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Sample records for unit references mn

  1. Mn and Btex Reference Value Arrays (Final Reports)

    Science.gov (United States)

    These final reports are a summary of reference value arrays with critical supporting documentation for the chemicals manganese, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. Each chemical is covered in a separate document, and each is a statement of the status of the available inha...

  2. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  3. A Stellar Reference Unit Design Study for SIRTF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    A design study for a stellar reference unit, or star tracker, for SIRTF was conducted in FY96 in conjunction with the Tracking Sensors Group of the Avionic Equipment Section of JPL. The resulting design was derived from the Oersted, autonomous, Advanced Stellar Compass, star tracker. The projecte...... of star tracker integration with the cryogenic telescope structure....

  4. A Stellar Reference Unit Design Study for SIRTF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    A design study for a stellar reference unit, or star tracker, for SIRTF was conducted in FY96 in conjunction with the Tracking Sensors Group of the Avionic Equipment Section of JPL. The resulting design was derived from the Oersted, autonomous, Advanced Stellar Compass, star tracker. The projected...

  5. Eurodish-Continuous Operation, System Improvement and Reference Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, T.; Schiel, W.; Heller, P.; Reinalter, W.; Gineste, J. M.; Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G.

    2006-07-01

    The 10 kWel Dish/Stirling system EuroDish was enhanced. Newly developed and improved components like the ceramic cavity insulation and the control system are described as well as a novel assembly method for the concentrator and a number of improvements and new features of the control software. Country Reference Units were built in Spain, France and Germany and are continuously operated. Operation experiences and performance data are presented. (Author)

  6. Reference Excitation Unit for Micro-Vibration Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, Dan; Hughes, Ben; Wagner, Mark

    2012-07-01

    The verification of hardware, in particular with respect to micro-vibration requirements, is challenging for both numerical simulation and experimental methodology. A commonly used test approach is to measure the interface reaction forces, torques, accelerations, velocities or displacements in all six degrees of freedom generated by the unit under test. In Europe, several test facilities exist to measure these generated micro-vibration forces based on dynamometer, pendulum and reverse pendulum principles. All these facilities and test setups need to be validated and calibrated with traceability to recognized international standards to ensure validity of the measurement results. Ideally, inter-facility comparisons would be conducted with identical excitation input signals and identical boundary conditions to increase confidence in the validity of the measurement produced by different facilities. To facilitate this requirement, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) - the UK’s national measurement institute, is developing a reference vibration excitation unit that will be capable of generating vibrations, linear or angular, of known amplitude and direction traceable to international standards. This activity is funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) in the frame of a Technology Research Study. This paper covers the design of the unit and how the vibrations generated will be traceable to international standards.

  7. Selected references on alkalic igneous rocks of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of references is presented providing background information on rock and mineral associations, geochemistry, geophysics, structural relationships, and geochronology of sialic, feldspathoidal, and some mafic alkalic igneous rock exposures in the US. Their locations and major characteristics are cited. No implication regarding U potential in these areas is intended. The first part of the bibliography provides general references to overall features of alkaline igneous rocks by region. The second part is a compilation of references on alkalic igneous rocks by state or groups of states. The third part provides information on rock type, age, and location for most of the references cited in part two. (JSR)

  8. Future National Reference Frames for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." NSRS is the nation's system of latitude, longitude, elevation, and related geophysical and geodetic models and tools, which provides a consistent spatial reference framework for the broad spectrum of geoscientific applications and other positioning-related requirements. Technological developments - notably Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - and user accuracy requirements necessitate that NGS endeavor to modernize the NSRS. Preparations are underway by NGS for a comprehensive NSRS makeover, to be completed in 2022 and delivered through a new generation of horizontal and vertical datums (reference frames), featuring unprecedented accuracy, repeatability, and efficiency of access. This evolution is outlined in the "National Geodetic Survey Ten-Year Strategic Plan, 2013-2023." This presentation will outline the motivation for this effort and the history, current status and planned evolution of NSRS. Fundamental to the delivery of the future reference frame paradigm are new geometric and geopotential (elevation) frameworks. The new geometric reference frame, realized through GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), will replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and will provide the nationwide framework for determination of latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height. Designed to complement the new geometric reference frame, a corresponding geopotential reference frame - based on a national gravimetric geoid and replacing the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) - will be developed and co-released. The gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential reference frame will be built in part from airborne gravimetric data collected in

  9. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  10. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  11. Contemporary Development of Academic Reference Librarianship in the United States: A 44-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanrong; Tang, Yingqi; Knight, Carley

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes job advertisements to identify the contemporary development of academic reference librarianship in the United States. Results show that more job openings, higher educational backgrounds, more duties & responsibilities, and variety of titles were assigned to academic reference librarian positions from 1966 through 2009.…

  12. Advanced Optical Inertial Reference Unit with 100 Nanoradian Stability, Two-axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    ATA Sensors and Systems produces precision angular rate sensors, state-of-the-art optical inertial reference units, fast steering mirrors, inertial measurement u-nits, actuators and controls used in long-range optical systems and laser communications and space qualified subsystems for satellite imaging and inertial guidance.

  13. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in benchmark soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.Heavy metals are a group of elements with specific features and natural occurrence in the environment, representing an accessory in the formation of rocks. These elements, although associated with toxicity, must be treated different from xenobiotics, since many

  14. Observational study of admission and triage decisions for patients referred to a regional intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D C

    2011-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify factors associated with decisions concerning triage and admission to the intensive care unit and to describe the outcome of patients referred to intensive care unit for admission. The study was a single-centre, prospective, observational study. It was performed in the general intensive care unit of a tertiary regional hospital, over the period of February to June 2009. The patients were non-elective, acute medical in-patients. For 100 patients referred, only 36 were admitted to the intensive care unit. The remaining 64 were declined admission: nine were declined admission because they were assessed as too sick to benefit, 41 were declined admission because they were assessed as too well to benefit and 14 were deemed to potentially benefit from intensive care unit admission but were not admitted ('triage'). Patients most likely to receive triage decisions were medical in-patients who had expressed wishes about end-of-life care, who were functionally limited with co-morbid conditions affecting their performance status. Patients referred by Resident Medical Officers were also more likely to receive a triage decision. Age, gender Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, diagnostic category and reason for referral did not impact on admission or triage decisions. Bed status in intensive care unit at the time of referral affected neither admission nor triage decisions. Hospital mortality in patients deemed too well to benefit from intensive care unit was 7.3%, suggesting that all patients referred for consideration of admission to intensive care unit should be classified as 'high risk'.

  15. Anti-wear properties on 20CrMnTi steel surfaces with biomimetic non-smooth units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to gain a sufficient wear resistance for applications, the biomimetic non-smooth units in concave were fabricated on the surfaces of 20CrMnTi steel using a biomimetic laser remelting technology. The diameter and distribution of the concaves were optimized using orthogonal experiment. The microstructures of the biomimetic non-smooth units were examined. The anti-wear behaviors were investigated by the rolling wear test with lubricant. The results of wear tests indicated that the biomimetic surfaces exhibit a higher anti-wear ability than the smooth surfaces. The biomimetic surface with concaves of 250 μm in diameter and transverse distance of 270 μm and longitudinal distance of 400 μm exhibits the best anti-wear property. The enhancement of wear resistance can be mainly attributed to the action of biomimetic non-smooth units and the super fined microstructure and hardness in the biomimetic unit zones.

  16. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  17. Self-assembled decanuclear Na(I)2Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 complexes: from discrete clusters to 1-D and 2-D structures, with the Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 unit displaying a large spin ground state and probable SMM behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2011-12-07

    The synthesis, magnetic characterization and X-ray crystal structures are reported for five new manganese compounds, [Mn(III)(teaH(2))(sal)]·(1/2)H(2)O (1), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(4)]·6MeOH (2), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·7MeOH (3), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·2MeOH·Et(2)O (4) and [K(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n)·5MeOH (5). Complex 1 is a mononuclear compound, formed via the reaction of Mn(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, triethanolamine (teaH(3)) and salicylic acid (salH(2)) in a basic methanolic solution. Compound 2 is a mixed-valent hetero-metallic cluster made up of a Mn(8)Na(2) decanuclear core and is formed via the reaction of sodium azide (NaN(3)) with 1. Compounds 3-5 are isolated as 1- or 2-D coordination polymers, each containing the decanuclear Mn(8)M(2) (M = Na(+) or K(+)) core building block as the repeating unit. Compound 3 is isolated when 1 is reacted with NaN(3) over a very short reaction time and forms a 1-D coordination polymer. Each unit displays inter-cluster bridges via the O-atoms of teaH(2-) ligands bonding to the sodium ions of an adjacent cluster. Increasing the reaction time appears to drive the formation of 4 which forms 2-D polymeric sheets and is a packing polymorph of 3. The addition of KMnO(4) and NaN(3) to 1 resulted in compound 5, which also forms a 1-D coordination polymer of the decanuclear core unit. The 1-D chains are now linked via inter-cluster potassium and salicylate bridges. Solid state DC susceptibility measurements were performed on compounds 1-5. The data for 1 are as expected for an S = 2 Mn(III) ion, with the isothermal M vs. H data being fitted by matrix diagonalization methods to give values of g and the axial (D) and rhombic (E) zero field splitting parameters of 2.02, -2.70 cm(-1) and 0.36 cm(-1) respectively. The data for 2-5, each with an identical Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4

  18. Methyl Iodide Accelerated Asymmetric Epoxidation of Alkenes Catalyzed by Chiral Salen-Mn(Ⅲ) Complexes with Tertiary Amine Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Yang; TANG,Ning

    2007-01-01

    A series of chiral salen-Mn(Ⅲ) complexes featuring two tertiary amine units were synthesized and employed in the enantioselective epoxidation of unfunctionalized alkenes in the presence of pyridine N-oxide and 2,6-dimethylpyridine N-oxide as proximal ligands, respectively. Moderate to high enantioselectivity and acceptable yields were achieved when NaClO was used as terminal oxidant under CH2Cl2/H2O biphasic media. Methyl iodide was found to be an effective additive to accelerate the epoxidation, possibly owing to the formation of quaternary ammonium units on catalysts, which may facilitate the reaction in an oil/water biphasic medium. The subsequent stimulation experiment was carried out, and the resulting ESI-HRMS analysis revealed the formation of a novel(salen)manganese(Ⅲ) intermediate featuring two quaternary ammonium units, and bearing a pyridine N-oxide and a molecule of water simultaneously axially-coordinated backbone.

  19. Manganese and Mn/Ca ratios in soil and vegetation in forests across the northeastern US: Insights on spatial Mn enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J B

    2017-03-01

    Manganese (Mn) cycling in the Critical Zone is important because of its role as an essential nutrient and potential toxicity to plants and organisms. Quantifying Mn enrichment in terrestrial environments has been limited since Mn is monoisotopic. However, elemental ratios of Mn/Ca ratios may be used to determine spatial Mn enrichment and in aboveground and belowground pools. The objectives of this study were to quantify the spatial variation in Mn concentrations and Mn/Ca ratios in foliage, bolewood, forest floor, and mineral soil horizons across the northeastern United States and compare Mn/Ca ratios to estimate enrichment. Forest floor and mineral soil samples were collected from 26 study sites across the northeastern United States and analyzed by strong acid digestion. Foliage and bolewood was collected from 12 of the 26 sites and analyzed for total Mn and Ca. Our results show forest floor and mineral soil horizon Mn concentrations and Mn/Ca ratios were higher at Pennsylvania and New York sites than New Hampshire and Vermont sites. Using a modified isotope equation, enrichment factors (EF) for Mn/Ca ratios were calculated to be ~3.6 in the forest floor, upper and lower mineral soil horizons at sites in New York and Pennsylvania compared to reference sites in New Hampshire and Vermont. Foliar and bolewood Mn concentrations also decreased from Pennsylvania towards New Hampshire. Moreover, foliar and bolewood Mn concentrations were strongly correlated to forest floor, upper, and lower mineral soil Mn concentrations. It was hypothesized that internal cycling (uptake, throughfall, and litterfall) of Mn controls retention of enriched Mn in forests. Geologic influences from a lithologic gradient and soil pH gradient could also influence Mn enrichment in addition to Mn pollution. Ratios of Mn/Ca and other elemental ratios hold promise as geochemical tracers but require further development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Unit Template Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Based Control Algorithm for DSTATCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangarraju, J.; Rajagopal, V.; Jayalaxmi, A.

    2014-04-01

    This article proposes new and simplified unit templates instead of standard phase locked loop (PLL) for Synchronous Reference Frame Theory Control Algorithm (SRFT). The extraction of synchronizing components (sinθ and cosθ) for parks and inverse parks transformation using standard PLL takes more execution time. This execution time in control algorithm delays the extraction of reference source current generation. The standard PLL not only takes more execution time but also increases the reactive power burden on the Distributed Static Compensator (DSTATCOM). This work proposes a unit template based SRFT control algorithm for four-leg insulated gate bipolar transistor based voltage source converter for DSTATCOM in distribution systems. This will reduce the execution time and reactive power burden on the DSTATCOM. The proposed DSTATCOM suppress harmonics, regulates the terminal voltage along with neutral current compensation. The DSTATCOM in distribution systems with proposed control algorithm is modeled and simulated using MATLAB using SIMULINK and Simpower systems toolboxes.

  1. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  2. Current issues of international law on offshore abandonment, with special reference to the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiguo [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article attempts to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent developments of international law on offshore abandonment. It scrutinizes the current issues and debates on the subject at both international and national levels, with special reference to the legislation and practice in the United Kingdom. Through a study of the current issues and trends in international law and policy developments, the articles undertakes to provide, where possible, practical considerations as to the possible resolution of some of the prominent problems faced by the international community in general, and some member states in particular. The future direction of international abandonment law also is briefly outlined.

  3. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  4. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  5. Self-construction of magnetic hollow La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 microspheres with complex units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xuefeng; Huang, Keke; Han, Mei; Feng, Shouhua

    2013-04-15

    Perovskite structure La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 magnetic hollow microspheres with complex units were prepared via the hydrothermal route without hard and soft templates. The formation of hollow microspheres follows the self-construction mechanism involving oriented attachment, dissolution, and recrystallization processes. It exhibits a ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature.

  6. [Characteristics of Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria Referred to the Gender Identity Treatment Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Rodríguez, María; Guerra Mora, Patricia; Martín Sánchez, Eloya

    2017-02-01

    The demand for treatment among people with gender dys-phoria has increased during the last years. The aim of the present research was to carry out an analysis of the demand of the teenagers that requested consultation at the UTIGPA (Gender Identity Treatment Unit of Principality of Asturias) as they presented complains of gender dysphoria. The sample included 20 minors that were treated between March 2007 and December 2015. The clinical history was made to collect informa-tion. It was made descriptive analysis and the reason sex/gender was used. The 20 teenagers represented the 14,6% of the whole sample (of 137 demands). The age average was 15,20 years (SD=1,473) and the range of years was between 12-17. The reason sex/gender was 1/1 (10 into the man to woman group and 10 into the woman to man group). At the arrival at the Treatment Unit, 100% of the individuals lived with their nuclear or extended family and in the 60% of the cases, their parents were separated. 70% of the cases were referred from mental health services. 10% hadn´t got any past medical history and 35% had never received any prescription for a psychopharmacological treatment. 95% hadn't done any hormonal self-treatment. 100% defined themselves as heterosexual. 25% requested exclusively for psychological interventions and 75% asked for medical treatments. The profile of the minor was a teenager of approximately 15 years old that was referred from mental health services. Contrary to the fin-dings of other national and international researches, the rate sex/gender was equated in our research. The minor had got a past medical history and their prio-rity request was for medical treatments, both hormonal and surgical therapies.

  7. Synthesis and Structure of a Mn(II)-triazolyl Coordination Polymer Consisting of Dinuclear Units%Synthesis and Structure of a Mn(II)-triazolyl Coordination Polymer Consisting of Dinuclear Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; XU Hong-Yan; KONG Fan-Zhen; YU Zhang-Yu; WANG Rui-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of bis(1,2,4-triazolyl-4-yl) (btr) and MnClO4-6H20 gave rise to a Mn(II) complex comprised of unprecedented dinuclear Mn(II) units, {[Mn2(btr)s(H20)5]- (ClO4)4(H20)2]n (1). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c. btr adopts two types of bridging modes. One serves as μ-N1 :N2 bridge through one triazolyl ring of btr forming a dinuclear Mn(II) unit, and the other adopts an exo-bidentate mode using two nitrogen atoms from each triazolyl ring and links the dinuclear units into a 2D cationic layer. ClO4 acts as a counter anion and does not take part in coordination. Interestingly, 2D layers are packed in an ABCABC mode. ClO4- and uncoordinated water molecules locate between the adjacent layers, and extensive hydrogen bonds further stabilize the whole framework.

  8. Evidence for single-chain magnet behavior in a Mn(III)-Ni(II) chain designed with high spin magnetic units: a route to high temperature metastable magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clérac, Rodolphe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masahiro; Coulon, Claude

    2002-10-30

    We herein present the synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of a new heterometallic chain of MnIII and NiII ions, [Mn2(saltmen)2Ni(pao)2(py)2](ClO4)2 (1) (saltmen2- = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(salicylideneiminate) and pao- = pyridine-2-aldoximate). The crystal structure of 1 was investigated by X-ray crystallographic analysis: compound 1 crystallized in monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15) with a = 21.140(3) A, b = 15.975(1) A, c = 18.6212(4) A, beta = 98.0586(4) degrees , V = 6226.5(7) A3, and Z = 4. This compound consists of two fragments, the out-of-plane dimer [Mn2(saltmen)2]2+ as a coordination acceptor building block and the neutral mononuclear unit [Ni(pao)2(py)2] as a coordination donor building block, forming an alternating chain having the repeating unit [-Mn-(O)2-Mn-ON-Ni-NO-]n. In the crystal structure, each chain is well separated with a minimum intermetallic distance between Mn and Ni ions of 10.39 A and with the absence of interchain pi overlaps between organic ligands. These features ensure a good magnetic isolation of the chains. The dc and ac magnetic measurements were performed on both the polycrystalline sample and the aligned single crystals of 1. Above 30 K, the magnetic susceptibility of this one-dimensional compound was successfully described in a mean field approximation as an assembly of trimers (Mn...Ni...Mn) with a NiII...MnIII antiferromagnetic interaction (J = -21 K) connected through a ferromagnetic MnIII...MnIII interaction (J'). However, the mean field theory fails to describe the magnetic behavior below 30 K emphasizing the one-dimensional magnetic character of the title compound. Between 5 and 15 K, the susceptibility in the chain direction was fitted to a one-dimensional Ising model leading to the same value of J'. Hysteresis loops are observed below 3.5 K, indicating a magnet-type behavior. In the same range of temperature, combined ac and dc measurements show a slow relaxation of the magnetization

  9. Single-ion anisotropy and exchange interactions in the cyano-bridged trimers MnIII2MIII(CN)6 (MIII = Co, Cr, Fe) species incorporating [Mn(5-Brsalen)]+ units: an inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Sheptyakov, Denis; Keller, Lukas;

    2009-01-01

    expectations based on the unquenched orbital angular momentum of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) anion, giving rise to an M(s) approximately +/-9/2 ground state, isolated by approximately 11.5 cm(-1) from the higher-lying levels. The reported INS and magnetic data should now serve as a benchmark against which theoretical......The electronic structures of the compounds K[(5-Brsalen)(2)(H(2)O)(2)-Mn(2)M(III)(CN)(6)].2H(2)O (M(III) = Co(III), Cr(III), Fe(III)) have been determined by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and magnetic susceptibility studies, revealing the manganese(III) single-ion anisotropy and exchange...... interactions that define the low-lying states of the Mn-M(III)-Mn trimeric units. Despite the presence of an antiferromagnetic intertrimer interaction, the experimental evidence supports the classification of both the Cr(III) and Fe(III) compounds as single-molecule magnets. The value of 17(2) cm(-1...

  10. Treatment Adherence of Tuberculosis Patients Attending Two Reference Units in Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundez, Gabriela; Perez-Freixo, Hugo; Eyene, Juan; Momo, Juan Carlos; Biyé, Lucia; Esono, Teodoro; Ondó Mba Ayecab, Marcial; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar; Herrador, Zaida

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Africa. Incomplete adherence to TB treatment has been identified as one of the most serious remaining problem in tuberculosis control. The following study is aimed at determining the adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in Equatorial Guinea and its determinants, as well as at assessing the knowledge of the people about the disease. In this cross-sectional study, participants were recruited by non-probabilistic consecutive sampling amongst patients who attended the reference units for TB in Bata and Malabo between March and July 2015. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Adherence to treatment and knowledge about TB were assessed by Morisky-Green-Levine and Batalla tests and a questionnaire on adherence related factors specifically prepared for this research. Descriptive statistics were computed to summarize the data and bivariate analyses by adherence profile were performed with χ2 test for categorical data. A total of 98 patients with TB were interviewed. 63.27% of interviewees had good knowledge about TB (Batalla test) while 78.57% of respondents were adherent according to the Morisky-Green-Levine test. A low educational level, lack of family support and lack of medical advice about the disease were significantly associated to lower adherence level. Patients with re-infection (due to relapse or treatment failure) and those who have suffered from drug shortages were also less adherents. The National Programme for TB Control should consider improving the early diagnosis and follow-up of TB cases, as well as the implementation of all components of DOTS (Directly observed Treatment, short-course) strategy all over the country.

  11. Embedded FPGA platform for fast steering mirror and optical inertial reference unit applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Steven; Morgan, Felix; Eckelkamp-Baker, Dan

    2011-05-01

    Applied Technology Associates (ATA) is developing a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based processing platform to transition our state-of-the-art fast-steering mirrors (FSM's) and optical inertial reference units (OIRU's) from the laboratory environment to field operation. This platform offers an abundance of reconfigurable high-speed digital input/output (I/O) and parallel hardware-based processing resources in a compact size, weight, and power (SWaP) form factor with a path to a radiation-hardened version. The FPGA's high-speed I/O can be used to acquire sensor data and drive actuators with minimal latency while the FPGA's processing resources can efficiently realize signal processing and control algorithms with deterministic timing. These features allow high sampling rates between 20 KHz - 30 KHz. This will result in higher open-loop bandwidths in our FSM's and OIRU's. This will subsequently result in improved disturbance rejection in our FSM's and improved base motion jitter rejection in our OIRU's. This paper briefly presents the embedded system requirements of ATA's FSM's and OIRU's and the FPGA-based computational architecture derived to meet these requirements. It then describes the FPGA cores and embedded software that have been developed to efficiently realize interfacing, signal processing, and data collection tasks. Special attention is given to ATA's high-performance floating-point co-processor and innovative design approach that translates signal processing and control algorithms developed in MATLAB®/Simulink® into their equivalent implementation on the co-processor.

  12. Treatment Adherence of Tuberculosis Patients Attending Two Reference Units in Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyene, Juan; Momo, Juan Carlos; Biyé, Lucia; Esono, Teodoro; Ondó Mba Ayecab, Marcial; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Equatorial Guinea has one of the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in Africa. Incomplete adherence to TB treatment has been identified as one of the most serious remaining problem in tuberculosis control. The following study is aimed at determining the adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment in Equatorial Guinea and its determinants, as well as at assessing the knowledge of the people about the disease. In this cross-sectional study, participants were recruited by non-probabilistic consecutive sampling amongst patients who attended the reference units for TB in Bata and Malabo between March and July 2015. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Adherence to treatment and knowledge about TB were assessed by Morisky-Green-Levine and Batalla tests and a questionnaire on adherence related factors specifically prepared for this research. Descriptive statistics were computed to summarize the data and bivariate analyses by adherence profile were performed with χ2 test for categorical data. A total of 98 patients with TB were interviewed. 63.27% of interviewees had good knowledge about TB (Batalla test) while 78.57% of respondents were adherent according to the Morisky-Green-Levine test. A low educational level, lack of family support and lack of medical advice about the disease were significantly associated to lower adherence level. Patients with re-infection (due to relapse or treatment failure) and those who have suffered from drug shortages were also less adherents. The National Programme for TB Control should consider improving the early diagnosis and follow-up of TB cases, as well as the implementation of all components of DOTS (Directly observed Treatment, short-course) strategy all over the country. PMID:27622461

  13. Spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of [Mn{sub 6}{sup III}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} single-molecule magnets and of manganese compounds as reference layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmstedt, Andreas; Mueller, Norbert; Gryzia, Aaron; Dohmeier, Niklas; Brechling, Armin; Sacher, Marc D; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Krickemeyer, Erich; Glaser, Thorsten [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Bielefeld, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Bouvron, Samuel; Fonin, Mikhail [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Neumann, Manfred, E-mail: andreas.helmstedt@uni-bielefeld.de [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastrasse 7, 49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)

    2011-07-06

    Properties of the manganese-based single-molecule magnet [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} are studied. It contains six Mn{sup III} ions arranged in two bowl-shaped trinuclear triplesalen building blocks linked by a hexacyanochromate and exhibits a large spin ground state of S{sub t} = 21/2. The dominant structures in the electron emission spectra of [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} resonantly excited at the L{sub 3}-edge are the L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}M{sub 2,3}, L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}V and L{sub 3}VV Auger emission groups following the decay of the primary p{sub 3/2} core hole state. Significant differences of the Auger spectra from intact and degraded [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} show up. First measurements of the electron spin polarization in the L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}V and L{sub 3}VV Auger emission peaks from the manganese constituents in [Mn{sup III}{sub 6}Cr{sup III}]{sup 3+} resonantly excited at the L{sub 3}-edge near 640 eV by circularly polarized synchrotron radiation are reported. In addition spin resolved Auger electron spectra of the reference substances MnO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mn{sup II}(acetate){sub 2{center_dot}}4H{sub 2}O are given. The applicability of spin resolved electron spectroscopy for characterizing magnetic states of constituent atoms compared to magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) is verified: the spin polarization obtained from Mn{sup II}(acetate){sub 2{center_dot}}4H{sub 2}O at room temperature in the paramagnetic state compares to the MCD asymmetry revealed for a star-shaped molecule with a Mn{sub 4}{sup II}O{sub 6} core at 5 K in an external magnetic field of 5 T.

  14. KEY COMPARISON: Activity measurements of the radionuclide 54Mn for the LNE-LNHB, France, NPL, United Kingdom and the MKEH, Hungary, in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Mn-54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kryeziu, D.; Moune, M.; Keightley, J.; Johansson, L.; Szucs, L.; Csete, I.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France, the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK and the Magyar Kereskedelmi Engedélyezési Hivatal (MKEH), Hungary submitted samples of known activity of 54Mn to the International Reference System (SIR). The range of the activities submitted was from 480 kBq to 1530 kBq. The key comparison results for these three national metrology institutes (NMIs) have replaced their previous results in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that contains eleven results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Mn-54. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  15. Chemical reactions during sintering of Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Ni-Mo-C-steels with special reference to processing in semi-closed containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cias A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintering of Cr, Mn and Si bearing steels has recently attracted both experimental and theoretical attention and processing in semiclosed containers has been reproposed. This paper brings together relevant thermodynamic data and considers the kinetics of some relevant chemical reactions. These involve iron and carbon, water vapour, carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen of the sintering atmospheres and the alloying elements Cr, Mn, Mo and Si. The paper concludes by presenting mechanical properties data for three steels sintered in local microatmosphere with nitrogen, hydrogen, nitrogen-5% hydrogen and air as the furnace gas.

  16. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In

  17. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  18. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In

  19. Uranium and thorium in urine of United States residents: reference range concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, B G; Paschal, D C; Jarrett, J M; Pirkle, J L; Jackson, R J; Sampson, E J; Miller, D T; Caudill, S P

    1999-07-01

    We measured uranium and thorium in urine of 500 U. S. residents to establish reference range concentrations using a magnetic-sector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). We found uranium at detectable concentrations in 96.6% of the urine specimens and thorium in 39.6% of the specimens. The 95th percentile concenetration for uranium was 34.5 ng/L (parts per trillion); concentrations ranged up to 4080 ng/L. Thorium had a 95th percentile concentration of 3.09 ng/L; concentrations ranged up to 7.7 ng/L. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  20. The formation of Palæoproterozoic banded iron formations and their associated Fe and Mn deposits, with reference to the Griqualand West deposits, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Dietrich D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper models the physico-chemical conditions of a Neoarchæan to Palæoproterozoic marine basin in which the sedimentary sequence of BIF, Fe and Mn ores of the Lake Superior-type formed. The model is based on Eh-pH diagram stability fields for Fe, silica and Mn solubilities (taken from the literature) and on field observations of the lithological sequences. BIF formation took place in epicontinental marine basins with free access to the ocean. The main Fe source for BIF formation was ocean enriched with about 6-10 ppm ferrous Fe of hydrothermal geochemical affinity. Land-derived Fe influxes into the BIF-forming basins certainly contributed, but the lack of clastic sedimentation precludes estimation of element budgets. The main silica source for formation of chert layers is sea water. If silica was precipitated by evaporation, the silica concentration of the BIF-forming sea must have been close to saturation (15-20 ppm). Biogenic silica concentration from a possible silica undersaturated sea may not be excluded. These inferred BIF-forming conditions fit the global occurrence of Lake Superior-type BIF in general, whereas special sedimentary environments were probably responsible for the formation of highly enriched laminated Fe ore at the Maremane Dome and in the Sishen-Kathu mining district in Griqualand West, and for the FeMn ores in the Kalahari field. Formation of laminated Fe ore in the Maremane Dome and in the Sishen-Kathu areas were restricted to local deeps within the BIF basins, caused by karst collapse in the underlying Campbellrand dolomites. In such deeps, increased pH values relative to the normal BIF-forming sea caused sufficiently increased silica solubility, resulting in the almost exclusive sedimentation of colloidal Fe precipitates. In the Kalahari field, the BIF sedimentation pile became silica-depleted when approaching the Mn layers. This was genetically controlled by the increased pH of sea water and increased silica solubility. Under

  1. Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Penido Campos Júnior

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.

  2. Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Penido Campos Júnior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.

  3. Social demographic aspects and self-referred health conditions of men attending a health care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissa de Oliveira Martins Cabacinha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at characterizing social demographic aspects and health conditions of men attending a Primary Family Health Care unit in Montes Claros, MG, Brazil, correlating these variables with health self-perception and identifying men’s difficulty in using the health service. 115 adult men were interviewed who had attended the service in April and May, 2013. Most of them had completed high school, were married and adopted healthy practices, although they consumed alcoholic beverages. The main complaint regarding the health service was the long waiting time for attendance. The main factors that contributed for negative self-perception of health were: being married, suffering from chronic diseases and having low education; whereas those that contributed to the positive self-perception of health were: being young, being employed and not making regular use of medication (p<0.05. Those findings can subsidize policies to prevent diseases in promoting men’s health.

  4. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2003–2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Margaret A; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L; Flegal, Katherine M

    2008-10-22

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2003-2006, adding to results published previously from 1960-2002. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 19,593 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population .

  5. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryar, Cheryl D; Gu, Qiuping; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-10-01

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2007-2010, adding to results published previously from the years 1960-2006. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 20,015 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  6. Trauma admissions to the Intensive care unit at a reference hospital in Northwestern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabula Joseph B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major trauma has been reported to be a major cause of hospitalization and intensive care utilization worldwide and consumes a significant amount of the health care budget. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and treatment outcome of major trauma patients admitted into our ICU and to identify predictors of outcome. Methods Between January 2008 and December 2010, a descriptive prospective study of all trauma admissions to a multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU of Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania was conducted. Results A total of 312 cases of major trauma were admitted in the ICU, representing 37.1% of the total ICU admissions. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 5.5:1. Their median age was 27 years. Trauma admissions were almost exclusively emergencies (95.2% and came mainly from the Accident and Emergency (60.6% and Operating room (23.4%. Road traffic crash (RTC was the most common cause of injuries affecting 70.8% of patients. Two hundred fourteen patients (68.6% required surgical intervention. The overall ICU length of stay (LOS for all trauma patients ranged from 1 to 59 days (median = 8 days. The median ICU length of hospital stay (LOS for survivors and non-survivors were 8 and 5 days respectively. (P = 0.002. Mortality rate was 32.7%. Mortality rate of trauma patients was significantly higher than that of all ICU admissions (32.7% vs. 18.8%, P = 0.0012. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, multiple injuries, severe head injuries and burns were responsible for a longer mean ICU stay (P 16, prolonged duration of loss of consciousness, delayed ICU admission (0.028, the need for ventilatory support and finding of space occupying lesion on computed tomography scan significantly influenced mortality (P Conclusion Trauma resulting from road traffic crashes is a leading cause of intensive care utilization in our hospital. Urgent preventive measures targeting at

  7. Bronze Age pottery from the Aeolian Islands: definition of Temper Compositional Reference Units by an integrated mineralogical and microchemical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, D.; Levi, S. T.; Fragnoli, P.; Renzulli, A.; Santi, P.; Paganelli, E.; Martinelli, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    An integrated microchemical-petrographic approach is here proposed to discriminate the provenance of archaeological pottery artefacts from distinct production centres. Our study focuses on a statistically significant sampling ( n=186) of volcanic temper-bearing potteries representative of the manufacturing and dispersion among the islands of the Aeolian Archipelago during the Bronze Age. The widespread establishment of new settlements and the abundant recovery of Aeolian-made ceramic in southern Italy attest for the increased vitality of the Archipelago during the Capo Graziano culture (Early Bronze Age-Middle Bronze Age 2; 2300-1430 BC). Potteries from three of the main known ancient communities (Lipari, Filicudi and Stromboli) have been studied integrating old collections and newly excavated material. Volcanic tempers have been first investigated through multivariate analyses of relative abundances of mineral and rock clasts along with petrographic characters. In addition, we performed in-situ mineral chemistry microanalyses by Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation—Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry to assess major and trace element composition of the most common mineral phases. Four Temper Compositional Reference Units have been recognised based on compositional trends. Two units (AI and AX) are unequivocally distinct by their peculiar trace element enrichment and petrographic composition; they mostly contain samples from the sites of Lipari and Stromboli, respectively. Units AIV and AVIII, restricted to the sites of Filicudi and Stromboli, show distinct petrographic characters but overlapped geochemical fingerprints.

  8. Trends in hydrophobic organic contaminants in urban and reference lake sediments across the United States, 1970-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    A shift in national policy toward stronger environmental protection began in the United States in about 1970. Conversely, urban land use, population, energy consumption, and vehicle use have increased greatly since then. To assess the effects of these changes on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey used sediment cores to reconstruct water-quality histories for38 urban and reference lakes across the United States. Cores were age-dated, and concentration profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons were tested statistically. Significant trends in total DDT, p,p???-DDE, and total PCBs were all downward. Trends in chlordane were split evenly between upward and downward, and trends in PAHs were mostly upward. Significant trends did not occur in about one-half of cases tested. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, and PCBs were about one-half as likely to exceed the probable effect concentration (PEC), a sediment quality guideline, in sediments deposited in the 1990s as in 1965-1975, whereas PAHs were twice as likely to exceed the PEC in the more recently deposited sediments. Concentrations of all contaminants evaluated correlated strongly with urban land use. Upward trends in PAH concentrations, the strong association of PAH with urban settings, and rapid urbanization occurring in the United States suggest that PAHs could surpass chlorinated hydrocarbons in the threat they pose to aquatic biota in urban streams and lakes.

  9. Mental Capacity Assessments Among Inpatients Referred to the Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Unit at a University Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariwatcharakul, Pornjira; Singhakant, Supachoke

    2017-03-01

    Clinicians routinely assess patients' mental capacity on a daily basis, but a more thorough assessment may be needed in complex cases. We aimed to identify the characteristics of inpatients in a general hospital, who were referred to a liaison psychiatry service for mental capacity assessment, reasons for the referrals, and the factors associated with their mental capacity. A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013) was conducted using data collected routinely (e.g., age, gender, diagnosis, Thai Mental State Examination score, reasons for the referral, and the outcome of capacity assessment) on referrals for mental capacity assessment to a Consultation-liaison Psychiatry Unit at a university hospital in Thailand. Among 6194 consecutive referrals to the liaison-psychiatry services, only 0.6 % [n = 37, mean age (SD), 59.83 (20.42)] were referred for capacity assessment, 43.24 % of which lacked mental capacity. The most common requests from referring physicians were for assessment of testamentary capacity (15 assessed, 53.33 % lacking capacity), financial management capacity (14 assessed, 50 % lacking capacity), and capacity to consent to treatment (9 assessed, 22.22 % lacking capacity). Delirium, rather than dementia or other mental disorders, was associated with mental incapacity (p < 0.001) and being more dependent during the admission (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences for mean age (p = 0.257) or Thai Mental State Examination score (p = 0.206). The main request from referring clinicians was to assess testamentary capacity. Delirium and being more dependent during the admission were associated with lack of mental capacity, whereas age and dementia were not.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of one-dimensional and molecular M(tren)InAsS4 (M = Mn, Co, and Zn) compounds with a noncondensed AsS3(3-) unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenqing; Zhang, Hongjie; Wang, Cheng

    2009-09-07

    Four transition-metal-amine complexes incorporating indium thioarsenates with the general formula M(tren)InAsS(4) (M = Mn, Co, and Zn) and a noncondensed AsS(3)(3-) unit have been prepared and characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses show that compound 1 (M = Mn) crystallizes in the triclinic crystal system (space group: P1) and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) inorganic (1)(infinity){[InAsS(4)](2-)} chain and [Mn(tren)](2+) groups bonded to the opposite sides of an eight-membered In(2)As(2)S(4) ring along the backbone of the infinite inorganic chains. Compounds 2 (M = Mn), 3 (M = Zn), and 4 (M = Co) are isomorphous molecular compounds. They all crystallize in the monoclinic crystal system (space group: P2(1)/c). The Mn(2+) cation of [Mn(tren)](2+) in 1 has a distorted octahedral environment, while the transition-metal cations of [M(tren)](2+) in the other three compounds locate in trigonal-bipyramidal environments. This difference results in different bonding modes of [M(tren)](2+) to indium thioarsenates between compound 1 and the other three compounds.

  11. Initial audiologic assessment of infants referred from well baby, special care, and neonatal intensive care unit nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzon, Roanne K; Lieu, Judith E Cho

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-hr initial audiologic assessment appointment for infants referred from area universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) programs to a clinical audiology department in an urban hospital. A prospective auditory brainstem response (ABR)-based protocol, including clicks, frequency-specific tone bursts, and bone-conducted stimuli, was administered by 10 audiologists to 375 infants. Depending on the ABR findings, additional test options included distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), high-frequency tympanometry, and/or otologic examination. In 88% of the 2-hr test sessions, at least 4 ABR threshold estimates were obtained (i.e., bilateral clicks and either a 500- or 1000-Hz tone burst and a 4000-Hz frequency tone burst for the better ear). The incidence of hearing loss was significantly different across nursery levels: 18% for Level I (well baby), 29% for Level II (special care), and 52% for Level III (neonatal intensive care unit). Hearing loss type was defined at the initial assessment for 35 of the 51 infants with bilateral hearing loss based on bone-conduction ABR, latency measures, DPOAEs, high-frequency tympanometry, and/or otologic examination. Our findings indicate that a 2-hr test appointment is appropriate for all nursery levels to diagnose severity and type of hearing loss in the majority of infants referred from UNHS. Examination by an otolaryngologist within 24-48 hr further defines the hearing loss and facilitates treatment plans.

  12. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  13. A wireless swing angle measurement scheme using attitude heading reference system sensing units based on microelectromechanical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingtuan; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jianguo; Huang, Boran

    2014-11-27

    Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS) sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload) and the jib (or base) of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  14. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload and the jib (or base of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  15. Solvent-mediated secondary building units (SBUs) diversification in a series of MnII-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan-Fei; Cui, Li-Ting; Han, Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Li

    2016-09-01

    The role of auxiliary solvents in the formation of MOFs has been investigated for a series of MnII-based framework systems. Reactions of 4,4‧,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H3L) with MnII through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium resulted in the formation of diversified multinuclear MnII subunits in four new coordination polymers: [Mn3(L)(HCOO)3(DEF)3] (1), [Mn3(L)2(EtOH)2]·DMF (2), [Mn5(L)4(H2O)2]·2(H2NMe2)+·4DMF·2H2O (3), and [Mn3(L)2(py)4(H2O)]·H2O (4) (H3L=4,4‧,4‧-nitrilotribenzoic acid, DMF=dimethylformamide, DEF=N,N-diethylformamide, py=pyridine). These four compounds were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing interesting SBUs variations. For compound 1, it displays a (3,6)-connected kgd net with wheel [Mn6] cluster serving as SBU, whereas in 2, the sequence of Mn3(COO)9(EtOH)2 is repeated by inversion centers located between Mn1 and Mn3 to form an infinite Mn-carboxylate chain, which are further interlinked by L3- ligands to form a 3D architecture. In 3, the pentanuclear Mn5(CO2)12 clusters are interlinked to form a layer, which are further pillared by L3- to generate a 3D network. Compound 4 has a (3,6)-connected network in which the SBU is a linear trimeric Mn3(COO)6(py)4(H2O) cluster. In addition, the thermal stabilities, X-ray powder diffraction of all the compounds were studied, photoluminescence behaviors of compounds 1, 3 and 4 are discussed.

  16. Certification of the contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour and lyophilized brown bread reference materials. Wholemeal flour - CRM no. 189; brown bread - CRM no. 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaffe, P.J.; Griepink, B.; Muntau, H.; Schramel, P.

