WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit replaced tissue

  1. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I

    2015-01-01

    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  2. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement units. 970.31 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement units. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, replacement public housing units may be built on the original public...

  3. MILA Antenna Control Unit Replacement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresette, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    The Air to Ground Subsystem (AGS) Antenna Control Units at the MILA Ground Network Tracking Station are at end-of-life and are being replaced. AGS consists of two antennas at MILA (Quad-Helix and Teltrac). Software was taken from the existing Subsystem Controller and modified for the Antenna Control Unit (ACU). The software is capable of receiving and sending commands to and from the ACU. Moving the azimuth clockwise, counterclockwise, moving the elevation up or down, turning servo power on and off, and inputting azimuth and elevation angles are commands that the antenna can receive.

  4. NIF Laser Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D W

    2003-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is designed with its high value optical systems in cassettes called Line Replaceable Units (LRUs). Virtually all of the NIF's active components are assembled in one of the ∼4000 electrical and optical LRUs that serve between two and eight of NIF's 192 laser beam lines. Many of these LRUs are optomechanical assemblies that are roughly the size of a telephone booth. The primary design challenges for this hardware include meeting stringent mechanical precision, stability and cleanliness requirements. Pre-production units of each LRU type have been fielded on the first bundle of NIF and used to demonstrate that NIF meets its performance objectives. This presentation provides an overview of the NIF LRUs, their design and production plans for building out the remaining NIF bundles

  5. Tissue engineered devices for ligament repair, replacement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential, severe damage warrants surgical intervention including complete replacement. Ligaments are longitudinally arranged, complex tissues; the mechanical properties of ligaments are a direct result of their components and the arrangement of these components in the tissue. It is these mechanics that have made ...

  6. Expediting the transition from replacement medicine to tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coury, Arthur J

    2016-06-01

    In this article, an expansive interpretation of "Tissue Engineering" is proposed which is in congruence with classical and recent published definitions. I further simplify the definition of tissue engineering as: "Exerting systematic control of the body's cells, matrices and fluids." As a consequence, many medical therapies not commonly considered tissue engineering are placed in this category because of their effect on the body's responses. While the progress of tissue engineering strategies is inexorable and generally positive, it has been subject to setbacks as have many important medical therapies. Medical practice is currently undergoing a transition on several fronts (academics, start-up companies, going concerns) from the era of "replacement medicine" where body parts and functions are replaced by mechanical, electrical or chemical therapies to the era of tissue engineering where health is restored by regeneration generation or limitation of the body's tissues and functions by exploiting our expanding knowledge of the body's biological processes to produce natural, healthy outcomes.

  7. Esophageal tissue engineering: a new approach for esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonelli, Giorgia; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Fishman, Jonathan M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Ansari, Tahera; Sibbons, Paul; Birchall, Martin A; Pierro, Agostino; Eaton, Simon; De Coppi, Paolo

    2012-12-21

    A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement. Various surgical techniques, such as gastric and colonic interposition, are standards of treatment, but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems. Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function. We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering, discuss its implications, compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms: stem cell and esophagus, esophageal replacement, esophageal tissue engineering, esophageal substitution. Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information. All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed. Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation. When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality. Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration, whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit. Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds, but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution. Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly suggest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds

  8. Esophageal tissue engineering: A new approach for esophageal replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgia Totonelli; Panagiotis Maghsoudlou; Jonathan M Fishman; Giuseppe Orlando; Tahera Ansari; Paul Sibbons; Martin A Birchall

    2012-01-01

    A number of congenital and acquired disorders require esophageal tissue replacement.Various surgical techniques,such as gastric and colonic interposition,are standards of treatment,but frequently complicated by stenosis and other problems.Regenerative medicine approaches facilitate the use of biological constructs to replace or regenerate normal tissue function.We review the literature of esophageal tissue engineering,discuss its implications,compare the methodologies that have been employed and suggest possible directions for the future.Medline,Embase,the Cochrane Library,National Research Register and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched with the following search terms:stem cell and esophagus,esophageal replacement,esophageal tissue engineering,esophageal substitution.Reference lists of papers identified were also examined and experts in this field contacted for further information.All full-text articles in English of all potentially relevant abstracts were reviewed.Tissue engineering has involved acellular scaffolds that were either transplanted with the aim of being repopulated by host cells or seeded prior to transplantation.When acellular scaffolds were used to replace patch and short tubular defects they allowed epithelial and partial muscular migration whereas when employed for long tubular defects the results were poor leading to an increased rate of stenosis and mortality.Stenting has been shown as an effective means to reduce stenotic changes and promote cell migration,whilst omental wrapping to induce vascularization of the construct has an uncertain benefit.Decellularized matrices have been recently suggested as the optimal choice for scaffolds,but smart polymers that will incorporate signalling to promote cell-scaffold interaction may provide a more reproducible and available solution.Results in animal models that have used seeded scaffolds strongly suggest that seeding of both muscle and epithelial cells on scaffolds prior to implantation is a

  9. Alternatives to eye bank native tissue for corneal stromal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Isabelle; Roberts, Cynthia J; Vidal, François; Harissi-Dagher, Mona; Lachaine, Jean; Sheardown, Heather; Durr, Georges M; Proulx, Stéphanie; Griffith, May

    2017-07-01

    Corneal blindness is a major cause of blindness in the world and corneal transplantation is the only widely accepted treatment to restore sight in these eyes. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult for eye banks to meet the increasing demand for transplantable tissue, which is in part due to population aging. Donor tissue shortage is therefore a growing concern globally and there is a need for alternatives to human donor corneas. Biosynthetic corneal substitutes offer several significant advantages over native corneas: Large-scale production offers a powerful potential solution to the severe shortage of human donor corneas worldwide; Good manufacturing practices ensure sterility and quality control; Acellular corneal substitutes circumvent immune rejection induced by allogeneic cells; Optical and biomechanical properties of the implants can be adapted to the clinical need; and finally these corneal substitutes could benefit from new advances in biomaterials science, such as surface coating, functionalization and nanoparticles. This review highlights critical contributions from laboratories working on corneal stromal substitutes. It focuses on synthetic inert prostheses (keratoprostheses), acellular scaffolds with and without enhancement of endogenous regeneration, and cell-based replacements. Accent is put on the physical properties and biocompatibility of these biomaterials, on the functional and clinical outcome once transplanted in vivo in animal or human eyes, as well as on the main challenges of corneal stromal replacement. Regulatory and economic aspects are also discussed. All of these perspectives combined highlight the founding principles of the clinical application of corneal stromal replacement, a concept that has now become reality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seeking optimal renal replacement therapy delivery in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Marinka; Brunet, Fabrice P

    2010-01-01

    Globally, critical care environments within health care organizations strive to provide optimal quality renal replacement therapy (RRT), an artificial replacement for lost kidney function. Examination of RRT delivery model literature and a case study review of the multidisciplinary-mixed RRT delivery model utilized within a closed medical surgical intensive care unit illustrates the organizational and clinical management of specialized resource and multidisciplinary roles. The successful utilization of a specific RRT delivery model is dependent upon resource availability.

  11. Growth versus metabolic tissue replacement in mouse tissues determined by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavoy, S. E.; Jamil, T.; Macko, S. A.; Arneson, L. S.

    2003-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis is becoming an extensively used tool in animal ecology. The isotopes most commonly used for analysis in terrestrial systems are those of carbon and nitrogen, due to differential carbon fractionation in C3 and C4 plants, and the approximately 3‰ enrichment in 15N per trophic level. Although isotope signatures in animal tissues presumably reflect the local food web, analysis is often complicated by differential nutrient routing and fractionation by tissues, and by the possibility that large organisms are not in isotopic equilibrium with the foods available in their immediate environment. Additionally, the rate at which organisms incorporate the isotope signature of a food through both growth and metabolic tissue replacement is largely unknown. In this study we have assessed the rate of carbon and nitrogen isotopic turnover in liver, muscle and blood in mice following a diet change. By determining growth rates, we were able to determine the proportion of tissue turnover caused by growth versus that caused by metabolic tissue replacement. Growth was found to account for approximately 10% of observed tissue turnover in sexually mature mice (Mus musculus). Blood carbon was found to have the shortest half-life (16.9 days), followed by muscle (24.7 days). Liver carbon turnover was not as well described by the exponential decay equations as other tissues. However, substantial liver carbon turnover was observed by the 28th day after diet switch. Surprisingly, these tissues primarily reflect the carbon signature of the protein, rather than carbohydrate, source in their diet. The nitrogen signature in all tissues was enriched by 3 - 5‰ over their dietary protein source, depending on tissue type, and the isotopic turnover rates were comparable to those observed in carbon.

  12. Primary separator replacement for Bruce Unit 8 steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.; Mewdell, C.G.; Schneider, W.G.

    2000-01-01

    During a scheduled maintenance outage of Bruce Unit 8 in 1998, it was discovered that the majority of the original primary steam separators were damaged in two steam generators. The Bruce B steam generators are equipped with GXP type primary cyclone separators of B and W supply. There were localized perforations in the upper part of the separators and large areas of generalized wall thinning. The degradation was indicative of a flow related erosion corrosion mechanism. Although the unit- restart was justified, it was obvious that corrective actions would be necessary because of the number of separators affected and the extent of the degradation. Repair was not considered to be a practical option and it was decided to replace the separators, as required, in Unit 8 steam generators during an advanced scheduled outage. GXP separators were selected for replacement to minimize the impact on steam generator operating characteristics and analysis. The material of construction was upgraded from the original carbon steel to stainless steel to maximize the assurance of full life. The replacement of the separators was a first of a kind operation not only for Ontario Power Generation and B and W but also for all CANDU plants. The paper describes the degradations observed and the assessments, the operating experience, manufacture and installation of the replacement separators. During routine inspection in 1998, many of the primary steam separators in two of steam generators at Bruce Nuclear Division B Unit 8 were observed to have through wall perforations. This paper describes assessment of this condition. It also discusses the manufacture and testing of replacement primary steam separators and the development and execution of the replacement separator installation program. (author)

  13. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  14. Steam generator replacement in Bruce A Unit 1 and Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Bruce A Generating Station consists of four 900 MW class CANDU units. The reactor and Primary Heat Transport System for each Unit are housed within a reinforced concrete reactor vault. A large duct running below the reactor vaults accommodates the shared fuel handling system, and connects the four reactor vaults to the vacuum building. The reactor vaults, fuelling system duct and the vacuum building constitute the station vacuum containment system. Bruce A Unit 2 was shut down in 1995 and Bruce A Units 1, 3 and 4 were shutdown in 1997. Bruce A Units 3 and 4 were returned to service in late 2003 and are currently operating. Units 1 and 2 remain out of service. Bruce Power is currently undertaking a major rehabilitation of Bruce A Unit 1 and Units 2 that will extend the in-service life of these units by at least 25 years. Replacement of the Steam Generators (eight in each unit) is required; this work was awarded to SNC-Lavalin Nuclear (SLN). The existing steam drums (which house the steam separation and drying equipment) will be retained. Unit 2 is scheduled to be synchronized with the grid in 2009, followed by Unit 1 in 2009. Each Bruce A unit has two steam generating assemblies, one located above and to each end of the reactor. Each steam generating assembly consists of a horizontal cylindrical steam drum and four vertical Steam Generators. The vertical Steam Generators connect to individual nozzles that are located on the underside of the Steam Drum (SD). The steam drums are located in concrete shielding structures (steam drum enclosures). The lower sections of the Steam Generators penetrate the top of the reactor vaults: the containment pressure boundary is established by bellows assemblies that connect between the reactor vault roof slab and the Steam Generators. Each Steam Generators is supported from the bottom by a trapeze that is suspended from the reactor vault top structure. The Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) methodology developed by SLN for Unit 1

  15. Reactor Core Internals Replacement of Ikata Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Miyoshi, T.; Takagi, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the reactor core internals replacement project carried out at the Ikata Nuclear Power Station in Japan, which was the first of its kind among PWRs in the world. Failure of baffle former bolts was first reported in 1989 at Bugey 2 in France. Since then, similar incidents have been reported in Belgium and in the U.S., but not in Japan. However, the possibility of these bolts failing in Japanese plants cannot be denied in the future as operating hours increase. Ageing degradation mechanisms for the reactor core internals include irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking of baffle former bolts and mechanical wear of control rod guide cards. Two different approaches can be taken to address these ageing issues: to inspect and repair whenever a problem is found; and to replace the entire core internals with those of a new design having advanced features to prevent ageing degradation problems. The choice of our company was the latter. This paper explains the reasons for the choice and summarizes the replacement project activities at Ikata Units 1 and 2 as well as the improvements incorporated in the new design. (author)

  16. Tissue engineered devices for ligament repair, replacement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... These devices use a wide variety of materials and designs to replicate ligament mechanics and allow for new tissue regeneration. Key words: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), tissue engineering, cells, tensile, stress relaxation, polymer, allograft, xenograft. INTRODUCTION. The anterior cruciate ligament ...

  17. Epimorphic regeneration approach to tissue replacement in adult mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urodeles and fetal mammals are capable of impressive epimorphic regeneration in a variety of tissues, whereas the typical default response to injury in adult mammals consists of inflammation and scar tissue formation. One component of epimorphic regeneration is the recruitment of resident progenitor...

  18. Telemedicine Can Replace the Neurologist on a Mobile Stroke Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Ching; Parker, Stephanie A; Jagolino, Amanda; Yamal, Jose-Miguel; Bowry, Ritvij; Thomas, Abraham; Yu, Amy; Grotta, James C

    2017-02-01

    The BEST-MSU study (Benefits of Stroke Treatment Delivered Using a Mobile Stroke Unit) is a comparative effectiveness trial in patients randomized to mobile stroke unit or standard management. A substudy tested interrater agreement for tissue-type plasminogen activator eligibility between a telemedicine vascular neurologist and onboard vascular neurologist. On scene, both the telemedicine vascular neurologist and onboard vascular neurologist independently evaluated the patient, documenting their tissue-type plasminogen activator treatment decision, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and computed tomographic interpretation. Agreement was determined using Cohen κ statistic. Telemedicine-related technical failures that impeded remote assessment were recorded. Simultaneous and independent telemedicine vascular neurologist and onboard vascular neurologist assessment was attempted in 174 patients. In 4 patients (2%), the telemedicine vascular neurologist could not make a decision because of technical problems. The telemedicine vascular neurologist agreed with the onboard vascular neurologist on 88% of evaluations (κ=0.73). Remote telemedicine vascular neurologist assessment is reliable and accurate, supporting either telemedicine vascular neurologist or onboard vascular neurologist assessment on our mobile stroke unit. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02190500. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Steam generator replacement in Bruce A Unit 1 and Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    The Bruce A Generating Station consists of four 900 MW class CANDU units. The reactor and Primary Heat Transport System for each Unit are housed within a reinforced concrete reactor vault. A large duct running below the reactor vaults accommodates the shared fuel handling system, and connects the four reactor vaults to the vacuum building. The reactor vaults, fuelling system duct and the vacuum building constitute the station vacuum containment system. Bruce A Unit 2 was shut down in 1995 and Bruce A Units 1, 3 and 4 were shutdown in 1997. Bruce A Units 3 and 4 were returned to service in late 2003 and are currently operating. Units 1 and 2 remain out of service. Bruce Power is currently undertaking a major rehabilitation of Bruce A Unit 1 and Unit 2 that will extend the in-service tile of these units by at least 25 years. Replacement of the Steam Generators (eight in each unit) is required; this work was awarded to SNC-Lavalin Nuclear (SLN). The existing steam drums (which house the steam separation and drying equipment) will be retained. Unit 2 is scheduled to be synchronized with the grid in 2009, followed by Unit 1 in 2009. Each Bruce A unit has two steam generating assemblies, one located above and to each end of the reactor. Each steam generating assembly consists of a horizontal cylindrical steam drum and four vertical Steam Generators. The vertical Steam Generators connect to individual nozzles that are located on the underside of the Steam Drum (SD). The steam drums are located in concrete shielding structures (steam drum enclosures). The lower sections of the Steam Generators penetrate the top of the reactor vaults: the containment pressure boundary is established by bellows assemblies that connect between the reactor vault roof slab and the Steam Generators. Each Steam Generators is supported from he bottom by a trapeze that is suspended from the reactor vault top structure. The Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) methodology developed by SLN for Unit 1

  20. Total disc replacement using tissue-engineered intervertebral discs in the canine cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Moriguchi

    Full Text Available The most common reason that adults in the United States see their physician is lower back or neck pain secondary to degenerative disc disease. To date, approaches to treat degenerative disc disease are confined to purely mechanical devices designed to either eliminate or enable flexibility of the diseased motion segment. Tissue engineered intervertebral discs (TE-IVDs have been proposed as an alternative approach and have shown promise in replacing native IVD in the rodent tail spine. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of our TE-IVDs in the canine cervical spine. TE-IVD components were constructed using adult canine annulus fibrosis and nucleus pulposus cells seeded into collagen and alginate hydrogels, respectively. Seeded gels were formed into a single disc unit using molds designed from the geometry of the canine spine. Skeletally mature beagles underwent discectomy with whole IVD resection at levels between C3/4 and C6/7, and were then divided into two groups that received only discectomy or discectomy followed by implantation of TE-IVD. Stably implanted TE-IVDs demonstrated significant retention of disc height and physiological hydration compared to discectomy control. Both 4-week and 16-week histological assessments demonstrated chondrocytic cells surrounded by proteoglycan-rich matrices in the NP and by fibrocartilaginous matrices in the AF portions of implanted TE-IVDs. Integration into host tissue was confirmed over 16 weeks without any signs of immune reaction. Despite the significant biomechanical demands of the beagle cervical spine, our stably implanted TE-IVDs maintained their position, structure and hydration as well as disc height over 16 weeks in vivo.

  1. Skin grafting and tissue replacement for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santema, Trientje B.; Poyck, Paul P. C.; Ubbink, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Foot ulceration is a major problem in people with diabetes and is the leading cause of hospitalisation and limb amputations. Skin grafts and tissue replacements can be used to reconstruct skin defects for people with diabetic foot ulcers in addition to providing them with standard care. Skin

  2. Acceptance test for 900 MWe PWR unit replacement steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourguechon, B.

    1993-01-01

    During the first half of 1994, the Gravelines 1 steam generators will be replaced (SG replacement procedure). The new SG's differ from the former components notably by the alloy used for the tube bundle, in this case, the high chromium content Inconel 690. So, from this standpoint, they are to be considered as PWR 900 replacement SG first models and their thermal efficiency has consequently to be assessed. This will provide an opportunity of ensuring that the performance of the components delivered is in compliance with requirements and of making the necessary provisions if significant deviations are observed. The EFMT branch, which has been in charge of the instrumentation and acceptance of the different SG first models since the first PWR plants were commissioned, will be responsible for the acceptance tests and the ultimate validation of a performance assessment procedure applicable to the future replacement steam generators. The methods and tests proposed for SG expert appraisal are based on consideration of the importance of primary measurement quality for satisfactory SG assessment and of the new test facilities with which the 900 and 1 300 PWR plants are gradually being equipped. These facilities provide an on-site computer environment for tests compatible with the tools (PATTERN, etc.) used at EFMT and in other departments. This test is the first of this kind performed by EFMT and the test facility of a nuclear power plant. (author). 6 figs

  3. Human skeletal muscles replaced to a high degree by white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Keisuke; Kitamura, Hirokazu; Masaki, Takayuki; Tatsukawa, Shuji; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Fujikura, Yoshihisa

    2011-02-01

    Extreme replacement of skeletal muscles by adipose tissue was found in an 86-year old Japanese male cadaver during dissection practice for medical students at Oita University School of Medicine. Especially, the bilateral sartorius muscles looked overall like adipose tissue. The man had suffered from diabetes mellitus, renal failure, hypertension and hypothyroidism before his death. He was also an alcohol drinker. He had been bedridden late in life. The cause of death was renal failure. In microscopy, the adipose tissue-like sartorius muscle was shown to consist of leptin-positive adipocytes with a small number of degenerated muscle fibers. Fatty replacement, or fatty degeneration, appears to result from endocrine and metabolic disorders, and being bedridden leads to muscle atrophy and damage, although the origin of the adipocytes which emerged in the degenerated muscles is unknown.

  4. In-core monitor housing replacement at Fukushima Daiichi Unit No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tomoyuki

    1999-01-01

    The in-core monitor (ICM) housing replacement of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit No. 4 (1F4) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Japan. Since cracking of the inside surface of an ICM housing was found in this unit, the ICM housing was replaced with one made of low-carbon stainless steel (SS) to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. This project is the first application of the replacement procedure for the ICM housing and employs various advanced technologies. The outline of the ICM housing replacement project and applied technologies are discussed in this paper. (author)

  5. Midterm outcome of valve-sparing aortic root replacement in inherited connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ogino, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Hitoshi; Minatoya, Kenji; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Iba, Yutaka

    2011-11-01

    This study determined the midterm outcome of valve-sparing aortic root replacement for patients with inherited connective tissue disorders. From 1993 to 2008, 94 patients underwent valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Sixty patients (64%), average age 33 years (range, 15 to 61 years), had inherited connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, 54 (92%); Loeys-Dietz syndrome, 5 (8%); and smooth muscle α-actin (ACTA2) mutation in 1. Median preoperative sinus diameter was 52 mm (range, 42 to 76 mm), and moderate/severe aortic regurgitation was present in 14 (23%). Seven (12%, 1993 to 1999) underwent remodeling procedures, and 53 had reimplantation procedures. Cusp repair was performed in 4. Median follow-up was 55 months (range, 1 to 149 months). There were 15 patients in the early term (1993 to 2000) and 45 in the late term (2001 to 2008). Four late deaths occurred (cardiac, 3; aortic, 1), with 10-year survival of 86%. Rates of freedom from aortic valve replacement at 5 and 10 years were 85% and 58% in remodeling and 96% and 58% in reimplantation. Risk factors for reoperations were postprocedure intraoperative aortic insufficiency greater than mild (p = 0.046), remodeling procedure (p = 0.016), and early term (p = 0.0002). One patient (2%) with none/trivial postprocedure aortic insufficiency required aortic valve replacement. Freedom from reoperation in patients with none/trivial postprocedure aortic insufficiency at 5 and 10 years was 100% and 67%. Meticulous control of aortic insufficiency during operation would bring favorable midterm durability in valve-sparing aortic root replacement using a reimplantation technique, even in patients with inherited connective tissue disorders. Copyright © 2011 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares - A Space Station system availability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical programing model is presented to optimize the selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares for the Space Station. The model maximizes system availability under the constraints of logistics resupply-cargo weight and volume allocations.

  7. Radiation control in the core shroud replacement project of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Yasunori; Haraguchi, Kazuyuki; Yoshizawa, Yuji; Yamada, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    In Fukushima-Daiichi NPS Unit no.2, the core shroud replacement was made following that of Unit no.3. This project involves replacement of wide-ranging equipment, with the project extending over a long period of time. This was expected to increase the dose equivalent of workers. Accordingly, various measures to lower the dose equivalent were planned and implemented. We outline radiation controls implemented during the project period. The shroud replacement project was a preventive maintenance project which consisted of replacing the core shroud and other internals with those less susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Problems related to radiation control during the replacement project of Unit no.3 the year before last were summarized. We studied, planned, and implemented measures to be reflected in the project for Unit no.2. This was done to lower the dose equivalent as much as possible while paying due attention to safety and economy. For radiation control during the project for Unit no.2, experiments with Unit no.3 were fully exploited and any effective measures taken at that time were adopted in this project. Problems pointed out after that project with Unit no.3 resulted in new or improved measures being taken with Unit no.2. Measures taken over from the project with Unit no.3; a. Daily analysis of difference between expected and actual dose equivalents b. Dose reduction measures, chemical decontamination, temporary shield, flushing, etc.; New or improved measures; a. Dose reduction measures: Mechanical removal of radiation sources, strengthening of shield, etc.; b. Automatic remote control system; c. Use of new protective devices. With measures implemented as described above, the dose equivalent during shroud replacement of Unit no.2 was reduced by about 30% when compared with that (11.5 persons · Sv) in the case of Unit no.3. Implemented radiation controls will be checked and reviewed in future for reflection in projects with other units. (author)

  8. Risk-adjusted survival after tissue versus mechanical aortic valve replacement: a 23-year assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaca, Jeffrey G; Clare, Robert M; Rankin, J Scott; Daneshmand, Mani A; Milano, Carmelo A; Hughes, G Chad; Wolfe, Walter G; Glower, Donald D; Smith, Peter K

    2013-11-01

    Detailed analyses of risk-adjusted outcomes after mitral valve surgery have documented significant survival decrements with tissue valves at any age. Several recent studies of prosthetic aortic valve replacement (AVR) also have suggested a poorer performance of tissue valves, although analyses have been limited to small matched series. The study aim was to test the hypothesis that AVR with tissue valves is associated with a lower risk-adjusted survival, as compared to mechanical valves. Between 1986 and 2009, primary isolated AVR, with or without coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), was performed with currently available valve types in 2148 patients (1108 tissue valves, 1040 mechanical). Patients were selected for tissue valves to be used primarily in the elderly. Baseline and operative characteristics were documented prospectively with a consistent variable set over the entire 23-year period. Follow up was obtained with mailed questionnaires, supplemented by National Death Index searches. The average time to death or follow up was seven years, and follow up for survival was 96.2% complete. Risk-adjusted survival characteristics for the two groups were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model with stepwise selection of candidate variables. Differences in baseline characteristics between groups were (tissue versus mechanical): median age 73 versus 61 years; non-elective surgery 32% versus 28%; CABG 45% versus 35%; median ejection fraction 55% versus 55%; renal failure 6% versus 1%; diabetes 18% versus 7% (pvalves; however, after risk adjustment for the adverse profiles of tissue valve patients, no significant difference was observed in survival after tissue or mechanical AVR. Thus, the hypothesis did not hold, and risk-adjusted survival was equivalent, of course qualified by the fact that selection bias was evident. With selection criteria that employed tissue AVR more frequently in elderly patients, tissue and mechanical valves achieved similar survival

  9. Acceptance test procedure for SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becken, G.W.

    1994-12-16

    The proper functioning of a new 241-SY Tank Farm replacement exhauster will be acceptance tested, to establish operability and to provide an operational baseline for the equipment. During this test, a verification of all of the alarm and control circuits associated with the exhaust, which provide operating controls and/or signals to local and remote alarm/annunciator panels, shall be performed. Test signals for sensors that provide alarms, warnings, and/or interlocks will be applied to verify that alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints are correct. Alarm and warning lights, controls, and local and remote readouts for the exhauster will be verified to be adequate for proper operation of the exhauster. Testing per this procedure shall be conducted in two phases. The first phase of testing, to verify alarm, warning, and interlock setpoints primarily, will be performed in the MO-566 Fab Shop. The second phase of testing, to verify proper operation and acceptable interface with other tank farm systems, will be conducted after the exhauster and all associated support and monitoring equipment have been installed in the SY Tank Farm. The exhauster, which is mounted on a skid and which will eventually be located in the SY tank farm, receives input signals from a variety of sensors mounted on the skid and associated equipment. These sensors provide information such as: exhauster system inlet vacuum pressure; prefilter and HEPA filter differential pressures; exhaust stack sampler status; exhaust fan status; system status (running/shut down); and radiation monitoring systems status. The output of these sensors is transmitted to the exhauster annunciator panel where the signals are displayed and monitored for out-of-specification conditions.

  10. Designing of PLA scaffolds for bone tissue replacement fabricated by ordinary commercial 3D printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Aleš; Filová, Eva; Novák, Martin; Kronek, Jakub; Chlup, Hynek; Buzgo, Matěj; Blahnová, Veronika; Lukášová, Věra; Bartoš, Martin; Nečas, Alois; Hošek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of Tissue engineering is a regeneration or replacement of tissues or organs damaged by disease, injury, or congenital anomalies. At present, Tissue engineering repairs damaged tissues and organs with artificial supporting structures called scaffolds. These are used for attachment and subsequent growth of appropriate cells. During the cell growth gradual biodegradation of the scaffold occurs and the final product is a new tissue with the desired shape and properties. In recent years, research workplaces are focused on developing scaffold by bio-fabrication techniques to achieve fast, precise and cheap automatic manufacturing of these structures. Most promising techniques seem to be Rapid prototyping due to its high level of precision and controlling. However, this technique is still to solve various issues before it is easily used for scaffold fabrication. In this article we tested printing of clinically applicable scaffolds with use of commercially available devices and materials. Research presented in this article is in general focused on "scaffolding" on a field of bone tissue replacement. Commercially available 3D printer and Polylactic acid were used to create originally designed and possibly suitable scaffold structures for bone tissue engineering. We tested printing of scaffolds with different geometrical structures. Based on the osteosarcoma cells proliferation experiment and mechanical testing of designed scaffold samples, it will be stated that it is likely not necessary to keep the recommended porosity of the scaffold for bone tissue replacement at about 90%, and it will also be clarified why this fact eliminates mechanical properties issue. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the size of an individual pore could be double the size of the recommended range between 0.2-0.35 mm without affecting the cell proliferation. Rapid prototyping technique based on Fused deposition modelling was used for the fabrication of designed scaffold

  11. Skin grafting and tissue replacement for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santema, Trientje B; Poyck, Paul P C; Ubbink, Dirk T

    2016-02-11

    Foot ulceration is a major problem in people with diabetes and is the leading cause of hospitalisation and limb amputations. Skin grafts and tissue replacements can be used to reconstruct skin defects for people with diabetic foot ulcers in addition to providing them with standard care. Skin substitutes can consist of bioengineered or artificial skin, autografts (taken from the patient), allografts (taken from another person) or xenografts (taken from animals). To determine the benefits and harms of skin grafting and tissue replacement for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes. In April 2015 we searched: The Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched clinical trial registries to identify ongoing studies. We did not apply restrictions to language, date of publication or study setting. Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of skin grafts or tissue replacements for treating foot ulcers in people with diabetes. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. We included seventeen studies with a total of 1655 randomised participants in this review. Risk of bias was variable among studies. Blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessment was not possible in most trials because of obvious differences between the treatments. The lack of a blinded outcome assessor may have caused detection bias when ulcer healing was assessed. However, possible detection bias is hard to prevent due to the nature of the skin replacement products we assessed, and the fact that they are easily recognisable. Strikingly, nearly all studies (15/17) reported industry involvement; at least one of the authors was connected to a commercial organisation or the study was funded by a commercial organisation. In addition, the funnel plot for

  12. Pressure tube replacement in Pickering NGS A units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, H.S.; Bennett, E.J.; Talbot, K.H.

    1986-10-01

    Being able to technically and economically replace the most radioactive components (excluding the nuclear fuel) in operating reactors will help to ensure the ongoing acceptance of nuclear power as a viable energy source for the future. Ontario Hydro is well along the path to meeting the above objective for its CANDU-PHW reactors. Following the failure of a Zircaloy-II pressure tube in unit 2 of Pickering NGS A in August, 1983, Ontario Hydro has embarked on a program to replace all Zircaloy-II pressure tubes in units 1 and 2 at Pickering. This program integrates the in-house research, design, construction, and operating skills of a large utility (Ontario Hydro) with the skills of a national nuclear organization (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) and the private engineering sector of the Canadian nuclear industry. The paper describes the background to the pressure tube failure in Pickering unit 2 and to the efforts incurred in understanding the failure mechanism and how similar failures are not expected for the zirconium-niobium pressure tube material used in all other large CANDU-PHW units after units 1 and 2 of Pickering NGS A. The tooling developed for the pressure tube replacement program is described as well as the organization to undertake the program in an operating nuclear station. The retubing of units 1 and 2 at Pickering NGS A is nearing a successful completion and shows the benefits of being able to integrate the various skills required for this success. Pressure tube replacement in a CANDU-PHW reactor is equivalent to replacement of the reactor vessel in a LWR. The fact that this replacement can be done economically and with acceptable radiation dose to workers augurs well for the continued viability of the use of nuclear energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  13. Analysis of growth and tissue replacement rates by stable sulfur isotope turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, L. S.; Macko, S. A.; Macavoy, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become a powerful tool to study animal ecology. Analysis of stable isotope ratios of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and others have been used to trace migratory routes, reconstruct dietary sources and determine the physiological condition of individual animals. The isotopes most commonly used are carbon, due to differential carbon fractionation in C3 and C4 plants, and nitrogen, due to the approximately 3% enrichment in 15N per trophic level. Although all cells express sulfur-containing compounds, such as cysteine, methionine, and coenzyme A, the turnover rate of sulfur in tissues has not been examined in most studies, owing to the difficulty in determining the δ 34S signature. In this study, we have assessed the rate of sulfur isotopic turnover in mouse tissues following a diet change from terrestrial (7%) to marine (19%) source. Turnover models reflecting both growth rate and metabolic tissue replacement will be developed for blood, liver, fat and muscle tissues.

  14. Instrumental and laboratory assessment of stressful remodelling processes in bone tissue at total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Karjakina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to estimate stressful remodelling features of bone tissue according to the densitometry data and to the level of biochemical markers of bone resorption and formation in total hip replacement (THR. Bone tissue mineral density (BTMD, condition of calcium-phosphoric metabolism and biochemical markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase and resorption (С-terminal bodypeptide of the I type collagen have been determined in 52 patients with coxarthrosis of ll-lll stages with marked joint dysfunction before and after THR. The control group included 24 donors. The data were considered to be reliable when the probability index was р<0,05. The reliable (р<0,05 change of BTMD was determined only in 3-6 months after the operation, whereas the change of biochemical markers of remodeling had already been done after 1,5-3 months, allowing to define the group of patients with obvious negative bone balance: strong predominance of resorption processes without compensation of the subsequent adequate osteogenesis, that subsequently could lead to significant bone tissue deficiency in the area adjacent to the endoprosthesis. Changes of indices of calcium-phosphoric metabolism were not certain during the investigation term. ln conclusion it is to state that biochemical markers of remodeling in comparison with BTMD allow to estimate objectively features of adaptive bone tissue remodeling after THR in earlier periods and to define group of patients with sharp intensification of metabolism and obvious negative bone balance

  15. Prevalence of Total Hip and Knee Replacement in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Larson, Dirk R; Crowson, Cynthia S; Kremers, Walter K; Washington, Raynard E; Steiner, Claudia A; Jiranek, William A; Berry, Daniel J

    2015-09-02

    Descriptive epidemiology of total joint replacement procedures is limited to annual procedure volumes (incidence). The prevalence of the growing number of individuals living with a total hip or total knee replacement is currently unknown. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the United States. Prevalence was estimated using the counting method by combining historical incidence data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases from 1969 to 2010 with general population census and mortality counts. We accounted for relative differences in mortality rates between those who have had total hip or knee replacement and the general population. The 2010 prevalence of total hip and total knee replacement in the total U.S. population was 0.83% and 1.52%, respectively. Prevalence was higher among women than among men and increased with age, reaching 5.26% for total hip replacement and 10.38% for total knee replacement at eighty years. These estimates corresponded to 2.5 million individuals (1.4 million women and 1.1 million men) with total hip replacement and 4.7 million individuals (3.0 million women and 1.7 million men) with total knee replacement in 2010. Secular trends indicated a substantial rise in prevalence over time and a shift to younger ages. Around 7 million Americans are living with a hip or knee replacement, and consequently, in most cases, are mobile, despite advanced arthritis. These numbers underscore the substantial public health impact of total hip and knee arthroplasties. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  16. Embedded piezoelectrics for sensing and energy harvesting in total knee replacement units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brooke E.; Meneghini, Michael; Anton, Steven R.

    2015-04-01

    The knee replacement is the second most common orthopedic surgical intervention in the United States, but currently only 1 in 5 knee replacement patients are satisfied with their level of pain reduction one year after surgery. It is imperative to make the process of knee replacement surgery more objective by developing a data driven approach to ligamentous balance, which increases implant life. In this work, piezoelectric materials are considered for both sensing and energy harvesting applications in total knee replacement implants. This work aims to embed piezoelectric material in the polyethylene bearing of a knee replacement unit to act as self-powered sensors that will aid in the alignment and balance of the knee replacement by providing intraoperative feedback to the surgeon. Postoperatively, the piezoelectric sensors can monitor the structural health of the implant in order to perceive potential problems before they become bothersome to the patient. Specifically, this work will present on the use of finite element modeling coupled with uniaxial compression testing to prove that piezoelectric stacks can be utilized to harvest sufficient energy to power sensors needed for this application.

  17. Dynamic compression of human and ovine meniscal tissue compared with a potential thermoplastic elastomer hydrogel replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischenich, Kristine M; Boncella, Katie; Lewis, Jackson T; Bailey, Travis S; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how human meniscal tissue responds to loading regimes mimetic of daily life as well as how it compares to larger animal models is critical in the development of a functionally accurate synthetic surrogate. Seven human and eight ovine cadaveric meniscal specimens were regionally sectioned into cylinders 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick along with 10 polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide block copolymer-based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) hydrogels. Samples were compressed to 12% strain at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles, unloaded for 24 h, and then retested. No differences were found within each group between test one and test two. Human and ovine tissue exhibited no regional dependency (p Human samples relaxed quicker than ovine tissue or the TPE hydrogel with modulus values at cycle 50 not significantly different from cycle 5000. Ovine menisci were found to be similar to human menisci in relaxation profile but had significantly higher modulus values (3.44 MPa instantaneous and 0.61 MPa after 5000 cycles compared with 1.97 and 0.11 MPa found for human tissue) and significantly different power law fit coefficients. The TPE hydrogel had an initial modulus of 0.58 MPa and experienced less than a 20% total relaxation over the 5000. Significant differences in the magnitude of compressive modulus between human and ovine menisci were observed, however the relaxation profiles were similar. Although statistically different than the native tissues, modulus values of the TPE hydrogel material were similar to those of the human and ovine menisci, making it a material worth further investigation for use as a synthetic replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2722-2728, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Replacement of the moderator cell unit of JRR-3's cold neutron source facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazawa, Tomoya; Nagahori, Kazuhisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi

    2006-10-01

    The moderator cell of the JRR-3's cold neutron source (CNS) facility, converts thermal neutrons into cold neutrons by passing through liquid cold hydrogen. The cold neutrons are used for material and life science research such as the neutron scattering. The CNS has been operated since the start of JRR-3's in 1990. The moderator cell containing liquid hydrogen is made of stainless steel. The material irradiation lifetime is limited to 7 years due to irradiation brittleness. The first replacement was done by using a spare part made in France. This replacement work of 2006 was carried out by using the domestic moderator cell unit. The following technologies were developed for the moderator cell unit production. 1) Technical development of black treatment on moderator cell surface to increase radiation heat. 2) Development of bending technology of concentric triple tubes consisting from inside tube, Outside tube and Vacuum insulation tube. 3) Development of manufacturing technique of the moderator cell with complicated shapes. According to detail planed work procedures, replacement work was carried out. As results, the working days were reduced to 80% of old ones. The radiation dose was also reduced due to reduction of working days. It was verified by measurement of neutrons characteristics that the replaced moderator cell has the same performance as that of the old moderator cell. The domestic manufacturing of the moderator cell was succeeded. As results, the replacement cost was reduced by development of domestic production technology. (author)

  19. Livers, guts and gills: mapping the decay profiles of soft tissues to understand authigenic mineral replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Thomas; Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The hard mineralised parts of organisms such as shells, teeth and bones dominate the fossil record. There are, however, sites around the world where soft-tissues are preserved often through rapid replacement of original tissue by rapidly-precipitating authigenic minerals. These exceptionally well-preserved soft-bodied fossils are much more informative about the anatomy, physiology, ecology and behaviour of ancient organisms as well as providing a more inclusive picture of ecosystems and evolution throughout geological time. However, despite the wealth of information that soft-bodied fossils can provide they must first be correctly interpreted as the processes of both decay and preservation act to modify the carcass from its in vivo condition. Decay leads to alteration of the appearance and topology of anatomy, and ultimately to loss. Preservation is selective with some anatomical features being more likely to be captured than others. These problems are especially germane to the interpretation of deep-time and/or enigmatic fossils where no modern analogue exist for comparative anatomical analysis. It is therefore of vital importance to understand the processes carcasses undergo during the fossilisation process, , in order to interpret the anatomical remains of fossils and thus extract true evolutionary presence or absence of anatomy from absence due to taphonomic biases. We have designed a series of novel experiments to investigate, in real time, how decay processes affect the fossilisation potential of soft-tissues - especially of internal anatomy. Our data allow us to unravel both the timing and sequence of anatomical decay of different organs. At the same time through measuring Eh and pH in selected organs we can predict when anatomical features will fall in to the window of authigenic mineralization and thus potentially become preserved. We can also place constraints on which minerals will operate to capture tissues. Our findings are applied to the fossil record

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF REGENERATIVE FEATURES IN BONE TISSUES AROUND IMPLANTS AFTER ONE-STAGE BILATERAL TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Mashkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to research the specific features of regenerative processes of bone tissue around implants after one-stage bilateral total hip replacement in experiment. Material and methods: 27 total hip replacement operations have been performed in 18 rabbits of breed "chinchilla" to which bipolar femoral endoprosthesis made of titanic alloy PT-38, one type-size, with friction pair metal-on-metal and neck-shaft angle 165 degrees have been implanted: total unilateral hip replacement operations have been performed in 9 animals (control group, one-stage bilateral total hip replacement operations have been performed in 9 animals (experimental group. During research they have been on radiological and clinical checking-up. After the experiment the animals had histological tests of the tissues around endoprosthesis components. Results and conclusions: After one-stage bilateral total hip replacement in early terms of research more expressed changes of bone tissue in the form of its thinning and decompaction were found around implants. One-stage bilateral total hip replacement did not essentially influence on the speed of osteogenesis around endoprothesis components in comparison with unilateral total hip replacement, so in late terms of observation in both groups the fixing of endoprothesis components did not differ.

