, and surrogate compounds) were collected at about one-third of the trend sites, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the groundwater samples. On the basis of detections in laboratory and field blank samples collected by GAMA-PBP study units, including the 12 study units presented here, reporting levels for some groundwater results were adjusted in this report. Differences between replicate samples were mostly within acceptable ranges, indicating low variability in analytical results. Matrix-spike recoveries were largely within the acceptable range (70 to 130 percent).This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers. After withdrawal, groundwater used for drinking water typically is treated, disinfected, and blended with other waters to achieve acceptable water quality. The comparison benchmarks used in this report apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to untreated groundwater. To provide some context for the results, however, concentrations of constituents measured in these groundwater samples were compared with benchmarks established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of California. Comparisons between data collected for this study and benchmarks for drinking water are for illustrative purposes only and are not indicative of compliance

  19. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  20. Results of a survey about specific inflammatory bowel disease units in Andalusia Resultados de la encuesta sobre consulta monográfica de enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal realizada en Andalucía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Herrerías Gutiérrez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD has become one of the most prevalent pathologies in Gastroenterology Units, which added to its clinical outcome, treatment, the complexity of affected patients and the need to be continuously updated for the correct management of the disease, have made essential the presence of specific IBD units in each hospital. Objectives: the primary aims of this study were: a to reveal the existence of these units in our area and how they work; and b to draw conclusions regarding the necessary resources in these units and their aims. Material and methods: In order to analyse the presence of these specialized units and the available resources in Andalusian hospitals, a 24-question survey was designed, being answered by 11 hospitals. The evaluated questions included the number of days patients are attended and the number of physicians attending the unit, the number of available healthcare assistants, if emergencies are attended or not, if there is an activated telephone number for patient consultation, if a day care unit is available and if new treatments are easily accessible. Results: a specific IBD unit is present in all studied hospitals attending more than 11 patients each, although in the 63.4% of the cases patients are not attended more than 3 days per week. On the other hand, the 81.8% of the included hospitals attend emergencies although only the 54.5% of them had a specific telephone number for patient attendance. Conclusions: a specific IBD unit is present in many Andalusian hospitals, although some deficiencies can be observed. The general opinion of this Group is that these units are necessary in order to properly attend, monitorize and treat patients affected by IBD.Introducción: la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII se está convirtiendo en una de las patologías más prevalentes en las consultas de digestivo. Esta mayor prevalencia de la enfermedad, su evolución, tratamiento y el tipo de

  1. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  2. Organic Matter and δ 13C Throughout a Sub-Basement Red Soil Unit in Hole 1206A Cored During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 (Koko Seamount): First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.

    2002-12-01

    Although the discovery of deep red-brown paleosols during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) legs dates back to the 80's [1-3], the potential for preservation of organic matter in these igneous-derived silty-claystone units has been overlooked, and depositional settings have been inferred from only petrologic observations. This work aims to present the first geochemical (TOC, N total) and carbon isotope (δ 13C) data of a metre-thick paleosol Unit (Core 197-1206A-40R-1, 101 cm, to 40R-3, 77 cm; Subunits 18A and 18B, 307.5 to 309.9 mbsf) cored at Site 1206 (Koko Seamount) during ODP Leg 197 (Emperor Seamounts, north Pacific transect)[4-5]. Study of the sources and variation with depth of organic matter in sub-basement Fe-oxide-rich paleosol units from Leg 197 contributes to understanding the palaeoenvironmental history of the Emperor Seamounts prior to, during and after their burial and subsidence (ca. >48 to 56 Ma). Furthermore, preserved organic traces in such an isolated deep Earth system make them a useful test bed for future deep Earth's biosphere-relevant investigations [5-6]. Throughout Core 197-1206A-40R soil unit, Corg (TOC = 0.03-0.07%; 0.049 \\pm 0.011, n=7) and total nitrogen (Ntot = 0.00-0.06 %) are within the range (TOC = 0.05% to 0.12%, n=38) measured for the sub-basement paleosoil/rock units found at Site 1205 [4-5]. The δ 13C (bulk organic matter) values for the paleosol regularly decrease downcore from -25.3 \\permil (Sample 197-1206-40R-1, 103-104, at 307.54 mbsf) to -26.2 \\permil (Sample 197-1206A-40R-2, 130-131; at 308.92 mbsf) in contrast to an exposed Hawaiian oxisol sample (e.g., Ohau-2, 100-105 cm-depth with δ 13C = -23.0 \\permil). Typical uncertainties for these measurements were preserved in the paleosol interbed from Core 197-1206A-40R. Thus, providing additional evidence for red claystone units as soil horizons subaerially formed on the top of Koko and Nintoku Seamounts, and buried by erupted lava

  3. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  4. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  5. Electron accelerating unit for streak image tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fangke Zong; Qinlao Yang; Houzhi Cai; Li Gu; Xiang Li; Jingjin Zhang

    2015-12-01

    An electron accelerating unit is proposed for use in streak image tubes (SITs). An SIT with this new accelerating unit was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. The simulation results show that the accelerating unit improves both the spatial and temporal resolution. Compared to a traditional SIT, the transit time spread for electrons in the cathode-to-mesh region is reduced from 247 to 162 fs, the line width of the electron beam on the image surface is reduced from 42.7 to 26.1 m, and the temporal resolution is improved from 515 to 395 fs.

  6. Fatigue in Breakwater Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of rubble mound breakwaters depends on the hydraulic stability and the mechanical strength of the armour units. The paper deals with the important aspect of fatigue related to the strength of concrete armour units. Results showing significant fatigue from impact tests with Dolosse...... made of unreinforced and steel fibre reinforced flyash concrete are presented. Moreover universal graphs for fatigue in armour units made of conventional unreinforced concrete exposed to impact load and pulsating load are presented. The effect of fibre reinforcement and the implementation of fatigue...

  7. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  8. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  9. Organic Chemicals Showed Different Price Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Phenol In early August 2007, China's phenol price remained bullish. With the increase of imported goods and the restart of phenol/acetone unit in Harbin Branch Company of BlueStar New Chemical Materials Co., Ltd., the market supply increased and the pace of phenol came down.

  10. Electronic Unit Pump Test Bench Development and Pump Properties Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; HUANG Ying; ZHANG Fu-jun; ZHAO Chang-lu

    2006-01-01

    A unit pump test bench is developed on an in-line pump test platform. The bench is composed of pump adapting assembly, fuel supply subsystem, lubricating subsystem and a control unit. A crank angle domain injection control method is given out and the control accuracy can be 0.1° crank degree. The bench can test bot h mechanical unit pump and electronic unit pump. A test model-PLD12 electronic unit pump is tested. Full pump delivery map and some influence factors test is d one. Experimental results show that the injection quantity is linear with the de livery angle. The quantity change rate is 15% when fuel temperature increases 30℃. The delivery quantity per cycle increases 30mg at 28V drive voltage. T he average delivery difference for two same type pumps is 5%. Test results show that the bench can be used for unit pump verification.

  11. Human spinal cord injury : motor unit properties and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C. K.; Bakels, R.; Klein, C. S.; Zijdewind, I.

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in widespread variation in muscle function. Review of motor unit data shows that changes in the amount and balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs after SCI alter management of motoneurons. Not only are units recruited up to higher than usual relative forces when

  12. Human spinal cord injury : motor unit properties and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, C. K.; Bakels, R.; Klein, C. S.; Zijdewind, I.

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in widespread variation in muscle function. Review of motor unit data shows that changes in the amount and balance of excitatory and inhibitory inputs after SCI alter management of motoneurons. Not only are units recruited up to higher than usual relative forces when

  13. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  14. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  15. Landscape geochemistry near mineralized areas of eastern Alaska: Chapter H in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bronwen; Gough, Larry P.; Wanty, Richard B.; Crock, James G.; Lee, Gregory K.; Day, Warren C.; Vohden, Jim

    2007-01-01

    The Pogo lode gold deposit was discovered in eastern Alaska in the early 1990s and provided the opportunity to study elemental distribution and mobility in the natural environment prior to mine development. Studying mineralized systems prior to mining allows us to compare the natural biogeochemical signature in mineralized versus nonmineralized areas. The resultant data and interpretation also provide a baseline for evaluating what, if any, changes in elemental distribution result from development. This report investigates the chemistry of stream water, streambed sediment, and soil in the context of regional bedrock geology. The major-ion chemistry of the waters reflects a rock-dominated aqueous system, and the waters are classified as Ca2+ and Mg2+ - HCO3- to Ca2+ and Mg2+ - SO4-2 waters. Creeks draining the gneissic lithologies tend to be more sulfate dominated than those draining the intrusive units. Sulfate also dominated creeks draining mineralized areas; however, the underlying paragneiss unit could be contributing substantially to the sulfate concentration, and the sulfate concentration in these creeks may reflect a complex baltholith-paragneiss boundary rather than mineralization. Arsenic concentrations in bed sediments were elevated in mineralized areas relative to nonmineralized areas. Elevated concentrations of nickel, chromium, iron, manganese, and cobalt appear to reflect the presence of ultramafic rocks in the drainage. In general, aqueous metal concentrations were below the State of Alaska’s Aquatic Life Criteria and Drinking Water Standards, with the exception of arsenic in stream water, which ranged in concentration from less than 1 to 14 micrograms per liter (μg/L) and exceeded the drinking water standard at one site. The arsenic and antimony concentration in the A, B, and C soil horizons ranged from 3 to 410 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), 6.1 to 440 mg/kg, and 2 to 300 mg/kg, respectively, for arsenic and 0.4 to 24 mg/kg, 0.6 to 25 mg

  16. Internal event analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant. Accident sequence quantification and results; Analisis de eventos internos para la Unidad 1 de la Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde. Cuantificacion de secuencias de accidente y resultados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta B, A.; Aguilar T, O.; Nunez C, A.; Lopez M, R. [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1994-07-01