    1987-01-01

    The report describes the preparation and certification of a wholemeal flour (CRM 189) and a lyophilised brown breas (CRM 191) for their contents (mass fractions) of elements of toxicological and nutritional importance: Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Indicative values are also given for As, Ca, Cl, Cr, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, P and K. Details are given of a preliminary intercomparison of methods for these elements in a wholemeal flour sample, homogeneity and stability studies on the two reference materials and the results and evaluation of the certification exercise which involved 21 European Laboratories. Summaries of the certification methods are also presented. The report concludes with a discussion of the most common sources of error in determining the elements of interest and the steps to be taken to control them. With 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  17. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  18. Dental age assessment of Maltese children and adolescents. Development of a reference dataset and comparison with a United Kingdom Caucasian reference dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshehawi, Waleed; Alsaffar, Hani; Roberts, Graham; Lucas, Victoria; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a Reference Data Set for Dental Age Assessment of the Maltese population and compare the mean Age of Attainment to a UK Caucasian Reference Data Set. The Maltese Reference Data Set was developed from 1593 Dental Panoramic Tomograms of patients aged between 4 and 26 years, taken from the radiographic archives of the Dental Department, Mater Dei Hospital, Malta. Tooth Development Stages were recorded for all 16 maxillary and mandibular permanent teeth on the left side and both permanent third molars on the right, according to Demirjian's staging method. Summary and percentile data were calculated for each Tooth Development Stage, including the mean Age of Attainment. These means were used to estimate the Dental Age of each subject in the study sample using the simple unweighted average method. The estimated Dental Age was compared to the gold standard of the Chronological Age. Comparison of the Maltese and UK Caucasian Reference Data Set was by a series of t-tests, carried out for each paired Tooth Development Stage by gender. The mean Age of Attainment was slightly higher for the Maltese than the UK Caucasians in both males and females. However there was no statistically significant difference between the Chronological Age and Dental Age for either sex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  20. EVALUASI PEMANFAATAN JURNAL DALAM DATABASE "EBSCO BIOMEDICAL REFERENCE COLLECTION" DI UNIT PERPUSTAKAAN DAN INFORMATIKA KEDOKTERAN (UPIK FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UGM YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Wardhani S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluasi terhadap pemanfaatan koleksi sangat diperlukan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar koleksi tersebut diakses dan dimanfaatkan oleh pengguna. Ebsco Biomedical Reference Collection (Ebsco BRC merupakan salah satu database jurnal yang berparadigma akses. Evaluasi pemanfaatan jurnal dalam database Ebsco BRC merupakan penelitian tentang pemanfaatan koleksi perpustakaan yang dilakukan di UPIK (Unit Perpustakaan dan Informatika Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat keterpakaian dan pemanfaatan jumal oleh sivitas akademika di FK UGM. Evaluasi dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. . Instrumen yang digunakan dalam evaluasi adalah kuesioner dan usage statistics report. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat keterpakaian jurnal berdasarkan judul yang ada tinggi (97,96%, akan tetapi tingkat pengaksesannya belum dilakukan secara maksimal. Rata-rata pengaksesan jurnal setiap harinya 25%. Dari data usage statistics report dapat diketahui sebanyak 12 judul jumal yang diakses lebih dari 1000 kali yang dinyatakan sebagai jumal yang paling sering diakses oleh pengguna. Saran peneliti berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah bahwa kegiatan melanggan koleksi database Ebsco dapat terus dilakukan , akan tetapi UPIK harus berusaha meningkatkan sosialisasi koleksi, aksesibilitas, fasilitas, dan bimbingan bagi pengguna dalam melakukan penelusuran dalam database tersebut agar dapat dimanfaatkan secara maksimal. Kata Kunci: Evaluasi Koleksi, Ebsco

  1. Reference Temperature Determination of Master Curve for 16MnR Steel Using Small Specimens%基于小尺寸试样的主曲线参考温度T0的确定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹昱澎; 惠虎; 轩福贞

    2011-01-01

    The size effect on master curve reference temperature for 16MnR was studied using 1 T - SE ( B) , 0. 5 T - SE( B) and PCVN specimens. It is found that the allowable limit of M specified in ASTM E1921 is un - conservative. Although To value from 0. 5 T - SE( B) is valid according to E1921, it is much lower than the 1 T - SE( B) result. However,the To from PCVN data is invalid. The fracture toughness data from 0.5 T and PCVN specimens were scaled to the 1 T size by using Beremin model. Taking account of the constraint effect, the difference between To values measured using small specimens and 1 T specimen is obviously decreased.%采用16MnR钢进行了标准1英寸,0.5英寸和预制裂纹的夏比尺寸三点弯试样的断裂韧性试验,得到了试样尺寸对主曲线参考温度T0的影响.发现0.5英寸试样在满足ASTM E1921标准的情况下,所确定的T0明显低于标准1英寸试样确定的T0,表明ASTM E1921限定试样变形极限的M值不够保守,且夏比尺寸试样无法计算T0.提出了Beremin模型的拘束度修正,经过修正大幅缩小了小尺寸试样确定的T0与1英寸试样确定的T0之间的差异.

  2. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The

  3. Solvent-mediated secondary building units (SBUs) diversification in a series of Mn{sup II}-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Yan-Fei; Cui, Li-Ting [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Han, Jie, E-mail: chan@ouhk.edu.hk [School of Science & Technology, The Open University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Zhao, Xiao-Li, E-mail: xlzhao@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The role of auxiliary solvents in the formation of MOFs has been investigated for a series of Mn{sup II}-based framework systems. Reactions of 4,4′,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H{sub 3}L) with Mn{sup II} through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium resulted in the formation of diversified multinuclear Mn{sup II} subunits in four new coordination polymers: [Mn{sub 3}(L)(HCOO){sub 3}(DEF){sub 3}] (1), [Mn{sub 3}(L){sub 2}(EtOH){sub 2}]·DMF (2), [Mn{sub 5}(L){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2(H{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sup +}·4DMF·2H{sub 2}O (3), and [Mn{sub 3}(L){sub 2}(py){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O (4) (H{sub 3}L=4,4′,4′-nitrilotribenzoic acid, DMF=dimethylformamide, DEF=N,N-diethylformamide, py=pyridine). These four compounds were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing interesting SBUs variations. For compound 1, it displays a (3,6)-connected kgd net with wheel [Mn{sub 6}] cluster serving as SBU, whereas in 2, the sequence of Mn{sub 3}(COO){sub 9}(EtOH){sub 2} is repeated by inversion centers located between Mn1 and Mn3 to form an infinite Mn-carboxylate chain, which are further interlinked by L{sup 3−} ligands to form a 3D architecture. In 3, the pentanuclear Mn{sub 5}(CO{sub 2}){sub 12} clusters are interlinked to form a layer, which are further pillared by L{sup 3−} to generate a 3D network. Compound 4 has a (3,6)-connected network in which the SBU is a linear trimeric Mn{sub 3}(COO){sub 6}(py){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O) cluster. In addition, the thermal stabilities, X-ray powder diffraction of all the compounds were studied, photoluminescence behaviors of compounds 1, 3 and 4 are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Supramolecular assembly of C{sub 3}-symmetric ligand 4,4′,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H{sub 3}L) with Mn{sup II} through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium resulted in the formation of diversified multinuclear Mn{sup II} subunits in four new coordination polymers. The results exhibit the structures of Mn-SBUs in these

  4. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 54}Mn for the L.N.E.-L.N.H.B., France, N.P.L., United Kingdom and the M.K.E.H., Hungary, in the ongoing comparison B.I.P.M..R.I.(2)-K1.Mn-54

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kryeziu, D. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Moune, M.; K [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire National Henri Becquer (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Keightley, J.; Johanson, L. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL) (United Kingdom); Szucs, L.; Csete, I. [MKEH, Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-08-15

    In 2006, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et essais- Laboratoire national Henri becquerel (L.N.E.- L.N.H.B.), France, the National physical laboratory (N.P.L.), UK and the magyar kereskedelmi Engedelyezesi Hivatal (M.K.E.H.), hungary submitted samples of known activity of {sup 54}Mn to the International reference system (S.I.R.). The range of the activities submitted was from 480 kBq to 1530 kBq. the key comparison results for these three national metrology institutes (N.M.I.) have replaced their previous results in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that contains eleven results, identifier B.I.P.M..R.I.(2)-KI.Mn-54. (authors)

  5. Self-assembly of linear [Mn II 2 Mn III ] units with end-on azido bridges: the construction of a ferromagnetic chain using S T = 7 high-spin trimers

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. The controlled organization of high-spin complexes into 1D coordination polymers is a challenge in molecular magnetism. In this work, we report a ferromagnetic Mn trimer Mn3(HL)2(CH3OH)6(Br)4·Br·(CH3OH)21 (H2L = 2-[(9H-fluoren-9-yl)amino]propane-1,3-diol) with the ground spin state of ST = 7 that can be assembled into a one-dimensional coordination chain [Mn3(HL)2(CH3OH)2(Br)4(N3)(H2O)·CH3OH]2 using azido bridging ligands. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic nature of 1 is well retained in 2. However, due to the negligible magnetic anisotropy in 1, both 1 and 2 do not show slow-relaxation of magnetization, which indicates that during the process of molecular assembly not only the intratrimer magnetic interaction but also the magnetic anisotropy of the trimer can be reserved.

  6. Comparison of referrals to crisis-units of RIAGGs (Dutch community mental health centres) : police vs. other referring agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, JA; Brook, FG; Geelhoed-Jenner, BNWJ; Geelhoed, APJ; DeClercq, M; Andreoli, A; Lamarre, S; Forster, P

    1999-01-01

    Background. Conflicting views exist on the role of the police in assessing and referring persons with psychiatric problems. This study analysed differences between referrals as to sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology as scored with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and

  7. Photoionization study of Ne-like K9+, Ca10+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, Mn15+, and Fe16+ ions using the screening constant by unit nuclear charge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Sow, Malick; Sakho, Ibrahima; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A. K.; Mohan, Man

    2016-08-01

    Photoionization of the 2s22p6 (1S0) ground state of the Ne-like (Z=19-29) ions is presented in this paper. Resonance energies and total natural width of the 2s2p6np 1P series of the Ne-like K9+, Ca10+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, Mn15+, and Fe16+are reported. All the calculations are made using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. New data for Ne-like K9+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, and Mn15+ions are tabulated. Good agreements are found with available literature data.

  8. New oxygen-deficient cationic-ordered perovskites containing turquoise-coloring Mn5+O4 tetrahedral layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yifeng; Ye, Xuanhong; Zhu, Hong; Li, Yuexiang; Kuang, Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Ba6Na2M2Mn2O17 (M=Nb, Ta) oxides were synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction. The compounds adopt 6-layer perovskite-related structure (referred to as 6C) in P 3 ̅m1, analogous to Ba6Na2Nb2P2O17. The 6C structure consists of cubic (c) BaO3 layers and pseudo-cubic (c') oxygen-vacancy-ordered BaO2 layers stacked according to a sequence of c'ccccc. Ordering of oxygen vacancies in oxygen-deficient c'-BaO2 layers leads to two successive isolated tetrahedral layers, which stabilize an unusual +5 oxidation state for Mn cations in the tetrahedral sites. In Ba6Na2M2Mn2O17, these two Mn5+O4 layers are sandwiched by two single octahedral NaO6 layers that connected by two successive octahedral NbO6 layers, forming alternative 2:1-ordered (Ba3NaM2O9)- and (Ba3NaMn2O8)+ perovskite-like units along the stacking direction. The Mn5+O4 tetrahedral units act as a turquoise chromophore in Ba6Na2M2Mn2O17, making these two compounds potential turquoise-coloring materials for the cool pigments.

  9. Guest worker employment, with special reference to the Federal Republic of Germany, France and Switzerland : lessons for the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Boehning WR

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper on a comparison of employment policies for migrant workers in Germany, Federal Republic, France and Switzerland, drawing lessons for the USA - outlines trends in the number of seasonal workers and other workers given work permits from 1950 to 1979, and studies indicators of family migration, inactivity, duration of stay and return migration, etc. References and statistical tables.

  10. Introduction to Agricultural Business Unit. Student Reference for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. [Volume 19, Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Joseph J.; Birkenholz, Robert J.

    This student reference on agricultural business, designed to accompany the lessons outlined in the 1984 instructor's guide, "Introduction to Agricultural Business," has seven lessons: (1) introduction to agribusiness; (2) careers in agribusiness; (3) agribusiness in the community; (4) the role of the employee in an agribusiness; (5)…

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of Mn-C Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Er-bao; WANG Shi-jun

    2008-01-01

    Carbon solubility in Mn-Fe melts (xMn=0.161-0.706, xFe=0.034-0.633) was measured experimentally at various temperatures. By thermodynamic derivation and calculation, the relationship between activity coefficient of carbon in infinite dilute solution of manganese in Mn-C system and temperature was obtained. Using Gibbs-Duhem relationship, the experimental results of this study, and experimental data reported in references, the relationship between other thermodynamic properties in Mn-C system and temperature were obtained by thermodynamic derivation and calculation.

  12. Effect of Mn and MnS on corrosion properties of domestic pipeline steels and welds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云涛; 杜则裕; 陶勇寅; 李建军

    2004-01-01

    Base metals of domestic pipeline steels were used to study the effect of Mn on corrosion properties of SSCC(Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking), and welds were carried out to study the effect of MnS on corrosion properties of HIC (Hydrogen Induced Cracking) both in solutions with wet hydrogen sulfide(H2S). They were respectively conducted by referring to the standards of SSCC and HIC. Testing results revealed that with the increase of content Mn, the resistance of SSCC will be decreased, from the point of metallurgic view, and it is Mn element not C element to lead to the testing results of SSCC. Meanwhile, even under the condition without inclusions MnS, HIC in welds still occurred. That is to say, MnS is not necessary for HIC, the presence of local banded structures in which Mn and P are inclined to aggregate cause to the phenomena of HIC.

  13. Use of a United States-based laboratory as a hematopathology reference center for a developing country: logistics and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, C O; Scott, M G; Ladenson, J H; Seyoum, M; Hassan, A; Kreisel, F H; Nguyen, T T; Frater, J L

    2013-02-01

    With proper logistical support and sponsorship, a laboratory in an industrialized nation might be able to act as a reference laboratory for clinicians based in a developing country. We built on previous experience in the clinical laboratory to see whether a specialized histopathology service (hematopathology) could be provided to a developing country without the expertise or experience to do it in country. Over an 13-year period, 582 cases from 579 individuals were analyzed. Principal pathologic findings included acute leukemia in 84 cases (14%), dyspoiesis in one or more of the hematopoietic lineages in 65 cases (11%, including three cases with high-grade myelodysplasia), 23 cases (4%) with findings suspicious for a chronic myeloproliferative disorder, 35 cases (6%) with findings suspicious for a lymphoproliferative disorder, and infectious organisms (presumably Leishmania in most instances) in 9 (1%) of cases. Specimens from 45 cases (8%) were unsatisfactory owing to extreme hemodilution and/or specimen degeneration. With proper support, a medical laboratory in an industrialized nation may serve as a reference facility for a developing nation. The use of existing infrastructure may be remarkably effective to achieve optimal turnaround time. Although the lack of ancillary studies and follow-up biopsies limit the ability to achieve a definitive diagnosis in many cases, this must be viewed in the context of the limited ability to diagnose or manage hematopoietic neoplasia in developing nations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. SU-E-T-516: Measurement of the Absorbed Dose Rate in Water Under Reference Conditions in a CyberKnife Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon-Martinez, N; Hernandez-Guzman, A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, DF (Mexico); Gomez-Munoz, A [Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Mexico City, DF (Mexico); Massillon-JL, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to measure the absorbed-dose-rate in a CyberKnife unit reference-field (6cm diameter) using three ionization chambers (IC) following the new IAEA/AAPM formalism and Gafchromic film (MD-V3-55 and EBT3) protocol according to our work reported previously. Methods: The absorbed-dose-rates were measured at 90cm and 70cm SSD in a 10cmx10cm field and at 70cm SSD in a 5.4cmx5.4cm equivalent to 6cm diameter field using a linac Varian iX. All measurements were performed at 10cm depth in water. The correction factors that account for the difference between the IC response on the reference field and the CyberKnife reference field, k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref), were evaluated and Gafchromic film were calibrated using the results obtained above. Under the CyberKnife reference conditions, the factors were used to measure the absorbed-dose-rate with IC according to the new formalism and the calibrated film was irradiated in water. The film calibration curve was used to evaluate the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife unit. Results: Difference up to 2.56% is observed between dose-rate measured with IC in the reference 10cmx10cm field, depending where the chamber was calibrated, which was not reflected in the correction factor k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref ) where variations of ~0.15%-0.5% were obtained. Within measurements uncertainties, maximum difference of 1.8% on the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife reference field is observed between all IC and the films Conclusion: Absorbed-dose-rate to water was measured in a CyberKnife reference field with acceptable accuracy (combined uncertainties ~1.32%-1.73%, k=1) using three IC and films. The MD-V3-55 film as well as the new IAEA/AAPM formalism can be considered as a suitable dosimetric method to measure absorbed-dose-rate to water in small and non-standard CyberKnife fields used in clinical treatments However, the EBT3 film is not appropriated due to the high uncertainty provided (combined uncertainty ~9%, k=1

  15. Rational serendipity: "undirected" synthesis of a large {MnCu} complex from pre-formed Mn(II) building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jamie M; Kettles, Fraser J; Wilson, Claire; Murrie, Mark

    2016-11-15

    Use of an aminopolyalcohol-based Mn(II) complex in solvothermal Cu(II) chemistry leads to a rare example of a high nuclearity heterometallic {MnCu} system, in which four Cu(II)(H1Edte) units trap an inner {MnCu(II)} oxide core.

  16. De novo clustering methods outperform reference-based methods for assigning 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Westcott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. 16S rRNA gene sequences are routinely assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs that are then used to analyze complex microbial communities. A number of methods have been employed to carry out the assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to OTUs leading to confusion over which method is optimal. A recent study suggested that a clustering method should be selected based on its ability to generate stable OTU assignments that do not change as additional sequences are added to the dataset. In contrast, we contend that the quality of the OTU assignments, the ability of the method to properly represent the distances between the sequences, is more important.Methods. Our analysis implemented six de novo clustering algorithms including the single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, abundance-based greedy clustering, distance-based greedy clustering, and Swarm and the open and closed-reference methods. Using two previously published datasets we used the Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC to assess the stability and quality of OTU assignments.Results. The stability of OTU assignments did not reflect the quality of the assignments. Depending on the dataset being analyzed, the average linkage and the distance and abundance-based greedy clustering methods generated OTUs that were more likely to represent the actual distances between sequences than the open and closed-reference methods. We also demonstrated that for the greedy algorithms VSEARCH produced assignments that were comparable to those produced by USEARCH making VSEARCH a viable free and open source alternative to USEARCH. Further interrogation of the reference-based methods indicated that when USEARCH or VSEARCH were used to identify the closest reference, the OTU assignments were sensitive to the order of the reference sequences because the reference sequences can be identical over the region being considered. More troubling was the observation that while both USEARCH and

  17. Prevalence study of dermatoses referred to the phototherapy unit at the Dermatology Service of the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casara, Carolina; Eidt, Leticia; Cunha, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phototherapy consists of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for therapeutic reasons. Radiation is already used in dermatological practice, and many studies have already proved the beneficial effect of UV light treatment for chronic inflammatory or lymphoproliferative skin diseases. The Dermatology Service of the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre (Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre) has been using phototherapy for a long time, and no official data have been described so far. OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of dermatoses referred to the phototherapy unit at the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre and describe the total number of patients who have already been referred to this sector and their phototype. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were collected through a review of the phototherapy patients' records (secondary data), which are available on a database of the Dermatology Service of the Clinics Hospital of Porto Alegre, from August 1997 to July 2011. RESULTS: A total of 653 records were analyzed. Phototype 3 was the most prevalent (n=313). Distribution of the prevalence of dermatoses referred to the phototherapy unit was as follows: vitiligo (279), psoriasis (255), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma/mycosis fungoides (29), graftversus-host disease (15), scleroderma (11), atopic dermatitis (10), alopecia areata (6), parapsoriasis (5), eczema (4), granuloma annulare (4), and others (35). As vitiligo and psoriasis were the two most prevalent dermatoses, they were analyzed separately, with no statistical difference in prevalence between them (P=0,177). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are in accordance with the literature, showing that although phototherapy is still mostly indicated to treat psoriasis, it has been used to treat other dermatoses, since the results are promising. PMID:23739698

  18. Study of the electronic structure and half-metallicity of CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Jun-Nan; Huang, Jian-Qi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the electronic structure, magnetic properties and half-metallicity of the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice are investigated by employing the first-principle calculation based on density functional theory within the GGA or GGA + U exchange-correlation functional. The CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice is constructed by the cubic CaMnO3 and the tetragonal ferroelectric BaTiO3 growing alternately along (0 0 1) direction. The cubic CaMnO3 presents a robust half-metallicity and a metastable ferromagnetic phase. Its magnetic moment is an integral number of 3.000 μB per unit cell. However, the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice has a stable ferromagnetic phase, for which the magnetic moment is 12.000 μB per unit cell. It also retains the robust half-metallicity which mainly results from the strong hybridization between Mn and O atoms. The results show that the constructed CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice exhibits superior magnetoelectric properties. It may provide a theoretical reference for the design and preparation of new multiferroic materials.

  19. Efektivitas Unit Pengolahan Air di Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang (DAMIU Dalam Menurunkan Kadar Logam (Fe, Mn dan Mikroba di Kota Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:The number of drinking-water-refill center were increasing only in quantity but not in providing the quality of water. Therefore it takes a special handling and attention, not only because the low-quality of water causing various diseases.The data from the Pekalongan City Health servic showed that only 13 of 55 drinking-water-refill center (24% which have actively examined their sample water each month in bacteriological test, 3 of them (20% proved to be unqualified. Furthermore, while for chemical examination, there were only 6 (11% which actively doing it, and 2 of them (33% mentioned as unqualified. After doing examination to the raw water, it was found that the content of Fe metal was 2.51 mg/1, Mn metal was 2.41 mg/1, the parameters found was beyond the standard. Methode:The kind of research held was explanatory research using cross sectional design. The sample was taken by proportional sampling. The number of samples was 35 refill centers.The data would be analyzed uding Chi-Square,pairedt-test,Kruskall Wallis, McNemar Test and multivariate test (Logistc regression. Result:The results of this research showed that 23 samples (66% had an unqualified Fe metal content with the average content was 0,34 mg/l, 19 samples (54% had an unqualified Mn metal content, with the average content was 0.47 mg/1, 26 samples (74% with The unqualified quality of E.coli. The other test carried out in the drinking-water refill, resulted that 25 samples (71% had a qualified Fe metal content, the average was 0.29/1 and 22 samples (63% had a qualified E.coli content.The results of Bivariate analysis showed that the condition of raw water, the equipment, the processing, the sanitation, the SOP compliance, significantly related to the decreasing of Fe, Mn metal content and E.coli (p. <0.05. While the results of the multivariate analysis from 5 variables, 1 of which were statistically proven that there was a asosiation relationship between raw water

  20. 76 FR 22033 - Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN AGENCY... Safety Unit Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Red River, MN. This safety zone is...-0263 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0263 Safety zone; Red River Safety Zone, Red River, MN. (a...

  1. C-Mn segregation and its effect on phase transformation and deformation in Fe-Mn-C alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱瑞富; 吕宇鹏; 魏涛

    1997-01-01

    C-Mn segregation and its effect on phase transformation and plastic deformation in Fe-Mn-C alloys were studied through the calculation of valence electron structure, the microregion composition detection and TEM in-situ dynamic tensile deformation test The experimental results show that in Fe-8Mn-1.2C alloyed austenite, nA of units with C Mn involved is 3 98 times that of units without C involved and 1.4 times that of units with C involved; aCD of units with C-Mn involved is 2 21 times that of units with C involved. In Fe-Mn-C alloyed austenites, there exists microsegrcgation of C-Mn, forming the randomly distributed Fe-Mn-C atomic cluster segregation zone linked with the -C-Mn-C-Mn- strong bond network, which will effectively slow down the motion of atoms and retard the initiation of the slip system and the movement of dislocation, and thus will severely influence the phase transformation and deformation of the alloy

  2. Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Multilayer Heterostructure SrNb0.05 Ti0.95O3/La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 in 10000 Unit-Cell Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-Hong; HE Meng; TIAN Huan-Fang; ZHAO Kun; L(U) Hui-Bin; JIN Kui-Juan; LI Jian-Qi; YANG Guo-Zhen

    2008-01-01

    Ten thousands of unit-cell multilayer heterosturctures, [SrNb0.05 Ti0.95 O3/La0.9Sr0.1MnO3]3 (SNTO/LSMO),have been epitaxial grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. The monitor of insitu reflection high-energy electron diffraction demonstrates that the heterosturctures are layer-by-layer epitaxial growth. Atomic force microscope observation indicates that the surface of the heterosturcture is atomically smooth. The measurements of cross-sectional low magnification and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy as well as the corresponding selected area electron diffraction reveal that the interfaces are of perfect orientation, and the epitaxial crystalline structure shows the orientation relation of SNTO(001)//LSMO(001),and SNTO[100]//LSMO[100].

  3. Survey of doses and frequency of X-ray examinations on children at the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa de Azevedo, Ana Cecilia [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca, Centro de Estudos da Saude do Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos 21041-210, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)]. E-mail: acpa@ensp.fiocruz.br; Osibote, Adelaja Otolorin [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca, Centro de Estudos da Saude do Trabalhador e Ecologia Humana-CESTEH, Rua Leopoldo Bulhoes 1480, Manguinhos 21041-210, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bastos Boechat, Marcia Cristina [Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz-FIOCRUZ (Brazil)

    2006-12-15

    Objective: This work aims to evaluate the entrance surface dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) resulting from pediatric radiological procedures with the use of portable X-ray equipments. Materials and methods: The software DoseCal was used to evaluate the doses imparted to patients. The children were classified according to their weight and age groups, and the study included three sectors of the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: A total of 518 radiographs have been performed (424 for chest and 94 for abdomen). The statistical data were compared with previously published results. The BOD is presented for the most exposed organs. Conclusion: The mean value of ESD and E varied widely among neonates. The highest number of radiographs per infant peaked 33 for chest examination in the age group 0-1 year.

  4. Herbal reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  5. Proposal for a revised Reference Concentration (RfC) for manganese based on recent epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Beck, Barbara D

    2009-12-01

    In 1993, based on observations of subclinical neurological effects in workers, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) published a Reference Concentration (RfC) of 0.05 microg/m(3) for manganese (Mn). The geometric mean exposure concentration, 150 microg/m(3) respirable Mn, was considered the lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL), and uncertainty factors (UFs) were applied to account for sensitive populations, database limitations, a LOAEL, subchronic exposure, and potential differences in toxicity of different forms of Mn. Based on a review of more recent literature, we propose two alternate Mn RfCs. Of 12 more recent occupational studies of eight cohorts with chronic exposure durations, examining subclinical neurobehavioral effects, predominantly on the motor system, three were considered appropriate for development of an RfC. All three studies yielded no observable adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of approximately 60 microg/m(3) respirable Mn. Converting the occupational NOAEL to a human equivalent concentration (HEC) of 21microg/m(3) (for continuous exposure) and applying a UF of 10 to account for intraspecies variability yielded an RfC of 2microg/m(3). We also derived a similar RfC (7 microg/m(3)) using an Mn benchmark dose (BMD) as the point of departure. Overall confidence in both RfCs is medium.

  6. A Comparative Reference Study for the Validation of HLA-Matching Algorithms in the Search for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors and Cord Blood Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Ulm, Germany 2 National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), Minneapolis, MN, USA 3 Anthony Nolan Research Institute (ANRI), Royal Free Hospital , London, UK 4...Numerical artifacts due to floating point arithmetic in combination with rounding. 6 Conditional locus-specific probabilities. Overall probabilities...diplotypes; 4, treatment of discontinued multiple allele codes; 5, numerical artifacts due to floating point arithmetic in combination with rounding; 6

  7. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tina M Briere; Marcel H F Sluiter; Vijay Kumar; Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2003-01-01

    The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured. The clusters show ferrimagnetic spin configurations.

  8. Certified Reference Material for Use in (1)H, (31)P, and (19)F Quantitative NMR, Ensuring Traceability to the International System of Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigger, Romana; Rück, Alexander; Hellriegel, Christine; Sauermoser, Robert; Morf, Fabienne; Breitruck, KathrinBreitruck; Obkircher, Markus

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, quantitative NMR (qNMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most important tools for content determination of organic substances and quantitative evaluation of impurities. Using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) as internal or external standards, the extensively used qNMR method can be applied for purity determination, including unbroken traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The implementation of qNMR toward new application fields, e.g., metabolomics, environmental analysis, and physiological pathway studies, brings along more complex molecules and systems, thus making use of 1H qNMR challenging. A smart workaround is possible by the use of other NMR active nuclei, namely 31P and 19F. This article presents the development of three classes of qNMR CRMs based on different NMR active nuclei (1H, 31P, and 19F), and the corresponding approaches to establish traceability to the SI through primary CRMs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Metrology Institute of Japan. These TraceCERT® qNMR CRMs are produced under ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34 using high-performance qNMR.

  9. Composition dependence on the martensitic structures of the Mn-rich NiMnGa alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Chengbao; Muhammad, Yousaf; Deng Lifeng; Wu Wei; Xu Huibin

    2004-05-17

    The Mn-rich Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 25+x}Ga{sub 25-x} (x=0-5) alloys were developed to investigate the structural transitions and magnetic properties. Structural transitions from austenite to 5M, 7M, and non-modulated martensite were observed with the increase of Mn content. The lattice parameter a elongates, as where b and c contract, and the unit cell volume reduces with increasing Mn content. The martensitic transformation start temperatures M{sub s} increase monotonically from 10.7 deg. C for x=2 to 102.7 deg. C for x=5. The saturation magnetization was measured at 5 K, where all the samples exhibit a martensitic structure. The average magnetic moments per Mn atom vary from 4.38 {mu}{sub B} to 2.93 {mu}{sub B} for x=0 to x=5. The negative effect of excess Mn atoms changes from -3.00 {mu}{sub B} for x=2 to -7.25 {mu}{sub B} for x=5. The excess Mn atoms modify the electronic structures of the unsubstituted Mn atoms, resulting in the sharp decrease of the magnetic moments of the unsubstituted Mn atoms with increasing Mn content. Structural incommensurability was observed with 7M for powder and non-modulated for bulk samper in a specific range of compositions and proved to be reversible when performing martensitic transformation. The 7M and non-modulated martensites Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 30}Ga{sub 20} possess similar saturation magnetizations and Curie temperatures. The non-modulated martensite was estimated to have a lower free energy than 7M, and should be more stable for a reverse martensitic transformation, leading to a higher austenite start temperature A{sub s}, which is consistent with the experimental result.

  10. [ReCl4(CN)2]2-: a high magnetic anisotropy building unit giving rise to the single-chain magnets (DMF)4MReCl4(CN)2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T David; Bennett, Miriam V; Clérac, Rodolphe; Long, Jeffrey R

    2010-03-24

    An S = 3/2, high-anisotropy building unit, trans-[ReCl(4)(CN)(2)](2-), representing the first paramagnetic complex with a mixture of just cyanide and halide ligands, has been synthesized through the reaction of (Bu(4)N)CN with ReCl(4)(THF)(2). This species is characterized in detail and employed in directing the formation of a series of one-dimensional coordination solids of formula (DMF)(4)MReCl(4)(CN)(2) (M = Mn (2), Fe (3), Co (4), Ni (5)). Variable-temperature dc magnetic susceptibility measurements demonstrate the presence of intrachain antiferromagnetic (2) and ferromagnetic (3-5) exchange coupling within these solids. In addition, probing the ac magnetic susceptibility as a function of both temperature and frequency reveals that all of the chain compounds exhibit slow relaxation of the magnetization. The relaxation time is shown to be thermally activated, with energy barriers to relaxation of Delta(tau) = 31, 56, 17, and 20 cm(-1) for 2-5, respectively. Notably, the field-dependent magnetization of the iron congener exhibits a significant hysteresis effect at low temperature, with a coercive field of H(C) = 1.0 T, thus demonstrating magnetlike behavior in this one-dimensional system. Finally, the magnetization dynamics of all solids occur within the finite-size regime, where the magnetic domain growth is limited due to physical defects along the chains within the crystals.

  11. China Connections Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, Marie B.; Hoermann, Elizabeth F.

    This reference book focuses on six aspects of the geography of the People's Republic of China. They are: territory, governing units, population and land use, waterways, land forms, and climates. Designed as a primary reference, the book explains how the Chinese people and their lifestyles are affected by China's geography. Special components…

  12. The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Volume 551. Source Books on Education Volume 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Averil Evans

    The bibliography presented in this book introduces the reader to the general subject of the education of girls and women in the United States, with some reference to historical antecedents in western civilization beginning with the ancient Greeks. The bibliography is intended as a guide for further study of the significance of gender for females…

  13. The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research. Garland Reference Library of Social Science Volume 551. Source Books on Education Volume 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Averil Evans

    The bibliography presented in this book introduces the reader to the general subject of the education of girls and women in the United States, with some reference to historical antecedents in western civilization beginning with the ancient Greeks. The bibliography is intended as a guide for further study of the significance of gender for females…

  14. Thermodynamic Properties of Carbon and Manganese in Mn-C and Mn-Fe-C Melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Er-bao; WANG Shi-jun

    2008-01-01

    Carbon solubility in Mn-Fe melts (xMn=0.083-0.706,xFe=0.034-0.715) was measured experimentally at various temperatures.By thermodynamic derivation and calculation,the relationship between activity coefficient of carbon in infinite dilute solution of manganese in Mn-C system and temperature was obtained.Using Gibbs-Duhem relationship,the experimental results of this study,and experimental data obtained by strict thermodynamic derivation and calculation in references,the relationships between other thermodynamic properties (εCC,εCCC,εCFe,eεCCFe,and εCFeCFe) in Mn-Fe-C system and temperature were obtained.

  15. Structure and properties of Mn4Cl9: An antiferromagnetic binary hyperhalogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yawei; Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2013-02-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory show that the structure of Mn4Cl9 anion is that of a Mn atom at the core surrounded by three MnCl3 moieties. Since Mn is predominantly divalent and MnCl3 is known to be a superhalogen with a vertical detachment energy (VDE) of 5.27 eV, Mn4Cl9 can be viewed as a hyperhalogen with the formula unit Mn(MnCl3)3. Indeed, the calculated VDE of Mn4Cl9 anion, namely 6.76 eV, is larger than that of MnCl3 anion. More importantly, unlike previously discovered hyperhalogens, Mn4Cl9 is the first such hyperhalogen species composed of only two constituent atoms. We further show that Mn4Cl9 can be used as a ligand to design molecules with even higher VDEs. For example, Li[Mn(MnCl3)3]2 anion has a VDE of 7.26 eV. These negatively charged clusters are antiferromagnetic with most of the magnetic moments localized at the Mn sites. Our studies show new pathways for creating binary hyperhalogens.

  16. Magnetic structures of Er{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} and Dy{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Deportes, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme L. Neel, C.N.R.S., BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rodriguez-Carvajal, J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1995-08-01

    The R{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} (R=rare earth) compounds crystallize in the cubic Th{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}-type structure with space group Fm3m. Powder neutron-diffraction experiments were performed on Dy{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} and Er{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}. The magnetic unit cell coincides with the chemical one. The R moments have a ferromagnetic non-collinear arrangement, whereas the Mn moments are parallel to the [1 1 1] direction. The magnetic structures belong to the three-dimensional {Gamma}{sub 5g} irreducible representation of Fm3m associated with the wave vector K=[0 0 0]. The spin configurations in both compounds result from the competition between the R-R, R-Mn magnetic interactions and the crystal electric field on the R ions. (orig.).

  17. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  18. Phraseological units in Italian textbooks: an analysis of Italian textbooks ranked by the levels of language proficiency of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daša Stanič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the treatment given to phraseological units in the teaching/learning of Italian as a foreign language. For this purpose, some textbooks of Italian based on the CEFR were analysed to determine when, how and in what contexts phraseological units are introduced and studied, and to determine to what extent the selected textbooks represent an effective support in the process of teaching/learning Italian as a foreign language. Because of their characteristics, phraseological units represent a stumbling-block for non-native speakers, especially if their L1 is not one of the Romance Languages. Until the advent of the communicative approach – but also later – phraseology received only little attention in the teaching and learning of foreign languages; it was assumed that a student would develop a phraseological competence through imitation, and it seemed that phraseological units were to be treated only at higher levels of language proficiency. On the contrary, as many recent studies convincingly suggest, phraseological units should be systematically and explicitly taught/learnt from  level A1 on.  In the CEFR phraseological units are presented as an important element of lexical competence, while they are mostly neglected in the level descriptors. This approach seems to leave no objective criteria for textbook authors who consider whether and how to incorporate phraseology in their textbooks.

  19. Disabling Emotion in Young Children with Particular Reference to Depression and Suicide: An Overview of Current Research. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    A review of the literature and a survey of texts show a remarkable absence of concern and reference to depression and suicidal behavior in young children. The meaning of death, the depressive and suicidal consequences of the agony of aloneness, and the fear of parental hostility, rage and abandonment are elements of early and middle childhood…

  20. Reference Revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  1. Magnetic and electrical properties of epitaxial GeMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, Stefan

    2009-01-15

    In this work, GeMn magnetic semiconductors will be investigated. The fabrication of GeMn thin films with Mn contents up to 11.7% was realised with molecular beam epitaxy. At a fabrication temperature of 60 C, the suppression of Mn{sub x}Ge{sub y} phases could reproducibly be obtained. Dislocation free epitaxy of diamond-lattice type GeMn thin films was observed. In all fabrication conditions where Mn{sub x}Ge{sub y} suppression was feasible, an inhomogeneous dispersion of Mn was observed in form of a self-assembly of nanometre sized, Mn rich regions in a Ge rich matrix. Each Mn rich region exhibits ferromagnetic coupling with high Curie temperatures exceeding, in part, room temperature. The local ferromagnetic ordering leads to the formation of large, spatially separated magnetic moments, which induce a superparamagnetic behaviour of the GeMn thin films. At low temperatures {<=} 20 K, remanent behaviour was found to emerge. X-ray absorption experiments revealed a similarity of the Mn incorporation in diamond-lattice type GeMn thin films and in the hexagonal lattice of the intermetallic Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} phase, respectively. These tetrahedra represent building blocks of the Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} unit cell. The incorporation of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} building blocks was found to be accompanied by local structural disorder. The electrical properties of GeMn thin films were addressed by transport measurements. It was shown that by using a n-type Ge substrate, a pn energy barrier between epilayers and substrate to suppress parallel substrate conduction paths can be introduced. With the pn barrier concept, first results on the magnetotransport behaviour of GeMn thin films were obtained. GeMn was found to be p-type, but of high resistivity. a series of GeMn thin films was fabricated, where intermetallic Mn{sub x}Ge{sub y} phase separation was supported in a controlled manner. Phase separation was found to result in the formation of partially coherent, nanometre sized Mn{sub 5

  2. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitry Agnes I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. Methods A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Results Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%. In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P Conclusions The majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  3. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  4. Unsaturated Mn complex decorated hybrid thioarsenates: Syntheses, crystal structures and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang; Lei, Xiao-Wu; Tian, Ya-Wei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Yi-Qun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Fan; Yi, Fei-Yan

    2016-03-01

    The incorporation of unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]2+, [Mn(1,2-dap)2]2+, [Mn(2,2-bipy)]2+ (1,2-dap=1,2-diaminopropane) complex cations with thioarsenate anions of [AsIIIS3]3- and [AsVS4]3- led to three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates, namely, [Mn(1,2-dap)]2MnAs2S6 (1), [Mn(1,2-dap)2]{[Mn(1,2-dap)]2As2S8} (2) and (NH4)[Mn(2,2-bipy)2]AsS4 (3). In compound 1, the unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]2+ complexes, [MnS4]6- tetrahedra and [AsIIIS3]3- trigonal-pyramids are condensed to form the 1D [Mn(1,2-dap)]2MnAs2S6 chain, whereas compound 2 features 2D layer composed of [Mn(1,2-dap)]2+ and [Mn(1,2-dap)2]2+ complexes as well as [AsVS4]3- tetrahedral units. For compound 3, two [AsVS4]3- anions bridge two [Mn(2,2-bipy)]2+ complex cations into a butterfly like {[Mn(2,2-bipy)]2As2S8}2- anionic unit. Magnetic measurements indicate the ferrimagnetic behavior for compound 1 and antiferromagnetic (AF) behaviors for compounds 2-3. The UV-vis diffuse-reflectance measurements and electronic structural calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) revealed the title compounds belong to semiconductors with band gaps of 2.63, 2.21, and 1.97 eV, respectively. The narrow band-gap of compound 3 led to the efficient and stable photocatalytic degradation activity over organic pollutant than N-doped P25 under visible light irradiation.

  5. Mixing antiferromagnets to tune NiFe-[IrMn/FeMn] interfacial spin-glasses, grains thermal stability, and related exchange bias properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C. [CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Joumard, I.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CNRS/INAC-CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1/Grenoble-INP, F-38054 Cedex (France)

    2014-05-07

    Spintronics devices and in particular thermally assisted magnetic random access memories require a wide range of ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (F/AF) exchange bias (EB) properties and subsequently of AF materials to fulfil diverse functionality requirements for the reference and storage. For the reference layer, large EB energies and high blocking temperature (T{sub B}) are required. In contrast, for the storage layer, mostly moderate T{sub B} are needed. One of the present issues is to find a storage layer with properties intermediate between those of IrMn and FeMn and in particular: (i) with a T{sub B} larger than FeMn for better stability at rest-T but lower than IrMn to reduce power consumption at write-T and (ii) with improved magnetic interfacial quality, i.e., with reduced interfacial glassy character for lower properties dispersions. To address this issue, the EB properties of F/AF based stacks were studied for various mixed [IrMn/FeMn] AFs. In addition to EB loop shifts, the F/AF magnetic interfacial qualities and the AF grains thermal stability are probed via measurements of the low- and high-temperature contributions to the T{sub B} distributions, respectively. A tuning of the above three parameters is observed when evolving from IrMn to FeMn via [IrMn/FeMn] repetitions.