  1. 3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yu; Richards, Dylan J; Mei, Ying; Trusk, Thomas C; Visconti, Richard P; Yost, Michael J; Drake, Christopher J; Argraves, William Scott; Markwald, Roger R; Kindy, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Tissue spheroids hold great potential in tissue engineering as building blocks to assemble into functional tissues. To date, agarose molds have been extensively used to facilitate fusion process of tissue spheroids. As a molding material, agarose typically requires low temperature plates for gelation and/or heated dispenser units. Here, we proposed and developed an alginate-based, direct 3D mold-printing technology: 3D printing microdroplets of alginate solution into biocompatible, bio-inert alginate hydrogel molds for the fabrication of scaffold-free tissue engineering constructs. Specifically, we developed a 3D printing technology to deposit microdroplets of alginate solution on calcium containing substrates in a layer-by-layer fashion to prepare ring-shaped 3D hydrogel molds. Tissue spheroids composed of 50% endothelial cells and 50% smooth muscle cells were robotically placed into the 3D printed alginate molds using a 3D printer, and were found to rapidly fuse into toroid-shaped tissue units. Histological and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the cells secreted collagen type I playing a critical role in promoting cell–cell adhesion, tissue formation and maturation. (paper)

  2. In-situ photopolymerization and monitoring device for controlled shaping of tissue fillers, replacements, or implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmocker, Andreas M.; Khoushabi, Azadeh; Bourban, Pierre-Etienne; Schizas, Constantin; Pioletti, Dominique; Moser, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Photopolymerization is a common tool to harden materials initially in a liquid state. A surgeon can directly trigger the solidification of a dental implant or a bone or tissue filler simply by illumination. Traditionally, photopolymerization has been used mainly in dentistry. Over the last decade advances in material development including a wide range of biocompatible gel- and cement-systems open up a new avenue for in-situ photopolymerization. However, at the device level, surgical endoscopic probes are required. We present a miniaturized light probe where a photoactive material can be 1) mixed, pressurized and injected 2) photopolymerized or photoactivated and 3) monitored during the chemical reaction. The device enables surgeries to be conducted through a hole smaller than 1 mm in diameter. Beside basic injection mechanics, the tool consists of an optical fiber guiding the light required for photopolymerization and for chemical analysis. Combining photorheology and fluorescence spectroscopy, the current state of the photopolymerization is inferred and monitored in real time. Biocompatible and highly tuneable Poly-Ethylene-Glycol (PEG) hydrogels were used as the injection material. The device was tested on a model for intervertebral disc replacement. Gels were successfully implanted into a bovine caudal model and mechanically tested in-vitro during two weeks. The photopolymerized gel was evaluated at the tissue level (adherence and mechanical properties of the implant), at the cellular level (biocompatibility and cytotoxicity) and ergonomic level (sterilization procedure and feasibility study). This paper covers the monitoring aspect of the device.

  3. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  4. North Anna Power Station - Unit 1: Overview of steam generator replacement project activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettler, M.W.; Bayer, R.K.; Lippard, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The original steam generators at Virginia Electric and Power Company's (Virginia Power) North Anna Power Station (NAPS) Unit 1 have experienced corrosion-related degradation that require periodic inspection and plugging of steam generator tubes to ensure their continued safe and reliable operation. Despite improvements in secondary water chemistry, continued tube degradation in the steam generators necessitated the removal from service of approximately 20.3 percent of the tubes by plugging, (18.6, 17.3, and 25.1 for steam generators A, B, and C, respectively). Additionally, the unit power was limited to 95 % during, its last cycle of operation. Projections of industry and Virginia Power experience indicated the possibility of mid-cycle inspections and reductions in unit power. Therefore, economic considerations led to the decision to repair the steam generators (i.e., replace the steam generator lower assemblies). Three new Model 51F Steam Generator lower assembly units were ordered from Westinghouse. Virginia Power contracted Bechtel Power Corporation to provide the engineering and construction support to repair the Unit 1 steam generators. On January 4, 1993, after an extended coastdown period, North Anna Unit 1 was brought off-line and the 110 day (breaker-to-breaker) Steam Generator Replacement Project (SGRP) outage began. As of this paper, the outage is still in progress

  5. PEGDA hydrogels as a replacement for animal tissues in mucoadhesion testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel-Green, Tal; Eliyahu, Shaked; Avidan-Shlomovich, Shlomit; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet

    2016-06-15

    Utilization of animal parts in ex-vivo mucoadhesion assays is a common approach that presents many difficulties due to animal rights issues and large variance between animals. This study examines the suitability of two PEGDA (poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate) based hydrogels to serve as tissue mimetics for mucoadhesion evaluation. One hydrogel, termed PEGDA-QT, was composed of pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) and PEG and contained free thiol groups mimicking those found in natural mucosa. The other hydrogel was formed by UV (ultraviolet) curing of PEGDA and mimicked the mechanical property of mucosa but not its chemical constitute. When ranking different first generation mucoadhesive polymers using a tensile assay, both hydrogels showed good agreement with the ranking achieved for porcine small intestine. However, only PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine shared a similar displacement curve. The same ranking for PEGDA-QT and porcine small intestine was also observed when comparing a second-generation mucoadhesive polymer, thiolated alginate, to native alginate. Our findings suggest that PEGDA-QT could serve as a replacement for porcine small intestine in both mucoadhesion evaluations using a tensile machine and the flow-through method for first and second-generation mucoadhesive polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Custom-tailored tissue engineered polycaprolactone scaffolds for total disc replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Uden, S; Silva-Correia, J; Correlo, V M; Oliveira, J M; Reis, R L

    2015-01-01

    fibroblast’s cell line. This study proposed a simple, rapid, and low-cost strategy to fabricate custom-tailored annulus fibrosus scaffolds. In the future, this strategy might be used in association with nucleus pulposus regeneration strategies to facilitate the development of tissue-engineered total disc replacement implants specific to each patient, with a goal of full IVD regeneration. (paper)

  7. Comparison of international guidelines for regenerative medicine: Knee cartilage repair and replacement using human-derived cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kuni; Kano, Shingo

    2016-07-01

    Regenerative medicine (RM) is an emerging field using human-derived cells and tissues (HCT). Due to the complexity and diversity of HCT products, each country has its own regulations for authorization and no common method has been applied to date. Individual regulations were previously clarified at the level of statutes but no direct comparison has been reported at the level of guidelines. Here, we generated a new analytical framework that allows comparison of guidelines independent from local definitions of RM, using 2 indicators, product type and information type. The guidelines for products for repair and replacement of knee cartilage in Japan, the United States of America, and Europe were compared and differences were detected in both product type and information type by the proposed analytical framework. Those findings will be critical not only for the product developers to determine the region to initiate the clinical trials but also for the regulators to assess and build their regulations. This analytical framework is potentially expandable to other RM guidelines to identify gaps, leading to trigger discussion of global harmonization in RM regulations. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Replacement of steam generators at arkansas nuclear one, unit-2 (ano-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Buford, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 steam generators, originally supplied by Combustion Engineering, began commercial operation in 1980 producing a gross electrical output of 958 MW. After several years of successful operation, the owner decided that the tube degradation rates of the original steam generators were too high for the plant to meet the performance requirements for the full 40-year license period. The contract to supply replacement steam generators (RSGs) was awarded to Westinghouse Electric Company in 1996. Installation of these RSGs took place in the last months of 2000. This paper compares the design features of the original and re-placement steam generators with emphasis on design and reliability enhancements achieved. (author)

  10. Long-Term Survival of Dialysis Patients with Bacterial Endocarditis Undergoing Valvular Replacement Surgery in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leither, Maxwell D.; Shroff, Gautam R.; Ding, Shu; Gilbertson, David T.; Herzog, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial endocarditis in dialysis patients is associated with high mortality rates. The literature is limited regarding long-term outcomes of valvular replacement surgery and choice of prosthesis in dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis. Methods and Results Dialysis patients hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis, 2004-2007, were studied retrospectively using data from the US Renal Data System. Long-term survival of patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with tissue or non-tissue valves was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valvular replacement surgery. During the study period, 11,156 dialysis patients were hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis and 1267 (11.4%) underwent valvular replacement surgery (tissue valve 44.3%, non-tissue valve 55.7%). In the valve replacement cohort, 60% were men, 50% white, 54% aged 45-64 years, and 36% diabetic. Estimated survival with tissue and non-tissue valves, respectively, at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 years was 59% and 60%, 48% and 50%, 35% and 37%, and 25% and 30% (log rank P = 0.42). Staphylococcus was the predominant organism (66% of identified organisms). Independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery included older age, diabetes as cause of end-stage renal disease, surgery during index hospitalization, staphylococcus as the causative organism, and dysrhythmias as a comorbid condition. Conclusions Valve replacement surgery is appropriate for well-selected dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis, but is associated with high mortality rates. Survival does not differ with tissue or non-tissue prosthesis. PMID:23785002

  11. Replacement energy costs for nuclear electricity-generating units in the United States: 1997--2001. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Guziel, K.A.; Tompkins, M.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report updates previous estimates of replacement energy costs for potential short-term shutdowns of 109 US nuclear electricity-generating units. This information was developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its regulatory impact analyses, specifically those that examine the impacts of proposed regulations requiring retrofitting of or safety modifications to nuclear reactors. Such actions might necessitate shutdowns of nuclear power plants while these changes are being implemented. The change in energy cost represents one factor that the NRC must consider when deciding to require a particular modification. Cost estimates were derived from probabilistic production cost simulations of pooled utility system operations. Factors affecting replacement energy costs, such as random unit failures, maintenance and refueling requirements, and load variations, are treated in the analysis. This report describes an abbreviated analytical approach as it was adopted to update the cost estimates published in NUREG/CR-4012, Vol. 3. The updates were made to extend the time frame of cost estimates and to account for recent changes in utility system conditions, such as change in fuel prices, construction and retirement schedules, and system demand projects

  12. Safety measures for the main control board replacement project at Ikata units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Nozomu; Tada, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    When Units 1 and 2 of the Ikata Power Station underwent replacement of their main control boards, control cabinets, and associated equipment, it was necessary to remove all the control boards, cabinets, and cables from the control building including from the main control room. This meant the loss of operation and monitoring functions in the main control room and functions of control cabinets. To maintain the operation and monitoring functions required under plant shutdown conditions, temporary operation and monitoring equipment (i.e., temporary main control board) was installed in the temporary main control room. The advance preparations included a trial switching from the permanent to the temporary main control board to identify and address potential problems in advance. When the replacement work was underway, a work schedule sheet posted in the temporary and the permanent control rooms was used to prevent human errors caused by operators’ recognition errors. Monitoring and control signals were switched from the old boards to the temporary boards and from the temporary boards to the new boards at appropriate timings to ensure plant safety during the replacement operation. (author)

  13. Replacement of a cracked pressure tube in Bruce GS unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    In 1982 February, a primary heat transport system leak was detected in the annulus gas system by on-line instrumentation. The source of the leak was found to be a small axial crack in the pressure tube of fuel channel X-14. This fuel channel was removed and replaced by station maintenance staff, and the unit was returned to service five weeks after it had been shut down. The cracked pressure tube was sent to Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for examination, and the crack was found to be very similar to those found in Pickering GS units 3 and 4 in 1974-75. It was caused by delayed hydride cracking during the period of high residual stress between the time of rolling and the pre-service stress relief

  14. Tissue composition of the leg and meat quality of sheep fed castor bean hulls in replacement of tifton hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Antas Urbano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls (0, 33, 66 and 100% on the leg tissue composition, chemical composition, physicochemical parameters and sensorial traits of sheep meat were studied. A total of 28 non-castrated sheep averaging seven months in age with an average initial weight of 19.5±4.3 kg were assigned to a randomized block design with four treatments and seven replicates and were slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. At slaughter, body weight and leg, muscle and bone weights decreased linearly, whereas the muscle-to-bone ratio increased linearly according to the treatments. There was a quadratic effect on yellow intensity (maximum of 8.05 with replacement of 54.5% and the percentage of cooking losses (minimum of 33.8% with replacement of 45.17%. The treatment employed did not affect either the chemical composition or sensorial traits of the lamb meat. Although replacing Tifton hay with castor bean hulls alters the tissue composition of the leg as well as some physicochemical parameters of the meat, the sensory analysis indicated good acceptability of the meat, regardless of the inclusion of this byproduct.

  15. Distribution of polyethylene wear particles and bone fragments in periprosthetic tissue around total hip joint replacements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zolotarevova, E.; Entlicher, G.; Pavlova, Ewa; Šlouf, Miroslav; Pokorný, D.; Veselý, F.; Gallo, J.; Sosna, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2010), s. 3595-3600 ISSN 1742-7061 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : joint replacement * polyethylene * wear particles distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.824, year: 2010

  16. C30 Support Plate for Replacing Function of Service Pool 1 at Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsoldos, F.

    2006-01-01

    Paks NPP had a serious event at Unit 2 in April 2003. This event was connected to Service Pool 1, there was a cleaning tank int he pool to clean the fuel assemblies from sediments. The sediment problem has occurred at three of our four units, the cause of this problem was the decontamination of the steam generators. We have not made any decontamination at Unit 4 only, and there is no any problem at Unit 4 at all. The plant tried out the mentioned cleaning method at Unit 2 first time, and the event happened at that time. Because of the event the function of Service Pool 1 was not available, the damaged fuel and the cleaning tank is in the pool at this moment. We got the permission from the authority body to operate again Unit 2. This operation, the planned campaign was a short one because of the limited possibility to set up a proper core from the fuel assemblies what were available. Because of the short campaign we had to prepare a proper solution to accomplish the refuelling at Unit 2. The main obstacle was the unavailable functionality of Service Pool 1 which used to carry in fresh fuel and carry out the spent fuel with usage of C30 casks (we have two C30 casks, as it shown in their names the casks can contain 30 fuel assemblies, fresh or spent fuel depending on the given activity have to be done). The plant started to find out what would be the proper solution to replace the function of Service Pool 1 and the C30 support plate was found out as the possible solution to this problem. This C30 support plate is ready to launch the C30 casks or containers with the fresh or spent fuel into the reactor. It means that this C30 support plate is adjusted to the reactor main surface and in this way it ready to serve replacing Service Pool 1. Of course the reactor is empty during the preparation phase of the refuelling. First we carry out the spent fuel from the spent fuel pool, after that the fresh fuel is carried in and just after these preparing activities can be started

  17. Engineered cartilaginous tubes for tracheal tissue replacement via self-assembly and fusion of human mesenchymal stem cell constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikina, Anna D; Strobel, Hannah A; Lai, Bradley P; Rolle, Marsha W; Alsberg, Eben

    2015-06-01

    There is a critical need to engineer a neotrachea because currently there are no long-term treatments for tracheal stenoses affecting large portions of the airway. In this work, a modular tracheal tissue replacement strategy was developed. High-cell density, scaffold-free human mesenchymal stem cell-derived cartilaginous rings and tubes were successfully generated through employment of custom designed culture wells and a ring-to-tube assembly system. Furthermore, incorporation of transforming growth factor-β1-delivering gelatin microspheres into the engineered tissues enhanced chondrogenesis with regard to tissue size and matrix production and distribution in the ring- and tube-shaped constructs, as well as luminal rigidity of the tubes. Importantly, all engineered tissues had similar or improved biomechanical properties compared to rat tracheas, which suggests they could be transplanted into a small animal model for airway defects. The modular, bottom up approach used to grow stem cell-based cartilaginous tubes in this report is a promising platform to engineer complex organs (e.g., trachea), with control over tissue size and geometry, and has the potential to be used to generate autologous tissue implants for human clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Pannus Formation Six-years after Aortic and Mitral Valve Replacement with Tissue Valves;Report of a Case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Muraoka, Arata; Aizawa, Kei; Akutsu, Hirohiko; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-07-01

    A 77-year-old man presented with exertional dyspnea. He had undergone aortic and mitral valve replacement with tissue valves 6-years earlier. The patient's hemoglobin level was 9.8 g/dl and serum aspartate aminotransferase (70 mU/ml) and lactate dehydrogenase (1,112 mU/ml) were elevated. Echocardiography revealed stenosis of the prosthetic valve in the aortic position with peak flow velocity of 3.8 m/second and massive mitral regurgitation. The patient underwent repeat valve replacement. Pannus formation around both implanted valves was observed. The aortic valve orifice was narrowed by the pannus, and one cusp of the prosthesis in the mitral position was fixed and caused the regurgitation, but they were free from cusp laceration or calcification. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and he continues to do well 14 months after surgery.

  19. Distribution of polyethylene wear debris and bone particles in granuloma tissue around total hip joint replacements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zolotarevova, E.; Lapčíková, Monika; Šlouf, Miroslav; Entlicher, G.; Pokorný, D.; Veselý, F.; Sosna, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 173-174 ISSN 1120-7000. [Domestic Meeting of the European Hip Society /8./. 11.06.2008-13.06.2008, Madrid] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : wear debris * bone particles * total hip joint replacement Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry www. hip -int.com

  20. A study on the optimal replacement periods of digital control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Il; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1993-01-01

    Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Even a trip of a single nuclear power plant (NPP) causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this paper we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the control computer's components of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models of optimal replacement periods to the digital control computer's components of Wolsung NPP Unit 1 and calculated the optimal replacement periods analytically. We compared the periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit 1. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained and those used in the field show a little difference. (Author)

  1. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor...... pathway inhibitor (TFPI) may be deleterious. METHODS: We measured factor VII clotting activity, activated factor VII, and concentrations of factor VII and TFPI during 12 months in healthy post-menopausal women randomized to: (i). cyclic oral estrogen/progestin (n = 25); (ii). long-cycle oral estrogen......: No variations were observed in the reference group. There was a substantial decrease in TFPI concentrations in the HRT groups irrespective of the type of progestin. In women receiving long-cycle treatment, all factor VII measures increased during the unopposed estrogen periods, and the increase was reversed...

  2. Training for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with a newly designed model: a replacement for animal tissue models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Lorna; Goossens, Richard; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Background To bridge the early learning curve for laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication from the clinical setting to a safe environment, training models can be used. This study aimed to develop a reusable, low-cost model to be used for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure as an alternative to the use of animal tissue models. Methods From artificial organs and tissue, an anatomic model of the human upper abdomen was developed for training in performing laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The 20 participants and tutors in the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) upper gastrointestinal surgery course completed four complementary tasks of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication with the artificial model, then compared the realism, haptic feedback, and training properties of the model with those of animal tissue models. Results The main difference between the two training models was seen in the properties of the stomach. The wrapping of the stomach in the artificial model was rated significantly lower than that in the animal tissue model (mean, 3.6 vs. 4.2; p = 0.010). The main criticism of the stomach of the artificial model was that it was too rigid for making a proper wrap. The suturing of the stomach wall, however, was regarded as fairly realistic (mean, 3.6). The crura on the artificial model were rated better (mean, 4.3) than those on the animal tissue (mean, 4.0), although the difference was not significant. The participants regarded the model as a good to excellent (mean, 4.3) training tool. Conclusion The newly developed model is regarded as a good tool for training in laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication procedure. It is cheaper, more durable, and more readily available for training and can therefore be used in every training center. The stomach of this model, however, still needs improvement because it is too rigid for making the wrap. PMID:20526629

  3. Restart Testing Program for piping following steam generator replacement at North Anna Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Bayer, R.K.

    1993-01-01

    In order to provide assurance that the effects of performing steam generator replacement (SGR) at North Anna unit 1 had no adverse impact on plant piping systems, a cold functional verification restart testing program was developed. This restart testing program was implemented in lieu of a hot functional testing program normally used during the initial startup of a nuclear plant. A review of North Anna plant-specific and generic U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for restart testing was performed to ensure that no mandatory hot functional testing was required. This was determined to be the case, and the development of a cold functional test program was initiated. The cold functional test had inherent advantages as compared to the hot functional testing, while still providing assurance of piping system adequacy. The advantages of the cold verification program included reducing risk to personnel from hot piping, increasing the accuracy of measurements with the improvement in work conditions, eliminating engineering activities during the heatup process, and being able to record measurements as construction work was completed allowing for rework or repair of components if required. To ensure the effectiveness of the cold verification program, a project procedure was generated to identify the personnel, equipment, and measurement requirements. An engineering calculation was issued to document the scope of the restart test program, and an additional calculation was developed to provide acceptance criteria for the critical commodity measurements

  4. Blood vessel replacement: 50 years of development and tissue engineering paradigms in vascular surgery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupáč, Jaroslav; Filová, Elena; Bačáková, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, Suppl.2 (2009), S119-S139 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500110564 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : small-caliber vascular grafts * tissue engineering * dynamic bioreactor Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  5. Designing of PLA scaffolds for bone tissue replacement fabricated by ordinary commercial 3D printer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregor, A.; Filová, Eva; Novák, M.; Kronek, J.; Chlup, H.; Buzgo, M.; Blahnová, Veronika; Lukášová, Věra; Bartoš, M.; Nečas, A.; Hošek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, oct (2017), s. 31 ISSN 1754-1611 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA ČR GA16-14758S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : tissue engineering * bio-fabrication * scaffold Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Bioproducts (products that are manufactured using biological material as feedstock) biomaterials, bioplastics, biofuels, bioderived bulk and fine chemicals, bio-derived novel materials Impact factor: 3.660, year: 2016

  6. Trends in Testosterone Replacement Therapy Use from 2003 to 2013 among Reproductive-Age Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pravin Kumar; Boulet, Sheree L; Mehta, Akanksha; Hotaling, James; Eisenberg, Michael L; Honig, Stanton C; Warner, Lee; Kissin, Dmitry M; Nangia, Ajay K; Ross, Lawrence S

    2017-04-01

    Although testosterone replacement therapy use in the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade, to our knowledge trends in testosterone replacement therapy use among reproductive-age men have not been investigated. We assessed changes in testosterone replacement therapy use and practice patterns among 18 to 45-year-old American men from 2003 to 2013 and compared them to older men. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of men 18 to 45 and 56 to 64 years old who were enrolled in the Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Claims Databases throughout each given calendar year from 2003 to 2013, including 5,094,868 men in 2013. Trends in the yearly rates of testosterone replacement therapy use were calculated using Poisson regression. Among testosterone replacement therapy users, the Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess temporal trends in age, formulation type, semen analysis and serum testosterone level testing during the 12 months preceding the documented use of testosterone replacement therapy. Between 2003 and 2013, there was a fourfold increase in the rate of testosterone use among 18 to 45-year-old men from 29.2/10,000 person-years to 118.1/10,000 person-years (p replacement therapy users, topical gel formulations were initially most used. Injection use then doubled between 2009 and 2012 (23.5% and 46.2%, respectively) and surpassed topical gel use in 2013. In men 56 to 64 years old there was a statistically significant threefold increase in testosterone replacement therapy use (p replacement therapy use increased fourfold in men 18 to 45 years old compared to threefold in older men. This younger age group should be a focus for future studies due to effects on fertility and unknown long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of the economic downturn on total joint replacement demand in the United States: updated projections to 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-04-16

    Few studies have explored the role of the National Health Expenditure and macroeconomics on the utilization of total joint replacement. The economic downturn has raised questions about the sustainability of growth for total joint replacement in the future. Previous projections of total joint replacement demand in the United States were based on data up to 2003 using a statistical methodology that neglected macroeconomic factors, such as the National Health Expenditure. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993 to 2010) were used with United States Census and National Health Expenditure data to quantify historical trends in total joint replacement rates, including the two economic downturns in the 2000s. Primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Projections in total joint replacement were estimated using a regression model incorporating the growth in population and rate of arthroplasties from 1993 to 2010 as a function of age, sex, race, and census region using the National Health Expenditure as the independent variable. The regression model was used in conjunction with government projections of National Health Expenditure from 2011 to 2021 to estimate future arthroplasty rates in subpopulations of the United States and to derive national estimates. The growth trend for the incidence of joint arthroplasty, for the overall United States population as well as for the United States workforce, was insensitive to economic downturns. From 2009 to 2010, the total number of procedures increased by 6.0% for primary total hip arthroplasty, 6.1% for primary total knee arthroplasty, 10.8% for revision total hip arthroplasty, and 13.5% for revision total knee arthroplasty. The National Health Expenditure model projections for primary hip replacement in 2020 were higher than a previously projected model, whereas the current model estimates for total

  8. 24 CFR 42.375 - One-for-one replacement of lower-income dwelling units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... related to the conversion. (5) The units must be designed to remain lower-income dwelling units for at... result in the demolition of lower-income dwelling units or the conversion of lower-income dwelling units...-income dwelling units. 42.375 Section 42.375 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...

  9. The Symmetry of Adverse Local Tissue Reactions in Patients with Bilateral Simultaneous and Sequential ASR Hip Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Rami; Hussey, Daniel K; Donahue, Gabrielle S; Potter, Hollis G; Wallace, Robert; Bragdon, Charles R; Muratoglu, Orhun K; Malchau, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether patients with bilateral metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements have symmetric adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) at follow-up. An MRI of both hips was performed at a mean time of six years after surgery in 43 patients. The prevalence and severity of ALTRs were found to be similar in simultaneous hips but differences were observed in sequential hips. The order and timing of sequential hip arthroplasties did not affect the severity of ALTRs. Thus, in addition to metal ion exposure from an earlier MoM implant other factors may also play a role in the progression of ALTRs. Bilateral implants should be given special consideration in risk stratification algorithms for management of patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Removable gingival epithesis: esthetic and quick alternative resolution for anterior periodontal tissue replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Maria Fonseca Guerral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The gingiva, part of the masticatory mucosa tissue that covers the alveolar process and surrounds the cervical portion of teeth, has a definitive shape and texture associated with the eruption of teeth. Therefore, it must be included in rehabilitative planning, as the absence of papillae induces problems with esthetics, phonetics and food-impaction. The purpose of the present study was to approach the indications, limitations and techniques for making a removable artificial gingiva made of acrylic resin, by reporting on a clinical case. The patient, a 29-year-old woman, with the sequelae of periodontal disease, presented loss of interdental papilla causing “black holes”. She was dissatisfied with the esthetic appearance of her teeth, and also complained of long teeth and air escaping when she spoke. As treatment, prosthetic reconstruction was proposed, by means of a removable artificial gingiva (gingival epithesis to simulate the presence of interdental papillae, providing better esthetics and phonetics. Gingival epithesis is an easily made, inserted and hygienically cleaned appliance that provides a simple and safe alternative solution for cases in which surgical techniques are limited.

  11. Pericardial tissue valves and Gore-Tex conduits as an alternative for right ventricular outflow tract replacement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bradley S; El-Zein, Chawki; Cuneo, Betina; Cava, Joseph P; Barth, Mary Jane; Ilbawi, Michel N

    2002-09-01

    There is still no perfect conduit for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in children. Homografts are not always available in the appropriate size, and degenerate in a few years. This study evaluates the pericardial valve with Gore-Tex conduit as an alternative for RVOT construction. From January 1, 1993, to September 30, 1999, a pericardial tissue valve was inserted in all patients undergoing RVOT reconstruction or pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) who were large enough to accommodate a tissue valve. In patients without a native main pulmonary artery, a new technique was used to construct an RV-PA conduit out of a flat sheet of Gore-Tex, as Dacron frequently leads to stenosis. Data were collected by retrospective review, follow-up echocardiograms, and assessment by a single cardiologist. There were 48 patients, 22 undergoing a PVR alone and 26 a RV-PA valved Gore-Tex conduit. Diagnosis included tetralogy of Fallot (n = 25); truncus arteriosis (n = 9); ventricular septal defect with PA (n = 5); DORV (n = 4); D-TGA with PS (n = 2); and 1 each IAA with sub AS, VSD with PI, and PS s/p Ross procedure. Patient age ranged from 3 to 33 years and 98% were reoperations. The valve sizes ranged from 19 to 33 mm and the median hospital length of stay was 4 days. There were 2 (4.2%) perioperative and 1 (2.1%) late deaths, none related to the valve or Gore-Tex conduit. At a follow-up of 15 to 86 months (mean 43 +/- 16 months), all remaining 45 patients are New York Heart Association class I, all valves are functional, and no patient has required valve or conduit replacement or revision; more importantly, echocardiogram revealed no significant valve or conduit stenosis (mean gradient 16 +/- 8 mm Hg) and no evidence of regurgitation or structural degeneration. A pericardial tissue valve and Gore-Tex conduit provides a reliable alternative for RVOT reconstruction in pediatric patients. It is readily available, molds in the limited retrosternal space, and

  12. Description of the attitude control, guidance and navigation space replaceable units for automated space servicing of selected NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobotov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Control elements such as sensors, momentum exchange devices, and thrusters are described which can be used to define space replaceable units (SRU), in accordance with attitude control, guidance, and navigation performance requirements selected for NASA space serviceable mission spacecraft. A number of SRU's are developed, and their reliability block diagrams are presented. An SRU assignment is given in order to define a set of feasible space serviceable spacecraft for the missions of interest.

  13. Fabrication method, structure, mechanical, and biological properties of decellularized extracellular matrix for replacement of wide bone tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, N Y; Kiselevsky, M V; Sukhorukova, I V; Shvindina, N V; Shtansky, D V

    2015-09-01

    the replacement of wide bone tissue defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Africanization in the United States: replacement of feral European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African hybrid swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M Alice; Rubink, William L; Patton, John C; Coulson, Robert N; Johnston, J Spencer

    2005-08-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in feral population from the southern United States undergoing Africanization. Our microsatellite data showed that (1) the process of Africanization involved both maternal and paternal bidirectional gene flow between European and Africanized honeybees and (2) the panmitic European population was replaced by panmitic mixtures of A. m. scutellata and European genes within 5 years after Africanization. The post-Africanization gene pool (1998-2001) was composed of a diverse array of recombinant classes with a substantial European genetic contribution (mean 25-37%). Therefore, the resulting feral honeybee population of south Texas was best viewed as a hybrid swarm.

  15. Optimal replacement and inspection periods of safety and control boards in Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, Jin Il

    1993-02-01

    In nuclear power plants, the safety and control systems are important for operating and maintaining safety of nuclear power plants. Due to the failure of the instrument and control devices of nuclear power plants caused by aging, nuclear power plants occasionally trip. Since the start of first commercial operation of Kori nuclear power plant (NPP) unit 1, the trips caused by instrument and control systems account for 28% of total trips of NPPs in Korea. Even a single trip of a nuclear power plant causes an extravagant economical loss and deteriorates public acceptance of nuclear power plants. Therefore, the replacement of the instrument and control devices with proper consideration of the aging effect is necessary in order to prevent the inadvertent trip. In this work we investigated the optimal replacement periods of the digital control computer's (DCC) and the programmable digital comparator's (PDC) electronic circuit boards of Wolsung nuclear power plant Unit 1. We first derived mathematical models which calculate optimal replacement periods for electronic circuit boards of digital control computer (DCC) and for those of the programmable digital comparator (PDC) in Wolsung NPP unit 1. And we analytically obtained the optimal replacement periods of electronic circuit boards by using these models. We compared these periods with the replacement periods currently used at Wolsung NPP Unit. The periods used at Wolsung is not based on mathematical analysis, but on empirical knowledge. As a consequence, the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of DCC and those used in the field shown small difference : the optimal replacement periods analytically obtained for the electronic circuit boards of PDC are shorter than those used in the field in general. The engineered safeguards of Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 1 contains redundant systems of 2-out-of-3 logic which are not operating under normal conditions but they are called

  16. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-05: Replacement Computational Phantoms to Estimate Dose in Out-Of-Field Organs and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, K [Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon (United States); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Tannous, J; Nabha, R; Feghali, J; Ayoub, Z; Jalbout, W; Youssef, B [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Taddei, P [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To estimate the absorbed dose in organs and tissues at risk for radiogenic cancer for children receiving photon radiotherapy for localized brain tumors (LBTs) by supplementing their missing body anatomies with those of replacement computational phantoms. Applied beyond the extent of the RT Images collected by computed tomography simulation, these phantoms included RT Image and RT Structure Set objects that encompassed sufficient extents and contours for dosimetric calculations. Method: Nine children, aged 2 to 14 years, who received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for low-grade LBTs, were randomly selected for this study under Institutional-Review-Board protocol. Because the extents of their RT Images were cranial only, they were matched for size and sex with patients from a previous study with larger extents and for whom contours of organs at risk for radiogenic cancer had already been delineated. Rigid fusion was performed between the patients’ data and those of the replacement computational phantoms using commercial software. In-field dose was calculated with a clinically-commissioned treatment planning system, and out-of-field dose was estimated with an analytical model. Results: Averaged over all nine children and normalized for a therapeutic dose of 54 Gy prescribed to the PTV, where the PTV is the GTV, the highest mean organ doses were 3.27, 2.41, 1.07, 1.02, 0.24, and 0.24 Gy in the non-tumor remainder, red bone marrow, thyroid, skin, breasts, and lungs, respectively. The mean organ doses ranged by a factor of 3 between the smallest and largest children. Conclusion: For children receiving photon radiotherapy for LBTs, we found their doses in organs at risk for second cancer to be non-negligible, especially in the non-tumor remainder, red bone marrow, thyroid, skin, breasts, and lungs. This study demonstrated the feasibility for patient dosimetry studies to augment missing patient anatomy by applying size- and sex-matched replacement

  17. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2012-05-01

    To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the United States. Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and a national food prices database. Energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in 3 models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, inexpensive, and widely consumed and in a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. A nationwide, representative sample of children in the United States. A total of 7023 children aged 3 to 18 years. Systematic complete or partial replacement of juice with fruit. Difference in energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and diet costs between observed and modeled diets. For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/d (-2.6% difference [95% CI, -5.1% to -0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 g/d (31.1% difference [95% CI, 26.4%-35.9%]), and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/d (13.3% difference [95% CI, 8.8%-17.8%]). Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children's diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers, and families. These cost effects could be minimized by selecting processed fruits, but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved.

  18. Use of mock-up training to reduce personnel exposure at the North Anna Unit 1 Steam Generator Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, H.G. [Virginia Power, Mineral, VA (United States); Reilly, B.P. [Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The North Anna Power Station is located on the southern shore of Lake Anna in Louisa County, approximately forty miles northwest of Richmond, Virginia. The two 910 Mw nuclear units located on this site are owned by Virginia Electric and Power Company (Virginia Power) and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and operated by Virginia Power. Fuel was loaded into Unit 1 in December 1977, and it began commercial operation in June 1978. Fuel was loaded into Unit 2 in April 1980 and began commercial operation in December 1980. Each nuclear unit includes a three-coolant-loop pressurized light water reactor nuclear steam supply system that was furnished by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Included within each system were three Westinghouse Model 51 steam generators with alloy 600, mill-annealed tubing material. Over the years of operation of Unit 1, various corrosion-related phenomena had occurred that affected the steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fulfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators tubing and degraded their ability to fullfill their heat transfer function. Advanced inspection and repair techniques helped extend the useful life of the steam generators, but projections based on the results of the inspections indicated that the existing steam generators would not last their design life and must be repaired. To this end Virginia Power determined that a steam generator replacement (SGR) program was necessary to remove the old steam generator tube bundles and lower shell sections, including the channel heads (collectively called the lower assemblies), and replace them with new lower assemblies incorporating design features that will prevent the degradation problems that the old steam generators had experienced.

  19. A First Step in De Novo Synthesis of a Living Pulp Tissue Replacement Using Dental Pulp MSCs and Tissue Growth Factors, Encapsulated within a Bioinspired Alginate Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoj, Manasi; Zhang, Chengfei; Green, David W

    2015-07-01

    A living, self-supporting pulp tissue replacement in vitro and for transplantation is an attractive yet unmet bioengineering challenge. Our aim is to create 3-dimensional alginate-based microenvironments that replicate the shape of gutta-percha and comprise key elements for the proliferation of progenitor cells and the release of growth factors. An RGD-bearing alginate framework was used to encapsulate dental pulp stem cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a ratio of 1:1. The alginate hydrogel also retained and delivered 2 key growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor-121 and fibroblast growth factor, in a sufficient amount to induce proliferation. A method was then devised to replicate the shape of gutta-percha using RGD alginate within a custom-made mold of thermoresponsive N-isopropylacrylamide. Plugs of alginate containing different permutations of growth factor-based encapsulates were tested and evaluated for viability, proliferation, and release kinetics between 1 and 14 days. According to scanning electron microscopic and confocal microscopic observations, the encapsulated human endothelial cells and dental pulp stem cell distribution were frequent and extensive throughout the length of the construct. There were also high levels of viability in all test environments. Furthermore, cell proliferation was higher in the growth factor-based groups. Growth factor release kinetics also showed significant differences between them. Interestingly, the combination of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor synergize to significantly up-regulate cell proliferation. RGD-alginate scaffolds can be fabricated into shapes to fill the pulp space by simple templating. The addition of dual growth factors to cocultures of stem cells within RGD-alginate scaffolds led to the creation of microenvironments that significantly enhance the proliferation of dental pulp stem cell/human umbilical vein endothelial cell combinations. Copyright

  20. Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Virchow Infections Linked to a Powdered Meal Replacement Product - United States, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino-Shirley, Kelly J; Tesfai, Adiam; Schwensohn, Colin A; Burnett, Cindy; Smith, Lori; Wagner, Jennifer M; Eikmeier, Dana; Smith, Kirk; Stone, Jolianne P; Updike, Dawn; Hines, Jonas; Shade, Lauren N; Tolar, Beth; Fu, Tong-Jen; Viazis, Stelios; Seelman, Sharon L; Blackshear, Kathryn; Wise, Matthew E; Neil, Karen P

    2018-03-07

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Meal replacement products containing raw and 'superfood' ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers in recent years. In January 2016, we investigated a multistate outbreak of infections with a novel strain of Salmonella Virchow. Cases were defined using molecular subtyping procedures. Commonly reported exposures were compared with responses from healthy people interviewed in the 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey. Firm inspections and product traceback and testing were performed. Thirty-five cases from 24 states were identified; 6 hospitalizations and no deaths were reported. Thirty-one (94%) of 33 ill people interviewed reported consuming a powdered supplement in the week before illness; of these, 30 (97%) reported consuming Product A, a raw organic powdered shake product consumed as a meal replacement. Laboratory testing isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Virchow from: leftover Product A collected from ill people's homes, organic moringa leaf powder (an ingredient in Product A), and finished product retained by the firm. Firm inspections at three facilities linked to Product A production did not reveal contamination at the facilities. Traceback identified that the contaminated moringa leaf powder was imported from South Africa. This investigation identified a novel outbreak vehicle and highlighted the potential risk with similar products not intended to be cooked by consumers before consuming. The company issued a voluntary recall of all implicated products. As this product has a long shelf-life, the recall likely prevented additional illnesses.

  1. Phase-Contrast Hounsfield Units of Fixated and Non-Fixated Soft-Tissue Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results. PMID:26322638

  2. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  3. Analyzing the Function of Cartilage Replacements: A Laboratory Activity to Teach High School Students Chemical and Tissue Engineering Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Julie N.; Emady, Heather N.; Galas, Richards J., Jr.; Zhange, Rong; Baertsch, Chelsey D.; Liu, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    A cartilage tissue engineering laboratory activity was developed as part of the Exciting Discoveries for Girls in Engineering (EDGE) Summer Camp sponsored by the Women In Engineering Program (WIEP) at Purdue University. Our goal was to increase awareness of chemical engineering and tissue engineering in female high school students through a…

  4. Experience from replacement and check of thermocouples during reconstruction of in-reactor temperature measurements at Bohunice V-1 units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, M.; Stanc, J.

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of thermocouples in the protection tube blocks was a key phase of the reconstruction of in-reactor temperature measurements at Bohunice V-1 with regard to the success, reliability and impact on safety of unit operation. The replacement consisted of reliable and safe withdrawal of 216 old thermocouples, their disposal and installation of new thermocouples into dry channels. In the material presented, this phase of reconstruction is described in details, with focus on the evaluation of replacement quality and check activities carried out at the new installed thermocouples. (Authors)

  5. Collective Training and Fielding Opportunities for the Objective Force Maneuver Systems at the Unit of Action Level in a Unit Manning/Unit Replacement Personnel System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Courts, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of Objective Force formations, beginning with the first Unit of Action, will fundamentally change existing organizational structures, training requirements and operational constructs for the U.S. Army...

  6. Contributions of human tissue analysis to understanding the mechanisms of loosening and osteolysis in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallo, Jiri; Vaculova, Jana; Goodman, Stuart B

    2014-01-01

    /osteolysis development. Only studies analysing periprosthetic tissues retrieved from failed implants in humans were included. Data from 101 studies (5532 patients with failure of THA implants) published in English or German between 1974 and 2013 were included. "Control" samples were reported in 45 of the 101 studies...... of pathophysiological events that lead to prosthetic loosening and osteolysis. One possible solution is to examine tissues harvested from stable total hip arthroplasties that have been revised at various time periods due to dislocation or periprosthetic fracture in multicenter studies....

  7. Evaluating the Use of Tissue Oximetry to Decrease Intensive Unit Monitoring for Free Flap Breast Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Joseph A; Vargas, Christina R; Ho, Olivia A; Lin, Samuel J; Tobias, Adam M; Lee, Bernard T

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative free flap care has historically required intensive monitoring for 24 hours in an intensive care unit. Continuous monitoring with tissue oximetry has allowed earlier detection of vascular compromise, decreasing flap loss and improving salvage. This study aims to identify whether a fast-track postoperative paradigm can be safely used with tissue oximetry to decrease intensive monitoring and costs. All consecutive microsurgical breast reconstructions performed at a single institution were reviewed (2008-2014) and cases requiring return to the operating room were identified. Data evaluated included patient demographics, the take back time course, and complications of flap loss and salvage. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to analyse the utility of a postoperative intensive monitoring setting. There were 900 flaps performed and 32 required an unplanned return to the operating room. There were 16 flaps that required a reexploration within the first 24 hours; the standard length of intensive unit monitoring. After 4 hours, there were 7 flaps (44%) detected by tissue oximetry for reexploration. After 15 hours of intensive monitoring postoperatively, cost analysis revealed that the majority (15/16; 94%) of failing flaps had been identified and the cost of identifying each subsequent failing flap exceeded the cost of another hour of intensive monitoring. The postoperative paradigm for microsurgical flaps has historically required intensive unit monitoring. Using tissue oximetry, a fast-track pathway can reduce time spent in an intensive monitoring setting from 24 to 15 hours with significant cost savings and minimal risk of missing a failing free flap.