    The Level 1 results of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant PRA are presented in the {sup I}nternal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant, CNSNS-TR 004, in five volumes. The reports are organized as follows: CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 1: Introduction and Methodology. CNSNS-TR4 Volume 2: Initiating Event and Accident Sequences. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 3: System Analysis. CNSNS-TR 004 Volume 4: Accident Sequence Quantification and Results. CNSNS-TR 005 Volume 5: Appendices A, B and C. This volume presents the development of the dependent failure analysis, the treatment of the support system dependencies, the identification of the shared-components dependencies, and the treatment of the common cause failure. It is also presented the identification of the main human actions considered along with the possible recovery actions included. The development of the data base and the assumptions and limitations in the data base are also described in this volume. The accident sequences quantification process and the resolution of the core vulnerable sequences are presented. In this volume, the source and treatment of uncertainties associated with failure rates, component unavailabilities, initiating event frequencies, and human error probabilities are also presented. Finally, the main results and conclusions for the Internal Event Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The total core damage frequency calculated is 9.03x 10-5 per year for internal events. The most dominant accident sequences found are the transients involving the loss of offsite power, the station blackout accidents, and the anticipated transients without SCRAM (ATWS). (Author)

  17. Contamination during production of heater-cooler units by Mycobacterium chimaera potential cause for invasive cardiovascular infections: results of an outbreak investigation in Germany, April 2015 to February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Sebastian; Höller, Christiane; Jacobshagen, Anja; Hamouda, Osamah; Abu Sin, Muna; Monnet, Dominique L; Plachouras, Diamantis; Eckmanns, Tim

    2016-04-28

    Invasive infections with Mycobacterium chimaera were reported in patients with previous open chest surgery and exposure to contaminated heater-cooler units (HCUs). We present results of the surveillance of clinical cases and of contaminated HCUs as well as environmental investigations in Germany up until February 2016. Clinical infections occurred in five male German cases over 50 years of age (range 53-80). Cases had been exposed to HCUs from one single manufacturer during open chest surgery up to five years prior to onset of symptoms. During environmental investigations, M. chimaera was detected in samples from used HCUs from three different countries and samples from new HCUs as well as in the environment at the manufacturing site of one manufacturer in Germany. Our investigation suggests that at least some of the M. chimaera infections may have been caused by contamination of HCUs at manufacturing site. We recommend that until sustainable measures for safe use of HCUs in operation theatres are implemented, users continue to adhere to instructions for use of HCUs and Field Safety Notices issued by the manufacturer, implement local monitoring for bacterial contamination and continuously check the websites of national and European authorities for current recommendations for the safe operation of HCUs.

  18. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  19. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  20. Unit Values in International Trade and Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the unit value of traded goods representative of quality? To answer this question, we analyze unit value with respect to exporter country’s capacity to export, which is determined by its production cost, tariff, and distance. The change in a country’s export unit value is decomposed into the components associated with pure term-of-trade effect, quality effect, distance effect, and production cost effect. Our empirical results confirm that tariff, distance, and wages all significantly affect the unit values. Furthermore, by comparing CIF and FOB unit values, we show that quality is an important contributor on driving up the unit values: exporters increase unit price to distant trading partners through quality upgrading. This “Washington apple effect” is much larger than the pure distance effect or production cost increase.

  1. Revised FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004) 2018-SR-02-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Bailey

    2011-10-27

    (ORISE) site visit to Fermi 1 in November 2010. The survey was strategically planned during a Unit 2 (Fermi 2) outage to take advantage of decreased radiation levels that were observed and attributed to Fermi 2 from the operating unit during the first site visit. However, during the second visit there were elevated radiation levels observed and attributed to the partially dismantled Fermi 1 reactor vessel and a waste storage box located on the 3rd floor of the Fermi 1 Turbine Building. Confirmatory surveys (unshielded) performed directly in the line of sight of these areas were affected. The objective of the confirmatory survey was to verify that the final radiological conditions were accurately and adequately described in Final Status Survey (FSS) documentation, relative to the established release criteria. This objective was achieved by performing document reviews, as well as independent measurements and sampling. Specifically, documentation of the planning, implementation, and results of the FSS were evaluated; side-by-side FSS measurement and source comparisons were performed; site areas were evaluated relative to appropriate FSS classification; and areas were assessed for residual, undocumented contamination.

  2. Groundwater quality data in 15 GAMA study units: results from the 2006–10 Initial sampling and the 2009–13 resampling of wells, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert

    2015-08-31

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). From May 2004 to March 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples from more than 2,300 wells in 35 study units across the State. Selected wells in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. This triennial (every 3 years) trend sampling of GAMA-PBP study units concluded in December 2013. Fifteen of the study units, initially sampled between January 2006 and June 2010 and sampled a second time between April 2009 and April 2013 to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.

  3. Taking Aim at Asthma Around the World: Global Results of the Asthma Insight and Management Survey in the Asia-Pacific Region, Latin America, Europe, Canada, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Robert A; Thompson, Philip J; Price, David; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Salvi, Sundeep; González-Díaz, Sandra; Maspero, Jorge F; Moreno-Cantu, Jorge J; Fish, James E; Murphy, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a worldwide health problem, can be controlled if properly diagnosed and managed. Multinational surveys conducted in patients with asthma from 1998 to 2003 indicated that asthma was inadequately controlled. The Asthma Insight and Management (AIM) study represents the largest survey conducted on patients with asthma since 2003. The objective of this study was to assess findings from the United States (US), Europe and Canada (EUCAN), Latin America (LA), and the Asia-Pacific (AP) region surveys to identify differences and similarities with earlier surveys on patients with asthma. The US, EUCAN, LA, and AP AIM surveys conducted from 2009 to 2011 all used a common set of questions. Responses to these are reported as proportions of patients with asthma for each country individually, and as totals for all regions. Results are presented as mean/median proportions for US, EUCAN, LA, and AP survey populations individually. Global medians and the range of regional response values are also described. A total of 10,302 patients or parents of adolescents with asthma were interviewed. Approximately one-quarter reported daytime symptoms daily or on most days over the previous 4 weeks. Globally, a median of 67% (range, 27%-88%) of patients perceived their asthma as completely and/or well controlled, but a median of only 9% (range, 0%-29%) of patients had well-controlled asthma using criteria from asthma guidelines. A majority (≥60%) of patients felt that quick-relief medication could be used daily if needed, contrary to guideline recommendations. Patients exhibited a lack of knowledge and conviction for treatment recommendations and guidelines that was relatively uniform across the regions, similar to earlier survey findings. These results reveal an ongoing need for improvement in asthma care and education in most populations. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  5. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  6. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...

  7. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  8. MRI shows clodronate-liposomes attenuating liverinjuryinratswithsevereacutepancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Yong Zhang; Xin Sha; Li-Rong Zhang; Chuan-She Wei; Min Chen; De-Li Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed that macrophages play an important role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Activated macrophages can lead to a systemic inlfammatory response, induce lipid peroxidation, impair membrane structure, result in injury to the liver and the other extrahepatic organs, and eventually result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome by promoting excessive secretion of cytokines. Liver injury can further aggravate the systemic inlfammatory response and increase mortality by affecting the metabolism of toxins and the release of excessive inlfammatory mediators. Clodronate is a synthetic bisphosphonate, which is often used for treating bone changes caused by osteoporosis and other factors. In the current study, we created liposomes containing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) for macrophage labeling and magnetic resonance imaging, using a novel method that can bind the clodronate to induce apoptosis and deplete macrophages. METHODS: Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation. SPIO-containing liposomes and SPIO-clodronate-containing liposomes were prepared by the thin iflm method. SAP models were prepared by injection of sodium taurocholate (2 ml/kg body weight) into the subcapsular space of the pancreas. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, a SAP plus SPIO-liposome group, and a SAP plus SPIO-clodronate-containing group. Two and six hours after SAP models were available, T2-weighted MRI scans (in the same plane) of the livers of rats in each group were performed. At the end of the scans, 2 ml of blood was taken from the superior mesenteric vein to measure the levels of serum amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and IL-6. Pathological changes in the liver and pancreas were assessed. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes had a uniform size. No pathological changes in the pancreata of rats in the control group were noted. The

  9. Adalimumab improves health-related quality of life in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis compared with the United States general population norms: Results from a randomized, controlled Phase III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnam Neesha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the impact of adalimumab on health-related quality of life (HRQOL for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Background Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory, immune-mediated disease that has a significant impact on patients' HRQOL. Adalimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that blocks tumor necrosis factor, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, and is effective and well-tolerated for patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Methods Data were obtained for a secondary analysis of patients in a randomized, controlled Phase III trial evaluating the effect of adalimumab in patients with psoriasis (N = 1,205. Patients with moderate to severe psoriasis were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to adalimumab 80 mg (two 40 mg injections administered subcutaneously at baseline followed by one 40 mg injection every other week from Week 1 to Week 15 or placebo. Short Form-36 (SF-36 Health Survey scores of psoriasis patients were used to assess HRQOL and were compared with United States (US population norms at baseline and Week 16. Results Baseline Physical Component Summary (PCS scores for the placebo and adalimumab groups were similar to the general US population. Baseline mean Mental Component Summary (MCS scores were significantly lower for the adalimumab and placebo groups compared with the general population (47.4, 47.7, and 50.8 points, respectively; p Conclusion Psoriasis has a broad impact on patient functioning and well-being. Improvement in skin lesions and joint symptoms associated with adalimumab treatment was accompanied by improvements in HRQOL to levels that were similar to or greater than those of the general US population. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00237887

  10. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  11. Reassortment between Swine H3N2 and 2009 Pandemic H1N1 in the United States Resulted in Influenza A Viruses with Diverse Genetic Constellations with Variable Virulence in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajão, Daniela S; Walia, Rasna R; Campbell, Brian; Gauger, Phillip C; Janas-Martindale, Alicia; Killian, Mary Lea; Vincent, Amy L