  6. An Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Accidents Among under 5 Years of Age Referred to Emergency Hospital Units in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Accidents and injuries are the leading causes of avoidable illness and death in most of the countries in the world. For health policymakers, it is essential to have knowledge about the occurrence of accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of accidents in children under 5 years of age referring to emergency departments in Hamadan province. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study that all under 5 years of age patients referred to hospitals in Hamadan province were enrolled in the study during 2009 to 2014. Data were extracted from injury register software and by using descriptive and analytic statistics, data were analyzed with STATA software version 12 at the level of error less        than 5%. Results: A total of 7409 under 5 years of age patients were registered during this period. 70.4% were male and 38.97% of them were under 1 year old. Home accidents included 45.07% of the accidents. Car accidents (27.89%, hit (22.16% and fall (16.79% were the most occurred accidents in both sexes. Conclusion: Due to the high incidence of accidents at home and roads, necessary precautions should be taken in this regard

  7. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  8. Suggestions toward some discourse-analytic approaches to text difficulty: with special reference to ‘T-unit configuration’ in the textual unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Lotfipour-Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents some suggestions towards discourse-analytic approaches for ESL/EFL education, with the focus on identifying the textual forms which can contribute to the textual difficulty. Textual difficulty / comprehensibility, rather than being purely text-based or reader-dependent, is certainly a matter of interaction between text and reader. The paper will look at some of the textual factors which can be argued to make a text more or less readable for the same reader. The main focus here will be on academic texts. The high cognitive load and low readability of the expository texts in various academic disciplines will be argued to belong to certain textual strategies as well as variations in the configurations of the T-units as the prime scaffolding for the textualization process. Different categories of these variations to be discussed here will be exemplified from a few academic and expository registers. More extensive textual analyses will, of course, be necessary in order to be able to make evidential suggestions for possible correlations between certain types and clusters of T-unit configurations on the one hand, and cognitive load and readability indices on the other, across various academic registers, genres and disciplines.

  9. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor, E-mail: nestoraragon@fisica.unam.mx; Massillon-JL, Guerda, E-mail: massillon@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, D.F (Mexico); Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo [Hospital de Oncología, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, D.F (Mexico)

    2014-11-07

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism{sup 1}. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  10. Characterization of radiation beams used to determinate the correction factor for a CyberKnife® unit reference field using ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Martínez, Nestor; Gómez-Muñoz, Arnulfo; Massillon-JL, Guerda

    2014-11-01

    This paper aimed to characterize a 6 MV x-ray beam from a Varian® iX linear accelerator in order to obtain the correction factors needed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism1. The experiments were performed in a liquid water phantom under different irradiation conditions: a) Calibration of the reference field of 10 cm × 10 cm at 90 cm SSD and 10 cm depth was carried out according to the TRS-398 protocol using three ionization chambers (IC) calibrated in different reference laboratory and b) Measurement of the absorbed dose rate at 70 cm SSD and 10 cm depth in a 10 cm × 10 cm and 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm fields was obtained in order to simulate the CyberKnife® conditions where maximum distance between the source and the detector is equal to 80 cm and the maximum field size is 6 cm diameter. Depending where the IC was calibrated, differences between 0.16% and 2.24% in the absorbed dose rate measured in the 10 cm × 10 cm field at 90 cm SSD were observed, while for the measurements at 70 cm SSD, differences between 1.27% and 3.88% were obtained. For the 5.4 cm × 5.4 cm field, the absorbed dose measured with the three ICs varies between 1.37% and 3.52%. The increase in the difference on the absorbed dose when decreasing the SSD could possibly be associated to scattering radiation generated from the collimators and/or the energy dependence of the ionization chambers to low-energy radiation. The results presented in this work suggest the importance of simulating the CyberKnife® conditions using other linear accelerator for obtaining the correction factors as proposed by the IAEA/AAPM new formalism in order to measure the absorbed dose with acceptable accuracy.

  11. Demographic determinants of survival of people living with HIV attending an outpatient reference unit in the city of Três Lagoas, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the period 1984-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelina da Silva Zuque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is increasing in small Brazilian cities, epidemiological studies are often conducted in large urban centers. METHODS: Our group conducted a retrospective analysis of survival determinants among 358 patients who attended a reference unit in a small city. RESULTS: Death risk was lower among men that had sex with men, patients with an HIV-seropositive partner, and those admitted after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was available. CONCLUSIONS: The study documents the striking beneficial effect of HAART. The finding of other groups with improved survival may aid in the development of programmatic strategies.

  12. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  14. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

  15. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-05-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4.

  16. Trauma history and psychopathology in war-affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Layne, Christopher M; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Ellis, Heidi; Birman, Dina

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing need to deliver effective mental health services to refugee children and adolescents across the United States; however, the evidence base needed to guide the design and delivery of services is nascent. We investigated the trauma history profiles, psychopathology, and associated behavioral and functional indicators among war-affected refugee children presenting for psychological treatment. From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, 60 war-affected refugee children were identified (51.7% males, mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 4.13). Clinical assessments indicated high rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (30.4%), generalized anxiety (26.8%), somatization (26.8%), traumatic grief (21.4%), and general behavioral problems (21.4%). Exposure to war or political violence frequently co-occurred with forced displacement; traumatic loss; bereavement or separation; exposure to community violence; and exposure to domestic violence. Academic problems and behavioral difficulties were prevalent (53.6% and 44.6%, respectively); however, criminal activity, alcohol/drug use, and self-harm were rare (all < 5.45%). These findings highlight the complex trauma profiles, comorbid conditions, and functional problems that are important to consider in providing mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents. Given the difficulties associated with access to mental health services for refugees, both preventive and community-based interventions within family, school, and peer systems hold particular promise.

  17. Epitaxial Stabilization between Intermetallic and Carbide Domains in the Structures of Mn16SiC4 and Mn17Si2C4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Rie T; Guo, Yiming; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2016-01-13

    The concept of frustration between competing geometrical or bonding motifs is frequently evoked in explaining complex phenomena in the structures and properties of materials. This idea is of particular importance for metallic systems, where frustration forms the basis for the design of metallic glasses, a source of diverse magnetic phenomena, and a rationale for the existence of intermetallics with giant unit cells containing thousands of atoms. Unlike soft materials, however, where conflicts can be synthetically encoded in the molecular structure, staging frustration in the metallic state is challenging due to the ease of macroscopic segregation of incompatible components. In this Article, we illustrate one approach for inducing the intergrowth of incompatible bonding motifs with the synthesis and characterization of two new intermetallic carbides: Mn16SiC4 (mC42) and Mn17Si2C4 (mP46). Similar to the phases Mn5SiC and Mn8Si2C in the Mn-Si-C system, these compounds appear as intergrowths of Mn3C and tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) regions reminiscent of Mn-rich Mn-Si phases. The nearly complete spatial segregation of Mn-Si (intermetallic) and Mn-C (carbide) interactions in these structures can be understood from the differing geometrical requirements of C and Si. Rather than macroscopically separating into distinct phases, though, the two bonding types are tightly interwoven, with most Mn atoms being on the interfaces. DFT chemical pressure analysis reveals a driving force stabilizing these interfaces: the major local pressures acting between the Mn atoms in the Mn-Si and Mn-C systems are of opposite signs. Joining the intermetallic and carbide domains together then provides substantial relief to these local pressures, an effect we term epitaxial stabilization.

  18. [A study of epilepsy according to the age at onset and monitored for 3 years in a regional reference paediatric neurology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gómez, Laura; López-Pisón, Javier; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Fuertes Rodrigo, Cristina; Fernando Martínez, Ruth; Samper-Villagrasa, Pilar; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis; García-Jiménez, María Concepción

    2017-01-01

    A study of epilepsy, according to the age at onset of the crisis and its causes, monitored by a Paediatric Neurology Unit over a period of three years. Historical cohorts study was conducted by reviewing the Paediatric Neurology medical records data base of epileptic children followed-up from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. A total of 4,595 children were attended during the study period. The diagnosis of epilepsy was established in 605 (13.17%): 277 (45.79%) symptomatic, 156 (25.79%) idiopathic, and 172 (28.43%) with cryptogenic epilepsy. Absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes are the idiopathic epileptic syndromes most prevalent, and the most prevalent symptomatic epilepsies are prenatal encephalopathies. More than one-quarter (26.12%) of epilepsies began in the first year of life, and 67.72% were symptomatic. Refractory epilepsy was observed in 25.29%, 42.46% with cognitive impairment, 26.45% with motor involvement, and 9.92% with an autism spectrum disorder, being more frequent at an earlier age of onset. The absence of a universally accepted classification of epileptic syndromes makes tasks like this difficult, starting with the terminology. A useful classification would be aetiological, with two groups: a large group with established aetiology, or very likely genetic syndromes, and another with no established cause. The age of onset of epilepsy in each aetiological group helps in the prognosis, which is worsened by refractoriness and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, and are generally worse at an earlier onset and in certain aetiologies. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Orientation-modulated exchange coupling in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/CaMnO3 bilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Bai, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, H. R.; Li, S. K.; Dai, Z. M.; Ma, S.; Zhao, X. G.; Wang, S. C.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2017-04-01

    Epitaxial La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/CaMnO3 (LCMO/CMO) bilayers and the reference single layers were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on (001)- and (110)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO) substrates, allowing us to perform a detailed study of the dependence of exchange coupling on crystal orientations. It is found that the exchange bias (coercive) field of the (110)-oriented LCMO/CMO bilayer are decreased (increased) compared to that of (001)-oriented bilayer, due to the enhanced (weakened) Mn3+-Mn4+ ferromagnetic double-exchange interaction of LCMO layer. It is clear that the spin flop coupling that leads to the enhanced coercivity and the spin glass state that results in the exchange bias effect can coexist and are determined by the competition between Mn3+-Mn4+ ferromagnetic double-exchange and Mn4+-Mn4+ antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions at the interface. We propose that strong Mn3+-Mn4+ ferromagnetic double-exchange interaction facilitates the existence of spin flop coupling, not the formation of spin glass state at the LCMO/CMO interface.

  20. Turning on single-molecule magnet behavior in a linear {Mn3} compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Fatemah; Brunet, Gabriel; Loiseau, Francis; Pathmalingam, Thushan; Burchell, Tara J; Beauchemin, André M; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Clérac, Rodolphe; Murugesu, Muralee

    2013-02-04

    The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties are reported for a new manganese compound with a mixed-valent {Mn(3)} core arranged in a linear fashion. The previously reported complex 1, [Mn(IV)(3)(dpo)(6)]·2MeCN, where H(2)dpo is (E)-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphenylpropan-2-one oxime, served as a starting point for the isolation of a {Mn(3)} compound with an analogous core arrangement through the reaction of Mn(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O, H(3)oxol ((E)-2,5-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethylhexan-3-one oxime), and NaOH in MeOH and MeCN. By using these reaction conditions, compound 2, Na[Mn(IV)(2)Mn(III)(Hoxol)(6)](n)·MeOH·H(2)O, was successfully isolated revealing a central Mn(III) ion thereby introducing structural and magnetic anisotropy to the system. The structure of 2 reveals linear trinuclear Mn(IV)-Mn(III)-Mn(IV) units connected through Na(+) ions forming a linear one-dimensional coordination polymer. The Jahn-Teller axes of each trinuclear unit are aligned parallel within the same chain and form a 75° angle between the two symmetry related chains. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of 1 and 2 in the temperature range 1.9-300 K reveal that only the reduced compound, 2, is a single-molecule magnet (SMM) largely due to the anisotropy introduced by the Jahn-Teller distortions on the Mn(III) ions, which effectively induce this magnet behavior. Weak antiferromagnetic interactions along the chains through the Na(+) cations lead to a modulation of the intrinsic properties of the Mn(IV)-Mn(III)-Mn(IV) SMMs.

  1. Remarkably Improved Electrochemical Performance of Li- and Mn-Rich Cathodes upon Substitution of Mn with Ni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Nayak, Prasant; Grinblat, Judith; Levi, Elena; Penki, Tirupathi Rao; Levi, Mikhael; Sun, Yang-Kook; Markovsky, Boris; Aurbach, Doron

    2017-02-08

    Li- and Mn-rich transition-metal oxides of layered structure are promising cathodes for Li-ion batteries because of their high capacity values, ≥250 mAh g(-1). These cathodes suffer from capacity fading and discharge voltage decay upon prolonged cycling to potential higher than 4.5 V. Most of these Li- and Mn-rich cathodes contain Ni in a 2+ oxidation state. The fine details of the composition of these materials may be critically important in determining their performance. In the present study, we used Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 as the reference cathode composition in which Mn ions are substituted by Ni ions so that their average oxidation state in Li1.2Ni0.27Mn0.4Co0.13O2 could change from 2+ to 3+. Upon substitution of Mn with Ni, the specific capacity decreases but, in turn, an impressive stability was gained, about 95% capacity retention after 150 cycles, compared to 77% capacity retention for Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 cathodes when cycled at a C/5 rate. Also, a higher average discharge voltage of 3.7 V is obtained for Li1.2Ni0.27Mn0.4Co0.13O2 cathodes, which decreases to 3.5 V after 150 cycles, while the voltage fading of cathodes comprising the reference material is more pronounced. The Li1.2Ni0.27Mn0.4Co0.13O2 cathodes also demonstrate higher rate capability compared to the reference Li1.2Ni0.13Mn0.54Co0.13O2 cathodes. These results clearly indicate the importance of the fine composition of cathode materials containing the five elements Li, Mn, Ni, Co, and O. The present study should encourage rigorous optimization efforts related to the fine composition of these cathode materials, before external means such as doping and coating are applied.

  2. Reference problems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    in science or for that ma t ter, in any other subject. Indeed, the sorry state of science education is only a small part of the much deeper sy s temic rot. A colleague in IIT - Kanpur cynically remarked to me that IIT did not even need to teach... annual budget. (This takes into consideration only 50,000 seriously working scientists out of a total r e search and teaching staff of over 0.4 million in CSIR, ICAR, ICMR, un i ver sities, etc.). Following are some good examples for referring...

  3. Mechanisms of Mn(II) catalytic oxidation on ferrihydrite surfaces and the formation of manganese (oxyhydr)oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoming; Xiang, Quanjun; Yin, Hui; Tan, Wenfeng; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Xionghan

    2017-08-01

    Oxidation of Mn(II) is an important process that controls the mobility and bioavailability of Mn, as well as the formation of Mn (oxyhydr)oxides in natural systems. It was found that the surfaces of minerals, such as iron (oxyhydr)oxides, can accelerate Mn(II) oxidation to a certain degree, but the underlying mechanism has not been clearly understood. This study explores the reaction pathways and mechanisms of Mn(II) oxidation on ferrihydrite surfaces at neutral pH, commonly found in natural environments, by comparisons with montmorillonite, amorphous Al(OH)3, goethite, and magnetite using macroscopic experiments and spectroscopic analyses. Results show that when Mn(II) concentrations are below 4 mM, macroscopic Mn(II) adsorption on the three iron (oxyhydr)oxide surfaces conforms well to the Langmuir equation, with ferrihydrite showing the highest adsorption capacity. With Mn(II) concentrations ranging within 6-24 mM, the adsorbed Mn(II) is mainly oxidized into manganite (γ-MnOOH) and/or feitknechtite (β-MnOOH) by dissolved O2, and Mn(II) removal on a unit mass basis in the presence of magnetite is the highest compared with ferrihydrite and goethite. Ferrihydrite, a semiconductor material, shows stronger catalytic ability for Mn(II) oxidation on the same surface area than insulator minerals (i.e., montmorillonite and amorphous Al(OH)3). Additionally, the products of Mn(II) oxidation in the presence of semiconductor iron (oxyhydr)oxides (i.e., ferrihydrite, goethite, or magnetite) at the same Fe/Mn molar ratio include both manganite and a small amount of Mn(IV) minerals, and the Mn average oxidation states (Mn AOSs) of these products follow the order: magnetite > goethite > ferrihydrite. Magnetite and goethite, with relatively smaller SSAs and lower band gap energies, exhibit greater catalysis for Mn(II) oxidation than ferrihydrite at the same Fe/Mn ratio, which goes against the conventional interfacial effect and is related to the electrochemical properties. Thus

  4. The Megafaunal Communities of Mn-crusted Guyots in the Central and Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C.; France, S.; Gerringer, M.; Pomponi, S. A.; Amon, D.; Mundy, B.; Molodtsova, T.; Matsumoto, A. K.; Watling, L.; Baco-Taylor, A.

    2016-12-01

    The NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) recently completed the second year of its 3 year CAPSTONE initiative to explore the deep waters of the U.S Pacific Monuments. At the preparation of this abstract, six ROV cruises were completed in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument (MTMNM) and the Johnston Atoll unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM). A seventh ROV cruise is scheduled for July 27 through August 9 in the Wake unit of PRIMNM. Manganese (Mn)-crusted guyots have been one of the priorities of these cruises. Sixteen guyots have been surveyed to date with 11 more targeted for the dives around Wake. A major science objective has been to gain a better understanding of the megafaunal communities on this type of seamount because interest is building in mining manganese crusts in the Central and Western Pacific, an area referred to as the Prime Crust Zone (PCZ). These surveys revealed the presence of unique animals and in some locations, high density communities of deepwater corals and sponges living on Mn crusts that could be severely impacted by deep sea mining operations. This presentation will summarize the initial findings from the surveys on all 27 guyots and will hopefully raise awareness of the need for cautious and responsible development of the deep sea mining industry.

  5. Unusual Mn coordination and redox chemistry in the high capacity borate cathode Li7Mn(BO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Julian; Eames, Christopher; Wood, Stephen M; Whiteside, Alexander; Islam, M Saiful

    2015-09-14

    The recently discovered lithium-rich cathode material Li7Mn(BO3)3 has a high theoretical capacity and an unusual tetrahedral Mn(2+) coordination. Atomistic simulation and density functional theory (DFT) techniques are employed to provide insights into the defect and redox chemistry, the structural changes upon lithium extraction and the mechanisms of lithium ion diffusion. The most favourable intrinsic defects are Li/Mn anti-site pairs, where Li and Mn ions occupy interchanged positions, and Li Frenkel defects. DFT calculations reproduce the experimental cell voltage and confirm the presence of the unusually high Mn(V) redox state, which corresponds to a theoretical capacity of nearly 288 mA h g(-1). The ability to reach the high manganese oxidation state is related to both the initial tetrahedral coordination of Mn and the observed distortion/tilting of the BO3 units to accommodate the contraction of the Mn-O bonds upon oxidation. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations indicate fast three-dimensional lithium diffusion in line with the good rate performance observed.

  6. Investigation of electronic structure, magnetic and transport properties of half-metallic Mn2CuSi and Mn2ZnSi Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Idris Hamid; Yousuf, Saleem; Mohiuddin Bhat, Tahir; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2015-12-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Mn2CuSi and Mn2ZnSi Heusler alloys have been investigated using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameters in stable F-43m configuration are found to be 5.75 Å for Mn2CuSi and 5.80 Å for Mn2ZnSi. Spin-resolved calculations show that the Mn atoms at inequivalent Wyckoff positions have different contributions to the total magnetic moment in the unit cell. The anti-parallel magnetic moments of inequivalent Mn atoms sum to an integer with total magnetic moment per unit cell. The 100% spin-polarization at Fermi energy together with the total magnetic moment of 1.0 μB for Mn2CuSi and 2.0 μB for Mn2ZnSi per unit cell, predict that the materials follow MT=ZT - 28 Slater-Pauling rule. Both the materials under study exhibit half-metallicity with an energy gap in the spin-down channels. In the study, we predict a rather fine value of Seebeck coefficient. Further, the decreasing electrical conductivity with temperature shows a metallic character in spin-up configurations, while the electrical conductivity of spin-down states follows a semiconductor-like trend.

  7. Mn bioavailability by polarized Caco-2 cells: comparison between Mn gluconate and Mn oxyprolinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgenzi Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient inadequate intake is responsible of pathological deficiencies and there is a need of assessing the effectiveness of metal supplementation, frequently proposed to rebalance poor diets. Manganese (Mn is present in many enzymatic intracellular systems crucial for the regulation of cell metabolism, and is contained in commercially available metal supplements. Methods We compared the effects of two different commercial Mn forms, gluconate (MnGluc and oxyprolinate (MnOxP. For this purpose we used the polarized Caco-2 cells cultured on transwell filters, an established in vitro model of intestinal epithelium. Since micronutrient deficiency may accelerate mitochondrial efficiency, the mitochondrial response of these cells, in the presence of MnGluc and MnOxP, by microscopy methods and by ATP luminescence assay was used. Results In the presence of both MnOxP and MnGluc a sustained mitochondrial activity was shown by mitoTraker labeling (indicative of mitochondrial respiration, but ATP intracellular content remained comparable to untreated cells only in the presence of MnOxP. In addition MnOxP transiently up-regulated the antioxidant enzyme Mn superoxide dismutase more efficiently than MnGluc. Both metal treatments preserved NADH and βNADPH diaphorase oxidative activity, avoided mitochondrial dysfunction, as assessed by the absence of a sustained phosphoERK activation, and were able to maintain cell viability. Conclusions Collectively, our data indicate that MnOxP and MnGluc, and primarily the former, produce a moderate and safe modification of Caco-2 cell metabolism, by activating positive enzymatic mechanisms, thus could contribute to long-term maintenance of cell homeostasis.

  8. Structure of the Mn complex in photosystem II: Insights from x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2002-04-02

    We have used Mn K-edge absorption and Kb emission spectroscopies to determine the oxidation states of the Mn complex in the various S-states. We have started exploring the new technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (RIXS); this technique can be characterized as a Raman process that uses K-edge energies (1s to 4p, {approx}6550 eV) to obtain L-edge-like spectra (2p to 3d, {approx}650 eV). The relevance of these data to the oxidation states and structure of the Mn complex is presented. We have obtained EXAFS data from the S0 and S3 states and observed heterogeneity in the Mn-Mn distances, leading us to conclude that there may be three rather than two di-(mu)-oxo bridged units present per tetranuclear Mn cluster. In addition, we have obtained data using Ca/Sr X-ray spectroscopy that provide evidence for a heteronuclear Mn/Ca cluster. The possibility of three di-(mu)-oxo-bridged Mn Mn moieties and the proximity of Ca is incorporated into developing structural models for the Mn cluster. The involvement of bridging and terminal O ligands of Mn in the mechanism of oxygen evolution is discussed in the context of our X-ray spectroscopy results.

  9. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P., E-mail: apsantos@ff.ul.pt [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Batoreu, M. Camila [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  10. Online Citation and Reference Management Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Anup-Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This Unit is on online citation and reference management tools. The tools discussed are Mendeley, CiteULike, Zotero, Google Scholar Library, and EndNote Basic. The features of all the management tools have been discussed with figures, tables, and text boxes. This Unit discusses in details aspects of different Online Citation and Reference Management Tools. Published in the Open Access for Researchers > Module 4: Research Evaluation Metrics > Unit 4: Online Citation and Reference Management T...

  11. Chiral Paramagnetic Skyrmion-like Phase in MnSi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappas, C.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Falus, P.; Bentley, P.M.; Moskvin, E.; Grigoriev, S.; Fouquet, P.; Farago, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of chiral fluctuations in the reference helimagnet MnSi by polarized neutron scattering and neutron spin echo spectroscopy, which reveals the existence of a completely left-handed and dynamically disordered phase. This phase may be identified as a spontaneous Skyrmio

  12. Effect of additive on synthesis of MnZn ferrite nanocrystal by hydrothermal crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑商斌; 古映莹; 黄可龙

    2003-01-01

    The effect of additive RCOONa on the formation of MnZn ferrite homogeneous coprecipitation precursor was studied in this paper. The action of additive in the MnZn ferrite hydrothermal crystallization process was investigated according to crystal field theory and crystal growth unit theory. And the growth unit formation process was presented and its structure was illustrated. The results show that the precursor of MnZn ferrite is a colloidal mixture composed of Zn(OH)2, Fe(OH)2, Mn(OH)2, MnO(OH) , MnO2 @ xH2O and so on, and dissolves in solution in the form of hydroxyl coordination tetrahedron and octahedron such as Zn(OH)2-4,Fe(OH)2-4 , Fe(OH)4-6 ,Fe(OH)-4 , Fe(OH)3-6 ,Mn(OH)2-4 ,Mn(OH)3-6 etc. , and the growth unit is formed by combination of the coordination polyhedra subsequently in the hydrothermal precess. The additive is beneficial to the formation of homogeneous precursor and has dispersive effect on the aggregation of the crystal growth unit by forming associate with hydrogen bond,which is beneficial to the synthesis of the pure product with a tiny size and a narrow size distribution.

  13. A Mn-54 Radiotracer Study of Mn Isotope Solid-Liquid Exchange during Reductive Transformation of Vernadite (δ-MnO₂) by Aqueous Mn(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, Evert J.; Kustka, Adam B. [Rutgers

    2015-04-09

    We employed Mn-54 radiotracers to characterize the extent and dynamics of Mn atom exchange between aqueous Mn(II) and vernadite (δ-Mn(IV)O2) at pH 7.5 under anoxic conditions. Exchange of Mn atoms between the solid and liquid phase is rapid, reaching dynamic equilibrium in 2–4 days. We propose that during the initial stages of reaction, Mn atom exchange occurs through consecutive comproportionation-disproportionation reactions where interfacial electron transfer from adsorbed Mn(II) to lattice Mn(IV) generates labile Mn(III) cations that rapidly disproportionate to reform aqueous Mn(II) and solid-phase Mn(IV). Following nucleation of Mn(III)OOH phases, additional exchange likely occurs through electron transfer from aqueous Mn(II) to solid-phase Mn(III). Our results provide evidence for the fast and extensive production of transient Mn(III) species at the vernadite surface upon contact of this substrate with dissolved Mn(II). We further show that HEPES buffer is a reductant of lattice Mn(IV) in the vernadite structure in our experiments. The methods and results presented here introduce application of Mn-54 tracers as a facile tool to further investigate the formation kinetics of labile Mn(III) surface species and their impacts on Mn-oxide structure and reactivity over a range of environmentally relevant geochemical conditions.

  14. Structural Diversities in Heterometallic Mn-Ca Cluster Chemistry from the Use of Salicylhydroxamic Acid: {Mn(III)4Ca2}, {Mn(II/III)6Ca2}, {Mn(III/IV)8Ca}, and {Mn(III)8Ca2} Complexes with Relevance to Both High- and Low-Valent States of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Alysha A; Koumousi, Evangelia S; Cunha-Silva, Luís; McCormick, Laura J; Teat, Simon J; Psycharis, Vassilis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Mukherjee, Shreya; Li, Chaoran; Gupta, Sayak Das; Escuer, Albert; Christou, George; Stamatatos, Theocharis C

    2017-09-05

    One-pot reactions between the [Mn3O(O2CPh)6(py)x](+/0) triangular precursors and either CaBr2·xH2O or CaCl2·6H2O, in the presence of salicylhydroxamic acid (shaH2), have afforded the heterometallic complexes [Mn(III)4Ca2(O2CPh)4(shi)4(H2O)3(Me2CO)] (1) and (pyH)[Mn(II)2Mn(III)4Ca2Cl2(O2CPh)7(shi)4(py)4] (2), respectively, in good yields. Further reactions but using a more flexible synthetic scheme comprising the Mn(NO3)2·4H2O/Ca(NO3)2·4H2O and Mn(O2CPh)2·2H2O/Ca(ClO4)2·4H2O "metal blends" and shaH2, in the presence of external base NEt3, led to the new complexes (NHEt3)2[Mn(III)4Mn(IV)4Ca(OEt)2(shi)10(EtOH)2] (3) and (NHEt3)4[Mn(III)8Ca2(CO3)4(shi)8] (4), respectively. In all reported compounds, the anion of the tetradentate (N,O,O,O)-chelating/bridging ligand salicylhydroxime (shi(3-)), resulting from the in situ metal-ion-assisted amide-iminol tautomerism of shaH2, was found to bridge both Mn and Ca atoms. Complexes 1-4 exhibit a variety of different structures, metal stoichiometries, and Mn oxidation-state descriptions; 1 possesses an overall octahedral metal arrangement, 2 can be described as a Mn4Ca2 octahedron bound to an additional Mn2 unit, 3 consists of a Mn8 "ring" surrounding a Ca(II) atom, and 4 adopts a rectangular cuboidal motif of eight Mn atoms accommodating two Ca(II) atoms. Solid-state direct-current magnetic susceptibility studies revealed the presence of predominant antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the Mn centers, leading to S = 0 spin ground-state values for all complexes. From a bioinorganic chemistry perspective, the reported compounds may demonstrate some relevance to both high-valent scheme (3) and lower-oxidation-level species (1, 2, and 4) of the catalytic cycle of the oxygen-evolving complex.

  15. Speciation analysis of Mn(II)/Mn(VII) using Fe3O4@ionic liquids-β-cyclodextrin polymer magnetic solid phase extraction coupled with ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songqing; Qin, Xingxiu; Gu, Weixi; Zhu, Xiashi

    2016-12-01

    Ionic liquids-β-cyclodextrin polymer (ILs-β-CDCP) was attached on Fe3O4 nanoparticles to prepare magnetic solid phase extraction agent (Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP). The properties and morphology of Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD), size distribution and magnetic analysis. A new method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) coupled to ICP-OES for the speciation of Mn(II)/Mn(VII) in water samples was established. The results showed that Mn(VII) and total manganese [Mn(II)+Mn(VII)] were quantitatively extracted after adjusting aqueous sample solution to pH 6.0 and 10.0, respectively. Mn(II) was calculated by subtraction of Mn(VII) from total manganese. Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP showed a higher adsorption capacity toward Mn(II) and Mn(VII). Several factors, such as the pH value, extraction temperature and sample volume, were optimized to achieve the best extraction efficiency. Moreover, the adsorption ability of Fe3O4@ILs-β-CDCP would not be significantly lower after reusing of 10 times. The accuracy of the developed method was confirmed by analyzing certified reference materials (GSB 07-1189-2000), and by spiking spring water, city water and lake water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure and magnetic investigations of Ca1-xYxMnO3 (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and Mn4+/Mn3+ relation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagorac J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and magnetic features of nanostructured materials with general formula Ca1-xYxMnO3 (x = 0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 were investigated. Goldschmidt tolerance factor, Gt and global instability index, GII were calculated for Ca1-xYxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 using the software SPuDS (Structure Prediction Diagnostic Software. According to these two parameters possibility of forming perovskite structure type for Ca1-xYxMnO3 solid solution was analyzed. Substitution of Y3+ for Ca2+ provokes reduction of equivalent amount Mn4+ into Mn3+, the presence of which is a reason for many interesting magnetic, transport and structural features of doped CaMnO3. Crystal structure refinement was carried out using Rietveld analysis. Ca1-xYxMnO3 (x = 0; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3 has an orthorombic, Pnma space group that, according to Glazer´s classification belongs to a-b+a- tilt system. Influence of Y amount on Mn-O bond angles and distances, tilting of MnO6 octahedra around all three axes and octahedra deformation were analyzed. Bond valence calculations (BVC were performed to determine Mn valence state. Using EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance magnetic measurements were performed and magnetic properties of solid solutions, orthorombicity degree of unit cell, as well as Mn4+/Mn3+ cations ratio in position B were analyzed. Microstructure size-strain analysis was performed and these results are in nanometric range which is confirmed by TEM images.

  17. Mechanism of the catalytic ozonization of lignin in the presence of Mn(II) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, A. N.; Khudoshin, A. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    The reaction between ozone and lignin in aqueous solutions catalyzed by Mn(II) ions is studied. The rate of destruction for aromatic structures of lignin is found to increase in the presence of Mn(II) ions. However, the greatest catalytic effect is observed upon the transformation of aliphatic acids that are difficult to oxidize with ozone. The introduction of catalyst raises the total consumption of ozone from 3 to 7 mol per each structural unit of lignin. A scheme is proposed for the transformation of phenol fragments of lignin using ozone with the participation of Mn(II) ions: at the initial stage, we observe the ozone oxidation of lignin and Mn(II) to Mn(III) ions stabilized with products of lignin oxidation and accompanied by the formation of chelate complexes, and the Mn(III) chelate complexes act as low-molecular mediators, attacking phenol structures and initiating radical processes.

  18. Bulk and surface half-metallicity: The case of D03-type Mn3Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Gao, G. Y.; Hu, Lei; Ni, Yun; Zu, Fengxia; Zhu, Sicong; Wang, Shuling; Yao, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the experimental realization of D022-type Mn3Ge (001) films [Kurt et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 132410 (2012)] and the structural stability of D03-type Heusler alloy Mn3Ge [Zhang et al. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 25, 206006 (2013)], we use the first-principles calculations based on the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of D03-type Heusler alloy Mn3Ge and its (001) surface. We show that bulk D03-Mn3Ge is a half-metallic ferromagnet with the minority-spin energy gap of 0.52 eV and the magnetic moment of 1.00 μB per formula unit. The bulk half-metallicity is preserved at the pure Mn-terminated (001) surface due to the large exchange split, but the MnGe-terminated (001) surface destroys the bulk half-metallicity. We also reveal that the surface stabilities are comparable between the D03-Mn3Ge (001) and the experimental D022-Mn3Ge (001), which indicates the feasibility to grow the Mn3Ge (001) films with D03 phase other than D022 one. The surface half-metallicity and stability make D03-Mn3Ge a promising candidate for spintronic applications.

  19. A CO32--containing, dimanganese-substituted silicotungstate trimer, K9[H14{SiW10MnIIMnIIIO38}3(CO3)]·39H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ling; Liu, Qisen; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang; Wang, Jingping

    2015-08-14

    An unprecedented silicotungstate trimer K(9)[H(14){SiW(10)Mn(II)Mn(III)O(38)}(3)(CO(3))]·39H(2)O (1) has been successfully synthesized, in which the CO(3)(2-) resides inside the three Keggin {SiW(10)Mn(II)Mn(III)O(38)} units and the three O atoms serve as μ(2)-O atoms to connect with three Mn(III). Magnetic investigation indicates that 1 exhibits antiferromagnetic coupling.

  20. Interfacial ferromagnetism and exchange bias in CaRuO3/CaMnO3 superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, C; Grutter, A J; Gu, M; Browning, N D; Takamura, Y; Kirby, B J; Borchers, J A; Kim, J W; Fitzsimmons, M R; Zhai, X; Mehta, V V; Wong, F J; Suzuki, Y

    2012-11-01

    We have found ferromagnetism in epitaxially grown superlattices of CaRuO(3)/CaMnO(3) that arises in one unit cell at the interface. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicate that the difference in magnitude of the Mn valence states between the center of the CaMnO(3) layer and the interface region is consistent with double exchange interaction among the Mn ions at the interface. Polarized neutron reflectivity and the CaMnO(3) thickness dependence of the exchange bias field together indicate that the interfacial ferromagnetism is only limited to one unit cell of CaMnO(3) at each interface. The interfacial moment alternates between the 1 μ(B)/interface Mn ion for even CaMnO(3) layers and the 0.5 μ(B)/interface Mn ion for odd CaMnO(3) layers. This modulation, combined with the exchange bias, suggests the presence of a modulating interlayer coupling between neighboring ferromagnetic interfaces via the antiferromagnetic CaMnO(3) layers.

  1. Electronic density of state of Mn-N thin films measured by XPS

    CERN Document Server

    Morio, K

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films with an oriented direction of epsilon-Mn sub 4 N along the (111) axis and of eta-Mn sub 3 N sub 2 along the (113) axis were prepared as a single phase by RF reactive magnetron sputtering method. A comparison of XPS spectral analysis with discrete Variational-X alpha method showed that the N atoms in Mn-N compounds behave as a donor and govern the magnetic properties of the films. The epsilon-Mn sub 4 N films was a single phase perovskite type crystal with lattice parameter 0.386 nm, and this films had properties of the ferrimagnetism with 1.1 mu sub B per unit cell. The eta-Mn sub 3 N sub 2 films was face center tetragonal (a=0.4205 nm, c=1.2131 nm), and it had properties of antiferromagnetism with 0.4 mu sub B per unit cell. (author)

  2. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  3. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, P.J. [Geosciences for Development and the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs.

  4. Unsaturated Mn complex decorated hybrid thioarsenates: Syntheses, crystal structures and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Lei, Xiao-Wu, E-mail: xwlei_jnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Tian, Ya-Wei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Yi-Qun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Fan [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Yi, Fei-Yan, E-mail: yifeiyan@nbu.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science & Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The incorporation of unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+}, [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} (1,2-dap=1,2-diaminopropane) complex cations with thioarsenate anions of [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} and [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} led to three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates, namely, [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} (1), [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{[Mn(1,2-dap)]_2As_2S_8} (2) and (NH{sub 4})[Mn(2,2-bipy){sub 2}]AsS{sub 4} (3). In compound 1, the unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} complexes, [MnS{sub 4}]{sup 6−} tetrahedra and [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} trigonal-pyramids are condensed to form the 1D [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} chain, whereas compound 2 features 2D layer composed of [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} and [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+} complexes as well as [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} tetrahedral units. For compound 3, two [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} anions bridge two [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} complex cations into a butterfly like {[Mn(2,2-bipy)]_2As_2S_8}{sup 2−} anionic unit. Magnetic measurements indicate the ferrimagnetic behavior for compound 1 and antiferromagnetic (AF) behaviors for compounds 2–3. The UV–vis diffuse-reflectance measurements and electronic structural calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) revealed the title compounds belong to semiconductors with band gaps of 2.63, 2.21, and 1.97 eV, respectively. The narrow band-gap of compound 3 led to the efficient and stable photocatalytic degradation activity over organic pollutant than N-doped P25 under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: Three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates have been prepared and structurally characterized. These hybrid phases feature interesting magnetic and visible light responding photocatalytic properties.

  5. Library Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Seven articles on library reference services highlight reference obsolescence in academic libraries, major studies of unobtrusive reference tests, methods for evaluating reference desk performance, reference interview evaluation, problems of reference desk control, online searching by end users, and reference collection development in…

  6. Pre-edge features in X-ray absorption structure of Mn in GaMnN, GaMnAs and GeMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, A. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation) and ' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France)]. E-mail: titov@nsc.gpi.ru; Kulatov, E. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov str. 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Uspenskii, Yu.A. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii prosp. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Biquard, X. [DRFMC-SP2M, CEA Grenoble-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Halley, D. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Kuroda, S. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Bellet-Amalric, E. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); DRFMC-SP2M, CEA Grenoble-38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Mariette, H. [' Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs' , CEA-CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, BP 87, 38402 St Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Cibert, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2006-05-15

    Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N samples with a wide range of concentrations, from x=0.003 to 0.057, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and the simulation of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) confirmed the wurtzite structure of the samples, without any secondary phase, and the location of Mn in the gallium sublattice of GaN. The valence state of Mn was studied using the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) at the K-edge of Mn. The shape of the measured XANES spectra does not depend on the Mn concentration: that implies the same valence state and local atomic structure around the Mn atom in all samples. A calculation of the electronic band structure of GaMnN, GaMnAs, GeMn and the XANES spectra of Mn in GaMnN was performed using the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. The calculated spectra fit well our experimental data. In particular, the comparison demonstrates that a peak in the pre-edge structure is directly related to the 3+ valence state of Mn. This was confirmed experimentally by measurements of the Mn K-edge in GaMn{sup 2+}As and ZnMn{sup 2+}Te. An application of proposed interpretation for GeMn is discussed.

  7. SrMnII2MnIII(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Alhakmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, strontium trimanganese tris(orthophosphate, was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Its structure is isotypic to that of the lead analogue PbMnII2MnIII(PO43. Two O atoms are in general positions, whereas all others atoms are in special positions. The Sr and one P atom exhibit mm2 symmetry, the MnII atom 2/m symmetry, the MnIII atom and the other P atom .2. symmetry and two O atoms are located on mirror planes. The three-dimensional network of the crystal structure is made up of two types of chains running parallel to [010]. One chain is linear and is composed of alternating MnIIIO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra sharing vertices; the other chain has a zigzag arrangement and is built up from two edge-sharing MnIIO6 octahedra connected to PO4 tetrahedra by edges and vertices. The two types of chains are linked through PO4 tetrahedra, leading to the formation of channels parallel to [100] and [010] in which the SrII ions are located. They are surrounded by eight O atoms in the form of a slightly distorted bicapped trigonal prism.

  8. A chiral Mn(IV) complex and its supramolecular assembly: Synthesis, characterization and properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chullikkattil P Pradeep; Panthapally S Zacharias; Samar K Das

    2006-07-01

    The open air reaction of the chiral Schiff base ligand H2L, prepared by the condensation of L-phenylalaninol and 5-bromosalicylaldehyde, with MnII(CH3COO)2$\\cdot$4H2O yielded dark brown complex [MnIVL2]$\\cdot$0.5 DMF (1). Compound 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-visible, CD and EPR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and room temperature magnetic moment determination. Singlecrystal X-ray analysis revealed that compound 1 crystallises in the monoclinic 21 space group with six mononuclear [MnIVL2] units in the asymmetric unit along with three solvent DMF molecules. In the crystal structure, each Mn(IV) complex, acting as the building unit, undergoes supramolecular linking through C-H$\\cdots$O bonds leading to an intricate hydrogen bonding network.

  9. High-Resolution Mn EXAFS of the Oxygen-Evolving Complex inPhotosystem II: Structural Implications for the Mn4Ca Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Pushkar, Yulia; Glatzel, Pieter; Lewis, Azul; Sauer,Kenneth; Messinger, Johannes; Bergmann, Uwe; Yachandra, Vittal

    2005-09-06

    The biological generation of oxygen by the oxygen-evolving complex in photosystem II (PS II) is one of natures most important reactions. The recent X-ray crystal structures, while limited by resolutions of 3.2 to 3.5 A, have located the electron density associated with the Mn4Ca complex within the multi-protein PS II complex. Detailed structures critically depend on input from spectroscopic techniques such as EXAFS and EPR/ENDOR, as the XRD resolution does not allow for accurate determination of the position of Mn/Ca or the bridging and terminal ligand atoms. The number and distances of Mn-Mn/Ca/ligand interactions determined from EXAFS provide important constraints for the structure of the Mn cluster. Here we present data from a high-resolution EXAFS method using a novel multi-crystal monochromator that show three short Mn-Mn distances between 2.7 and 2.8 A and hence the presence of three di-mu-oxobridged units in the Mn4Ca cluster. This result imposes clear limitations on the proposed structures based on spectroscopic and diffraction data and provides input for refining such structures.