  8. Replacement of soybean oil by fish oil increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats fed a high-carbohydrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angélica Heringer; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Neves, Maria José; Botion, Leida Maria; Chaves, Valéria Ernestânia

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that fish oil consumption improves metabolic syndrome and comorbidities, as insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidaemia and hypertension induced by high-fat diet ingestion. Previously, we demonstrated that administration of a fructose-rich diet to rats induces liver lipid accumulation, accompanied by a decrease in liver cytosolic lipases activities. In this study, the effect of replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in a high-fructose diet (FRUC, 60% fructose) for 8 weeks on lipid metabolism in liver and epididymal adipose tissue from rats was investigated. The interaction between fish oil and FRUC diet increased glucose tolerance and decreased serum levels of triacylglycerol (TAG), VLDL-TAG secretion and lipid droplet volume of hepatocytes. In addition, the fish oil supplementation increased the liver cytosolic lipases activities, independently of the type of carbohydrate ingested. Our results firmly establish the physiological regulation of liver cytosolic lipases to maintain lipid homeostasis in hepatocytes. In epididymal adipose tissue, the replacement of soybean oil by fish oil in FRUC diet did not change the tissue weight and lipoprotein lipase activity; however, there was increased basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake. Increased cytosolic lipases activities were observed, despite the decreased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol release to the incubation medium. These findings suggest that fish oil increases the glycerokinase activity and glycerol phosphorylation from endogenous TAG hydrolysis. Our findings are the first to show that the fish oil ingestion increases cytosolic lipases activities in liver and adipose tissue from rats treated with high-carbohydrate diets. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODEL AND METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATION OF MINIMIZATION ON TURNING RADIUS OF TRACTOR UNIT WITH REPLACEABLE SUPPORTING AND MANEUVERING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Zeleniy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth plowing with the help of reversible plows has replaced an enclosure method of soil treatment. The method may cause a formation of back ridges or open furrows. Due to this fact turnings of a tractor unit with a minimum radius required in order to ensure shuttle movements each time in the furrow of the preceding operating stroke have become a dominant type of turnings. Non-productive shift time is directly dependent on them and it is on the average 10–12 %, and it is up to 40 % in small contour areas with short run. Large non-productive time is connected with the desire to reduce headland width at field edges, and then a turning is made in several stages while using a complicated maneuvering. Therefore, an increase in efficiency of a plowing unit by means of minimization on its turning radius and execution of turning at one stage in the shortest possible time are considered as relevant objectives. In such a case it is necessary to take into account the fact that potential capabilities of universal tractors having established time-proved designs in respect of reduction of turning radius are practically at the end. So it is expedient to solve the matter at the expense of additional removable devices that ensure transformation of tractor wheel formula at the run end in order to reorient its position. Finally high quality plowing ensured by future-oriented reversible plows will be accompanied not only by output increase per shift, but also by decrease in headland width, their compaction and abrasion due to suspension systems and increase in productivity. The developed design having a novelty which proved by an invention patent and representing an additional supporting and maneuvering device significantly minimizes all the above-mentioned disadvantages and does not require any changes in tractor production design. Investigations have been carried on the following topic: “Minimization of turning radius for universal tractors by transformation

  10. David valve-sparing aortic root replacement: equivalent mid-term outcome for different valve types with or without connective tissue disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Kari, Fabian A; Fischbein, Michael P; Liang, David H; Beraud, Anne-Sophie; Stephens, Elizabeth H; Mitchell, R Scott; Miller, D Craig

    2013-01-01

    Although implicitly accepted by many that the durability of valve-sparing aortic root replacement in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease and connective tissue disorders will be inferior, this hypothesis has not been rigorously investigated. From 1993 to 2009, 233 patients (27% bicuspid aortic valve, 40% Marfan syndrome) underwent Tirone David valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Follow-up averaged 4.7 ± 3.3 years (1102 patient-years). Freedom from adverse outcomes was determined using log-rank calculations. Survival at 5 and 10 years was 98.7% ± 0.7% and 93.5% ± 5.1%, respectively. Freedom from reoperation (all causes) on the aortic root was 92.2% ± 3.6% at 10 years; 3 reoperations were aortic valve replacement owing to structural valve deterioration. Freedom from structural valve deterioration at 10 years was 96.1% ± 2.1%. No significant differences were found in survival (P = .805, P = .793, respectively), reoperation (P = .179, P = .973, respectively), structural valve deterioration (P = .639, P = .982, respectively), or any other functional or clinical endpoints when patients were stratified by valve type (tricuspid aortic valve vs bicuspid aortic valve) or associated connective tissue disorder. At the latest echocardiographic follow-up (95% complete), 202 patients (94.8%) had none or trace aortic regurgitation, 10 (4.7%) mild, 0 had moderate to severe, and 1 (0.5%) had severe aortic regurgitation. Freedom from greater than 2+ aortic regurgitation at 10 years was 95.3% ± 2.5%. Six patients sustained acute type B aortic dissection (freedom at 10 years, 90.4% ± 5.0%). Tirone David reimplantation valve-sparing aortic root replacement in carefully selected young patients was associated with excellent clinical and echocardiographic outcome in patients with either a tricuspid aortic valve or bicuspid aortic valve. No demonstrable adverse influence was found for Marfan syndrome or connective tissue disorder on durability, clinical outcome

  11. Hormone replacement therapy dependent changes in breast cancer-related gene expression in breast tissue of healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Anieta M; De Napoli, Giuseppina; van Galen, Anne; Kloosterboer, Helenius J; de Weerd, Vanja; Zhang, Hong; Martens, John W M; Foekens, John A; De Geyter, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Risk assessment of future breast cancer risk through exposure to sex steroids currently relies on clinical scorings such as mammographic density. Knowledge about the gene expression patterns in existing breast cancer tumors may be used to identify risk factors in the breast tissue of women still free of cancer. The differential effects of estradiol, estradiol together with gestagens, or tibolone on breast cancer-related gene expression in normal breast tissue samples taken from postmenopausal women may be used to identify gene expression profiles associated with a higher breast cancer risk. Breast tissue samples were taken from 33 healthy postmenopausal women both before and after a six month treatment with either 2mg micronized estradiol [E2], 2mg micronized estradiol and 1mg norethisterone acetate [E2+NETA], 2.5mg tibolone [T] or [no HRT]. Except for [E2], which was only given to women after hysterectomy, the allocation to each of the three groups was randomized. The expression of 102 mRNAs and 46 microRNAs putatively involved in breast cancer was prospectively determined in the biopsies of 6 women receiving [no HRT], 5 women receiving [E2], 5 women receiving [E2+NETA], and 6 receiving [T]. Using epithelial and endothelial markers genes, non-representative biopsies from 11 women were eliminated. Treatment of postmenopausal women with [E2+NETA] resulted in the highest number of differentially (pbreast tissue with a change in the expression of genes putatively involved in breast cancer. Our data suggest that normal mammary cells triggered by [E2+NETA] adjust for steroidogenic up-regulation through down-regulation of the estrogen-receptor pathway. This feasibility study provides the basis for whole genome analyses to identify novel markers involved in increased breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary fish oil replacement by linseed oil: Effect on growth, nutrient utilization, tissue fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Madhusmita; Saha, Ashis; Pradhan, Avinash; Samanta, Mrinal; Giri, Shiba Shankar

    2017-03-01

    Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is considered a promising medium carp species for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study in silver barb was carried out to evaluate the effects of total or partial substitution of dietary fish oil (FO) with linseed oil (LO) on growth, nutrient utilization, whole-body composition, muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Fish (12.1±0.4g of initial body weight) were fed for 60days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic and iso-caloric diets in which FO (control diet) was replaced by 33.3%, 50%, 66.7% and 100% LO. Final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, SGR decreased linearly (p0.05) affect the feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and whole body proximate composition. Furthermore, enhanced level of LO increased α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n3) and linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n6) and decreased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) in muscle and liver. To understand the molecular mechanism of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis, we cloned and characterized the fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase (Δ6 fad) cDNA and investigated its expression in various organs/tissues following replacement of FO with LO in the diet. The full-length Δ6 fad cDNA was 2056bp encoding 444 amino acids and was widely expressed in various organs/tissues. Replacement of FO with LO increased the expression of Δ6 fad mRNA in liver, muscle and intestine but no significant difference was found in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of Tissue Density in Hounsfield Units in Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshowsaz, Masoud; Goorang, Sepideh; Ehsani, Sara; Azizi, Zeynab; Rahimian, Sepideh

    2016-03-01

    Bone quality and quantity assessment is one of the most important steps in implant treatment planning. Different methods such as computed tomography (CT) and recently suggested cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) with lower radiation dose and less time and cost are used for bone density assessment. This in vitro study aimed to compare the tissue density values in Hounsfield units (HUs) in CBCT and CT scans of different tissue phantoms with two different thicknesses, two different image acquisition settings and in three locations in the phantoms. Four different tissue phantoms namely hard tissue, soft tissue, air and water were scanned by three different CBCT and a CT system in two thicknesses (full and half) and two image acquisition settings (high and low kVp and mA). The images were analyzed at three sites (middle, periphery and intermediate) using eFilm software. The difference in density values was analyzed by ANOVA and correction coefficient test (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between density values in CBCT and CT scans in most situations, and CBCT values were not similar to CT values in any of the phantoms in different thicknesses and acquisition parameters or the three different sites. The correction coefficients confirmed the results. CBCT is not reliable for tissue density assessment. The results were not affected by changes in thickness, acquisition parameters or locations.

  14. Ultrasound-targeted transfection of tissue-type plasminogen activator gene carried by albumin nanoparticles to dog myocardium to prevent thrombosis after heart mechanical valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ji Jun, Ji Shang-Yi, Yang Jian-An, He Xia, Yang Xiao-Han, Ling Wen-Ping, Chen Xiao-LingDepartment of Pathology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Shenzhen Sun Yat-Sen Cardiovascular Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: There are more than 300,000 prosthetic heart valve replacements each year worldwide. These patients are faced with a higher risk of thromboembolic events after heart valve surgery and long-term or even life-long anticoagulative and antiplatelet therapies are necessary. Some severe complications such as hemorrhaging or rebound thrombosis can occur when the therapy ceases. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA is a thrombolytic agent. One of the best strategies is gene therapy, which offers a local high expression of t-PA over a prolonged time period to avoid both systemic hemorrhaging and local rebound thrombosis. There are some issues with t-PA that need to be addressed: currently, there is no up-to-date report on how the t-PA gene targets the heart in vivo and the gene vector for t-PA needs to be determined.Aims: To fabricate an albumin nano-t-PA gene ultrasound-targeted agent and investigate its targeting effect on prevention of thrombosis after heart mechanic valve replacement under therapeutic ultrasound.Methods: A dog model of mechanical tricuspid valve replacement was constructed. A highly expressive t-PA gene plasmid was constructed and packaged by nanoparticles prepared with bovine serum albumin. This nanopackaged t-PA gene plasmid was further cross-linked to ultrasonic microbubbles prepared with sucrose and bovine serum albumin to form the ultrasonic-targeted agent for t-PA gene transfection. The agent was given intravenously followed by a therapeutic ultrasound treatment (1 MHz, 1.5 w/cm2, 10 minutes of the heart soon after valve replacement had been performed. The expression of t-PA in myocardium was detected with multiclonal antibodies to t-PA by the indirect immunohistochemical method

  15. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  16. Acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on prognostic assessment for shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert F; Gustin, Jillian

    2011-07-01

    A 69-year-old female was receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) for acute renal failure (ARF) in an intensive care unit (ICU). Consultation was requested from the palliative medicine service to facilitate a shared decision-making process regarding goals of care. Clinician responsibility in shared decision making includes the formulation and expression of a prognostic assessment providing the necessary perspective for a spokesperson to match patient values with treatment options. For this patient, ARF requiring RRT in the ICU was used as a focal point for preparing a prognostic assessment. A prognostic assessment should include the outcomes of most importance to a discussion of goals of care: mortality risk and survivor functional status, in this case including renal recovery. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to document published data regarding these outcomes for adult patients receiving RRT for ARF in the ICU. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The combined mean values for short-term mortality, long-term mortality, renal-function recovery of short-term survivors, and renal-function recovery of long-term survivors were 51.7%, 68.6%, 82.0%, and 88.4%, respectively. This case example illustrates a process for formulating and expressing a prognostic assessment for an ICU patient requiring RRT for ARF. Data from the literature review provide baseline information that requires adjustment to reflect specific patient circumstances. The nature of the acute primary process, comorbidities, and severity of illness are key modifiers. Finally, the prognostic assessment is expressed during a family meeting using recommended principles of communication.

  17. Simulation based assembly and alignment process ability analysis for line replaceable units of the high power solid state laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junfeng; Lu, Cong; Li, Shiqi, E-mail: sqli@hust.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Discrete event simulation is applied to analyze the assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs in SG-III facility. • The overall assembly and alignment process of LRUs with specific characteristics is described. • An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. • Different scenarios have been simulated to evaluate assembling process ability of LRUs and decision making is supported to ensure the construction millstone. - Abstract: Line replaceable units (LRUs) are important components of the very large high power solid state laser facilities. The assembly and alignment process ability of LRUs will impact the construction milestone of facilities. This paper describes the use of discrete event simulation method for assembly and alignment process analysis of LRUs in such facilities. The overall assembly and alignment process for LRUs is presented based on the layout of the optics assembly laboratory and the process characteristics are analyzed. An extended-directed graph is proposed to express the assembly and alignment process of LRUs. Taking the LRUs of disk amplifier system in Shen Guang-III (SG-III) facility as the example, some process simulation models are built based on the Quest simulation platform. The constraints, such as duration, equipment, technician and part supply, are considered in the simulation models. Different simulation scenarios have been carried out to evaluate the assembling process ability of LRUs. The simulation method can provide a valuable decision making and process optimization tool for the optics assembly laboratory layout and the process working out of such facilities.

  18. Four-unit fixed dental prostheses replacing the maxillary incisors supported by two narrow-diameter implants - a five-year case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moráguez, Osvaldo; Vailati, Francesca; Grütter, Linda; Sailer, Irena; Belser, Urs C

    2017-07-01

    (1) To determine the survival rate of 10 four-unit fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) replacing the four maxillary incisors, supported by 20 narrow-diameter implants (NDIs), (2) to assess the incidence of mechanical and biological complications, and (3) to evaluate bone level changes longitudinally after final FDP insertion. Ten patients (six women, four men), mean age 49.4 ± 12.6 years, were treated with a four-unit anterior maxillary FDP (six screw-retained; four cemented). Biological parameters, eventual technical complications, radiographic measurements, and study casts were assessed at 1 (baseline), 3, and 5 years after implant placement. A multilevel logistic regression test was performed on clinical parameters and bone level changes (significance level P four-unit FDP to replace the four missing maxillary incisors may be considered a predictable treatment modality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Thickening of the epicardial adipose tissue can be alleviated by thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Irmak; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Ekici, Berkay; Kutuk, Utku; Corakci, Ahmet; Tore, Hasan Fehmi

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common disorder which has adverse cardiovascular effects. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a novel marker of cardiovascular risk, is increased in SCH. We aimed to investigate whether L-thyroxine treatment can reverse the thickening of EAT in SCH. Forty-four patients with SCH and 42 euthyroid control subjects were included. EAT thickness was measured using transthoracic echocardiography at baseline and after restoration of the euthyroid status with 3 months of L-thyroxine treatment. At baseline, mean EAT thickness was significantly greater in the SCH group when compared to the control group (6.3 ± 1.7 mm vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, p treatment (6.3 ± 1.7 mm vs. 5.1 ± 1.4 mm, p treatment when compared to baseline (DEAT) significantly correlated to the difference in TSH levels before and after treatment (DTSH; r = 0.323; p = 0.032). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness is increased in patients with SCH. This thickening was alleviated with restoration of the euthyroid status with L-thyroxine treatment in our study population of predominantly male, relatively old subjects with greater baseline EAT thickness.

  20. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering. (paper)

  1. Unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing system for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jeong Hun; Kang, Tae-Yun; Seol, Young-Joon; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2012-03-01

    Scaffolds play an important role in the regeneration of artificial tissues or organs. A scaffold is a porous structure with a micro-scale inner architecture in the range of several to several hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, computer-aided construction of scaffolds should provide sophisticated functionality for porous structure design and a tool path generation strategy that can achieve micro-scale architecture. In this study, a new unit cell-based computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) system was developed for the automated design and fabrication of a porous structure with micro-scale inner architecture that can be applied to composite tissue regeneration. The CAM system was developed by first defining a data structure for the computing process of a unit cell representing a single pore structure. Next, an algorithm and software were developed and applied to construct porous structures with a single or multiple pore design using solid freeform fabrication technology and a 3D tooth/spine computer-aided design model. We showed that this system is quite feasible for the design and fabrication of a scaffold for tissue engineering.

  2. [Study of methods of decalcification for making united slices of tooth and affiliated periodontic tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mu, Ya-bing; Miao, Lei-ying; Sun, Hong-chen; Li, Cheng-ku

    2007-03-01

    To study the methods of decalcification for making united slices of tooth and affiliated periodontic tissues. Twenty-one samples containing dog molars and affiliated periodontic tissues were divided into seven mean groups. The pH value of solution, time of decalcification, weight and volume of samples, and content of decalcified calcium were detected. The slices were observed by HE, specific, and immunohistochemical stain. The velocity of decalcification increased with decrease of solution pH. The weight of samples lightened by 37.61%, the volume reduced by 25.97% on average, and calcium decalcified was 174.49 mg per gram humid samples. The EDTA decalcification was slowest, but it was best. Decalcification was fast in Plank-Rycho solution while the section was worst, and faster in the formyl solution containing aluminium chloride than in EDTA, and the section was better. The 50% formyl solution containing aluminium chloride is an ideal decalcifying solution.

  3. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... Ankle replacement surgery is most often done while you are under general anesthesia. This means you will ...

  4. Understanding the continuous renal replacement therapy circuit for acute renal failure support: a quality issue in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Martin; Baldwin, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of renal replacement therapy is now a core competency of intensive care nursing. The safe and effective delivery of this form of therapy is a quality issue for intensive care, requiring an understanding of the principles underlying therapy and the functioning of machines used. Continuous hemofiltration, first described in 1977, used a system where blood flowed from arterial to venous cannulas through a small-volume, low-resistance, and high-flux filter. Monitoring of these early systems was limited, and without a machine interface, less nursing expertise was required. Current continuous renal replacement therapy machines offer user-friendly interfaces, cassette-style circuits, and comprehensive circuit diagnostics and monitoring. Although these machines conceal complexity behind a user-friendly interface, it remains important that nurses have sufficient knowledge for their use and the ability to compare and contrast circuit setups and functions for optimal and efficient treatment.

  5. Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In vivo gene therapy directed at tissues of mesenchymal origin could potentially augment healing. We aimed to assess the duration and magnitude of transene expression in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human tissues. Methods. Using bioluminescence imaging, plasmid and adenoviral vector-based transgene expression in murine quadriceps in vivo was examined. Temporal control was assessed using a doxycycline-inducible system. An ex vivo model was developed and optimised using murine tissue, and applied in ex vivo human tissue. Results. In vivo plasmid-based transgene expression did not silence in murine muscle, unlike in liver. Although maximum luciferase expression was higher in muscle with adenoviral delivery compared with plasmid, expression reduced over time. The inducible promoter cassette successfully regulated gene expression with maximum levels a factor of 11 greater than baseline. Expression was re-induced to a similar level on a temporal basis. Luciferase expression was readily detected ex vivo in human muscle and tendon. Conclusions. Plasmid constructs resulted in long-term in vivo gene expression in skeletal muscle, in a controllable fashion utilising an inducible promoter in combination with oral agents. Successful plasmid gene transfection in human ex vivo mesenchymal tissue was demonstrated for the first time.

  6. Molecular basis of perinatal hypophosphatasia with tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase bearing a conservative replacement of valine by alanine at position 406. Structural importance of the crown domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numa, Natsuko; Ishida, Yoko; Nasu, Makiko; Sohda, Miwa; Misumi, Yoshio; Noda, Tadashi; Oda, Kimimitsu

    2008-06-01

    Hypophosphatasia, a congenital metabolic disease related to the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase gene (TNSALP), is characterized by reduced serum alkaline phosphatase levels and defective mineralization of hard tissues. A replacement of valine with alanine at position 406, located in the crown domain of TNSALP, was reported in a perinatal form of hypophosphatasia. To understand the molecular defect of the TNSALP (V406A) molecule, we examined this missense mutant protein in transiently transfected COS-1 cells and in stable CHO-K1 Tet-On cells. Compared with the wild-type enzyme, the mutant protein showed a markedly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. This was not the result of defective transport and resultant degradation of TNSALP (V406A) in the endoplasmic reticulum, as the majority of newly synthesized TNSALP (V406A) was conveyed to the Golgi apparatus and incorporated into a cold detergent insoluble fraction (raft) at a rate similar to that of the wild-type TNSALP. TNSALP (V406A) consisted of a dimer, as judged by sucrose gradient centrifugation, suggestive of its proper folding and correct assembly, although this mutant showed increased susceptibility to digestion by trypsin or proteinase K. When purified as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless soluble form, the mutant protein exhibited a remarkably lower Kcat/Km value compared with that of the wild-type TNSALP. Interestingly, leucine and isoleucine, but not phenylalanine, were able to substitute for valine, pointing to the indispensable role of residues with a longer aliphatic side chain at position 406 of TNSALP. Taken together, this particular mutation highlights the structural importance of the crown domain with respect to the catalytic function of TNSALP.

  7. Potential nutritional and economic effects of replacing juice with fruit in the diets of children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruit juices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruit juices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (−2.6% [95% CI −5.1, −0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved. PMID:22566547

  8. Optimal inspection and replacement periods of the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 with an optimized cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinil Mok; Poong Hyun Seong

    1996-01-01

    In this work, a model for determining the optimal inspection and replacement periods of the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 is developed, which is to minimize economic loss caused by inadvertent trip and the system failure. This model uses cost benefit analysis method and the part for optimal inspection period considers the human error. The model is based on three factors as follows: (i) The cumulative failure distribution function of the safety system, (ii) The probability that the safety system does not operate due to failure of the system or human error when the safety system is needed at an emergency condition and (iii) The average probability that the reactor is tripped due to the failure of system components or human error. The model then is applied to evaluate the safety system in Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1. The optimal replacement periods which are calculated with proposed model differ from those used in Wolsung NPP Unit 1 by about a few days or months, whereas the optimal inspection periods are in about the same range. (author)

  9. Segmental Aortic Stiffness in Children and Young Adults With Connective Tissue Disorders: Relationships With Age, Aortic Size, Rate of Dilation, and Surgical Root Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ashwin; Adlakha, Himanshu; Rabideau, Nicole; Hass, Cara J; Morris, Shaine A; Geva, Tal; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Singh, Michael N; Lacro, Ronald V

    2015-08-18

    Aortic diameter is an imperfect predictor of aortic complications in connective tissue disorders (CTDs). Novel indicators of vascular phenotype severity such as aortic stiffness and vertebral tortuosity index have been proposed. We assessed the relation between aortic stiffness by cardiac MRI, surgical root replacement, and rates of aortic root dilation in children and young adults with CTDs. Retrospective analysis of cardiac MRI data on children and young adults with a CTD was performed to derive aortic stiffness measures (strain, distensibility, and β-stiffness index) at the aortic root, ascending aorta, and descending aorta. Vertebral tortuosity index was calculated as previously described. Rate of aortic root dilation before cardiac MRI was calculated as change in echocardiographic aortic root diameter z score per year. In 83 CTD patients (median age, 24 years; range, 1-55; 17% age; 60% male), ascending aorta distensibility was reduced in comparison with published normative values: median z score, -1.93 (range, -8.7 to 1.3; Pyoung adults with CTDs. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Africanization in the United States: Replacement of Feral European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by an African Hybrid Swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Rubink, William L.; Patton, John C.; Coulson, Robert N.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2005-01-01

    The expansion of Africanized honeybees from South America to the southwestern United States in 50 years is considered one of the most spectacular biological invasions yet documented. In the American tropics, it has been shown that during their expansion Africanized honeybees have low levels of introgressed alleles from resident European populations. In the United States, it has been speculated, but not shown, that Africanized honeybees would hybridize extensively with European ho...

  11. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  12. Safety Management of a Clinical Process Using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis: Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Izquierdo-Riera, Jose Angel; Molano-Alvarez, Esteban; Saez-de la Fuente, Ignacio; Maynar-Moliner, Javier; Marín-Mateos, Helena; Chacón-Alves, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) may improve the safety of the continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit. We use this tool in three phases: 1) Retrospective observational study. 2) A process FMEA, with implementation of the improvement measures identified. 3) Cohort study after FMEA. We included 54 patients in the pre-FMEA group and 72 patients in the post-FMEA group. Comparing the risks frequencies per patient in both groups, we got less cases of under 24 hours of filter survival time in the post-FMEA group (31 patients 57.4% vs. 21 patients 29.6%; p FMEA, there were several improvements in the management of intensive care unit patients receiving CRRT, and we consider it a useful tool for improving the safety of critically ill patients.

  13. A Comparison in Mechanical Properties of Cermets of Calcium Silicate with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys for Hard Tissues Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sumit; Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yau, Yat-Huang; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements. PMID:25538954

  14. A Comparison in Mechanical Properties of Cermets of Calcium Silicate with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys for Hard Tissues Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Ataollahi Oshkour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%. The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young’s modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.

  15. Surry Power Station secondary water chemistry improvement since steam generator replacement and the unit two feedwater pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, E.T.

    1988-01-01

    Surry Power Station has two Westinghouse-designed three-loop PWRs of 811 MWe design rating. The start of commercial operation was in July, 1972 in No.1 plant, and May, 1973 in No.2 plant. Both plants began the operation using controlled phosphate chemistry for the steam generators. In 1975, both plants were converted to all volatile treatment on the secondary side due to the tube wall thinning corrosion in the steam generators, which was associated with the phosphate sludge that was building up on the tube sheets and created acidic condition. Thereafter, condenser and air leakage and steam generator denting occurred, and after the operation of 8 years 2 month of No.1 plant and 5 years 9 months of No.2 plant, the steam generators were replaced. A major plant improvement program was designed and implemented from 1979 to 1980. The improvement in new steam generators, the modification for preventing corrosion, the addition of a steam generator blowdown recovery system, the reconstruction of condensers, the installation of full flow, deep bed condensate polishers, the addition of Dionex 8,000 on-line ion chromatograph, a long term maintenance agreement with Westinghouse and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Treatment of skin and soft tissue infections in a pediatric observation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Roni D; Sandweiss, David R; Corneli, Howard M

    2014-05-01

    To report the success rate of observation unit (OU) treatment of pediatric skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and to see if we could identify variables at the time of initial evaluation that predicted successful OU treatment. A retrospective review of children less than 18 years of age admitted for SSTI treatment to our OU from the emergency department between January 2003 and June 2009. On records review, 853 patients matched eligibility criteria; median age was 5.2 years (interquartile range = 2.5-9 years). Of the 853 patients, 597 (70.0%) met the primary outcome criteria of successful OU discharge within 26 hours. Secondary analysis revealed that 82% of the patients achieved successful discharge from the OU within 48 hours. Although some laboratory variables demonstrated statistical association with success, none achieved a combination of high sensitivity and specificity to predict OU failure. OU success rates varied by location. Dental and face infections and those of the extremities or multiple sites demonstrated OU success rates higher than 65%, while infection of the groin, buttocks, trunk, or neck had success rates between 24% (neck) and 60% (groin). In multivariate analysis, only 3 variables remained significant. Unfavorable location was most strongly associated with OU failure, followed by C-reactive protein > 4 and then by erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 20. Our findings suggest that successful OU treatment is possible in a large group of patients needing hospitalization for SSTIs. Consideration of infection location may assist the emergency department clinician in determining the most appropriate unit for admission.

  17. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  18. Membrane Lipid Replacement for chronic illnesses, aging and cancer using oral glycerolphospholipid formulations with fructooligosaccharides to restore phospholipid function in cellular membranes, organelles, cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Garth L; Ash, Michael E

    2017-09-01

    Membrane Lipid Replacement is the use of functional, oral supplements containing mixtures of cell membrane glycerolphospholipids, plus fructooligosaccharides (for protection against oxidative, bile acid and enzymatic damage) and antioxidants, in order to safely replace damaged, oxidized, membrane phospholipids and restore membrane, organelle, cellular and organ function. Defects in cellular and intracellular membranes are characteristic of all chronic medical conditions, including cancer, and normal processes, such as aging. Once the replacement glycerolphospholipids have been ingested, dispersed, complexed and transported, while being protected by fructooligosaccharides and several natural mechanisms, they can be inserted into cell membranes, lipoproteins, lipid globules, lipid droplets, liposomes and other carriers. They are conveyed by the lymphatics and blood circulation to cellular sites where they are endocytosed or incorporated into or transported by cell membranes. Inside cells the glycerolphospholipids can be transferred to various intracellular membranes by lipid globules, liposomes, membrane-membrane contact or by lipid carrier transfer. Eventually they arrive at their membrane destinations due to 'bulk flow' principles, and there they can stimulate the natural removal and replacement of damaged membrane lipids while undergoing further enzymatic alterations. Clinical trials have shown the benefits of Membrane Lipid Replacement in restoring mitochondrial function and reducing fatigue in aged subjects and chronically ill patients. Recently Membrane Lipid Replacement has been used to reduce pain and other symptoms as well as removing hydrophobic chemical contaminants, suggesting that there are additional new uses for this safe, natural medicine supplement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Lipid Therapy: Drugs Targeting Biomembranes edited by Pablo V. Escribá. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Children as donors: a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelink, Marion J; Albers, Marcel J I J; Roodbol, Petrie F; Van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2012-12-01

    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol. A national retrospective cohort study was conducted in all eight Dutch pediatric intensive care units. Records of deceased children were analyzed by an independent donation officer. Seventy-four (11%) of 683 deceased children were found to be suitable for organ donation and 132 (19%) for tissue donation. Sixty-two (84%) potential organ donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 42%. Sixty-three (48%) potential tissue donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 27%. Correct identification increased with age (logistic regression, organs: P = .024; tissues: P = .011). Although an overall identification rate of 84% of potential organ donors may seem acceptable, the variation observed suggests room for improvement, as does the overall low rate of identification of pediatric tissue donors. Efforts to address the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation in children should focus on identifying potential donors and on the reasons why parents do not consent. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  20. Organ and tissue donation in a regional paediatric intensive care unit: evaluation of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Laura; Alurkar, Shrirang; Kigozi, Phoebe; Vyas, Harish

    2018-05-01

    Approximately 2% of those on the organ transplant list in the UK are children. Early identification of donors and referral to organ donation teams (ODT) has proven to increase both the success rate of gaining consent and the number of organs actually retrieved. To evaluate the practice relating to organ donation for children receiving end-of-life care on a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) measured against the National Guidelines. All children 0-18 who received their end-of-life care and died on the PICU. A retrospective cohort study of organ donation patterns including referral, approach, consent and donation. This involved a review of case notes on PICU between the years 2009 and 2014. One hundred five deaths were identified and 100 notes were examined and data analysed to ascertain if religion, age and length of stay on PICU impacted on practice. Eighty-six children met the early identification criteria for potential donors, 40 (46.5%) children were referred to the ODT and 33 (38.3%) families were approached regarding donation. Twenty-one (24.4%) families consented to donation. Seventeen donations took place with a total of 41 sets of organs/tissues retrieved. Despite the majority of children meeting early identification for potential donors, many were not being referred. All children on end-of-life care should be referred for potential organ donation. Organ donation needs to be seen as a priority for hospitals as a part of routine end-of-life care to help increase referral rates and give families the opportunity to donate. Many paediatric deaths are not referred for consideration of organ donation, despite guidelines stating that this process should be standard of care. Further optimization of referral rates may aid in increasing the number of organs available for donation. What is Known: • Shortage of organs continues to be a national problem. • NICE guidelines state that all patients who are on end-of-life care should have the option of organ donation

  1. Decomposing the Hounsfield unit: probabilistic segmentation of brain tissue in computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmling, A; Wersching, H; Berger, K; Knecht, S; Groden, C; Nölte, I

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to present and evaluate a standardized technique for brain segmentation of cranial computed tomography (CT) using probabilistic partial volume tissue maps based on a database of high resolution T1 magnetic resonance images (MRI). Probabilistic tissue maps of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were derived from 600 normal brain MRIs (3.0 Tesla, T1-3D-turbo-field-echo) of 2 large community-based population studies (BiDirect and SEARCH Health studies). After partial tissue segmentation (FAST 4.0), MR images were linearly registered to MNI-152 standard space (FLIRT 5.5) with non-linear refinement (FNIRT 1.0) to obtain non-binary probabilistic volume images for each tissue class which were subsequently used for CT segmentation. From 150 normal cerebral CT scans a customized reference image in standard space was constructed with iterative non-linear registration to MNI-152 space. The inverse warp of tissue-specific probability maps to CT space (MNI-152 to individual CT) was used to decompose a CT image into tissue specific components (GM, WM, CSF). Potential benefits and utility of this novel approach with regard to unsupervised quantification of CT images and possible visual enhancement are addressed. Illustrative examples of tissue segmentation in different pathological cases including perfusion CT are presented. Automated tissue segmentation of cranial CT images using highly refined tissue probability maps derived from high resolution MR images is feasible. Potential applications include automated quantification of WM in leukoaraiosis, CSF in hydrocephalic patients, GM in neurodegeneration and ischemia and perfusion maps with separate assessment of GM and WM.

  2. Bioprinting of Cartilage and Skin Tissue Analogs Utilizing a Novel Passive Mixing Unit Technique for Bioink Precellularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick Scott; Orrhult, Linnea Stridh; Martínez, Héctor

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a powerful technique for the rapid and reproducible fabrication of constructs for tissue engineering applications. In this study, both cartilage and skin analogs were fabricated after bioink pre-cellularization utilizing a novel passive mixing unit technique. This technique was developed with the aim to simplify the steps involved in the mixing of a cell suspension into a highly viscous bioink. The resolution of filaments deposited through bioprinting necessitates the assurance of uniformity in cell distribution prior to printing to avoid the deposition of regions without cells or retention of large cell clumps that can clog the needle. We demonstrate the ability to rapidly blend a cell suspension with a bioink prior to bioprinting of both cartilage and skin analogs. Both tissue analogs could be cultured for up to 4 weeks. Histological analysis demonstrated both cell viability and deposition of tissue specific extracellular matrix (ECM) markers such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen I respectively. PMID:29364216

  3. Motor unit recruitment strategies are altered during deep-tissue pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kylie; Butler, Jane; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Riek, Stephan; Hodges, Paul

    2009-09-02

    Muscle pain is associated with decreased motor unit discharge rate during constant force contractions. As discharge rate is a determinant of force, other adaptations in strategy must explain force maintenance during pain. Our aim was to determine whether motor unit recruitment strategies are altered during pain to maintain force despite reduced discharge rate. Motor unit discharge behavior was recorded in two muscles, one with (quadriceps) and one without [flexor pollicis longus (FPL)] synergists. Motor units were recruited during matched low-force contractions with and without experimentally induced pain, and at higher force without pain. A total of 52 and 34 units were recorded in quadriceps and FPL, respectively, during low-force contractions with and without pain. Of these, 20 quadriceps and 9 FPL units were identified during both trials. The discharge rate of these units reduced during pain in both muscles [quadriceps: 8.7 (1.5) to 7.5 (1.3) Hz, p units discharged only with or without pain, but not in both conditions. Only one-third of the additional units recruited during pain (quadriceps n = 7/19, FPL n = 3/15) were those expected given orderly recruitment of the motor unit pool as determined during higher-force contractions. We conclude that reduced motor unit discharge rate with pain is accompanied by changes in the population of units used to maintain force. The recruitment of new units is partly inconsistent with generalized inhibition of the motoneuron pool predicted by the "pain adaptation" theory, and provides the basis for a new mechanism of motor adaptation with pain.

  4. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Medications prescribed by your doctor should help control pain. During the hospital stay, you'll be encouraged to move your ... exercise your new knee. After you leave the hospital, you'll continue physical ... mobility and a better quality of life. And most knee replacements can be ...

  5. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets......-fed and Sow-Milk groups. The expression level of IL-2 was higher (P≤ 0·051) in piglets from the MR-fed group than in those from the other treatment groups. In conclusion, feeding BC rather than MR to the piglets reduced the colonisation of intestine by ETEC and modulated the intestinal immune system, whereas...

  6. Fish tissue contamination in the mid-continental great rivers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio rivers) are significant economic and cultural resources, but their ecological condition is not well quantified. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP...

  7. Conduction Abnormalities and Permanent Pacemaker Implantation After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using the Repositionable LOTUS Device: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampat, Rajiv; Khawaja, M Zeeshan; Hilling-Smith, Roland; Byrne, Jonathan; MacCarthy, Philip; Blackman, Daniel J; Krishnamurthy, Arvindra; Gunarathne, Ashan; Kovac, Jan; Banning, Adrian; Kharbanda, Raj; Firoozi, Sami; Brecker, Stephen; Redwood, Simon; Bapat, Vinayak; Mullen, Michael; Aggarwal, Suneil; Manoharan, Ganesh; Spence, Mark S; Khogali, Saib; Dooley, Maureen; Cockburn, James; de Belder, Adam; Trivedi, Uday; Hildick-Smith, David

    2017-06-26

    The authors report the incidence of pacemaker implantation up to hospital discharge and the factors influencing pacing rate following implantation of the LOTUS bioprosthesis (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) in the United Kingdom. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with a significant need for permanent pacemaker implantation. Pacing rates vary according to the device used. The REPRISE II (Repositionable Percutaneous Replacement of Stenotic Aortic Valve Through Implantation of Lotus Valve System) trial reported a pacing rate of 29% at 30 days after implantation of the LOTUS device. Data were collected retrospectively on 228 patients who had the LOTUS device implanted between March 2013 and February 2015 across 10 centers in the United Kingdom. Twenty-seven patients (12%) had pacemakers implanted pre-procedure and were excluded from the analysis. Patients were aged 81.2 ± 7.7 years; 50.7% were male. The mean pre-procedural QRS duration was 101.7 ± 20.4 ms. More than one-half of the cohort (n = 111, 55%) developed new left bundle branch block (LBBB) following the procedure. Permanent pacemakers were implanted in 64 patients (32%) with a median time to insertion of 3.0 ± 3.4 days. Chief indications for pacing were atrioventricular (AV) block (n = 46, 72%), or LBBB with 1st degree AV block (n = 11, 17%). Amongst those who received a pacemaker following TAVR the pre-procedural electrocardiogram findings included: No conduction disturbance (n = 41, 64%); 1st degree AV block (n = 10, 16%); right bundle branch block (n = 6, 9%) and LBBB (n = 5, 8%). LBBB (but not permanent pacemaker) occurred more frequently in patients who had balloon aortic valvuloplasty before TAVR (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25; p = 0.03). Pre-procedural conduction abnormality (composite of 1st degree AV block, hemiblock, right bundle branch block, LBBB) was independently associated with the need for permanent pacemaker (OR: 2.54; p = 0.048). The absence of

  8. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  9. Physical Function After Total Knee Replacement: An Observational Study Describing Outcomes in a Small Group of Women From China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Daniel K; Li, Zhichang; Zhang, Yuqing; Marmon, Adam R; Master, Hiral; Zeni, Joseph; Niu, Jingbo; Jiang, Long; Zhang, Shu; Lin, Jianhao

    2018-01-01

    To describe physical function before and six months after Total Knee Replacement (TKR) in a small sample of women from China and the United States. Observational. Community environment. Both groups adhered to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) protocols for the 6-minute walk and 30-second chair stand. We compared physical function prior to TKR and 6 months after using linear regression adjusted for covariates. Women (N=60) after TKR. Not applicable. Age and body mass index in the China group (n=30; 66y and 27.0kg/m 2 ) were similar to those in the U.S. group (n=30; 65y and 29.6kg/m 2 ). Before surgery, the China group walked 263 (95% confidence interval [CI], -309 to -219) less meters and had 10.2 (95% CI, -11.8 to -8.5) fewer chair stands than the U.S. group. At 6 months when compared with the U.S. group, the China group walked 38 more meters, but this difference did not reach statistical significance (95% CI, -1.6 to 77.4), and had 3.1 (95% CI, -4.4 to -1.7) fewer chair stands. The China group had greater improvement in the 6-minute walk test than did the U.S. group (PChina group had greater gains in walking endurance and similar gains in repeated chair stands than did the U.S. group after surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A survey of blood and other tissue parasites of leopard frogs Rana pipiens in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, N D; Nye, R R

    1977-01-01

    In a survey of blood and other tissue parasites from 137 leopard frogs, Rana pipiens complex, purchased from 13 commercial vendors in 8 states in the United States, Trypanosoma pipientis was found in 2 R. p. berlandieri, Toxoplasma ranae in 1 R. pipiens, Isospora lieberkuehni in 1 leopard frog, Haemogregarina magna in 44, Lankesterella minima in 3, Leptotheca ohlmacheri in 3 and microfilariae of Foleyella sp. in 6. The report of I. lieberkuehni is presumably a new host record. Haemogregarina temporariae (Nöller,, 1920) nov. comb. is established as a new combination for Nematopsis temporariae.

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel replacement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hiroyuki; Joge, Toshio.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To permit the direction in which a fuel replacement unit is moving to be monitored by the operator. Structure: When a fuel replacement unit approaches an intermediate goal position preset in the path of movement, renewal of data display on a goal position indicator is made every time the goal position is changed. With this renewal, the prevailing direction of movement of the fuel replacement unit can be monitored by the operator. When the control of movement is initiated, the co-ordinates of the intermediate goal point A are displayed on a goal position indicator. When the replacement unit reaches point A, the co-ordinates of the next intermediate point B are displayed, and upon reaching point B the co-ordinates of the (last) goal point C are displayed. (Nakamura, S.)

  12. Replacement rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes in an elongated replacement rod for use with fuel assemblies of the type having two end fittings connected by guide tubes with a plurality of rod and guide tube cell defining spacer grids containing rod support features and mixing vanes. The grids secured to the guide tubes in register between the end fittings at spaced intervals. The fuel rod comprising: an asymmetrically beveled tip; a shank portion having a straight centerline; and a permanently diverging portion between the tip and the shank portion

  13. Influence of implant position on clinical crown length and peri-implant soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns replacing maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the influence of implant position on clinical crown length and marginal soft tissue dimensions at implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors, and to validate the papilla index score (PIS). Twenty-five patients, who had lost one of ...... abutments and did not necessarily result in an increased crown length. The distal implant papilla heightwas obviously shorter, althoughthe mesial papilla height was similar to thatof the healthy dentition.The papilla index score was tested to be a valid index for papilla fill....