    2017-02-15

    Repeated spillovers of the H1N1 pandemic virus (H1N1pdm09) from humans to pigs resulted in substantial evolution of influenza A viruses infecting swine, contributing to the genetic and antigenic diversity of influenza A viruses (IAV) currently circulating in swine. The reassortment with endemic swine viruses and maintenance of some of the H1N1pdm09 internal genes resulted in the circulation of different genomic constellations in pigs. Here, we performed a whole-genome phylogenetic analysis of 368 IAV circulating in swine from 2009 to 2016 in the United States. We identified 44 different genotypes, with the most common genotype (32.33%) containing a clade IV-A HA gene, a 2002-lineage NA gene, an M-pdm09 gene, and remaining gene segments of triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) origin. To understand how different genetic constellations may relate to viral fitness, we compared the pathogenesis and transmission in pigs of six representative genotypes. Although all six genotypes efficiently infected pigs, they resulted in different degrees of pathology and viral shedding. These results highlight the vast H3N2 genetic diversity circulating in U.S. swine after 2009. This diversity has important implications in the control of this disease by the swine industry, as well as a potential risk for public health if swine-adapted viruses with H1N1pdm09 genes have an increased risk to humans, as occurred in the 2011-2012 and 2016 human variant H3N2v cases associated with exhibition swine. People continue to spread the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm09) IAV to pigs, allowing H1N1pdm09 to reassort with endemic swine IAV. In this study, we determined the 8 gene combinations of swine H3N2 IAV detected from 2009 to 2016. We identified 44 different genotypes of H3N2, the majority of which contained at least one H1N1pdm09 gene segment. We compared six representative genotypes of H3N2 in pigs. All six genotypes efficiently infected pigs, but they resulted in different degrees of lung damage

  12. Establishment of the community stroke rehabilitation unit and evaluation of its operational result%社区脑卒中康复单元的建立及运行效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓琼; 王琛; 毕真真; 顾祎敏; 靳令经; 金荣祥; 陈林波; 刘轶蕾

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of the community stroke rehabilitation unit (CSRU) on the community home rehabilitation of the patients with the stroke. Methods:Taking the permanent residents as the research objects, 86 patients left with the physical disabilities who had the new stroke were divided into group A and B with 43 cases each. The group A was intervened with the community stroke rehabilitation unit model and the group B was cared at home with the conventional method. The ability of the daily life activities and satisfaction of the patients and their family members for the CSRU of two groups were compared. Results:The score of the ability of the daily life activities of the group A was obviously higher after 3 and 6 months than that of the group B (P>0.05). The scores of the working ability, concern and communication, health education and satisfaction of the group A were signiifcantly higher than those of the group B (P<0.05). Conclusion:The model of CSRU can signiifcantly enhance the ability of the daily living activities of the stroke patients with the physical disabilities, and satisfaction of the patients and their family members.%目的:探讨社区康复单元对脑卒中患者社区家庭康复的效果。方法:以常住居民为研究对象,将86例留有肢体残疾的新发脑卒中患者分为A、B两组各43例,A组按社区脑卒中康复单元模式进行干预,B组进行常规的脑卒中家庭照顾。比较两组患者的日常生活活动能力、患者及家属对社区脑卒中康复单元工作的满意度。结果:A组患者治疗3、6个月后日常生活活动能力评分明显高于B组(P<0.05)。A组患者工作能力、关爱与沟通、健康教育及满意度总得分均明显高于B组(P<0.05)。结论:社区脑卒中康复单元的康复模式可明显提升脑卒中肢残患者日常生活活动能力、患者及家属满意度。

  13. Fabrics China Creation Show Hold in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On August 5-6th.the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show(one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,aiming to providing textile producers and designers a platform to show their inspirations and creative ideas in fabric design.

  14. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  15. Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit: analysis and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen; Fang, Fang; Tian, Liang; Fu, Caifen; Liu, Jizhen

    2008-04-01

    Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit is discussed in this paper. Based on the nonlinear model of the unit, this paper analyzes the nonlinearity of the unit, and selects the appropriate operating points so that the linear controller can achieve wide-range performance. Simulation and experimental results at the No. 4 Unit at the Dalate Power Plant show that the linear controller can achieve the desired performance under a specific range of load variations.

  16. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in combination with a twice-daily lopinavir-ritonavir-based regimen in HIV-infected women showed effective contraception and a lack of clinically significant interactions, with good safety and tolerability: results of the ACTG 5283 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Amneris E; Cohn, Susan E; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cramer, Yoninah; Weinberg, Adriana; Livingston, Elizabeth; Klingman, Karin L; Aweeka, Francesca; Watts, D Heather

    2015-04-01

    We conducted an open-label, steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) study of drug-drug interactions between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and twice-daily lopinavir (LPV) plus low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (LPV/r) among 24 HIV-infected women and compared the results to those for HIV-infected women receiving DMPA while on no antiretroviral therapy or on nucleosides only (n = 14 subjects from the control arm of AIDS Clinical Trials Group [ACTG] study 5093). The objectives of the study were to address the effect of LPV/r on DMPA and to address the effect of DMPA on LPV/r therapy. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental analysis with between-group comparisons of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) PKs and within-subject comparisons of LPV and RTV PKs before and 4 weeks after DMPA dosing. Plasma progesterone concentrations were measured every 2 weeks after DMPA dosing through week 12. Although the MPA area under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentration of drug in plasma were statistically significantly increased in the study women on LPV/r compared to those in the historical controls, these increases were not considered clinically significant. There were no changes in LPV or RTV exposure after DMPA. DMPA was well tolerated, and suppression of ovulation was maintained. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01296152.). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron M.; MacInnes, Erin; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Drug poisoning is the leading method of suicide-related deaths among females and third among males in the United States. Alcohol can increase the severity of drug poisonings, yet the prevalence of alcohol overdoses in suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDP) remains unclear. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined to determine rates…

  18. Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron M.; MacInnes, Erin; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Drug poisoning is the leading method of suicide-related deaths among females and third among males in the United States. Alcohol can increase the severity of drug poisonings, yet the prevalence of alcohol overdoses in suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDP) remains unclear. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined to determine rates…

  19. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  20. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  1. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  2. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  3. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  4. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  5. Fabrics China Creation Show Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On August 5-6th,the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show (one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,

  6. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-01-01

    In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars) that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private s...

  7. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  8. Sexual behaviour, recreational drug use and hepatitis C co-infection in HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men in the United Kingdom: results from the ASTRA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Daskalopoulou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM in the United Kingdom is ongoing. We explore associations between self-reported sexual behaviours and drug use with cumulative HCV prevalence, as well as new HCV diagnosis. Methods: ASTRA is a cross-sectional questionnaire study including 2,248 HIV-diagnosed MSM under care in the United Kingdom during 2011–2012. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, HIV-related and sexual behaviour data were collected during the study. One thousand seven hundred and fifty two (≥70% of the MSM who consented to linkage of ASTRA and clinical information (prior to and post questionnaire were included. Cumulative prevalence of HCV was defined as any positive anti-HCV or HCV-RNA test result at any point prior to questionnaire completion. We excluded 536 participants with clinical records only after questionnaire completion. Among the remaining 1,216 MSM, we describe associations of self-reported sexual behaviours and recreational drug use in the three months prior to ASTRA with cumulative HCV prevalence, using modified Poisson regression with robust error variances. New HCV was defined as any positive anti-HCV or HCV-RNA after questionnaire completion. We excluded 591 MSM who reported ever having a HCV diagnosis at questionnaire, any positive HCV result prior to questionnaire or did not have any HCV tests after the questionnaire. Among the remaining 1,195 MSM, we describe occurrence of new HCV diagnosis during follow-up according to self-reported sexual behaviours and recreational drug use three months prior to questionnaire (Fisher's exact test. Results: Cumulative HCV prevalence among MSM prior to ASTRA was 13.3% (95% CI 11.5–15.4. Clinic- and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (95% CI for cumulative HCV prevalence were 4.6 (3.1–6.7 for methamphetamine, 6.5 (3.5–12.1 for injection drugs, 2.3 (1.6–3.4 for gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB, 1.6 (1.3–2.0 for nitrites, 1

  9. An Analysis of Newborn Hearing Screening Results In Obstetrics and Neonatal Intensive Care Units%正常和重症监护病房新生儿听力筛查结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永宏; 劳霞; 杨福均

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the results of newborn hearing screening in obstetrics and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was used to undertake initial screening to the newborns between 2 ~ 5 days at our hospital and the initial screening to the newborns at the neonatal intensive care unit after conditions were stabilized. Those who failed to pass the initial screening received rescreening on the 42nd day. For the newborn failed in the rescreening, they would be transferred to provincial hospitals for auditory brainstem response (ABR) and/or auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) examination when they were 3 months old. Results 3 668 newborn out of 3 778 in the obstetrics department received hearing screening. The initial screening rate was 97. 09% (3 668/3 778). 342 cases failed in their initial screening, with the positive rate of 9. 32% (342/3 668); 342 received a rescreening but actually 144 cases were undertaken the rescreening with the rescreening rate at 42. 11% (144/342). 40 cases failed in a repetitive screening, with the positive rate of 27. 7% (40/ 144). Referral 25 cases, eventually diagnosed congenital hearing loss in 7 cases 1. 91‰(7/3 668), 2 665 cases of newborn at NICU received initial hearing screening with an initial screening rate of 100%, of whom 330 cases failed in the initial hearing screening, with a positive rate of 12. 3% (330/2 665). 330 cases for a repetitive screening with only 46 cases received actual screening, and the screening rate was 13, 94% (46/330), 8 cases failed in a rescreening, with a positive rate of 7. 39% (8/46). The actual referral in 6,eventually diagnosed congenital hearing loss in 2 cases 0. 75‰(2/2 665) ,of whom, one newborn suffered hypoxic Sachemic encephalopathy, and the other case suffered severe neonatal asphyxia. Altogether 9 cases have hearing loss in the two groups, with total hearing loss rate of 1. 42‰(9/6 333). 6 had mild hearing loss, 2 severe and

  10. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  11. Trainable unit selection speech synthesis under statistical framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG RenHua; DAI LiRong; LING ZhenHua; HU Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a trainable unit selection speech synthesis method based on statistical modeling framework. At training stage, acoustic features are extracted from the training database and statistical models are estimated for each feature. During synthesis, the optimal candidate unit sequence is searched out from the database following the maximum likelihood criterion derived from the trained models. Finally, the waveforms of the optimal candidate units are concatenated to produce synthetic speech. Experiment results show that this method can improve the automation of system construction and naturalness of synthetic speech effectively compared with the conventional unit selection synthe-sis method. Furthermore, this paper presents a minimum unit selection error model training criterion according to the characteristics of unit selection speech synthesis and adopts discriminative training for model parameter estimation. This criterion can finally achieve the full automation of system con-struction and improve the naturalness of synthetic speech further.