  10. K9MN METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  11. Interfacial magnetic coupling in ultrathin all-manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-TbMnO3 superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Y. F.

    2014-04-14

    We report the growth and magnetic properties of all-manganite superlattices composed of ultrathin double-exchange ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and noncollinear multiferroic TbMnO3 layers. Spontaneous magnetization and hysteresis loops are observed in such superlattices with individual La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 layers as thin as two unit cells, which are accompanied by pronounced exchange bias and enhanced coercivity. Our results indicate substantial interfacial magnetic coupling between spin sublattices in such superlattices, providing a powerful approach towards tailoring the properties of artificial magnetic heterostructures.

  12. Pre-edge features in X-ray absorption structure of Mn in GaMnN, GaMnAs and GeMn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A.; Kulatov, E.; Uspenskii, Yu. A.; Biquard, X.; Halley, D.; Kuroda, S.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Mariette, H.; Cibert, J.

    2006-05-01

    Ga1-xMnxN samples with a wide range of concentrations, from x=0.003 to 0.057, were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray diffraction and the simulation of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) confirmed the wurtzite structure of the samples, without any secondary phase, and the location of Mn in the gallium sublattice of GaN. The valence state of Mn was studied using the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) at the K-edge of Mn. The shape of the measured XANES spectra does not depend on the Mn concentration: that implies the same valence state and local atomic structure around the Mn atom in all samples. A calculation of the electronic band structure of GaMnN, GaMnAs, GeMn and the XANES spectra of Mn in GaMnN was performed using the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. The calculated spectra fit well our experimental data. In particular, the comparison demonstrates that a peak in the pre-edge structure is directly related to the 3+ valence state of Mn. This was confirmed experimentally by measurements of the Mn K-edge in GaMnAs and ZnMnTe. An application of proposed interpretation for GeMn is discussed.

  13. Investigation of high spin-polarization, magnetic, electronic and half-metallic properties in RuMn{sub 2}Ge and RuMn{sub 2}Sb Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dinesh C.; Bhat, Idris Hamid, E-mail: idu.idris@gmail.com

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The present materials show magnetism and are ferromagnetic. • The materials show high spin-polarization and follow Slater–Pauling rule. • The materials are half-metallic and can be used as spintronic materials. - Abstract: Half-metallic ferromagnets RuMn{sub 2}Ge and RuMn{sub 2}Sb have been studied in stable F-43m phase. The optimized equilibrium lattice constants in F-43m phase were found to be 5.90 Å and 6.10 Å for RuMn{sub 2}Ge and RuMn{sub 2}Sb, respectively. The materials exhibit half-metallic city with an energy gap in the spin-down channel of 0.38 eV for RuMn{sub 2}Ge and 0.4 eV for RuMn{sub 2}Sb. The calculated total magnetic moments of 2.0 μ{sub B} per unit cell for RuMn{sub 2}Ge and 3.0 μ{sub B} per unit cell for RuMn{sub 2}Sb are in good agreement with Slater–Pauling rule. The magnetic moments of Mn-I and Mn-II mainly contribute to the total magnetic moment of the materials and are antiparallel to each other, hence predicting the signature of ferrimagnetism in RuMn{sub 2}Z alloys. The shifting of bands towards lower energies in spin-down channel for RuMn{sub 2}Sb may be due to the strong covalent character of bonding than RuMn{sub 2}Ge.

  14. High-spin Mn wheels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Maria; Prescimone, Alessandro; Bagai, Rashmi; Mishra, Abhudaya; Murugesu, Muralee; Parsons, Simon; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Christou, George; Brechin, Euan K

    2007-08-20

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of the complexes [MnIV4MnIII10MnII2O2(OCH3)12(tmp)8(O2CCH3)10].3Et2O (1.3Et2O), [MnIV2MnIII18MnII2O6(OCH3)14(O2CCH3)16(tmp)8(HIm)2].2CH3OH (2.2CH3OH), and [MnIV2MnIII18MnII2O6(OCH3)14(O2CCH3)16(Br-mp)8(HIm)2].2C6H14.5CH3OH (3.2C6H14.5CH3OH) are reported. The unusual wheel-like complexes were prepared by the treatment of [Mn3O(O2CCH3)6(HIm)3](O2CCH3) (HIm = imidazole) with 1,1,1-tris-(hydroxymethyl)propane (H3tmp) (1 and 2) or 2-(bromomethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (Br-mpH3) (3) in the presence of sodium methoxide (NaOCH3, 2, and 3) in CH3OH. Complex 1.3Et2O crystallizes in the triclinic space group P, while complexes 2.2CH3OH and 3.2C6H14.5CH3OH crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbca. Direct current magnetic susceptibility data, collected for 1-3 in the respective 1.8-300 K and 0.1-7 T temperature and magnetic-field ranges, afford spin ground-state values of S = 14 +/- 1 for complex 1 and S = 9 +/- 1 for complexes 2 and 3. Alternating current susceptibility measurements performed on all three complexes in the 1.8-10 K temperature range in a 3.5 G oscillating field at frequencies between 50 and 1000 Hz reveal out-of-phase chi"M signals below approximately 3 K. Single-crystal hysteresis loop and relaxation measurements confirm single-molecule magnetism behavior.

  15. Gas Unit and Tract Boundaries, LP and LNG, DNROilGasUnits-Utah Oil and Gas UnitPolygons from the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Oil Gas and Mining Division. http://ogm.utah.gov, Published in 2007, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Gas Unit and Tract Boundaries, LP and LNG dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It...

  16. Magnetic interactions in martensitic Ni-Mn based Heusler systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda

    2010-04-22

    In this work, magnetic, magnetocaloric and structural properties are investigated in Ni-Mn-based martensitic Heusler alloys with the aim to tailor these properties as well as to understand in detail the magnetic interactions in the various crystallographic states of these alloys. We choose Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} as a prototype which undergoes a martensitic transformation and exhibits field-induced strain and the inverse magnetocaloric effect. Using the structural phase diagram of martensitic Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys, we substitute gallium and tin for indium to carry these effects systematically closer to room temperature by shifting the martensitic transformation. A magneto-calorimeter is designed and built to measure adiabatically the magnetocaloric effect in these alloys. The temperature dependence of strain under an external magnetic field is studied in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga, Sn, In and Sb) and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga and Sn). An argument based on the effect of the applied magnetic field on martensite nucleation is adopted to extract information on the direction of the magnetization easy axis in the martensitic unit cell in Heusler alloys. Parallel to these studies, the structure in the presence of an external field is also studied by powder neutron diffraction. It is demonstrated that martensite nucleation is influenced by cooling the sample under a magnetic field such that the austenite phase is arrested within the martensitic state. The magnetic interactions in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 40}Sb{sub 10} are characterized by using neutron polarization analysis. Below the martensitic transformation temperature, M{sub s}, an antiferromagnetically correlated state is found. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments are carried out on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} to gain more detailed information on the nature of the magnetic interactions. The experimental

  17. Photoreflectance Study of the Fundamental Optical Properties of (Ga,Mn)As Epitaxial Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yastrubchak, O.; Zuk, J.; Krzyzanowska, H.; Domagala, J. Z.; Andrearczyk, T.; J. Sadowski; Wosinski, T.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental optical properties of thin films of (Ga,Mn)As diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with a low (1%) and high (6%) Mn content and of a reference GaAs film, grown by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy, have been investigated by photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. In addition, the films were subjected to complementary characterization by means of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray diffractometry. Thorough ...

  18. Effect of palladium on the reducibility of Mn based materials: correlation with methane oxidation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylet, A; Royer, S; Labrugère, C; Valencia, H; Marécot, P; Tatibouët, J M; Duprez, D

    2008-10-21

    Mn-based oxide supports were synthesized using different procedures: (i) carbonate co-precipitation method, leading to the formation of a hexaaluminate crystallized solid (La(0.2)Sr(0.3)Ba(0.5)MnAl(11)O(19)) and (ii) solid-solid diffusion method, leading to the formation of a doped theta-Al(2)O(3) crystallized solid (nominal composition: 60 wt% La(0.2)Sr(0.3)Ba(0.5)MnAl(11)O(19) + 40 wt% Al(2)O(3)). Impregnation of 1.0 wt%Pd was carried out on both oxides. The solids were tested for the catalytic methane combustion up to 700 degrees C. It was observed that adding palladium resulted in an important increase in the catalytic activity. The combined use of H(2)-TPR and XPS techniques reveals that only Mn(3+)/Mn(2+) redox "couple" is present in the solids, whatever the synthesis procedure used. The fraction Mn(3+)/Mn is proportional to the total Mn content in the solid support, whatever the sample structure (hexaaluminate or doped theta-Al(2)O(3)) and its morphology (large crystals or aggregates of small particles, respectively). Pd impregnation and further calcination at 650 degrees C has no significant effect on the Mn(3+)/Mn fraction. However, some changes in Mn(3+) reduction profile are observed, depending on the solid structure. Indeed, palladium addition strongly affects the manganese reducibility with an important shift of the reduction process to lower temperatures (approximately 100 degrees C). On the basis of redox properties observed for the different catalysts, a Mars-van-Krevelen redox mechanism, with oxygen transfer from support oxides to palladium particles, is proposed to explain the difference in terms of catalytic conversion and stability with respect to a 1.0 wt%Pd/Al(2)O(3) reference sample.

  19. The OTIS Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Deppe, H; Trunk, U; Uwer, U

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the port definitions, electrical specifications, modes of operation and programming sequences of the OTIS TDC. The chip is developed for the Outer Tracker of the LHCb experiment. OTIS1.0 is the first full-scale prototype of this 32 channel TDC and has been submitted in April 2002 in a standard 0.25µm CMOS process. Within the clock driven architecture of the chip a DLL provides the reference for the drift time measurement. The drift time data of every channel is stored in the pipeline memory until a trigger decision arrives. A control unit provides memory and trigger management and handles data transmission to the subsequent DAQ stage. The latest chip version is OTIS1.3.

  20. The Mn site in Mn-doped Ga-As nanowires: an EXAFS study

    OpenAIRE

    d'Acapito, F.; Rovezzi, M.; Boscherini, F; Jabeen, F; Bais, G.; Piccin, M.; Rubini, S.; Martelli, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present an EXAFS study of the Mn atomic environment in Mn-doped GaAs nanowires. Mn doping has been obtained either via the diffusion of the Mn used as seed for the nanowire growth or by providing Mn during the growth of Au-induced wires. As a general finding, we observe that Mn forms chemical bonds with As but is not incorporated in a substitutional site. In Mn-induced GaAs wires, Mn is mostly found bonded to As in a rather disordered environment and with a stretched bond length, reminisce...

  1. Catalytic activity of Mn-substituted barium hexaaluminates for methane combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The catalysts of hexaaluminate (BaMnxAl12-xO19-δ , x = 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0) to be used in methane combustion have been successfully synthesized by co-precipitation method and supercritical drying. The crystalline structure and surface area of catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption analysis of BET method. BET analysis revealed that the preparing and drying method proposed here provides stable materials with higher surface area of 51.4 m2/g in comparison to materials prepared using conventional ambient drying method for BaMnxAl12?xO19-δ calcined at 1200℃ under oxygen. XRD analysis indicated that formation of a pure single phase BaMnxAl12-xO19-δ occurred up to x = 3 in the case of Mn-substituted barium hexaaluminates. Incorporation of Mn in excess leads to BaAl2O4 phase formation. As far as the valence state of Manganese ions was concerned, the introduced Mn ions were either divalent or trivalent. The first Mn ions were introduced in the matrix essentially as Mn2+ and only for BaMn3Al9O19-δ does manganese exist exclusively as Mn3+; the higher the Mn concen- tration, the higher the proportion of Mn3+. Catalytic activity for methane combustion has been measured for Mn-substituted barium hexaaluminates, light-off temperature was observed in the 512-624℃ range. The highest activity was obtained for catalysts containing 3 Mn ions per unit cell, which reveals that the BaMnxAl12-xO19-δ catalyst was a promising methane combustion catalyst with high activity and good thermal stability. Temperature programmed reduction (TPR) under hydrogen has been used to correlate the catalytic activity with the amount of easily reducible species.

  2. Preparation, structural and magnetic characterization of DyCrMnO 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lope, M. J.; Retuerto, M.; García-Hernández, M.; Alonso, J. A.

    2009-03-01

    The title compound has been first synthesized by a citrate technique followed by thermal treatments under moderate oxygen pressure conditions, and characterized by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetization measurements. The crystal structure of DyCrMnO 5 has been refined from NPD data in the space group Pbam; a=7.2617(6) Å, b=8.5161(6) Å, and c=5.7126(5) Å at 295 K. This oxide is isostructural with RMn 2O 5 oxides ( R=rare earths) and it contains infinite chains of (Cr, Mn) 4+O 6 octahedra-sharing edges, linked together by (Mn, Cr) 3+O 5 pyramids and DyO 8 units. The high degree of antisite disordering exhibited by DyCrMnO 5 is noteworthy. The octahedral positions are occupied by roughly 50% of Mn and Cr cations, and the pyramidal groups contain two thirds of Mn and one third of Cr cations. We assume that Mn and Cr cations at the octahedral positions exhibit a tetravalent oxidation state, whereas the metals at the pyramidal positions are trivalent, in order to preserve the electroneutrality of this oxide. The susceptibility vs temperature curve of DyCrMnO 5 does not suggest the establishment of a long-range magnetic structure even at low temperatures; the NPD technique does not provide any signal of magnetic ordering, since the reflections do not show any magnetic contribution.

  3. Manganese (Mn) Oxidation Increases Intracellular Mn in Pseudomonas putida GB-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Andy; Chavez, Valarie; Doi, Julia; Nguyen, Allison; Hernandez, Sophia; Ha, Vu; Jimenez, Peter; Espinoza, Fernanda; Johnson, Hope A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial manganese (Mn) oxidation plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycling of Mn and other compounds, and the diversity and prevalence of Mn oxidizers have been well established. Despite many hypotheses of why these bacteria may oxidize Mn, the physiological reasons remain elusive. Intracellular Mn levels were determined for Pseudomonas putida GB-1 grown in the presence or absence of Mn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mn oxidizing wild type P. putida GB-1 had higher intracellular Mn than non Mn oxidizing mutants grown under the same conditions. P. putida GB-1 had a 5 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to the non Mn oxidizing mutant P. putida GB-1-007 and a 59 fold increase in intracellular Mn compared to P. putida GB-1 ∆2665 ∆2447. The intracellular Mn is primarily associated with the less than 3 kDa fraction, suggesting it is not bound to protein. Protein oxidation levels in Mn oxidizing and non oxidizing cultures were relatively similar, yet Mn oxidation did increase survival of P. putida GB-1 when oxidatively stressed. This study is the first to link Mn oxidation to Mn homeostasis and oxidative stress protection. PMID:24147089

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of layered perovskite manganite LaCaBiMn2O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oubla M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The layered perovskite oxide, LaCaBiMn2O7, has been prepared by the conventional aqueous solution precipitation method. The powder X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the phase crystallizes with tetragonal unit cell in the space group I4/mmm. The magnetic properties suggest that the ferromagnetic interactions are dominant and manganese ion in the phase is present in mixed valence states Mn3+and Mn4+. The thermomagnetization curve is found to obey the Bloch law. Spin wave stiffness constant D and the approximate value for JMnMnexchange interaction were estimated from the experimental results.

  5. The value of colonoscopy to assess rectal bleeding in patients referred from Primary Care Units Utilidad de la colonoscopia en pacientes derivados desde Atención Primaria por rectorragia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: rectal bleeding is very common in the general population. It is produced mainly because of benign disease originating in the anus and the rectum. Our aim was to evaluate the need for colonoscopy in patients presenting with rectal bleeding. Patients and methods: patients referred from Primary Care Units and complaining of rectal bleeding were included prospectively in a three-month study. All patients underwent a careful medical history along with physical examination, laboratory tests, and colonoscopy. Results: 126 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years (range: 19-80 were studied. Rectal digital examination was abnormal in 75 cases (59.5%. Severe disease was encountered in 22 patients (neoplasm, angiodysplasia, and inflammatory bowel disease; 10 patients had polyps, 6 had colorectal cancer, and 6 had inflammatory bowel disease. Out of 63 patients younger than 50 years, 5 had severe disease, all of them in the form of inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions: a neoplasm of the rectum and colon in patients younger than 50 years is a rare event. A colonoscopy must be performed in this group of patients to rule out inflammatory bowel disease.Objetivos: la rectorragia es frecuente en la población general. En la mayoría de las ocasiones está producida por patología anorrectal benigna. Nuestro objetivo era determinar la necesidad de realizar pruebas endoscópicas en pacientes con rectorragia. Pacientes y métodos: se incluyeron de forma prospectiva durante tres meses todos los pacientes que eran derivados desde la Atención Primaria por rectorragia. En todos los pacientes se realizó historia clínica y exploración física que incluía tacto rectal, analítica básica y una colonoscopia. Resultados: se incluyeron 126 pacientes con una edad media de 49,2 años (19-80. El tacto rectal fue anormal en 75 (59,5%. En 22 pacientes se encontró patología severa o positiva (lesiones neoplásicas, angiodisplasias y enfermedad inflamatoria

  6. An intramolecular antiferromagnetically coupled pentanuclear Mn(II) cluster containing acetate and tetracarboxylate linkers: Synthesis, structure and magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Liu, Wei-Cong; Wu, Xi-Ren; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Yadav, Reena; Kumar, Abhinav

    2016-06-01

    A new Mn(II) complex {[Mn5(CH3COO)2(L)2(DMF)8](DMF)}n (1), (H4L = 3,5-bis(3‧,5‧-dicarboxylphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The complex 1 have pentanuclear Mn(II) core, where the two sides of metal centers (Mn2 and Mn3) have trigonal bipyramidal arrangement and the middle metal center (Mn1) have octahedral environment utilizing two O atoms from adjacent bridging bidentate carboxylate groups and four O atoms from four coordinated DMF molecules. The planar arrangement of pentanuclear Mn(II) atoms are linked by L linkage to generate two dimensional sheet. The magnetic property of the compound indicates χMT value for the five Mn(II) unit to be 21.3 cm3 K mol-1 at 300 K, which is close to the spin-only value (21.9 cm3 K mol-1) for the pentamer having S = 5/2. Also, the Hirshfeld surface analyses have been performed which indicated the absence of weak Mn···Mn interaction thereby corroborating the results of observed magnetic properties.

  7. Mobilization of manganese by basalt associated Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria from the Indian Ridge System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujith, P P; Mourya, B S; Krishnamurthi, S; Meena, R M; Loka Bharathi, P A

    2014-01-01

    The Indian Ridge System basalt bearing Mn-oxide coatings had todorokite as the major and birnesite as the minor mineral. We posit that microorganisms associated with these basalts participate in the oxidation of Mn and contribute to mineral deposition. We also hypothesized that, the Mn-oxidizing microbes may respond reversibly to pulses of fresh organic carbon introduced into the water column by mobilizing the Mn in Mn-oxides. To test these two hypotheses, we enumerated the number of Mn-oxidizers and -reducers and carried out studies on the mobilization of Mn by microbial communities associated with basalt. In medium containing 100 μM Mn(2+), 10(3) colony forming units (CFU) were recovered with undetectable number of reducers on Mn-oxide amended medium, suggesting that the community was more oxidative. Experiments were then conducted with basalt fragments at 4±2 °C in the presence 'G(+)' and absence 'G(-)' of glucose (0.1%). Controls included set-ups, some of which were poisoned with 15 mM azide and the others of which were heat-killed. The mobilization of Mn in the presence of glucose was 1.76 μg g(-1) d(-1) and in the absence, it was 0.17 μg g(-1) d(-1) after 150 d. Mn mobilization with and without added glucose was 13 and 4 times greater than the corresponding azide treated controls. However, rates in 'G(+)' were 16 times and 'G(-)' 24 times more than the respective heat killed controls. The corresponding total counts in the presence of added glucose increased from 1.63×10(6) to 6.71×10(7) cells g(-1) and from 1.41×10(7) to 3.52×10(7) cells g(-1) in its absence. Thus, the addition of glucose as a proxy for organic carbon changed the community's response from Mn(II)-oxidizing to Mn(IV)-reducing activity. The results confirm the participation of Mn oxidizing bacteria in the mobilization of Mn. Identification of culturable bacteria by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed taxonomic affiliations to Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Staphylococcus, Brevibacterium and

  8. Virtual reference services

    OpenAIRE

    Márdero Arellano, Miguel Ángel

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of virtual reference services, their standandars and new technologies that have changed the tradicional practice at the library’s reference desk. Major American virtual reference services initiatives and their characteristics are described.

  9. MnS clusters in natural zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacomi, Felicia; Vasile, Aurelia; Polychroniadis, E.K

    2003-08-15

    FTIR, ESR, optical absorption, photoconductivity, and luminescence measurements are used to evidence the nature of MnS clusters, synthesized by treating the Mn{sup 2+} forms of natural zeolites with Na{sub 2}S.

  10. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  11. Analyses of common-seen diseases referred to geriatric emergency unit among 4062 elderly patients%4062例老年急诊患者常见疾病分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宏伟; 袁彬; 戴建业; 卢光明

    2012-01-01

    Objective Common-seen diseases referred to geriatric emergency unit among 4062 elderly patients were analyzed as to facilitate prevention and treatment of the geriatric diseases. Methods Retrospective analyses of 4062 elderly patients referred to an emergency unit from Jan. 2008 to Dec. 2010. They were divided into two groups,the older group (60-70 years)and the senile elderly group (≥80 years). Differences of common—seen geriatric diseases between the two groups were compared. Results For the total cohort the top five common—seen diseases were respiratory system diseases,circulation system diseases,nervous system diseases, digestive system diseases and trauma. The disease profile was similar between the two subgroups. Totally the top five diseases were upper respiratory tract infection, trauma,gastroenteritis,transient ischemic attacks (TIA), angina. In the older group,it was upper respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, TIA, trauma, angina. In the senile elderly group, it was upper respiratory tract infection, trauma, pneumonia,TIA,angina. Respiratory system,metabolism endocrine system and urinary system diseases were more common in the older group than that in the senile elderly group. Myocardial infarction, heart failure, pneumonia, and cerebral infarction were more common in the senile elderly group, but gastroenteritis was more common in the older group. Conclusions More attention must be pay to the prevention of respiratory system disease and trauma in the elderly patients. As for the senile elderly patients,the prevention and treatment of respiratory system, metabolism endocrine system and urinary system diseases, especially myocardial infarction, heart failure , pneumonia, and cerebral infarction is very important.%目的 对4062例老年急诊患者常见疾病进行分析,为老年病的预防和救治提供参考资料.方法 回顾分析2008年1月~2010年12月在解放军总医院老年急诊科就诊的4062例

  12. Evolution of the magnetic order in the Ho(Mn, Al) sub 2 system; neutron diffraction study

    CERN Document Server

    Golosovsky, I V; Markosyan, A S; Roisnel, T

    2002-01-01

    The neutron diffraction study of Ho(Mn sub 1 sub - sub x Al sub x) sub 2 shows the coexistence of two cubic Laves phases with different unit-cell parameters and substantially different magnetic behaviours. The first phase combines ordered ferrimagnetic and disordered antiferromagnetic components of the magnetic moments. With increasing Al content, starting from the long-range ferrimagnetic order with the induced Mn moment in HoMn sub 2 , the progressive formation of spontaneous Mn moments yields short-range order, which in turn transforms to ferromagnetic order in HoAl sub 2. The second phase with incommensurate magnetic structure is driven by the spontaneous Mn moments and exists only over limited ranges of Al content and unit-cell parameter. It has a finite correlation length and appears from a second-order transition without a magneto-volume effect.

  13. Calix[4]arene supported clusters: a dimer of [Mn(III)Mn(II)] dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D; Beavers, Christine M;

    2011-01-01

    Phosphinate ligands allow for the transformation of a calix[4]arene supported [Mn(III)(2)Mn(II)(2)] tetramer cluster motif into an unusual [Mn(III)Mn(II)](2) dimer of dimers; the clusters self-assemble in the crystal to form bi-layer arrays reminiscent of the typical packing of calixarene solvates....

  14. Effects of Manganese Content on Solidification Structures, Thermal Properties, and Phase Transformation Characteristics in Fe-Mn-C Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Wang, Yu-Nan; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Rui-Zhi; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zheng-Jie; Wang, Ying-Chun; Li, Cheng-Bin; Jiang, Xiao-Fang

    2015-02-01

    The solidification structures and the thermal properties of Fe-Mn-C steel ingots containing different manganese contents have been investigated and the phase transformation characteristics have been revealed by Thermo-Calc to assist development of the continuous casting technology of Fe-Mn-C steels. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the 0Mn steel is higher than that of the 3Mn steel. The thermal conductivity of the 6Mn steel is the lowest in the three kinds of steels below 1023 K (750 °C) and the highest above 1173 K (900 °C). The 0Mn steel has the highest value of the proportion of equiaxed grain zone area in the three kinds of steels, whereas the 3Mn steel has the lowest value of it in the steels. Manganese has the effect of promoting the coarsening of grains. The microstructure is martensite and a little retained austenite (3.8 mass pct) in the 6Mn steel, whereas the microstructure is bainite in the 3Mn steel. The 0Mn steel is characterized by ferrite and pearlite. The mean thermal expansion coefficients of the steels are in the range from 1.0 × 10-5 to 1.6 × 10-5 K-1, and the determinations of mold tapers of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels can refer to low-carbon steel. Using RA steel is 873 K to 1073 K (600 °C to 800 °C), whereas those of the 3Mn steel and the 0Mn steel are 873 K to 1123 K (600 °C to 850 °C) and 873 K to 1173 K (600 °C to 900 °C), respectively. In the 6Mn and 3Mn steels, the deformation-induced ferrite (DIF) forms in sufficient quantities cause the recovery of the ductility at the low temperature end. However, since low strains are present when straightening, sufficient quantities of DIF cannot be formed. Thus, the ductility of the 6Mn and 3Mn steels cannot be improved during the continuous casting process. Manganese has the effect of enlarging the austenite phase region and reducing the δ-ferrite phase region and α-ferrite phase region.

  15. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  16. First principles study of a new half-metallic ferrimagnets Mn{sub 2}-based full Heusler compounds: Mn{sub 2}ZrSi and Mn{sub 2}ZrGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, A. [Laboratoire d’études physico-chimiques, Université Dr Moulay Tahar, Saida 20000 (Algeria); Amara, K., E-mail: kamaraphy@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’études physico-chimiques, Université Dr Moulay Tahar, Saida 20000 (Algeria); Hiadsi, S. [Département de Génie Physique, Université d’Oran des sciences et de la technologie Mohamed Boudiaf (Algeria); Amrani, B. [Département de Physique, Université d’Oran Es-Senia, Oran 31000 (Algeria)

    2015-08-15

    Half-metallic properties of new predicted Mn{sub 2}-based full Heusler alloys Mn{sub 2}ZrSi and Mn{sub 2}ZrGe have been studied by first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method based on density functional theory (DFT). Our investigation is focused on the structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of these compounds. The AlCu{sub 2}Mn-type structure is found to be energetically more favorable than the CuHg{sub 2}Ti-type structure for both compounds and are half-metallic ferrimagnets (HMFIs) with total magnetic moments of 2.000µ{sub B} per formula unit, well consistent with Slater–Pauling rule (M{sub tot}=(24–Z{sub tot})µ{sub B}). Calculations show that both the alloys have an indirect band gaps, in the majority-spin channel, with values of 0.505 eV and 0.278 eV for Mn{sub 2}ZrSi and Mn{sub 2}ZrGe, respectively. It was found that Mn{sub 2}ZrSi and Mn{sub 2}ZrGe preserved their half-metallicity for lattice constants range of 5.85–6.38 Å and 6.05–6.38 Å, respectively, and kept a 100% of spin polarization at the Fermi level. Moreover, the calculated formation energies and elastic constants confirm that these compounds are stable chemically and mechanically, and the good crystallographic compatibility with the lattice of semiconductors used industrially makes them promising magnetic materials in spintronic applications. - Highlights: • For Mn{sub 2}ZrZ (Z=Si, Ge) the AlCu{sub 2}Mn-type structure is more favorable than the CuHg{sub 2}Ti-type. • The calculated elastic constants confirm their mechanical stability. • Their negative estimated formation energies means they can be synthesized. • Their lattice constants match well with those of many semiconductor substrates. • They are predicted to be true half-metallic ferrimagnets. • The band gaps of Mn{sub 2}ZrSi~0.51 eV and Mn{sub 2}ZrGe~0.28 eV are indirect along, the Γ–X.

  17. Electronic Structure and Maximum Energy Product of MnBi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihoon Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed first-principles calculations to obtain magnetic moment, magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE, i.e., the magnetic crystalline anisotropy constant (K, and the Curie temperature (Tc of low temperature phase (LTP MnBi and also estimated the maximum energy product (BHmax at elevated temperatures. The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW method, based on density functional theory (DFT within the local spin density approximation (LSDA, was used to calculate the electronic structure of LPM MnBi. The Tc was calculated by the mean field theory. The calculated magnetic moment, MAE, and Tc are 3.63 μB/f.u. (formula unit (79 emu/g or 714 emu/cm3, −0.163 meV/u.c. (or K = −0.275 × 106 J/m3 and 711 K, respectively. The (BHmax at the elevated temperatures was estimated by combining experimental coercivity (Hci and the temperature dependence of magnetization (Ms(T. The (BHmax is 17.7 MGOe at 300 K, which is in good agreement with the experimental result for directionally-solidified LTP MnBi (17 MGOe. In addition, a study of electron density maps and the lattice constant c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moment suggested that doping of a third element into interstitial sites of LTP MnBi can increase the Ms.

  18. AMS measurement of {sup 53}Mn and its initial application at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kejun, E-mail: dkj401@aliyun.com [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Zhou, Duo; Xu, Yongning; He, Ming [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Liu, Guangshan [College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Hu, Hao; Dou, Liang; Liu, Jiancheng; Wu, Shaoyong [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Wang, Xianggao [College of Physical Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Shen, Hongtao [College of Physics and Technology, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 (China); Li, Kangning; You, Qubo; Bao, Yiwen; Hu, Yueming; Jin, Chunsheng; Yin, Xinyi [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China); Jiang, Shan, E-mail: jiangs@ciae.ac.cn [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(50), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2015-10-15

    The determination of cosmogenic {sup 53}Mn in terrestrial archives has important applications, such as burial ages, exposure age and erosion rates. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive technique to detect minute amounts of {sup 53}Mn. {sup 53}Mn measurements were developed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) using the ΔE-Q3D equipped AMS system. This approach was recently optimized with the goal to reach the sensitivity required for AMS measurements of {sup 53}Mn in deep-sea ferromanganese crust (DSFC) samples. Based on these improvements of sample preparation, current beam transmission and so on, {sup 53}Mn in two samples of DSFC was measured by AMS. The ratios of {sup 53}Mn/Mn corresponding to an age of 3.77 ± 0.42 and 13.73 ± 2.74 Ma by {sup 129}I dating method are (5.01 ± 2.15) × 10{sup −13} and (1.90 ± 0.96) × 10{sup −13}. The ratios are close to the experimental reference values, deduced from the previous research. The experimental progress, performances and results are presented in this contribution.

  19. Mn(II) complexes with bipyridine, phenanthroline and benzoic acid: Biological and catalase-like activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ibrahim Kani; Özlem Atlier; Kiymet Güven

    2016-04-01

    Five mononuclear Mn(II) complexes, [Mn(phen)2(ClO4)2] (1), [Mn(phen)3](ClO4)2(H2CO3)2(2), [Mn(bipy)2(ClO4)2] (3), [Mn(bipy)3](ClO4)2) (4), and Mn(phen)2(ba)(H2O)](ClO4)(CH3OH) (5), where bipy = 2,2’-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and ba = benzoic acid were prepared and characterized by Xray, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies, and their catalase-like and biological activities were studied. The presence of two different types and the number of chelating NN-donor neutral ligands allowed for analysis of their effects on the catalase and biological activities. It was observed that the presence and number of phen ligands improved the activity more than the bipy ligand. Complexes 1 and 2, which contain more basic phen ligands, disproportionate H2O2 faster than complexes 3 and 4, which contain less basic bipy ligands. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of all the complexes were also tested against seven bacterial strains by microdilution tests. All the bacterial isolates demonstrated sensitivity to the complexes and the antifungal (anticandidal) activities of the Mn(II) complexes were remarkably higher than the reference drug ketoconazole.

  20. Complicações da hipertensão arterial em homens e mulheres atendidos em um ambulatório de referência Complications of hypertension in men and women seen in a referral outpatient care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Beisl Noblat

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o sexo se associa à hipertrofia ventricular esquerda, ao acidente vascular cerebral e à insuficiência renal em hipertensos atendidos em ambulatório de referência. MÉTODOS: Dados de 622 hipertensos, admitidos com diagnóstico de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda baseado no eletrocardiograma, de insuficiência renal, na creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl, e de acidente vascular cerebral em história pregressa e exame físico. Regressão logística foi utilizada para estimar odds ratio da associação entre sexo e lesão de órgãos-alvo da hipertensão, ajustadas para raça, idade e sua duração. RESULTADOS: A média das idades foi 48,4±13,8 anos, 74,1% eram mulheres, 84,9% mulatos ou negros. Quase a metade dos homens e mais de 40% das mulheres apresentavam pelo menos um evento definido com lesão órgão-alvo. Insuficiência renal foi maior nos homens, OR ajustada (ORa = 2,73; (p=0,002. Nos pacientes brancos, a freqüência de acidente vascular cerebral foi significantemente (p=0,017 maior nos homens (4/33 do que nas mulheres (0/56 e, na análise para idade > 49 anos, a prevalência de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda foi significantemente maior em homens, ORa = 1,99; (p=0,024. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados obtidos sugerem maior prevalência de insuficiência renal em homens do que em mulheres, de acidente vascular cerebral em homens brancos do que em mulheres brancas, e de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda em homens do que em mulheres com idade > 49 anos.OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between sex and left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, and renal failure in hypertensive patients in a referral outpatient care unit. METHODS: This study assessed 622 hypertensive patients diagnosed with left ventricular hypertrophy based on electrocardiography, renal failure based on serum creatinine level > 1.4 mg/dL, and stroke based on a previous history and physical examination. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio of the

  1. Food Science & Technology. Instructor Guide. Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Phillip

    This packet contains an instructor curriculum guide and a student reference book for a course in food science and technology. The 4-unit curriculum contains 23 lessons. The instructor's guide contains the following components of a unit of instruction: objectives, competencies, motivational techniques, teaching procedures, other activities,…

  2. Formation process and superparamagnetic properties of (Mn,Ga)As nanocrystals in GaAs fabricated by annealing of (Ga,Mn)As layers with low Mn content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadowski, Janusz; Domagala, Jaroslaw Z.; Mathieu, Roland;

    2011-01-01

    °C) annealing of (Ga,Mn)As layers with Mn concentrations between 0.1% and 2%, grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 270°C. Decomposition of (Ga,Mn)As is already observed at the lowest annealing temperature of 400°C for layers with initial Mn content of 1% and 2%. Both cubic and hexagonal (Mn...

  3. A polyoxometalate-based single-molecule magnet with a mixed-valent {Mn(IV)2Mn(III)6Mn(II)4} core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Yao, Shuang; Li, Yang-Guang; Wu, Hai-Hong; Wang, Yong-Hui; Rouzières, Mathieu; Clérac, Rodolphe; Su, Zhong-Min; Wang, En-Bo

    2013-03-28

    A polyoxometalate (POM)-based {Mn(IV)2Mn(III)6Mn(II)4} complex with single-molecule magnet (SMM) behaviour was prepared, exhibiting the largest known Mn nuclearity and the most Mn valence states in the POM-based SMM family.

  4. CoMn2O4 spinel from a MOF: synthesis, structure and magnetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Partha; Sarma, Debajit; Madhu, C; Sundaresen, A; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2011-03-07

    A hydrothermal reaction of Mn(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O, Co(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O and 1,2,4 benzenetricarboxylic acid at 220 °C for 24 h gives rise to a mixed metal MOF compound, [CoMn(2){C(6)H(3)(COO)(3)}(2)], I. The structure is formed by the connectivity between octahedral CoO(6) and trigonal prism MnO(6) units connected through their vertices forming a Kagome layer, which are pillared by the trimellitate. Magnetic susceptibility studies on the MOF compound indicate a canted anti-ferromagnetic behavior, due to the large antisymmetric DM interaction between the M(2+) ions (M = Mn, Co). Thermal decomposition studies indicate that the MOF compound forms a tetragonal mixed-metal spinel phase, CoMn(2)O(4), with particle sizes in the nano regime at 400 °C. The particle size of the CoMn(2)O(4) can be controlled by varying the decomposition temperature of the parent MOF compound. Magnetic studies of the CoMn(2)O(4) compound suggests that the coercivity and the ferrimagnetic ordering temperatures are dependent on the particle size.

  5. Structural; morphological; optical and magnetic properties of Mn doped ferromagnetic ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, R.; Neogi, S. K.; Banerjee, Aritra; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    2012-12-01

    The structural, optical and magnetic properties of the Zn1-xMnxO (0 disorder developed in the samples due to Mn doping. The films are of single phase in nature; no formation of any secondary phase has been detected from structural analysis. Absence of magnetic impurity phase in these films has been confirmed from morphological study also. Increasing tendency of lattice parameters and unit cell volume has been observed with increasing Mn doping concentration. The incorporation of Mn2+ ions introduces disorder in the system. That also leads to slight degradation in crystalline quality of the films with increasing doping. The grain size reduces with increase in Mn doping proportion. The band gaps shows red shift with doping and the width of localized states shows an increasing tendency with doping concentration. It is due to the formation of impurity band and trapping of Mn atoms, which leads to the generation of the defect states within the forbidden band. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show gradual decrease of intensity of exitonic and defect related peaks with increasing Mn doping. Defect mediated intrinsic ferromagnetism has been observed even at room temperature for 5 at% Mn doped ZnO film. The strong presence of antiferromagnetic (AFM) interaction reduces the observed ferromagnetic moments.

  6. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  7. Effect of Mn Concentration on the Structural, optical and Magnetic Properties of GaMnN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, G.; Frazier, R.; Gila, B.; Stapleton, J.; Davidson, M.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.; Segre, C.U. (IIT); (Florida)

    2010-11-16

    The room temperature magnetization of GaMnN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (0001) sapphire substrates with Mn concentrations varying from 0 to 9 at. % was found to depend on Mn concentration, with a maximum magnetization found at -3 at. % Mn. High-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements show that the c-plane lattice constant initially decreases with increasing Mn concentration, then increases when the Mn content increases above -3 at. %. This increase is accompanied by a decrease in the full width at half maximum of the rocking curves. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure results indicate that the nonsubstitutional Mn is not present in the form of Ga{sub x}Mn{sub y} clusters and thus is most likely present in the form of an interstitial. Optical absorption measurements show only a slight increase in the band gap for material with 3 at. % Mn, relative to undoped GaN.

  8. The Key to Mn Homeostasis in Plants: Regulation of Mn Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ji Feng; Yamaji, Naoki; Shen, Ren Fang; Ma, Jian Feng

    2017-03-01

    Plants only require small amounts of manganese (Mn) for healthy growth, but Mn concentrations in soil solution vary from sub-micromolar to hundreds of micromolar across the growth period. Therefore, plants must deal with large Mn concentration fluctuations, but the molecular mechanisms underlying how plants cope with low and high Mn concentrations are poorly understood. In this Opinion we discuss the role of Mn transporters in the uptake, distribution, and detoxification of Mn in response to changes in Mn concentrations through their regulation at the transcriptional and protein levels, mainly focusing on rice, an Mn-tolerant and -accumulating species. We also propose mechanisms involved in the hyperaccumulation of Mn and future prospects for studying this specific trait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Manganese-induced reactive oxygen species: comparison between Mn+2 and Mn+3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Duhart, H M; Newport, G D; Lipe, G W; Slikker, W

    1995-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, the deficiency or excess of which is known to cause neurotoxicity in experimental animals and man. The mechanism of action of Mn neurotoxicity is still unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate whether in vitro or in vivo exposure to Mn produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also sought to determine if a single injection of Mn produces changes in monoamines concentration in different regions of rat brain. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with 0, 50 or 100 mg/kg, ip with either MnCl2 (Mn+2) or MnOAc (Mn+3) and were sacrificed 1 h after the dose was administered. Brains were quickly removed and dissected for neurochemical analysis. ROS were measured by a molecular probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), and monoamines and their metabolites were measured by HPLC/EC. In vitro exposure to MnCl2 (1-1000 microM) produced dose-dependent increases of ROS in striatum whereas MnOAc produced similar increases at much lower concentrations (1-100 microM). In vivo exposure to MnOAc (Mn+3) produced significant increases of ROS in caudate nucleus and hippocampus, whereas MnCl2 (Mn+2) produced significant effects only in hippocampus. Concentrations of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA) were not altered with acute injections of either MnCl2 or MnOAc. These data suggest that both divalent and trivalent manganese induce ROS, however, Mn+3 is an order of magnitude more potent than Mn+2.