  14. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as a Predictor of Acute Kidney Injury, Severe Kidney Injury, and the Need for Renal Replacement Therapy in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma I. Albeladi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent attempts were made to identify early indicators of acute kidney injury (AKI in order to accelerate treatment and hopefully improve outcomes. This study aims to assess the value of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL as a predictor of AKI, severe AKI, and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT. Methods: We conducted a prospective study and included adults admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH, between May 2012 and June 2013, who had at least 1 major risk factor for AKI. They were followed up throughout their hospital stay to identify which potential characteristics predicted any of the above 3 outcomes. We collected information on patients’ age and gender, the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, version II (APACHE II score, the Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score, serum creatinine and cystatin C levels, and uNGAL. We compared ICU patients who presented with any of the 3 outcomes with others who did not. Results: We included 75 patients, and among those 21 developed AKI, 18 severe AKI, and 17 required RRT. Bivariate analysis revealed intergroup differences for almost all clinical variables (e.g., patients with AKI vs. patients without AKI; while multivariate analysis identified mean arterial pressure as the only predictor for AKI (p < 0.001 and the SOFA score (p = 0.04 as the only predictor for severe AKI. For RRT, day 1 maximum uNGAL was the stronger predictor (p < 0.001 when compared to admission diagnosis (p = 0.014. Day 1 and day 2 maximum uNGAL levels were good and excellent predictors for future RRT, but only fair to good predictors for AKI and severe AKI. Conclusions: Maximum urine levels of uNGAL measured over the first and second 24 h of an ICU admission were highly accurate predictors of the future need for RRT, however less accurate at detecting early and severe AKI.

  15. From bench to application: current practices in tissue engineering and its realisation at maxillofacial units in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Ralf; El-Moawen, Ahmed; Jung, Ole; Hanken, Henning; Hartjen, Philip; Heiland, Max; Kansy, Katinka; Kloss, Frank; Kolk, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Over the last 20 years, the highly interdisciplinary field of tissue engineering (TE) has become an established subspecialty in research facilities all over the world. Numerous methods and protocols are available for various research intentions and aims, but there are no data indicating which of these methods and resources are generally used. This study is an overview of the resources and methods that are commonly applied in TE research in general, and in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The DÖSAK collaborative group for TE developed a detailed questionnaire and collected information from participating university hospitals in these three countries. We evaluated the availability of research facilities, in vitro realisation and in vivo designs for animal studies in these departments. 11 units who replied, out of 35 we contacted, conducted research on bone regeneration in interdisciplinary research facilities. 10 departments used xenogeneic and alloplastic scaffolds for in vitro and in vivo applications. In this case, the most commonly utilised trademarks were Bio-Oss(®) and CERASORB(®). 9 units used osteoblasts (73%) and 10 proliferation assays in vitro, whereas rats served as the standard animal model for histology/immunohistochemistry in 6. All research units were interested in establishing a platform for research exchange and communication. This study shows that tissue engineering is well established and highly accepted in most participating university hospitals and research facilities. The presented data, together with data published in a foregoing paper will help arrange more readily available standardised procedures for further investigations. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmentally Friendly Replacement of Mature 200 MW Coal-Fired Power Blocks with 2 Boilers Working on One 500 MW Class Steam Turbine Generator (2on1 Unit Concept)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeszczak, Jan; Grela, Łukasz; Achter, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    The paper covers problems of the owners of a fleet of long-operated conventional power plants that are going to be decommissioned soon in result of failing to achieve new admissible emissions levels or exceeding pressure elements design lifetime. Energoprojekt-Katowice SA, Siemens AG and Rafako SA presents their joint concept of the solution which is a 2on1 concept - replacing two unit by two ultra-supercritical boilers feeding one turbine. Polish market has been taken as an example.

  17. Technical and economic feasibility for the application of micronized coal as a replacement for No. 2 oil for start-up and low-load operation at Illinois Power Havana No. 6 Cycling Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberger, F.; Guilfoyle, C.J.; Parker, W.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainty regarding oil availability and long-term price stability make it difficult for a utility to predict annual ignition costs for a cycling unit. Illinois Power Company, Sargent and Lundy Engineering and Micro-fuel Corporation have produced a detailed feasibility study on the application of micronized coal as a replacement fuel for start-up and low-load operation for Havana No. 6. This unit is a B and W opposed-fired boiler which is rated at 410 MWe (summer net). This paper presents technical and economic analysis, including the uncertainties of the application of this technology

  18. Comparison of a ZGP OPO with a Mark-III FEL as a Potential Replacement for Mid-Infrared Soft Tissue Ablation Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackanos, M A

    2005-01-01

    A Mark-III FEL, tuned to 6.45 μm has demonstrated minimal collateral damage and high ablation yield in soft tissue. Further clinical advances are limited due to the overhead associated with an FEL; alternative mid-IR sources are needed. The FEL parameters needed to carry out efficient ablation with minimal damage must be determined. Studies by this author have shown that the unique pulse structure of the FEL does not play a role in this process [1]. We focused on comparing the macropulse duration of the FEL with a ZGP-OPO. No difference in pulse structure between the two laser sources with respect to the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis was seen. There is a difference between the sources with respect to the crater depths in gelatin and mouse dermis. At 6.1 μm, the OPO craters are 8 times the depth of the FEL ones. Brightfield imaging shows the classic ablation mechanism. The timescale of the crater formation, ejection, and collapse occurs on a faster scale for the OPO. Histology ...

  19. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  20. Acceptance test for 900 MWe PWR unit replacement steam generators; Essai de reception des generateurs de vapeur de remplacement des tranches REP 900

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourguechon, B.

    1993-12-31

    During the first half of 1994, the Gravelines 1 steam generators will be replaced (SG replacement procedure). The new SG`s differ from the former components notably by the alloy used for the tube bundle, in this case, the high chromium content Inconel 690. So, from this standpoint, they are to be considered as PWR 900 replacement SG first models and their thermal efficiency has consequently to be assessed. This will provide an opportunity of ensuring that the performance of the components delivered is in compliance with requirements and of making the necessary provisions if significant deviations are observed. The EFMT branch, which has been in charge of the instrumentation and acceptance of the different SG first models since the first PWR plants were commissioned, will be responsible for the acceptance tests and the ultimate validation of a performance assessment procedure applicable to the future replacement steam generators. The methods and tests proposed for SG expert appraisal are based on consideration of the importance of primary measurement quality for satisfactory SG assessment and of the new test facilities with which the 900 and 1 300 PWR plants are gradually being equipped. These facilities provide an on-site computer environment for tests compatible with the tools (PATTERN, etc.) used at EFMT and in other departments. This test is the first of this kind performed by EFMT and the test facility of a nuclear power plant. (author). 6 figs.

  1. Grading the severity of soft tissue changes associated with metal-on-metal hip replacements: reliability of an MR grading system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Helen; Cahir, John G.; Goodwin, Richard W. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Toms, Andoni Paul [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich (United Kingdom); Wimhurst, James; Nolan, John F. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) soft tissue reactions or aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are being recognised using metal artefact reduction (MAR) MR with increasing frequency following the advent of second generation metal-on-metal bearings, but there is no standardised technique for reporting of MR appearances in this disease. The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of a grading system designed for scoring the severity of MoM disease on MRI. MRI examinations of 73 hips in 59 patients were retrospectively selected and then anonymised, randomised and reviewed by three independent observers (musculoskeletal radiologists). Each MR examination was scored as either A: normal, B: infection, C1: mild MoM disease, C2: moderate MoM disease or C3: severe MoM disease according to pre-defined criteria. Kappa correlation statistics were used to compare the observations. There was substantial agreement among all three observers; the correlation coefficient between the two most experienced observers was {kappa} = 0.78 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.68-0.88] and when compared with the least experienced observer coefficients were {kappa} = 0.69 (95% CI: 0.57-0.80) and {kappa} = 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.78). The strongest correlation occurred for grades A, C2 and C3. The weakest correlations occurred for grades B and C1. The grading system described in this study is reliable for evaluating ALVAL in MoM prostheses using MR but is limited in differentiating mild disease from infection. (orig.)

  2. Hip joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip arthroplasty; Total hip replacement; Hip hemiarthroplasty; Arthritis - hip replacement; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement ... Your hip joint is made up of 2 major parts. One or both parts may be replaced during surgery: ...

  3. Bench-to-bedside review: Treating acid–base abnormalities in the intensive care unit – the role of renal replacement therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Naka, Toshio; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2004-01-01

    Acid–base disorders are common in critically ill patients. Metabolic acid–base disorders are particularly common in patients who require acute renal replacement therapy. In these patients, metabolic acidosis is common and multifactorial in origin. Analysis of acid–base status using the Stewart–Figge methodology shows that these patients have greater acidemia despite the presence of hypoalbuminemic alkalosis. This acidemia is mostly secondary to hyperphosphatemia, hyperlactatemia, and the accu...

  4. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/007684.htm Transcatheter aortic valve replacement To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is surgery to replace the aortic valve. ...

  5. Hip Replacement Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outreach Initiative Breadcrumb Home Health Topics English Español Hip Replacement Surgery Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB ... PDF What is it? Points To Remember About Hip Replacement Surgery Hip replacement surgery removes damaged or ...

  6. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  7. Placement of replace select Ti-Unite-coated type implants using a combination of immediate and submerge techniques after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The high success rate of immediate implant placement both in the anterior and posterior regions were reported by many authors, therefore applying this techniques can be considered as a safe surgical procedure and minimizing the dental office visit for patient satisfaction. This paper reports the outcome of immediate placement of implants following extraction of anterior maxillary teeth. Combination technique of immediate and submerge implant placements including bone grafting procedure were used. Four implants with TiUnite surface type were placed immediately in two patients with the short-term result indicated that this technique may serve as a simple and safe procedure for immediate implant placement. It was concluded that immediate implant placement technique combined with TiUnite implant surface was successful in treating region directly after tooth extraction therefore this technique can be use as an alternative surgical method for dental implant rehabilitation.

  8. A Geothermal Energy Supported Gas-steam Cogeneration Unit as a Possible Replacement for the Old Part of a Municipal CHP Plant (TEKO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Böszörményi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for more intensive utilization of local renewable energy sources is indisputable. Under the current economic circumstances their competitiveness in comparison with fossil fuels is rather low, if we do not take into account environmental considerations. Integrating geothermal sources into combined heat and power production in a municipal CHP plant would be an excellent solution to this problem. This concept could lead to an innovative type of power plant - a gas-steam cycle based, geothermal energy supported cogeneration unit.

  9. Age replacement models: A summary with new perspectives and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa N.; Magid Hamouda, Abdel; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Age replacement models are fundamental to maintenance theory. This paper summarizes our new perspectives and hods in age replacement models: First, we optimize the expected cost rate for a required availability level and vice versa. Second, an asymptotic model with simple calculation is proposed by using the cumulative hazard function skillfully. Third, we challenge the established theory such that preventive replacement should be non-random and only corrective replacement should be made for the unit with exponential failure. Fourth, three replacement policies with random working cycles are discussed, which are called overtime replacement, replacement first, and replacement last, respectively. Fifth, the policies of replacement first and last are formulated with general models. Sixth, age replacement is modified for the situation when the economical life cycle of the unit is a random variable with probability distribution. Finally, models of a parallel system with constant and random number of units are taken into considerations. The models of expected cost rates are obtained and optimal replacement times to minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically. Further studies and potential applications are also indicated at the end of discussions of the above models. - Highlights: • Optimization of cost rate for availability level is discussed and vice versa. • Asymptotic and random replacement models are discussed. • Overtime replacement, replacement first and replacement last are surveyed. • Replacement policy with random life cycle is given. • A parallel system with random number of units is modeled.

  10. Insurance for replacement power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, A.

    1980-01-01

    Although careful consideration is given to insurance against physical damage to plant and equipment, little thought is given to the costs that will be incurred in replacing the power that is lost while a relatively efficient system is out of action. The results of an investigation carried out for a generating authority with an installed capacity of about 3000 MW is given. Replacement power costs for different cases of severity of damage range from Pound1.17m per month for damage to central services taking out all four units. (author)

  11. Bioactive scaffolds for the controlled formation of complex skeletal tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, S.; Garcia-Fuentes, M.; Eberli, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue Engineering may offer new treatment alternatives for organ replacement or repair deteriorated organs. Among the clinical applications of Tissue Engineering are the production of artificial skin for burn patients, tissue engineered trachea, cartilage for knee-replacement procedures, urinary

  12. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  13. Artificial Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Treatments Artificial Disc Replacement (ADR) Patient Education Committee Jamie Baisden The disc ... Disc An artificial disc (also called a disc replacement, disc prosthesis or spine arthroplasty device) is a ...

  14. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  15. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  16. Capital Equipment Replacement Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Batterham, Robert L.; Fraser, K.I.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the optimal replacement of capital equipment, especially farm machinery. It also considers the influence of taxation and capital rationing on replacement decisions. It concludes that special taxation provisions such as accelerated depreciation and investment allowances are unlikely to greatly influence farmers' capital equipment replacement decisions in Australia.

  17. Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    cost accounting Clickener, John Ross Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School http://hdl.handle.net/10945/17810 Downloaded from NPS Archive...Calhoun IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ACCOUNTING John Ross CHckener NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS IMPLEMENTING REPLACEMENT COST ...Implementing Replacement Cost Accounting 7. AUTHORS John Ross Clickener READ INSTRUCTIONS BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 9. TYRE OF

  18. Children as donors : a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2012-01-01

    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol.

  19. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  20. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Goldberg, Ben; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Since United States of America federal legislation has required ozone depleting chemicals (class 1 & 2) to be banned from production, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and industry have been required to find other chemicals and methods to replace these target chemicals. This project was initiated as a development of a prioritization methodology suitable for assessing and ranking existing processes for replacement 'urgency.' The methodology was produced in the form of a workbook (NASA Technical Paper 3421). The final workbook contains two tools, one for evaluation and one for prioritization. The two tools are interconnected in that they were developed from one central theme - chemical replacement due to imposed laws and regulations. This workbook provides matrices, detailed explanations of how to use them, and a detailed methodology for prioritization of replacement technology. The main objective is to provide a GUIDELINE to help direct the research for replacement technology. The approach for prioritization called for a system which would result in a numerical rating for the chemicals and processes being assessed. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) technique was used in order to determine numerical values which would correspond to the concerns raised and their respective importance to the process. This workbook defines the approach and the application of the QFD matrix. This technique: (1) provides a standard database for technology that can be easily reviewed, and (2) provides a standard format for information when requesting resources for further research for chemical replacement technology. Originally, this workbook was to be used for Class 1 and Class 2 chemicals, but it was specifically designed to be flexible enough to be used for any chemical used in a process (if the chemical and/or process needs to be replaced). The methodology consists of comparison matrices (and the smaller comparison components) which allow replacement technology

  1. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries: A human tissue research program. USTUR annual report for October 1, 1997 through January 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Susan M. (ed.); Filipy, Ronald E. (ed.)

    1999-10-01

    The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) are a human tissue research program studying the deposition, biokinetics and dosimetry of the actinide elements in humans with the primary goals of providing data fundamental to the verification, refinement, or future development of radiation protection standards for these and other radionuclides, and of determining possible bioeffects on both a macro and subcellular level attributable to exposure to the actinides. This annual report covers October 1, 1997, through January 31, 1999; the reporting period has been extended so that future annual reports will coincide with the period covered by the grant itself.

  2. Modeling collagen remodeling in tissue engineered cardiovascular tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares, A.L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly, heart valve replacements consist of non-living materials lacking the ability to grow, repair and remodel. Tissue engineering (TE) offers a promising alternative to these replacement strategies since it can overcome its disadvantages. The technique aims to create an autologous living tissue

  3. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  4. The digestive system of 1-week old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the digestibilities of nutrients as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigne...

  5. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  6. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavareau, Julien; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne

    2009-01-01

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur

  7. Maintenance and replacement policies under technological obsolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavareau, Julien [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: jclavare@ulb.ac.be; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne [Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Av. Franklin Roosevelt 50, CP165/84 Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: pelabeau@ulb.ac.be

    2009-02-15

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterized by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. This paper aims to define and model in a realistic way, possible maintenance policies of a system including replacement strategies when one type of challenger unit is available. The comparison of these possible strategies is performed based on a Monte Carlo estimation of the costs they incur.

  8. Utility Values for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma Health States from the General Public in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare type of cancer generally treated with palliative chemotherapy when in the advanced stage. There is a lack of published health utility data for locally advanced “inoperable”/metastatic disease (ASTS, essential for calculating the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatments. This study estimated time trade-off (TTO and standard gamble (SG preference values associated with four ASTS health states (progressive disease, stable disease, partial response, complete response among members of the general public in the UK (n=207. The four health states were associated with decreases in preference values from full health. Complete response was the most preferred health state (mean utility of 0.60 using TTO. The second most preferred health state was partial response followed by stable disease (mean utilities were 0.51 and 0.43, respectively, using TTO. The least preferred health state was progressive disease (mean utility of 0.30 using TTO. The utility value for each state was significantly different from one another (P<0.001. This study demonstrated and quantified the impact that different treatment responses may have on the health-related quality of life of patients with ASTS.

  9. CANDU-PHW fuel channel replacement experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.T.; Kakaria, B.K.

    1982-09-01

    One of the main characteristics of the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor is the use of pressure tubes rather than one large pressure vessel to contain the fuel and coolant. This provides an inherent design capability to permit their replacement in an expeditious manner, without seriously affecting the high capacity factors of the reactor units. Of th eight Ontario Hydro commercial nuclear generating units, the lifetime performance places seven of them (including two that have had some of their fuel channels replaced), in the top ten positions in the world's large nuclear-electric unit performance ranking. Pressure tube cracks in the rolled joint region have resulted in 70 fuel channels being replaced in three reactor units, the latest being at the Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'A', Unit 2 in February 1982. The rolled joint design and rolling procedures have been modified to eliminate this problem on CANDU units subsequent to Bruce 'A'. This paper describes the CANDU pressure tube performance history and expectations, and the tooling and procedures used to carry out the fuel channel replacement

  10. New one cycle criteria for optimizing preventive replacement policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, Maryam; Szidarovszky, Ferenc; Szidarovszky, Miklos

    2016-01-01

    Models are introduced and examined for the optimum scheduling of preventive replacements. The “replace first” and “replace last” models are known from the literature if the long term expected cost per unit time is minimized. We will first introduce the one cycle counterparts of these models when the expected costs per unit time in a single cycle is minimized. If the unit performs identical projects sequentially then the “replace next” model assumes that the preventive replacement is postponed until the ongoing project is finished. The termination time of this project is random which also depends on the scheduled time of the preventive replacement in contrary to the “replace first” and “replace last” models. The mathematical models are formulated and conditions are given for the existence of finite optima. Numerical examples and a simulation study illustrate the methodology and the numerical results show interesting comparisons of the different models. - Highlights: • The Single cycle age replacement model is extended incorporating repairable failures. • In order to avoid project interruption costs, three model variants are discussed. • Model variants are replace first, replace last and replace next. • In many cases analytic solutions are derived and illustrated by numerical examples. • The different model variants and their results are compared based on simulation studies.

  11. Could wind replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

  12. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  13. Partial knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good range of motion in your knee. The ligaments in your knee are stable. However, most people with knee arthritis have a surgery called a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Knee replacement is most often done in people age 60 ...

  14. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  15. Hip joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100006.htm Hip joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The hip joint is made up of two major parts: ...

  16. Tool Inventory and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, W. Forrest

    1976-01-01

    Vocational agriculture teachers are encouraged to evaluate curriculum offerings, the new trends in business and industry, and develop a master tool purchase and replacement plan over a 3- to 5-year period. (HD)

  17. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make everyday tasks easier. Practice using a cane, walker , crutches , or a wheelchair correctly. On the ... ask your doctor Knee joint replacement - discharge Preventing falls Preventing falls - what to ask your doctor Surgical ...

  18. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    . To shed light on this unexplored and growing managerial concern, the purpose of this explorative study is to identify operational challenges to management when product platforms are replaced. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses a longitudinal field-study approach. Two companies, Gamma and Omega...... replacement was chosen in each company. Findings – The study shows that platform replacements primarily challenge managers' existing knowledge about platform architectures. A distinction can be made between “width” and “height” in platform replacements, and it is crucial that managers observe this in order...... to challenge their existing knowledge about platform architectures. Issues on technologies, architectures, components and processes as well as on segments, applications and functions are identified. Practical implications – Practical implications are summarized and discussed in relation to a framework...

  19. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    1999-01-01

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  20. Age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.H.; Qu, Jian; Zuo, Ming J.

    2016-01-01

    In most of literatures of age replacement policy, failures before planned replacement age can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired based on the types of failures, cost for repairs and so on. In this paper, we propose age replacement policy based on imperfect repair with random probability. The proposed policy incorporates the case that such intermittent failure can be either minimally repaired or perfectly repaired with random probabilities. The mathematical formulas of the expected cost rate per unit time are derived for both the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that the optimal replacement age exists and is finite. - Highlights: • We propose a new age replacement policy with random probability of perfect repair. • We develop the expected cost per unit time. • We discuss the optimal age for replacement minimizing the expected cost rate.

  1. The digestive system of 1-week-old Jersey calves is well suited to digest, absorb, and incorporate protein and energy into tissue growth even when calves are fed a high plane of milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Carroll, Jeffery A; Ballou, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine the apparent digestibilities of nitrogen, organic matter, ash, and energy as well as investigate the nitrogen retention of calves fed different planes of milk replacer nutrition during the first week of life. Twelve Jersey calves were blocked by body weight at birth and randomly assigned to either a high plane of nutrition (HPN) or low plane of nutrition (LPN) treatment. The HPN calves were offered 19.2g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 28% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. The LPN calves were fed 11.6g of dry matter/kg of body weight of a 20% all-milk crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer. All calves were given 3 L of pooled colostrum within 1h of birth after which they were assigned to treatments; no starter was offered during the study. Calves were given 1 d to adapt to their treatments and environment, so calves were 30 to 36 h old at the start of data collection. The study was divided into two 72-h periods. Total collection of feces occurred over each 72 h period, and total urine was collected for the last 24h of each period. Peripheral blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each period and analyzed for plasma glucose and urea nitrogen concentrations. Data are reported as HPN vs. LPN, respectively. Fecal scores were greater for HPN calves during both periods; however, no difference was found in the dry matter percentage of feces (30.9 vs. 31.9 ± 0.06). No differences were found between treatments in either digestible or metabolizable energy efficiencies, which averaged 93.3 and 83.7%, respectively. A treatment × period interaction was found on the percentage of intake nitrogen retained, in which calves fed the HPN had a greater percentage of intake nitrogen retained during period 1 (87.9 vs. 78.4 ± 1.79%), but was not different from calves fed the LPN during period 2 (85.4 vs. 84.9 ± 1.79%). From these data therefore, we conclude that healthy neonatal calves have

  2. Delirium After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseffi, Jennifer L; Borges, Nyal E; Boehm, Leanne M; Wang, Li; McPherson, John A; Fredi, Joseph L; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative delirium is associated with increased mortality. Patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement are at risk for delirium because of comorbid conditions. To compare the incidence, odds, and mortality implications of delirium between patients undergoing transcatheter replacement and patients undergoing surgical replacement. The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit were used to assess arousal level and delirium prospectively in all patients with severe aortic stenosis who had transcatheter or surgical aortic valve replacement at an academic medical center. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between procedure type and occurrence of delirium. Cox regression was used to assess the association between postoperative delirium and 6-month mortality. A total of 105 patients had transcatheter replacement and 121 had surgical replacement. Patients in the transcatheter group were older (median age, 81 vs 68 years; P replacement. Delirium is less likely to develop in the transcatheter group but is associated with higher mortality in both groups. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  3. Steam-generator replacement sets new marks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how, in one of the most successful steam-generator replacement experiences at PWRs worldwide, the V C Summer retrofit exceeded plant goals for critical-path duration, radiation, exposure, and radwaste generation. Intensive planning and teamwork, combined with the firm support of station management and the use of mockups to prepare the work crews for activity in a radiological environment, were key factors in the record performance achieved by South Carolina Electric and Gas Co (SCE and G) in replacing three steam generators at V C Summer nuclear station. The 97-day, two-hour breaker-to-breaker replacement outage -- including an eight-day delay for repair of leak in a small-bore seal-injection line of a reactor coolant pump (unrelated to the replacement activities) -- surpassed the project goal by over one day. Moreover, the outage was only 13 hours shy of the world record held by Virginia Power Co's North Anna Unit 1

  4. Nuclear facilities: repair and replacement technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The oldest operating reactors are more than 35 years old and are now facing major maintenance operations. The first replacement of a pressurizer took place in autumn 2005 at the St-Lucie plant (Usa) while steam generators have been currently replaced since 1983. Nuclear industry has to adapt to this new market by proposing innovative technological solutions in the reactor maintenance field. This document gathers the 9 papers presented at the conference. The main improvements concern repair works on internal components of PWR-type reactors, the replacement of major components of the primary coolant circuit and surface treatments to limit the propagation of damages. The first paper shows that adequate design and feedback experience are good assets to manage the ageing of a nuclear unit. Another paper shows that a new repair method of a relief valve can avoid its replacement. (A.C.)

  5. Prioritizing equipment for replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Mike

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that clinical engineers take the lead in formulating evaluation processes to recommend equipment replacement. Their skill, knowledge, and experience, combined with access to equipment databases, make them a logical choice. Based on ideas from Fennigkoh's scheme, elements such as age, vendor support, accumulated maintenance cost, and function/risk were used.6 Other more subjective criteria such as cost benefits and efficacy of newer technology were not used. The element of downtime was also omitted due to the data element not being available. The resulting Periop Master Equipment List and its rationale was presented to the Perioperative Services Program Council. They deemed the criteria to be robust and provided overwhelming acceptance of the list. It was quickly put to use to estimate required capital funding, justify items already thought to need replacement, and identify high-priority ranked items for replacement. Incorporating prioritization criteria into an existing equipment database would be ideal. Some commercially available systems do have the basic elements of this. Maintaining replacement data can be labor-intensive regardless of the method used. There is usually little time to perform the tasks necessary for prioritizing equipment. However, where appropriate, a clinical engineering department might be able to conduct such an exercise as shown in the following case study.

  6. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption

  7. Can photovoltaic replace nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    As the French law on energy transition for a green growth predicts that one third of nuclear energy production is to be replaced by renewable energies (wind and solar) by 2025, and while the ADEME proposes a 100 per cent renewable scenario for 2050, this paper proposes a brief analysis of the replacement of nuclear energy by solar photovoltaic energy. It presents and discusses some characteristics of photovoltaic production: production level during a typical day for each month (a noticeable lower production in December), evolution of monthly production during a year, evolution of the rate between nuclear and photovoltaic production. A cost assessment is then proposed for energy storage and for energy production, and a minimum cost of replacement of nuclear by photovoltaic is assessed. The seasonal effect is outlined, as well as the latitude effect. Finally, the authors outline the huge cost of such a replacement, and consider that public support to new photovoltaic installations without an at least daily storage mean should be cancelled

  8. Fluorescent Lamp Replacement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    not be cited for purposes of advertisement. DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS: Destroy this document when no longer needed. Do not return to the... recycling , and can be disposed safely in a landfill. (2) LEDs offer reduced maintenance costs and fewer bulb replacements, significantly reducing... recycling . Several fixtures, ballasts and energy efficient fluorescent bulbs that were determined to be in pristine condition were returned to ATC

  9. Replacing Recipe Realism

    OpenAIRE

    Saatsi, J

    2017-01-01

    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.

  10. Tissue properties and collagen remodeling in heart valve tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geemen, van D.

    2012-01-01

    Valvular heart disease is a major health problem worldwide causing morbidity and mortality. Heart valve replacement is frequently applied to avoid serious cardiac, pulmonary, or systemic problems. However, the current replacements do not consist of living tissue and, consequently, cannot grow,

  11. Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering | Mahfouz | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamentals of bladder tissue engineering. ... could affect the bladder and lead to eventual loss of its integrity, with the need for replacement or repair. ... Tissue engineering relies upon three essential pillars; the scaffold, the cells seeded on ...

  12. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  13. Analysis of dose-incidence relationships for marrow failure in different species, in terms of radiosensitivity of tissue-rescuing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.; Roberts, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of 68 published sets of dose-incidence data for marrow failure in different species, using a double-log mortality function, indicates: (a) There is more heterogeneity, i.e. greater sums-of-squares per degree of freedom, within the data sets for mouse than for larger species (monkey, dog, sheep, goat, pig). (b) For mice the curves for acute doses are characterized by a D0 of about 100 cGy for tissue-rescuing units (or target cells), which are depleted at most to about 3 x 10(-4) at LD50. (c) Larger species are much less tolerant to target-cell depletion, the corresponding level being consistently in the range of 10(-2)-10(-3) at LD50. Also, the D0 is often lower (approximately 55 cGy), which is compatible in the dog with such a value for hemopoietic progenitor cells. (d) With larger species there is an unexpected reduction in heterogeneity when the dose rate is lower, which gives a D0 lower than expected and a higher extrapolate. It is concluded that the position and slope of the dose-incidence curves are compatible with interpretations based primarily on target-cell number and survival characteristics, modified by additional heterogeneity factors

  14. Single-tooth implant restorations in the esthetic zone--contemporary concepts for optimization and maintenance of soft tissue esthetics in the replacement of failing teeth in compromised sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoo, Tidu

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, implant dentistry has undergone a profound shift in emphasis. The focus evolved first from a surgically driven approach to a prosthetically driven approach and now to a more biologically driven approach with the goal of optimizing and maintaining esthetics. While traditional implant protocols are well established for management of implants placed in healed edentulous sites, the data available offer little clarity on the factors and procedures for long-term esthetic success, particularly in terms of maintained stable soft tissue outcomes around implant restorations in the esthetic zone. Unfortunately, the 90%+ success rates indicated in most studies of dental implant systems today do not represent the success of the esthetic outcome. This has created a demand--certainly among clinicians in private practice focused on the ongoing maintenance of esthetic outcomes--for clear treatment protocols to achieve esthetic results that are not only predictable and consistent but that can withstand the test of time.

  15. International examples of steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechmann, K.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1979-1980 a total of twelve nuclear power plants world-wide have had their steam generators replaced. The replacement of the Combustion steam generators in the Millstone-2 plant in the United States was completed very recently. Steam generator replacement activities are going on at present in four plants. In North Anna, the steam generators have been under replacement since January 1990. In Japan, preparations have been started for Genkai-1. Since January 1992, the two projects in Beznau-1, Switzerland, and Doel-3, Belgium, have bee planned and executed in parallel. Why steam generator replacement? There are a number of defect mechanisms which give rise to the need for early steam generator replacement. One of the main reasons is the use of Inconel-600 as material for the heating tubes. Steam generator heating tubes made of Inconel-600 have been known to exhibit their first defects due to stress corrosion cracking after less than one year of operation. (orig.) [de

  16. The use of adaptive equipment following total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    McNaught, Jamie; Paul, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluates the need for adaptive equipment following total knee replacement. There are no recent studies to guide occupational therapists in the optimum time adaptive equipment is required following total knee replacement.\\ud \\ud Method: A non-experimental, concurrent mixed methods approach was used. The study population was patients attending for total knee replacement at a large general hospital. Outcome measures were the Oxford Knee Score, the United Kingdom Functio...

  17. Glaucoma after corneal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaziak, Monika; Chew, Hall F; Podbielski, Dominik W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    Glaucoma is a well-known complication after corneal transplantation surgery. Traditional corneal transplantation surgery, specifically penetrating keratoplasty, has been slowly replaced by the advent of new corneal transplantation procedures: primarily lamellar keratoplasties. There has also been an emergence of keratoprosthesis implants for eyes that are high risk of failure with penetrating keratoplasty. Consequently, there are different rates of glaucoma, pathogenesis, and potential treatment in the form of medical, laser, or surgical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Horlock, K.

    2001-01-01

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  19. Apparatus for fuel replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Takahiko.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To support a telescope mast such that no deforming load is applied to it even during massive vibration, it is held fixed at the time of fuel replacement to permit satisfactory remote control operation by automatic operation. Structure: The body of the fuel replacement apparatus is provided with telescope mast fixing means comprising a slide base supported for reciprocal movement with respect to a telescope mast, an operating arm pivoted at the slide base, a wrist member mounted on the free end of the operating arm and an engagement member for restricting the slide base and operating arm at the time of loading and unloading the fuel. When loading and unloading the fuel, the slide base and operating arm are restrained by the engagement member to reliably restrict the vibration of the telescope mast. When the fuel replacement apparatus is moved, the means provided on the operating arm is smoothly displaced to follow the swing (vibration) of the telescope mast to prevent the deforming load from being applied to the support portion or other areas. The wrist member supports the telescope mast such that it can be rotated while restraining movement in the axial direction, and it is provided with revolution drive means for rotating the telescope mast under remote control. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Fabry Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño PhD

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is a rare X-linked disease caused by the deficiency of α-galactosidase that leads to the accumulation of abnormal glycolipid. Untreated patients develop potentially lethal complications by age 30 to 50 years. Enzyme replacement therapy is the current standard of therapy for Fabry disease. Two formulations of recombinant human α-galactosidase A (agalsidase are available in most markets: agalsidase-α and agalsidase-β, allowing a choice of therapy. However, the US Food and Drug Administration rejected the application for commercialization of agalsidase-α. The main difference between the 2 enzymes is the dose. The label dose for agalsidase-α is 0.2 mg/kg/2 weeks, while the dose for agalsidase-β is 1.0 mg/kg/2 weeks. Recent evidence suggests a dose-dependent effect of enzyme replacement therapy and agalsidase-β is 1.0 mg/kg/2 weeks, which has been shown to reduce the occurrence of hard end points (severe renal and cardiac events, stroke, and death. In addition, patients with Fabry disease who have developed tissue injury should receive coadjuvant tissue protective therapy, together with enzyme replacement therapy, to limit nonspecific progression of the tissue injury. It is likely that in the near future, additional oral drugs become available to treat Fabry disease, such as chaperones or substrate reduction therapy.

  1. Fiscal 1998 regional consortium R and D project (Regional consortium field). Report on R and D of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials (1st fiscal year); 1998 nendo chiiki konsoshiamu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki konsoshiamu bun'ya (hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This project aims at development of high-strength high- biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy with lower modulli of elasticity composed of non-toxic elements, phosphate calcium ceramics for improving the biocompatibility and coating technology, and establishment of production technology of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials. In fiscal 1998, the project promoted the following: Design of high-biocompatible {beta}-type Ti alloy materials, development of thermomechanical treatment for improving dynamic characteristics of such alloy, survey on practical melting and casting technologies and dental precision casting process, evaluation of the biocompatibility of the alloy by cytotoxicity, selection of tools for precision machining and surface finishing, control of contents, orientation and precipitation of biocompatible crystals such as {beta}- Ca(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} fibers for further improvement of the biocompatibility. This paper also outlines the survey results on the market needs, market size and market share for the feasibility of these materials. (NEDO)

  2. An oil containing EPA and DHA from transgenic Camelina sativa to replace marine fish oil in feeds for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.: Effects on intestinal transcriptome, histology, tissue fatty acid profiles and plasma biochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica B Betancor

    Full Text Available New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively. The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35% and fish oil (10%, reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 12-weeks with one of three experimental diets containing either a blend of fish oil/rapeseed oil (FO, wild-type camelina oil (WCO or transgenic camelina oil (DCO as added lipid source. The DCO diet did not affect any of the fish performance or health parameters studied. Analyses of the mid and hindgut transcriptomes showed only mild effects on metabolism. Flesh of fish fed the DCO diet accumulated almost double the amount of n-3 LC-PUFA than fish fed the FO or WCO diets, indicating that these oils from transgenic oilseeds offer the opportunity to increase the n-3 LC-PUFA in farmed fish to levels comparable to those found a decade ago.

  3. Esophageal Replacement for Long-Gap Esophageal Atresia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humility to know when to consider a replacement procedure (3). To replace the esophagus of a baby is a major decision in many pediatric surgical units world over. Fortunately, the need for this procedure has decreased in the recent years due to the increase in the variety of techniques of lengthening the upper esophageal ...

  4. Biomaterials for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Timothy J; Badylak, Stephen F

    2014-06-01

    With advancements in biological and engineering sciences, the definition of an ideal biomaterial has evolved over the past 50 years from a substance that is inert to one that has select bioinductive properties and integrates well with adjacent host tissue. Biomaterials are a fundamental component of tissue engineering, which aims to replace diseased, damaged, or missing tissue with reconstructed functional tissue. Most biomaterials are less than satisfactory for pediatric patients because the scaffold must adapt to the growth and development of the surrounding tissues and organs over time. The pediatric community, therefore, provides a distinct challenge for the tissue engineering community. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Scientific and industrial status of tissue engineering

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-28

    Dec 28, 2007 ... with artificial materials e.g. replacement of aortic artery with Dacron. ... Employment of living cells to replace the lost tissue, which is the basis of tissue ...... by the US National Intelligence Council, the Intelligence. Technology ...

  6. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medalia, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    ...), part of a larger Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), replaces components. Modifying some components would require a nuclear test, but the United States has observed a test moratorium since 1992...

  7. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Incidence and Trends of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States, 1995-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Mei-Chin; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Andrews, Patricia A; Chen, Vivien W

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence rates and trends of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) by gender, age, and histological type among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) aged 15-29 years. The 1995-2008 incidence data from 25 population-based cancer registries, covering 64% of the United States population, were obtained from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. The Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results AYA site recode and International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition, were adopted to categorize STS histological types and anatomic groups. Age-adjusted incidence rates and average annual percent change (AAPC) were calculated. The incidence of all STSs combined was 34% higher in males than females (95% CI: 1.28, 1.39), 60% higher among blacks than whites (95% CI: 1.52, 1.68), and slightly higher among Hispanics than whites. Compared with whites, blacks had significantly higher incidence of fibromatous neoplasms, and Hispanics had significantly higher incidence of liposarcoma. Whites were more likely to be diagnosed with synovial sarcoma than blacks. Black and Hispanic males had significantly higher Kaposi sarcoma incidence than white males. The AAPC of all STSs combined showed a significant decrease from 1995 to 2008 (AAPC=-2.1%; 95% CI: -3.2%, -1.0%). However, after excluding Kaposi sarcoma, there was no significant trend. The incidence rates of STS histological types in AYAs vary among racial/ethnic groups. The declining trends of STS are due mainly to decreasing incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in all races/ethnicities. Research to identify factors associated with racial/ethnic disparities in AYA STS is necessary.

  9. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  10. Upgrade, rebuild or replace?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ageing reactor simulators present some tough decisions for utility managers. Although most utilities have chosen the cheaper, upgrading solution as the best compromise between costs and outage length, some US utilities have found that for them, replacement represents the best option. Simulators may be less than ten years old, but they have limited instructor systems, older low fidelity models that cannot reproduce important training scenarios, and out of date, difficult to maintain computers that do not permit much expansion of the models anyway. Perhaps worse than this is the possibility that the simulator may no longer be a faithful reproduction of the referenced plant, or have poor (or non-existent) documentation. (author)

  11. Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Octogenarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Tasoglu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study analyzes the long-term outcomes of mechanical aortic valve replacement in octogenarian patients. Material and Method: A retrospective review was performed on 23 octogenarian patients who underwent mechanical aortic valve replacement. Hospital mortality, postoperative intensive care unit stay, hospital stay and long-term results was examined. Estimates of the cumulative event mortality rate were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The mean age of all patients was 82.9±2.3 years and most were men (65.22%. The median ejection fraction was 45%. 73.91% of patients were in New York Heart Association class III-IV. Thirteen patients (56.52% in this study underwent combined procedure, the remaining 10 (43.48% patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement. The most common valve size was 23 mm. The mean intensive care unit stay was 1.76±1.14 days. The mean hospital stay was 9.33±5.06 days. No complications were observed in 56.52% patients during their hospital stay. The overall hospital mortality was 8.7%. Follow-up was completed for all 23 patients. Median follow-up time was 33 months (1-108 months. Actuarial survival among discharged from hospital was 59% at 5 years. Discussion: Mechanical aortic valve replacement is a safe procedure in octogenarian patients and can be performed safely even in combined procedure.

  12. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  13. Cadmium plating replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, M.J.; Groshart, E.C.

    1995-03-01

    The Boeing Company has been searching for replacements to cadmium plate. Two alloy plating systems seem close to meeting the needs of a cadmium replacement. The two alloys, zinc-nickel and tin-zinc are from alloy plating baths; both baths are neutral pH. The alloys meet the requirements for salt fog corrosion resistance, and both alloys excel as a paint base. Currently, tests are being performed on standard fasteners to compare zinc-nickel and tin-zinc on threaded hardware where cadmium is heavily used. The Hydrogen embrittlement propensity of the zinc-nickel bath has been tested, and just beginning for the tin-zinc bath. Another area of interest is the electrical properties on aluminum for tin-zinc and will be discussed. The zinc-nickel alloy plating bath is in production in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group for non-critical low strength steels. The outlook is promising that these two coatings will help The Boeing Company significantly reduce its dependence on cadmium plating.