  12. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  13. Simulation shows hospitals that cooperate on infection control obtain better results than hospitals acting alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S; Brown, Shawn T; Potter, Margaret A; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called "contact isolation," these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital's decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals--which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way--could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own.

  14. Interpreting Reading Comprehension Test Results: Quantile Regression Shows That Explanatory Factors Can Vary with Performance Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Anh N.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important findings to emerge from recent reading comprehension research is that there are large differences between tests in what they assess--specifically, the extent to which performance depends on word recognition versus listening comprehension skills. Because this research used ordinary least squares regression, it is not clear…

  15. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  16. Results from a survey of the South African GISc community show ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serena Coetzee

    the GISc community fulfil roles of data analysis and interpretation, together with data .... The subsections of section 4 answer the research questions: 1) 4.1 and 4.3 ...... 2. Map use and evaluation. 3. Raster backdrops;. Principles of map design.

  17. Are Corporate Universities (CU possible in emerging countries? A survey conducted in Argentina showed impacting results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro A. Viltard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At the time of our investigation, the CU was not a widespread concept in Argentina, being viewed as a “foreign - far long project” (coming from developed countries and standing for the long term. It is suggested that the rate of CU evolution, in emerging countries like Argentina, is more related to mentality issues than to CU strategic or operative limitations. Although the executives who replied to a survey were not the only power factor in their organization, their comments allow us to think that, in those countries, the CU may have a better future perspective. The research used a quali-quantitative methodology, which was based on a survey to top executives of different kinds of companies located in Argentina. The research design was not experimental and transversal, as it was limited to a specific moment in time.

  18. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  19. Instructor Quality and EMT Certification Examination Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Dickison, Phil; Levine, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS) provides a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the United States. This study examines the relationship between instructor quality and National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians certification examination outcomes. Results show significant…

  20. 2007-2011年麻醉恢复室空气监测结果分析%Analysis of results of air monitoring in post anesthesia care unit between 2007 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳; 蔡建芬

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To retrospectively analyze the results of the air testing in the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) from 2007 to 2011 so as to explore the impact of the air quality on the incidence of such complication as the infections during the recovery from anesthesia. METHODS The air in the PACU was disinfected in accordance with the rules and regulations, the temperature in the room maintained between 22 ℃ and 25 ℃, with the relative humidity varying from 40% to 60%. The air samples on the tablet were cultured in the incubator, and the bacterial identification was performed by French BioMerieux VITEK microbial identification system. RESULTS A total of 300 samples were expected to be investigated, and 278 samples were actually investigated, accounting for 92.67%, among which there were 110 sterile samples, 134 samples with the bacterial colony count below 200 CFU/m3 , 24 samples with the bacterial colony counts ranging from 200 CFU/m3 to 500 CFU/m3 , and 10 samples with the bacterial colony count above 500 CFU/m3 , with the mean bacterial colony count of (86. 2±33. 8) CFU/ m3. A total of 175 strains of pathogens were isolated, and the Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the three species of predominant pathogens, accounting for 30. 29% , 20. 57% , and 16. 57%, respectively. CONCLUSION The air quality is relatively stable in the PACU during 2007 - 2011, however, the microbial contamination remains serious, thus the disinfection and isolation system should be made sound so as to reduce the incidence of infections.%目的 回顾性分析2007-2011年麻醉恢复室的空气检测结果,探讨麻醉恢复室空气质量对麻醉恢复期患者发生感染等并发症的影响.方法 依据麻醉恢复室的规章制度进行空气消毒,室内温度保持在22~25℃,相对湿度在40%60%,将采集好空气样本的平板置于培养箱中进行培养,细菌鉴定采用法国生物梅里埃公司

  1. Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit: Results of One Third-grade Class-A Hospital in Beijing%北京某三级甲等医院ICU患者家属满意度调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛敬雪; 赵红

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to understand family members' satisfaction with the care that they and their critically ill relative received, and to provide scientific basis for the quality improvement of health care services in the future. Methods: The Chinese Version of Wasser critical Care family Satisfaction Survey (CCFSS) was used to survey all the participants matched with the inclusion criteria. The data obtained are computed and analyzed via SPSS Version 17.0. Results: 145 family members of ICU patients finished the questionnaires ,of which 83 was men, and 62 was women. The family members had a high level of satisfaction (Median± IQR, 91± 9), results among the 5 aspects of the family member satisfaction, the main satisfactions were comfort ( 5± 0.50), assurance (4.75± 0.625), support (4.67± 0.50), and information (4.40± 0.60), and proximity (4.33± 0.67); Families reported the greatest satisfaction with "Quality of care given to my family member", the satisfaction rate is 100%, the lowest satisfaction with "Flexibility of visiting hours". Conclusion: Most family members were highly satisfied with the current health care services in the intensive care unit. Efforts to improve the communication with families and the doctor-nurse collaboration are likely to lead to improvements in satisfaction and quality care.%目的:了解ICU患者家属对现有医疗护理服务质量的满意程度,为今后医疗护理服务质量的改善提供科学的依据.方法:采用Wasser的”危重患者家属满意度量表”中文版对符合入选标准的危重患者家属进行问卷调查.运用SPSS17.0进行统计分析.结果:共145名ICU患者家属完成问卷,其中男性83名,女性62名.危重患者家属满意度量表总得分很高(91±9),五个因子得分从高到低依次是舒适(5±0.50)、病情保证(4.75±0.625)、获得支持(4.67±0.50)、获取信息(4.40±0.60)和接近患者(4.33±0.67);其中满意度最高的一项”护士护理病人

  2. 霍山县2010-2011年医疗机构消毒质量监测结果分析%Analysis of monitoring results of disinfection effects in medical units from 2010 to 2011 in Huoshan County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方丽雯; 李光江

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析霍山县2010~2011年医疗机构消毒质量情况,找出消毒工作存在的问题,为预防和控制医源性感染提供依据。方法:依据卫生部《消毒技术规范》、《医疗消毒卫生标准》和《消毒与灭菌效果的评价方法与标准》,对20家医疗机构采集的空气、物体表面、医护人员手、使用中消毒液、高压蒸汽灭菌、紫外线照度样品共计285份,通过检测,评价消毒效果。结果:285份样品中合格228份,总合格率80%,不同样本监测合格率分别为空气合格率58.54%,操作台面合格率72.73%,医护人员手合格率73.77%,使用中消毒液合格率98.21%,高压蒸汽灭菌合格率90.00%,紫外线照度合格率87.50%。结论:应加强手术室空气消毒工作,医护人员手和操作台面是今后消毒工作的重点,要经常开展医务人员消毒知识培训,定期监督检查,提高消毒质量。%Objective:To analyze monitoring results of disinfection quality situation from 2010-2011 in Huoshan, find out the problems existing in medical unit and put forward some measures to prevent or control the nosocomial in-fection. Methods:Disinfection effect was randomly monitored and evaluated according to the Ministry of Health"Technical Standard for Disinfection(2002)","Hygienic Standard for Disinfection in Hospitals"(GB15982-1995)and"Evaluation Method and Standard for the Efficacy of Disinfection and sterilization"(GB15981-1995). A total of 285 samplings from air, surface of objects, hands of medical staff, disinfectant being used, sterilization of medical supplies, pressure seam sterilizer and UV lamp were collected in 20 medical institutions. After detection, we evaluated the dis-infection effects. Results: In 285 samplings, qualified 228,the passing rate of 80%. qualified rate of monitor different sample types:the qualified rate of air passing rate of 58.54%, hands of medical staff qualified rate 73

  3. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  4. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  5. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  6. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  7. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  8. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...) a

  9. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  10. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  11. Combinations of Intervention Treatments Resulting in 5-Log10-Unit Reductions in Numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 Organisms in Apple Cider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, Heidi E.; Ingham, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently mandated a warning statement on packaged fruit juices not treated to reduce target pathogen populations by 5 log10 units. This study describes combinations of intervention treatments that reduced concentrations of mixtures of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (strains ATCC 43895, C7927, and USDA-FSIS-380-94) or Salmonella typhimurium DT104 (DT104b, U302, and DT104) by 5 log10 units in apple cider with a pH of 3.3, 3.7, and 4.1. Treatments used were short-term storage at 4, 25, or 35°C and/or freeze-thawing (48 h at −20°C; 4 h at 4°C) of cider with or without added organic acids (0.1% lactic acid, sorbic acid [SA], or propionic acid). Treatments more severe than those for S. typhimurium DT104 were always required to destroy E. coli O157:H7. In pH 3.3 apple cider, a 5-log10-unit reduction in E. coli O157:H7 cell numbers was achieved by freeze-thawing or 6-h 35°C treatments. In pH 3.7 cider the 5-log10-unit reduction followed freeze-thawing combined with either 6 h at 4°C, 2 h at 25°C, or 1 h at 35°C or 6 h at 35°C alone. A 5-log10-unit reduction occurred in pH 4.1 cider after the following treatments: 6 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 12 h at 25°C plus freeze-thawing, SA plus 6 h at 35°C, and SA plus 4 h at 35°C plus freeze-thawing. Yeast and mold counts did not increase significantly (P Cider with no added organic acids treated with either 6 h at 35°C, freeze-thawing or their combination was always preferred by consumers over pasteurized cider (P cider without pasteurization and would not require the FDA-mandated warning statement. PMID:10223981

  12. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maccarini, Alessandro; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an active beam model suitable for building energy simulations with the programming language Modelica. The model encapsulates empirical equations derived by a novel active beam terminal unit that operates with low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling systems....... Measurements from a full-scale experiment are used to compare the thermal behavior of the active beam with the one predicted by simulations. The simulation results show that the model corresponds closely with the actual operation. The model predicts the outlet water temperature of the active beam...... with a maximum mean absolute error of 0.18 °C. In term of maximum mean absolute percentage error, simulation results differ by 0.9%. The methodology presented is general enough to be applied for modeling other active beam units. Modeling of active beam units with Modelica. Available from: https...