  10. High Tc ferrimagnetic organic-inorganic hybrid materials with MnII-L-MnII and MnII-NC-NbIV linkages (L=pyrazine, pyrazine-N,N'-dioxide, bipyrimidine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgajny, Robert; Pinkowicz, Dawid; Korzeniak, Tomasz; Nitek, Wojciech; Rams, Michał; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2007-11-26

    A series of heterobimetallic, cyano-bridged 3D inorganic-organic hybrid networks with MnII-L-MnII and MnII-NC-NbIV linkages are reported. Reaction of [Mn(H2O)6]2+ with [Nb(CN)8]4- in the presence of organic linker L (pyrazine (pyz), pyrazine-N,N'-dioxide (pzdo), and 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpym)) in H2O affords {MnII2(pz)2(H2O)4[NbIV(CN)8]}.pz.3H2O (1), {MnII2(pzdo)(H2O)4[NbIV(CN)8]}.5H2O (2), and {MnII2(bpym)(H2O)2[NbIV(CN)8]} (3), respectively. 1-3 were examined by X-ray crystallography and vibrational and magnetochemical studies. 1 is characterized by the coexistence of 3D inorganic cyano-bridged and 1D organic [Mn-(micro-pyz)]n2n+ sublattices along with the presence of monocoordinated and crystallization molecules of pyrazine. Assemblies 2 and 3 exhibit dimeric {MnII2-(micro-L)}4+ coordination motifs. The magnetic behavior of heterobimetallic 1-3 complexes is dominated by antiferromagnetic coupling between MnII and NbIV centers mediated by cyano bridges, resulting in long-range ferrimagnetic ordering with a high TC of 27 (1), 37 (2), and 50 K (3). The magneto-structural correlation leads to the conclusion that the magnitude of TC is related to the type of coordination polyhedra of [Nb(CN)8] moieties (SAPR (1), intermediate between SAPR and DD (2), and DD (3)), the relative number of cyano bridges per Mn2Nb unit, and coexistence of inorganic and organic connectivity. FC/ZFC responses appear to be sensitive to the degree of organic connectivity. The discussion of magneto-structural correlation is based on the spin-density properties of adequate heterobimetallic systems containing octacyanometalates.

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Layered-Structured Mn5O8 Nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tao; Norby, Poul; Krumeich, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Mn5O8 nanorods were prepared by a topotactic conversion of γ-MnOOH nanorod precursors in nitrogen at 400 °C. The as-prepared Mn5O8 nanorods crystallized in a monoclinic structure (space group C2/m) with unit cell dimensions a = 10.3784(2) Å, b = 5.7337(7) Å, c = 4.8668(6) Å, and β = 109.491(6)°, ...... transition at about 133 K. The decreased Nel temperature of the Mn5O8 nanorods suggested the possible presence of the finite size effect, which accounted also for the red-shift of the corresponding Raman bands in comparison with those of the bulk counterparts....

  12. Exchange bias up to room temperature in antiferromagnetic hexagonal Mn3Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. F.; Nayak, A. K.; Kreiner, G.; Schnelle, W.; Felser, C.

    2014-07-01

    Mn3.04Ge0.96 has a hexagonal crystal structure, which can be stabilized by high-temperature annealing, and shows antiferromagnetic order with a small ferromagnetic component of less than 0.1μB and a coercivity of 0.45 T. In the ordered phase, magnetization curves M(H) exhibit an exchange bias of 62 mT at T = 2 K after field cooling, which is observable up to room temperature. The exchange anisotropy is suggested to originate from the exchange interaction between the host of triangular-antiferromagnetic Mn3Ge units and embedded ferrimagnetic-like clusters. Such clusters develop when excess Mn atoms occupy empty Ge sites in the original triangular-antiferromagnetic structure of Mn3Ge.

  13. Frustration-driven magnetic order in hexagonal InMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrèges, X.; Mirebeau, I.; Petit, S.; Bonville, P.; Belik, A. A.

    2011-08-01

    InMnO3 is a peculiar member of the hexagonal manganites h-RMnO3 (where R is a rare-earth metal element), showing crystalline, electronic, and magnetic properties at variance with the other compounds of the family. We have studied high quality samples synthesized at high pressure and temperature by powder neutron diffraction. The position of the Mn ions is found to be close to the threshold x=1/3 where superexchange Mn-Mn interactions along the c axis compensate. Magnetic long-range order occurs below TN=120(2) K with a magnetic unit cell doubled along c, whereas short-range two-dimensional dynamical spin correlations are observed above TN. We propose that pseudodipolar interactions are responsible for the long period magnetic structure.

  14. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  15. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  16. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  17. Strain in epitaxial MnSi films on Si(111) in the thick film limit studied by polarization-dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, A. I.; Zhang, S. L.; Baker, A. A.; Chalasani, R.; Kohn, A.; Speller, S. C.; Gianolio, D.; Pfleiderer, C.; van der Laan, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2016-11-01

    We report a study of the strain state of epitaxial MnSi films on Si(111) substrates in the thick film limit (100-500 Å) as a function of film thickness using polarization-dependent extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). All films investigated are phase-pure and of high quality with a sharp interface between MnSi and Si. The investigated MnSi films are in a thickness regime where the magnetic transition temperature Tc assumes a thickness-independent enhanced value of ≥43 K as compared with that of bulk MnSi, where Tc≈29 K . A detailed refinement of the EXAFS data reveals that the Mn positions are unchanged, whereas the Si positions vary along the out-of-plane [111] direction, alternating in orientation from unit cell to unit cell. Thus, for thick MnSi films, the unit cell volume is essentially that of bulk MnSi—except in the vicinity of the interface with the Si substrate (thin film limit). In view of the enhanced magnetic transition temperature we conclude that the mere presence of the interface, and its specific characteristics, strongly affects the magnetic properties of the entire MnSi film, even far from the interface. Our analysis provides invaluable information about the local strain at the MnSi/Si(111) interface. The presented methodology of polarization dependent EXAFS can also be employed to investigate the local structure of other interesting interfaces.

  18. Thermodynamics of the Mn-P system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. E.

    1986-12-01

    The free energy of mixing in the Mn-P melts in the composition range of X p = 0.0 to 0.333 was estimated by coupling the phase boundary information with reliable Δ G° formation for the Mn2P phase. This information was used to obtain the dilute solution properties of P in Mn. P( l,pure) = P( l,Henrian, Mn) Δ G °(Joules) = -203,611.39 + 41.003 T The free energy is shown to be more negative than in the Fe system, reflecting a stronger interaction between Mn and P atoms than between Fe and P atoms. Presenting the activity coefficient of P with the expression used by Lupis and Elliott, the first and second interaction coefficients are obtained as follows: ɛ{P/P}(Mn) = 10.538 + 9728.14/ T ρ{P/P}(Mn) = 28.148 + 9101.83/ T The Gibbs free energy of formation for Mn3P was estimated in the temperature range of {dy1233} to {dy1378} K to be 3Mn l + P( l = Mn3P( s Δ G °(Joules) = -241,461.65 + 65.031 T

  19. Reference frames and refbits

    CERN Document Server

    Van Enk, S J

    2004-01-01

    We define a new quantity called refbit, which allows one to quantify the resource of sharing a reference frame in quantum communication protocols. By considering various protocols we find relations between refbits and other resources such as cbits, ebits, cobits, and qubits. We also consider the same resources in encoded, reference-frame independent, form. This allows one to rephrase and unify previous work on phase references, reference frames, and superselection rules.

  20. Analysis of the Band-Structure in (Ga, MnAs Epitaxial Layers by Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yastrubchak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ternary III-V semiconductor (Ga, MnAs has recently drawn a lot of attention as the model diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor, combining semiconducting properties with magnetism. (Ga, MnAs layers are usually gown by the low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy (LT-MBE technique. Below a magnetic transition temperature, TC, substitutional Mn2+ ions are ferromagnetically ordered owing to interaction with spin-polarized holes. However, the character of electronic states near the Fermi energy and the electronic structure in ferromagnetic (Ga, MnAs are still a matter of controversy. The photoreflectance (PR spectroscopy was applied to study the band-structure evolution in (Ga, MnAs layers with increasing Mn content. We have investigated thick (800-700 nm and 230-300 nm (Ga, MnAs layers with Mn content in the wide range from 0.001 % to 6 % and, as a reference, undoped GaAs layer, grown by LT-MBE on semi-insulating (001 GaAs substrates. Our findings were interpreted in terms of the model, which assumes that the mobile holes residing in the valence band of ferromagnetic (Ga, MnAs and the Fermi level position determined by the concentration of valence-band holes. The ternary III-V semiconductor (Ga, MnAs has recently drawn a lot of attention as the model diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor, combining semiconducting properties with magnetism. (Ga, MnAs layers are usually gown by the low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy (LT-MBE technique. Below a magnetic transition temperature, TC, substitutional Mn2+ ions are ferromagnetically ordered owing to interaction with spin-polarized holes. However, the character of electronic states near the Fermi energy and the electronic structure in ferromagnetic (Ga, MnAs are still a matter of controversy. The photoreflectance (PR spectroscopy was applied to study the band-structure evolution in (Ga, MnAs layers with increasing Mn content. We have investigated thick (800-700 nm and 230-300 nm (Ga, Mn

  1. Reference Management and Citation

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2014-01-01

    Reference Management system offers an easy way of collecting references from online databases, organizing them in a database, and citing them in documents in Microsoft Word. Documents can be shared with colleagues/publish online. A reference management system can facilitate the keeping track of the literature.

  2. XPS Determination of Mn Oxidation States in Mn (Hydr)oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J.; Ling, Florence T.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2016-03-15

    Hydrous manganese oxides are an important class of minerals that help regulate the geochemical redox cycle in near-surface environments and are also considered to be promising catalysts for energy applications such as the oxidation of water. A complete characterization of these minerals is required to better understand their catalytic activity. In this contribution an empirical methodology using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is developed to quantify the oxidation state of hydrous multivalent manganese oxides with an emphasis on birnessite, a common layered structure that occurs readily in Nature but is also the oxidized endmember in biomimetic water-oxidation catalysts. The Mn2p3/2, Mn3p, and Mn3s lines of near monovalent Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV) oxides were fit with component peaks; after the best fit was obtained the relative widths, heights and binding energies of the components were fixed. Unknown multivalent samples were fit such that binding energies, intensities, and widths of each oxidation state, composed of a packet of correlated component peaks, were allowed vary. whereas widths were constrained to maintain the difference between the standards. Both average and individual mole fraction oxidation states for all three energy levels were strongly correlated with close agreement between Mn3s and Mn3p, whereas Mn2p3/2 gave systematically more reduced results. Limited stoichiometric analyses were consistent with Mn3p and Mn3s. Further, evidence indicates the shape of the Mn3p line was less sensitive to the bonding environment than Mn2p. Consequently, fitting the Mn3p and Mn3s lines yields robust quantification of oxidation states over a range of hydrous Mn oxide polytypes and compositions. In contrast, a common method for determining oxidation states that utilizes the multiplet splitting of the Mn3s line is not appropriate for birnessites.

  3. Oxygen Isotope Evidence for Mn(II)-Catalyzed Recrystallization of Manganite (γ-MnOOH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Spicuzza, Michael J; Scherer, Michelle M

    2016-06-21

    Manganese is biogeochemically cycled between aqueous Mn(II) and Mn(IV) oxides. Aqueous Mn(II) often coexists with Mn(IV) oxides, and redox reactions between the two (e.g., comproportionation) are well known to result in the formation of Mn(III) minerals. It is unknown, however, whether aqueous Mn(II) exchanges with structural Mn(III) in manganese oxides in the absence of any mineral transformation (similar to what has been reported for aqueous Fe(II) and some Fe(III) minerals). To probe whether atoms exchange between a Mn(III) oxide and water, we use a (17)O tracer to measure oxygen isotope exchange between structural oxygen in manganite (γ-MnOOH) and water. In the absence of aqueous Mn(II), about 18% of the oxygen atoms in manganite exchange with the aqueous phase, which is close to the estimated surface oxygen atoms (∼11%). In the presence of aqueous Mn(II), an additional 10% (for a total of 28%) of the oxygen atoms exchange with water, suggesting that some of the bulk manganite mineral (i.e., beyond surface) is exchanging with the fluid. Exchange of manganite oxygen with water occurs without any observable change in mineral phase and appears to be independent of the rapid Mn(II) sorption kinetics. These experiments suggest that Mn(II) catalyzes manganese oxide recrystallization and illustrate a new pathway by which these ubiquitous minerals interact with their surrounding fluid.

  4. Magnetic properties of MnF3 investigated by 55Mn NMR and M(H) measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Baeksoon; Kang, Byeongki; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Sejun; Lee, Soonchil

    2017-01-01

    The M(T) and M(H) curves were measured to study the spin-ordered state in MnF3 at low temperatures. In order to obtain the temperature dependence of magnetization, Mn3+ NMR resonance frequency was measured as a function of temperature. The resulting curve fits well to the initial temperature dependence of the magnetization expected for antiferromagnets with magnetic anisotropy, T 3 / 2 exp(-EG /kB T) , with an energy gap EG of about 30 K. From the comparison of the M(H) curve and classical theory, the relation between the anisotropy energy, Ka, and the exchange coupling constant between the nearest neighbors, J1, was found to be Ka ∼ - 1.8J1 + 9.8 in the absolute temperature unit.

  5. GaAs-MnAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, Janusz [MAX-Lab, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Siusys, Aloyzas; Wojciechowski, Tomasz; Reszka, Anna; Kowalski, Bogdan [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kovacs, Andras; Kasama, Takeshi [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby 2800 (Denmark); Institute for Microstructure Research, Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Different strategies for obtaining nanowires (NWs) with ferromagnetic properties using the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown nanostructures combining GaAs and Mn were investigated. Four types of structures have been studied: (i) self-catalyzed GaAs:Mn NWs grown at low temperatures on GaAs(100) substrates; (ii) GaAs:Mn NWs grown at high temperatures on Si(100) substrates; (iii) GaAs-GaMnAs core-shell NW structures; (iv) GaAs-MnAs core-shell NW structures grown on Si(100). Structures of types (i), (iii), and (iv) exhibit ferromagnetic properties. Right: Scanning electron microscopy image of Mn doped GaAs NWs with Ga droplets at the tops, grown by MBE on oxidized Si(100) substrate in the autocatalytic growth mode. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Binuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) clusters in coordination polymers derived from semirigid tetracarboxylate and N-donor ligands: syntheses, new topology structures and magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Xin, Ling-Yun; Wang, Li-Ya

    2017-02-01

    Two topologically new Mn(II) coordination polymers, namely {[Mn2(H4ipca)(4,4‧-bpy)1.5(CH3CH2OH)0.5(H2O)1.5]·0.5CH3CH2OH·2.5H2O}n (1) and {Mn4(H4ipca)2(bze)(H2O)4}n (2) were prepared by the solvothermal reactions of Mn(II) acetate with 5-(2',3'-dicarboxylphenoxy)isophthalic acid (H4ipca) in the presence of different N-donor coligands (4,4‧-bpy=4,4‧-bipyridyl and bze=1, 4-bis(1-imidazoly)benzene). The single crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that two complexes display 3D metal-organic frameworks with binuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) units, respectively. Complex 1 features a (3,4,6)-connected porous framework based on dinuclear Mn(II) unit with the (4.52)2(42.68.83.92)(52.8.92.10) new topology, and complex 2 possesses a (3,8)-connected network based on tetranuclear Mn(II) unit with the (42.6)2(44.614.77.82.9) new topology. Magnetic analyses indicate that both two compounds show weak antiferromagnetic interactions within binuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) units.

  7. Effect of low-temperature annealing on the electronic- and band-structures of (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yastrubchak, O.; Wosinski, T.; Gluba, L.; Andrearczyk, T.; Domagala, J. Z.; Żuk, J.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers, caused by post-growth low-temperature annealing, on their electronic- and band-structure properties has been investigated by modulation photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. The annealing-induced changes in structural and magnetic properties of the layers were examined with high-resolution X-ray diffractometry and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, respectively. They confirmed an outdiffusion of Mn interstitials from the layers and an enhancement in their hole concentration, which were more efficient for the layer covered with a Sb cap acting as a sink for diffusing Mn interstitials. The PR results demonstrating a decrease in the band-gap-transition energy in the as-grown (Ga,Mn)As layers, with respect to that in the reference GaAs one, are interpreted by assuming a merging of the Mn-related impurity band with the GaAs valence band. Whereas an increase in the band-gap-transition energy caused by the annealing treatment of the (Ga,Mn)As layers is interpreted as a result of annealing-induced enhancement of the free-hole concentration and the Fermi level location within the valence band. The experimental results are consistent with the valence-band origin of itinerant holes mediating ferromagnetic ordering in (Ga,Mn)As, in agreement with the Zener model for ferromagnetic semiconductors.

  8. Influence of Mn-dopant on the properties of {alpha}-FeOOH particles precipitated in highly alkaline media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Music, Svetozar [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)]. E-mail: music@irb.hr

    2006-12-21

    The effects of Mn-dopant on the formation of solid solutions {alpha}-(Fe, Mn)OOH in dependence on the initial concentration ratio r = [Mn]/([Mn] + [Fe]), as well as on the size and morphology of the corresponding particles were investigated using Moessbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyser (EDS). The value of the hyperfine magnetic field of 34.9 T, as recorded for the reference {alpha}-FeOOH sample at RT, decreased linearly up to 21.4 T for sample with r = 0.1667. Only a paramagnetic doublet at RT was recorded for sample with r = 0.2308, a ferrite phase was additionally found for r = 0.3333. Fe-OH bending IR bands, {delta} {sub OH} and {gamma} {sub OH}, were influenced by the Mn-substitution as manifested through their gradual shifts. FE SEM micrographs showed a great elongation of the starting acicular particles along the c-axis with an increase in Mn-doping. For r = 0.1667 and 0.2308 star-shaped and dendritic twin {alpha}-(Fe, Mn)OOH particles were observed. The length of these {alpha}-(Fe, Mn)OOH particles decreased, whereas their width increased. The {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase was not detected in any of the samples prepared.

  9. Growth and characterization of charge carrier spatially confined SrMnO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/SrMnO3 trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, A.; Sacco, C.; Orgiani, P.; Romeo, F.; Maritato, L.

    2017-02-01

    (SrMnO3)x/(La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)y/(SrMnO3)z (x,y,z=number of unit cells) trilayers have been grown using a Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction calibrated layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy technique. X-Ray Reflectivity and X-Ray Diffraction measurements confirm the structural quality and the abruptness of the interfaces. Electrical transport property analysis as a function of temperature show effects related to the spatial confinement of the charge carriers induced by the layering. These results are important in view of future developments of oxide based heterostructures for innovative quantum devices.

  10. A method for making Mn02 electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, M.; Nisino, A.

    1983-03-30

    A layer of Mn02, produced during thermal breakdown of manganese salts, is applied to a metallic current outlead. Then a mixture of granulated Mn02 and an electricity conducting additive and a binder is applied to this layer. The electrode contains 1 to 5 percent by mass epoxide resin, 5 to 15 percent by mass carbon powder, 0.1 to 10 percent by mass beta-Mn02 and 70 to 90 percent by mass gamma-Mn02. The electrode has high mechanical strength and good discharge characteristics.

  11. Multilayers of GaAs/Mn deposited on a substrate of GaAs (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Salamanca, M; Pulzara-Mora, A; Rosales-Rivera, A [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 (Colombia); Molina-Valdovinos, S; Melendez-Lira, M [Physics Department, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Av. IPN No. 2508, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Lopez-Lopez, M, E-mail: aopulzaram@unal.edu.c [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    In this work GaAs/Mn multilayers were deposited on GaAs (001) substrates by R.F magnetron sputtering technique, varying the deposition time (tg). Scanning electron and atomic force Microscopy studies were realized on the surface of the samples in order to determine the morphology and average roughness. X-ray diffraction spectra show that our samples tend to do amorphous. Raman spectroscopy at room temperature was employed to analyze the structural properties of the samples. We found that for a GaAs film taken as reference, the Raman spectra is dominated by the transverse (TO) and longitudinal (LO) modes located at 266 cm{sup -1} and 291 cm{sup -1}, respectively. However, for the GaAs/Mn multilayers the TO and LO modes decrease dramatically, and the Mn Raman modes in the range of 100 cm{sup -1} and 250 cm{sup -1} are evidenced. Additional new peaks located around 650 and 690 cm {sup -1} are only observed for the samples with high Mn content. By using the mass reduced model we estimate that the Mn related peaks are located at 650.2 cm{sup -1} and 695.2 cm{sup -1}, in good agreement with the experimental data, these peaks are correlated with excitations due to (Mn){sub m}As{sub n} localized structures.

  12. Visible Light-Induced Electron Transfer from Di-mu-oxo Bridged Dinuclear Mn Complexes to Cr Centers in Silica Nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, Heinz; Weare, Walter W.; Pushkar, Yulia; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-03

    The compound (bpy)2MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV(bpy)2, a structural model relevant for the photosynthetic water oxidation complex, was coupled to single CrVI charge-transfer chromophores in the channels of the nanoporous oxide AlMCM-41. Mn K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy confirmed that the di-mu-oxo dinuclear Mn core of the complex is unaffected when loaded into the nanoscale pores. Observation of the 16-line EPR signal characteristic of MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV demonstrates that the majority of the loaded complexes retained their nascent oxidation state in the presence or absence of CrVI centers. The FT-Raman spectrum upon visible light excitation of the CrVI-OII --> CrV-OI ligand-to-metal charge-transfer reveals electron transfer from MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 700 cm-1) to CrVI, resulting in the formation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 645 cm-1). All initial and final states are directly observed by FT-Raman or EPR spectroscopy, and the assignments corroborated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. The endoergic charge separation products (DELTA Eo = -0.6 V) remain after several minutes, which points to spatial separation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV as a consequence of hole (OI) hopping as a major contributing mechanism. This is the first observation of visible light-induced oxidation of a potential water oxidation complex by a metal charge-transfer pump in a nanoporous environment. These findings will allow for the assembly and photochemical characterization of well defined transition metal molecular units, with the ultimate goal of performing endothermic, multi-electron transformations that are coupled to visible light electron pumps in nanostructured scaffolds.

  13. Size-induced changes of structural and ferromagnetic properties in La1-xSrxMnO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Cornelia E.; Fuchs, Dirk; Merz, Michael; Amari, Houari; Kübel, Christian; Huang, Meng-Jie; Powell, Annie; v. Löhneysen, Hilbert

    2017-06-01

    La1-xSrxMnO3 nanocrystals were grown using a microemulsion approach with different water-to-surfactant ratios Rw resulting in diameters between 20 and 40 nm. The variation of Rw entails a variation in the Sr concentrations between x = 0.35 and 0.50. This technique allows the controlled growth of structurally well-defined nanoparticles using the same calcination conditions. With decreasing particle size, the unit-cell volume increases together with the Mn-O bond length, while the Mn-O-Mn bond angle was found to decrease. The size-dependent change of structural properties is possibly related to surface effects or disorder. With the decrease in particle size, the ferromagnetic ordering temperature TC decreases significantly by up to 20%. The reduction of TC can be well understood with respect to the structural changes: the increase of Mn-O bond length and the decrease of Mn-O-Mn bond angle weaken the double-exchange coupling and hence reduce T C . In addition the intrinsic finite-size effect reduces T C . The observed size-induced change of magnetic properties may allow for a controlled manipulation of magnetism in La1-xSrxMnO3 nanoparticles by varying the particle size.

  14. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  15. Charge transfer and interfacial magnetism in (LaNiO3)n/(LaMnO3)2 superlattices

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Jason; Tung, I. C.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Liu, Ming; Freeland, John; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2013-01-01

    (LaNiO3)n/(LaMnO3)2 superlattices were grown using ozone-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, where LaNiO3 is a paramagnetic metal and LaMnO3 is an antiferromagnetic insulator. The superlattices exhibit excellent crystallinity and interfacial roughness of less than 1 unit cell. X-ray spectroscopy and dichroism measurements indicate that electrons are transferred from the LaMnO3 to the LaNiO3, inducing magnetism in LaNiO3. Magnetotransport measurements reveal a transition from metallic to insulati...

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni1-xMnxO (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum.

  17. Possible martensitic transformation and ferrimagnetic properties in Heusler alloy Mn{sub 2}NiSn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Ying-Ni, E-mail: duanyingni@163.com [Department of Medical Engineering and Technology, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Fan, Xiao-Xi; Kutluk, Abdugheni [Department of Medical Engineering and Technology, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Du, Xiu-Juan [School of Applied Science, Taiyuan University of Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Zheng-Wei [Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Laboratory, The Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Song, Yu-Ling [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang 473061, Henan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type Mn{sub 2}NiSn have been studied by performing the first-principle calculations. It is found that the phase transformation from the cubic to the tetragonal structure reduces the total energy, indicating that the martensitic phase is more stable and the phase transition from austenite to martensite may happen at low temperature for Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type Mn{sub 2}NiSn. Concerning the magnetism of Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type Mn{sub 2}NiSn, both austenitic and martensitic phases are suggested to be ferrimagnets. Furthermore, martensitic transformation decreases the magnetic moment per formula unit compared with austenitic phase. The results are helpful to accelerate the use of Mn{sub 2}NiSn alloys in the series for magnetic shape memory applications. - Highlights: • It is found that the phase transition from austenite to martensite may happen at low temperature for Mn{sub 2}NiSn with the Hg{sub 2}CuTi-type structure. • Both austenitic and martensitic Mn{sub 2}NiSn are ferrimagnets. • Martensitic transformation decreases the magnetization.

  18. The spiritual weakness of churches founded by Western missionaries: The cause of the rise of Africa Independent Churches in Zimbabwe with special reference to the Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mushayavanhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Presbytery of Zimbabwe (POZ of the Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa(UPCSA has been affected by a drastic exodus of members to African Independent Churches,which is taking advantage of its spiritual weaknesses in its missional endeavour. The spiritual weaknesses which the people of the POZ experiences are a product of the evangelical mode of mission in Zimbabwean society and the failure by both foreign and local personnel tocontextualise the Good News. This article considers the possibility of correcting this stateof affairs. The central issue addressed is how to understand the context and achieve the necessary change.

  19. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  20. Thermal diffusion of Mn through GaAs overlayers on (Ga, Mn)As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adell, J; Ulfat, I; Ilver, L; Kanski, J [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sadowski, J [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Karlsson, K [Department of Life Sciences, University of Skoevde, SE-541 28 Skoevde (Sweden)

    2011-03-02

    Thermally stimulated diffusion of Mn through thin layers of GaAs has been studied by x-ray photoemission. (Ga, Mn)As samples with 5 at% Mn were capped with 4, 6 and 8 monolayer (ML) GaAs, and Mn diffusing through the GaAs was trapped on the surface by means of amorphous As. It was found that the out-diffusion is completely suppressed for an 8 ML thick GaAs film. The short diffusion length is attributed to an electrostatic barrier formed at the (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs interface.

  1. Thermal diffusion of Mn through GaAs overlayers on (Ga, Mn)As.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, J; Ulfat, I; Ilver, L; Sadowski, J; Karlsson, K; Kanski, J

    2011-03-02

    Thermally stimulated diffusion of Mn through thin layers of GaAs has been studied by x-ray photoemission. (Ga, Mn)As samples with 5 at% Mn were capped with 4, 6 and 8 monolayer (ML) GaAs, and Mn diffusing through the GaAs was trapped on the surface by means of amorphous As. It was found that the out-diffusion is completely suppressed for an 8 ML thick GaAs film. The short diffusion length is attributed to an electrostatic barrier formed at the (Ga, Mn)As/GaAs interface.

  2. Mechanical alloying of Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Si

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The ball milling of Fe-24Mn and Fe-24Mn-6Si mixed powders has been performed by the high energy ball milling technique.By employing X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer measurements.The ccmposition evolution during the milling process has been investigated.The results indicate the formation of paramagnetic Fe-Mn or Fe-Mn-Si alloys with a metastable fcc phase as final products.which imply that the Fe and Mn proceed a co-diffusion meenanism through the surface of fragmented powders.The thermal stability and composition evolution of the as-milled alloys were discussed comparing with the bulk alloy,.

  3. Mn(II) Oxidation by the Multicopper Oxidase Complex Mnx: A Coordinated Two-Stage Mn(II)/(III) and Mn(III)/(IV) Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Alexandra V; Romano, Christine A; Tao, Lizhi; Stich, Troy A; Casey, William H; Britt, R David; Tebo, Bradley M; Spiro, Thomas G

    2017-08-23

    The bacterial manganese oxidase MnxG of the Mnx protein complex is unique among multicopper oxidases (MCOs) in carrying out a two-electron metal oxidation, converting Mn(II) to MnO2 nanoparticles. The reaction occurs in two stages: Mn(II) → Mn(III) and Mn(III) → MnO2. In a companion study , we show that the electron transfer from Mn(II) to the low-potential type 1 Cu of MnxG requires an activation step, likely forming a hydroxide bridge at a dinuclear Mn(II) site. Here we study the second oxidation step, using pyrophosphate (PP) as a Mn(III) trap. PP chelates Mn(III) produced by the enzyme and subsequently allows it to become a substrate for the second stage of the reaction. EPR spectroscopy confirms the presence of Mn(III) bound to the enzyme. The Mn(III) oxidation step does not involve direct electron transfer to the enzyme from Mn(III), which is shown by kinetic measurements to be excluded from the Mn(II) binding site. Instead, Mn(III) is proposed to disproportionate at an adjacent polynuclear site, thereby allowing indirect oxidation to Mn(IV) and recycling of Mn(II). PP plays a multifaceted role, slowing the reaction by complexing both Mn(II) and Mn(III) in solution, and also inhibiting catalysis, likely through binding at or near the active site. An overall mechanism for Mnx-catalyzed MnO2 production from Mn(II) is presented.

  4. Valence state of Mn in Ca-doped LaMnO3 studied by high-resolution Mn K ß emission spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyson, T.A.; Qian, Q.; Kao, C.-C.; Rueff, J.-P.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Croft, M.; Cheong, S.-W.; Greenblatt, M.; Subramanian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Mn K ß x-ray emission spectra provide a direct method to probe the effective spin state and charge density on the Mn atom and is used in an experimental study of a class of Mn oxides. Specifically, the Mn K ß line positions and detailed spectral shapes depend on the oxidation and the spin state of

  5. Valence state of Mn in Ca-doped LaMnO3 studied by high-resolution Mn K ß emission spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyson, T.A.; Qian, Q.; Kao, C.-C.; Rueff, J.-P.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Croft, M.; Cheong, S.-W.; Greenblatt, M.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mn K ß x-ray emission spectra provide a direct method to probe the effective spin state and charge density on the Mn atom and is used in an experimental study of a class of Mn oxides. Specifically, the Mn K ß line positions and detailed spectral shapes depend on the oxidation and the spin state of t

  6. Hexagonal LuMnO3 revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, Bas B. van; Meetsma, Auke; Palstra, Thomas T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of hexagonal LuMnO3 at room temperature is isomorphous with YMnO3 and deviates in important details from early work. Mn is near the centre of its oxygen coordination environment. On the threefold axes, the apical O-Lu bonds have alternating long and short bond lengths, leading

  7. Reference Service Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, John; Young, William

    This manual is primarily designed as an orientation program for librarians new to the Reference Services Division at the State University of New York at Albany University Libraries. It contains practical information and some of the procedures necessary for providing service at the reference desk in these libraries. The appendices provide samples…

  8. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  9. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  10. Rethinking Virtual Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reference services seem a natural extension of libraries digital collections and the emphasis on access to the library anytime, anywhere. If patrons use the library from home, it makes sense to provide them with person-to-person online reference. The Library of Congress (LC), OCLC, and several large library systems have developed and…

  11. Aspect and Reference time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borik, O.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis provides a theory of aspect in Russian based on the notion of Reference time. The main claim advocated in this study is that there are two types of aspect, predicational/telicity aspect and perspective or Reference time aspect. It is argued that these two types should be carefully distin

  12. 借鉴美国经验完善我国高等教育税收政策%Improving Tax Policy concerning Higher Education in China by Referring to the Experiences of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董伟; 杨森平

    2012-01-01

    关国作为世界高等教育强国,十分重视税收政策对高等教育发展的促进作用。本文在介绍美国高等教育税收政策内容,总结其高等教育税收政策特点的基础上,分析了我国现行高等教育税收政策存在的主要问题,提出了完善我国高等教育税收政策的相关建议。%As the superpower in higher education around the world, the United States attached great importance to the facilitation of tax policy to the development of higher education. This paper introduces the tax policy of higher education in the United States, and on the basis of summarizing the characteristics of its tax policy on higher education, it analyzes major problems in existing tax policy on higher education in China and then puts forward some relevant suggestions to improve tax policy on higher education in China.

  13. Mn(2+) is dispensable for the production of active MnP2 by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitsuji, Hisatoshi; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kuwahara, Masaaki

    2005-02-18

    The regulation mechanism for expression of versatile peroxidase MnP2 by the basidiomycete fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was examined using chemically defined synthetic media. Expression of MnP2 was down-regulated at the transcription level by nutrient nitrogen, e.g., NH(4)(+), arginine or urea. As is often the case with other fungal manganese peroxidases, active MnP2 was not detected when Mn(2+) was omitted from the culture, while mnp2 transcription was barely affected by Mn(2+). However, Mn(2+) can be substituted by an MnP2 substrate, Poly R-478, since active MnP2 was detected extracellularly when the compound was added to the culture without Mn(2+). Enzyme stability assays with the purified MnP2 indicated an indispensable requirement for a substrate that can be used to complete the catalytic cycle, and avoid inactivation resulting from an excess H(2)O(2). This report is the first of the Mn(2+)-independent production of an active versatile peroxidase by P. ostreatus.

  14. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T. A. L.; Augustyns, V.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; Pereira, L. M. C., E-mail: lino.pereira@fys.kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Wahl, U.; Costa, A.; Correia, J. G. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); Silva, D. J.; Araújo, J. P. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Houben, K.; Van Bael, M. J. [Laboratory of Solid-State Physics and Magnetism, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Campion, R. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Silva, M. R. da [Centro de Física Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa 1649-003 (Portugal)

    2015-01-05

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (T{sub As}) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (T{sub Ga}) is negligible. T{sub As} is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding T{sub As} versus T{sub Ga} occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  15. Magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice with the substitution of Cu for Mn in PrMn2Si2 intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmali, A.; Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2004-12-01

    The magnetic properties of PrMn2-xCuxSi2 (0 \\le x \\le 1 ) were studied by field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements in the temperature range 5 K \\le T \\le 350 K in low external fields (5 mT) and by magnetic-field-dependent magnetization measurements in fields up to 5.5 T. Substitution of Cu for Mn leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constant c and the unit cell volume V and a linear increase in the lattice constant a. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that Pr does not order down to 1.6 K in PrMn2Si2 while the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c axis. With the increasing Cu content, the magnetization increases rapidly at low temperatures for the samples with 0.4 \\le x \\le 1 . Cu substitution strongly changes the magnetic properties and leads to the magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice. This is mainly deduced from the discussion of the values of the magnetic moments at low temperatures. Below the Curie temperatures TC, the spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice. With increasing Cu, TC(x) has a maximum value of 155 K at x = 0.6 and decreases for samples with x \\ge 0.7 .

  16. Magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice with the substitution of Cu for Mn in PrMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, A [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Dincer, I [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Elerman, Y [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Ehrenberg, H [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fuess, H [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The magnetic properties of PrMn{sub 2-x}Cu{sub x}Si{sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) were studied by field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements in the temperature range 5 K {<=} T {<=} 350 K in low external fields (5 mT) and by magnetic-field-dependent magnetization measurements in fields up to 5.5 T. Substitution of Cu for Mn leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constant c and the unit cell volume V and a linear increase in the lattice constant a. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that Pr does not order down to 1.6 K in PrMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} while the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c axis. With the increasing Cu content, the magnetization increases rapidly at low temperatures for the samples with 0.4{<=} x {<=} 1. Cu substitution strongly changes the magnetic properties and leads to the magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice. This is mainly deduced from the discussion of the values of the magnetic moments at low temperatures. Below the Curie temperatures T{sub C}, the spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice. With increasing Cu, T{sub C}(x) has a maximum value of 155 K at x = 0.6 and decreases for samples with x {>=} 0.7.

  17. Mn$_3$O$_4$(001) film growth on Ag(001) - a systematic study using NEXAFS, STM, and LEED

    CERN Document Server

    Gillmeister, Konrad; Shantyr, Roman; Trautmann, Martin; Meinel, Klaus; Chassé, Angelika; Schindler, Karl-Michael; Neddermeyer, Henning; Widdra, Wolf

    2015-01-01

    The film growth of Mn$_3$O$_4$(001) films on Ag(001) up to film thicknesses of almost seven unit cells of Mn$_3$O$_4$ has been monitored using a complementary combination of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The oxide films have been prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. Using NEXAFS, the identity of the Mn oxide has clearly been determined as Mn$_3$O$_4$. For the initial stages of growth, oxide islands with p(2$\\times$1) and p(2$\\times$2) structures are formed, which are embedded into the substrate. For Mn$_3$O$_4$ coverages up to 1.5 unit cells a p(2$\\times$1) structure of the films is visible in STM and LEED. Further increase of the thickness leads to a phase transition of the oxide films resulting in an additional c(2$\\times$2) structure with a 45$^\\circ$ rotated atomic pattern. The emerging film structures are discussed on the basis of a sublayer model of the Mn$_3$O$_4$ spinel unit cell. While t...

  18. Experiences of European Union System of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics and Reference%欧盟标准地域统计单元划分方法及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡玉梅; 黄宏源; 王国力; 王晓良; 吕春艳

    2015-01-01

    The purpose is to analysis the law foundation, princi-ples and methods of classification for nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) and its application. It attempts to pro-vide a scientific framework for macro scale territorial planning in China. Methods of comparative analysis were employed in this paper. The result includes: 1) to set up law status of NUTS through the EU Council Regulation; 2) The NUTS classification is a three hierarchical system for dividing up the economic territory of the EU. Administrative unit is mainly considered, and function-al unit is also referenced with Stability and flexibility; 3) NUTS provide scientific foundation for forming spatial planning, monitor-ing spatial change and making spatial policy. To draw experience and make correspondent classification is useful for Chinese spatial planning and spatial policy.%研究目的:分析欧盟标准地域单元划分的法律基础、原则和方法以及应用方式,为中国空间规划评价单元的划分提供参考。研究方法:比较分析法。研究结果:(1)欧盟标准地域单元的划分是通过欧盟理事会条例确定了其法律地位;(2)以行政单元为主兼顾功能单元所建立的欧盟三级标准地域单元体系,具有一定的稳定性和灵活性;(3)标准地域单元为欧盟空间规划的编制、空间变化的监测以及空间政策的制定和实施提供了有效的基础。研究结论:借鉴欧盟经验,开展中国标准地域单元体系和方法的研究,建立全国标准地域单元体系,可为中国不同层级空间规划及政策的制定和实施提供相互衔接的基础。

  19. New Jersey Area Libraries: A Pilot Project Toward the Evaluation of the Reference Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Lloyd J.

    The checklist and date distribution methods are used to evaluate the reference collections of two New Jersey Area Reference Libraries, an older, traditional single unit public library and a newer unit in a system of nine libraries. Three sectors of the reference collection are tested: reference books, abstracting and indexing services and serials.…

  20. Electronic and magnetic properties of off-stoichiometric Co{sub 2}Mn{sub β}Si/MgO interfaces studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. R.; Verma, V. K.; Ishigami, K.; Shibata, G.; Fujimori, A., E-mail: fujimori@wyvern.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koide, T. [Photon Factory, IMSS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Miura, Y.; Shirai, M. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishikawa, T.; Li, G.-F.; Yamamoto, M. [Division of Electronics for Informatics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2015-05-28

    We have studied the electronic and magnetic states of Co and Mn atoms at the interface of the Co{sub 2}Mn{sub β}Si (CMS)/MgO (β = 0.69, 0.99, 1.15, and 1.29) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In particular, the Mn composition (β) dependences of the Mn and Co magnetic moments were investigated. The experimental spin magnetic moments of Mn, m{sub spin}(Mn), derived from x-ray magnetic circular dichroism weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition β in going from Mn-deficient to Mn-rich CMS films. This behavior was explained by first-principles calculations based on the antisite-based site-specific formula unit (SSFU) composition model, which assumes the formation of only antisite defect, not vacancies, to accommodate off-stoichiometry. Furthermore, the experimental spin magnetic moments of Co, m{sub spin}(Co), also weakly decreased with increasing Mn composition. This behavior was consistently explained by the antisite-based SSFU model, in particular, by the decrease in the concentration of Co{sub Mn} antisites detrimental to the half-metallicity of CMS with increasing β. This finding is consistent with the higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratios which have been observed for CMS/MgO/CMS MTJs with Mn-rich CMS electrodes.

  1. Collaborating on Referring Expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter A.; Hirst, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model of how conversational participants collaborate in order to make a referring action successful. The model is based on the view of language as goal-directed behavior. We propose that the content of a referring expression can be accounted for by the planning paradigm. Not only does this approach allow the processes of building referring expressions and identifying their referents to be captured by plan construction and plan inference, it also allows us to account for how participants clarify a referring expression by using meta-actions that reason about and manipulate the plan derivation that corresponds to the referring expression. To account for how clarification goals arise and how inferred clarification plans affect the agent, we propose that the agents are in a certain state of mind, and that this state includes an intention to achieve the goal of referring and a plan that the agents are currently considering. It is this mental state that sanctions the adoption of g...