  14. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  15. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  16. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    existing bridge pipes that have failed and replace the failed structure with a new, prefabricated pedestrian bridge within the original bridge footprint...vehicles, nor designed for support of standard passenger vehicle loads. The bridge would be a single prefabricated unit consisting of a steel grate...placed on new concrete abutments built on the existing foundations on the creek banks, and put in place by a crane operating from the vehicle parking

  17. Nonparametric adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen-Schrijner, P.; Coolen, F.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Age replacement of technical units has received much attention in the reliability literature over the last four decades. Mostly, the failure time distribution for the units is assumed to be known, and minimal costs per unit of time is used as optimality criterion, where renewal reward theory simplifies the mathematics involved but requires the assumption that the same process and replacement strategy continues over a very large ('infinite') period of time. Recently, there has been increasing attention to adaptive strategies for age replacement, taking into account the information from the process. Although renewal reward theory can still be used to provide an intuitively and mathematically attractive optimality criterion, it is more logical to use minimal costs per unit of time over a single cycle as optimality criterion for adaptive age replacement. In this paper, we first show that in the classical age replacement setting, with known failure time distribution with increasing hazard rate, the one-cycle criterion leads to earlier replacement than the renewal reward criterion. Thereafter, we present adaptive age replacement with a one-cycle criterion within the nonparametric predictive inferential framework. We study the performance of this approach via simulations, which are also used for comparisons with the use of the renewal reward criterion within the same statistical framework

  18. An Improved Clearing and Mounting Solution to Replace Chloral Hydrate in Microscopic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Villani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: This study presents Visikol™, a new proprietary formulation that can be used as an efficient replacement for chloral hydrate as a clearing agent for microscopic examination. In the United States, chloral hydrate is regulated and therefore difficult to acquire. Methods and Results: Fresh and dry samples of the following plants: ginger (Zingiber officinale, maté (Ilex paraguariensis, lime basil (Ocimum americanum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, and mouse-ear cress (Arabidopsis thaliana, were cleared using Visikol or chloral hydrate solution and compared using a light microscope. Conclusions: This new method can be used successfully to clear specimens, allowing identification of diagnostic characteristics for the identification of plant materials. Visikol is as effective as chloral hydrate in providing clarity and resolution of all tissues examined. Tissues become transparent, allowing observation of deeper layers of cells and making it effective in research, botanical and quality control, and for educational applications.

  19. A Bayesian perspective on age replacement with minimal repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, S.-H.; Yeh, R.H.; Lin, Y.-B.; Juang, M.-G.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, a Bayesian approach is developed for determining an optimal age replacement policy with minimal repair. By incorporating minimal repair, planned replacement, and unplanned replacement, the mathematical formulas of the expected cost per unit time are obtained for two cases - the infinite-horizon case and the one-replacement-cycle case. For each case, we show that there exists a unique and finite optimal age for replacement under some reasonable conditions. When the failure density is Weibull with uncertain parameters, a Bayesian approach is established to formally express and update the uncertain parameters for determining an optimal age replacement policy. Further, various special cases are discussed in detail. Finally, a numerical example is given

  20. Replace with abstract title

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coho, Aleksander; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2003-03-01

    We use the semidiscrete variational generelized Peierls-Nabarro model to study the effect of Cu alloying on the dislocation properties of Al. First-principles density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the generalized-stacking-fault (GSF) energy surface when a plane, on which one in four Al atoms has been replaced with a Cu atom, slips over a pure Al plane. Various dislocation core properties (core width, energy, Peierls stress, dissociation tendency) are investigated and compared with the pure Al case. Cu alloying lowers the intrinsic stacking fault (ISF) energy, which makes dislocations more likely to dissociate into partials. We also try to understand the lowering of ISF energy in terms of Al-Cu and Al-Al bond formation and braking during shearing along the direction. From the above we draw conclusions about the effects of Cu alloying on the mechanical properties of Al.

  1. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  2. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Steam generator replacement at Surry Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of the steam generator repair program at Surry Power Station were to repair the tube degradation caused by corrosion-related phenomena and to restore the integrity of the steam generators to a level equivalent to new equipment. The repair program consisted of (1) replacing the existing lower-shell assemblies with new ones and (2) adding new moisture separation equipment to the upper-shell assemblies. These tasks required that several pieces of reactor coolant piping, feedwater piping, main steam piping, and the steam generator be cut and refurbished for reinstallation after the new lower shell was in place. The safety implications and other potential effects of the repair program both during the repair work and after the unit was returned to power were part of the design basis of the repair program. The repair program has been completed on Unit 2 without any adverse effects on the health and safety of the general public or to the personnel engaged in the repair work. Before the Unit 1 repair program began, a review of work procedures and field changes for the Unit 2 repair was conducted. Several major changes were made to avoid recurrence of problems and to streamline procedures. Steam generator replacements was completed on June 1, 1981, and the unit is presently in the startup phase of the outrage

  4. Turbine casing bolts; a life assessment and bolt replacement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J.H. [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    The present presentation describes a detailed study concerning the life assessment and replacement strategy of large turbine casing bolts in a 120 MW steam raising unit. After 122000 hours service, circa 1991/92, the Cr-Mo-V steel casing bolts, involving a total of 184 bolts, from two identical 120 MW units, termed Units 1 and 2, were examined to establish the extent of Reverse Temper Embrittlement, RTE, and creep damage suffered during service. The bolt replacement plans for the two units were as follows; Unit 1 bolts were completely replaced with new bolts while Unit 2 embrittled bolts were withdrawn from service and replaced with Non- Embrittled bolts from Unit 1; basically Unit 2 bolts were made up from a mixture of Unit 1 and 2 Non- Embrittled bolts which had been in service for 122000 hours. Remnant life assessments, concerning both embrittlement and creep damage aspects, were earned out on this series of easing bolts at service times 122000, 150000 and 200000 hours. These assessments involved the use of general embrittlement and creep damage laws which were empirically derived and concerned such parameters as microstructural grain size, bulk phosphorus content and accumulated service strain. (orig.) 7 refs.

  5. Turbine casing bolts; a life assessment and bolt replacement strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulloch, J H [ESB, Power Generation, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-12-31

    The present presentation describes a detailed study concerning the life assessment and replacement strategy of large turbine casing bolts in a 120 MW steam raising unit. After 122000 hours service, circa 1991/92, the Cr-Mo-V steel casing bolts, involving a total of 184 bolts, from two identical 120 MW units, termed Units 1 and 2, were examined to establish the extent of Reverse Temper Embrittlement, RTE, and creep damage suffered during service. The bolt replacement plans for the two units were as follows; Unit 1 bolts were completely replaced with new bolts while Unit 2 embrittled bolts were withdrawn from service and replaced with Non- Embrittled bolts from Unit 1; basically Unit 2 bolts were made up from a mixture of Unit 1 and 2 Non- Embrittled bolts which had been in service for 122000 hours. Remnant life assessments, concerning both embrittlement and creep damage aspects, were earned out on this series of easing bolts at service times 122000, 150000 and 200000 hours. These assessments involved the use of general embrittlement and creep damage laws which were empirically derived and concerned such parameters as microstructural grain size, bulk phosphorus content and accumulated service strain. (orig.) 7 refs.

  6. Neoproteoglycans in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Amanda; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Proteoglycans, comprised of a core protein to which glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently linked, are an important structural and functional family of macromolecules found in the extracellular matrix. Advances in our understanding of biological interactions have lead to a greater appreciation for the need to design tissue engineering scaffolds that incorporate mimetics of key extracellular matrix components. A variety of synthetic and semisynthetic molecules and polymers have been examined by tissue engineers that serve as structural, chemical and biological replacements for proteoglycans. These proteoglycan mimetics have been referred to as neoproteoglycans and serve as functional and therapeutic replacements for natural proteoglycans that are often unavailable for tissue engineering studies. Although neoproteoglycans have important limitations, such as limited signaling ability and biocompatibility, they have shown promise in replacing the natural activity of proteoglycans through cell and protein binding interactions. This review focuses on the recent in vivo and in vitro tissue engineering applications of three basic types of neoproteoglycan structures, protein–glycosaminoglycan conjugates, nano-glycosaminoglycan composites and polymer–glycosaminoglycan complexes. PMID:23399318

  7. Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Casula, Anna; Caskey, Fergus J; Aitken, Grant; Fraser, Simon D S; Roderick, Paul J; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Anonymous primary care records are an important resource for observational studies. However, their external validity is unknown in identifying the prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy (RRT). We thus compared the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with a nationally representative survey and national registry. Among all people ≥25 years of age registered in the CPRD for ≥1 year on 31 March 2014, we identified patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) primary care data have good external validity for the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  8. Correlation of virus load in plasma and lymph node tissue in human immunodeficiency virus infection. INCAS Study Group. Italy, Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and (United) States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Patenaude, P; Cooperberg, P; Filipenko, D; Thorne, A; Raboud, J; Rae, S; Dailey, P; Chernoff, D; Todd, J; Conway, B; Montaner, J S

    1997-11-01

    The impact of long-term changes in plasma viremia, produced by effective combination antiretroviral therapy, on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden within tissue reservoirs is unknown. Fifteen patients who had received at least 1 year of therapy with two or three drug combinations of zidovudine, didanosine, and nevirapine had suitable samples of lymph node tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy. HIV RNA was extracted from homogenized tissue samples and quantitated using a modified branched DNA assay. Results were correlated with antiretroviral treatment effect on the basis of plasma virus load measurements over the preceding 12-18 months. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between magnitude of treatment effect on plasma viremia and lymph node virus load. These data suggest that combinations of antiretroviral drugs that produce sustained suppression of plasma HIV RNA may also be able to reduce the virus burden in lymphoid tissues.

  9. Tissue engineered devices for ligament repair, replacement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... These devices use a wide variety of materials and designs to replicate ligament ... other during the application of strain, leading to viscous dissipation of stress at low ... low strains without straining the collagen molecules and plastically ..... anterior cruciate ligament: current and future concepts. New York:.

  10. Tissue engineered devices for ligament repair, replacement and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... available, and the success rates for long term clinical outcome are 85 - 90% ... Schematic of a stress-strain curve for ligament or tendon displaying the toe, ...... monkey: I. A model for chronic xenograft rejection. Transplantation,.

  11. Efforts for optimization of BWR core internals replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, N.

    2000-01-01

    The core internal components replacement of a BWR was successfully completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 3 (1F3) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in 1998. The core shroud and the majority of the internal components made by type 304 stainless steel (SS) were replaced with the ones made of low carbon type 316L SS to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. Although this core internals replacement project was completed, several factors combined to result in a longer-than-expected period for the outage. It was partly because the removal work of the internal components was delayed. Learning a lesson from whole experience in this project, some methods were adopted for the next replacement project at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit 2 (1F2) to shorten the outage and reduce the total radiation exposure. Those are new removal processes and new welding machine and so on. The core internals replacement work was ended at 1F2 in 1999, and both the period of outage and the total radiation exposure were the same degree as expected previous to starting of this project. This result shows that the methods adopted in this project are basically applicable for the core internals replacement work and the whole works about the BWR core internals replacement were optimized. The outline of the core internals replacement project and applied technologies at 1F3 and 1F2 are discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  13. Lack of cytotoxicity by Trustwater Ecasol™ used to maintain good quality dental unit waterline output water in keratinocyte monolayer and reconstituted human oral epithelial tissue models.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, M A

    2010-11-01

    We previously showed that residual treatment of dental chair unit (DCU) supply water using the electrochemically-activated solution Trustwater Ecasol™ (2.5 ppm) provided an effective long-term solution to the problem of dental unit waterline (DUWL) biofilm resulting in DUWL output water quality consistently superior to potable water.

  14. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  15. Moderator inlet line hanger replacement for Pickering nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.A.; Bowman, J.M.; Symmons, W.R.; El-Nesr, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS), Units 1 and 2 were shutdown for large scale fuel channel replacement. Other nonroutine inspection and maintenance activities were performed to determine the overall condition of the units and it was seen that a moderator inlet line hanger (identified as HR-29) had failed in both units. Subsequent inspections during planned maintenance outages of Pickering NGS Units 3 and 4 revealed that hanger HR-29 had failed and required replacement. A research program was conducted to find a suitable technique. These problems included accessing tooling through small inspection ports, manipulating tooling from a significant distance and the high radiation fields within the vault. This paper describes the program undertaken to replace hanger HR-29. (author)

  16. Tissue Engineering of the Penis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish N. Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital disorders, cancer, trauma, or other conditions of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant organ damage or loss of function, necessitating eventual reconstruction or replacement of the damaged structures. However, current reconstructive techniques are limited by issues of tissue availability and compatibility. Physicians and scientists have begun to explore tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies for repair and reconstruction of the genitourinary tract. Tissue engineering allows the development of biological substitutes which could potentially restore normal function. Tissue engineering efforts designed to treat or replace most organs are currently being undertaken. Most of these efforts have occurred within the past decade. However, before these engineering techniques can be applied to humans, further studies are needed to ensure the safety and efficacy of these new materials. Recent progress suggests that engineered urologic tissues and cell therapy may soon have clinical applicability.

  17. Antenna Controller Replacement Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y.; Morgan, Scott C.; Strain, Martha M.; Rockwell, Stephen T.; Shimizu, Kenneth J.; Tehrani, Barzia J.; Kwok, Jaclyn H.; Tuazon-Wong, Michelle; Valtier, Henry; Nalbandi, Reza; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Antenna Controller Replacement (ACR) software accurately points and monitors the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70-m and 34-m high-efficiency (HEF) ground-based antennas that are used to track primarily spacecraft and, periodically, celestial targets. To track a spacecraft, or other targets, the antenna must be accurately pointed at the spacecraft, which can be very far away with very weak signals. ACR s conical scanning capability collects the signal in a circular pattern around the target, calculates the location of the strongest signal, and adjusts the antenna pointing to point directly at the spacecraft. A real-time, closed-loop servo control algorithm performed every 0.02 second allows accurate positioning of the antenna in order to track these distant spacecraft. Additionally, this advanced servo control algorithm provides better antenna pointing performance in windy conditions. The ACR software provides high-level commands that provide a very easy user interface for the DSN operator. The operator only needs to enter two commands to start the antenna and subreflector, and Master Equatorial tracking. The most accurate antenna pointing is accomplished by aligning the antenna to the Master Equatorial, which because of its small size and sheltered location, has the most stable pointing. The antenna has hundreds of digital and analog monitor points. The ACR software provides compact displays to summarize the status of the antenna, subreflector, and the Master Equatorial. The ACR software has two major functions. First, it performs all of the steps required to accurately point the antenna (and subreflector and Master Equatorial) at the spacecraft (or celestial target). This involves controlling the antenna/ subreflector/Master-Equatorial hardware, initiating and monitoring the correct sequence of operations, calculating the position of the spacecraft relative to the antenna, executing the real-time servo control algorithm to maintain the correct position, and

  18. 30 CFR 872.29 - What are prior balance replacement funds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are prior balance replacement funds? 872... § 872.29 What are prior balance replacement funds? “Prior balance replacement funds” are moneys we must... general funds of the United States Treasury that are otherwise unappropriated. Under section 411(h)(1) of...

  19. Hip Replacement: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invasive hip replacement (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Hip Replacement updates ... replacement - precautions Minimally invasive hip replacement Related Health Topics Hip Injuries and Disorders National Institutes of Health ...

  20. Maintenance or replacement of primary equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branchu, J.

    1995-01-01

    The principal materials, such as the primary equipments of a PWR type steam generator, have a finite service life. Framatome, builder of steam generators and maintenance contractor of Electricite de France has developed a methodology for the maintenance or the replacement of primary equipments. The paper describes the methodology followed by Framatome to identify and localize the wear mode and to treat or repair the component. Four failure modes have been considered: crack propagation, rubbing/vibration wear, neutron irradiation and corrosion propagation under permanent stress. A kinetic modelling of wear propagation has been computerized and validated using mechanical tests on Inconel 600 mockups. These analyses have allow to determine the strategy of repair or replacement of vessel heads for each unit. The method is evaluated taking into account the risk assessment, cost, dosimetry, efficiency and time delay involved. (J.S.). 1 fig., 3 photos

  1. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  2. 40 CFR 74.47 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... replacement of thermal energy-combustion sources. 74.47 Section 74.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...—combustion sources. (a) Thermal energy plan—(1) General provisions. The designated representative of an opt... quarter the replacement unit(s) will replace thermal energy of the opt-in source; (ii) The name...

  3. Transforming Normal Programs by Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossi, Annalisa; Pettorossi, A.; Cocco, Nicoletta; Etalle, Sandro

    1992-01-01

    The replacement transformation operation, already defined in [28], is studied wrt normal programs. We give applicability conditions able to ensure the correctness of the operation wrt Fitting's and Kunen's semantics. We show how replacement can mimic other transformation operations such as thinning,

  4. A comparison of minimally invasive and standard aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliński, Jarosław; Plicner, Dariusz; Grudzień, Grzegorz; Wąsowicz, Marcin; Musiał, Robert; Andres, Janusz; Kapelak, Bogusław

    2016-10-01

    The study objective was to compare aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy with aortic valve replacement through a median sternotomy. With propensity score matching, we selected 211 patients after aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and 211 patients after aortic valve replacement who underwent operation between January 2010 and December 2013. Perioperative outcomes were analyzed, and multivariable logistic regression analysis of risk factors of postoperative morbidity was performed. For propensity score-matched patients, hospital mortality was 1.0% in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy group and 1.4% in the aortic valve replacement group (P = 1.000). Stroke occurred in 0.5% versus 1.4% (P = .615), myocardial infarction occurred in 1.4% versus 1.9% (P = 1.000), and new onset of atrial fibrillation occurred in 12.8% versus 24.2% (P = .003) of patients in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and aortic valve replacement groups, respectively. Postoperative drainage was 353.5 ± 248.6 mL versus 544.3 ± 324.5 mL (P replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy and aortic valve replacement groups, respectively. Mediastinitis occurred in 2.8% of patients after aortic valve replacement and in 0.0% of patients after aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery (P = .040). Intensive care unit stay (1.3 ± 1.2 days vs 2.6 ± 2.6 days) and hospital stay (5.7 ± 1.6 days vs 8.7 ± 4.4 days) were statistically significantly shorter in the aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy group. Aortic valve replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery resulted in reduced postoperative morbidity (odds ratio, 0.4; P replacement through a right anterior minithoracotomy surgery resulted in a reduced infection rate, diminished postoperative bleeding and blood

  5. Technical development and its application on steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Sadahiko; Hanzawa, Katsumi; Sato, Hajime; Kannoto, Yasuo.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-two PWR nuclear power plants are now under commercial operation in Japan. Eight of these plants are scheduled to have their steam generators replaced by up-graded units as a social responsibility for improved reliability, economy and easier maintenance. To carry out steam generator replacement, main coolant pipe cutting and restoration techniques, remote controlled welding machines and other remote controlled equipment, templating techniques with which the new steam generator primary nozzles will fit the existing primary pipes correctly were developed. An adequate training program was carried out to establish these techniques and they were then applied in replacement work on site. The steam generators of the three plants were replaced completely in 1994. These newly developed techniques are to be applied in upcoming plants and replaced plants will be much reliable. (author)

  6. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy...... operations were completed as mini-sternotomies, 4 died later of noncardiac causes. The aortic cross-clamp and perfusion times were significantly different across all groups (P replacement...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  7. Steam generator replacement at Doel 3 NPP (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danhier, B.

    1993-01-01

    The reasons are presented that led to the conclusion that the most cost-effective strategy for the Doel 3 unit was the immediate replacement of the SG. Discussed are the advantages and drawbacks of the replacement techniques, the so-called 2, 3 and 4 cuts methods. The advantages are emphasized of intensive use of computer aided engineering in this kind of backfitting. The methodology applied to combine a power uprating of 10% over the nominal power with the steam generator replacement is presented. (author) 1 fig

  8. SI units in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1978-11-01

    The proposal of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements that the special units of radiation and radioactivity-roentgen, rad, rem and curie-be replaced by the International System (SI) of Units has been accepted by international bodies. This paper reviews the resons for introducing the new units and their features. The relation between the special units and the corresponding SI units is discussed with examples. In spite of anticipated difficulties, the commission recommends a smooth and efficient changeover to the SI units in ten years.

  9. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P; Keller, J; Lankisch, P G

    2001-04-01

    Malabsorption due to severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is one of the most important late features of chronic pancreatitis. Generally, steatorrhea is more severe and occurs several years prior to malabsorption of other nutrients because synthesis and secretion of lipase are impaired more rapidly, its intraluminal survival is shorter, and the lack of pancreatic lipase activity is not compensated for by nonpancreatic mechanisms. Patients suffer not only from nutritional deficiencies but also from increased nutrient delivery to distal intestinal sites, causing symptoms by profound alteration of upper gastrointestinal secretory and motor functions. Adequate nutrient absorption requires delivery of sufficient enzymatic activity into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with meal nutrients. The following recommendations are based on modern therapeutic concepts: 25,000 to 40,000 units of lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres, with dosage increases, compliance checks, and differential diagnosis in case of treatment failure. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed to optimize treatment.

  10. Reactor vessel closure head replacements in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome-Jeumont Industrie consortium have completed in 1997 28 reactor vessel (RV) closure head replacements, including five on 1300 MWe class PWR units. Framatome manages the operations and handles removal and reinstallation of equipment (not including the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM)) and the requalification tests, while JI, which manufactures the CRDMs, is involved in the CRDM cutting, re-machining and welding operations, using tools of original design, in order to optimize the RV closure head operation in terms of costs, schedule and dosage

  11. Patients Unicondylar Knee Replacement vs. Total Knee Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Hedra Eskander

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to analyse the clinical effectiveness of total knee replacement (TKR) compared to unicondylar knee replacement (UKR) on patients. In terms of survival rates, revision rates and postoperative complications. The keywords used were: knee arthroplasty. Nearly three thousand articles were found on 25 August 2016. Of those, only twenty-five were selected and reviewed because they were strictly focused on the topic of this article. Compared with those who have TKR, ...

  12. [Update in continuous renal replacement techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-García, M; de la Cueva-Ariza, L; Delgado-Hito, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute renal failure affects 25% of patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Despite technological advances, the mortality of these patients is still high due to its associated complications. Continuous renal replacement techniques are one of the treatments for acute renal failure because they make it possible to treat the complications and decrease mortality. The nurse's knowledge and skills regarding these techniques will be decisive for the success of the therapy. Consequently, the nurse's experience and training are key components. The objective of this article is to update the knowledge on continuous renal replacement techniques. Keeping this in mind, a review has been made of the physical and chemical principles such as diffusion and convection, among others. A description of the different continuous renal replacement techniques, a presentation of the main vascular access, and a description of the nursing cares and complications related to techniques used have also been provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  14. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Steam generator replacement at Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Dodo, Takashi; Negishi, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    Eleven nuclear units are in operation at the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.. In seven of them, Mihama-1·2·3, Takahama-1·2, and Ohi-1·2, comparatively long duration for tube inspection and repair have been required during late annual outages. KEPCO decided to replace all steam generators in these 7 units with the latest model which was improved upon the past degradation experiences, as a result of comprehensive considerations including public confidence in nuclear power generation, maintenability, and economic efficiency. This report presents the design improvements in new steam generators, replacement techniques, and so on. (author)

  16. Replacement of sub-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a number of quality aspects related to replacement of important systems or components in a nuclear power station. Reference is given to the steam generator replacement and power uprating performed at Ringhals 2 in Sweden in 1989. Since quality is a wide concept there has been put special emphasis in this paper to the important aspects that traditionally are not connected to quality. (author) 1 fig

  17. Feeder replacement tooling and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, R.; Goslin, R.; Pink, D.; Askari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Primary heat transport system feeder integrity has become a concern at some CANDU nuclear plants as a result of thinning caused by flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). Feeder inspections are indicating that life-limiting wall thinning can occur in the region between the Grayloc hub weld and second elbow of some outlet feeders. In some cases it has become necessary to replace thinned sections of affected feeders to restore feeder integrity to planned end of life. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd. (B and W) have developed a new capability for replacement of single feeders at any location on the reactor face without impacting or interrupting operation of neighbouring feeders. This new capability consists of deploying trained crews with specialized tools and procedures for feeder replacements during planned outages. As may be expected, performing single feeder replacement in the congested working environment of an operational CANDU reactor face involves overcoming many challenges with respect to access to feeders, available clearances for tooling, and tooling operation and performance. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered during single feeder replacements and actions being taken by AECL and B and W to promote continuous improvement of feeder replacement tooling and processes and ensure well-executed outages. (author)

  18. Contribution to optimization of preventive replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legat, V.; Zaludova, A.H.; Cervenka, V.; Jurca, V.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a method for determining the optimal interval for preventive maintenance/replacement using either an age-based or diagnostic-based renewal strategy. For the case of a finite-time horizon, for which the computations are complicated, a simple formula is proposed for modifying the commonly used inifinite-time solution so that it gives a good approximation to the exact finite-time solution. Examples demonstrate that the method is sufficiently accurate and simple in practice for typical engineering components with Weibull life distributions and for a reasonable range of the cost factor (ratio of unit corrective to unit preventive maintenance costs). This paper investigates the problem of the accuracy of the results compared to the exact, finite-time solution for a selected matrix of time-to failure Weibull shape parameters and cost factors commonly occurring in technical practice. Applications offer substantial benefits to both manufacturer and user of technical equipment

  19. Bioprinting for Neural Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Anand, Shivesh; Shah, Twisha; Tasoglu, Savas

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a method by which a cell-encapsulating bioink is patterned to create complex tissue architectures. Given the potential impact of this technology on neural research, we review the current state-of-the-art approaches for bioprinting neural tissues. While 2D neural cultures are ubiquitous for studying neural cells, 3D cultures can more accurately replicate the microenvironment of neural tissues. By bioprinting neuronal constructs, one can precisely control the microenvironment by specifically formulating the bioink for neural tissues, and by spatially patterning cell types and scaffold properties in three dimensions. We review a range of bioprinted neural tissue models and discuss how they can be used to observe how neurons behave, understand disease processes, develop new therapies and, ultimately, design replacement tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery in the lower limbs with spastic cerebral palsy: Experience from a rehabilitation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Anupam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the effect of single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery (Single Event Multiple Level Resections, SEMLR on deformities and locomotion in patients with cerebral palsy (CP with static contracture(s in lower limbs. Patients and Methods: Study included 34 patients (M:F, 23:11 with mean age of 9.53 ± 3.92 years (4-16 years. Among them 22 had diplegia and four each had quadriplegia and right and left hemiplegia. Fourteen patients (41.2% had their intelligence quotient (IQ in the normal range (IQ ≥ 80, while others had mental retardation (MR of varying severity: borderline MR (IQ = 70-79 in 12, mild MR (IQ = 50-69 in 5, and moderate MR (IQ = 35-49 in patients 3. All patients underwent surgery (total number of procedures 153, average 4.5 procedures/patient over a period of 30 months (April 2005 to September 2007. Improvement in functional abilities and locomotion was assessed using Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS scores and by physical examination. Results: Significant improvement in function was observed ( P = 0.000 after surgery when comparing the preoperative and postoperative GMFCS scores. All patients were maintaining ambulation at a mean follow-up duration of 13.12 ± 6.07 months (3-24 months, with five patients using knee-ankle-foot orthoses (KAFO, 22 using ankle-foot orthoses (AFO, and six patients using knee gaiters. Sixteen patients were using walker, and two were using crutches as assistive devices. Conclusion: This study suggests that CP patients with good trunk control and static contractures at multiple joints in the lower limbs can be made ambulant with single-stage multilevel soft-tissue surgery. It has to be a team effort of the surgeon and the rehabilitation team in the postoperative period for the attainment of satisfactory goal.

  1. Adhesion of tissue glues to different biological substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochynska, A. I.; Hannink, G.; Buma, P.; Grijpma, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue adhesives are attractive materials with potential to replace the use of sutures and staples in the repair of the injured tissues. The research field of tissue adhesives is dynamically growing, and different methods and tissue models are employed to evaluate the adhesive properties of newly

  2. Adhesion of tissue glues to different biological substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochynska, Agnieszka; Hannink, G.; Buma, P.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue adhesives are attractive materials with potential to replace the use of sutures and staples in the repair of the injured tissues. The research field of tissue adhesives is dynamically growing, and different methods and tissue models are employed to evaluate the adhesive properties of newly

  3. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  4. Nursing procedures during continuous renal replacement therapies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Benelli, Sonia; Barbarigo, Fabio; Cocozza, Giulia; Pettinelli, Noemi; Di Luca, Emanuela; Mettifogo, Mariangela; Toniolo, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The current role of nurses in the management of critically ill patients needing continuous renal replacement therapies is clearly fundamental. The care of these complex patients is typically shared by critical care and dialysis nurses: their precise duties may vary from country to country. To clarify this issue we conducted a national-level survey at a recent Italian course on nursing practices during continuous renal replacement therapies. A total of 119 questionnaires were analysed. The participants, who were equally divided between critical care and dialysis nurses, came from 44 different hospitals and 35 Italian cities. Overall, 23% of participants answered that "the dialysis staff" were responsible for continuous renal replacement therapies in the Intensive Care Unit, while 39% answered "the critical care nurse", and 38% "a shared organization". Interestingly, less than the half of participants claimed specific continuous renal replacement therapies training was provided to employees before handling an acute dialysis machine. Finally, about 60% of participants had experience of extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation machines used in conjunction with continuous renal replacement therapies. Workload coordination and management of critically ill patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapies in Italy is not standardized. At present, the duties of critical care and dialysis nurses vary significantly across the country. They frequently overlap or leave gaps in the assistance received by patients. The role of nurses involved in the care of continuous renal replacement therapies patients in Italy currently requires better organization, possibly starting with intensive standardized training and educational programs.

  5. Installation technology of reactor internals on shroud replacement work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    Since the replacement of large welded reactor internals much as a core shroud did not have a precedent in the world, quite a few technologies had to be developed. Especially for the installation of new core shroud, jet pumps, core plate and top guide, the accurate weld and fit-up techniques for large structures was required to secure their integrity. The vessel shielding system was utilized to reduce general area dose rate such that all replacement work. For jet pump installation, automatic remote welding machines were used for high radiation area. As for the core shroud, shroud support weld prep machining tool with high accuracy, jacking system to support fit-up, new weld machine for small work space and low heat input weld joint were developed. Shroud replacement work in Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS Unit 3 (1F-3) with application of these development techniques, was successfully accomplished. The technology is applied for 1F-2 replacement work also. (author)

  6. Optimization of costs for the DOEL 3 steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblois, C.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of steam generator replacement economics are discussed on the basis of the recent replacement carried out in the Doel 3 unit. The choice between repair of replacement policies, as well as the selection of the intervention date were based on a comparison of costs in which various possible scenarios were examined. The contractual approach for the different works to be performed was also an important point, as well as the project organization in which CAD played an important role. This organization allowed to optimize the outage duration and to realize numerous interventions in the reactor building in parallel with the replacement itself. A last aspect of the optimization of costs is the possibility to uprate the plant power. In the case of Doel 3, the plant restarted with a nominal power increased by 10%, of which 5,7% were possible by the increase of the SG heat transfer area. (Author) 6 refs

  7. Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF binding protein-3 in relation to terminal duct lobular unit involution of the normal breast in Caucasian and African American women: The Susan G. Komen Tissue Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Falk, Roni T; Horne, Hisani N; Xiang, Jackie; Pollak, Michael; Brinton, Louise A; Storniolo, Anna Maria V; Sherman, Mark E; Gierach, Gretchen L; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2018-02-22

    Lesser degrees of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) involution, as reflected by higher numbers of TDLUs and acini/TDLU, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. In rodent models, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates involution of the mammary gland. We examined associations of circulating IGF measures with TDLU involution in normal breast tissues among women without precancerous lesions. Among 715 Caucasian and 283 African American (AA) women who donated normal breast tissue samples to the Komen Tissue Bank between 2009 and 2012 (75% premenopausal), serum concentrations of IGF-I and binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hematoxilyn and eosin-stained tissue sections were assessed for numbers of TDLUs ("TDLU count"). Zero-inflated Poisson regression models with a robust variance estimator were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for association of IGF measures (tertiles) with TDLU count by race and menopausal status, adjusting for potential confounders. AA (vs. Caucasian) women had higher age-adjusted mean levels of serum IGF-I (137 vs. 131 ng/mL, p = 0.07) and lower levels of IGFBP-3 (4165 vs. 4684 ng/mL, p IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratios were associated with higher TDLU count in Caucasian (RR T3vs.T1 =1.33, 95% CI = 1.02-1.75, p-trend = 0.04), but not in AA (RR T3vs.T1 =0.65, 95% CI = 0.42-1.00, p-trend = 0.05), women. Our data suggest a role of the IGF system, particularly IGFBP-3, in TDLU involution of the normal breast, a breast cancer risk factor, among Caucasian and AA women. © 2018 UICC.

  8. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  9. Synthetic ossicular replacements: Normal and abnormal CT appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.D.; Zwillenberg, S.; Berger, A.S.; Granoff, D.W.; Popky, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous synthetic ossicular replacements are currently in use. The TORP conducts sound from the newly formed tympanic membrane to the oval window; the PORP is used when the stapes superstructure is maintained, being interposed between the tympanic membrane and the stapes capitulum. In 12 patients the surgical results of ossicular replacement procedures were good, which gave the author the opportunity to study the normal CT appearance. In an additional 10 patients CT was performed before surgical revision. Using CT, they have been able to diagnose subluxation and fibrous tissue fixation. In two patients the CT appearance was unremarkable, but at surgery lateralization of the graft was found, with a nonfunctioning interface

  10. Primary extra-cranial meningioma following total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.J.; Beggs, I. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Patton, J.T.; Porter, D. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Orthopaedics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Salter, D.M.; Al-Nafussi, A. [Royal Infirmary, Department of Pathology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    A 61-year-old man presented with pain at the left hip and decreased mobility 10 years after total hip replacement. Imaging demonstrated a large destructive expansile mass adjacent to the prosthesis. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of an extra-cranial meningioma. Primary tumours after total hip replacement are rare and include soft tissue sarcomas, bone sarcomas and lymphomas. To our knowledge, no previous cases of primary extracranial meningioma have been identified. The imaging features, histology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Replacement research reactor for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Ross

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the Australian Government commissioned a review into the need for a replacement research reactor. That review concluded that in about years, if certain conditions were met, the Government could make a decision in favour of a replacement reactor. A major milestone was achieved when, on 3 September 1997, the Australian Government announced the construction of a replacement research reactor at the site of Australia's existing research reactor HIFAR, subject to the satisfactory outcome of an environmental assessment process. The reactor will be have the dual purpose of providing a first class facility for neutron beam research as well as providing irradiation facilities for both medical isotope production and commercial irradiations. The project is scheduled for completion before the end of 2005. (author)

  12. Joint replacement in Zambia: A review of Hip & Knee Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data captured by the different variables entered into the Joint Register covering the pre-op, intra-op and post-op period of all total hip and knee replacement surgery done at the ZIOH from 1998 to 2010 was entered into a spreadsheet after verification with individual patient medical records. This was then imported ...

  13. The CT (Hounsfield unit) number of brain tissue in healthy infants. A new reliable method for detection of possible degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, P; Bundgaard, F; Olsen, A

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to correlate CT Hounsfield unit (H. U.) numbers from one CT investigation to another and from one CT scanner to another, especially when dealing with small changes in the brain substance, as in degenerative brain diseases in children. By subtracting the mean value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the mean value of grey and white matter, it is possible to remove most of the errors due, for example, to maladjustments, short and long-term drift, X-ray fan, and detector asymmetry. Measurements of white and grey matter using these methods showed CT H. U. numbers changing from 15 H. U. to 22 H. U. in white matter and 23 H. U. to 30 H. U. in grey matter in 86 healthy infants aged 0-5 years. In all measurements, the difference between grey and white matter was exactly 8 H. U. The method has proven to be highly accurate and reproducible.

  14. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  15. Replacing fuel alignment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetz, F.; Kalthoff, W.

    1991-01-01

    Up to the end of 1989 varying numbers of broken fuel alignment pins were detected in several German PWRs (80 broken pins in all). The distribution of these broken pins over the core cross-section was more or less random. The problem was due to the stress corrosion cracking of the pin material and was restricted to individual pins. It was concluded that all fuel alignment pins made of Inconel X-750 should be replaced. The development of a new pin, more resistant to intergranular stress corrosion, and the replacement technique are outlined. (author)

  16. Replacement of fluid-filter elements without interruption of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R. A.; Ward, J. B.

    1969-01-01

    Gatling-type filter assembly, preloaded with several filter elements enables filter replacement without breaking into the operative fluid system. When the filter element becomes contaminated, a unit inner subassembly is rotated 60 degrees to position a clean filter in the line.

  17. Testing of Replacement Bag Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the FB-Line bagout material was changed to simplify the processing of sand, slag, and crucible.The results of the strength tests and the outgassing measurements and calculations demonstrate that the proposed replacement nylon bag materials (HRMP and orange anti-static material) are acceptable substitutes for LDPE and the original nylon with respect to mechanical properties

  18. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  19. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  20. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific (μCi/cm 2 ) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed

  1. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  2. Tissue types (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports ... binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the ...

  3. Ineffectiveness of rat liver tissues in the screening of connective tissue disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Khalil A.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of using rat liver tissue (RLT) for the screening of connective tissue disease (CTD). Results of patient samples submitted to the Clinical Immunology Laboratory, Brimingham Heartlands Hospital, Bordsley Green East, Brimingham, United Kingdom for the investigation of CTD between 2001 and 2002 were analyzed. Positive results for anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies were correlated with the results of the corresponding antinuclear antibodies (ANA), obtained by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) using RLT. In the second part of study samples that were previously tested positive for anti-ENA or anti-dsDNA antibodies were investigated prospectively for ANA using both RLTand human epithelial (Hep-2) cell line. The IIF method employing RLT for screening of CTD, failed to detect ANA patterns from 45% and 25%of patients sample know to contain antibodies to dsDNA and ENA.The anti -dsDNA antibodies that failed to be detected by the RLTwere of low avidity and their clinical significance is unknown. In contrast the antibodies to ENAwere mostly directed against the Ro antigen.In cotrast and like RLT, Hep-2 cell line failed to detect the low avidity anti-dsDNA antibdies.The present study has clearly shown that RLT are ineffective for screening of CTD. It is recommended that laboratories which ars still using these tissues should consider replacing them with the Hep-2 cell line. (author)

  4. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  5. Operational test procedure for SY tank farm replacement exhauster unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClees, J.

    1995-01-01

    This operational test procedure will verify that the remaining functions not tested per WHC-SD-WM-ATP-080, or components disturbed during final installation, as well as interfaces with other tank farm equipment and remote monitoring stations are operating correctly

  6. Replacement Capability Options for the United States Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    IIB Pamphlet . Retrieved April 29, 2012, from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA): http://www.jaxa.jp/pr/ brochure /pdf/01/rocket05.pdf JAXA...n.d.). HTV: H-II Transfer Vehicle "KOUNOTORI". Retrieved August 24, 2012, from JAXA: http://www.jaxa.jp/pr/ brochure /pdf/01/rocket03.pdf JAXA...n.d.). Dream Chaser. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Sierra Nevada Corporation: http://sncspace.com/uploads/ brochures /Dream_Chaser.pdf

  7. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  8. Prosthetic valve sparing aortic root replacement: an improved technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leacche, Marzia; Balaguer, Jorge M; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Byrne, John G

    2008-10-01

    We describe a modified surgical technique to treat patients with a previous history of isolated aortic valve replacement who now require aortic root replacement for an aneurysmal or dissected aorta. This technique consists of replacing the aortic root with a Dacron conduit, leaving intact the previously implanted prosthesis, and re-implanting the coronary arteries in the Dacron graft. Our technique differs from other techniques in that we do not leave behind any aortic tissue remnant and also in that we use a felt strip to obliterate any gap between the old sewing ring and the newly implanted graft. In our opinion, this promotes better hemostasis. We demonstrate that this technique is safe, feasible, and results in acceptable outcomes.

  9. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dwelling, replacement. 700.53 Section 700.53 Indians THE... Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.53 Dwelling, replacement. The term replacement dwelling means a dwelling selected by the head of a household as a replacement dwelling that meets the criteria of this...

  10. 24 CFR 880.602 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 880.602... Replacement reserve. (a) A replacement reserve must be established and maintained in an interest-bearing account to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items. (1) Part...

  11. 24 CFR 891.405 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.405....405 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Owner shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance and repair and replacement of capital items...

  12. 24 CFR 891.855 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 891.855... § 891.855 Replacement reserves. (a) The mixed-finance owner shall establish and maintain a replacement... the funds will be used to pay for capital replacement costs for the Section 202 or 811 supportive...

  13. A Bayesian perspective on some replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzuchi, Thomas A.; Soyer, Refik

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian decision theoretic approach for determining optimal replacement strategies. This approach enables us to formally incorporate, express, and update our uncertainty when determining optimal replacement strategies. We develop relevant expressions for both the block replacement protocol with minimal repair and the age replacement protocol and illustrate the use of our approach with real data

  14. Procurement of replacement pressure vessels for MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, W.A. Jr.; Edwards, C.B. Jr.; McKibben, J.C.; Schoone, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor Facility (MURR) located in Columbia, Missouri, is the highest powered, highest steady-state flux university research reactor in the United States. The reactor is a 10-MW pressurized loop, in-pool-type, light-water-moderated, beryllium-reflected, flux trap reactor. MURR has a compact core (0.033 m 3 ) composed of eight fuel elements of the materials test reactor type arranged as an annular right circular cylinder between the inner and outer aluminum pressure vessels. Conservative engineering judgment resulted in the decision in 1988 to purchase new inner and outer pressure vessels. This paper details the difficulties encountered in procuring replacements for aluminum pressure vessels built to standards that are no longer applicable in attempting to meet nuclear standards that are not applicable to nonferrous material

  15. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  16. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti, and cobalt-chrome (CoCr. These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  17. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H; Mehta, Vivek A; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  18. Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP): User's guide. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Willing, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    A microcomputer program called the Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP) has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in determining the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or deratings of one or more nuclear reactors. The calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1993--1996 previously published in NRC Report NUREG/CR--4012, Vol. 3 (1992), for all 112 US reactors. Because the RECAP program is menu-driven, the user can define specific case studies in terms of such parameters as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or derating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through the use of a present-worth calculation option

  19. Renal replacement lipomatosis: multidetector-row computed tomography findings in one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisir, C.; Can, C.; Kebapci, M.