  13. Accretion Discs Show Their True Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Quasars are the brilliant cores of remote galaxies, at the hearts of which lie supermassive black holes that can generate enough power to outshine the Sun a trillion times. These mighty power sources are fuelled by interstellar gas, thought to be sucked into the hole from a surrounding 'accretion disc'. A paper in this week's issue of the journal Nature, partly based on observations collected with ESO's Very Large Telescope, verifies a long-standing prediction about the intensely luminous radiation emitted by these accretion discs. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 21/08 Uncovering the inner disc "Astronomers were puzzled by the fact that the best models of these discs couldn't quite be reconciled with some of the observations, in particular, with the fact that these discs did not appear as blue as they should be," explains lead-author Makoto Kishimoto. Such a discrepancy could be the signal that there was something very wrong with the models. With his colleagues, he investigated this discrepancy by studying the polarised light from six quasars. This enabled them to demonstrate that the disc spectrum is as blue as predicted. "The crucial observational difficulty here has been that the disc is surrounded by a much larger torus containing hot dust, whose light partly outshines that of the disc," says Kishimoto. "Because the light coming from the disc is scattered in the disc vicinity and thus polarised, by observing only polarised light from the quasars, one can uncover the buried light from the disc." In a similar way that a fisherman would wear polarised sunglasses to help get rid of the glare from the water surface and allow him to see more clearly under the water, the filter on the telescope allowed the astronomers to see beyond surrounding clouds of dust and gas to the blue colour of the disc in infrared light. The observations were done with the FORS and ISAAC instruments on one of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope, located in the Atacama

  14. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  15. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  16. 2009 Hands Across Pacific Show Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 Hands Across the Pacific Show co-sponsored by the Canadian International Cultural Exchanges (CICEX) and Hunan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(HPPAFFC) was held respectively in the Tower Hall of Tokyo,Japan from July 2 to 7 and in the Hunan Provincial Museum from August 1 to 5.Jing Dunquan,Vice President of the

  17. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  18. DIY identity kit: the Great American Lesbian Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2010-01-01

    The Great American Lesbian Art Show, which opened at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles in May 1980, was conceived to increase visibility for lesbian artists, and to forge bonds among lesbians across the United States. It comprised a curated Invitational of ten artists and scores of regional GALAS events mounted simultaneously by women from Boston to Honolulu. The art on view, documented in a slide archive, staged a critique of contemporary gender norms. Participating artists represented lesbian identities that claimed universality while they reflected the artists' particularized experience of woman-identification and sexual desire.

  19. Astronomers Make "Movie" of Radio Images Showing Supernova Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Astronomers using an international network of radio telescopes have produced a "movie" showing details of the expansion of debris from an exploding star. Their sequence of images constitutes the best determination yet made of the details of a new supernova remnant, and already has raised new questions about such events. The scientists used radio telescopes in Europe and the United States, including the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to make very high- resolution images of Supernova 1993J, which was discovered by a Spanish amateur astronomer on March 28, 1993 in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major. Their results are reported in the December 1 issue of the journal Science. The "movie" is based on five images of the supernova, made during 1993 and 1994. The work was done by: Jon Marcaide and Eduardo Ros of the University of Valencia, Spain; Antxon Alberdi of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Institute of Astrophysics at Andalucia, Spain; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Irwin Shapiro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Jose-Carlos Guirado, Dayton Jones and Robert Preston of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA; Thomas Krichbaum and Arno Witzel of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany; Franco Mantovani of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy; Antonio Rius of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Center for Advanced Studies at Blanes, Spain; Richard Schilizzi of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands; Corrado Trigilio of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Noto, Italy; and Alan Whitney of the MIT- Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts. The capability to make such high-quality images with widely

  20. Bite my art to show your love

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye yeon

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, I came to the States for MFA program in UCSD. At first, I started making instructions for performance to communicate with people in my clumsy English, but it soon became my general process of working. In this show, I present a room surrounded by five video projections and drawings. They are documentation of performances concerning the balance of relationship. I performed two with Josh Aaron, other two with Josh Tonies, and one by myself. The performance done by myself reveals t...

  1. Showing and Saying. An Aesthetic Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein’s distinction between saying and showing and the associated thesis, what can be shown cannot be said, were crucial to his first philosophy, persisted throughout the evolution of his whole thought and played a key role in his views on aesthetics. The objective of art is access to the mystical, forcing us to become aware of the uniqueness of our own experience and life. When art is good is a perfect expression and the work of art becomes like a tautology. An important consequence of this understanding of art is the irreducibility of the aesthetic to the scientific perspective.

  2. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  3. Is water in dental units microbiologically safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Michałkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water supplied to the dental units must be of sufficient quality. The article presents the results of the microbiological analysis of cold municipal water which flows into a patient’s disposable mouthwash cup, and demineralized water which flows through a waterline into the tool panel of a dental unit from the tank placed in the water group. Material and Methods: In order to assess the degree of purity (impurities of water used in dental units, 2 series of microbiological tests were carried out in 6 dental surgeries from April to June, 2013. The water samples for microbiological testing were collected into sterile microbiological bottles in accordance with the current methodology. The water for the tests was collected from a sterile cup-filling tap (municipal water and from an air/water syringe (demineralized water. The bacteria were cultured according to the Polish Standards – PN-EN ISO 6222, PN-EN ISO 9308-1, and PN-EN ISO 16266. Results: In the tested samples of water numerous psychrophilic bacteria (max 29 100 CFU/ml and mesophilic bacteria (max 24 700 CFU/ml, including single coliforms, were found. Conclusions: The results show that water delivered to a dental unit should be periodically tested bacteriologically and in terms of physical and chemical properties. Water systems of dental units should also be periodically disinfected to eliminate bacteria and biofilm. Med Pr 2015;66(6:763–770

  4. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  5. MeDITA - A methodology for the characterisation of air handling units - The method and its results; MeDITA - Methode de diagnostic des installations de traitement d'air - La methode et ses resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roulet, C.-A.; Pibiri, M.-C. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), LESO-PB, Lausanne (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4Tech, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2000-09-01

    A methodology, procedures and instruments were developed to measure as easily as possible the characteristics of air handling units. This method allows assessment of the following characteristics: main air flow rates, recirculation rate, leakage rate, shortcuts, mean age of the air in the ventilated zone and ventilation efficiency, fan power efficiency, and heat recovery efficiency. The measurement of air flow rates is based on the tracer gas dilution method, the tracer gas being injected either at constant rate or in a pulse. A computer program helps in planning and interpreting the measurements. (author)

  6. FINAL–REPORT NO. 2: INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATORY SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS FOR THE ENRICO FERMI ATOMIC POWER PLANT, UNIT 1, NEWPORT, MICHIGAN (DOCKET NO. 50 16; RFTA 10-004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Bailey

    2011-07-07

    The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 (Fermi 1) was a fast breeder reactor design that was cooled by sodium and operated at essentially atmospheric pressure. On May 10, 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) granted an operating license, DPR-9, to the Power Reactor Development Company (PRDC), a consortium specifically formed to own and operate a nuclear reactor at the Fermi 1 site. The reactor was designed for a maximum capability of 430 megawatts (MW); however, the maximum reactor power with the first core loading (Core A) was 200 MW. The primary system was filled with sodium in December 1960 and criticality was achieved in August 1963.

  7. Reports show fewer pallets entering landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    2010-01-01

    Information from a series of Virginia Tech studies reveals current trends in core utilization by the pallet industry. The most recent report released this year studied trends from 2006. Virginia Tech researchers compared these results to five previous studies going all the way back to 1992.

  8. An Interactive Multimedia Tutorial Teaching Unit and Its Effects on Student Perception and Understanding of Chemical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtacnik, M.; Sajovec, M.; Dolnicar, D.; Pucko-Razdevsek, C.; Glazar, A.; Brouwer, N. Zupancic

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of teaching with an interactive tutorial multimedia unit on students' understanding of concepts presented in the unit and their perceptions of the learning environment. Discusses the results and concludes that the multimedia unit shows promising effects on students' acquisition of knowledge. (CMK)

  9. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  10. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  11. Figure of Beijing ABP Showing up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Last year, there were many good news from Beijing Advanced Business Park(ABP): on October 29, 2005, Xu Weiping, Chairman of the Board of ABP, was chosen as the"2005 Ten Major Chinese Administrative Person in News";On November 8,2005,CCIM (American Certified Commercial Investment Member) invited 40 world famous real estate investors to visit ABS and they showed will to cooperate; On November 22, 2005, Johnson Controls, Inc., one of World Top 500, signed the contract with Zhongguan Village Fengtai Garden that the headquarter of JCI energy administration China Branch will move to ABP to improve the energy administration and radiate all the nation; on December 10,2005, "CEO Salon" co-organized by Phoenix Satellite Television and ABP, was held in the meeting room of ABP, over 120CEOs met here to discuss the trend of China economic development and the development opportunities brought by 11th Five-Year Plan for enterprises.