  2. KINETIC TRANSFORMATION OF SPINEL TYPE LiMnLiMn2O4 INTO TUNNEL TYPE MnO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud K Walanda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithiated phase LiMn2O4 is a potential cathode material for high-energy batteries because it can be used in conjunction with suitable carbon anode materials to produce so-called lithium ion cells. The kinetic transformation of LiMn2O4 into manganese dioxide (MnO2 in sulphuric acid has been studied. It is assumed that the conversion of LiMn2O4 into R-MnO2 is a first order autocatalytic reaction. The transformation actually proceeds through the spinel l-MnO2 as an intermediate species which is then converted into gamma phase of manganese dioxide. In this reaction LiMn2O4 whose structure spinel type, which is packing between tetrahedral coordination and octahedral coordination, is converted to form octahedral tunnel structure of manganese dioxide, which is probably regarded as a reconstructive octahedral-coordination transformation. Therefore, it is a desire to investigate the transformation of manganese oxides in solid state chemistry by analysing XRD powder patterns. Due to the reactions involving solids, concentrations of reactant and product are approached with the expression of peak areas.   Keywords: high-energy battery, lithium ion cells, kinetic transformation

  3. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  4. Olfactory Reference Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Evrensel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory reference syndrome is a delusional disorder in which the patient persistently and falsely believes that his or her body emits a foul odor. The disease is considered a variant of somatic type of delusional disorder under the diagnostic systems. Similarities between olfactory reference syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder have also been noted. The etiopathogenesis of the disorder has not yet been clarified. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and psychotherapy are used in the treatment of this disorder. The aim of this article was to review clinical features, neurobiology, differantial diagnosis, classification problems and treatment of olfactory reference syndrome.

  5. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  6. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  7. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  8. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  9. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  10. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  11. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  12. Investigation of electronic structure, magnetic and transport properties of half-metallic Mn{sub 2}CuSi and Mn{sub 2}ZnSi Heusler alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Idris Hamid, E-mail: idu.idris@gmail.com; Yousuf, Saleem; Mohiuddin Bhat, Tahir; Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2}CuSi and Mn{sub 2}ZnSi Heusler alloys have been investigated using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameters in stable F-43m configuration are found to be 5.75 Å for Mn{sub 2}CuSi and 5.80 Å for Mn{sub 2}ZnSi. Spin-resolved calculations show that the Mn atoms at inequivalent Wyckoff positions have different contributions to the total magnetic moment in the unit cell. The anti-parallel magnetic moments of inequivalent Mn atoms sum to an integer with total magnetic moment per unit cell. The 100% spin-polarization at Fermi energy together with the total magnetic moment of 1.0 µ{sub B} for Mn{sub 2}CuSi and 2.0 µ{sub B} for Mn{sub 2}ZnSi per unit cell, predict that the materials follow M{sub T}=Z{sub T} – 28 Slater–Pauling rule. Both the materials under study exhibit half-metallicity with an energy gap in the spin-down channels. In the study, we predict a rather fine value of Seebeck coefficient. Further, the decreasing electrical conductivity with temperature shows a metallic character in spin-up configurations, while the electrical conductivity of spin-down states follows a semiconductor-like trend. - Highlights: • Half-metallic materials. • Highly spin-polarized. • Possess large conductivity in spin-up and large resistivity in spin-down channels. • Large Seebeck coefficient makes them suitable thermoelectric materials.

  13. Mn8 and Mn16 clusters from the use of 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine, and comparison with the products from bulkier chelates: a new high nuclearity single-molecule magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Taketo; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Abboud, Khalil A; Christou, George

    2010-11-15

    The synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetochemical characterization of two new Mn clusters [Mn(8)O(2)(O(2)CPh)(10)(hmp)(4)(MeOH)(2)] (1; 6Mn(II), 2Mn(III)) and [Mn(16)O(8)(OH)(2)(O(2)CPh)(12)(hmp)(10)(H(2)O)(2)](O(2)CPh)(2) (2; 6Mn(II), 10Mn(III)) are reported. They were obtained from the use of 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine (hmpH) under the same reaction conditions but differing in the presence or absence of added base. Thus, the reaction of hmpH with Mn(O(2)CPh)(2) in CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH led to isolation of octanuclear complex 1, whereas the analogous reaction in the presence of NEt(3) gave hexadecanuclear complex 2. Complexes 1 and 2 possess either very rare or unprecedented core structures that are related to each other: that of 1 can be described as a linked pair of incomplete [Mn(4)O(3)] cubanes, while that of 2 consists of a linked pair of complete [Mn(4)O(4)] cubanes, on either side of which is attached a tetrahedral [Mn(4)(μ(4)-O)] unit. Solid-state direct current (dc) and alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements on 1 and 2 establish that they possess S = 5 and 8 ground states, respectively. Complex 2 exhibits frequency-dependent out-of-phase (χ(M)") ac susceptibility signals at temperatures below 3 K suggestive of a single-molecule magnet (SMM). Magnetization versus applied dc field sweeps on single crystals of 2·10MeOH down to 0.04 K exhibited hysteresis, confirming 2 to be a new SMM. Comparison of the structure of 2 (Mn(16)) with Mn(12) or Mn(6) clusters previously obtained under the same reaction conditions but with two Me or two Ph groups, respectively, added next to the alkoxide O atom of hmp(-) indicate their influence on the nuclearity and structure of the products as being due to the overall bulk of the chelate plus the decreased ability of the O atom to bridge.

  14. Final report on COOMET.AUV.A-S1: Technical report on supplementary comparison 'Comparison of national standards of the sound pressure unit in air through calibration of working reference microphones'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeeva, Valentina; Chalyy, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary comparison COOMET.AUV.A-S1 for secondary calibration methods using WS1 and WS2 measurement microphones was carried out from 2009 to 2010. The results were submitted to and approved by CCAUV in April 2014. Four National Metrology Institutes took part in this comparison and are as follows: BelGIM (Belarus), VNIIFTRI (Russia), SMU (Slovakia) and DP NDI 'Sistema' (Ukraine). Three of the above NMIs (VNIIFTRI, SMU and DP NDI 'Sistema') had earlier participated in COOMET key comparisons and one NMI (VNIIFTRI) had also participated in CCAUV key comparisons. The Comparison Reference Values were calculated as the weighted mean values from results obtained by three institutes. The comparison results show agreement for all participants in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 12.5 kHz for WS1 microphones, and in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 16 kHz for WS2 microphones. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Kinetics of physico-chemical processes during intensive mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M. [CIICAp-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Juarez-Arellano, E.A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.mx [Universidad del Papaloapan, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca (Mexico); Bykov, A. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Leon, I. [CIQ-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Siqueiros-Diaz, A. [FCQI-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Experimental results of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that the kinetic of the physical and chemical processes that takes place during prolonged intensive mechanical processing (MP, 03120min) of powder mixtures of 50%wt ZnO+50%wt MnO{sub 2} can be described as a three stage process. (1) 030min, particles destruction, formation of superficial defects, fast increment of sample average temperature (from 290 to {approx}600K) and annealing of defects with the lowest energy of activation E{sub ac}. (2) 30390min, further particle destruction, slow increment of sample average temperature (from {approx}600 to {approx}700K), formation and growth of a very disordered layer of {beta}-MnO{sub 2} around ZnO particles, dehydration of MnO{sub 2}, formation of solid solution of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO, formation of nano-quasiamorphous states in the ZnO-MnO{sub 2} mixture and onset of the formation of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. (3) 3903120min, the sample average temperature remains constant ({approx}700K), the reaction is completed and the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase with a unit cell a=8.431(1) A and space group Fd3-barm is the only phase present in the sample. No ferromagnetism at room temperature was detected in this study. - Highlights: > The kinetics during mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} samples is a three stage process. > First stage, reduction of crystallites size and accumulation of defects. > Second stage, nano-quasiamorphous states formation and onset of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. > Third stage, complete reaction to the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase.

  16. Cyanido-bridged Fe(III)-Mn(III) heterobimetallic materials built from Mn(III) Schiff base complexes and di- or tri-cyanido Fe(III) precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapati, Tapas; Pichon, Céline; Ababei, Rodica; Mathonière, Corine; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2012-03-19

    The reaction of [Fe(III)L(CN)(3)](-) (L being bpca = bis(2-pyridylcarbonyl)amidate, pcq = 8-(pyridine-2-carboxamido)quinoline) or [Fe(III)(bpb)(CN)(2)](-) (bpb = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzenate) ferric complexes with Mn(III) salen type complexes afforded seven new bimetallic cyanido-bridged Mn(III)-Fe(III) systems: [Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)Mn(saltmen)(CH(3)OH)]·CH(3)OH (1), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(3-MeO-salen)(OH(2))]·CH(3)OH·H(2)O (2), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(salpen)] (3), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(saltmen)] (4), [Fe(bpca)(CN)(3)Mn(5-Me-saltmen)]·2CHCl(3) (5), [Fe(pcq)(CN)(3)Mn(5-Me-saltmen)]·2CH(3)OH·0.75H(2)O (6), and [Fe(bpb)(CN)(2)Mn(saltmen)]·2CH(3)OH (7) (with saltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene)bis(salicylideneiminato) dianion, salpen(2-) = N,N'-propylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion, salen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato) dianion). Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out for all these compounds indicating that compounds 1 and 2 are discrete dinuclear [Fe(III)-CN-Mn(III)] complexes while systems 3-7 are heterometallic chains with {-NC-Fe(III)-CN-Mn(III)} repeating units. These chains are connected through π-π and short contact interactions to form extended supramolecular networks. Investigation of the magnetic properties revealed the occurrence of antiferromagnetic Mn(III)···Fe(III) interactions in 1-4 while ferromagnetic Mn(III)···Fe(III) interactions were detected in 5-7. The nature of these Mn(III)···Fe(III) magnetic interactions mediated by a CN bridge appeared to be dependent on the Schiff base substituent. The packing is also strongly affected by the nature of the substituent and the presence of solvent molecules, resulting in additional antiferromagnetic interdinuclear/interchain interactions. Thus the crystal packing and the supramolecular interactions induce different magnetic properties for these systems. The dinuclear complexes 1 and 2, which possess a paramagnetic S(T) = 3/2 ground state, interact

  17. Off-patent generic medicines vs. off-patent brand medicines for six reference drugs: a retrospective claims data study from five local healthcare units in the Lombardy Region of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio L Colombo

    Full Text Available The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet.We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04.The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines.Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic consequences

  18. Off-patent generic medicines vs. off-patent brand medicines for six reference drugs: a retrospective claims data study from five local healthcare units in the Lombardy Region of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Margonato, Alberto; Mencacci, Claudio; Montecucco, Carlo Maurizio; Trevisan, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet. We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs) and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali) in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic) and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04. The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL) represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs) show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines. Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic consequences, both for the

  19. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-10-22

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  20. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  1. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  2. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  3. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hypermethioninemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Mutations in human glycine N-methyltransferase give insights into its role in methionine metabolism. Hum Genet. ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  5. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  6. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G., E-mail: gubbiotti@fisica.unipg.it; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (IOM-CNR), Unità di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Del Bianco, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  7. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  8. EVALUATION OF GEOCHEMICAL QUALITY CONTROL IN DETERMINATION OF Mn IN SOILS USING A SEQUENTIAL CHEMICAL EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Sequential chemical extraction procedure has been widely used to partition particulate trace metals into various fractions and to describe the distribution and the statue of trace metals in geo-environment. One sequential chemical extraction procedure was employed here to partition various fractions of Mn in soils. The experiment was designed with quality controlling concept in order to show sampling and analytical error. Experimental results obtained on duplicate analysis of all soil samples demonstrated that the precision was less than 10% (at 95% confidence level). The accuracy was estimated by comparing the accepted total concentration of Mn in standard reference materials (SRMs) with the measured sum of the individual fractions. The recovery of Mn from SRM1 and SRM2 was 94.1% and 98.4% , respectively. The detection limit, accuracy and precision of the sequential chemical extraction procedure were discussed in detailed. All the results suggest that the trueness of the analytical method is satisfactory.

  9. Study of structural and electronic transport properties of Ce-doped LaMnO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shahid Husain; R J Choudhary; Ravi Kumar; S I Patil; J P Srivastava

    2002-05-01

    The structural and electronic transport properties of La1-CeMnO3 (=0.0-1.0) have been studied. All the samples exhibit orthorhombic crystal symmetry and the unit cell volume decreases with Ce doping. They also make a metal–insulator transition (MIT) and transition temperature increases with increase in Ce concentration up to 50% doping. The system La0.5Ce0.5MnO3 also exhibits MIT instead of charge-ordered state as observed in the hole doped systems of the same composition.

  10. Cationic Mn4 single-molecule magnet with a sterically isolated core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroux, Katie J; Quddusi, Hajrah M; Liu, Junjie; O'Brien, James R; Nakano, Motohiro; del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen; Hendrickson, David N

    2011-08-15

    The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of a ligand-modified Mn(4) dicubane single-molecule magnet (SMM), [Mn(4)(Bet)(4)(mdea)(2)(mdeaH)(2)](BPh(4))(4), are presented, where the cationic SMM units are significantly separated from neighboring molecules in the crystal lattice. There are no cocrystallized solvate molecules, making it an ideal candidate for single-crystal magnetization hysteresis and high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance studies. Increased control over intermolecular interactions in such materials is a crucial factor in the future application of SMMs.

  11. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),2011,205:88–92.

  12. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows GB/T 7714—2005.The citation should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article Sun,Y.,Li,B.,&Qu,J.F.Design and implementation of library intelligent IM reference robot.New Technology of Library and Information Service(in Chinese),

  13. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  14. Reference Based Genome Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Bobbie; Ochoa, Idoia; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target gen...

  15. EFFECT OF Cu AND Mn TOXICITY ON CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND GAS EXCHANGE IN RICE AND SUNFLOWER UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu and manganese (Mn are essential micronutrients for plants, but toxic at high concentrations. Responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. to toxic concentrations of Mn and Cu (up to 100 μM were studied under three light intensities including low (LL, PPFD=100, intermediate (IL, PPFD=500 and high (HL, PPFD=800 light intensities in hydroponic medium. Rice plants showed higher susceptibility than sunflower to both heavy metals concerning dry matter of shoot and root. Growing under higher light intensity strengthened the effect of Cu toxicity while ameliorated that of Mn, the latter was attributed to the lower Mn accumulation of HL plants in both shoot and root. Chlorophyll content of leaves was influenced negatively only by Cu treatment and that at the highest concentration in the medium (100 μM. Similar with growth results, reduction of net assimilation rate (A was higher in HL than LL plants treated by excess Cu, but in contrast to growth response, reduction was more prominent in sunflower than rice. Excess Mn-induced reduction of A was similar between LL and HL plants and was greater in sunflower than rice. Reduction of A was partly attributable to stomatal limitation, but non-stomatal mechanisms were also involved in this reduction. Copper and Mn treatment did not change the optimal quantum efficiency of PSII in dark-adapted chloroplasts (Fv/Fm ratio, but Fv/F0 was influenced particularly by Cu treatment, the reduction was higher in rice than sunflower and in HL compared to LL plants. Regarding excess Cu and Mn-mediated alterations in chlorophyll concentration, Fv/F0 and Tm values, it was suggested that, Cu and Mn toxicity depress the leaf photosynthetic capacity primarily by causing a significant alteration of the composition and functional competence of the photosynthetic units rather a reduction in the number of photosynthetic units (PSUs per unit leaf area.

  16. The Factors that Affect Indian Migrants' Decision to Stay in or Counter Migrate from the United States: A Study with Special Reference to the Role of Tourism Related Imagery as a Determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu P. GEORGE

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing socio-economic realities of the presenttimes, this paper explores the complex dynamics underlying Indian immigrants' decision to continue to stay in the United States or to counter migrate back to India. In a reversal of fortunes, the specific set of conditions that once triggered a massive inflow of economic migrants from India to the US has been causing a counter migration to India. Based on a review of literature and an exploratory study involving focus groups the paper identifiessome of the major migration / counter migration related factors. Then, employing a survey, the relative importance of each of these factors is gauged for individuals associated with different professions. In addition, the study explores as a special case the role of tourism related images about the US being held by immigrants as determinants of their migration related decisions. Tourism images held by the migrants and the tourism opportunities provided by the US act more as hygiene factors than as motivators. In course of theexploration, a number of hypotheses are emerged that are of interest to future researchers. The study has got significant implications for migration / counter migration policy makers, industry practitioners, and the migrants themselves.

  17. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  18. ALA Guide to Medical & Health Sciences Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALA Editions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This resource provides an annotated list of print and electronic biomedical and health-related reference sources, including Internet resources and digital image collections. Readers will find relevant research, clinical, and consumer health information resources. The emphasis is on resources within the United States, with a few representative…

  19. Translocation of Cd and Mn from Bark to Leaves in Willows on Contaminated Sediments: Delayed Budburst Is Related to High Mn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Vandecasteele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the hydrology of sediments in tidal marshes or landfills may affect the uptake of metals in the vegetation. Leaf and stem samples of Salix cinerea (grey sallow were collected during four consecutive growing seasons at six contaminated plots on a polluted dredged sediment landfill and one plot on an uncontaminated reference site. The first three contaminated plots were already emerged in the first half of the first growing season, while the other three were submerged in the first year, but became increasingly dry over the study period. Foliar and stem cutting concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn increased on the latter three plots over the four years. Willow bark contained high concentrations of Cd, Zn and Mn. In two consecutive greenhouse experiments with willow cuttings from different origins (uncontaminated and contaminated sites and grown under different soil conditions (uncontaminated and contaminated, we observed an important translocation of Mn from bark to shoots. In a third experiment with willow cuttings collected on soils with a range of heavy metal concentrations and, thus, with a broad range of Cd (4–67 mg/kg dry matter, Zn (247–660 mg/kg dry matter and Mn (38–524 mg/kg dry matter concentrations in the bark, high Mn concentrations in the bark were found to affect the budburst of willow cuttings, while no association of delayed budburst with Cd and Zn concentrations in the bark was found. We conclude that wood and, especially, bark are not a sink for metals in living willows. The high Mn concentrations in the bark directly or indirectly caused delayed or restricted budburst of the willow cuttings.

  20. Realization of color hue tuning via efficient Tb3+-Mn2+ energy transfer in Sr3Tb(PO4)3:Mn2+, a potential near-UV excited phosphor for white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yongchao; Lü, Wei; Guo, Ning; Lü, Wenzhen; Zhao, Qi; You, Hongpeng

    2013-04-28

    A n-UV convertible phosphor Sr3Tb(PO4)3:Mn(2+) with tunable-emitting color has been synthesized by solid state reaction. The GSAS refinement shows that the obtained powder crystallizes as a cubic unit cell with space group I43d, and Mn(2+) ions occupy the Sr(2+) crystallographic sites. Under (7)F6→(5)D3 of Tb(3+) excitation at 381 nm, Sr3Tb(PO4)3:Mn(2+) not only exhibits (5)D4→(7)F6-3 of Tb(3+) green emission lines but also (4)T1→(6)A1 of the Mn(2+) orange emission band. In addition, the intensity ratio of the orange/green emission bands can be enhanced through the increase of Mn(2+) content. The intense orange emission band of the Mn(2+) ions is attributed to the efficient energy transfer from the Tb(3+) to Mn(2+) ions, which has been justified through the luminescence spectra and fluorescence decay dynamics. The energy transfer mechanism was demonstrated to be the electric dipole-dipole interaction based on the Inokuti-Hirayama theoretical model, and the energy transfer efficiency was calculated. Optimal-composition samples show high external quantum efficiency, up to 59.3%, indicating the potential of the powder as a n-UV convertible phosphor for white LEDs.

  1. Imaging neuronal pathways with 52Mn PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napieczynska, Hanna; Severin, Gregory; Fonslet, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    tomography (PET) neuronal tract tracer. We used 52Mn for imaging dopaminergic pathways after a unilateral injection into the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as well as the striatonigral pathway after an injection into the dorsal striatum (STR) in rats. Furthermore, we tested potentially noxious effects...... of the radioactivity dose with a behavioral test and histological staining. 24 h after 52Mn administration, the neuronal tracts were clearly visible in PET images and statistical analysis confirmed the observed distribution of the tracer. We noticed a behavioral impairment in some animals treated with 170 kBq of 52Mn...... for PET imaging....

  2. Charge, orbital and spin ordering phenomena in the mixed valence manganite (NaMn3+3)(Mn3+2Mn4+2)O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodi, A.; Gilioli, E.; Gauzzi, A.; Licci, F.; Marezio, M.; Bolzoni, F.; Huang, Q.; Santoro, A.; Lynn, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Mixed-valence manganites with the ABO3 perovskite structure display a variety of magnetic and structural transitions, dramatic changes of electrical conductivity and magnetoresistance effects. The physical properties vary with the relative concentration of Mn3+ and Mn4+ in the octahedral corner-sharing network, and the proportion of these two cations is usually changed by doping the trivalent large A cation (for example, La3+) with divalent cations. As the dopant and the original cation have, in general, different sizes, and as they are distributed randomly in the structure, such systems are characterized by local distortions that make it difficult to obtain direct information about their crystallographic and physical properties. On the other hand, the double oxides of formula AA'3Mn4O12 contain a perovskite-like network of oxygen octahedra centred on the Mn cations, coupled with an ordered arrangement of the A and A' cations, whose valences control the proportion of Mn3+ and Mn4+ in the structure. The compound investigated in this work, (NaMn3+3)(Mn3+2Mn4+2)O12, contains an equal number of Mn3+ and Mn4+ in the octahedral sites. We show that the absence of disorder enables the unambiguous determination of symmetry, the direct observation of full, or nearly full, charge ordering of Mn3+ and Mn4+ in distinct crystallographic sites, and a nearly perfect orbital ordering of the Mn3+ octahedra.

  3. Mn3{ital s} multiplet splitting of pseudomorphic Mn overlayers on Ru(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sham, T.K. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, London N6A 5B7 (Canada); Shek, M.L. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Hrbek, J.; Campen, D.G. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Mn3{ital s} multiplet splitting for a series of Mn overlayers on Ru(001) has been measured with synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. These overlayers were prepared by vapor deposition of Mn onto a Ru(001) substrate at a monolayer/minute dosing rate at room temperature. Under these conditions, the Mn overlayers grow pseudomorphically to multilayer coverages. It is found that this system exhibits a noticeable increase in the Mn3{ital s} multiplet splitting and a positive binding energy shift as the coverage increases from monolayer to multilayer (12 ML). These results are attributed to the increase in the atomic volume, and hence the local magnetic moment at the Mn site on the average, with increasing coverage. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  4. Mn vacancy defects, grain boundaries, and A-phase stability of helimagnet MnSi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, T Y; Shu, G J; Lin, J-Y; Hu, C D; Chou, F C

    2016-01-20

    Mn vacancy defect and grain size are shown to modify the magnetic phase diagram of MnSi significantly, especially near the critical regime of A-phase (skyrmion lattice) formation and the helimagnetic phase transition. Crystals grown using controlled nonstoichiometric initial precursors creates both grain boundaries and intrinsic Mn vacancy defect of various levels in MnSi. The results of combined transport, specific heat, and AC spin susceptibility measurements are compared for MnSi single crystal samples of various manganese deficiency levels and grain sizes. The finite-size effect and Mn vacancy level dependent helical phase transition temperature T(c) have been identified and verified. The stability of A-phase in H-T phase space has been examined through AC spin susceptibility data analysis.

  5. Mn vacancy defects, grain boundaries, and A-phase stability of helimagnet MnSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, T. Y.; Shu, G. J.; Lin, J.-Y.; Hu, C. D.; Chou, F. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn vacancy defect and grain size are shown to modify the magnetic phase diagram of MnSi significantly, especially near the critical regime of A-phase (skyrmion lattice) formation and the helimagnetic phase transition. Crystals grown using controlled nonstoichiometric initial precursors creates both grain boundaries and intrinsic Mn vacancy defect of various levels in MnSi. The results of combined transport, specific heat, and AC spin susceptibility measurements are compared for MnSi single crystal samples of various manganese deficiency levels and grain sizes. The finite-size effect and Mn vacancy level dependent helical phase transition temperature {{T}\\text{c}} have been identified and verified. The stability of A-phase in H-T phase space has been examined through AC spin susceptibility data analysis.

  6. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli

  7. Transmission electron microscopy study of high temperature bainitic transformation in 1 wt.% Mn ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadabadi, M.N. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Niyama, E. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Echigoya, J. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    A 1 wt.% Mn ductile iron austenitized at 900 C for 90 min and austempered at 375 C for different periods was used to study some aspects of bainitic reaction in high Mn austempered ductile iron with reference to carbide precipitation in bainitic ferrite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) study shows that precipitation of carbide in the ferritic component of bainite is a function of the local concentration of alloying elements. In other words, in the region near graphite where Si segregates and there is negative Mn segregation as well as carbon, the bainitic ferrite is carbide free. However, in the intercellular region where Mn segregates and Si is depleted, the ferritic component of bainite occurs together with very fine and almost uniformly distributed carbide. Furthermore, TEM-EDXA results show that the increase in Mn content not only delays stage I (the initial transformation of austenite to ferrite and retained austenite) of the bainitic reaction, but also delays stage II (decomposition of retained austenite to ferrite and carbide). ((orig.))

  8. Doping LiMnPO4 with Cobalt and Nickel: A First Principle Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francesco Sgroi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A density functional theory (DFT study has been carried out on transition metal phosphates with olivine structure and formula LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni to assess their potential as cathode materials in rechargeable Li-ion batteries based on their chemical and structural stability and high theoretical capacity. The investigation focuses on LiMnPO4, which could offer an improved cell potential (4.1 V with respect to the reference LiFePO4 compound, but it is characterized by poor lithium intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics. Substitution of cations like Co and Ni in the olivine structure of LiMnPO4 was recently reported in an attempt to improve the electrochemical performances. Here the electronic structure and lithium intercalation potential of Ni- and Co-doped LiMnPO4 were calculated in the framework of the Hubbard U density functional theory (DFT+U method for highly correlated materials. Moreover, the diffusion process of lithium in the host structures was simulated, and the activation barriers in the doped and pristine structures were compared. Our calculation predicted that doping increases Li insertion potential while activation barriers for Li diffusion remain similar to the pristine material. Moreover, Ni and Co doping induces the formation of impurity states near the Fermi level and significantly reduces the band gap of LiMnPO4.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D.; McGuire, Michael A.; Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D.; Ovidiu Garlea, V.; Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George; Kolis, Joseph W.

    2016-09-01

    Large single crystals of A2Mn2V2O7F2 (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn2VO4F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO4F2 building blocks. The A2Mn2V2O7F2 series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs2Mn2V2O7F2: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO4F2 units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V2O7 pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn2+ indicated that Cs2Mn2V2O7F2 is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, TN=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of -11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V-O vibrational modes in Cs2Mn2V2O7F2. Mn2(VO4)F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn2+. These interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO4 tetrahedra to form the condensed structure.

  10. Magnetic Properties of AIIBIVCV2 Compounds Doped with Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kochura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mn-doped AIIBIVCV2 semiconductors bulk crystals were grown by direct melting of base components with fast cooling. Structural and magnetic properties of samples were investigated. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the magnetization reveals three types of magnetic species: the substitutional Mn ions making Mn complexes (especially dimers, the MnAs micro- and nanosize precepitates.

  11. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  12. Cation distribution in spinel (Mn,Co,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, A.; Fajar, A.; Mugirahardjo, H. [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Serpong Tengerang (Indonesia). Center for Technology of Nuclear Industrial Materials; Fergus, J.W.; Wang, K. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States). Materials Research and Education Center

    2010-06-15

    As part of a study of the long-term operation of solid-oxide fuel cells, three (Mn,Co,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} samples have been synthesized and characterized. X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns from the powder samples at room temperature were measured and the data were co-refined. The neutron data were indispensible in locating Mn, Co and Cr within the crystallographic unit cell with their respective atomic occupancies. Two of these samples have been identified as cubic Mn{sub 0.76}Co{sub 0.58}Cr{sub 1.66}O{sub 4} and Mn{sub 1.28}Co{sub 1.72}O{sub 4}. The third is a twophase sample containing cubic Mn{sub 1.66}Co{sub 1.34}O{sub 4} and tetragonal Mn{sub 2.05}Co{sub 0.91}O{sub 4} in a 59.1 (6):40.9 (6)% mass fraction ratio. Cr, which might be introduced from reaction with chromia during oxidation of interconnect materials, exhibits a preference for the octahedral site rather than the tetrahedral site. Without Cr, Mn dominates the octahedral site. (orig.)

  13. Oxygen-atom transfer chemistry and thermolytic properties of a di-tert-butylphosphate-ligated Mn4O4 cubane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allsburg, Kurt M; Anzenberg, Eitan; Drisdell, Walter S; Yano, Junko; Tilley, T Don

    2015-03-16

    [Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described.

  14. Reference: SBOXATRBCS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available iveness of a minimal RBCS light-responsive unit is mediated by direct binding of ABI4. Plant J. 43:506-519 (2005). in silico; Electrophoretic mobility shift assay; PubMed: 16098105 ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: trichothiodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, ... the United States and Europe. About 100 affected individuals have been reported worldwide. Related Information What information ...

  16. Structural study of nanosized yttrium-doped CaMnO3 perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Zagorac; A Zarubica; A Radosavljevic-Mihajlovic; D Zagorac; B Matovic

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructured compounds with general formula Ca1-YMnO3 (0 ≤ ≤ 1) were synthesized by modified glycine nitrate procedure. In the next step, we have investigated crystal structure and microstructure of the synthesized samples using X-ray methods and Rietveld analysis. Focus of this research was the structural stability of the yttrium-doped CaMnO3 perovskite phases, which crystallize in orthorhombic space group Pnma. We observed that the unit cell volumes of the investigated compounds increase proportionally with yttrium amount. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of yttrium amount on Mn–O bond angles and distances, tilting of MnO6 octahedra and deformation due to the presence of Jahn–Teller distortion around Mn3+ cation. In order to estimate effective coordination of and sites, bond valence calculations (BVC) were performed for and site cations. Finally, the photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) method was applied in order to follow yttrium concentration in the perovskite phases.

  17. Interfacial Ferromagnetism in LaNiO3/CaMnO3 Superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grutter, Alexander J.; Yang, Hao; Kirby, B. J.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Browning, Nigel D.; Jenkins, C. A.; Arenholz, Elke; Mehta, V. V.; Alaan, U. S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2013-08-01

    We observe interfacial ferromagnetism in superlattices of the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3 and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3. LaNiO3 exhibits a thickness dependent metal-insulator transition and we find the emergence of ferromagnetism to be coincident with the conducting state of LaNiO3. That is, only superlattices in which the LaNiO3 layers are metallic exhibit ferromagnetism. Using several magnetic probes, we have determined that the ferromagnetism arises in a single unit cell of CaMnO3 at the interface. Together these results suggest that ferromagnetism can be attributed to a double exchange interaction among Mn ions mediated by the adjacent itinerant metal.

  18. Interfacial ferromagnetism in LaNiO3/CaMnO3 superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutter, A J; Yang, H; Kirby, B J; Fitzsimmons, M R; Aguiar, J A; Browning, N D; Jenkins, C A; Arenholz, E; Mehta, V V; Alaan, U S; Suzuki, Y

    2013-08-23

    We observe interfacial ferromagnetism in superlattices of the paramagnetic metal LaNiO3 and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3. LaNiO3 exhibits a thickness dependent metal-insulator transition and we find the emergence of ferromagnetism to be coincident with the conducting state of LaNiO3. That is, only superlattices in which the LaNiO3 layers are metallic exhibit ferromagnetism. Using several magnetic probes, we have determined that the ferromagnetism arises in a single unit cell of CaMnO3 at the interface. Together these results suggest that ferromagnetism can be attributed to a double exchange interaction among Mn ions mediated by the adjacent itinerant metal.

  19. Effect of Mn and Ti substitution on the reflection loss characteristic of Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11-zMnTizO19 (z = 0, 1, 2 and 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunanto, Y. E.; Cahyadi, L.; Adi, W. Ari

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of composition Ba0.6Sr0.4Fe11-zMnTizO19 (z = 0; 1; 2 and 3) compound by solid state reaction using mechanical milling have been performed. The raw materials were BaCO3, SrCO3, Fe2O3, MnCO3, and TiO2. The mixed powder was compacted and sintered at 1000°C for 5 hours. X-ray diffraction studies indicate expansion of hexagonal unit cell and compression of atomic density with substitution of Mn2+ and Ti4+ ions. Effect of substitution upon magnetic properties revealed that total magnetization, remanence, and coercivity changed with substitution due to preferential site occupancy of substituted Mn2+ and Ti4+ ions. Since the coercivity and total magnetization may be controlled by substitution while maintaining resistive properties, this material is useful for microwave absorber.

  20. CaCuxMn3-xMn4O12的结构及输运性质研究%THE STUDY OF STRUCTURAL AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES IN CaCuxMn3-xMn4O12

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮小力; 曹辉

    2011-01-01

    the sample of CaCuxMn3-x Mn4O12 (x=0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1.0,1.2,1.4) synthesized using wet-chemistry technique , and then sinter in higher temperature, further enrich the research of series materials. The Rietveld refinements of powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all the samples are single phase, with cubic symmetry,the space group Im(3) and there is no change in structural symmetry at all the copper ion composition range from x=0.2 to x=1.4. The lattice parameters and volume of unit cell decrease with increasing doping level x. Although the radius of Cu2+ is larger than that of Mn3+ , Mn3+ turns into Mn4+ partially and the radii of Mn4+ smaller than that of Mn3+ , but the latter reason plays the main role , thus cause the volume of unit cell to increase. The bond angle of Mn2-O-Mn2 changes rulelessly with increasing x, which indicates the presence of Jahr-Teller effect in MnO6 octahedron. The reason of these results is the mismatch between Jahn-Teller ions Mn3+/Cu2+. The unusual features of the manganese oxides indicate that the lattice deformation directly influences the bond length and angle of MnO6 octahedron. Structural analysis is of great importance to further study the transport and magnetic properties of these manganese oxides. In addition, we studied the CMR effect of these sample and find that the MR increases with increasing x and reach the maximum at x= 1.0, then presents decreasing trend in the field of 5T. But at low-magnetic-field the resistivity changes indistinctly, these because of the spin-polarized scatter of carriers between grains and double-exchange effect.%湿化学反应法制备了CaCuxMn3-xMn4 O12(x=0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8,1.0,1.2,1.4)系列材料的前驱体,然后通过高温烧结做成样品,进一步丰富了这类样品的研究内容.X射线衍射表明掺杂Cu2+在x=0.2到x=1.4范围内这些材料都能够成单相.通过Rietveld全谱拟合的方法分析,结果表明随掺杂浓度的增大,晶体的结构对称性没有发生变

  1. Critical thickness for ferromagnetism in insulating LaMnO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw Wang, X.; Poccia, N.; Leusink, D. P.; Paudel, Tura R.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Li, C. J.; Lv, W. M.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando, Ariando; Hilgenkamp, H.

    2014-03-01

    The interplay between exchange interactions, interfacial charges, and confinement effects controls the electronic, magnetic, and transport properties of complex oxide thin films. Here we report the emergence of ferromagnetism in insulating LaMnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates beyond a critical thickness. LaMnO3 (001) films are deposited by a pulsed laser deposition technique with thicknesses varying from 1 unit cell to 24 unit cells. The position dependent local magnetization is then mapped with micrometer resolution using scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy. We find that the magnetic ground state switches from non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic within a change of one unit cell above the critical thickness of 5 unit cells with characteristic domain size of about 20 μm. Further increase of film thickness up to 24 unit cells leads to reduction of the domain size to about 10 μm. The critical thickness is qualitatively explained in terms of the charge transfer in polar LaMnO3 (001) thin films based on results of additional experimental data, density-functional calculations, and the electrostatic modeling.

  2. Synthesis of nanosize MnO2 and its performence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大明; 魏杰

    2003-01-01

    Sol sol-gel method and solid phase redox reaction were respectively applied in preparation of Nanos-ize MnO2 powders. The experiments showed that only Mn2O3 could be obtained from ignition of Mn( Ⅱ ) in themuffle furnace in air, and Mn2O3 had to be disproportionated in acids to gain MnO2. The analysis of XRD andTEM technique revealed that the diameters of nanosize MnO2 obtained by sol-gel method was 35 ~45 nm andthe x in MnOx was 1.9; the particle size of MnO2 produced from solid phase redox reaction was 10 ~ 20 nm andthe x in MnOx equaled 1.94. The test results have proved that the discharge property of alkaline-manganese bat-tery could be improved by nanosize MnO2.

  3. Magnetic depth profile in GaMnAs layers with vertically graded Mn concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiner, J., E-mail: leinerjc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kirby, B.J. [Center for Neutron Research, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Fitzsimmons, M.R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Tivakornsasithorn, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol Univeristy, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.K.; Dobrowolska, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Controlled vertical grading of magnetization of the ferromagnetic semiconductor GaMnAs represents a significant step toward optimizing its magnetic properties for device applications. Quantitative control of such grading is difficult due to various competing effects, such as Mn diffusion, self-annealing, and diffusion of charge carriers. Furthermore, there are also several surface effects that can influence the magnetization profile, which should be considered in designing and fabricating graded GaMnAs specimens. However, we show that vertical magnetization gradients in GaMnAs layers can be readily achieved by appropriate growth strategies. In this paper we describe the preparation, magnetization measurements, and polarized neutron reflectometry studies of vertically graded GaMnAs layers, which provide direct evidence that vertical grading of Mn concentration has been successfully achieved in our GaMnAs samples. Our measurements also indicate that these graded samples exhibit magnetic “hardening” near the surface. - Highlights: • Controlled vertical grading of the magnetization ferromagnetic semiconductors represents a significant step toward optimizing its magnetic properties for device applications. • Quantitative control of such grading is difficult due to various competing effects, such as Mn diffusion, self-annealing, and diffusion of charge carriers. • We show (via SQUID and Polarized Neutron Scattering) that vertical magnetization gradients in GaMnAs layers can be readily achieved by appropriate MBE growth strategies. • Our measurements also indicate that these graded samples exhibit magnetic “hardening” near the surface.

  4. Magnetic coupling in ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As/(Al,Ga,Mn)As bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Wadley, P.; Campion, R. P.; Rushforth, A. W.; Edmonds, K. W.; Gallagher, B. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Charlton, T. R.; Kinane, C. J.; Langridge, S. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-07

    We report on a study of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As/(Al,Ga,Mn)As bilayers using magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR). From depth-resolved characterization of the magnetic structure obtained by PNR, we concluded that the (Ga,Mn)As and (Al,Ga,Mn)As layers have in-plane and perpendicular-to-plane magnetic easy axes, respectively, with weak interlayer coupling. Therefore, the layer magnetizations align perpendicular to each other under low magnetic fields and parallel at high fields.

  5. Topological Weyl semimetals in the chiral antiferromagnetic materials Mn3Ge and Mn3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Shi, Wu-Jun; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Yan, Binghai

    2017-01-01

    Recent experiments revealed that Mn3Sn and Mn3Ge exhibit a strong anomalous Hall effect at room temperature, provoking us to explore their electronic structures for topological properties. By ab initio band structure calculations, we have observed the existence of multiple Weyl points in the bulk and corresponding Fermi arcs on the surface, predicting antiferromagnetic Weyl semimetals in Mn3Ge and Mn3Sn. Here the chiral antiferromagnetism in the Kagome-type lattice structure is essential to determine the positions and numbers of Weyl points. Our work further reveals a new guiding principle to search for magnetic Weyl semimetals among materials that exhibit a strong anomalous Hall effect.

  6. Nd-induced Mn spin-reorientation transition in NdMnAsO

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkova, A.; Hansen, T.C.; Curfs, C.; Margadonna, S.; Bos, J. -W. G.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of synchrotron x-ray, neutron powder-diffraction, magnetization, heat-capacity, and electrical-resistivity measurements reveals that NdMnAsO is an antiferromagnetic semiconductor with large Neel temperature [T-N=359(2) K]. At room temperature the magnetic propagation vector k=0 and the Mn moments are directed along the crystallographic c axis [m(Mn)=2.41(6) mu(B)]. Upon cooling a spin-reorientation (SR) transition of the Mn moments into the ab plane occurs (T-SR=23 K). This coin...

  7. High Curie temperatures in (Ga,Mn)N from Mn clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Hynninen, Teemu; Raebiger, Hannes; Ayuela, Andres; von Boehm, J.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of microscopic Mn cluster distribution on the Curie temperature (Tc) is studied using density-functional calculations. We find that the calculated Tc depends crucially on the microscopic cluster distribution, which can explain the abnormally large variations in experimental Tc values from a few K to well above room temperature. The partially dimerized Mn_2-Mn_1 distribution is found to give the highest Tc > 500 K, and in general, the presence of the Mn_2 dimer has a tendency to enh...

  8. Studies on Spinel LiMn2O4 Cathode Material Synthesized from Different Mn Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐致远; 冯季军; 彭亚宁

    2004-01-01

    The spinel LiMn2O4 cathode material was synthesized with the solid-state reaction method. Four manganese compounds including electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD), MnCO3, Mn3O4 and nano-EMD were used as Mn sources while LiOH·H2O was used as the uniform Li source. The crystal structure characteristics of these samples produced were investigated by means of XRD, SEM, particle size distribution analysis and specific surface area testing. Their electrochemical properties were also studied by comparing their specific capacity, charge and discharge efficiency and cycle performance.

  9. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  10. New celestial reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. K.; Kaplan, G. H.; van Flandern, T. C.

    It is pointed out that the IAU (1976) System of Astronomical Constants, the FK5 and new lunar and planetary theories are being introduced in 1984. The investigation and planning for the transition have revealed the complex interdependencies between observational techniques and the reference systems and their strong link to the rotating and orbiting earth. Details for the conversion to the new system are given. The concepts for a future reference system are developed, based on separating the real motions involved in such a way that observations from various moving platforms can be related to the appropriate coordinate system without involving motions that are not intrinsically involved in the observations. As a consequence, the reference systems determined or used in space, while affected by aberration and parallax, would logically be defined with no dependence on precession, nutation, polar motion, or Universal Time, all of which are concerned with motions of the earth's surface.