    2007-01-01

    Replacement lipomatosis of the kidney is the result of severe atrophy of the renal parenchyma often caused by chronic calculus disease with secondary marked benign proliferation of fibrofatty tissue replacing atrophied renal parenchyma. Different radiological modalities have been used to illustrate this entity, with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, intravenous pyelogram, and computed tomography (CT) used most frequently. We report multidedector CT (MDCT) findings of replacement lipomatosis in a 50-year-old woman. We think that it accurately provides a complete one-step diagnostic workup and appropriate pre-surgical planning for patients for whom there is a suspicion of replacement lipomatosis

  20. A bivariate optimal replacement policy for a multistate repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Yam, Richard C.M.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating simple repairable system with k+1 states, including k failure states and one working state, is studied. It is assumed that the system after repair is not 'as good as new' and the deterioration of the system is stochastic. We consider a bivariate replacement policy, denoted by (T,N), in which the system is replaced when its working age has reached T or the number of failures it has experienced has reached N, whichever occurs first. The objective is to determine the optimal replacement policy (T,N)* such that the long-run expected profit per unit time is maximized. The explicit expression of the long-run expected profit per unit time is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy can be determined analytically or numerically. We prove that the optimal policy (T,N)* is better than the optimal policy N* for a multistate simple repairable system. We also show that a general monotone process model for a multistate simple repairable system is equivalent to a geometric process model for a two-state simple repairable system in the sense that they have the same structure for the long-run expected profit (or cost) per unit time and the same optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  1. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  2. Optimal replacement policy of products with repair-cost threshold after the extended warranty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Shang; Zhiqiang Cai

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the product sold under a warranty is usually maintained by the manufacturer during the warranty period. After the expiry of the warranty, however, the consumer confronts a problem about how to maintain the reliability of the product. This paper proposes, from the consumer's perspective, a replace-ment policy after the extended warranty, under the assumption that the product is sold under the renewable free replacement warranty (RFRW) policy in which the replacement is dependent on the repair-cost threshold. The proposed replacement policy is the replacement after the extended warranty is performed by the consumer based on the repair-cost threshold or preventive replacement (PR) age, which are decision variables. The expected cost rate model is derived from the consumer's perspective. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solution that minimizes the expected cost rate per unit time are offered. Finally, a numeri-cal example is presented to exemplify the proposed model.

  3. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  4. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  5. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennard, M W [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Pleasantville, NY (United States); Harbottle, J E [Stoller Nuclear Fuel, NAC International, Thornbury, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B{sub 4}C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  6. BWR control blade replacement strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivity control elements in a BWR, the control blades, perform three significant functions: provide shutdown margin during normal and accident operating conditions; provide overall core reactivity control; and provide axial power shaping control. As such, the blades are exposed to the core's neutron flux, resulting in irradiation of blade structural and absorber materials. Since the absorber depletes with time (if B 4 C is used, it also swells) and the structural components undergo various degradation mechanisms (e.g., embrittlement, corrosion), the blades have limits on their operational lifetimes. Consequently, BWR utilities have implemented strategies that aim to maximize blade lifetimes while balancing operational costs, such as extending a refuelling outage to shuffle high exposure blades. This paper examines the blade replacement strategies used by BWR utilities operating in US, Europe and Asia by assembling information related to: the utility's specific blade replacement strategy; the impact the newer blade designs and changes in core operating mode were having on those strategies; the mechanical and nuclear limits that determined those strategies; the methods employed to ensure that lifetime limits were not exceeded during operation; and blade designs used (current and replacement blades). (author)

  7. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three

  8. Meniscal replacement using a porous polymer prosthesis : A preliminary study in the dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB; Nielsen, HKL; deGroot, JH; Pennings, AJ

    A porous polyurethane prosthesis was used to replace the lateral meniscus in the dog. After an initial ingrowth of fibrous tissue, the prostheses became filled with tissue strongly resembling normal meniscal fibrocartilage. Although less severe than seen after total meniscectomy, cartilage

  9. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  10. Type II dehydroquinase: molecular replacement with many copies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Kirsty Anne; Robinson, David Alexander; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The type II dehydroquinase enzyme is a symmetrical dodecameric protein which crystallizes in either high-symmetry cubic space groups or low-symmetry crystal systems with multiple copies in the asymmetric unit. Both systems have provided challenging examples for molecular replacement; for example, a triclinic crystal form has 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell. Three difficult examples are discussed and two are used as test cases to compare the performance of four commonly used molecular-replacement packages. Type II dehydroquinase is a small (150-amino-acid) protein which in solution packs together to form a dodecamer with 23 cubic symmetry. In crystals of this protein the symmetry of the biological unit can be coincident with the crystallographic symmetry, giving rise to cubic crystal forms with a single monomer in the asymmetric unit. In crystals where this is not the case, multiple copies of the monomer are present, giving rise to significant and often confusing noncrystallographic symmetry in low-symmetry crystal systems. These different crystal forms pose a variety of challenges for solution by molecular replacement. Three examples of structure solutions, including a highly unusual triclinic crystal form with 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell, are described. Four commonly used molecular-replacement packages are assessed against two of these examples, one of high symmetry and the other of low symmetry; this study highlights how program performance can vary significantly depending on the given problem. In addition, the final refined structure of the 16-dodecamer triclinic crystal form is analysed and shown not to be a superlattice structure, but rather an F-centred cubic crystal with frustrated crystallographic symmetry

  11. Biomechanics and mechanobiology in functional tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilak, Farshid; Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Baaijens, Frank P.T.

    2014-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering continues to expand and mature, and several products are now in clinical use, with numerous other preclinical and clinical studies underway. However, specific challenges still remain in the repair or regeneration of tissues that serve a predominantly biomechanical function. Furthermore, it is now clear that mechanobiological interactions between cells and scaffolds can critically influence cell behavior, even in tissues and organs that do not serve an overt biomechanical role. Over the past decade, the field of “functional tissue engineering” has grown as a subfield of tissue engineering to address the challenges and questions on the role of biomechanics and mechanobiology in tissue engineering. Originally posed as a set of principles and guidelines for engineering of load-bearing tissues, functional tissue engineering has grown to encompass several related areas that have proven to have important implications for tissue repair and regeneration. These topics include measurement and modeling of the in vivo biomechanical environment; quantitative analysis of the mechanical properties of native tissues, scaffolds, and repair tissues; development of rationale criteria for the design and assessment of engineered tissues; investigation of the effects biomechanical factors on native and repair tissues, in vivo and in vitro; and development and application of computational models of tissue growth and remodeling. Here we further expand this paradigm and provide examples of the numerous advances in the field over the past decade. Consideration of these principles in the design process will hopefully improve the safety, efficacy, and overall success of engineered tissue replacements. PMID:24818797

  12. Personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) in Marfan syndrome: Analysis of 1-9 year outcomes by intention-to-treat in a cohort of the first 30 consecutive patients to receive a novel tissue and valve-conserving procedure, compared with the published results of aortic root replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Treasure (Tom); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke); T. Golesworthy (Tal); F. Rega (Filip); M. Petrou (Mario); U. Rosendahl (Ulrich); R. Mohiaddin (Raad); M. Rubens (Michael); W. Thornton (Warren); B. Lees (Belinda); J. Pepper (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Among people with Marfan syndrome who have a typical aortic root aneurysm, dissection is a characteristic cause of premature death. To pre-empt Type A dissection, composite root replacement with a mechanical valve became the standard of care in the 1980s and 1990s. This is

  13. Biomimetic heterogenous elastic tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kai Jen; Dixon, Simon; Hale, Luke Richard; Darbyshire, Arnold; Martin, Daniel; de Mel, Achala

    2017-01-01

    There is an unmet need for artificial tissue to address current limitations with donor organs and problems with donor site morbidity. Despite the success with sophisticated tissue engineering endeavours, which employ cells as building blocks, they are limited to dedicated labs suitable for cell culture, with associated high costs and long tissue maturation times before available for clinical use. Direct 3D printing presents rapid, bespoke, acellular solutions for skull and bone repair or replacement, and can potentially address the need for elastic tissue, which is a major constituent of smooth muscle, cartilage, ligaments and connective tissue that support organs. Thermoplastic polyurethanes are one of the most versatile elastomeric polymers. Their segmented block copolymeric nature, comprising of hard and soft segments allows for an almost limitless potential to control physical properties and mechanical behaviour. Here we show direct 3D printing of biocompatible thermoplastic polyurethanes with Fused Deposition Modelling, with a view to presenting cell independent in-situ tissue substitutes. This method can expeditiously and economically produce heterogenous, biomimetic elastic tissue substitutes with controlled porosity to potentially facilitate vascularisation. The flexibility of this application is shown here with tubular constructs as exemplars. We demonstrate how these 3D printed constructs can be post-processed to incorporate bioactive molecules. This efficacious strategy, when combined with the privileges of digital healthcare, can be used to produce bespoke elastic tissue substitutes in-situ, independent of extensive cell culture and may be developed as a point-of-care therapy approach.

  14. TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH BELOW-KNEE AMPUTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Matthew D; Willey, Michael; Shurr, Donald G

    2010-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is reserved for patients with severe and disabling arthritis that is non-responsive to conservative measures. Based on existing data, total knee replacement is a safe and cost-effective treatment for alleviating pain and improving physical function in patients who do not respond to conservative therapy. Despite the large variation in health status of patients and types of prosthesis implanted, total knee replacement has proven to be a relatively low risk and successful operation. Each year in the United States surgeons perform approximately 300,000 TKR.1 Likewise, lower extremity amputation is commonly performed in the United States with an annual incidence of 110,000 per year.2 Nearly 70% of all lower extremity amputations are performed as the result of chronic vascular disease, followed by trauma (22%), congenital etiology and tumor (4% each).3 Approximately 50% of all lower extremity amputations are performed secondary to complications from Diabetes Mellitus. Norvell et al. demonstrated that patients who have previously undergone transtibial amputation and ambulate with a prosthesis are more likely to develop degenerative joint disease in the con-tralateral extremity than the ipsilateral extremity.4 Further, radiographic changes consistent with osteoporosis have been demonstrated in up to 88% of limbs that have undergone transtibial amputation.8 To our knowledge, there have been only three reported cases of total knee replacement in patients with ipsilateral transtibial amputation.5,7 The purpose of the present study is to review the existing data on total knee replacement in patients who have undergone transtibial amputation. Further we present a patient with a transtibial amputation who underwent contralateral total knee replacement. PMID:21045987

  15. Endoscopic Approach for Tissue Expansion for Different Cosmetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Purpose: The use of tissue expanders in plastic and reconstruction surgery is now well established for large defects in adults & children. Tissue expansion is one of the reconstructive surgeon's alternatives in providing optimal tissue replacement when skin shortage is a major problem. Predesigned plan about ...

  16. In Defense of Artificial Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Derek

    2017-06-01

    If it is within our power to provide a significantly better world for future generations at a comparatively small cost to ourselves, we have a strong moral reason to do so. One way of providing a significantly better world may involve replacing our species with something better. It is plausible that in the not-too-distant future, we will be able to create artificially intelligent creatures with whatever physical and psychological traits we choose. Granted this assumption, it is argued that we should engineer our extinction so that our planet's resources can be devoted to making artificial creatures with better lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  18. Skilled nursing facilities after joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care providers in the weeks before your joint replacement. They can advise you about whether going directly ... of many people who have had a joint replacement? Can they tell you how many? A good ...

  19. Risks of hip and knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is normal to lose blood during and after hip or knee replacement surgery. Some people need a ... clot form are higher during and soon after hip or knee replacement surgery. Sitting or lying down ...

  20. Fleet replacement modeling : final report, July 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project focused on two interrelated areas in equipment replacement modeling for fleets. The first area was research-oriented and addressed a fundamental assumption in engineering economic replacement modeling that all assets providing a similar ...

  1. Long-life slab replacement concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Concrete slab replacement projects in Florida have demonstrated a high incidence of : replacement slab cracking. Causes of cracking have not been reliably determined. University of South Florida researchers : sought to identify the factors or : param...

  2. Long-life slab replacement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research was initiated following reports of high incidence of cracking on FDOT concrete pavement replacement : slab projects. Field slabs were instrumented for data acquisition from high-early-strength concrete pavement : replacement slabs place...

  3. Pulp and periodontal tissue repair - regeneration or tissue metaplasia after dental trauma. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O

    2012-01-01

    Healing subsequent to dental trauma is known to be very complex, a result explained by the variability of the types of dental trauma (six luxations, nine fracture types, and their combinations). On top of that, at least 16 different cellular systems get involved in more severe trauma types each o...... of tissue replaces the injured). In this study, a review is given of the impact of trauma to various dental tissues such as alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum, Hertvigs epithelial root sheath, and the pulp....... of them with a different potential for healing with repair, i.e. (re-establishment of tissue continuity without functional restitution) and regeneration (where the injured or lost tissue is replaced with new tissue with identical tissue anatomy and function) and finally metaplasia (where a new type...

  4. Enzyme replacement therapy for murine hypophosphatasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, José Luis; Narisawa, Sonoko; Lemire, Isabelle; Loisel, Thomas P; Boileau, Guy; Leonard, Pierre; Gramatikova, Svetlana; Terkeltaub, Robert; Camacho, Nancy Pleshko; McKee, Marc D; Crine, Philippe; Whyte, Michael P

    2008-06-01

    Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism that features rickets or osteomalacia caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). Consequently, natural substrates for this ectoenzyme accumulate extracellulary including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), a co-factor form of vitamin B6. Babies with the infantile form of HPP often die with severe rickets and sometimes hypercalcemia and vitamin B6-dependent seizures. There is no established medical treatment. Human TNALP was bioengineered with the C terminus extended by the Fc region of human IgG for one-step purification and a deca-aspartate sequence (D10) for targeting to mineralizing tissue (sALP-FcD10). TNALP-null mice (Akp2-/-), an excellent model for infantile HPP, were treated from birth using sALP-FcD10. Short-term and long-term efficacy studies consisted of once daily subcutaneous injections of 1, 2, or 8.2 mg/kg sALP-FcD10 for 15, 19, and 15 or 52 days, respectively. We assessed survival and growth rates, circulating levels of sALP-FcD10 activity, calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal, as well as skeletal and dental manifestations using radiography, microCT, and histomorphometry. Akp2-/- mice receiving high-dose sALP-FcD10 grew normally and appeared well without skeletal or dental disease or epilepsy. Plasma calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal concentrations remained in their normal ranges. We found no evidence of significant skeletal or dental disease. Enzyme replacement using a bone-targeted, recombinant form of human TNALP prevents infantile HPP in Akp2-/- mice.

  5. Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Murine Hypophosphatasia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, José Luis; Narisawa, Sonoko; Lemire, Isabelle; Loisel, Thomas P; Boileau, Guy; Leonard, Pierre; Gramatikova, Svetlana; Terkeltaub, Robert; Camacho, Nancy Pleshko; McKee, Marc D; Crine, Philippe; Whyte, Michael P

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is the inborn error of metabolism that features rickets or osteomalacia caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) within the gene that encodes the tissue-nonspecific isozyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNALP). Consequently, natural substrates for this ectoenzyme accumulate extracellulary including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), an inhibitor of mineralization, and pyridoxal 5`-phosphate (PLP), a co-factor form of vitamin B6. Babies with the infantile form of HPP often die with severe rickets and sometimes hypercalcemia and vitamin B6-dependent seizures. There is no established medical treatment. Materials and Methods Human TNALP was bioengineered with the C terminus extended by the Fc region of human IgG for one-step purification and a deca-aspartate sequence (D10) for targeting to mineralizing tissue (sALP-FcD10). TNALP-null mice (Akp2−/−), an excellent model for infantile HPP, were treated from birth using sALP-FcD10. Short-term and long-term efficacy studies consisted of once daily subcutaneous injections of 1, 2, or 8.2 mg/kg sALP-FcD10 for 15, 19, and 15 or 52 days, respectively. We assessed survival and growth rates, circulating levels of sALP-FcD10 activity, calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal, as well as skeletal and dental manifestations using radiography, μCT, and histomorphometry. Results Akp2−/− mice receiving high-dose sALP-FcD10 grew normally and appeared well without skeletal or dental disease or epilepsy. Plasma calcium, PPi, and pyridoxal concentrations remained in their normal ranges. We found no evidence of significant skeletal or dental disease. Conclusions Enzyme replacement using a bone-targeted, recombinant form of human TNALP prevents infantile HPP in Akp2−/− mice. PMID:18086009

  6. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  7. Permanent Quadriplegia Following Replacement of Voice Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Kayhan; Erdur, Omer; Kibar, Ertugrul

    2016-11-01

    The authors presented a patient with quadriplegia caused by cervical spine abscess following voice prosthesis replacement. The authors present the first reported permanent quadriplegia patient caused by voice prosthesis replacement. The authors wanted to emphasize that life-threatening complications may be faced during the replacement of voice prosthesis. Care should be taken during the replacement of voice prosthesis and if some problems have been faced during the procedure patients must be followed closely.

  8. Neonatal varicella pneumonia, surfactant replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is a very contagious viral disease that caused by varicella-zoster virus, which appears in the first week of life secondary to transplacental transmission of infection from the affected mother. When mother catches the disease five days before and up to two days after the delivery, the chance of varicella in neonate in first week of life is 17%. A generalized papulovesicular lesion is the most common clinical feature. Respiratory involvement may lead to giant cell pneumonia and respiratory failure. The mortality rate is up to 30% in the case of no treatment, often due to pneumonia. Treatment includes hospitalization, isolation and administration of intravenous acyclovir. The aim of this case report is to introduce the exogenous surfactant replacement therapy after intubation and mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in neonatal chickenpox pneumonia and respiratory distress. Case Presentation: A seven-day-old neonate boy was admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Babol, north of Iran, with generalized papulovesicular lesions and respiratory distress. His mother has had a history of Varicella 4 days before delivery. He was isolated and given supportive care, intravenous acyclovir and antibiotics. On the second day, he was intubated and connected to mechanical ventilator due to severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Because of sever pulmonary involvement evidenced by Chest X-Ray and high ventilators set-up requirement, intratracheal surfactant was administered in two doses separated by 12 hours. He was discharged after 14 days without any complication with good general condition. Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant replacement therapy can be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of respiratory failure due to neonatal chickenpox.

  9. Chitin Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Rangasamy; Chennazhi, Krishna Prasad; Srinivasan, Sowmya; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Furuike, Tetsuya; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:21673928

  10. Gate replacement at the Upper Lake Falls development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.T.; Locke, A.E.; Brown, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    Nova Scotia Power's integrated approach to dam safety was discussed. One of the two intake gates at Unit 1 of the Upper Falls Power Plant on the Mersey River was replaced in 1997 as part of the Utility's upgrading program. In the event of governor failure or turbine runaway, the new roller gate will allow operators to close the original sliding gate first under a more-or-less balanced head condition, and then to close the new roller gate under a full-flow condition. The planning, design and construction of the new roller gate is described. One of the two head gates of Unit 2 at the same station will be replaced in a similar fashion in the fall of 1998. 4 refs., 7 figs

  11. Diagenetic replacement of Micas by Carbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oele, E.

    1961-01-01

    In the Ordovician sandstones of the Cantabrian Mountains a replacement of the micas by carbonate minerals could be observed. The absence of metamorphic minerals suggests a diagenetic replacement. This is supported by the finding of the same type of replacement in some undisturbed Pliocene sediments

  12. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement license. 13.17 Section 13.17 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... request a replacement. The application must be accompanied by the required fee and submitted to the...

  13. 24 CFR 891.605 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.605... 8 Assistance § 891.605 Replacement reserve. (a) Establishment of reserve. The Borrower shall establish and maintain a replacement reserve to aid in funding extraordinary maintenance, and repair and...

  14. 24 CFR 891.745 - Replacement reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserve. 891.745... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.745 Replacement reserve. The general requirements for the replacement reserve are provided in § 891.605. For projects funded under §§ 891.655 through 891.790, the...

  15. 24 CFR 572.125 - Replacement reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Homeownership Program Requirements-Implementation Grants § 572.125 Replacement reserves. (a) Purpose. A single replacement reserve may be established for the homeownership program only if HUD determines it is necessary to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement reserves. 572.125...

  16. Aortic Root Replacement for Children With Loeys-Dietz Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nishant D; Alejo, Diane; Crawford, Todd; Hibino, Narutoshi; Dietz, Harry C; Cameron, Duke E; Vricella, Luca A

    2017-05-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an aggressive aortopathy with a proclivity for aortic aneurysm rupture and dissection at smaller diameters than other connective tissue disorders. We reviewed our surgical experience of children with LDS to validate our guidelines for prophylactic aortic root replacement (ARR). We reviewed all children (younger than 18 years) with a diagnosis of LDS who underwent ARR at our institution. The primary endpoint was mortality, and secondary endpoints included complications and the need for further interventions. Thirty-four children with LDS underwent ARR. Mean age at operation was 10 years, and 15 (44%) were female. Mean preoperative root diameter was 4 cm. Three children (9%) had composite ARR with a mechanical prosthesis, and 31 (91%) underwent valve-sparing ARR. Concomitant procedures included arch replacement in 2 (6%), aortic valve repair in 1 (3%), and patent foramen ovale closure in 16 (47%). There was no operative mortality. Two children (6%) required late replacement of the ascending aorta, 5 (15%) required arch replacement, 1 (3%) required mitral valve replacement, and 2 (6%) had coronary button aneurysms/pseudoaneurysms requiring repair. Three children required redo valve-sparing ARR after a Florida sleeve procedure, and 2 had progressive aortic insufficiency requiring aortic valve replacement after a valve-sparing procedure. There were 2 late deaths (6%). These data confirm the aggressive aortopathy of LDS. Valve-sparing ARR should be performed when feasible to avoid the risks of prostheses. Serial imaging of the arterial tree is critical, given the rate of subsequent intervention. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular replacement then and now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview, with examples, of the evolution of molecular-replacement methods and models over the past few years is presented. The ‘phase problem’ in crystallography results from the inability to directly measure the phases of individual diffracted X-ray waves. While intensities are directly measured during data collection, phases must be obtained by other means. Several phasing methods are available (MIR, SAR, MAD, SAD and MR) and they all rely on the premise that phase information can be obtained if the positions of marker atoms in the unknown crystal structure are known. This paper is dedicated to the most popular phasing method, molecular replacement (MR), and represents a personal overview of the development, use and requirements of the methodology. The first description of noncrystallographic symmetry as a tool for structure determination was explained by Rossmann and Blow [Rossmann & Blow (1962 ▶), Acta Cryst.15, 24–31]. The term ‘molecular replacement’ was introduced as the name of a book in which the early papers were collected and briefly reviewed [Rossmann (1972 ▶), The Molecular Replacement Method. New York: Gordon & Breach]. Several programs have evolved from the original concept to allow faster and more sophisticated searches, including six-dimensional searches and brute-force approaches. While careful selection of the resolution range for the search and the quality of the data will greatly influence the outcome, the correct choice of the search model is probably still the main criterion to guarantee success in solving a structure using MR. Two of the main parameters used to define the ‘best’ search model are sequence identity (25% or more) and structural similarity. Another parameter that may often be undervalued is the quality of the probe: there is clearly a relationship between the quality and the correctness of the chosen probe and its usefulness as a search model. Efforts should be made by all structural biologists to

  18. Steam generator replacement at Bruce A: approach, results, and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkiewicz, W.; Savage, B.; Smith, J.

    2008-01-01

    Steam Generator Replacement is now complete in Bruce A Units 1 and 2. In each reactor, eight steam generators were replaced; these were the first CANDU steam generator replacements performed anywhere in the world. The plans for replacement were developed in 2004 and 2005, and were summarized in an earlier paper for the CNS Conference held in November, 2006. The present paper briefly summarizes the methodologies and special processes used such as metrology, cutting and welding and heavy lifting. The paper provides an update since the earlier report and focuses on the project achievements to date, such as: - A combination of engineered methodology, laser metrology and precise remote machining led to accurate first time fit-ups of each new replacement steam generator and steam drums - Lessons learned in the first unit led to schedule improvements in the second unit - Dose received was lowest recorded for any steam generator replacement project. The experience gained and lessons learned from Units 1 and 2 will be valuable in planning and executing future replacement steam generator projects. A video was presented

  19. [Aftercare for durability and profitability of single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; van Loveren, C; van der Maarel-Wierink, C D; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2013-01-01

    An important aim ofa treatment with single-unit and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses is a durable and profitable treatment outcome. That requires aftercare, too. First, the frequency of routine oral examinations should be assessed, using an individual risk profile. The objectives of the routine oral examinations are the prevention and, when necessary, the treatment of pathological conditions and complications. With regard to prevention, attention should be paid to information and instruction, oral biofilm and calculus, non-functional activities, hard tooth tissues, periodontal and peri-implant tissues, and saliva. Subsequently, it can be determined whether the intended durability and profitability have been achieved or can still be achieved, whether or not through indicated adjustments. Special attention should be paid to endodontically treated teeth. Restorative, repair or replacement treatments may be indicated in case ofcomplications, such as loose single- or multi-unitfixed dental prosthesis, fracture of a fixed dental prosthesis unit, lost tooth pulp vitality, tooth root fracture, and implant or implant abutment problems.

  20. Replacement energy, capacity, and reliability costs for permanent nuclear reactor shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C., Buehring, W.A.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Cavallo, J.D.; Veselka, T.D.; Willing, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Average replacement power costs are estimated for potential permanent shutdowns of nuclear electricity-generating units. Replacement power costs are considered to include replacement energy, capacity, and reliability cost components. These estimates were developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating regulatory issues that potentially affect changes in serious reactor accident frequencies. Cost estimates were derived from long-term production-cost and capacity expansion simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors that affect replacement power cost, such as load growth, replacement sources of generation, and capital costs for replacement capacity, were treated in the analysis. Costs are presented for a representative reactor and for selected subcategories of reactors, based on estimates for 112 individual reactors

  1. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  2. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoosh Farhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. Methods We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Results Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Conclusion Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis

  3. Tracheal replacement by autogenous aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoosh, Farhad; Hodjati, Hossain; Dehghani, Seifollah; Tanideh, Nader; Kumar, Perikala V

    2009-06-09

    Tracheal defects may occur after trauma or prolonged intubation. Resection of tracheal tumors also poses a major challenge for substitution. In an effort to solve this problem, different techniques have been tried with little success. We report on a new animal model which showed acceptable results with fewer complications. We replaced 5 cm of cervical trachea in 10 dogs with harvested infra-renal aorta and repaired the aortic defect with Dacron graft. Necropsy of the grafted aorta and anastomotic site revealed well healed anastomosis in all animals together with ciliated columnar epithelium coverage of grafted aorta and neovascularization of aortic wall. Aortic graft is preferable to other substitutes because of less antigenicity, less vascularity, and no mucous secretions or peristalsis.

  4. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Stel, Vianda S; Abad Diez, José Maria

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article summarizes the 2012 European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org) with a specific focus on older patients (defined as ≥65 years). METHODS: Data provided by 45 national or regional renal...... disease (ESRD) receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) and renal transplantation rates for 2012 are presented. RESULTS: In 2012, the overall unadjusted incidence rate of patients with ESRD receiving RRT was 109.6 per million population (pmp) (n = 69 035), ranging from 219.9 pmp in Portugal to 24.2 pmp...... to 32% between countries. The overall renal transplantation rate in 2012 was 28.3 pmp (n = 15 673), with the highest rate seen in the Spanish region of Catalonia. The proportion of patients ≥65 years receiving a transplant ranged from 0 to 35%. Five-year adjusted survival for all RRT patients was 59...

  5. Computer simulation of replacement sequences in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffgens, J.O.; Schwartz, D.W.; Ariyasu, R.G.; Cascadden, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Results of computer simulations of , , and replacement sequences in copper are presented, including displacement thresholds, focusing energies, energy losses per replacement, and replacement sequence lengths. These parameters are tabulated for six interatomic potentials and shown to vary in a systematic way with potential stiffness and range. Comparisons of results from calculations made with ADDES, a quasi-dynamical code, and COMENT, a dynamical code, show excellent agreement, demonstrating that the former can be calibrated and used satisfactorily in the analysis of low energy displacement cascades. Upper limits on , , and replacement sequences were found to be approximately 10, approximately 30, and approximately 14 replacements, respectively. (author)

  6. Cost justification of chiller replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.J.; Baumer, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    We often hear of products with paybacks that are too good to be true. Just a few weeks ago,a client received a recommendation from a national service company's local office. In the letter the company recommended that open-quotes due to the age and condition of the boiler ... that the school consider replacing the boiler... The cost for the new boiler can usually be recovered by lower fuel bills in 2 to 3 yearsclose quotes. This was for an installation in Southeast Texas where the boiler is only used 4 to 5 months per year. Analysis show the above claims to be nonsense. A new boiler would cost about $47,000 installed. Current total gas bills for the facility are $15,630 per year. They would have to shutoff the gas to the facility to have a three year payback. In fact, only two-thirds of the gas is used to heat the facility so we have only $10, 000 to write off against the new boiler. How much will the greater efficiency save? A 30% savings due to greater efficiency produces $3,000 per year in gas savings to offset the $47,000 cost, a 16 year payback. And much of the efficiency savings can be realized by adjusting the existing boiler. In another care a client wanted to investigate replacement of a twenty year old chiller plant with more efficient equipment. We investigated the project and determined that the payback would be greater than ten years. They did not operate the equipment during the summer and at less than 50% of capacity the balance of the year

  7. Esophageal tissue engineering: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, T; Catry, J; Luong-Nguyen, M; Bruneval, P; Domet, T; Arakelian, L; Sfeir, R; Michaud, L; Vanneaux, V; Gottrand, F; Larghero, J; Cattan, P

    2016-02-01

    Tissue engineering, which consists of the combination and in vivo implantation of elements required for tissue remodeling toward a specific organ phenotype, could be an alternative for classical techniques of esophageal replacement. The current hybrid approach entails creation of an esophageal substitute composed of an acellular matrix and autologous epithelial and muscle cells provides the most successful results. Current research is based on the use of mesenchymal stem cells, whose potential for differentiation and proangioogenic, immune-modulator and anti-inflammatory properties are important assets. In the near future, esophageal substitutes could be constructed from acellular "intelligent matrices" that contain the molecules necessary for tissue regeneration; this should allow circumvention of the implantation step and still obtain standardized in vivo biological responses. At present, tissue engineering applications to esophageal replacement are limited to enlargement plasties with absorbable, non-cellular matrices. Nevertheless, the application of existing clinical techniques for replacement of other organs by tissue engineering in combination with a multiplication of translational research protocols for esophageal replacement in large animals should soon pave the way for health agencies to authorize clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  9. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S; Elsing, B [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  10. Optimization on replacement period of plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masao; Asano, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of the replacement period of plant equipment is one of the main items to rationalize the activities on plant maintenance. There are several models to replace the equipment and the formulations for optimizing the replacement period are different among these models. In this study, we calculated the optimum replacement periods for some equipment parts based on the replacement models and found that the optimum solutions are not so largely differ from the replacement models as far as the replacement period is not so large. So we will be able to use the most usable model especially in the early phase of rationalization on plant maintenance, since there are large uncertainties in data for optimization. (author)

  11. Prosthetic replacement of the medial meniscus in cadaveric knees - Does the prosthesis mimic the functional behavior of the native meniscus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, TG; Verdonschot, N; Heijkants, RGJC; Buma, R; Scholten, JGF; van Kampen, A; Veth, RPH

    2004-01-01

    Meniscus replacement by a polymer meniscus prosthesis in dogs resulted in generation of new meniscal tissue. Hypothesis: Optimal functioning of the prosthesis would involve realistic deformation and motion patterns of the prosthesis during knee joint motion. Study Design: Controlled laboratory

  12. Nano-calciumphosphate scaffold generation for bone repair/replacement: elucidating the signalling response and cell cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wepnener, I

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong, bioinert materials have always been the focus for bone replacement and repair. This practice has since moved towards materials that can mimic living tissue and aid the healing process (i.e. be replaced by natural bone); thus materials...

  13. Optimization of steam generator replacement with virtual reality modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have to be carefully examined and maintained up to the point of replacing major components during the overhaul period for continued operation. Most understandably the cost of maintenance and upgrading will tend to increase with the NPP power. There is thus an escalating need for developing an optimized process management method to reduce the cost involved. Albeit the steam generators (SGs) may not directly affect the expected lifespan of NPP, thousands of tubes with diameter on the order of 3 cm in the SG operating at 320degC and 16 MPa may well tend to be called Achilles' heel of the pressurized water reactors (PWRs). For instance, the SGs of Kori Nuclear Unit 1 (KNU 1) were replaced in October 1998 after 20 years of service on account of aging and potential threat to operational safety. In the same year the SG tubes of Ulchin Nuclear Units 1 and 2 were ruptured to result in leakage of the primary coolant to the secondary side. As a result their SGs are planned to be replaced in a few years. There is, however, a limit to improving the replacement process by trial and error in practice on account of the size of NPP with the ensuing complexity in process management. This paper proposes an optimization method for the SG replacement process based on the KNU 1 experience in 1998. The whole process was simulated accounting for interactions of each part in virtual reality utilizing the computer aided design solution CATIA, and the digital process management solution DELMIA. (author)

  14. Preventative Valve-Sparing Aortic Root Replacement and Pregnancy Outcome in Marfan Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sokol, Vesna; Zlopaša, Gordan; Herman, Mislav; Planinić, Pavao; Micevska, Ana

    2012-01-01

    In Marfan syndrome, with dilatation of the aortic root secondary to an underlying connective tissue defect, pregnancy can cause hemodynamic stress leading to the development of an aortic aneurysm and even a fatal aortic dissection. In the presence of existing aortic root enlargement and a family history of aortic dissection, preventative elective surgery is suggested. Aortic root replacement with or without a valve-sparing procedure is superior to total aortic root replacement with ...

  15. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  16. Expandable Total Humeral Replacement in a Child with Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Henderson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A right-handed 8-year-old female patient presented with a conventional, high-grade osteosarcoma involving her right humerus; through-shoulder amputation was recommended. After consultation, total humerus resection with expandable, total humeral endoprosthesis reconstruction was performed with a sleeve to encourage soft-tissue ingrowth. At three-year follow-up she has received one lengthening procedure and her functional scores are excellent. Conclusion. Total humeral resection and replacement in the pediatric population are rare and although early reports of expandable total humeral endoprosthesis outcomes demonstrate high failure rates, this patient’s success indicates that expandable total humeral replacement is a viable option.

  17. Use of internal references for assessing CT density measurements of the pelvis as replacement for use of an external phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomsma, Martijn F; Slouwerhof, Inge; van Dalen, Jorn A; Edens, Mireille A; Mueller, Dirk; Milles, Julien; Maas, Mario

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the use of an internal reference standard for fat- and muscle as a replacement for an external reference standard with a phantom. By using a phantomless internal reference standard, Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of various tissues can potentially be assessed in patients with a CT scan of the pelvis without an added phantom at time of CT acquisition. This paves the way for development of a tool for quantification of the change in tissue density in one patient over time and between patients. This could make every CT scan made without contrast available for research purposes. Fifty patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip replacements, scanned together with a calibration reference phantom used in bone mineral density measurements, were included in this study. On computed tomography scans of the pelvis without the use of intravenous iodine contrast, reference values for fat and muscle were measured in the phantom as well as within the patient's body. The conformity between the references was examined with the intra-class correlation coefficient. The mean HU (± SD) of reference values for fat for the internal- and phantom references were -91.5 (±7.0) and -90.9 (±7.8), respectively. For muscle, the mean HU (± SD) for the internal- and phantom references were 59.2 (±6.2) and 60.0 (±7.2), respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for fat and muscle were 0.90 and 0.84 respectively and show excellent agreement between the phantom and internal references. Internal references can be used with similar accuracy as references from an external phantom. There is no need to use an external phantom to asses CT density measurements of body tissue.

  18. Use of internal references for assessing CT density measurements of the pelvis as replacement for use of an external phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Slouwerhof, Inge; Dalen, Jorn A. van [Isala Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Edens, Mireille A. [Isala Hospital, Department of Innovation and Science, Zwolle (Netherlands); Mueller, Dirk [Philips Healthcare systems, Hamburg (Germany); Milles, Julien [Philips Healthcare Benelux, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, Mario [AMC, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this research is to study the use of an internal reference standard for fat- and muscle as a replacement for an external reference standard with a phantom. By using a phantomless internal reference standard, Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements of various tissues can potentially be assessed in patients with a CT scan of the pelvis without an added phantom at time of CT acquisition. This paves the way for development of a tool for quantification of the change in tissue density in one patient over time and between patients. This could make every CT scan made without contrast available for research purposes. Fifty patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip replacements, scanned together with a calibration reference phantom used in bone mineral density measurements, were included in this study. On computed tomography scans of the pelvis without the use of intravenous iodine contrast, reference values for fat and muscle were measured in the phantom as well as within the patient's body. The conformity between the references was examined with the intra-class correlation coefficient. The mean HU (± SD) of reference values for fat for the internal- and phantom references were -91.5 (±7.0) and -90.9 (±7.8), respectively. For muscle, the mean HU (± SD) for the internal- and phantom references were 59.2 (±6.2) and 60.0 (±7.2), respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficients for fat and muscle were 0.90 and 0.84 respectively and show excellent agreement between the phantom and internal references. Internal references can be used with similar accuracy as references from an external phantom. There is no need to use an external phantom to asses CT density measurements of body tissue. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of Mitral Valve Replacement Outcomes is Enhanced by Meaningful Clinical Use of Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, John C; Pfeffer, Thomas; Johnstone, Shelley; Chen, Yuexin; Kiley, Mary-Lou; Richter, Richard; Lee, Hon

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cardiac surgical mortality has improved during the last decade despite the aging of the population. An integrated US health plan developed a heart valve registry to track outcomes and complications of heart valve operations. This database was used for longitudinal evaluation of mitral valve (MV) outcomes from 1999 to 2008 at four affiliated hospitals. Methods: We identified 3130 patients in the Apollo database who underwent 3180 initial MV procedures. Internal administrative and Social Security Administration databases were merged to determine survival rates. Electronic health records were searched to ascertain demographics, comorbidities, and postoperative complications. Cox regression was used to evaluate mean survival and identify risk factors. Results: The procedures included 1160 mechanical valve replacements, 1159 tissue valve replacements, and 861 annuloplasties. The mean age of patients undergoing these procedures was 58 ± 11 years, 69 ± 12 years, and 62 ± 12 years, respectively. Mean survival was 8.9 ± 0.1 years for mechanical valve replacement, 7.0 ± 0.1 years for tissue valve replacement, and 7.7 ± 0.1 years for annuloplasty. Early in the study, there was a preference for implanting mechanical MVs. Beginning in 2003, more patients received tissue valve replacements rather than mechanical valves. Over time, there was an increasing trend of annuloplasty. Cox regression analysis identified the following risk factors for increased ten-year mortality: tissue valve implantation; advanced age; female sex; nonelective, nonisolated procedure; diabetes; postoperative use of banked blood products; previous cardiovascular intervention; dialysis; and longer perfusion time. Hospital location, reoperation, preoperative anticoagulation, and cardiogenic shock were not statistically significant risk factors. Conclusions: When controlling for other risk factors, we observed a lower long-term survival rate for tissue valve replacement compared with

  20. SU-C-BRC-01: A Monte Carlo Study of Out-Of-Field Doses From Cobalt-60 Teletherapy Units Intended for Historical Correlations of Dose to Normal Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroccia, H [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Olguin, E [Gainesville, FL (United States); Culberson, W [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mendenhall, N [UF Health Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Bolch, W [University Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Innovations in radiotherapy treatments, such as dynamic IMRT, VMAT, and SBRT/SRS, result in larger proportions of low-dose regions where normal tissues are exposed to low doses levels. Low doses of radiation have been linked to secondary cancers and cardiac toxicities. The AAPM TG Committee No.158 entitled, ‘Measurements and Calculations of Doses outside the Treatment Volume from External-Beam Radiation Therapy’, has been formed to review the dosimetry of non-target and out-of-field exposures using experimental and computational approaches. Studies on historical patients can provide comprehensive information about secondary effects from out-of-field doses when combined with long-term patient follow-up, thus providing significant insight into projecting future outcomes of patients undergoing modern-day treatments. Methods: We present a Monte Carlo model of a Theratron-1000 cobalt-60 teletherapy unit, which historically treated patients at the University of Florida, as a means of determining doses located outside the primary beam. Experimental data for a similar Theratron-1000 was obtained at the University of Wisconsin’s ADCL to benchmark the model for out-of-field dosimetry. An Exradin A12 ion chamber and TLD100 chips were used to measure doses in an extended water phantom to 60 cm outside the primary field at 5 and 10 cm depths. Results: Comparison between simulated and experimental measurements of PDDs and lateral profiles show good agreement for in-field and out-of-field doses. At 10 cm away from the edge of a 6×6, 10×10, and 20×20 cm2 field, relative out-of-field doses were measured in the range of 0.5% to 3% of the dose measured at 5 cm depth along the CAX. Conclusion: Out-of-field doses can be as high as 90 to 180 cGy assuming historical prescription doses of 30 to 60 Gy and should be considered when correlating late effects with normal tissue dose.

  1. Wood Petrifaction: A New View of Permineralization and Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Petrified wood has traditionally been divided into two categories based on preservation processes: permineralization (where tissues are entombed within a mineral-filled matrix and replacement (where organic anatomical features have been replicated by inorganic materials. New analytical evidence suggests that for most petrified wood, permineralization and replacement are not independent processes; instead, both processes may occur contemporaneously during diagenesis. Infiltration of mineral-bearing groundwater may initially cause permineralization of cellular tissues, but the wood is undergoing gradual degradation. The degree of anatomical preservation thus depends on the relative rates of mineral precipitation and tissue destruction. Rapid rates of mineralization under relatively mild Eh and pH conditions favor the preservation of organic matter. These conditions appear to be more common for calcium carbonate deposition than for silicification, based on observations of fossil woods from many localities. Because of these preservational complexities, “mineralization” and “mineralized” are more accurate as general descriptive terms than “permineralization” and “permineralized”.