  12. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  13. Nature's Late-Night Light Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carolyn Collins

    2002-09-01

    In addition to stars and planets, there are other interesting lights to be seen in the night sky. The northern and southern lights, called the aurora borealis and aurora australis, are created by charged particles from the Sun reacting in Earth's magnetic field. Night-shining clouds or noctilucent clouds appear at evening twilight as a result of water vapor in the polar mesosphere. Zodiacal light can be seen stretching up from the horizon after sunset or before sunrise.

  14. Counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit cooperating with wind power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tengen; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

    This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In this paper, the tandem impellers of the counter-rotating type pumping unit was operated at the turbine mode, and the performances and the flow conditions were investigated numerically and experimentally. The 3-D turbulent flows in the runners were simulated at the steady state condition by using the commercial CFD code of ANSYS-CFX ver.12 with the SST turbulence model. While providing the pump unit for the turbine mode, the maximum hydraulic efficiency is close to one of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. Besides, the runner/impeller of the unit works evidently so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that through the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes. These results show that this type of unit is effective to work at not only the pumping but also the turbine modes.

  15. Fungal outbreak in a show cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, V; Porca, E; Cuezva, S; Fernandez-Cortes, A; Sanchez-Moral, S; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    2010-08-01

    Castañar de Ibor Cave (Spain) was discovered in 1967 and declared a Natural Monument in 1997. In 2003 the cave was opened to public visits. Despite of extensive control, on 26 August 2008 the cave walls and sediments appeared colonized by long, white fungal mycelia. This event was the result of an accidental input of detritus on the afternoon of 24 August 2008. We report here a fungal outbreak initiated by Mucor circinelloides and Fusarium solani and the methods used to control it.

  16. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  17. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  19. Implicaciones criminológicas de los casos legales recibidos en una unidad de Psiquiatría: Resultados preliminares/ Legal cases received in a Psychiatric unit and it’s criminological implications: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalis Tibisay Parra Izarra (Venezuela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio descriptivo de tipo cuantitativo y de carácter retrospectivo, de la frecuencia con la que las instituciones de control social formal refieren “casos legales” a la Unidad de Psiquiatría del Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (IAHULA, en Mérida, Venezuela, desde 1996 hasta el 2009, encontrando un aumento exponencial de estas demandas en el transcurso de los catorce años estudiados, con un total de 2216 referencias, correspondiendo el mayor número al Consejo de Protección del Niño, Niña y Adolescente (CPNNA (55%, como también a quien la Consulta Externa de Psiquiatría le envió el mayor número de respuestas (42%, de igual manera el CPNNA fue la institución con más solicitudes de evaluación psicológica (50,6%. El delito no fue mencionado en la gran mayoría (88,1% de referencias legales de las instituciones de control social formal. Concluyendo que hay pertinencia criminológica en los “casos legales” referidos a la Unidad de Psiquiatría del IAHULA y, se sugiere, que un profesional como el criminólogo clínico, de ser considerado en ambas instancias, pudiera fungir de puente entre la Unidad de Psiquiatría y las instituciones de control social formal. There is realized a descriptive study of quantitative type and of retrospective character, of the frequency with which the institutions of social formal control recount “legal cases” to the Psychiatry Unit of the IAHULA, in Merida, Venezuela, from 1996 until 2009, finding an exponential increase of these demands in the course of fourteen studied years, with a total of 2216 references, corresponding the major number to the Protection Advice of the Child, Girl and Teenager (PACGT (55%, since also to whom the External Consultation of Psychiatry sent the major number of answers (42%, of equal way PACGT it was the Institution with more requests of psychological evaluation (50,6%. The crime was not mentioned in the great majority (88

  20. Food neophobia shows heritable variation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Kallela, Mikko; Wessman, Maija; Peltonen, Leena; Cherkas, Lynn F; Spector, Tim D; Perola, Markus

    2007-08-15

    Food neophobia refers to reluctance to eat unfamiliar foods. We determined the heritability of food neophobia in a family and a twin sample. The family sample consisted of 28 Finnish families (105 females, 50 males, aged 18-78 years, mean age 49 years) and the twin sample of 468 British female twin pairs (211 monozygous and 257 dizygous pairs, aged 17-82 years, mean age 55 years). Food neophobia was measured using the ten-item Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) questionnaire, and its internationally validated six-item modification. The heritability estimate for food neophobia was 69 and 66% in Finnish families (h(2)) and 67 and 66% in British female twins (a(2)+d(2)) using the ten- and six-item versions of the FNS, respectively. The results from both populations suggest that about two thirds of variation in food neophobia is genetically determined.

  1. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification.

  2. STD studies show spermicides protect against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Evidence which suggests that spermicides provide protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is accumulating. Laboratory tests have repeatedly demonstrated that spermicides are capable of killing the bacteria responsible for several types of STDs, as well as the virus responsible for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Recently, studies conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and in New York City suggest that these protective effects are not confined to the laboratory but that they also occur among women who use spermicides in the real world. In the New York City study, Family Health International (FHI), using data collected by Planned Parenthood of New York City, compared STD prevalence rates for women using different contraceptive methods. Women who used spermicides, in comparison with women who used oral contraceptives (OCs), were 20% less likely to have contracted a STD, 30% less likely to have gonorrhea, and 60% less likely to have chlamydia. In the Thai study, conducted jointly by the FHI and the Ministry of Health, women at high risk of STDs were allocated either to a group which was instructed to use a vaginal sponge impregnated with nonoxynol-9 during intercourse or to a control group which received no vaginal contraceptives. All the women were either sterilized or using OCs, IUDs, or injectable contraceptives. Preliminary results suggest that the women who used the vaginal sponges were significantly less likely to contract chlamydia than the control group. In regard to the incidence of gonorrhea, no differences between the 2 groups was detected. In the Thai study methodological problems forced the researchers to redesign the study. In accordance with the new design, the women in the 2 groups will be crossed over after 6 weeks. This will allow the researchers to examine the effect of using or not using a vaginal spermicide on specific individuals. The findings of the 2 studies have special relevance given the increasing prevalence of STDs in many

  3. Showing Emulsion Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1996-09-01

    Foods are mixtures of different chemical compounds, and the quality we sense (taste, texture, color, etc.) are all manifestations of its chemical properties. Some of them can be visualized with the aid of simple, safe and inexpensive experiments using dairy products that can be found in any kitchen and using almost exclusively kitchen utensils. In this paper we propose some of them related with food emulsions. Food emulsions cover an extremely wide area of daily-life applications such as milk, sauces, dressings and beverages. Experimentation with some culinary recipes to prepare them and the analyisis of the observed results is close to ideal subject for the introduction of chemical principles, allowing to discuss about the nature and composition of foods, the effects of additives, etc. At the same time it allows to get insights into the scientific reasons that underlie on the recipes (something that it is not usually found in most cookbooks). For example, when making an emulsion like mayonnaise, why the egg yolks and water are the first materials in the bowl , and the oil is added to them rather than in the other way around? How you can "rescue" separate emulsions (mayonnaise)? Which parameters affect emulsion stability? Since safety, in its broad sense, is the first requisite for any food, concerns about food exist throughout the world and the more we are aware of our everyday life, the more likely we will be to deal productively with the consequences. On the other hand, understanding what foods are and how cooking works destroys no delightful mystery of the art of cuisine, instead the mystery expands.

  4. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  5. Analysis of efficiency of own and franchised units in the Spanish franchise system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Díez Uli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we try to answer a key question: what are the more efficient units in franchising: owned or franchised? The literature on this specific field is very limited. To compare the efficiency of owned and franchised units we use the following variables: average sales per unit, average sales per employee and the average number of employees per unit for owned and franchised establishments. The analyses are carried out using the population of franchise chains, a database with the 1232 franchise chains existing in Spain at the end of 2015 has been created for this purpose. The results show the higher efficiency of owned regarding franchised units.

  6. Two sex-chromosome-linked microsatellite loci show geographic variance among North American Ostrinia nubilalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad S. Coates

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available PCR-based O. nubilalis population and pedigree analysis indicated female specificity of a (GAAAATn microsatellite, and male specificity of a CAYCARCGTCACTAA repeat unit marker. These loci were respectively named Ostrinia nubilalis W-chromosome 1 (ONW1 and O. nubilalis Z-chromosome 1 (ONZ1. Intact repeats of three, four, or five GAAAAT units are present among ONW1 alleles, and biallelic variation exists at the ONZ1 locus. Screening of 493 male at ONZ1 and 448 heterogametic females at ONZ1 and ONW1 loci from eleven North American sample sites was used to construct genotypic data. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and F-statistics indicated no female haplotype or male ONZ1 allele frequency differentiation between voltinism ecotypes. Four subpopulations from northern latitudes, Minnesota and South Dakota, showed the absence of a single female haplotype, a significant deviation of ONZ1 data from Hardy-Weinberg expectation, and low-level geographic divergence from other subpopulations. Low ONZ1 and ONW1 allele diversity could be attributed either to large repeat unit sizes, low repeat number, reduced effective population (Ne size of sex chromosomes, or the result of recent O. nubilalis introduction and population expansion, but likely could not be due to inbreeding. These sequences have been deposited in GenBank AF442958, and AY102618 to AY102620.