  11. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  12. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  13. New perovskite-based manganite Pb 2Mn 2O 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M.; Perkisas, Tyché; D'Hondt, Hans; Tan, Haiyan; Verbeeck, Johan; Filonenko, Vladimir P.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2010-09-01

    A new perovskite based compound Pb 2Mn 2O 5 has been synthesized using a high pressure high temperature technique. The structure model of Pb 2Mn 2O 5 is proposed based on electron diffraction, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with parameters a=5.736(1) Å≈√2 ap, b=3.800(1) Å≈ ap, c=21.562(6) Å≈4√2 ap ( ap—the parameter of the perovskite subcell) and space group Pnma. The Pb 2Mn 2O 5 structure consists of quasi two-dimensional perovskite blocks separated by 1/2[110] p(1¯01) p crystallographic shear planes. The blocks are connected to each other by chains of edge-sharing MnO 5 distorted tetragonal pyramids. The chains of MnO 5 pyramids and the MnO 6 octahedra of the perovskite blocks delimit six-sided tunnels accommodating double chains of Pb atoms. The tunnels and pyramidal chains adopt two mirror-related configurations ("left" L and "right" R) and layers consisting of chains and tunnels of the same configuration alternate in the structure according to an -L-R-L-R-sequence. The sequence is sometimes locally violated by the appearance of -L-L- or -R-R-fragments. A scheme is proposed with a Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO 6 octahedra with two long and two short bonds lying in the a- c plane, along two perpendicular orientations within this plane, forming a d-type pattern.

  14. Theoretical investigations of Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Cr{sub x}Sn and Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1-y}Si{sub y} pseudo-ternary alloys: First principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charifi, Z., E-mail: charifizoulikha@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria); Hamad, B. [Physics Department, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942 (Jordan); Physics Department, University of Arkansas, 825 W. Dickson St., Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Baaziz, H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of M' sila, 28000 M' sila (Algeria); Soyalp, F. [Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Education, Department of Physics, Van 65080 (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn and Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys are investigated using density functional theory (DFT) within a full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. Amongst the systems under investigation, Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys show half metallicity with 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level, however Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn are found to be pseudo-half metals with few minority states at the Fermi level and high spin polarization. The substitution of Si with Sn keeps the magnetic moment constant in Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys, whereas the substitution of Mn with Cr decreases the magnetic moment and degrade the half-metallicity in Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn alloys. The Curie temperature is calculated and it is found to be about 928 K for all Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys, whereas it decreases linearly with x for Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn alloys. The lattices constants, bulk modulii, energy gaps, polarization ratio and density of states are calculated and their variation versus x or y are discussed. - Highlights: • The band structure calculations show that Co{sub 2}MnSn{sub 1−y}Si{sub y} alloys are half-metallic ferromagnets. • The effect of substituting Sn by Si is a slight change in the position of the Fermi level and an increase in the band gap. • For Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn alloys, the results suggest that there is a finite density of states in the minority-spin d band of manganese. • The Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}Sn compounds cannot be classified as half-metallic ferromagnets. • The substitution of Mn with Cr decreases the magnetic moment per formula unit from 5.0 to 4.0µ{sub B}.

  15. Spin polarization effect for Mn2 molecule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shi-Ying; Xu Guo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    The density functional theory method (DFT) (b3p86) of Gaussian 03 has been used to optimize the structure of the Mn2 molecule.The result shows that the ground state of the Mn2 molecule is an 11-multiple state,indicating a spin polarization effect in the Mn2 molecule,a transition metal element molecule.Meanwhile,we have not found any spin pollution because the wavefunction of the ground state does not mingle with wavefunctions of higher-energy states.So the ground state for Mn2 molecule being of an 11-multiple state is the indicative of spin polarization effect of the Mn2 molecule among those in the transition metal elements:that is,there are 10 parallel spin electrons in a Mn2 molecule.The number of non-conjugated electrons is the greatest.These electrons occupy different spacious orbitals so that the energy of the Mn2 molecule is minimized.It can be concluded that the effect of parallel spin in the Mn2 molecule is larger than the effect of the conjugated molecule,which is obviously related to the effect of electron d delocalization.In addition,the Murrell-Sorbie potential functions with the parameters for the ground state and other states of the Mn2 molecule are derived.The dissociation energy De for the ground state of the Mn2 molecule is 1.4477eV,equilibrium bond length Re is 0.2506 nm,vibration frequency ωe is 211.51 cm-1.Its force constants,f2,f3,and f4 are 0.7240 aJ·nm-2,-3.35574 aJ·nm-3,11.4813 aJ·nm-4 respectively. The other spectroscopic data for the ground state of the Mn2 molecule ωeχe,Be,αe are 1.5301 cm-1,0.0978 cm-1,7.7825×10-4 cm-1 respectively.

  16. bash Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    In this quick reference, you'll find everything you need to know about the bash shell. Whether you print it out or read it on the screen, this PDF gives you the answers to the annoying questions that always come up when you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you need to quote? How do you get variable substitution to do exactly what you want? How do you use arrays? It's also helpful for interactive use. If you're a Unix user or programmer, or if you're using bash on Windows, you'll find this quick reference indispensable.

  17. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  18. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  19. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  20. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  1. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  2. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  3. Generation of a Mn(IV)-Peroxo or Mn(III)-Oxo-Mn(III) Species upon Oxygenation of Mono- and Binuclear Thiolate-Ligated Mn(II) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ming; Wu, Wun-Yan; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Bohle, D Scott; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

    2017-09-05

    A thiolate-bridged binuclear complex [PPN]2[(Mn(II)((TMS)PS3))2] (1, PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium and (TMS)PS3H3 = (2,2',2″-trimercapto-3,3',3″-tris(trimethylsilyl)triphenylphosphine)), prepared from the reaction of MnCl2/[PPN]Cl and Li3[(TMS)PS3], converts into a mononuclear complex [PPN][Mn(II)((TMS)PS3)(DABCO)] (2) in the presence of excess amounts of DABCO (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). Variable temperature studies of solution containing 1 and DABCO by UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that 1 and 2 exist in significant amounts in equilibrium and mononuclear 2 is favored at low temperature. Treatment of 1 or 2 with the monomeric O2-side-on-bound [PPN][Mn(IV)(O2)((TMS)PS3)] (3) produces the mono-oxo-bridged dimer [PPN]2[(Mn(III)((TMS)PS3))2(μ-O)] (4). The electrochemistry of 1 and 2 reveals anodic peak(s) for a Mn(III/)Mn(II) redox couple at shifted potentials against Fc/Fc(+), indicating that both complexes can be oxidized by dioxygen. The O2 activation mediated by 1 and 2 is investigated in both solution and the solid state. Microcrystals of 2 rapidly react with air or dry O2 to generate the Mn(IV)-peroxo 3 in high yield, revealing a solid-to-solid transformation and two-electron reduction of O2. Oxygenation of 1 or 2 in solution, however, is affected by diffusion and transient concentration of dioxygen in the two different substrates, leading to generation of 3 and 4 in variable ratios.

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of ZnxMn3-xO4 spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nádherný, Ladislav; Maryško, Miroslav; Sedmidubský, David; Martin, Christine

    2016-09-01

    To study structural and magnetic properties of spinels a series of ceramic samples with a different Zn:Mn ratio was prepared by high-temperature annealing in air followed by quenching in liquid nitrogen. The spinels with nominal composition of ZnxMn3-xO4 (x=0-1.29) were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Two tetragonal spinels of the same I41/amd space-group were identified based on the crystallographic, vibrational and grain-morphology point of view and described in detail. The unit-cell parameters and phase ratio of the spinel phases were determined using Rietveld refinement. According to the factor-group analysis the majority of the vibrational modes were identified in the Raman spectra. The magnetic properties of ZnxMn3-xO4 spinels are in agreement with a model of nanoscale ferrimagnetic Mn3O4 clusters in the antiferromagnetic ZnMn2O4 matrix (TN≈60 K). New features are a constricted hysteresis loop for x=0.3, and the effect of defects on magnetic properties for high Zn content which points to a good quality of the samples prepared by a solid state reaction.

  5. High Mn austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge, TN; Santella, Michael L [Knoxville, TN; Brady, Michael P [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Liu, Chain-tsuan [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy includes, in weight percent: >4 to 15 Mn; 8 to 15 Ni; 14 to 16 Cr; 2.4 to 3 Al; 0.4 to 1 total of at least one of Nb and Ta; 0.05 to 0.2 C; 0.01 to 0.02 B; no more than 0.3 of combined Ti+V; up to 3 Mo; up to 3 Co; up to 1W; up to 3 Cu; up to 1 Si; up to 0.05 P; up to 1 total of at least one of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; less than 0.05 N; and base Fe, wherein the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, nanometer scale sized particles distributed throughout the microstructure, the particles including at least one of NbC and TaC, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure that is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  6. A reference architecture for the component factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  7. The crucial role of Mn spiral spin order in stabilizing the Dy-Mn exchange striction in multiferroic DyMnO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H W; Li, C L; Yuan, S L; Wang, J F; Lu, C L; Liu, J-M

    2017-02-01

    DyMnO3 hosts the less addressed duality of multiferroicity, owing to the Dy-Mn exchange striction and inverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction between Mn spin pairs. Although the duality in DyMnO3 has been discussed earlier, there remains a question whether the Mn magnetic sublattice is necessarily multiferroic for generating the Dy-Mn exchange striction. In this work, we investigate the multiferroicity of Dy(Mn1-xFex)O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) through detailed magnetic and ferroelectric characterization. It is found that Fe-doping continuously suppresses the independent Dy spin order but instead promotes the Dy-Mn(Fe) coupling. This coupling benefits the Dy-Mn(Fe) exchange striction which remarkably enhances the ferroelectric polarization at a low doping level (x ≤ 0.015), beyond which the Mn spiral spin order breaks down leading to collapse of the macroscopic polarization at x ≥ 0.05. This work discloses the crucial role of Mn spiral spin order in stabilizing the Dy-Mn exchange striction and thus highlights the duality of multiferroicity in DyMnO3.

  8. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Mn intercalated Mg-Al hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengxue; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng; Wu, Limei; Mei, Lefu; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-10-01

    Mn intercalated hydrotalcite was prepared using a reconstruction method. And Mn intercalation was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, and thermal analyses. The different valences of Mn were present as determined by XPS. Calcination slightly promoted the isomorphic replacement of Mn(2+) and Mn(3+) for Mg(2+) and Al(3+), especially the replacement of Mn(2+) for Mg(2+) and Al(3+), and to some extent, reduced Mn intercalation. Ultrasonic treatment significantly increased Mn intercalation in permanganate form (Mn(7+)), and promoted the replacement of Mn(2+) for Mg(2+) and Al(3+). XRF analysis showed that ultrasonic treatment decreased the unbalanced layer charge of Mn intercalated hydrotalcite, while prolonged calcination increased it. These results may provide guidance on the preparation and application of Mn intercalated hydrotalcite. Extended calcination time and ultrasonic vibration increased the interlayer spacing of hydrotalcite, as a result of reduction in layer charge. As the layer charge was not completely balanced after Mn intercalation, a certain amount of CO3(2-) was re-adsorbed into the interlayer space. Mn-hydrotalcites with different layer charges, different contents of Mn with varying valences are expected to have different performances in the process of adsorption, degradation, and catalysis.

  10. Tetramerization reinforces the dimer interface of MnSOD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewei Sheng

    Full Text Available Two yeast manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSOD, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc, have most biochemical and biophysical properties in common, yet ScMnSOD is a tetramer and CaMnSODc is a dimer or "loose tetramer" in solution. Although CaMnSODc was found to crystallize as a tetramer, there is no indication from the solution properties that the functionality of CaMnSODc in vivo depends upon the formation of the tetrameric structure. To elucidate further the functional significance of MnSOD quaternary structure, wild-type and mutant forms of ScMnSOD (K182R, A183P mutant and CaMnSODc (K184R, L185P mutant with the substitutions at dimer interfaces were analyzed with respect to their oligomeric states and resistance to pH, heat, and denaturant. Dimeric CaMnSODc was found to be significantly more subject to thermal or denaturant-induced unfolding than tetrameric ScMnSOD. The residue substitutions at dimer interfaces caused dimeric CaMnSODc but not tetrameric ScMnSOD to dissociate into monomers. We conclude that the tetrameric assembly strongly reinforces the dimer interface, which is critical for MnSOD activity.

  11. Role and Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  12. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  13. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  14. Digital Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, Lorri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing demand for digital reference services from government Web sites via email, and describes a partnership between the Government Printing Office and the federal depository library at the University of Illinois at Chicago to create electronic access to the Department of State Foreign Affairs Network (DOSFAN). (Author/LRW)

  15. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  16. An Amharic Reference Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reference grammar presents a structural description of the orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia. The Amharic material in this work, designed to prepare the student for speaking and reading the language, appears in both Amharic script and phonetic transcription. See ED 012 044-5 for the…

  17. The Reference Encounter Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1983-01-01

    Develops model of the reference interview which explicitly incorporates human information processing, particularly schema ideas presented by Marvin Minsky and other theorists in cognitive processing and artificial intelligence. Questions are raised concerning use of content analysis of transcribed verbal protocols as methodology for studying…

  18. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  19. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted

  20. X Python reference manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manu

  1. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, G. van

    1995-01-01

    Python is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not describe the

  2. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  3. Ndiff Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Deniau, L

    2013-01-01

    ndiff is an efficient and flexible tool designed to compare unformatted text files with numerical content. It is well suited for regression testing, for validating data versus templates, and for filtering data following templates. This technical note is the reference manual of the ndiff tool initially developed for the MAD-X test system and subsequently extended for data validation.

  4. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  5. References on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. Selected references including books, reports, audio/visual materials and journals are listed. Most of the materials can be found in the HKU Libraries. To facilitate retrieval, links are provided to the library catalogue system for further information and study.

  6. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  7. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  8. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  9. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...

  10. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  11. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  12. Human Hepatocyte Metabolism of Novel Synthetic Cannabinoids MN-18 and Its 5-Fluoro Analog 5F-MN-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xingxing; Carlier, Jeremy; Zhu, Mingshe; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-08-18

    In 2014, 2 novel synthetic cannabinoids, MN-18 and its 5-fluoro analog, 5F-MN-18, were first identified in an ongoing survey of novel psychoactive substances in Japan. In vitro pharmacological assays revealed that MN-18 and 5F-MN-18 displayed high binding affinities to human CB1 and CB2 receptors, with Ki being 1.65-3.86 nmol/L. MN-18 and 5F-MN-18 were scheduled in Japan and some other countries in 2014. Despite increasing prevalence, no human metabolism data are currently available, making it challenging for forensic laboratories to confirm intake of MN-18 or 5F-MN-18. We incubated 10 μ mol/L of MN-18 and 5F-MN-18 in human hepatocytes for 3 h and analyzed the samples on a TripleTOF 5600(+) high-resolution mass spectrometer to identify appropriate marker metabolites. Data were acquired via full scan and information-dependent acquisition-triggered product ion scans with mass defect filter. In total, 13 MN-18 metabolites were detected, with the top 3 abundant metabolites being 1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid, pentyl-carbonylated MN-18, and naphthalene-hydroxylated MN-18. For 5F-MN-18, 20 metabolites were observed, with the top 3 abundant metabolites being 5`-OH-MN-18, MN-18 pentanoic acid, and 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid. We have characterized MN-18 and 5F-MN-18 metabolism with human hepatocytes and high-resolution mass spectrometry, and we recommend characteristic major metabolites for clinical and forensic laboratories to identify MN-18 and 5F-MN-18 intake and link observed adverse events to these novel synthetic cannabinoids. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  13. A hierarchical nanostructure consisting of amorphous MnO 2, Mn 3O 4 nanocrystallites, and single-crystalline MnOOH nanowires for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chi-Chang; Hung, Ching-Yun; Chang, Kuo-Hsin; Yang, Yi-Lin

    In this communication, a porous hierarchical nanostructure consisting of amorphous MnO 2 (a-MnO 2), Mn 3O 4 nanocrystals, and single-crystalline MnOOH nanowires is designed for the supercapacitor application, which is prepared by a simple two-step electrochemical deposition process. Because of the gradual co-transformation of Mn 3O 4 nanocrystals and a-MnO 2 nanorods into an amorphous manganese oxide, the cycle stability of a-MnO 2 is obviously enhanced by adding Mn 3O 4. This unique ternary oxide nanocomposite with 100-cycle CV activation exhibits excellent capacitive performances, i.e., excellent reversibility, high specific capacitances (470 F g -1 in CaCl 2), high power property, and outstanding cycle stability. The highly porous microstructures of this composite before and after the 10,000-cycle CV test are examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  14. Dynamic sonographic measurements at the carpal tunnel inlet: Reliability and reference values in healthy wrists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Filius (Anika); J.-W.H. Korstanje (Jan-Wiebe); R.W. Selles (Ruud); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); H.P. Slijper

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Reliability and reference values are not well-established for most dynamic sonographic measurements of the median nerve (MN) and flexor tendons that may be used for diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods: Wrists of 20 healthy participants were imaged using ultraso

  15. Aqueous synthesis of Ag and Mn co-doped In2S3/ZnS quantum dots with tunable emission for dual-modal targeted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Pei-Yu; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chou, Tzung-Han; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Jia-Yaw

    2017-03-01

    Here, we present the microwave-assisted synthesis of In2S3/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) co-doped with Ag(+) and Mn(2+) (referred to as AgMn:In2S3/ZnS). Ag(+) altered the optical properties of the host QDs, whereas the spin magnetic moment (S=5/2) of Mn(2+) efficiently induced the longitudinal relaxation of water protons. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the aqueous synthesis of color-tunable AgMn:In2S3/ZnS core/shell QDs with magnetic properties. The synthetic procedure is rapid, facile, reproducible, and scalable. The obtained QDs offered a satisfactory quantum yield (45%), high longitudinal relaxivity (6.84s(-1)mM(-1)), and robust photostability. In addition, they exhibited excellent stability over a wide pH range (5-12) and high ionic strength (0.15-2.0M NaCl). As seen by confocal microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging, AgMn:In2S3/ZnS conjugated to hyaluronic acid (referred to as AgMn:In2S3/ZnS@HA) efficiently and specifically targeted cluster determinant 44, a receptor overexpressed on cancer cells. Moreover, AgMn:In2S3/ZnS@HA showed negligible cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, rendering it a promising diagnostic probe for dual-modal imaging in clinical applications.

  16. New quantum tunneling steps in Mn11Cr/Mn12 mixed crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn11Cr and Mn12 mixed crystal at low temperature are studied.A new set of quantum tunneling steps discovered in magnetization curves suggests that there may exist another kind of single molecular magnet in this mixed crystal.

  17. MnQ2(Q=S,Se,Te)and [Mn(en)3]Te4 Structures and Their Semiconductor Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The solvo-thermal technique is used for the synthesis of [Mn(en)3]Te4 (I).The crystal structure has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques.The crystal belongs to the monoclinic, space group p21/c with unit cell:a=0.8461(1),b=1.5653(2), c=1.4269(2)nm, α=90°,β=91.37(1) (3)°, γ=90°,V=1.8893(4)nm3,and Z=4.The results show that the structure contains a linear chain Zintl anion,[Te4]2-and a complex cation,[Mn(en)3]2+. Optical studies have been performed on the powder sample of I, suggesting that the compound is a semiconductor with a band gap of 0.73eV. The semiconductor properties for MnQ2(Q=S,Se,Te) and [Mn(en)3]Te4 have been discussed by molecular orbital theory.

  18. Kinetic and redox properties of MnP II, a major manganese peroxidase isoenzyme from Panus tigrinus CBS 577.79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccioli, Maurizio; Frasconi, Marco; Quaratino, Daniele; Covino, Stefano; Favero, Gabriele; Mazzei, Franco; Federici, Federico; D'Annibale, Alessandro

    2009-11-01

    A manganese peroxidase (MnP) isoenzyme from Panus tigrinus CBS 577.79 was produced in a benchtop stirred-tank reactor and purified to apparent homogeneity. The purification scheme involving ultrafiltration, affinity chromatography on concanavalin-A Sepharose, and gel filtration led to a purified MnP, termed "MnP II," with a specific activity of 288 IU mg(-1) protein and a final yield of 22%. The enzyme turned out to be a monomeric protein with molecular mass of 50.5 kDa, pI of 4.07, and an extent of N-glycosylation of about 5.3% of the high-mannose type. The temperature and pH optima for the formation of malonate manganic chelates were 45 degrees C and 5.5, respectively. MnP II proved to be poorly thermostable at 50 and 60 degrees C, with half-lives of 11 min and 105 s, respectively. K (m) values for H(2)O(2) and Mn(2+) were 16 and 124 microM, respectively. Although MnP II was able to oxidize veratryl alcohol and to catalyze the Mn(2+)-independent oxidation of several phenols, it cannot be assigned to the versatile peroxidase family. As opposed to versatile peroxidase oxidation, veratryl alcohol oxidation required the simultaneous presence of H(2)O(2) and Mn(2+); in addition, low turnover numbers and K (m) values higher than 300 microM characterized the Mn(2+)-independent oxidation of substituted phenols. Kinetic properties and the substrate specificity of the enzyme markedly differed from those reported for MnP isoenzymes produced by the reference strain P. tigrinus 8/18. To our knowledge, this study reports for the first time a thorough electrochemical characterization of a MnP from this fungus.

  19. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  20. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  1. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  2. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet

  3. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:

  4. GDB Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The GNU debugger is valuable for testing, fixing, and retesting software because it allows you to see exactly what's going on inside of a program as it's executing. This new pocket reference shows you how to specify a target for debugging, perform a careful examination to find the cause of program failure, and make quick changes for further testing. The guide covers several popular programming languages.

  5. Maritime Claims Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-12

    8217 75028.8’ 28 Isla Conica 51010.7’ 75015.5’ 29 Roca Santa Lucia 51037.0’ 75.21.0’ 30 Roca Galicia 52003.4’ 75009.0’ 31 Islotes Evangelistas 52023.6’ 75005.6...amendment to the Marine Space Act which, inter alia , deletes reference to Rotuma as an archipelago. Instead, the waters within the baselines are

  6. Open SHMEM Reference Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-12

    OpenSHMEM is an effort to create a specification for a standardized API for parallel programming in the Partitioned Global Address Space. Along with the specification the project is also creating a reference implementation of the API. This implementation attempts to be portable, to allow it to be deployed in multiple environments, and to be a starting point for implementations targeted to particular hardware platforms. It will also serve as a springboard for future development of the API.

  7. Influence of Mn Content and Hot Deformation on Transformation Behavior of C-Mn Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Long; DING Hua; DU Lin-xiu; WEN Jing-lin; SONG Hong-mei; ZHANG Pi-jun

    2008-01-01

    The hot deformation behaviors and the microstructural evolution of plain C-Mn steels with similar contents of C and Si but different contents of Mn have been investigated by compressive processing using Gleeble-1500 mechanical simulator. Influence of Mn and hot deformation on continuous cooling transformation of steels has been studied. The experimental results showed that deformation in austenite region accelerated transformation process, and the extent is dependent on the hot deformation and cooling conditions. The hot deformation would promote transformation process, but the increase of transformation temperature is dependent on Mn contents. The results have also shown that the effect of deformation on ferrite transformation becomes more obvious with the increase of Mn content at relatively low cooling rate.

  8. Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Cristina N.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Spiro, Thomas G.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-07-01

    Reactive Mn(IV) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and control the bioavailability and distribution of many toxic and essential elements and organic compounds. Their formation is thought to be dependent on microbial enzymes, because spontaneous Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxidation is slow. Several species of marine Bacillus spores oxidize Mn(II) on their exosporium, the outermost layer of the spore, encrusting them with Mn(IV) oxides. Molecular studies have identified the mnx (Mn oxidation) genes, including mnxG, encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO), as responsible for this two-electron oxidation, a surprising finding because MCOs only catalyze single-electron transfer reactions. Characterization of the enzymatic mechanism has been hindered by the lack of purified protein. By purifying active protein from the mnxDEFG expression construct, we found that the resulting enzyme is a blue (absorption maximum 590 nm) complex containing MnxE, MnxF, and MnxG proteins. Further, by analyzing the Mn(II)- and (III)-oxidizing activity in the presence of a Mn(III) chelator, pyrophosphate, we found that the complex facilitates both electron transfers from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and from Mn(III) to Mn(IV). X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Mn mineral product confirmed its similarity to Mn(IV) oxides generated by whole spores. Our results demonstrate that Mn oxidation from soluble Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxides is a two-step reaction catalyzed by an MCO-containing complex. With the purification of active Mn oxidase, we will be able to uncover its mechanism, broadening our understanding of Mn mineral formation and the bioinorganic capabilities of MCOs.

  9. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Poster, Dianne L.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containi...

  10. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil.

  11. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  12. Core Formation in the Earth and Moon: New Constraints From V, Cr, and Mn Partitioning Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.; Agee, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The mantles of the Earth and Moon are similarly depleted in V, Cr, and Mn relative to the concentrations of these elements in chondritic meteorites [1,2]. The similar depletions have been suggested to be due to a common genesis of the Earth and Moon, with the Moon inheriting its mantle, complete with V, Cr, and Mn depletions, from the Earth during the impact-induced formation of the Moon. We have conducted multi-anvil experiments that systematically examined the effects of pressure, temperature, and silicate and metallic compositions on liquid metal-liquid silicate partitioning of V, Cr, and Mn. Increasing temperature is found to significantly increase the metal-silicate partition coefficients for all three elements. Increasing the S or C content of the metallic liquid also causes the partition coefficients to increase. Silicate composition has an effect consistent with Cr and Mn being divalent and V being trivalent. Over our experimental range of 3-14 GPa, the partitioning behavior of V, Cr, and Mn did not vary with pressure. With the effects of oxygen fugacity, metallic and silicate compositions, temperature and pressure understood, the partition coefficient for each element was expressed as a function of these thermodynamic variables and applied to different core formation scenarios. Our new metal-silicate experimental partitioning data can explain the mantle depletions of V, Cr, and Mn by core formation in a high temperature magma ocean under oxygen fugacity conditions two log units below the iron-wuestite buffer, conditions similar to those proposed by [3] from their metal-magnesiowuestite study. In contrast, more oxidizing conditions proposed in recent core formation models [4] cannot account for the V, Cr, and Mn depletions. Additionally, because we observe little or no pressure effect on V, Cr, and Mn partitioning in our experiments, we conclude that the mantle depletions of these elements during core formation are not dependent on planet size. Accordingly

  13. Dynamic HTML: the definitive reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Danny

    2007-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Part I. Dynamic HTML Reference 1. HTML and XHTML Reference Attribute Value Types Shared HTML Element Attributes Shared Event Handler Attributes Alphabetical...

  14. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, S; Ilyin, I; Korhonen, H; Schoeller, M; Savanov, I; Arlt, R; Castelli, F; Curto, G Lo; Briquet, M; Dall, T H

    2012-01-01

    The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. We re-analyse available spectropolarimetric material by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD19400, using FORS2 installed at the VLT. We also give new measurements of the eclipsing system AR Aur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. We downloaded from the ESO archive the publically available HARPS spectra for eight HgMn stars and one normal and one superficially normal B-type star obtained in 2010. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS and SOFIN spectra allowed us to study the presence of the longitudina...

  15. Effect of pressure on the Curie temperature of Mn2RuSn and Mn2PdSn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Kanomata, T.; Hayasaka, M.; Endo, K.; Nishihara, H.; Xu, X.; Kainuma, R.

    2017-04-01

    Effect of pressure on the Curie temperature TC of the Mn-rich Heusler alloys Mn2RuSn and Mn2PdSn has been investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of initial permeability at various pressures up to 10 kbar. It was found that the Curie temperatures of Mn2RuSn and Mn2PdSn decrease with increasing pressure. The pressure derivatives of TC were estimated to be -0.59 K/kbar for Mn2RuSn and -0.80 K/kbar for Mn2PdSn. On the basis of the experimental results, the relationship between the magnetic transition temperature and the Mn-Mn distance is discussed.

  16. Composition-structure-property-performance relationship inMn-substituted LiMn2O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, Craig R.; Richardson, Thomas J.; Gee, B.; Tucker, Mike; Grush, Melissa M.; Bergmann, Uwe; Striebel, Kathryn A.; Cramer, StephenP.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Cairns, Elton J.

    2001-03-09

    The spinel LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been extensively studied as a positive electrode active material in lithium rechargeable batteries. Partial substitution of Mn by another metal has also been the subject of recent study in an effort to improve the cycling performance. In general, the literature has shown that Mn substitution results in improved cycling stability at the expense of capacity (1,2). Resistance to the formation of tetragonal phase upon lithiation of the starting spinel (via a higher nominal Mn oxidation state in the substituted spinel) has been suggested as a mechanism for the improved performance. The degree of substitution is an important factor to optimize in order to minimize capacity loss and costs. The spectroscopic investigations on LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} described in the previous paper (LixMn2O4) confirmed that the cooperative Jahn-Teller effect (CJTE) from the [Mn{sup 3+}O{sub 6}] octahedra is the mechanism for the cubic to tetragonal phase transformation. The driving force for the CJTE is based upon the electronic structure, therefore changes in electronic structure should lead to changes in the phase behavior. The fact that the LiMn{sub 1.5}Ni{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} does not form tetragonal phase upon discharging (FUJI3, MUCK?), unlike the 100% Mn{sup 4+} spinel Li{sub 4}Mn{sub 5}O{sub 12} (THAC5), led to the hypothesis that an increased degree of covalency as a source for the behavior. An increased covalence would remove the driving force for the transformation, the increased electronic stability achieved in tetragonally-distorted [Mn{sup 3+}O{sub 6}] octahedra, due to a change in electron density and widening of the Mn 3d bands. The STH field is dependent upon the amount of unpaired spin density transferred between the magnetic (transition-metal) and diamagnetic ions through an intermittent oxygen ion, attributable to overlap and electron transfer effects. Therefore, the magnitude of the STH coupling constant reflects the degree of covalency (GESC

  17. Heteronuclear, mixed-metal Ag(I)-Mn(II) coordination polymers with bridging N-pyridinylisonicotinohydrazide ligands: synthesis, crystal structures, magnetic and photoluminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikas, Rahman; Hosseini-Monfared, Hassan; Vasylyeva, Vera; Sanchiz, Joaquín; Alonso, Javier; Barandiaran, Jose Manuel; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-08-21

    Mixed-metal dicyanoargentate-bridged coordination polymers of Ag(i)-Mn(ii) have been prepared and their structure and magnetic properties were determined. Reaction of manganese(ii) chloride and potassium dicyanoargentate(i) with (X)(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)isonicotinohydrazide ligands (HL(1) X = Ph, HL(2) X = Me, HL(3) X = H) produced the coordination polymer 2D-[Mn(μ-L(1))(Cl)(μ-NCAgCN)Mn0.5(CH3OH)]n (), 1D-{[Mn(L(2))(Cl)(μ-NCAgCN)Mn0.5(CH3OH)]CH3OH}n () and [Mn(L(3))(Cl)(μ-NCAgCN)Mn0.5(CH3OH)]n () in good yields. Trinuclear {Mn(μ-L(1))Mn(μ-L(1))Mn} and [Ag(CN)2](-) building units form a two-dimensional slab in and 1D strands in . Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that despite the long distance among the high spin Mn(ii) ions [10.4676(12) Å and 10.522(1) Å, for and , respectively], weak antiferromagnetic coupling takes place through the long NC-Ag-CN bridge. The best fit parameters to the model led to the magnetic coupling constant of J = -0.1 and J = -0.47 cm(-1) for and , respectively. The photoluminescence behaviour of compounds and was studied. The spectrum of compound shows a broad emission centered at about 450 nm and two excitation maxima at 270 and 310 nm.

  18. Reference blindness: the influence of references on trust in Wikipedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, Teun; Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Schraagen, Jan Maarten

    2011-01-01

    In this study we show the influence of references on trust in information. We changed the contents of reference lists of Wikipedia articles in such a way that the new references were no longer in any sense related to the topic of the article. Furthermore, the length of the reference list was varied.

  19. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Data from Satellite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Raw Data is level 0 data received from the USCRN stations that are transmitted continuously. The data values are ingested with a unique 18-bit format due to...

  20. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Quality Controlled Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Products are available on public FTP and derived from the USCRN processed data. Available parameters include averages and calculated values for precipitation,...

  1. A Reference Unit on the Meaning and Importance of Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S., Comp.

    Developed in an attempt to clarify the concept of agribusiness and intended for use with its companion document, "Teaching the Meaning and Importance of Agribusiness," this manual is designed to assist youth in understanding the magnitude of agribusiness, and shows that agribusiness involves the removal of traditional farm functions to off-farm…

  2. Terminal Forecast Reference Notebook for RAF Fairford, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-03

    RUCI got .... .... .. 1w .... ..... DEC JAN FEB MAR APR AVC , SFP OCT NOV DEC JANUARY PRECIPITATIO OFOSRATOSWT 23.2 10%TOA 05 % SNOW I P E R E N A G 0F 0...enhance stability. Subsidence inver5 ons te’nd to surpress any vertical developments stemming from the surface I air ::asses of Europe arc the mP and...subtropical high pressure cells . Due to the distance the air mass must travel from its source region, it is subjected to considerable modification by the time

  3. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structures and magnetic properties of the bulk and surface (001) of the quaternary Heusler alloy NiCoMnGa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-zyadi, Jabbar M. Khalaf, E-mail: Jabbar_alzyadi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, College of Education, University of Basrah, Basrah 6100 (Iraq); Gao, G.Y. [School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yao, Kai-Lun [School of Physics and Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); International Center of Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of sciences, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we study the electronic structures, magnetic properties, and half-metallicity of the bulk and (001) surface of Heusler alloy NiCoMnGa. Our first-principles calculations exhibit that, within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of the electronic exchange–correlation functional, the quaternary Heusler alloy NiCoMnGa is a half-metallic ferromagnet at the equilibrium lattice constant of 5.795 Ǻ with a total spin magnetic moment of 5 μ{sub B} per formula unit. The calculated total atomic magnetic moment follows the Slater–Pauling rule. At the same equilibrium lattice constant, the half-metallicity confirmed in the bulk NiCoMnGa, is destroyed at both MnGa- and NiCo-terminated (001) surfaces and subsurfaces. Based on the magnetic property calculations, the magnetic moments of Co, Mn, and Ga atoms at the NiCo- and MnGa-terminated surfaces increase with respect to the corresponding bulk values while the atomic magnetic moment of Ni at the NiCo-terminated surface decreases. - Highlights: • The bulk NiCoMnGa quaternary-Heusler alloy is found to be a half-metallic ferromagnet. • Surface studies show that the half-metallicity of bulk NiCoMnGa is destroyed. • The magnetic moments are increased (decreased) at the (001) surface. • The quaternary-Heusler alloy follows a Slater–Pauling behavior.

  4. Structure and magnetic properties of the two-dimensional ferrimagnet (NEt4)[[Mn(salen)]2Fe(CN)6]: investigation of magnetic anisotropy on a single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Ieda, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Naohide; Sugiura, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2003-06-02

    The title compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(salen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (1), was synthesized via a 1:1 reaction of [Mn(salen)(H(2)O)]ClO(4) with (NEt(4))(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] in a methanol/ethanol medium (NEt(4)(+) = tetraethylammonium cation, salen(2)(-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylidene)iminate). The two-dimensional layered structure of 1 was revealed by X-ray crystallographic analysis: 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with cell dimensions of a = 12.3660(8) A, b = 15.311(1) A, c = 12.918(1) A, beta = 110.971(4) degrees, Z = 2 and is isostructural to the previously synthesized compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(5-Clsalen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (5-Clsalen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-chlorosalicylidene)iminate; Miyasaka, H.; Matsumoto, N.; Re, N.; Gallo, E.; Floriani, C. Inorg. Chem. 1997, 36, 670). The Mn ion is surrounded by an equatorial salen quadridentate ligand and two axial nitrogen atoms from the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) unit, the four Fe[bond]CN groups of which coordinate to the Mn ions of [Mn(salen)](+) units, forming a two-dimensional network having [[bond]Mn[bond]NC[bond]Fe[bond]CN[bond

  5. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  6. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  7. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Manage-

  8. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez.M

  9. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5th Ed.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.

  10. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing

  11. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  12. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  13. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  14. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  15. Ca3Mn2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiblin, Nicolas; Grebille, Dominique; Leligny, Henri; Martin, Christine

    2002-01-01

    The tricalcium dimanganese heptaoxide (Ca3Mn2O7) member of the Ruddlesden-Popper series Ca(n+1)Mn(n)O(3n+1), i.e. with n = 2, was previously reported with an I-centred tetragonal lattice [a(t) = 3.68 and c(t) = 19.57 A] by Fawcett, Sunstrom, Greenblatt, Croft & Ramanujachary [Chem. Mater. (1998), 10, 3643-3651]. It is now found to be orthorhombic, with an A-centred lattice [a = 5.2347 (6), b = 5.2421 (2) and c = 19.4177 (19) A]. The structure has been refined in space group A2(1)am using X-ray single-crystal diffraction data and assuming the existence of twin domains related by the (1-10) plane. A comparison with the basic perovskite structure CaMnO3 (n = infinity) is proposed.

  16. Magneto-elastic coupling in La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy within the Bean-Rodbell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Norby, Poul;

    2016-01-01

    , due to high internal stresses. A promising magnetocaloric material is La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy, where the transition temperature can be controlled through the Mn amount. In this work we use XRD measurements to evaluate the temperature dependence of the unit cell volume with a varying Mn amount. The system...... superimpose a Gaussian distribution of the transition temperature with a standard deviation σT, in order to model the chemical inhomogeneity. Good agreement is obtained between measurements and model with values of η ∼ 1.8 and σ(T) = 1.0 K. ...

  17. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  18. BSA与α-MnO2及δ-MnO2间的界面吸附作用%The adsorption of BSA on the surfaces of α-MnO2 and δ-MnO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡爱军; 马子川; 刘敬泽

    2007-01-01

    比较研究了牛血清白蛋白(BSA)与α-MnO2和δ-MnO2的界面吸附作用及其影响因素.结果表明,BSA在两种MnO2颗粒物表面有明显的吸附,且δ-MnO2比α-MnO2对BSA的吸附能力略强.pH3.8~8.0范围内,BSA在α-MnO2和δ-MnO2上的吸附率随pH的升高而减小,pH3.8条件下,α-MnO2上的吸附率为88.2%,δ-MnO2上的吸附率为94.0%.BSA在α-MnO2和δ-MnO2上的吸附量均随BSA浓度的增加而增大,吸附率随NaCl浓度的增加而减小.BSA在α-MnO2上的吸附具有很高的不可逆性,δ-MnO2上的吸附完全不可逆.吸附过程中BSA发生解螺旋作用,引起结构熵增大.

  19. Mn-induced modifications of Ga 3d photoemission from (Ga, Mn)As: evidence for long range effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J; Ulfat, I; Ilver, L; Leandersson, M; Sadowski, J; Karlsson, K; Pal, P

    2012-10-31

    Using synchrotron based photoemission, we have investigated the Mn-induced changes in Ga 3d core level spectra from as-grown Ga(1-x)Mn(x)As. Although Mn is located in Ga substitutional sites, and therefore does not have any Ga nearest neighbors, the impact of Mn on the Ga core level spectra is pronounced even at Mn concentrations in the region of 0.5%. The analysis shows that each Mn atom affects a volume corresponding to a sphere with around 1.4 nm diameter.

  20. Control of the magnetic properties of LaMnO3 epitaxial thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Benjamin; Roqueta, Jaume; Pomar, Alberto; Balcells, Lluis; Frontera, Carlos; Konstantinovic, Zorica; Sandiumenge, Felip; Santiso, Jose; Advanced materials characterization Team; Thin films growth Team

    2015-03-01

    LaMnO3 (LMO), the parent compound of colossal magnetoresistance based manganites has gained renewed attention as a building block in heterostructures with unexpected properties. In its bulk phase, stoichiometric LMO is an A-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator (TN = 140K) with orthorhombic structure that easily accommodate an oxygen excess by generating cationic (La or Mn) vacancies. As a result, a fraction of Mn 3+ changes to Mn 4+ leading to a double-exchange mediated ferromagnetic (FM) behavior. In thin films the AFM phase has been elusive up to now and thin films with FM ordering are usually reported. In this work, we have systematically studied the growth process of LaMnO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 (001) substrates under different oxygen partial pressures (PO2) . A close correlation between the structure (explored by XRD) and the magnetic properties (SQUID measurements) of the films with PO2 has been identified. At high PO2 FM behavior is observed. In contrast, at very low PO2, the results obtained for unit cell volume (close to stoichiometric bulk values) and magnetic moment (0.2 μB/Mn) strongly indicate antiferromagnetic ordering. We acknowledge financial support from the Spanish MINECO (MAT2012-33207).

  1. Stabilization of polar Mn3O4(001) film on Ag(001): Interplay between kinetic and structural stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Asish K.; Barman, Sukanta; Menon, Krishnakumar S. R.

    2017-10-01

    Stabilization processes of polar surfaces are often very complex and interesting. Understanding of these processes is crucial as it ultimately determines the properties of the film. Here, by the combined study of Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Ultraviolet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) techniques we show that, although there can be many processes involved in the stabilization of the polar surfaces, in case of Mn3O4(001)/Ag(001), it goes through different reconstructions of the Mn2O4 terminated surface which is in good agreements with the theoretical predictions. The complex surface phase diagram has been probed by LEED as a function of film thickness, oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature during growth, while their chemical compositions have been probed by XPS. Below a critical film thickness of ∼ 1 unit cell height (8 sublayers or 3 ML) of Mn3O4 and oxygen partial pressure range of 2 × 10-8 mbar Mn3O4 film and as a consequence of that a strong interplay between structural and kinetic stability in the Mn3O4 film has been observed. Further, stripe-like LEED pattern has been observed from the Mn3O4(001) surface, for the film grown at higher oxygen partial pressure (> 5 × 10-7 mbar) and higher temperature UHV annealing. The origin of these stripes has been explained with the help of UPS results.