  2. Australia's replacement research reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    HIFAR, a 10 MW tank type DIDO Class reactor has operated at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre for 43 years. HIFAR and the 10 kW Argonaut reactor 'Moata' which is in the Care and Maintenance phase of decommissioning are Australia's only nuclear reactors. The initial purpose for HIFAR was for materials testing to support a nuclear power program. Changing community attitude through the 1970's and a Government decision not to proceed with a planned nuclear power reactor resulted in a reduction of materials testing activities and a greater emphasis being placed on neutron beam research and the production of radioisotopes, particularly for medical purposes. HIFAR is not fully capable of satisfying the expected increase in demand for medical radiopharmaceuticals beyond the next 5 years and the radial configuration of the beam tubes severely restricts the scope and efficiency of neutron beam research. In 1997 the Australian Government decided that a replacement research reactor should be built by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation at Lucas Heights subject to favourable results of an Environmental Impact Study. The Ei identified no reasons on the grounds of safety, health, hazard or risk to prevent construction on the preferred site and it was decided in May 1999 that there were no environmental reasons why construction of the facility should not proceed. In recent years ANSTO has been reviewing the operation of HIFAR and observing international developments in reactor technology. Limitations in the flexibility and efficiency achievable in operation of a tank type reactor and the higher intrinsic safety sought in fundamental design resulted in an early decision that the replacement reactor must be a pool type having cleaner and higher intensity tangential neutron beams of wider energy range than those available from HIFAR. ANSTO has chosen to use it's own resources supported by specialised external knowledge and experience to identify

  3. Personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) in Marfan syndrome: analysis of 1-9 year outcomes by intention-to-treat in a cohort of the first 30 consecutive patients to receive a novel tissue and valve-conserving procedure, compared with the published results of aortic root replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Tom; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Golesworthy, Tal; Rega, Filip; Petrou, Mario; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Mohiaddin, Raad; Rubens, Michael; Thornton, Warren; Lees, Belinda; Pepper, John

    2014-06-01

    Among people with Marfan syndrome who have a typical aortic root aneurysm, dissection is a characteristic cause of premature death. To pre-empt Type A dissection, composite root replacement with a mechanical valve became the standard of care in the 1980s and 1990s. This is being superseded by valve-sparing aortic root replacement to avoid lifelong anticoagulation. In 2004, a total root and valve-sparing procedure, personalised external aortic support, was introduced. We report here results among the first 30 recipients. From cross-sectional digital images, the patient's own aorta is modelled by computer aided design and a replica is made in thermoplastic by rapid prototyping. On this, a personalised support of a macroporous polymer mesh is manufactured. The mesh is positioned around the aorta, closely applied from the aortoventricular junction to beyond the brachiocephalic artery. The operation is performed with a beating heart and usually without cardiopulmonary bypass. Between 2004 and 2011, 30 patients, median age 28 years (IQR 20-44) had this operation and have been prospectively followed for 1.4-8.8 years by February 2013. During a total of 133 patient-years there were no deaths or cerebrovascular, aortic or valve-related events. These early outcomes are better than published results for the more radical extirpative root replacement operations. The aortic valve, the root architecture, and the blood/endothelia interface are conserved. The perioperative burden is less and there has been freedom from aortic and valvular events. A prospective comparative study is planned. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Personalised external aortic root support (PEARS) in Marfan syndrome: analysis of 1–9 year outcomes by intention-to-treat in a cohort of the first 30 consecutive patients to receive a novel tissue and valve-conserving procedure, compared with the published results of aortic root replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, Tom; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Golesworthy, Tal; Rega, Filip; Petrou, Mario; Rosendahl, Ulrich; Mohiaddin, Raad; Rubens, Michael; Thornton, Warren; Lees, Belinda; Pepper, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among people with Marfan syndrome who have a typical aortic root aneurysm, dissection is a characteristic cause of premature death. To pre-empt Type A dissection, composite root replacement with a mechanical valve became the standard of care in the 1980s and 1990s. This is being superseded by valve-sparing aortic root replacement to avoid lifelong anticoagulation. In 2004, a total root and valve-sparing procedure, personalised external aortic support, was introduced. We report here results among the first 30 recipients. Methods From cross-sectional digital images, the patient's own aorta is modelled by computer aided design and a replica is made in thermoplastic by rapid prototyping. On this, a personalised support of a macroporous polymer mesh is manufactured. The mesh is positioned around the aorta, closely applied from the aortoventricular junction to beyond the brachiocephalic artery. The operation is performed with a beating heart and usually without cardiopulmonary bypass. Results Between 2004 and 2011, 30 patients, median age 28 years (IQR 20–44) had this operation and have been prospectively followed for 1.4–8.8 years by February 2013. During a total of 133 patient-years there were no deaths or cerebrovascular, aortic or valve-related events. These early outcomes are better than published results for the more radical extirpative root replacement operations. Conclusions The aortic valve, the root architecture, and the blood/endothelia interface are conserved. The perioperative burden is less and there has been freedom from aortic and valvular events. A prospective comparative study is planned. PMID:24395977

  5. TOTAL JOINT REPLACEMENT OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY IN PATIENTS WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Стюарт Б. Гудмэн

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Joint replacement of the lower extremity in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is becoming more commonly performed worldwide. These young adults experience severe pain and disability from end-stage arthritis, and require joint replacement of the hip or knee to alleviate pain, and restore ambulation and function. These procedures are very challenging from the anesthesia and surgical point of view, due to small overall proportions, numerous bony and other deformities and soft tissue contractures. Joint replacement operations for JIA are best performed by experienced teams, where pre-operative and peri-operative care, and post-operative rehabilitation can be optimized in a collaborative, patient-centered environment.

  6. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  7. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  8. Patellofemoral Joint Replacement and Nickel Allergy: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Syed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal allergy is an unusual complication of joint replacement that may cause aseptic loosening and necessitate joint revision surgery. We present the case of nickel allergy causing aseptic loosening following patellofemoral joint replacement (PFJR in a 54-year-old male. Joint revision surgery to a nickel-free total knee replacement was performed with good results. Our literature review shows that there is no evidence to guide the management of metal allergy in PFJR. The evidence from studies of total knee replacement is limited to retrospective case series and case reports and gives contradictory recommendations. The optimal management strategy for metal allergy in PFJR is not clear. We recommend allergy testing in patients with history of metal allergy and use of an allergen-free implant in those with positive tests. As there is no gold standard test to establish metal allergy, the choice of test should be guided by availability and recommendation from the local unit of dermatology and allergy testing. We recommend investigation for metal allergy in patients with implant loosening where other causes have been excluded.

  9. Solving structures of protein complexes by molecular replacement with Phaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, Airlie J.

    2006-01-01

    Four case studies in using maximum-likelihood molecular replacement, as implemented in the program Phaser, to solve structures of protein complexes are described. Molecular replacement (MR) generally becomes more difficult as the number of components in the asymmetric unit requiring separate MR models (i.e. the dimensionality of the search) increases. When the proportion of the total scattering contributed by each search component is small, the signal in the search for each component in isolation is weak or non-existent. Maximum-likelihood MR functions enable complex asymmetric units to be built up from individual components with a ‘tree search with pruning’ approach. This method, as implemented in the automated search procedure of the program Phaser, has been very successful in solving many previously intractable MR problems. However, there are a number of cases in which the automated search procedure of Phaser is suboptimal or encounters difficulties. These include cases where there are a large number of copies of the same component in the asymmetric unit or where the components of the asymmetric unit have greatly varying B factors. Two case studies are presented to illustrate how Phaser can be used to best advantage in the standard ‘automated MR’ mode and two case studies are used to show how to modify the automated search strategy for problematic cases

  10. A Petri net-based modelling of replacement strategies under technological obsolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavareau, Julien [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Av. F.D. Roosevelt, 50 (CP165/84), Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)], E-mail: jclavare@ulb.ac.be; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Service de Metrologie Nucleaire, Av. F.D. Roosevelt, 50 (CP165/84), Bruxelles B-1050 (Belgium)

    2009-02-15

    The technological obsolescence of a unit is characterised by the existence of challenger units displaying identical functionalities, but with higher performances. Though this issue is commonly encountered in practice, it has received little consideration in the literature. Previous exploratory works have treated the problem of replacing old-technology items by new ones, for identical components facing a unique new generation of items. This paper aims to define, in a realistic way, possible replacement policies when several types of challenger units are available and when the performances of these newly available units improve with time. Since no fully generic model can exist in maintenance optimisation, a modular modelling of the problem, allowing easy adaptations to features corresponding to specific applications is highly desirable. This work therefore proposes a modular Petri net model for this problem, underlying a Monte Carlo (MC) estimation of the costs incurred by the different possible replacement strategies under consideration.

  11. Opportunistic replacement of fusion power system parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J.A.; George, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a maintenance problem in a fusion power plant. The problem is to specify which life limited parts should be replaced when there is an opportunity. The objective is to minimize the cost rate of replacement parts and of maintenance actions while satisfying a power plant availability constraint. The maintenance policy is to look ahead and replace all parts that will reach their life limits within a time called a screen. Longer screens yield greater system availabilities because more parts are replaced prior to their life limits

  12. Enzyme replacement and substrate reduction therapy for Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Elad; Deroma, Laura; Bembi, Bruno; Deegan, Patrick; Hollak, Carla; Weinreb, Neal J; Cox, Timothy M

    2015-03-27

    untreated individuals with type 1 Gaucher disease. Two studies investigated maintenance enzyme replacement therapy in people with stable type 1 Gaucher disease previously treated for at least two years. One study compared substrate reduction therapy, enzyme replacement therapy and a combination thereof as maintenance therapy in people with type 1 Gaucher disease previously treated with enzyme replacement therapy. One study examined substrate reduction therapy in people with chronic neuronopathic (type 3) Gaucher disease who continued to receive enzyme replacement therapy.Treatment-naïve participants had similar increases in haemoglobin when comparing those receiving imiglucerase or alglucerase at 60 units/kg, imiglucerase or velaglucerase alfa at 60 U/kg, taliglucerase alfa at 30 units/kg or 60 units/kg, and velaglucerase alfa at 45 units/g or 60 units/kg. For platelet count response in participants with intact spleens, a benefit for imiglucerase over velaglucerase alfa at 60 units/kg was observed, mean difference -79.87 (95% confidence interval -137.57 to -22.17). There were no other significant differences in platelet count response when comparing different doses of velaglucerase alfa and of taliglucerase alfa, and when comparing imiglucerase to alglucerase. Spleen and liver volume reductions were not significantly different in any enzyme replacement therapy product or dose comparison study. Although a dose effect on serum biomarkers was not seen after nine months, a significantly greater reduction with higher dose was reported after 12 months in the velaglucerase study, mean difference 16.70 (95% confidence intervaI 1.51 to 31.89). In the two enzyme replacement therapy maintenance studies comparing infusions every two weeks and every four weeks, there were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and spleen and liver volumes over a 6 to 12 month period when participants were treated with the same cumulative dose.A total of 25 serious

  13. Ultrasonic aqueous cleaning as a replacement for chlorinated solvent cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been involved in the replacement of chlorinated solvents since 1982. One of the most successful replacement efforts has been the substitution of vapor degreasers or soak tanks using chlorinated solvents with ultrasonic cleaning using aqueous detergents. Recently, funding was obtained from the Department of Energy Office (DOE) of Technology Development to demonstrate this technology. A unit has been procured and installed in the vacuum pump shop area to replace the use of a solvent soak tank. Initially, the solvents used in the shop were CFC-113 and a commercial brand cleaner which contained both perchloroethylene and methylene chloride. While the ultrasonic unit was being procured, a terpene-based solvent was used. Generally, parts were soaked overnight in order to soften baked-on vanish. Many times, wire brushing was used to help remove remaining contamination. Initial testing with the ultrasonic cleaner indicated cleaning times of 20 min were as effective as the overnight solvent soaks in removing contamination. Wire brushing was also not required following the ultrasonic cleaning as was sometimes required with the solvent soak

  14. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  15. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  16. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  17. Replacing Fortran Namelists with JSON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. E., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining a log of input parameters for a climate model is very important to understanding potential causes for answer changes during the development stages. Additionally, since modern Fortran is now interoperable with C, a more modern approach to software infrastructure to include code written in C is necessary. Merging these two separate facets of climate modeling requires a quality control for monitoring changes to input parameters and model defaults that can work with both Fortran and C. JSON will soon replace namelists as the preferred key/value pair input in the GFDL model. By adding a JSON parser written in C into the model, the input can be used by all functions and subroutines in the model, errors can be handled by the model instead of by the internal namelist parser, and the values can be output into a single file that is easily parsable by readily available tools. Input JSON files can handle all of the functionality of a namelist while being portable between C and Fortran. Fortran wrappers using unlimited polymorphism are crucial to allow for simple and compact code which avoids the need for many subroutines contained in an interface. Errors can be handled with more detail by providing information about location of syntax errors or typos. The output JSON provides a ground truth for values that the model actually uses by providing not only the values loaded through the input JSON, but also any default values that were not included. This kind of quality control on model input is crucial for maintaining reproducibility and understanding any answer changes resulting from changes in the input.

  18. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.

    1976-10-01

    In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

  19. Imaging in cellular and tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hanry

    2013-01-01

    Details on specific imaging modalities for different cellular and tissue engineering applications are scattered throughout articles and chapters in the literature. Gathering this information into a single reference, Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering presents both the fundamentals and state of the art in imaging methods, approaches, and applications in regenerative medicine. The book underscores the broadening scope of imaging applications in cellular and tissue engineering. It covers a wide range of optical and biological applications, including the repair or replacement of whole tiss

  20. 30 CFR 57.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 57.19122 Section 57.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 57.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  1. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  2. 30 CFR 56.19122 - Replacement parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Replacement parts. 56.19122 Section 56.19122 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Inspection and Maintenance § 56.19122 Replacement parts. Parts used to repair hoists shall have properties...

  3. An abstract machine for module replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Chris; Krl, Dilsun; Gilmore, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we define an abstract machine model for the mλ typed intermediate language. This abstract machine is used to give a formal description of the operation of run-time module replacement from the programming language Dynamic ML. The essential technical device which we employ for module replacement is a modification of two-space copying garbage collection.

  4. Temelin NPP - IandC replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalenka, I.

    1997-01-01

    The original instrumentation and control system of the Temelin nuclear power plant is being upgraded and replaced by a modern Westinghouse-supplied system which meets the requirements imposed on current nuclear power plant designs. The history and purpose of the IandC system replacement is given, and the design of the new system is described in some detail. (A.K.)

  5. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  6. 30 CFR 823.14 - Soil replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soil replacement. 823.14 Section 823.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-OPERATIONS ON PRIME FARMLAND § 823.14 Soil replacement. (a) Soil...

  7. A useful framework for optimal replacement models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Dekker, Rommert

    1997-01-01

    In this note we present a general framework for optimization of replacement times. It covers a number of models, including various age and block replacement models, and allows a uniform analysis for all these models. A relation to the marginal cost concept is described

  8. 7 CFR 1944.659 - Replacement housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Replacement housing. 1944.659 Section 1944.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.659 Replacement housing...

  9. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  10. Bladder tissue engineering through nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Daniel A; Sharma, Arun K; Erickson, Bradley A; Cheng, Earl Y

    2008-08-01

    The field of tissue engineering has developed in phases: initially researchers searched for "inert" biomaterials to act solely as replacement structures in the body. Then, they explored biodegradable scaffolds--both naturally derived and synthetic--for the temporary support of growing tissues. Now, a third phase of tissue engineering has developed, through the subcategory of "regenerative medicine." This renewed focus toward control over tissue morphology and cell phenotype requires proportional advances in scaffold design. Discoveries in nanotechnology have driven both our understanding of cell-substrate interactions, and our ability to influence them. By operating at the size regime of proteins themselves, nanotechnology gives us the opportunity to directly speak the language of cells, through reliable, repeatable creation of nanoscale features. Understanding the synthesis of nanoscale materials, via "top-down" and "bottom-up" strategies, allows researchers to assess the capabilities and limits inherent in both techniques. Urology research as a whole, and bladder regeneration in particular, are well-positioned to benefit from such advances, since our present technology has yet to reach the end goal of functional bladder restoration. In this article, we discuss the current applications of nanoscale materials to bladder tissue engineering, and encourage researchers to explore these interdisciplinary technologies now, or risk playing catch-up in the future.

  11. Cost Analysis Of Replacement And Bearing Trailer Maintenance In Sugar Group Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mastur, Mastur; Masyhuri, Masyhuri; Waluyati, Lestari Rahayu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study are to understand (i) the costs and periods optimal of grease used for the replacement and maintenance bearing trailer in Sugar Group Companies (SGC), and (ii) the effect of a period and frequency of grease, lifetime bearing, frequency of replacement bearing in a year, unit trailer, brand bearing, and location of plant. The basic method used is descriptive and analytical. The location determined were in Workshop Division PT. ILP, PT. SIL, and PT. GPM. The analytical ...

  12. Vehicle with inclinable caterpillar propulsion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clar, G.

    1991-01-01

    This vehicle usable in hostile environment such nuclear industry has four propulsion units with a caterpillar track and two integrated motors: one for advancing the caterpillar track and the other for inclining the propulsion unit when overcoming obstacles. Each propulsion unit is easily replaceable because there are no mechanical parts in the body of the vehicle [fr

  13. Effects of elevated iodine in milk replacer on calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, K J; Hidiroglou, M

    1990-03-01

    Calves were fed milk replacer containing .57, 10, 50, 100, or 200 ppm iodine (from ethylenediaminedihydroiodide) in DM, from 3 to 38 d of age, to estimate the minimum toxic concentration of iodine. Only the 200 ppm iodine intake reduced weight gains, DM intake, feed efficiency, and DM digestibility. At the 100 and 200 ppm iodine intakes, protein digestibility was reduced, and calves showed typical symptoms of iodine toxicity (nasal discharge, excessive tear and saliva formation, and coughing from tracheal congestion). Thyroid iodine increased with every elevation in iodine intake. Iodine in plasma, bile, and non-thyroid tissues started to increase at the 50 ppm intake and, except for muscle, tended to increase again at the 100 and 200 ppm intakes. Thus, the preruminant calf tolerated up to 50 ppm iodine in milk replacer DM for 5 wk postpartum. However, as iodine concentrations in plasma and nonthyroid tissues started to increase at 50 ppm iodine, an upper limit of 10 ppm would be more preferable.

  14. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert

    Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves

  15. Pipe replacement in a water supply network: coordinated versus uncoordinated replacement and budget effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van D.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Operators of underground water supply networks are challenged with pipe replacement
    decisions, because pipes are subject to increased failure rates as they age and financial resources
    are often limited.We study the optimal replacement time and optimal number of pipe replacements
    such

  16. Mechanics of oriented electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds for annulus fibrosus tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Nandan L; Elliott, Dawn M; Mauck, Robert L

    2007-08-01

    Engineering a functional replacement for the annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc is contingent upon recapitulation of AF structure, composition, and mechanical properties. In this study, we propose a new paradigm for AF tissue engineering that focuses on the reconstitution of anatomic fiber architecture and uses constitutive modeling to evaluate construct function. A modified electrospinning technique was utilized to generate aligned nanofibrous polymer scaffolds for engineering the basic functional unit of the AF, a single lamella. Scaffolds were tested in uniaxial tension at multiple fiber orientations, demonstrating a nonlinear dependence of modulus on fiber angle that mimicked the nonlinearity and anisotropy of native AF. A homogenization model previously applied to native AF successfully described scaffold mechanical response, and parametric studies demonstrated that nonfibrillar matrix, along with fiber connectivity, are key contributors to tensile mechanics for engineered AF. We demonstrated that AF cells orient themselves along the aligned scaffolds and deposit matrix that contributes to construct mechanics under loading conditions relevant to the in vivo environment. The homogenization model was applied to cell-seeded constructs and provided quantitative measures for the evolution of matrix and interfibrillar interactions. Finally, the model demonstrated that at fiber angles of the AF (28 degrees -44 degrees ), engineered material behaved much like native tissue, suggesting that engineered constructs replicate the physiologic behavior of the single AF lamella. Constitutive modeling provides a powerful tool for analysis of engineered AF neo-tissue and native AF tissue alike, highlighting key mechanical design criteria for functional AF tissue engineering.

  17. Nuclear power - replacement of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The CANDU pressure tube reactor is an effective electricity generator. While most units have been built in Canada, units are successfully operated in Argentina and Korea as well as India and Pakistan, which have early versions of the same concept. Units are also under construction in Korea and Romania. The main constructional components of a CANDU core are the calandria vessel, the fuel channels and the reactivity control mechanisms. The fuel channel, in particular the pressure tubes, see an environment comprising high flux, high temperature water at high pressures, which induces changes in the properties and dimensions of the channel components. From the first, fuel channels were designed to be replaced because of the difficulty in predicting the behaviour of zirconium alloys in such service over a long period of time. In fact some phenomena, that were not known at the time of the earliest designs, have led to unacceptable changes in the properties of the channels and these early reactors have had to be retubed at half their intended life. These deficiencies have been corrected in the latest designs and fuel channels in reactors that have commenced operation over the last 10 years, are predicted to reach the intended 30 years life before replacement is necessary. The changing of fuel channels, the details and experience of which are explained, has been shown to be an effective way of refurbishing the CANDU reactor, extending its lifetime a further 25-30 years. (author)

  18. The growth of tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, M J; Reyes, J

    2001-10-01

    This report draws upon data from a variety of sources to estimate the size, scope, and growth rate of the contemporary tissue engineering enterprise. At the beginning of 2001, tissue engineering research and development was being pursued by 3,300 scientists and support staff in more than 70 startup companies or business units with a combined annual expenditure of over $600 million. Spending by tissue engineering firms has been growing at a compound annual rate of 16%, and the aggregate investment since 1990 now exceeds $3.5 billion. At the beginning of 2001, the net capital value of the 16 publicly traded tissue engineering startups had reached $2.6 billion. Firms focusing on structural applications (skin, cartilage, bone, cardiac prosthesis, and the like) comprise the fastest growing segment. In contrast, efforts in biohybrid organs and other metabolic applications have contracted over the past few years. The number of companies involved in stem cells and regenerative medicine is rapidly increasing, and this area represents the most likely nidus of future growth for tissue engineering. A notable recent trend has been the emergence of a strong commercial activity in tissue engineering outside the United States, with at least 16 European or Australian companies (22% of total) now active.

  19. Replacement of a vessel head, an operation which today gets easily into its stride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardon, P.; Chaumont, J.C.; Lambiotte, P.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, one year after the detection of a leak in a vessel head of the Electricite de France (EDF) Bugey 4 reactor, the head was replaced by the Framatome-Jeumont Industrie Group. Today, this group, which has developed new methods and new tools to optimize the cost, the time-delay and the dosimetry of this kind of intervention, has performed 11 additional replacements, two of which on 1300 MWe power units. This paper describes step by step the successive operations required for a complete vessel head replacement, including the testing of safety systems before starting up the reactor. (J.S.). 7 photos

  20. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  1. INULIN AS A PREBIOTIC AND FAT REPLACER IN MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vasilev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fat reduction in meat products is demanded by consumers concerninghealth issues but represents a serious challenge for meat industry as fatty tissue plays an important role for the products properties. Because of that, a special attention is paid to the substances that could replace fatty tissue in meat products. Inulin represents a non digestible fructooligosaccharide that on the one hand represents a good prebiotic substance and from the other hand posses such technological propeties that make it a good fat replacer. In  aqueous systems inulin forms a gel having a structure similar to fats, it has neutral taste and smell and have no impact on the aroma of meat products. Inulin could be added to meat products in form of powder as well as a water suspension. Low fat fermented sausages with good sensory quality could be produced with the addition of inulin as a fat replacer, and such products have abit lower pH- and aw-value and contain a higher number of lactic acid bacteria then conventional products. In heat treated sausages, inulin improves water holding capacity and stability of the low fat meat batter, which reduces cooking loss and shows no adverse effect on the sensory properties of the low fat product. But, there are also certain limitations because it should be paid attention to the degree of polymerization as well as the amount of inulin added the product. Otherwise, on the one hand there could be some adverse effectson sensory properties of the product and from the other hand an excessive amount of inulin could lead to digestive problems by consumers.

  2. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  3. Optimum body size of Holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, P C

    1997-03-01

    Criteria that define optimum body size of replacement heifers are required by commercial dairy producers to evaluate replacement heifer management programs. Historically recommended body size criteria have been based on live BW measurements. Numerous research studies have observed a positive relationship between BW at first calving and first lactation milk yield, which has served as the impetus for using live BW to define body size of replacement heifers. Live BW is, however, not the only available measurement to define body size. Skeletal measurements such as wither height, length, and pelvic area have been demonstrated to be related to first lactation performance and (or) dystocia. Live BW measurements also do not define differences in body composition. Differences in body composition of replacement heifers at first calving are also related to key performance variables. An updated research data base is available for the modern Holstein genotype to incorporate measures of skeletal growth and body composition with BW when defining body size. These research projects also lend insight into the relative importance of measurements that define body size of replacement heifers. Incorporation of these measurements from current research into present BW recommendations should aid commercial dairy producers to better define replacement heifer growth and management practices. This article proposes enhancements in defining optimum body size and growth characteristics of Holstein replacement heifers.

  4. Refrigerator retirement and replacement programs : lessons learned and application to an Ontario wide program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The best practices in refrigerator retirement programs in North America were identified in an effort to develop a concept for an Ontario-wide provincial refrigerator retirement program. The report focused on describing refrigerator retirement programs, namely those programs that focused on getting rid of old secondary refrigerators. The report excluded refrigerator replacement programs, which encourage householders to retire their refrigerators early and replace them with an energy star refrigerator. However, it was noted that in several regions, both replacement and retirement programs are offered at the same time. The report provided background information on energy use by refrigerators as well as refrigerator retirement and replacement programs. Types of refrigerator retirement and replacement programs and the environmental benefits of these programs were also described. The report also addressed the potential energy impact of an Ontario-wide refrigerator retirement program as well as consumer incentive and bounties initiatives to encourage households to retire units. Other topics covered in the report included the design of typical refrigerator retirement and replacement programs; collection and recycling of retired refrigerators; reported costs of refrigerator retirement and replacement programs; as well as marketing and advertising. The role of retailers and manufacturers and reported lessons learned from refrigerator retirement and replacement were also presented. 14 refs., 6 tabs., 6 appendices.

  5. How to replace a reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, R.

    1996-01-01

    A potential life extending procedure for a nuclear reactor after, say, 40 years of service life, might in some circumstances be the replacement of the reactor pressure vessel. Neutron induced degradation of the vessel might make replacement by one of a different material composition desirable, for example. Although the replacement of heavy components, such as steam generators, has been possible for many years, the pressure vessel presents a much more demanding task if only because it is highly irradiated. Some preliminary feasibility studies by Siemens are reported for the two removal strategies that might be considered. These are removal of the entire pressure vessel in one piece and dismantling it into sections. (UK)

  6. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  7. Maintenance service for major component of PWR plant. Replacement of pressurizer safe end weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Ueda, Takeshi; Suda, Naoki; Shintani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In October 2016, MHI completed the replacement of safe end weld of pressurizer (Pz) of Ringhals unit 3, which was the first maintenance work for main component of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in Europe. For higher reliability and longer lifetime of PWR plant, MHI has conducted many kinds of maintenance works of main components of PWR plants in Japan against stress corrosion cracking due to aging degradation. Technical process for replacement of Pz safe end weld were established by MHI. MHI has experienced the work for 21 PWR units in Japan. That of Ringhals unit 3 was planned and conducted based on the experiences. In this work, Alloy 600 used for welds of nozzles of Pz was replaced with Alloy 690. Alloy 690 is more corrosive-resistant than Alloy 600. Specially designed equipment and technical process were developed and established by MHI to replace safe end weld of Pz and applied for the Ringhals unit 3 as a first application in Europe. The application had been performed in success and achieved the planned replacement work duration and total radiation dose by using sophisticated machining and welding equipment designed to meet the requirements to be small, lightweight and remote-controlled and operating by well skilled MHI personnel experienced in maintenance activities for major components of PWR plant in Japan. The success shows that the experience, activities and technology developed in Japan for main components of PWR plant shall be applicable to contribute reliable operations of nuclear power plants in Europe and other countries. (author)

  8. The Impact of Biomechanics in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David L.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Guo, X. Edward; Kamm, Roger; Laurencin, Cato T.; McIntire, Larry V.; Mow, Van C.; Nerem, Robert M.; Sah, Robert L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Spilker, Robert L.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Biomechanical factors profoundly influence the processes of tissue growth, development, maintenance, degeneration, and repair. Regenerative strategies to restore damaged or diseased tissues in vivo and create living tissue replacements in vitro have recently begun to harness advances in understanding of how cells and tissues sense and adapt to their mechanical environment. It is clear that biomechanical considerations will be fundamental to the successful development of clinical therapies based on principles of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for a broad range of musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, craniofacial, skin, urinary, and neural tissues. Biomechanical stimuli may in fact hold the key to producing regenerated tissues with high strength and endurance. However, many challenges remain, particularly for tissues that function within complex and demanding mechanical environments in vivo. This paper reviews the present role and potential impact of experimental and computational biomechanics in engineering functional tissues using several illustrative examples of past successes and future grand challenges. PMID:19583462

  9. Language Profile in Congenital Hypothyroid Children Receiving Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hend; Abdel Hady, Aisha Fawzy; Abdel Hamid, Asmaa; Mahmoud, Heba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate receptive and expressive language skills in children with congenital hypothyroidism receiving early hormonal replacement treatment before the age of 3 months and to identify any subtle areas of weaknesses in their language development to check the necessity for future language intervention. The study was conducted on 30 hypothyroid children receiving hormonal replacement. They were subdivided into group I (5-8 years 11 months; 12 cases) and group II (9-12 years 11 months; 18 cases). All patients were subjected to a protocol of assessment applied in the Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolism Pediatric Unit (DEMPU) and evaluation of language skills by the REAL scale. The younger group reached average Arabic language scores, while the older group showed moderate language delay. Early replacement therapy supports language development in young children. However, longitudinal and follow-up studies are required to identify difficulties presenting at older ages that may affect children in the academic settings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. A trivariate optimal replacement policy for a deteriorating system based on cumulative damage and inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Nan; Sheu, Shey-Huei; Zhang, Zhe George

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we study a trivariate replacement model for a deteriorating system consisting of two units. Failures of unit 1 can be classified into two types. Type I failure (minor failure) is fixed by a minimal repair and type II failure (catastrophic failure) is removed by a replacement. Both types of failures can only be detected through inspection. Each type I failure of unit 1 will result in a random amount of damage to unit 2 and the damages are cumulative. The probability of type I failure or type II failure is assumed to depend on the number of failures since the last replacement. We formulate a replacement policy based on the number of type I failure, the occurrence of the first type II failure, and the amount of accumulative damages. Hence the system is replaced either preventively or correctively at any of the following four conditions depend on whichever occurs first; preventively (a) at the Nth type I failure; or (b) when the total damage of unit 2 exceeds a pre-specified level Z (but less than the failure level l); and, correctively (c) at the first type II failure; or (d) when the total damage of unit 2 exceeds a failure level l, where Z and l represent the thresholds of total damage level for unit 2 to preventive and corrective replacements, respectively. Although a type I failure can be fixed by a minimal repair, but the operating period is stochastically decreasing and repair time is stochastically increasing as time goes on. The minimal total expected long-run net cost per unit time of the system is derived and a computational algorithm for determining the optimal policy is developed. A real-world application from electric power industry is provided. Several past studied are shown to be special cases of our model. Finally, a numerical example is presented. - Highlights: • A trivariate replacement policy for a deteriorating system with two units is proposed. • A real-world application from the electric power industry is provided. • The

  11. Replacement Saltwell Pumping System Document Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELLOMY, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document bibliography is prepared to identify engineering documentation developed during the design of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. The bibliography includes all engineering supporting documents and correspondence prepared prior to the deployment of the system in the field. All documents referenced are available electronically through the Records Management Information System (RMIS). Major components of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System include the Sundyne Canned Motor Pump, the Water Filter Skid, the Injection Water Skid and the Backflow Preventer Assembly. Drawing H-14-104498 provides an index of drawings (fabrication details, PandIDs, etc.) prepared to support development of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. Specific information pertaining to new equipment can be found in Certified Vendor Information (CVI) File 50124. This CVI file has been established specifically for new equipment associated with the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System

  12. The future of rapid bridge deck replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Replacing aging, deteriorated infrastructure often requires road closures and traffic detours which impose : inconvenience and delay on commerce and members of the motoring public. Accelerated bridge construction : techniques often use precast member...

  13. Proper Installation of Replacement Windows | Efficient Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaborative Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring

  14. Assessing Window Replacement Options | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  15. Logistic Vehicle System Replacement Cost Estimate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stinson, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    The Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) was originally fielded from 1985-1989. Most of the LVS fleet will reach end-of-service life in 2005, therefore the goal of the Logistics Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR...

  16. Guide to optimized replacement of equipment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, J.F.

    1990-03-01

    A reevaluation of current scheduled replacement intervals of polymeric seals in plant equipment can achieve significant benefits. Information is provided which has the potential for increasing replacement intervals based on better information on how seals have performed through unique nuclear industry tests to qualify equipment, improved elastomers and increased knowledge of the failure mechanisms and related performance. The research was performed by reviewing applications of elastomeric seals in nuclear plants and practice associated with defining seal replacement intervals in the nuclear power and other industries. Performance indicators and how they predict degradation of seals were evaluated. Guidelines and a flow chart for reevaluating seal replacement intervals are provided. 29 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Machine replacement, Network Externalities and Investment Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Ruiz

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model where agents decide on the timing of replacement of ageing machines. The optimal replacement policy for an agent is influenced by other agents' decisions because the productivity of a particular vintage displays network externalities that set in with a lag. In equilibrium, agents follow innovation cycles with a frequency that is lower than optimal, so there is too much delay. One extreme case is the possibility of inefficient collapse: for some parameters there is ...

  18. Equipment Replacement Decision Making: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei (David); Gemar, Mason D.; Machemehl, Randy

    2012-01-01

    The primary function of equipment managers is to replace the right equipment at the right time and at the lowest overall cost. In this paper, the opportunities and challenges associated with equipment replacement optimization (ERO) are discussed in detail. First, a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art and state-of-the practice literature for the ERO problem is conducted. Second, a dynamic programming (DP) based optimization solution methodology is presented to solve the ERO problem. T...

  19. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  20. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  1. Essential Specification Elements for Heat Exchanger Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, L.

    2015-07-01

    Performance upgrade and equipment degradation are the primary impetuses for a nuclear power plant to engage in the large capital cost project of heat exchanger replacement. Along with attention to these issues, consideration of heat exchanger Codes and Standards, material improvements, thermal redesign, and configuration are essential for developing User’s Design Specifications for successful replacement projects. The User’s Design Specification is the central document in procuring ASME heat exchangers. Properly stated objectives for the heat exchanger replacement are essential for obtaining the materials, configurations and thermal designs best suited for the nuclear power plant. Additionally, the code of construction required and the applied manufacturing standard (TEMA or HEI) affects how the heat exchanger may be designed or configured to meet the replacement goals. Knowledge of how Codes and Standards affect design and configuration details will aid in writing the User’s Design Specification. Joseph Oat Corporation has designed and fabricated many replacement heat exchangers for the nuclear power industry. These heat exchangers have been constructed per ASME Section III to various Code-Years or ASME Section VIII-1 to the current Code-Year also in accordance with TEMA and HEI. These heat exchangers have been a range of like-for-like replacement to complete thermal, material and configuration redesigns. Several examples of these heat exchangers with their Code, Standard and specification implications are presented. (Author.

  2. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  3. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Biomaterials in myocardial tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Lewis A.; Chiu, Loraine L. Y.; Feric, Nicole; Fu, Lara; Radisic, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the developed world, and as such there is a pressing need for treatment options. Cardiac tissue engineering emerged from the need to develop alternate sources and methods of replacing tissue damaged by cardiovascular diseases, as the ultimate treatment option for many who suffer from end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. In this review we focus on biomaterial approaches to augment injured or impaired myocardium with specific emphasis on: the design criteria for these biomaterials; the types of scaffolds—composed of natural or synthetic biomaterials, or decellularized extracellular matrix—that have been used to develop cardiac patches and tissue models; methods to vascularize scaffolds and engineered tissue, and finally injectable biomaterials (hydrogels)designed for endogenous repair, exogenous repair or as bulking agents to maintain ventricular geometry post-infarct. The challenges facing the field and obstacles that must be overcome to develop truly clinically viable cardiac therapies are also discussed. PMID:25066525

  5. Human tissue in systems medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Schuur, Klaas; Oniscu, Anca; Mullen, Peter; Reynolds, Paul A; Harrison, David J

    2013-12-01

    Histopathology, the examination of an architecturally artefactual, two-dimensional and static image remains a potent tool allowing diagnosis and empirical expectation of prognosis. Considerable optimism exists that the advent of molecular genetic testing and other biomarker strategies will improve or even replace this ancient technology. A number of biomarkers already add considerable value for prediction of whether a treatment will work. In this short review we argue that a systems medicine approach to pathology will not seek to replace traditional pathology, but rather augment it. Systems approaches need to incorporate quantitative morphological, protein, mRNA and DNA data. A significant challenge for clinical implementation of systems pathology is how to optimize information available from tissue, which is frequently sub-optimal in quality and amount, and yet generate useful predictive models that work. The transition of histopathology to systems pathophysiology and the use of multiscale data sets usher in a new era in diagnosis, prognosis and prediction based on the analysis of human tissue. © 2013 The Authors. FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of FEBS.

  6. Patch esophagoplasty using an in-body-tissue-engineered collagenous connective tissue membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hiroomi; Umeda, Satoshi; Takama, Yuichi; Terasawa, Takeshi; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2018-02-01

    Although many approaches to esophageal replacement have been investigated, these efforts have thus far only met limited success. In-body-tissue-engineered connective tissue tubes have been reported to be effective as vascular replacement grafts. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of an In-body-tissue-engineered collagenous connective tissue membrane, "Biosheet", as a novel esophageal scaffold in a beagle model. We prepared Biosheets by embedding specially designed molds into subcutaneous pouches in beagles. After 1-2months, the molds, which were filled with ingrown connective tissues, were harvested. Rectangular-shaped Biosheets (10×20mm) were then implanted to replace defects of the same size that had been created in the cervical esophagus of the beagle. An endoscopic evaluation was performed at 4 and 12weeks after implantation. The esophagus was harvested and subjected to a histological evaluation at 4 (n=2) and 12weeks (n=2) after implantation. The animal study protocols were approved by the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Centre Research Institute Committee (No. 16048). The Biosheets showed sufficient strength and flexibility to replace the esophagus defect. All animals survived with full oral feeding during the study period. No anastomotic leakage was observed. An endoscopic study at 4 and 12weeks after implantation revealed that the anastomotic sites and the internal surface of the Biosheets were smooth, without stenosis. A histological analysis at 4weeks after implantation demonstrated that stratified squamous epithelium was regenerated on the internal surface of the Biosheets. A histological analysis at 12weeks after implantation showed the regeneration of muscle tissue in the implanted Biosheets. The long-term results of patch esophagoplasty using Biosheets showed regeneration of stratified squamous epithelium and muscular tissues in the implanted sheets. These results suggest that Biosheets may be useful as a novel esophageal

  7. Gentilly-2 and Point Lepreau divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; McClellan, G.; Weston, S.

    1996-01-01

    The steam generators at Hydro Quebec's Gentilly-2 and New Brunswick Power's Point Lepreau Nuclear Plants have been in operation since 1983, and were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection at Gentilly-2, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider plate and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. Upon evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type divider plates would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider plate itself was to be of one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat was was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider plate is fitted with erosion resistant inserts of weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider plate strength during loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider plate to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. Subsequently, Point Lepreau decided to replace their divider plates to address LOCA concerns. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design. manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  8. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium activity in its 2nd year (Research and development of hybrid-type biocompatible hard tissue replacing materials); 1999 nendo hybrid gata seitai yugo kinosei kososhiki daitai sozai seizo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Studies are conducted about highly biocompatible {beta}-type titanium alloys and calcium phosphate-based ceramics, high in strength and low in elasticity and constituted of non-toxic alloy elements, and about the technology of providing coatings for these materials. In the designing of such a highly biocompatible titanium alloy and the evaluating of its mechanical properties, studies are conducted about alloy formation into a practical size, fatigue characteristics and micro-structure, methods for improving its wear resistance, etc. In the development of a melting/casting technique for this purpose, studies are conducted about the melting/casting of the alloy into a practical size and about a high-recision casting technology. In the research on biological evaluation of biocompatibility and on the technology of precision casting for dentistry, studies are conducted about the reaction of the alloy with biological tissues and methods for precision casting for dentistry. Studies are also conducted about the development of technologies for precision work and precision finish for alloys. Further studies involve the development of calcium phosphate-based ceramics for the enhancement of {beta}-type titanium alloy's biocompatibility and the establishment of a technology of providing coatings for the alloy. (NEDO)

  9. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Juliana Paula Felipe; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Alves, Adryanne Marjorie Souza Vitor; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira; de Andrade, Ida Barbosa; Urbano, Stela Antas; Suassuna, Juraci Marcos Alves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Barros Melo, Tobias Tobit

    2018-04-01

    Fresh sugarcane has been a new roughage source for ruminant's in semiarid regions, a function of the decline of sugar and alcohol industry in recent years. However, there is little data published regarding lambs fed sugarcane associated with spineless cactus. This study evaluated the effect of sugarcane replacement with spineless cactus (0%, 33%, 66%, and 100%) in the diet of Santa Inês lambs on carcass characteristics. Thirty-six non-castrated Santa Ines lambs at four months of age and an initial body weight of 22±2.3 kg were assigned in a randomized block design and slaughtered after 70 days of confinement. The effects of spineless cactus as a replacement for sugarcane in the diet of the lambs on the carcass characteristics, commercial cut weight and yield, leg tissue composition, and carcass measurements were studied. The study revealed quadratic behavior in slaughter body weight, and hot and cold carcass weight, with maximum values of 38.60, 18.60, and 18.11 kg and replacement levels of 40.18%, 44.42%, and 43.14%, respectively. The cold carcass yield presented an increasing linear behavior. The compactness index of carcass and leg presented a quadratic effect, with estimated maximal values of 0.28 and 0.57 kg/cm and replacement levels of 43.37% and 45.5%, respectively. The weights of commercial cuts of leg, loin, shoulder, and breast showed quadratic behavior, with maximum values of 2.79, 0.852, 1.46, and 1.30 kg and replacement levels of 49.5, 45.32, 39.0, and 40.7, respectively. For tissue composition, quadratic behavior was verified for leg weight, subcutaneous fat, and total fat. The replacement of sugarcane by spineless cactus at level 44% is recommended for finishing lambs considering that this level improved most of the carcass characteristics, weights, and yields of commercial cuts and leg tissue composition.