  7. Quantifying show jumping horse rider expertise using IMUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M; Doyle, J; Cahill, E; Caulfield, B; McCarthy Persson, U

    2010-01-01

    Horse rider ability has long been measured using horse performance, competition results and visual observation. Scientific methods of measuring rider ability on the flat are emerging such as measuring position angles and harmony of the horse-rider system. To date no research has quantified rider ability in show jumping. Kinematic analysis and motion sensors have been used in sports other than show jumping to measure the quality of motor control patterns in humans. The aim of this study was to quantify rider ability in show jumping using body-mounted IMUs. Preliminary results indicate that there are clear differences in experienced and novice riders during show jumping.

  8. A Finer Classification of the Unit Sum Number of the Ring of Integers of Quadratic Fields and Complex Cubic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahid Ashrafi

    2009-06-01

    The unit sum number, $u(R)$, of a ring is the least such that every element is the sum of units; if there is no such then $u(R)$ is or ∞ depending on whether the units generate additively or not. Here we introduce a finer classification for the unit sum number of a ring and in this new classification we completely determine the unit sum number of the ring of integers of a quadratic field. Further we obtain some results on cubic complex fields which one can decide whether the unit sum number is or ∞. Then we present some examples showing that all possibilities can occur.

  9. A hair prosthesis consisting of allogeneic hair and polypropylene mimicking follicular units: long-term result and histocompatibility in rabbits%自主研发的毛囊单位样结构可移植假发的组织相容性及长期移植效果的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宇; 胡志奇; 冯传波; 鲁峰; 刘戈; 张志丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a follicular unit-like construct with allogeneic hair, evaluate its histocompatibility and long-term stability after transplantation, and explore the possibility of its clinical application. Methods Human hair and medical polypropylene was processed according to the structure of follicular units and prepared into hair prostheses for transplantation. The histocompatibility of polypropylene and human hair in New Zealand rabbits was observed by HE staining and scanning electron microscope, and the loss rate of the hair was recorded to evaluate the long-term result of transplantation. Results Mild inflammatory cell infiltration around polypropylene and human hair was observed early after the transplantation, accompanied with local epithelial cell proliferation. The prosthesis mimicking the follicular units still showed good histocompatibility one year after the transplantation without degradation of the hair. The loss rate of the hair was averaged (4.1±4.0)% at one year after the transplantation, and the total appearance of the prosthesis remained satisfactory. Conclusion Allogeneic human hair and polypropylene in the hair prosthesis show good histocompatibility in rabbits. The prosthesis allows good cosmetic effect after transplantation with low rate of hair loss, demonstrating its potential in clinical application.%目的 研发出携带同种异体毛发的毛囊单位样假发可移植物,观察其植入后的组织相容性及长期移植的稳定性,探索其工业化生产并应用于临床的可能.方法 将人发和医用聚丙烯按毛囊单位样结构挤压成型,并加工成毛囊单位样假发可移植物.移植于新西兰大白兔,通过HE和电镜扫描观察聚丙烯及人发的组织相容性及长期移植效果.结果 移植后早期可见轻度炎症反应细胞浸润于聚丙烯和人发周围,并伴有局部上皮细胞增生.移植后1年仍保持良好的组织相容性,未发现人发的降

  10. UNIT TRUST FUND'S INITIAL SERVICE CHARGE AND ITS DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adiana Hiau Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the variables that might explain the initial service charge (ISC imposed on unit-holders of Malaysian unit trust funds in the year 1999. By using 39 openend unit trust funds, customer service and board structure variables are found to have asignificant effect in explaining the variations of ISC. Financial performance variables do not seem to have any influence on the level of ISC charged to the unit-holders. Our results also showed that funds which charged higher ISC do not necessarily provide higher returns to investors. Furthermore, there are unit trust funds that are having an initial service charge beyond the maximum 10% level required by the Securities Commissions or did not fulfil the independent directors requirement.

  11. Research on Test Unit for Determining Cooling Characteristics of Quenchants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin-lin; ZHANG Wei-min; CHEN Nai-lu; LIU Zhan-cang; LIU Yang

    2004-01-01

    According to ASTM Designation DXXXX Standard Test Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quenchants by Cooling Curve Analysis with Agitation (Drayton Unit), a test unit was designed using which the cooling characteristics of a quenchant at different flow rates and different temperatures can be determined. We discussed the effects of flow rate and temperature on cooling characteristics of fast speed quenching oil. The results show that this unit can be well used for determining cooling characteristics of quechants at different flow rates and different temperatures. At the same time our investigation can provide a reference to the establishment of a standard for determination of cooling characteristics of quenchants with agitation.

  12. [Nurses' role in the therapeutic team of stroke units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köpke, Sascha; Dehning, Kathrin; Molsen, Nadine; Möhler, Ralph; Kasper, Jürgen; Meyer, Gabriele

    2009-02-01

    Over the last decade, stroke units have been increasingly established in Germany. Within these units, nurses have been identified as having a crucial role in the coordination of multi-professional team activities. However, currently very little data exists to support this fact; therefore, a questionnaire was developed to assess various aspects of the nurses' role within the multi-professional team, including cooperation with other team members (e.g., communication behaviour and acceptance within the multi-professional team), contribution to team and unit organisation, and impact on patient recovery. A total of 55 multi-disciplinary staff members from three separate stroke units completed the questionnaire. Results showed that staff have comparable estimates concerning the nurses' level of interdisciplinary cooperation. As well, nurses and other non-medical staff rate nurses' contribution to unit organisation comparably high while physicians' ratings of nurses' contribution are lower. The professional groups' ratings of the nurses' contribution to patient recovery vary. The results indicate that German stroke unit nurses contribute significantly to stroke unit care by acting as coordinators of the unit organisation for various multi professional team members.

  13. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEMATANGAN (MATURITY LEVELS UNIT LAYANAN PENGADAAN KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Uma Darmapramita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government procurement of goods and service is governed by presidential regulation number 70 year of 2012.  According to that, in Badung Regency implemented centralized in Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency. As the one of Indonesia procurement unit pilot, Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency has given the opportunity to perform a self assessment of its  maturity levels as government unit. The objective of this research is to find factors that influence Procuremet Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, and also to find out in what level is Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency stand. Data collection for this research have done by  using questionnaire that involve 50 respondents who understand very well about the duties and function of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency to perform a government procurement of good and services. The data analysis have been performed by use of factor analysis and supported by SPSS program. The result shows there are 3 factors that influent the Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, which are : the synergy and organization culture, resources and risk management and organization’s performance development.  Whereas the maturity levels of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency is stand at compliance. Based to the factors that formed, the highly commitment and strong leadership of Badung Regency leader are very decisive to push ahead the enhancement  and  the development of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency.  First thing can be done is to establish an independent Procurement Service Unit therewith its Procurement Unit Development road maps that can be tiered and sustainable plan, monitor and evaluate

  14. Low resource ventilation unit; Ressourcebesparende ventilationsenhed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drivsholm, C.

    2012-03-15

    In the project a resource-saving ventilation device was developed which is based on the use of a regenerator and a reversible air flow. The regenerator is placed in the building envelope, and the concept works in the way that the heat in the air during ventilation is stored in the regenerator and brought back into the building by a reversible air change. The heated air is blown from inside the building out through the regenerator. In this way the regenerator accumulates the heat in the air. Over a period of 30-120 seconds, the regenerator capacity is utilized. When the regenerator cannot be further heated, the air flow is reversed and there is now blown cold air through the regenerator. Thereby the heat from the regenerator is released to the cold fresh air. Thus, the fresh air brings heat back into the building, whereby the air is replaced with a limited heat loss. Ventilation with a regenerator is described as micro-ventilation. The developed micro-ventilation unit was tested by the Danish Technological Institute. The test results shows that the unit performs according to expectations: 1) The heat recovery is 85%; 2) The flow through the unit is 80m3 per hour in a 5 section unit; 3) The noise level is 30 db(A) in a representative room; 4) The energy consumption is <300 J/m3. The unit is introduced into the market, and the first plants have been sold. (LN)

  15. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  16. A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallapaneni S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

  17. Results of a monitoring program of continuous water levels and physical water properties at the Operable Unit 1 area of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, water years 2000-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    The Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer, in south-central New Hampshire, is an important source of industrial, commercial, and domestic water. The MSGD aquifer was also an important source of drinking water for the town of Milford until it was found to contain high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Savage and Keyes municipal-supply wells in the early 1980s. A VOC plume was found to cover part of the southwestern half of the MSGD aquifer. In September 1984, the site was designated a Superfund site, called the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site. The primary source area of contaminants was a former tool manufacturing facility (called the OK Tool facility, and now called the Operable Unit 1 (OU1) area) that disposed of solvents at the surface and in the subsurface. The facility was closed in 1987 and removed in 1998. A low-permeability containment barrier wall was constructed and installed in the overburden (MSGD aquifer) in 1998 to encapsulate the highest concentrations of VOCs, and a pump-and-treat remediation facility was also added. Remedial operations of extraction and injection wells started in May 1999. A network of water-level monitoring sites was implemented in water year 2000 (October 1, 1999, through September 30, 2000) in the OU1 area to help assess the effectiveness of remedial operations to mitigate the VOC plume, and to evaluate the effect of the barrier wall and remedial operations on the hydraulic connections across the barrier and between the overburden and underlying bedrock. Remedial extraction and injections wells inside and outside the barrier help isolate ground-water flow inside the barrier and the further spreading of VOCs. This report summarizes both continuous and selected periodic manual measurements of water level and physical water properties (specific conductance and water temperature) for 10 monitoring locations during water years 2000-03. Additional periodic manual measurements of water levels were

  18. Methods for evaluating temporal groundwater quality data and results of decadal-scale changes in chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the United States, 1988-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Rupert, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Decadal-scale changes in groundwater quality were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Samples of groundwater collected from wells during 1988-2000 - a first sampling event representing the decade ending the 20th century - were compared on a pair-wise basis to samples from the same wells collected during 2001-2010 - a second sampling event representing the decade beginning the 21st century. The data set consists of samples from 1,236 wells in 56 well networks, representing major aquifers and urban and agricultural land-use areas, with analytical results for chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate. Statistical analysis was done on a network basis rather than by individual wells. Although spanning slightly more or less than a 10-year period, the two-sample comparison between the first and second sampling events is referred to as an analysis of decadal-scale change based on a step-trend analysis. The 22 principal aquifers represented by these 56 networks account for nearly 80 percent of the estimated withdrawals of groundwater used for drinking-water supply in the Nation. Well networks where decadal-scale changes in concentrations were statistically significant were identified using the Wilcoxon-Pratt signed-rank test. For the statistical analysis of chloride, dissolved solids, and nitrate concentrations at the network level, more than half revealed no statistically significant change over the decadal period. However, for networks that had statistically significant changes, increased concentrations outnumbered decreased concentrations by a large margin. Statistically significant increases of chloride concentrations were identified for 43 percent of 56 networks. Dissolved solids concentrations increased significantly in 41 percent of the 54 networks with dissolved solids data, and nitrate concentrations increased significantly in 23 percent of 56 networks. At least one of the three - chloride, dissolved solids, or

  19. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  20. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  1. Pretrial Hippocampal ?-State Differentiates Single-Unit Response Profiles during Rabbit Trace Eyeblink Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchese, Joseph J.; Darling, Ryan D.; Berry, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning given in the explicit presence of hippocampal ? results in accelerated learning and enhanced multiple-unit responses, with slower learning and suppression of unit activity under non-? conditions. Recordings from putative pyramidal cells during ?-contingent training show that pretrial ?-state is linked to the probability of…

  2. Study and Commercial Application of Graded Optimization of Catalysts for Fixed Bed Residue Upgrading Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Zhaoming; Jiang Lijing

    2007-01-01

    The SHIFT-G technology of inverse catalyst loading is used to optimize the catalyst grading in the residue hydrotreating unit.The results,taken from pilot tests and commercial units,have showed that the optimized catalyst grading system can reasonably distribute the reaction load,effectively improve the properties of hydrotreated products,prolong the operating cycle and promote economic benefits.

  3. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine......" protocol was directed toward improving ICU environment between 10pm and 6am. Noise levels during control and intervention nights were recorded. Patients on mechanical ventilation and able to give consent were eligible for the study. We monitored sleep by PSG.The standard (American Association of Sleep...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...

  4. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  5. Mission Reliability of Suspect Electrical Units Established Using Censored Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, E.; Paden, R. S.; Womack, J. W.; Ni, Y.

    2004-08-01

    A number of electronics units built for a spacecraft experienced performance degradation after acceptance thermal cycling due to cracked solder joints. Detailed finite-element stress and fatigue analyses showed that the combination of poorly formed solder joints and gold embrittlement was the main cause of the cracked joints. Since removal and repair of all similar units already integrated on a spacecraft would have resulted in a severe schedule slip, a risk assessment was first conducted. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the probability of failure during mission operations based on: (1) the test thermal cyclic history of all failed and operational units, (2) the test thermal cyclic exposure of the units awaiting launch, and (3) the expected thermal cyclic environment during the orbital mission. The statistical analysis was based on a Weibull failure distribution with an assumed shape parameter and a maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) for the scale parameter. Fatigue equivalency analysis was used to relate the fatigue damage for the large thermal excursions that the units were subjected to during ground testing and the smaller thermal shifts expected during the mission. The investigation showed that the risk of unit failure during the mission was low. Further mitigation of this risk was shown to be achievable by changing orbital operational procedures to limit the thermal swings that these units will be exposed to during the mission.

  6. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  7. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  8. Optimizing Combination of Units Commitment Based on Improved Genetic Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yifei; ZHANG Qianhua; JIA Junping

    2007-01-01

    GAs are general purpose optimization techniques based on principles inspired from the biological evolution using metaphors of mechanisms, such as natural selection, genetic recombination and survival of the fittest. By use of coding betterment, the dynamic changes of the mutation rate and the crossover probability, the dynamic choice of subsistence, the reservation of the optimal fitness value, a modified genetic algorithm for optimizing combination of units in thermal power plants is proposed.And through taking examples, test result are analyzed and compared with results of some different algorithms. Numerical results show available value for the unit commitment problem with examples.

  9. U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service testing for Salmonella in selected raw meat and poultry products in the United States, 1998 through 2003: analysis of set results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Barlow, Kristina E; Eblen, Denise R; Teter, Vanessa; Umholtz, Robert

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) tests sets of samples of selected raw meat and poultry products for Salmonella to ensure that federally inspected establishments meet performance standards defined in the pathogen reduction-hazard analysis and critical control point system (PR-HACCP) final rule. In the present report, sample set results are described and associations between set failure and set and establishment characteristics are identified for 4,607 sample sets collected from 1998 through 2003. Sample sets were obtained from seven product classes: broiler chicken carcasses (n = 1,010), cow and bull carcasses (n = 240), market hog carcasses (n = 560), steer and heifer carcasses (n = 123), ground beef (n = 2,527), ground chicken (n = 31), and ground turkey (n = 116). Of these 4,607 sample sets, 92% (4,255) were collected as part of random testing efforts (A sets), and 93% (4,166) passed. However, the percentage of positive samples relative to the maximum number of positive results allowable in a set increased over time for broilers but decreased or stayed the same for the other product classes. Three factors associated with set failure were identified: establishment size, product class, and year. Set failures were more likely early in the testing program (relative to 2003). Small and very small establishments were more likely to fail than large ones. Set failure was less likely in ground beef than in other product classes. Despite an overall decline in set failures through 2003, these results highlight the need for continued vigilance to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chicken and continued implementation of programs designed to assist small and very small establishments with PR-HACCP compliance issues.

  10. Current practice in the management of acute/unstable slipped capital femoral epiphyses in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands: results of a survey of the membership of the British Society of Children's Orthopaedic Surgery and the Werkgroep Kinder Orthopaedie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbreuk, Melinda; Besselaar, Philip; Eastwood, Deborah

    2007-03-01

    A questionnaire was sent to all members of the British Society for Children's Orthopaedic Surgery and the Werkgroep Kinder Orthopaedie to identify points of agreement/disagreement on the management of the acute unstable slip of the upper femoral epiphysis and to compare these European results with those from a similar North American survey. Sixty-five per cent responded. Overall, both countries evaluated cases similarly and believed in their urgent management. Sixty-six per cent did not reposition the slip. Significant differences were observed in attitude towards single screw usage, prophylactic pinning and metalwork removal both between the two countries and in comparison with North America.

  11. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  12. Enceladus Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here are some results from the Spectra Decomposition Algorithm on infrared spectral images of Saturn's moon Enceladus. Figure 1 is the spatial contribution of the...

  13. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female), the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade). The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude ...

  14. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female), the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade). The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude ...

  15. Novel Bipolar Conjugated Polymer Containing Both Triphenylamine and Oxadizole Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A novel bipolar conjugated polymer containing triphenylamine and 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole units was synthesized by Suzuki reaction. Its structure and properties were characterized by NMR, IR, UV-Vis, PL spectroscopy and electrochemical measurement. The photoluminescent spectroscopy and cyclic voltammograms measurement demonstrated that the resulting polymer shows blue emission (477 nm) and possesses both electron and hole-transporting property.

  16. Optimization of unit commitment based on genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 初壮

    2002-01-01

    How to solve unit commitment and load dispatch of power system by genetic algorithms is discussed in this paper. A combination encoding scheme of binary encoding and floating number encoding and corresponding genetic operators are developed. Meanwhile a contract mapping genetic algorithm is used to enhance traditional GA' s convergence. The result of a practical example shows that this algorithm is effective.

  17. China's Propaganda in the United States during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kuo-jen

    Drawing data from a variety of sources, a study was undertaken to place China's propaganda activities in the United States during World War II into a historical perspective. Results showed that China's propaganda efforts consisted of official and unofficial activities and activities directed toward overseas Chinese. The official activities were…

  18. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power

  19. Dedicated auxiliary power units for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de

    1998-01-01

    The use of a dedicated auxiliary power unit is essential to utilize the potential that hybrid vehicles offer for efficient and ultra-clean transportation. An example of a hybrid project at the TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute shows the development and the results of a dedicated auxiliary power u

  20. 论美国《塔夫脱—哈特莱法》产生的原因及后果%On Causes and Results of the Introduction of Taft-Hartley Bill in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞芝; 白建才

    2012-01-01

    美国国会于1947年通过的《塔夫脱—哈特莱法》是在冷战大背景下提出的,它既有深刻的经济原因,也是冷战期间一部典型的具有浓烈反共意识形态色彩的反劳工立法。该法修订了1935年保护劳工利益的《瓦格纳法》,维护了大企业主和统治集团的既得利益,以反共为由侵犯了工人组织罢工、集体谈判等政治和经济权利,导致工会内部分裂,工人力量削弱,造成严重后果。美国工人和工会对此做出了坚决回应,强烈抗议法案的通过,彰显了美国工人阶级的反抗精神。%It was against the background of Cold War that the U.S.Congress introduced Taft-Hartley Bill.This was a typical anti-labour act with deep-set anti-communist ideology.The bill revised the 1935 Wagner Bill aiming to protect labour interests by adding articles to defend the existing interests of heads of big enterprises and ruling groups,causing grave causes and results.For instance,it,in an anti-communist disguise,violated the workers' political and economic rights to organize strikes and hold collective talks,directly leading to internal separation of trade unions and weakening of worker force.In response to the situation,American workers and trade unions made a determined reaction,delivering strong protests against the introduction of the bill,which gave expression to the resisting spirit of American working class.