  10. Structural considerations in steam generator replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertheau, S.R.; Gazda, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Corrosion of the tubes and tube-support structures inside pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators has led many utilities to consider a replacement of the generators. Such a project is a major undertaking for a utility and must be well planned to ensure an efficient and cost-effective effort. This paper discusses various structural aspects of replacement options, such as total or partial generator replacement, along with their associated pipe cuts; major structural aspects associated with removal paths through the equipment hatch or through an opening in the containment wall, along with the related removal processes; onsite movement and storage of the generators; and the advantages and disadvantages of the removal alternatives. This paper addresses the major structural considerations associated with a steam generator replacement project. Other important considerations (e.g., licensing, radiological concerns, electrical requirements, facilities for management and onsite administrative activities, storage and fabrication activities, and offsite transportation) are not discussed in this paper, but should be carefully considered when undertaking a replacement project

  11. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842–1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century.

  12. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Zhibao; Novitzky, Dimitri; Collins, Joseph F; Cooper, David Kc

    2015-01-01

    The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy) is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA), are statistically conservative. Hsu's multiple comparisons with the best (MCB) - adapted from the Dunnett's multiple comparisons with control (MCC) - has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM) or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation.

  13. Nuclear facilities: repair and replacement technologies; Installations nucleaires: technologies de reparation et de remplacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The oldest operating reactors are more than 35 years old and are now facing major maintenance operations. The first replacement of a pressurizer took place in autumn 2005 at the St-Lucie plant (Usa) while steam generators have been currently replaced since 1983. Nuclear industry has to adapt to this new market by proposing innovative technological solutions in the reactor maintenance field. This document gathers the 9 papers presented at the conference. The main improvements concern repair works on internal components of PWR-type reactors, the replacement of major components of the primary coolant circuit and surface treatments to limit the propagation of damages. The first paper shows that adequate design and feedback experience are good assets to manage the ageing of a nuclear unit. Another paper shows that a new repair method of a relief valve can avoid its replacement. (A.C.)

  14. Hip or knee replacement - in the hospital after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hip replacement surgery - after - self-care; Knee replacement surgery - after - self-care ... taking walks in the hallways with help. After knee replacement, some surgeons recommend using a continuous passive ...

  15. Better Buildings Alliance, Advanced Rooftop Unit Campaign: Rooftop Unit Measurement and Verification (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This document provides facility managers and building owners an introduction to measurement and verification (M&V) methods to estimate energy and cost savings of rooftop units replacement or retrofit projects to estimate paybacks or to justify future projects.

  16. Non-invasive Assessments of Adipose Tissue Metabolism In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Borowsky, Francis E; Quinn, Kyle P; Bernstein, David L; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kaplan, David L

    2016-03-01

    Adipose tissue engineering is a diverse area of research where the developed tissues can be used to study normal adipose tissue functions, create disease models in vitro, and replace soft tissue defects in vivo. Increasing attention has been focused on the highly specialized metabolic pathways that regulate energy storage and release in adipose tissues which affect local and systemic outcomes. Non-invasive, dynamic measurement systems are useful to track these metabolic pathways in the same tissue model over time to evaluate long term cell growth, differentiation, and development within tissue engineering constructs. This approach reduces costs and time in comparison to more traditional destructive methods such as biochemical and immunochemistry assays and proteomics assessments. Towards this goal, this review will focus on important metabolic functions of adipose tissues and strategies to evaluate them with non-invasive in vitro methods. Current non-invasive methods, such as measuring key metabolic markers and endogenous contrast imaging will be explored.

  17. Design Approaches to Myocardial and Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintewe, Olukemi O; Roberts, Erin G; Rim, Nae-Gyune; Ferguson, Michael A H; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-06-21

    Engineered tissues represent an increasingly promising therapeutic approach for correcting structural defects and promoting tissue regeneration in cardiovascular diseases. One of the challenges associated with this approach has been the necessity for the replacement tissue to promote sufficient vascularization to maintain functionality after implantation. This review highlights a number of promising prevascularization design approaches for introducing vasculature into engineered tissues. Although we focus on encouraging blood vessel formation within myocardial implants, we also discuss techniques developed for other tissues that could eventually become relevant to engineered cardiac tissues. Because the ultimate solution to engineered tissue vascularization will require collaboration between wide-ranging disciplines such as developmental biology, tissue engineering, and computational modeling, we explore contributions from each field.

  18. Soft tissue grafting to improve implant esthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia M Kassab

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Moawia M KassabDivision of Periodontics, Marquette University, School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Dental implants are becoming the treatment of choice to replace missing teeth, especially if the adjacent teeth are free of restorations. When minimal bone width is present, implant placement becomes a challenge and often resulting in recession and dehiscence around the implant that leads to subsequent gingival recession. To correct such defect, the author turned to soft tissue autografting and allografting to correct a buccal dehiscence around tooth #24 after a malpositioned implant placed by a different surgeon. A 25-year-old woman presented with the chief complaint of gingival recession and exposure of implant threads around tooth #24. The patient received three soft tissue grafting procedures to augment the gingival tissue. The first surgery included a connective tissue graft to increase the width of the keratinized gingival tissue. The second surgery included the use of autografting (connective tissue graft to coronally position the soft tissue and achieve implant coverage. The third and final surgery included the use of allografting material Alloderm to increase and mask the implant from showing through the gingiva. Healing period was uneventful for the patient. After three surgical procedures, it appears that soft tissue grafting has increased the width and height of the gingiva surrounding the implant. The accomplished thickness of gingival tissue appeared to mask the showing of implant threads through the gingival tissue and allowed for achieving the desired esthetic that the patient desired. The aim of the study is to present a clinical case with soft tissue grafting procedures.Keywords: case report, connective tissue, dental implants, allograft, coronally positioned flap

  19. Osteoblast and osteoclast behaviors in the turnover of attachment bones during medaka tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantoku, Akiko; Chatani, Masahiro; Aono, Kazushi; Inohaya, Keiji; Kudo, Akira

    2016-01-15

    Tooth replacement in polyphyodont is a well-organized system for maintenance of homeostasis of teeth, containing the dynamic structural change in skeletal tissues such as the attachment bone, which is the supporting element of teeth. Histological analyses have revealed the character of tooth replacement, however, the cellular mechanism of how skeletal tissues are modified during tooth replacement is largely unknown. Here, we showed the important role of osteoblasts for controlling osteoclasts to modify the attachment bone during tooth replacement in medaka pharyngeal teeth, coupled with an osterix-DsRed/TRAP-GFP transgenic line to visualize osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In the turnover of the row of attachment bones, these bones were resorbed at the posterior side where most developed functional teeth were located, and generated at the anterior side where teeth were newly erupted, which caused continuous tooth replacement. In the cellular analysis, osteoclasts and osteoblasts were located at attachment bones separately, since mature osteoclasts were localized at the resorbing side and osteoblasts gathered at the generating side. To demonstrate the role of osteoclasts in tooth replacement, we established medaka made deficient in c-fms-a by TALEN. c-fms-a deficient medaka showed hyperplasia of attachment bones along with reduced bone resorption accompanied by a low number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts, indicating an important role of osteoclasts in the turnover of attachment bones. Furthermore, nitroreductase-mediated osteoblast-specific ablation induced disappearance of osteoclasts, indicating that osteoblasts were essential for maintenance of osteoclasts for the proper turnover. Taken together, our results suggested that the medaka attachment bone provides the model to understand the cellular mechanism for tooth replacement, and that osteoblasts act in the coordination of bone morphology by supporting osteoclasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of hinges in primary total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, T; Kendoff, D; Haasper, C

    2014-11-01

    The use of hinged implants in primary total knee replacement (TKR) should be restricted to selected indications and mainly for elderly patients. Potential indications for a rotating hinge or pure hinge implant in primary TKR include: collateral ligament insufficiency, severe varus or valgus deformity (>20°) with necessary relevant soft-tissue release, relevant bone loss including insertions of collateral ligaments, gross flexion-extension gap imbalance, ankylosis, or hyperlaxity. Although data reported in the literature are inconsistent, clinical results depend on implant design, proper technical use, and adequate indications. We present our experience with a specific implant type that we have used for over 30 years and which has given our elderly patients good mid-term results. Because revision of implants with long cemented stems can be very challenging, an effort should be made in the future to use shorter stems in modular versions of hinged implants. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Revisiting the Cutaneous Impact of Oral Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a key point moment in the specific aging process of women. It represents a universal evolution in life. Its initiation is defined by a 12-month amenorrhea following the ultimate menstrual period. It encompasses a series of different biologic and physiologic characteristics. This period of life appears to spot a decline in a series of skin functional performances initiating tissue atrophy, withering, and slackness. Any part of the skin is possibly altered, including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and hair follicles. Hormone replacement therapy (oral and nonoral and transdermal estrogen therapy represent possible specific managements for women engaged in the climacteric phase. All the current reports indicate that chronologic aging, climacteric estrogen deficiency, and adequate hormone therapy exert profound effects on various parts of the skin.

  2. Meniscal tears, repairs and replacement: their relevance to osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ian

    2011-04-01

    The menisci of the knee are important load sharers and shock absorbers in the joint. Meniscal tears are common, and whenever possible meniscal tears should be surgically repaired. Meniscectomy leads to a significant increased risk of osteoarthritis, and various options now exist for replacing missing menisci, including the use of meniscal scaffolds or the replacement of the entire meniscus by meniscal allograft transplantation. The field of meniscal surgery continues to develop apace, and the future may lie in growing new menisci by tissue engineering techniques.

  3. Preventative valve-sparing aortic root replacement and pregnancy outcome in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Vesna; Zlopasa, Gordan; Herman, Mislav; Planinić, Pavao; Micevska, Ana

    2012-06-01

    In Marfan syndrome, with dilatation of the aortic root secondary to an underlying connective tissue defect, pregnancy can cause hemodynamic stress leading to the development of an aortic aneurysm and even a fatal aortic dissection. In the presence of existing aortic root enlargement and a family history of aortic dissection, preventative elective surgery is suggested. Aortic root replacement with or without a valve-sparing procedure is superior to total aortic root replacement with prosthetic valve/tube graft. It provides excellent survival with low rates of aortic - valve related complications.

  4. Three Steam Generator Replacement Projects in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holz, R.; Clavier, G.

    1996-01-01

    Since the companies Siemens AG and Framatome S. A. joined their experience and efforts in the field of steam generator replacements and formed a consortium in 1991, the following projects were performed in 1995: Ringhals 3, Tihange 3 and Asco 1. Further projects will follow in 1996, i. e., Doel 4 and Asco 2. Currently, this European consortium is bidding for the contract to replace the steam generators at the Krsko NPP and hopes to be awarded in 1996. An overview of the way the Consortium Siemens and Framatome approaches SG replacement projects is given based on the projects performed in 1995. Various aspects of project planning, management, licensing, personnel qualification and techniques used on site will be discussed. (author)

  5. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  6. Optimal timing for intravascular administration set replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Amanda J; Cooke, Marie L; Gillies, Donna; Marsh, Nicole M; Daud, Azlina; McGrail, Matthew R; O'Riordan, Elizabeth; Rickard, Claire M

    2013-09-15

    The tubing (administration set) attached to both venous and arterial catheters may contribute to bacteraemia and other infections. The rate of infection may be increased or decreased by routine replacement of administration sets. This review was originally published in 2005 and was updated in 2012. The objective of this review was to identify any relationship between the frequency with which administration sets are replaced and rates of microbial colonization, infection and death. We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2012), CINAHL (1982 to June 2012), EMBASE (1980 to June 2012), reference lists of identified trials and bibliographies of published reviews. The original search was performed in February 2004. We also contacted researchers in the field. We applied no language restriction. We included all randomized or controlled clinical trials on the frequency of venous or arterial catheter administration set replacement in hospitalized participants. Two review authors assessed all potentially relevant studies. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors by discussion with a third review author. We collected data for seven outcomes: catheter-related infection; infusate-related infection; infusate microbial colonization; catheter microbial colonization; all-cause bloodstream infection; mortality; and cost. We pooled results from studies that compared different frequencies of administration set replacement, for instance, we pooled studies that compared replacement ≥ every 96 hours versus every 72 hours with studies that compared replacement ≥ every 48 hours versus every 24 hours. We identified 26 studies for this updated review, 10 of which we excluded; six did not fulfil the inclusion criteria and four did not report usable data. We extracted data from the remaining 18 references (16 studies) with 5001 participants: study designs included neonate and adult

  7. Replacement of the JRR-3 computer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Suwa, Masayuki; Mineshima, Hiromi; Sato, Mitsugu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    The JRR-3 computer system contributes to stable operation of JRR-3 since 1990. But now about 10 years have passed since it was designed and some problems have occurred. Under these situations, we should replace the old computer system for safe and stable operation. In this replacement, the system is improved as regards man-machine interface and efficiency about maintenance. The new system consists of three functions, which are 'the function of management for operation information' (renewal function), 'the function of management for facility information' (new function) and the function of management for information publication' (new function). By this replacement, New JRR-3 computer system can contribute to safe and stable operation. (author)

  8. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  9. Replacement of the JRR-3 computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Suwa, Masayuki; Mineshima, Hiromi; Sato, Mitsugu

    2000-01-01

    The JRR-3 computer system contributes to stable operation of JRR-3 since 1990. But now about 10 years have passed since it was designed and some problems have occurred. Under these situations, we should replace the old computer system for safe and stable operation. In this replacement, the system is improved as regards man-machine interface and efficiency about maintenance. The new system consists of three functions, which are 'the function of management for operation information' (renewal function), 'the function of management for facility information' (new function) and the function of management for information publication' (new function). By this replacement, New JRR-3 computer system can contribute to safe and stable operation. (author)

  10. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    The menopause is defined as cessation of menstruation, ending the fertile period. The hormonal changes are a decrease in progesterone level, followed by a marked decrease in estrogen production. Symptoms associated with these hormonal changes may advocate for hormonal replacement therapy....... This review is based on the English-language literature on the effect of estrogen therapy and estrogen plus progestin therapy on postmenopausal women. The advantages of hormone replacement therapy are regulation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding, relief of hot flushes, and prevention of atrophic changes...... in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin...

  11. Severe Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement.

  12. Imaging techniques in transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaife RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert A Quaife, Jennifer Dorosz, John C Messenger, Ernesto E Salcedo Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Calcific aortic stenosis is now understood as a complex valvular degenerative process sharing many risk factors with atherosclerosis. Once patients develop symptomatic calcific aortic stenosis, the only effective treatment is aortic valve replacement. In the past decade, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR has been developed as an alternative to surgery to treat severe calcific aortic stenosis. Cardiac imaging plays a pivotal role in the contemporary management of patients with calcific aortic stenosis, and particularly in patients being considered for TAVR, who demand detailed imaging of the aortic valve apparatus. In this review, we highlight the role of cardiac imaging for patient selection, procedural guidance, and evaluation of results of TAVR. Keywords: aortic stenosis, cardiovascular imaging, transcutaneous aortic valve replacement

  13. [Mini-subvastus approach for total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Andreas; Beier, Alexander; Neumann, Wolfram

    2009-03-01

    Total knee replacement in minimally invasive technique without any trauma to the extensor apparatus and with soft-tissue-referenced bone resections. Only the subvastus approach preserves the integrity of the extensor apparatus and has therefore been modified to become a minimally invasive technique with a shorter skin incision and lateralization instead of eversion of the patella. Soft-tissue balancing is done through this direct anterior approach. Mild to moderate varus osteoarthritis of the knee up to 15 degrees of malalignment, mild and passively correctable valgus osteoarthritis of the knee up to 10 degrees of malalignment. Severe, contract varus osteoarthritis of the knee, severe and moderate, contract valgus osteoarthritis of the knee, severe obesity, exceptionally muscular patients, decreased skin perfusion. Central skin incision from the superior pole of the patella to the tibial tubercle. Exposure of the medial retinaculum and mobilization of the vastus medialis muscle subcutaneously. Incision of the medial retinaculum and blunt separation of the vastus medialis muscle from the intermuscular septum. Lateralization of the patella and flexion of the knee joint. Resection of the tibia perpendicular to the diaphysis. Adjustment of the anteroposterior (AP) resection block at the level of the anterior femoral cortex and of rotation by applying equal tension to the collateral ligaments. Balancing of soft-tissue tension in flexion gap by release, if necessary. After AP resection fixation of distal resection block in planned valgus angle. Balancing of soft-tissue tension in extension gap by release, if necessary. After distal femur resection facet resection, adaptation of posterior femoral condyles, and implantation of prosthesis. Check on stability and range of motion. Wound closure. Full weight bearing from the 1st postoperative day, CPM (continuous passive motion) with up to 90 degrees flexion with peridural anesthesia as tolerated, stair climbing starting on

  14. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-02-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or infertility during the rearing period and the variation in culling rate of lactating cows. The objective of this study is to provide insight in the economically optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as replacements. A herd-level stochastic simulation model was developed specific for this purpose with a herd of 100 dairy cows; the biological part of the model consisted of a dairy herd unit and rearing unit for replacement heifers. The dairy herd unit included variation in the number of culled dairy cows. The rearing unit incorporated variation in the number of heifers present in the herd by including uncertainty in mortality and variation in fertility. The dairy herd unit and rearing unit were linked by the number of replacement heifers and culled dairy cows. When not enough replacement heifers were available to replace culled dairy cows, the herd size was temporarily reduced, resulting in an additional cost for the empty slots. When the herd size reached 100 dairy cows, the available replacement heifers that were not needed were sold. It was assumed that no purchase of cows and calves occurred. The optimal percentage of 2-wk-old heifer calves to be retained was defined as the percentage of heifer calves that minimized the average net costs of rearing replacement heifers. In the default scenario, the optimal retention was 73% and the total net cost of rearing was estimated at €40,939 per herd per year. This total net cost was 6.5% lower than when all heifer calves were kept. An earlier first-calving age resulted in an optimal retention of 75%, and the net costs of rearing were €581 per herd per year lower than in the default scenario. For herds with a lower or

  15. The autologus graft of epithelial tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minaee B

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of research about culture and autologus graft of epithelial tissue we used 4 french Albino Rabbits with an average age of 2 months. After reproduction on the support in EMEM (Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium we used this for graft after 4 weeks. This region which grafted total replaced. After fixation of this sample and passing them through various process, histological sections were prepared. These sections were stained with H & E and masson's trichrome and studied by light microscope. We succeeded in graft. We hope in the near future by using the method of epithelium tissue culture improving to treat burned patients.

  16. Wear debris. An environmental issue in total joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, M T; Serekian, P

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing concern that osteolytic lesions, often adjacent to otherwise stable implants, are a recent phenomenon caused by some recent change in polyethylene, metal, or other aspect of the total hip construction. This study investigates the possibility that bearings and modular connections used in modern hip replacements are an unappreciated source of particulate debris. Measurements taken from contemporary femoral bearings show a significant mismatch in both surface finish and sphericity of mating metal and polyethylene components, with sphericity of inserts being much worse then sphericity of femoral heads. The tolerances for sphericity of polyethylene inserts were further changed by the placement of an insert into its metal shell. Hip simulator tests of assembled inserts and shells showed greater polyethylene weight loss for metal-backed shells than for inserts alone. Bending and torsional tests of metal/metal modular connections showed that dynamic loads can release large numbers of debris particles from taper junctions. Because osteolytic lesions clearly are associated with overload of tissue by debris particles, the design, manufacture, and tolerances of modular connections in total hip replacement all seem to require reevaluation.

  17. Valve-sparing aortic root replacement in Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Duke E; Vricella, Luca A

    2005-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is the most common inherited connective tissue disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 10,000 live births. The cardinal features of Marfan syndrome are the abnormalities of the skeleton (tall stature, arachnodactyly, and joint hyperelasticity), eye (lens subluxation), and aorta (root aneurysm with proclivity toward rupture and dissection). Aortic catastrophe accounts for most of the premature mortality among Marfan patients, a risk that climbs steeply during adolescence and results in death of half of Marfan patients by the age of 40 years. Most of the improvement in life expectancy that has been achieved in Marfan syndrome is attributable to early recognition of aortic root aneurysms and prophylactic replacement with composite grafts (mechanical valve prostheses within Dacron conduits) before rupture or dissection occurs. Despite the excellent early and late results with composite grafts, there has been growing interest in operative procedures that replace the sinuses but preserve the aortic valve leaflets, to avoid anticoagulation and minimize the risk of prosthesis-related endocarditis. These procedures are still in evolution and late results are not yet known, but as with mitral repair in the setting of myxomatous disease, valve-sparing procedures in Marfan syndrome have weathered a storm of initial criticism and skepticism and are steadily gaining acceptance.

  18. Autogenous tooth transplantation: an alternative to replace extracted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard treatment to replace missing tooth is dental implants, however, in certain cases, such as in young patients its placement is contraindicated. Autogenous tooth transplantation, which has been widely done in Scandinavian countries for many years, may become a good alternative to overcome this problem. Purpose: This article attempted to provide information about the indication, treatment planning, surgical technique and the successful result of autogenous tooth transplantation. Case: A fifteen year old male patient presented with large caries and periapical disease of his lower left first molar, which was partially erupted and the roots was not fully formed in radiograph. Case management: Autogenous tooth transplantation procedure was performed consisting of extraction of #36, odontectomy of #38 followed by its implantation to socket #36 and fixation of the transplanted tooth to the adjacent teeth. Post operative evaluation was done on regular basis within 18 months period. There was no complaint, the tooth was clinically stable and no evidence of periodontal problem. Serial radiographs showed healing of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue, and the complete root formation was evident by 18 months post operatively. Conclusion: Autogenous tooth transplantation is a potential alternative to replace extracted tooth. Provided that the case be properly planned and operation carefully performed, successful result of this treatment can be achieved.

  19. Microgravity cultivation of cells and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, L. E.; Pellis, N.; Searby, N.; de Luis, J.; Preda, C.; Bordonaro, J.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro studies of cells and tissues in microgravity, either simulated by cultivation conditions on earth or actual, during spaceflight, are expected to help identify mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and transduction in biological organisms. In this paper, we review rotating bioreactor studies of engineered skeletal and cardiovascular tissues carried out in unit gravity, a four month long cartilage tissue engineering study carried out aboard the Mir Space Station, and the ongoing laboratory development and testing of a system for cell and tissue cultivation aboard the International Space Station.

  20. Renal replacement therapy in healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D M; Witty, D; Alcott, C J; Sponseller, B A; Wang, C; Hepworth, K

    2013-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) has been implemented extensively in people to facilitate recovery from acute renal failure (ARF). RRT has not been explored in horses, but might provide a further treatment option in horses with ARF. To investigate efficacy and safety of RRT in horses. Five healthy adult horses. A prospective study was performed on horses restrained in stocks and intravenously connected to a commercial RRT machine to allow continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration to be performed for 6 hours. The RRT machine was set at the following flow rates: blood flow rate 250 mL/min; dialysate rate 3,000 mL/h; prefilter replacement pump 3,000 mL/h; and postfilter replacement pump rate 2,000 mL/h. Balanced electrolyte solution was used as dialysate and replacement fluid. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, urine output, and various clinicopathologic parameters were measured over the study period. Renal replacement therapy was successfully performed in horses, resulting in a mean creatinine clearance of 0.127 mL/kg/min (68.9 mL/min) and urea reduction ratio of 24%. No adverse effects were detected although a significant decrease in rectal temperature was observed (P ≤ .007). A significant increase in serum phosphorus (P ≤ .001) and decrease in BUN (P replacement therapy can safely and effectively be used in adult horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. The volume of fluid injected into the tissue expander and the tissue expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Omranifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Replacement of the lost tissue is the major concerns of the plastic surgeons. Expanded area should be coherent with the surrounding tissue. Tissue expansion technique is the reforming methods the skin tissue scarcities. Several methods for tissue expansion are available; including usage of silicon balloon and injecting fluid into the tissue expander. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 35 patients, with burn scars, in the face, skull and neck area were studied. We provided a tissue expander device with capacities of 125, 250 and 350cc. Fluid was injected inside the device, 3 consecutive weeks with 1-week interval. After 3 months the device was set out and the tissue expansion was measured using a transparent board and the results were analyzed. Multiple regression was done by SPSS 20 to analyze the data. Results: Regression model showed Skin expansion was positively correlated with the volume of the injected fluid. For each centimeter square of skin expansion, about 6-8 ml of fluid must be injected. Conclusion: Correction of skin defects resulting from burning scar is possible using tissue expanders. The tissue expansion is correlated with the amount of the injected fluid.

  2. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed connective tissue disease Overview Mixed connective tissue disease has signs and symptoms of a combination of disorders — primarily lupus, scleroderma and polymyositis. For this reason, mixed connective tissue disease ...

  3. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... by Barbara Goldstein, MD (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  4. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  5. Outcomes in nonagenarians after heart valve replacement operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Maria-Benedicta; Taylor, Kenneth M

    2003-03-01

    Changes in the age profile of the United Kingdom population and improvements in preoperative and postoperative care have resulted in increasing numbers of very elderly patients undergoing heart valve replacement (HVR) operations. Although HVR operations in nonagenarians are relatively uncommon, the demand for cardiac operations in this age group may increase over time. Outcomes after HVR operations in nonagenarians have not been well described yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine outcomes in terms of early mortality and long-term survival in 35 nonagenarians after HVR operation. Data from the United Kingdom Heart Valve Registry were analyzed and nonagenarian patients were identified. Additional analyzed data include gender, valve position, valve type, valve size, operative priority, follow-up time, and date and cause of death. Kaplan-Meier actuarial curves were calculated to determine accurate 30-day mortality and long-term survival. On average five HVR operations are performed annually in the United Kingdom in nonagenarians with equal numbers of males and females. Aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthetic valve was the most common operation and 86% were elective admissions. Fourteen patients died within the review period; mean time to death was 402 days. Overall 30-day mortality was 17%, which was higher for males compared with females; females also displayed better long-term survival. HVR operations in nonagenarians carry a significantly higher risk of early mortality and reduced long-term survival. Despite increases in the age profile of the population, elective HVR operation with patients aged 90 years or older is likely to remain an infrequent surgical procedure reserved for very carefully selected patients.

  6. Radiological evaluation of failed total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Aldrovandi, S.; Pompei, G.

    1988-01-01

    The retrospective study of 50 operated cases of cemented total hip replacement and a review of the literature enabled the authors to define the radiological features of the above-mentioned condition. These features include one or more of the following signs: calcar reabsorption, lacunar erosions, modified relatioships between the prosthesis components, sepsis and loosening, periarticular calcifications dislocation and fracture of prosthesis components. Careful evaluation of these radiological features is extremely important for both an early diagnosis of failed total hip replacement and the choice of an adequate surgical treatment

  7. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...... on the part of the treating clinician, while the evidence base for refurbishment and repair rather than replacement for the management of defective and failing restorations continues to grow and strengthen. This article, prepared as an Academy of Operative Dentistry European Section consensus publication...

  8. Fuzzy logic application for extruders replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of uncertainty and imprecision, before taking the replacement analysis, a manager needs to consider the uncertain reality of a problem. In this scenario, the fuzzy logic makes an excellent option. Therefore, it is necessary to make a decision based on the fuzzy model. This study is based on the comparison of two methodologies used in the problem of asset replacement. The study, thus, was based on a comparison between two extruders for polypropylene yarn bibliopegy, comparing mainly the costs involved in maintaining the equipment.

  9. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.; Tanner, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings

  10. Optimal elastomeric scaffold leaflet shape for pulmonary heart valve leaflet replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Bayoumi, Ahmed S; Chen, Peter; Hobson, Christopher M; Wagner, William R; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-02-22

    Surgical replacement of the pulmonary valve (PV) is a common treatment option for congenital pulmonary valve defects. Engineered tissue approaches to develop novel PV replacements are intrinsically complex, and will require methodical approaches for their development. Single leaflet replacement utilizing an ovine model is an attractive approach in that candidate materials can be evaluated under valve level stresses in blood contact without the confounding effects of a particular valve design. In the present study an approach for optimal leaflet shape design based on finite element (FE) simulation of a mechanically anisotropic, elastomeric scaffold for PV replacement is presented. The scaffold was modeled as an orthotropic hyperelastic material using a generalized Fung-type constitutive model. The optimal shape of the fully loaded PV replacement leaflet was systematically determined by minimizing the difference between the deformed shape obtained from FE simulation and an ex-vivo microCT scan of a native ovine PV leaflet. Effects of material anisotropy, dimensional changes of PV root, and fiber orientation on the resulting leaflet deformation were investigated. In-situ validation demonstrated that the approach could guide the design of the leaflet shape for PV replacement surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-Placing the Arts in Elementary School Curricula: An Interdisciplinary, Collaborative Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Allen; Riley, Jorge-Ayn

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative action research project aimed at deliberately "re-placing" art in the elementary curriculum through targeted planning, implementation, and assessment of an art integrated unit in an urban 4th grade classroom. Findings and implications should be relevant to elementary teachers, administrators, art specialists,…

  12. Engineering complex orthopaedic tissues via strategic biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dovina; Mosher, Christopher Z; Boushell, Margaret K; Lu, Helen H

    2015-03-01

    The primary current challenge in regenerative engineering resides in the simultaneous formation of more than one type of tissue, as well as their functional assembly into complex tissues or organ systems. Tissue-tissue synchrony is especially important in the musculoskeletal system, wherein overall organ function is enabled by the seamless integration of bone with soft tissues such as ligament, tendon, or cartilage, as well as the integration of muscle with tendon. Therefore, in lieu of a traditional single-tissue system (e.g., bone, ligament), composite tissue scaffold designs for the regeneration of functional connective tissue units (e.g., bone-ligament-bone) are being actively investigated. Closely related is the effort to re-establish tissue-tissue interfaces, which is essential for joining these tissue building blocks and facilitating host integration. Much of the research at the forefront of the field has centered on bioinspired stratified or gradient scaffold designs which aim to recapitulate the structural and compositional inhomogeneity inherent across distinct tissue regions. As such, given the complexity of these musculoskeletal tissue units, the key question is how to identify the most relevant parameters for recapitulating the native structure-function relationships in the scaffold design. Therefore, the focus of this review, in addition to presenting the state-of-the-art in complex scaffold design, is to explore how strategic biomimicry can be applied in engineering tissue connectivity. The objective of strategic biomimicry is to avoid over-engineering by establishing what needs to be learned from nature and defining the essential matrix characteristics that must be reproduced in scaffold design. Application of this engineering strategy for the regeneration of the most common musculoskeletal tissue units (e.g., bone-ligament-bone, muscle-tendon-bone, cartilage-bone) will be discussed in this review. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts will

  13. Engineering Complex Orthopaedic Tissues via Strategic Biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dovina; Mosher, Christopher Z.; Boushell, Margaret K.; Lu, Helen H.

    2014-01-01

    The primary current challenge in regenerative engineering resides in the simultaneous formation of more than one type of tissue, as well as their functional assembly into complex tissues or organ systems. Tissue-tissue synchrony is especially important in the musculoskeletal system, whereby overall organ function is enabled by the seamless integration of bone with soft tissues such as ligament, tendon, or cartilage, as well as the integration of muscle with tendon. Therefore, in lieu of a traditional single-tissue system (e.g. bone, ligament), composite tissue scaffold designs for the regeneration of functional connective tissue units (e.g. bone-ligament-bone) are being actively investigated. Closely related is the effort to re-establish tissue-tissue interfaces, which is essential for joining these tissue building blocks and facilitating host integration. Much of the research at the forefront of the field has centered on bioinspired stratified or gradient scaffold designs which aim to recapitulate the structural and compositional inhomogeneity inherent across distinct tissue regions. As such, given the complexity of these musculoskeletal tissue units, the key question is how to identify the most relevant parameters for recapitulating the native structure-function relationships in the scaffold design. Therefore, the focus of this review, in addition to presenting the state-of-the-art in complex scaffold design, is to explore how strategic biomimicry can be applied in engineering tissue connectivity. The objective of strategic biomimicry is to avoid over-engineering by establishing what needs to be learned from nature and defining the essential matrix characteristics that must be reproduced in scaffold design. Application of this engineering strategy for the regeneration of the most common musculoskeletal tissue units (e.g. bone-ligament-bone, muscle-tendon-bone, cartilage-bone) will be discussed in this review. It is anticipated that these exciting efforts will

  14. Tissue engineering: state of the art in oral rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, E L; Krebsbach, P H; Kohn, D H

    2009-05-01

    More than 85% of the global population requires repair or replacement of a craniofacial structure. These defects range from simple tooth decay to radical oncologic craniofacial resection. Regeneration of oral and craniofacial tissues presents a formidable challenge that requires synthesis of basic science, clinical science and engineering technology. Identification of appropriate scaffolds, cell sources and spatial and temporal signals (the tissue engineering triad) is necessary to optimize development of a single tissue, hybrid organ or interface. Furthermore, combining the understanding of the interactions between molecules of the extracellular matrix and attached cells with an understanding of the gene expression needed to induce differentiation and tissue growth will provide the design basis for translating basic science into rationally developed components of this tissue engineering triad. Dental tissue engineers are interested in regeneration of teeth, oral mucosa, salivary glands, bone and periodontium. Many of these oral structures are hybrid tissues. For example, engineering the periodontium requires growth of alveolar bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament. Recapitulation of biological development of hybrid tissues and interfaces presents a challenge that exceeds that of engineering just a single tissue. Advances made in dental interface engineering will allow these tissues to serve as model systems for engineering other tissues or organs of the body. This review will begin by covering basic tissue engineering principles and strategic design of functional biomaterials. We will then explore the impact of biomaterials design on the status of craniofacial tissue engineering and current challenges and opportunities in dental tissue engineering.

  15. The Replacement Operation for CCP Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolino, Marco; Etalle, Sandro; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    1999-01-01

    The Replacement is a very powerful transformation operation which - both within the functional paradigm as well as within the logic programming one - can micic the most common transformation operations such as unfold, fold, switching, distribution. Because of this flexibility , it can be incorrect

  16. Rapid replacement/construction of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Bridges are a key element of the transportation system because they control system capacity and are normally built at : the highest cost to the system. Once a bridge reaches its useful design service life, it needs to be replaced or : reconstructed i...

  17. The Replacement Operation for CCP Programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolino, Marco; Bossi, Annalisa; Etalle, Sandro; Palamidessi, Catuscia

    2000-01-01

    The Replacement is a very powerful transformation operation which - both within the functional paradigm as well as within the logic programming one - can micic the most common transformation operations such as unfold, fold, switching, distribution. Because of this flexibility , it can be incorrect

  18. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore...

  19. Strategic Capital Budgeting : Asset Replacement Under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawlina, G.; Kort, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    We consider a firm's decision to replace an existing production technology with a new, more cost-efficient one.Kulatilaka and Perotti [1998, Management Science] nd that, in a two-period model, increased product market uncertainty could encourage the firm to invest strategically in the new

  20. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicvaric, D.; Susnic, M.; Djetelic, N.

    2004-01-01

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  1. of surfactant replacement therapy at Johannesburg Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the impact of surfactant replacement therapy (SRl) on the outcome of ... oxygen requirements) was compared with that of a historical control group of ... The use of SRT added to the total cost of treating a patient ventilated for HMD.

  2. vein thrombosis in elective hip replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A consensus forum was convened to evaluate the economic considerations associated with prophylaxis against thrombo-embolic disease in patients undergoing hip replacement therapy in South Africa. This forum consists of orthopaedic surgeons, vascular surgeons and a statistician. Methods. The forum was instructed to ...

  3. 5/8'' baffle bolt replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinaud, T.; Grypczynski, D.

    1999-01-01

    Both Framatome Nuclear Services in France and its U.S. arm, FT1, are now equipped with baffle bolt inspection and replacement packages. These packages allow them to tackle baffle bold degradation on both two- and three-loop nuclear power plants. Framatome and FT1 together are world leaders in addressing reactor vessel internal bolting concerns

  4. Optimal strategies for a replacement model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruns, P.B.

    2000-01-01

    We examine a replacement system with discrete-time Markovian deterioration and finite state space $\\{0,\\ldots,N\\}$. State 0 stands for a new system, and the higher the state the worse the system; a system in state $N$ is considered to be in a {\\it bad state}. We impose the condition that the

  5. Who Will Replace Those Vanishing Execs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    2000-01-01

    Many top-level managers are retiring early. Programs to prepare their replacements have been scaled back. Many companies are offering phased retirement plans, redesigning jobs, and paying for spouses to go along on business trips to keep their managers a little longer. (JOW)

  6. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  7. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  8. Heart valve replacements with regenerative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, P.E.; Fioretta, E.S.; Frese, L.; Pasqualini, F.S.; Hoerstrup, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of severe valvular dysfunctions (e.g., stenosis and insufficiency) is increasing, leading to over 300,000 valves implanted worldwide yearly. Clinically used heart valve replacements lack the capacity to grow, inherently requiring repetitive and high-risk surgical interventions during

  9. Older Person's Guide to Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who prep for surgery and follow through with physical therapy afterward can further boost their odds of a good outcome. If you’re considering joint replacement surgery, here’s what the experts with the American Geriatrics Society’s Foundation for Health in Aging (FHA) suggest: Ask ...

  10. Continuous vasopressin replacement in diabetes insipidus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ralston, C; Butt, W

    1990-01-01

    Five children who developed diabetes insipidus as a manifestation of severe brain injury received continuous intravenous treatment with a solution containing both aqueous vasopressin and appropriate crystalloid replacement. Polyuria, hypernatraemia, and decreased urine osmolalities were safely corrected in all patients within eight to 28 hours.

  11. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  12. Telerehabilitation Feasibility in Total Joint Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Nelson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite documented benefits, many Total Joint Replacement (TJR patients find it difficult to access rehabilitation following discharge from hospital. One solution to improve access for TJR patients is telerehabilitation. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of introducing a telerehabilitation program for TJR patients.   TJR patients at QEII Jubilee Hospital were invited to complete a questionnaire regarding their access, feelings towards and preferences in using technology. Seventy-five patients were recruited. Most patients had computer access (72% and internet (69% at home. Sixty-five percent of participants were willing to participate in telerehabilitation. A significant difference was found between older and younger patients. Watching videos on an electronic device was the preferred method for a technology-based home exercise program and phone call the preferred method of communication.  Results indicate telerehabilitation in the TJR population is feasible from the perspective of access to, feelings toward, and preferences for technology. Keywords: Hip replacement, Knee replacement, Telerehabilitation, Telemedicine, Total joint replacement

  13. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  14. Antibiotic Dosing in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alexander R; Mueller, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate antibiotic dosing is critical to improve outcomes in critically ill patients with sepsis. The addition of continuous renal replacement therapy makes achieving appropriate antibiotic dosing more difficult. The lack of continuous renal replacement therapy standardization results in treatment variability between patients and may influence whether appropriate antibiotic exposure is achieved. The aim of this study was to determine if continuous renal replacement therapy effluent flow rate impacts attaining appropriate antibiotic concentrations when conventional continuous renal replacement therapy antibiotic doses were used. This study used Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effect of effluent flow rate variance on pharmacodynamic target attainment for cefepime, ceftazidime, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin, and tazobactam. Published demographic and pharmacokinetic parameters for each antibiotic were used to develop a pharmacokinetic model. Monte Carlo simulations of 5000 patients were evaluated for each antibiotic dosing regimen at the extremes of Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommended effluent flow rates (20 and 35 mL/kg/h). The probability of target attainment was calculated using antibiotic-specific pharmacodynamic targets assessed over the first 72 hours of therapy. Most conventional published antibiotic dosing recommendations, except for levofloxacin, reach acceptable probability of target attainment rates when effluent rates of 20 or 35 mL/kg/h are used. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Joint Replacement (Finger and Wrist Joints)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Joint Replacement Email to a friend * required fields ...

  16. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  17. New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    New Generation General Purpose Computer (GPC) compact IBM unit replaces a two-unit earlier generation computer. The new IBM unit is documented in table top views alone (S91-26867, S91-26868), with the onboard equipment it supports including the flight deck CRT screen and keypad (S91-26866), and next to the two earlier versions it replaces (S91-26869).

  18. Steam generator replacement from ALARA aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, I.; Breznik, B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is going to consider radiological related parameters important for steam generator replacement (SGR) implementation. These parameters are identified as ALARA related parameters, owner-contractor relationship, planning, health physics with logistic services, and time required for the replacement. ALARA related parameters such as source or initial dose rate and plant system configuration define the initial conditions for the planning. There is room to optimise work planning. managerial procedures and also the staff during the implementation phase. The overview of these general considerations is based on the following background: using internationally available data and the experience of one of the vendors, i.e. Siemens-Framatome, and management experience of SG replacement which took place at Krsko NPP in the spring of 2000. Generally plant decisions on maintenance or repair procedures under radiation conditions take into account ALARA considerations. But in the main it is difficult to adjudge the results of an ALARA study, usually in the form of a collective dose estimate, because a comparison standard is missing. That is, very often the planned work is of a one-off nature so comparisons are not possible or the scopes are not the same. In such a case the collective doses for other types of work are looked at and a qualitative evaluation is made. In the case of steam generator replacement this is not the case. Over years of steam generator replacements world-wide a standard has been developed gradually. The first part of the following displays an overview of SGR and sets the Krsko SGR in perspective by applying dose analysis. The second part concentrates on the Krsko SGR itself and its ALARA aspects. (authors)

  19. Peptide-Based Materials for Cartilage Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastar, Nurcan; Arslan, Elif; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2017-01-01

    Cartilaginous tissue requires structural and metabolic support after traumatic or chronic injuries because of its limited capacity for regeneration. However, current techniques for cartilage regeneration are either invasive or ineffective for long-term repair. Developing alternative approaches to regenerate cartilage tissue is needed. Therefore, versatile scaffolds formed by biomaterials are promising tools for cartilage regeneration. Bioactive scaffolds further enhance the utility in a broad range of applications including the treatment of major cartilage defects. This chapter provides an overview of cartilage tissue, tissue defects, and the methods used for regeneration, with emphasis on peptide scaffold materials that can be used to supplement or replace current medical treatment options.

  20. Engineering Human Neural Tissue by 3D Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting provides an opportunity to produce three-dimensional (3D) tissues for biomedical research and translational drug discovery, toxicology, and tissue replacement. Here we describe a method for fabricating human neural tissue by 3D printing human neural stem cells with a bioink, and subsequent gelation of the bioink for cell encapsulation, support, and differentiation to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia. The bioink uniquely comprises the polysaccharides alginate, water-soluble carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. Importantly, the method could be adapted to fabricate neural and nonneural tissues from other cell types, with the potential to be applied for both research and clinical product development.