  2. USAFSAM Waiver File Intelligent Terminal: Hardware Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    I. SBC 80/20 single - board computer for the central processing unit (CPU) 2. SBC 104 general purpose input/output (I/0) and memory board 3. SBC 108...5 5 Carousel TXR 15 r APPENDIX A. REFERENCE MANUAL LIST 1. SBC 80/20 Single Board Computer Hardware Reference Manual. Intel, 1977. 2. SBC 104/108/116

  3. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  4. Recent production of candidate reference materials at IRMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.N.; Pauwels, J.; Le Guern, L.; Schimmel, H.; Trapmann, S. [Commission of the European Communities, Geel (Belgium). Joint Research Centre

    2001-06-01

    In the execution of its mission to promote a common European measurement system in support of EU policies, IRMM's Reference Materials Unit is currently involved in preparation of proficiency-testing samples and candidate reference materials. Recent work related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cows, genetically modified organisms, and a variety of environmental materials is described. (orig.)

  5. Structure, transport and magnetism of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1-x}Ta{sub x}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetha Lakshmi, L. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre For Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India) and Institute of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, Dresden 01171 (Germany)]. E-mail: S.Lalitha@ifw-dresden.de; Doerr, K. [Institute of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, Dresden 01171 (Germany); Nenkov, K. [Institute of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, Dresden 01171 (Germany); Sridharan, V. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre For Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Sankara Sastry, V. [Materials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre For Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Mueller, K.-H. [Institute of Metallic Materials, IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, Dresden 01171 (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    For the first time, the effect of Ta{sup 5+} substitution at the Mn site of La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} compound is reported. A significant increase in lattice parameters and unit cell expansion indicate larger structural modification upon substitution. The ferromagnetic-metallic ground state is modified to a cluster glass insulator for x>0.03. The observed suppression of the ferromagnetic transition temperature T{sub c} of {approx}39K/at% might be the highest reported in Mn-site substituted La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}. The well-known effects of changed carrier density, larger average ionic radius at Mn site and dilution of Mn sublattice appear insufficient to explain this strong suppression of T{sub C}.

  6. Itinerant and localized magnetic moments in ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 2}CoGa thin films identified with x-ray magnetic linear dichroism: experiment and ab initio theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Schmalhorst, J; Klewe, C.; Reiss, G.; Arenholz, E.; Bohnert, T.; Nielsch, K.

    2011-08-08

    Epitaxial thin films of the half-metallic X{sub a}-compound Mn{sub 2}CoGa (Hg{sub 2}CuTi prototype) were prepared by dc magnetron co-sputtering with different heat treatments on MgO (001) substrates. High-quality lms with a bulk magnetization of 1.95(5) {mu}{sub }B per unit cell were obtained. The average Mn magnetic moment and the Co moment are parallel, in agreement with theory. The x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra agree with calculations based on density functional theory and reveal the antiparallel alignment of the two inequivalent Mn moments. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism allows to distinguish between itinerant and localized Mn moments. It is shown that one of the two Mn moments has localized character, whereas the other Mn moment and the Co moment are itinerant.

  7. Magnetism of carbon doped Mn5Si3 and Mn5Ge3 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Sürgers; K Potzger; G Fischer

    2009-03-01

    The magnetic properties of Mn5Si3C and Mn5Ge3C films prepared by magnetron cosputtering or C+-ion implantation are studied. The carbon-doped films exhibit ferromagnetic properties with Curie temperatures C well above room temperature and metallic conductivity, making them possible candidates for future magnetic semiconductor-based devices. In Mn5Si3C, the carbon gives rise to a lattice expansion and a concomitant change of the magnetic order from antiferromagnetic Mn5Si3 to ferromagnetic Mn5Si3C0.8 with C = 350 K. Likewise, C of ferromagnetic Mn5Ge3 is strongly enhanced in Mn5Ge3C0.8. However, in this case the lattice is slightly compressed by carbon. This demonstrates that the effect of carbon on the magnetic behaviour in these compounds is not simply due to a change of the various interatomic distances by carbon but also due to a modification of the electronic band structure.

  8. The preferred orientation of Mn3 spins in magnetic multiferroic CaMn7O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Hu; Song, Yu-Min

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable ferroelectricity in CaMn7O12 originates from the helicoidal spin spiral, in which the Mn3 (3b Wyckoff position) spin direction remains controversial. In this paper, the total energy, phase transition path, and spontaneous polarization of CaMn7O12 are investigated by using first-principle methods. We show that, in order to account for the giant electric polarization and the correct phase transition sequence, the relative orientation between the spins of Mn3 and Mn2 (9d Wyckoff position) sites with the same coordinate along the hexagonal c-axis can not be antiparallel, i.e. their relative orientation angle should be ϕ≈0.84π instead of ϕ=π. The most likely reason for the observation of ϕ=π can be attributed to the withdrawal of spin-orbital coupling between the Mn2 and Mn3 spins, which is caused by doping Cu2+ in the samples for neutron powder diffraction measurements.

  9. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Mn:Ge(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adrian Lungu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of a room temperature ferromagnetic Mn-Ge system obtained by simple deposition of manganese on Ge(001, heated at relatively high temperature (starting with 250 °C. The samples were characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE. Samples deposited at relatively elevated temperature (350 °C exhibited the formation of ~5–8 nm diameter Mn5Ge3 and Mn11Ge8 agglomerates by HRTEM, while XPS identified at least two Mn-containing phases: the agglomerates, together with a Ge-rich MnGe~2.5 phase, or manganese diluted into the Ge(001 crystal. LEED revealed the persistence of long range order after a relatively high amount of Mn (100 nm deposited on the single crystal substrate. STM probed the existence of dimer rows on the surface, slightly elongated as compared with Ge–Ge dimers on Ge(001. The films exhibited a clear ferromagnetism at room temperature, opening the possibility of forming a magnetic phase behind a nearly ideally terminated Ge surface, which could find applications in integration of magnetic functionalities on semiconductor bases. SQUID probed the co-existence of a superparamagnetic phase, with one phase which may be attributed to a diluted magnetic semiconductor. The hypothesis that the room temperature ferromagnetic phase might be the one with manganese diluted into the Ge crystal is formulated and discussed.

  10. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  11. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  12. High-pressure phase of the cubic spinel NiMn2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsbrink, S.; Waskowska, A.; Olsen, J. Staun

    1998-01-01

    It has been observed that the fee spinel NiMn2O4 transforms to a tetragonal structure at about 12 GPa. The tetragonal phase does not revert to the cubic phase upon decompression and its unit-cell constants at ambient pressure are a(0)=8.65(8) and c(0)=7.88(15) Angstrom (distorted fee). Within thr......). The bulk modulus of the cubic phase is 206(4) GPa....

  13. Shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C alloys with low Mn contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, X.H., E-mail: MIN.Xiaohua@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sawaguchi, T.; Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maruyama, T. [Awaji Materia Co., Ltd. 2-3-13, Kanda ogawamachi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0052 (Japan); Yin, F.X. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuzaki, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} A class of new Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C shape memory alloys with low Mn contents has been designed. {yields} A Mn content for the onset of the {alpha}' martensite is less than 13 mass%, and the {epsilon} martensite still exists in the alloy with a 9 mass% Mn. {yields} The shape recovery strain decreases considerably when the Mn content is reduced from 13 to 11 mass%. {yields} The sudden decrease in the shape recovery strain is mainly caused by the formation of {alpha}' martensite. - Abstract: An attempt was made to develop a new Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy from a Fe-17Mn-6Si-0.3C (mass%) shape memory alloy, which was previously reported to show a superior shape memory effect without any costly training treatment, by lowering its Mn content. The shape memory effect and the phase transformation behavior were investigated for the as-solution treated Fe-(17-2x)Mn-6Si-0.3C-xNi (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) polycrystalline alloys. The shape recovery strain exceeded 2% in the alloys with x = 0-2, which is sufficient for an industrially applicable shape memory effect; however, it suddenly decreased in the alloys between x = 2 and 3 although the significant shape recovery strain still exceeded 1%. In the alloys with x = 3 and 4, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscope observation revealed the existence of {alpha}' martensite, which forms at the intersection of the {epsilon} martensite plates and suppresses the crystallographic reversibility of the {gamma} austenite to {epsilon} martensitic transformation.

  14. Helimagnetic order in bulk MnSi and CoSi/MnSi superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, G. C.; Khoo, K. H.; Gan, C. K.

    2017-01-01

    Skyrmions are nanoscopic whirls of spins that reside in chiral magnets. It is only fairly recent that a plethora of applications for these quasiparticles emerges, especially in data storage. On the other hand, spin spirals are the periodic analogs of skyrmions, and are equally imperative in the course of exploration to enhance our understanding of helimagnetism. In this study, a new infrastructure based on the B20 compound, MnSi is propounded as a hosting material for spin spirals; alternating thin layers of CoSi and MnSi in the superlattice form provides a facile way of varying the properties of the spin spirals across a continuum. Using first-principles calculations based on full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FLAPW)-based density functional theory (DFT), the spin order of bulk MnSi, MnSi film, and the CoSi/MnSi superlattice is investigated. Spin dispersion plots as a function of propagation vectors show that the spiral size changes in the presence of CoSi - we find that the size of the spiral is reduced in the superlattice with thin CoSi layers (CoSi:MnSi=1:1 thickness ratio), whilst at a larger CoSi:MnSi=2:1 thickness ratio, the material behaves as a ferromagnet. In a similar fashion, the spin moment and orbital occupancy depend significantly on the thickness of the CoSi layers. However, the exchange interaction between Mn atoms appears to be generally impervious to the presence of CoSi. Succinctly, the CoSi/MnSi superlattice could be an excellent functional material in data storage applications.

  15. 77 FR 35960 - City of Hastings, MN; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Works Director, City of Hastings, Minnesota, 1225 Progress Drive, Hastings, MN 55033-1955, (651) 480... delete the two hydrokinetic turbines from the Mississippi Lock and Dam No. 2 conventional hydropower... conventional hydropower project has been returned to its pre- hydrokinetic unit condition. Therefore, the...

  16. Critical thickness and orbital ordering in ultrathin La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijben, M.; Martin, L.W.; Chu, Y.-H.; Holcomb, M.B.; Yu, P.; Rijnders, G.; Blank, D.H.A.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-01-01

    Detailed analysis of transport, magnetism, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements on ultrathin La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 films with thicknesses from 3 to 70 unit cells resulted in the identification of a lower critical thickness for a nonmetallic nonferromagnetic layer at the interface with the SrTiO3

  17. A reference model for database security proxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    How to protect the database, the kernel resources of information warfare, is becoming more and more important since the rapid development of computer and communication technology. As an application-level firewall, database security proxy can successfully repulse attacks originated from outside the network, reduce to zerolevel damage from foreign DBMS products. We enhanced the capability of the COAST's firewall reference model by adding a transmission unit modification function and an attribute value mapping function, describes the schematic and semantic layer reference model, and finally forms a reference model for DBMS security proxy which greatly helps in the design and implementation of database security proxies. This modeling process can clearly separate the system functionality into three layers, define the possible security functions for each layer, and estimate the computational cost for each layer.

  18. A reference model for database security proxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡亮; 杨小虎; 董金祥

    2002-01-01

    How to protect the database, the kernel resources of information warfare, is becoming more and more important since the rapid development of computer and communication technology. As an application-level firewall, database security proxy can successfully repulse attacks originated from outside the network, reduce to zerolevel damage from foreign DBMS products. We enhanced the capability of the COAST' s firewall reference model by adding a transmission unit modification function and an attribute value mapping function,describes the schematic and semantic layer reference model, and finally forms a reference model for DBMS security proxy which greatly helps in the design and implementation of database security proxies. This modeling process can clearly separate the system functionality into three layers, define the possible security functions for each layer, and estimate the computational cost for each layer.

  19. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mn based olivine electrode material with high power and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsoon; Seo, Dong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Wook; Park, Young-Uk; Kang, Kisuk

    2010-02-28

    We report the Mn based olivine electrode material with high power and energy. Easier and more frequent nucleation by Fe and Co in Mn-based olivines significantly enhanced the rate capability as evidenced by the electrochemical results.

  1. 76 FR 17542 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Rainy River, Ranier, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ..., MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a..., Rainer, MN. in the Federal Register (75 FR 32381). We received 7 positive comments and 1 negative comment...

  2. MnGa-based fully perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with ultrathin Co2MnSi interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Siwei; Lu, Jun; Zhao, Xupeng; Wang, Xiaolei; Wei, Dahai; Liu, Jian; Xia, Jianbai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Because tetragonal structured MnGa alloy has intrinsic (not interface induced) giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), ultra-low damping constant and high spin polarization, it is predicted to be a kind of suitable magnetic electrode candidate in the perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) for high density spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) applications. However, p-MTJs with both bottom and top MnGa electrodes have not been achieved yet, since high quality perpendicular magnetic MnGa films can hardly be obtained on the MgO barrier due to large lattice mismatch and surface energy difference between them. Here, a MnGa-based fully p-MTJ with the structure of MnGa/Co2MnSi/MgO/Co2MnSi/MnGa is investigated. As a result, the multilayer is with high crystalline quality, and both the top and bottom MnGa electrodes show well PMA. Meanwhile, a distinct tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 65% at 10 K is achieved. Ultrathin Co2MnSi films are used to optimize the interface quality between MnGa and MgO barrier. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling in MnGa/Co2MnSi bilayer is confirmed with the interfacial exchange coupling constant of −5erg/cm2. This work proposes a novel p-MTJ structure for the future STT-MRAM progress. PMID:28233780

  3. (55)Mn pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy of Mn(2+) ions in ZnO thin films and single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Rolf; Pöppl, Andreas; Lorenz, Michael; Friedländer, Stefan; Spemann, Daniel; Grundmann, Marius

    2014-08-01

    (55)Mn pulsed electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments were performed at X-band on high spin S=5/2 Mn(2+) ions incorporated at zinc lattice sites in heteroepitaxial ZnO thin films. The films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition and the manganese ions were doped during the growth process. We examine how the c/a lattice axes ratio of the ZnO films influences the (55)Mn hyperfine (hf) and nuclear quadrupole (nq) coupling parameters of the Mn(2+) probe ions. The results are compared with those obtained for Mn(2+) ions present as impurities in ZnO single crystals and revealed that the (55)Mn nq coupling monitors sensitively the structural distortions in the bonding environment of the Mn(2+) ions. The experiments provided the full axially symmetric (55)Mn hf and nq interaction tensors. The latter is found to be very sensitive to small axial distortions of the MnO4 tetrahedrons. In particular, the (55)Mn pulsed ENDOR spectra of the ZnO:Mn thin films are strongly subjected to strain effects in the nq coupling parameter indicating a variation of the local structural parameters for the heteroepitaxial films. In the analysis of the (55)Mn pulsed ENDOR spectra the axial and cubic zero field splitting of the Mn(2+) ions was taken into account and intensity effects in the ENDOR spectra due to the zero field splitting effects were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. MnGa-based fully perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with ultrathin Co2MnSi interlayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Siwei; Lu, Jun; Zhao, Xupeng; Wang, Xiaolei; Wei, Dahai; Liu, Jian; Xia, Jianbai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-02-24

    Because tetragonal structured MnGa alloy has intrinsic (not interface induced) giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), ultra-low damping constant and high spin polarization, it is predicted to be a kind of suitable magnetic electrode candidate in the perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) for high density spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) applications. However, p-MTJs with both bottom and top MnGa electrodes have not been achieved yet, since high quality perpendicular magnetic MnGa films can hardly be obtained on the MgO barrier due to large lattice mismatch and surface energy difference between them. Here, a MnGa-based fully p-MTJ with the structure of MnGa/Co2MnSi/MgO/Co2MnSi/MnGa is investigated. As a result, the multilayer is with high crystalline quality, and both the top and bottom MnGa electrodes show well PMA. Meanwhile, a distinct tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 65% at 10 K is achieved. Ultrathin Co2MnSi films are used to optimize the interface quality between MnGa and MgO barrier. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling in MnGa/Co2MnSi bilayer is confirmed with the interfacial exchange coupling constant of -5erg/cm(2). This work proposes a novel p-MTJ structure for the future STT-MRAM progress.

  5. MnGa-based fully perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with ultrathin Co2MnSi interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Siwei; Lu, Jun; Zhao, Xupeng; Wang, Xiaolei; Wei, Dahai; Liu, Jian; Xia, Jianbai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2017-02-01

    Because tetragonal structured MnGa alloy has intrinsic (not interface induced) giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), ultra-low damping constant and high spin polarization, it is predicted to be a kind of suitable magnetic electrode candidate in the perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (p-MTJ) for high density spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) applications. However, p-MTJs with both bottom and top MnGa electrodes have not been achieved yet, since high quality perpendicular magnetic MnGa films can hardly be obtained on the MgO barrier due to large lattice mismatch and surface energy difference between them. Here, a MnGa-based fully p-MTJ with the structure of MnGa/Co2MnSi/MgO/Co2MnSi/MnGa is investigated. As a result, the multilayer is with high crystalline quality, and both the top and bottom MnGa electrodes show well PMA. Meanwhile, a distinct tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio of 65% at 10 K is achieved. Ultrathin Co2MnSi films are used to optimize the interface quality between MnGa and MgO barrier. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling in MnGa/Co2MnSi bilayer is confirmed with the interfacial exchange coupling constant of -5erg/cm2. This work proposes a novel p-MTJ structure for the future STT-MRAM progress.

  6. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  7. Comparativa de las Ingestas Dietéticas de Referencia (IDR de los diferentes países de la Unión Europea, de Estados Unidos (EEUU y de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS Comparison of dietary reference intakes (DRI between different countries of the European Union, The United States and the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cuervo

    2009-08-01

    countries or groups of countries have followed to obtain and document their own reference values in order to offer basic information to facilitate the establishment of the best reference values for the Spanish population. Field: Review of the available information in different countries (or groups of countries from the European Union, the United States and World Health Organization. The analysed data concerned to healthy populations. Conclusions: Reference intakes differ among the examined countries according to population groups, included nutrients, methodology and frequency of published reviews. However, most of the countries define major concepts in the same way, although with different names in each country. On the other hand, most of the studied cases represent only a scientific organization in charge of the publication and update of the values of dietary reference intakes, but not in Spain. In that context, it looks convenient to reach a consensus among all Spanish organizations and scientific societies that are involved in this task, in order to establish an acceptable reference values.

  8. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  9. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  10. Reference Citation Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The format for citations in text and for bibliographic references follows the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5thEd.,2001)and GB/T 7714-2005.The citation of printed word should be ordered in number as it appears in the text of the submitted article.For journal article1 Goodrum,A.A.,McCain,K.W.,&Lawrence,S.,et al.Scholarly publishing in the Internet age:A citation analysis of computer science literature.Information Processing and Management,2001,37:661-675.2 Fernandez,M.,Kadiyska,Y.,&Suciu,D.,et al.SilkRoute:A framework for publishing relational data in XML.ACM Transactions on Database Systems,2002,27(4):438-493.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic inertial reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelkamp-Baker, Dan; Sebesta, Henry R.; Burkhard, Kevin

    2000-07-01

    Optical platforms increasingly require attitude knowledge and optical instrument pointing at sub-microradian accuracy. No low-cost commercial system exists to provide this level of accuracy for guidance, navigation, and control. The need for small, inexpensive inertial sensors, which may be employed in pointing control systems that are required to satisfy angular line-of-sight stabilization jitter error budgets to levels of 1-3 microradian rms and less, has existed for at least two decades. Innovations and evolutions in small, low-noise inertial angular motion sensor technology and advances in the applications of the global positioning system have converged to allow improvement in acquisition, tracking and pointing solutions for a wide variety of payloads. We are developing a small, inexpensive, and high-performance inertial attitude reference system that uses our innovative magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensor technology.

  12. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  13. 75 FR 16010 - Safety Zone; Red River, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AAOO Safety Zone; Red River, MN AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Duluth, MN is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Red River, MN. This safety zone.... 0170.1. 0 2. Add Sec. 165.T09-0198 to read as follows: Sec. 165.T09-0198 Safety zone; Red River, MN. (a...

  14. Effects of Sc and Y substitution on the structure and thermoelectric properties of Yb14MnSb11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkemper, Jason H.; Klemenz, Sebastian; Albert, Barbara; Bux, Sabah K.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

    2016-10-01

    Yb14MnSb11 is the most efficient bulk p-type thermoelectric material for high temperature applications. Materials with Y and Sc substitutions in Yb14MnSb11 were made both in Sn-flux and by ball milling. These small 3+ rare earth (RE) cations were introduced with the goal of providing chemical pressure on the structure. The RE3+ cation is smaller than Yb2+ and also donates one additional electron to this p-type semiconductor. In Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (RE = Sc, Y) the maximum x was about 0.5. X-ray diffraction experiments on the single crystals obtained from Sn-flux showed that Sc preferentially substitutes for Yb(1) and Yb(3), and decreases the size of the unit cell by about 0.3%. Y substitutes on all Yb sites and increases the size of the unit cell by about 0.2%. Samples with Yb14-xRExMnSb11 (x~0.3) were prepared via powder metallurgy and spark plasma sintering for transport and thermal conductivity measurements. Electron microprobe of the Sc-substituted sample showed small regions (≤1 μ m) containing greater amounts of Sc, and X-ray powder diffraction of the ball milled Sc sample could be fitted as phase pure Yb14-xScxMnSb11. Y-substituted samples showed larger regions of excess Y in electron microprobe, and small amounts of Yb4Sb3 in X-ray powder diffraction. The Sc sample has slightly reduced carrier concentration over optimized Yb14MnSb11, while the Y samples have even lower carrier concentrations. These carrier concentrations lead to comparable resistivity to Yb14MnSb11 in the Sc-substituted material, and higher resistivities in the Y-substituted material. All materials had similar Seebeck coefficients that slightly exceed Yb14MnSb11 at high temperatures, with the Sc-substituted sample having the highest despite having a higher carrier concentration. Sc-substituted samples also had a slightly higher thermal conductivity over the Y-substituted samples, which had comparable thermal conductivity to Yb14MnSb11. The zT values of the Sc and Y substituted samples are

  15. Highly Sensitive AMS Measurement of 53Mn at CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Ke-jun; HU; Hao; LIU; Guang-shan; HE; Ming; LI; Zhen-yu; DOU; Liang; XIE; Lin-bo; LIU; Jian-cheng; WANG; Xiang-gao; SHEN; Hong-tao; LIN; De-yu; ZHENG; Guo-wen; WANG; Xiao-bo; LI; Heng; LI; Chao-li; WU; Shao-yong; YOU; Qu-bo; JIN; Chun-sheng; CHEN; Zhi-gang; YUAN; Jian; JIANG; Shan

    2013-01-01

    Methods for highly sensitive AMS measurement of 53Mn were explored by extracting different Mn-containing molecular ions in ion source and using different chemical forms of sample materials.Preliminary results indicate that a method for AMS measurement of 53Mn has been established and a-155355

  16. Of Variability, or its Absence, in HgMn Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Turcotte, S

    2003-01-01

    Current models and observations of variability in HgMn stars disagree. We present here the models that argue for pulsating HgMn stars with properties similar to those of Slowly Pulsating B Stars. The lack of observed variable HgMn stars suggests that some physical process is missing from the models. Some possibilities are discussed.

  17. 78 FR 48300 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN AGENCY... airspace at Mahnomen, MN. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV... the Mahnomen, MN, area, creating controlled airspace at Mahnomen County Airport (78 FR 25233) Docket...

  18. 76 FR 30821 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Duluth, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Duluth, MN AGENCY: Federal... Duluth, MN, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Duluth... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Duluth, MN, creating additional controlled airspace at...

  19. 75 FR 41984 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Paynesville, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Paynesville, MN AGENCY... airspace for Paynesville, MN, to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace for Paynesville, MN, creating...

  20. 78 FR 48301 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN AGENCY... airspace at Walker, MN. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Walker, MN...

  1. 78 FR 67294 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Wadena, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Wadena, MN AGENCY: Federal... Wadena, MN. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Wadena, MN, area, creating additional controlled airspace...

  2. 75 FR 51172 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Litchfield, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Litchfield, MN AGENCY... airspace for Litchfield, MN, to ] accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Litchfield Municipal Airport, Litchfield, MN. The FAA is taking this action to enhance...

  3. 75 FR 16330 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Luverne, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Luverne, MN AGENCY... airspace for Luverne, MN to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Quentin Aanenson Field Airport, Luverne, MN. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the...

  4. 78 FR 41685 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Worthington, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Worthington, MN AGENCY... airspace at Worthington, MN. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Worthington, MN, area, creating additional...

  5. 75 FR 51172 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perham, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perham, MN AGENCY: Federal... Perham, MN to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at... notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Perham, MN, creating additional controlled...

  6. The research progress on layered LixMnO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The structural characteristics, preparation methods and electrochemical properties of LixMnO2 were introduced in this paper, and many problems of the research status of LixMnO2 at present were pointet out, meanwhile the developmental direction of layered LixMnO2 in the future was put forward.

  7. Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, J.F.; Wuister, S.F.; Kelly, J.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2000-01-01

    The luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn^(2+) prepared via an inorganic chemical synthesis are described. Photoluminescence spectra show distinct ZnSe and Mn^(2+) related emissions, both of which are excited via the ZnSe host lattice. The Mn^(2+) emission wavelength and the

  8. Lithium intercalation into layered LiMnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitins, G.; West, Keld

    1997-01-01

    Recently Armstrong and Bruce(1) reported a layered modification of lithium manganese oxide, LiMnO2, isostructural with LiCoO2. LiMnO2 obtained by ion exchange from alpha-NaMnO2 synthesized in air is characterized by x-ray diffraction and by electrochemical insertion and extraction of lithium in a...

  9. τ-MnAl with high coercivity and saturation magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, high purity τ-Mn54Al46 and Mn54−xAl46Cxalloys were successfully prepared using conventional arc-melting, melt-spinning, and heat treatment process. The magnetic and the structural properties were examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD, powder neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. A room temperature saturation magnetization of 650.5 kAm-1, coercivity of 0.5 T, and a maximum energy product of (BHmax = 24.7 kJm-3 were achieved for the pure Mn54Al46 powders without carbon doping. The carbon substituted Mn54−xAl46Cx, however, reveals a lower Curie temperature but similar saturation magnetization as compared to the carbon-free sample. The electronic structure of MnAl shows that the Mn atom possesses a magnetic moment of 2.454 μB which results from strong hybridization between Mn-Al and Mn-Mn. We also investigated the volume and c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moments of Mn and Al. The results indicate that an increase in the intra-atomic exchange splitting due to the cell volume expansion, leads to a large magnetic moment for the Mn atom. The Mn magnetic moment can reach a value of 2.9 μB at a volume expansion rate of ΔV/V ≈ 20%.

  10. Magnetism and transport properties of α-Mn structure Mn3Ge thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Dang Duc; Feng, Wuwei; Shin, Yooleemi; Cho, Sunglae

    2011-04-01

    We have newly synthesized the α-Mn structured Mn3Ge thin films on GaAs(001) substrate. The single phase Mn3Ge film was grown at a growth temperature of 150 °C, while the secondary phase was observed above a growth temperature of 250 °C. The Mn3Ge films exhibited ferrimagnetism with a Curie temperature of 334 K. The saturation magnetizations were 255.9 and 313.8 emu/cm3 and the corresponding coercive fields were 453 and 1166 Oe at 10 K for the samples grown at 150 and 300 °C, respectively. The ferrimagnetism was confirmed by the anomalous Hall effect data.

  11. TMR study of GaMnAs/AlGaAs:Be/GaMnAs trilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Joseph; Liu, Xinyu; Dobrowolska, Malgorzata; Furdyna, Jacek; Yoo, Taehee; Khym, Sungwon; Lee, Sanghoon

    2011-03-01

    GaMnAs/GaAs:Be/GaMnAs trilayers have recently demonstrated antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling between the two ferromagnetic (FM) layers, mediated by holes in the spacer layer. In this work, GaMnAs/ Al x Ga 1-x :Be/GaMnAs trilayer samples with varying Al concentrations were fabricated into magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices with range of pillar diameters to measure tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) under various conditions. SQUID measurements were use to measure the magnetization of the samples, including switching fields for parallel and antiparallel magnetization alignments of the FM layers. TMR was observed in the sample with Al 0.22 Ga 0.78 As:Be spacer, but was massively suppressed in the samples with lower Al content. The presence of holes in the spacer layer is shown to suppress TMR. This illustrates the difference in conditions for TMR and for AFM interlayer coupling. Supported by NSF Grant DMR-1005851 and OISE-1015458.

  12. Frustrated pyrochlore oxides, Y2Mn2O7, Ho2Mn2O7, and Yb2Mn2O7: Bulk magnetism and magnetic microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greedan, J.E.; Raju, N.P.; Maignan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The bulk magnetic properties, including de and ac susceptibilities and heat capacity, of the pyrochlore oxides Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7 are reported and compared with those of the previously studied Y2Mn2O7. In the latter case the magnetic Mn4+ ions occupy the 16c sites in Fd3m which define...... a potentially frustrated three-dimensional array of corner sharing tetrahedra. For Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7 magnetic rare earth ions occupy the 16d sites, as shown by powder neutron diffraction, which are topologically equivalent to the 16c sites but displaced by a vector (1/2 1/2 1/2). Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7....... Surprisingly, neutron diffraction data for both Ho2Mn2O7 and Yb2Mn2O7 show resolution limited reflections of magnetic origin in contrast to the heat capacity results. The resolution of the neutron diffraction data places a minimum on the correlation length of 100 Angstrom. Small angle neutron scattering data...

  13. XPS and EELS characterization of Mn2SiO4, MnSiO3 and MnAl2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, A. P.; Bellhouse, E. M.; Korinek, A.; Bugnet, M.; McDermid, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) are strong candidate techniques for characterizing steel surfaces and substrate-coating interfaces when investigating the selective oxidation and reactive wetting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) during the continuous galvanizing process. However, unambiguous identification of ternary oxides such as Mn2SiO4, MnSiO3, and MnAl2O4 by XPS or EELS, which can play a significant role in substrate reactive wetting, is difficult due to the lack of fully characterized standards in the literature. To resolve this issue, samples of Mn2SiO4, MnSiO3 and MnAl2O4 were synthesized and characterized by XPS and EELS. The unique features of the XPS and EELS spectra for the Mn2SiO4, MnSiO3 and MnAl2O4 standards were successfully derived, thereby allowing investigators to fully differentiate and identify these oxides at the surface and subsurface of Mn, Si and Al alloyed AHSS using these techniques.

  14. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have fai...

  15. 78 FR 28939 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Counties: Cottonwood, Jackson, Murray, Nobles, Rock. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage... ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... State of Minnesota (FEMA- 4113-DR), dated 05/03/2013. Incident: Severe Winter Storm. Incident Period:...

  16. 75 FR 39994 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  17. 76 FR 41552 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated 07/07...

  18. 77 FR 47908 - MINNESOTA Disaster #MN-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION MINNESOTA Disaster MN-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  19. 77 FR 51101 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated 08/16...

  20. 76 FR 35261 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  1. 75 FR 65389 - Minnesota Disaster # MN-00027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated 10/15...

  2. 75 FR 22167 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  3. 75 FR 41245 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Minnesota dated 07/08...

  4. 78 FR 47815 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00051

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  5. 75 FR 65391 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the...

  6. 76 FR 47286 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Minnesota Disaster MN-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  7. Na Deposition on MnO(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xu; Cox, David F.

    2016-03-01

    Na deposition on the MnO(100) surface was investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Na TPD and XPS results indicate that adsorbed Na interacts strongly with the MnO substrate to form an irreversibly-adsorbed, oxidic Na compound on the surface for coverages up to 1 monolayer (ML). This strongly-bound Na diffuses into the MnO subsurface and bulk at elevated temperatures above 500 K. For Na coverages above 1 ML, metallic Na is present and desorbs from the surface below 500 K. The deposition of Na on MnO(100) follows a Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode, with the formation of metallic Na islands following completion of the first Na monolayer. After Na deposition, the surface exhibits a diffuse (1 × 1) LEED pattern, suggesting the formation of disordered Na overlayers. After heating to 1000 K, the surface presents a (2 × 2) LEED pattern indicating that a surface reconstruction is induced by the diffusion of Na into the near surface region. CO2 can be used as a probe molecule in TPD to distinguish between metallic Na islands and oxidic Na in the first ML, and to indicate when Na that is still observable by XPS goes subsurface.

  8. Physiological traits and Mn transporter genes expression in ryegrass genotypes under increasing Mn at short-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Inostroza-Blancheteau, Claudio; Berríos, Graciela; Deppe, Mariana; Demanet, Rolando; Alberdi, Miren

    2017-09-01

    We studied physiological traits and Mn transporter genes expression in ryegrass genotypes (One-50, Banquet-II, Halo-AR1 and Nui) under increasing Mn (2.4-750 μM) at short-term (8-24 h) in nutrient solution. An increment in Mn concentration occurred early in roots of all genotypes at increased Mn doses relative to control. Banquet-II and Nui roots showed the greatest Mn concentration at the highest Mn supply. Net photosynthesis (Pn) of Banquet-II and Halo-AR1 were not perturbed by Mn doses, whereas One-50 and Nui, decayed strongly at the highest Mn dose, concomitant with reduced total chlorophyll concentration. A high accumulation of Mn in roots together the maintained Pn under increased Mn doses in Banquet-II and Halo-AR1 suggest a higher Mn resistance of these genotypes. Stomatal conductance (gs) of all genotypes did not vary in presence of Mn. In roots of Banquet-II an augment of lipid peroxidation (LP) by Mn excess was observed earlier decreasing afterwards, being attenuated by the augment of the radical scavenging activity (RSA) and total phenols (TP) of this genotype. Mn concentration and LP in tissues of One-50 and Nui genotypes rose together, may be due to its Mn sensitivity. Differential expression of Mn transporter genes were found in the studied genotypes grown under increasing supplies of Mn, being MTP8.1 expressed in shoots and NRAMP2-like in roots. We concluded that Banquet-II showed greater Mn concentration associated to high roots NRAMP2-like gene expression, without changes in photosynthetic performance. Despite, this genotype showed an increase of LP at the first hours of Mn-excess, it was decreased by the RSA and TP. Halo-AR1 appears to be Mn-resistant in the short-term due to its photosynthetic performance was unchanged by Mn-toxicity, whilst One-50 and Nui were Mn-sensitive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 我国反腐败法律制度的完善——以《联合国反腐败公约》为鉴%The Improvement of Anti-corruption Legal System in China --Take the United Nations Convention against Corruption as Reference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭华

    2012-01-01

    惩治贪官是全球所有国家的共识,其主要依据是《联合国反腐败公约》,它是迄今为止第一个关于治理腐败犯罪的最完整、最全面而又具有广泛性、创新性的国际公约,并奠定了各国打击腐败犯罪的国际法基础。我国也已基本建立反腐败法律体系,以《联合国反腐败公约》为鉴,进一步完善我国的反腐败法律制度,一是要制定《反腐败法典》,建立健全统一规范的反腐败法律体系;二是强化预防腐败的制度,从源头上铲除产生腐败的土壤和条件;三是加大对腐败的打击力度,完善惩治腐败的刑事法律;四是坚持程序正义,加强反腐败的国际合作。%It is a global common view to punish corrupt officials. The United Nations Convention against Corruption is the main international legal reference for international anti-corruption, which is the most complete and the most comprehensive international convention on anti-corruption. With its universality and creativity, it lays the foun- dation of international anti-corruption law of each country. Anti-corruption legal system has also basically been es- tablished in China. Taking the United Nations Convention against Corruption as reference, several actions should be taken to improve the anti-corruption legal system. Firstly, an anti-corruption code should be framed to strengthen a sound and well-disciplined anti-corruption legal system. Secondly, the legislation mechanism of preventing corrup- tion should be improved to root out the hotbed of corruption. Thirdly, the crackdown against corruption should be stepped up and the penal laws on punishing corruption should be improved. Fourthly, the procedure justice should be upheld and the international cooperation on anti-corruption should be strengthened.

  10. Catalytic Oxidation of NO over MnOx-CeO₂ and MnOx-TiO₂ Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Huo, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Tianle; Hong, Xiaowei; Sun, Ye

    2016-11-14

    A series of MnOx-CeO₂ and MnOx-TiO₂ catalysts were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method and their catalytic activities for the NO oxidation in the absence or presence of SO₂ were evaluated. Results show that the optimal molar ratio of Mn/Ce and Mn/Ti are 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. The MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst exhibits higher catalytic activity and better resistance to SO₂ poisoning than the MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst. On the basis of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning transmission electron microscope with mapping (STEM-mapping) analyses, it is seen that the MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst possesses higher BET surface area and better dispersion of MnOx over the catalyst than MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst provides the abundance of Mn(3+) and more surface adsorbed oxygen, and SO₂ might be preferentially adsorbed to the surface of CeO₂ to form sulfate species, which provides a protection of MnOx active sites from being poisoned. In contrast, MnOx active sites over the MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst are easily and quickly sulfated, leading to rapid deactivation of the catalyst for NO oxidation. Furthermore, temperature programmed desorption with NO and O₂ (NO + O₂-TPD) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (in situ DRIFTS) characterizations results show that the MnOx-CeO₂ catalyst displays much stronger ability to adsorb NOx than the MnOx-TiO₂ catalyst, especially after SO₂ poisoning.

  11. Diffusion and clustering of substitutional Mn in (Ga,Mn)As

    OpenAIRE

    Raebiger, Hannes; Ganchenkova, Maria; von Boehm, Juhani

    2006-01-01

    The Ga vacancy mediated microstructure evolution of (Ga,Mn)As during growth and post-growth annealing is studied using a multi-scale approach. The migration barriers for the Ga vacancies and substitutional Mn together with their interactions are calculated from first principles, and temporal evolution at temperatures ranging from 200 to 350$^\\circ$C is studied using Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We show that at the typical growth and annealing temperatures (i) gallium vacancies pro...

  12. Preparation of Mn 2O 3 and Mn 3O 4 nanofibers via an electrospinning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changlu; Guan, Hongyu; Liu, Yichun; Li, Xiliang; Yang, Xinghua

    2004-07-01

    Thin PVA/manganese acetate composite fibers were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. After calcinations of the above precursor fibers, Mn 2O 3 and Mn 3O 4 nanofibers with a diameter of 50-200 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by TG-DTA, Scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR, WAXD, respectively. The results showed that the crystalline phase and morphology of nanofibers were largely influenced by the calcination temperature.

  13. Two bimetallic W(Ⅳ)-Mn(Ⅱ) complexes based on octacyanometallates:structures and magnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BaoLin; XIAO HongPing; SONG You; YOU XiaoZeng

    2009-01-01

    Two cyano-bridged heterobimetallic coordination polymers,[{Mn(dpa)_2}_2W(CN)_8·CH_3GN·4H_2O]_n(1) (dpa =2,2'-dipyridylamine) and[Mn_2(H_2O)_4{W(CN)_8}·3H_2O]_n (2),have been synthesized and characterized structurally and magnetically.X-ray analysis shows that complex 1 is a one-dimensional (1-D) polymer of W_2(CN)_4Mn_2 square units in which adjacent square fragments are interlinked by sharing[W(CN)_8]~(4-)moieties to form an infinite chain.Complex 2 is a three-dimensional (3-D) polymer,which shows an unforeseen structure,exhibiting a 3-D open network with a 1-D channel (ca.13.21 (A) ×11.82 (A)).Fitting of the magnetic properties indicates that both polymers exhibit weakly antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Mn ions.

  14. Crystal structure and thermal expansion of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyadkin, Vadim; Grigoriev, Sergey; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; Bykova, Elena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Tsvyashchenko, Anatoly; Fomicheva, L N; Chernyshov, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    A series of temperature-dependent single-crystal and powder diffraction experiments has been carried out using synchrotron radiation in order to characterize the monogermanides of Mn, Fe and their solid solutions. The MnGe single crystal is found to be enantiopure and we report the absolute structure determination. The thermal expansion, parametrized with the Debye model, is discussed from the temperature-dependent powder diffraction measurements for Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.9). Whereas the unit-cell dimension and the Debye temperature follow a linear trend as a function of composition, the thermal expansion coefficient deviates from linear dependence with increasing Mn content. No structural phase transformations have been observed for any composition in the temperature range 80-500 K for both single-crystal and powder diffraction, indicating that the phase transition previously observed with neutron powder diffraction most probably has a magnetic origin.

  15. Phase Polymorphism of [Mn(DMSO)6](BF4)2 Studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Skoczylas, Łukasz

    2008-12-01

    The tetrafluoroborate of hexadimethylsulfoxidemanganese(II) was synthesized and studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Five solid phases of [Mn(DMSO)6](BF4)2 were revealed. Specifically, four phase transitions of the first order were detected between the following solid phases: stable KIb↔stable KIa at TC4 = 215 K; metastable KIII↔overcooled K0 at TC3 = 354 K; metastable KII↔overcooled K0 at TC2 =377 K; stable KIa→stable K0 at TC1 =385 K. [Mn(DMSO)6](BF4)2 starts to decompose at 400 K with a loss of one DMSO molecule per formula unit and forms [Mn(DMSO)5](BF4)2 which next decomposes in one step to MnF2 at the temperature range of 460 - 583 K. From the entropy changes it can be concluded that the phases K0 and metastable KII are orientationally dynamically disordered (ODDIC) crystals. The stable phases KIb and KIa are ordered solid phases.

  16. On Reductive Monoid Mn(K)%既约么半群Mn(K)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佑安; 李卓

    2004-01-01

    主要介绍Renner得到的重要结果代数么半群的Bruhat分解.这一结果是Putcha-Renner理论系统发展的一个里程碑.当保留首先被Renner发现时,它甚至对Mn(K)也是新的.该文利用线性代数知识对Mn(K)的Bruhat分解给出一个初等描述,并且给出所有秩2,半单秩1的既约么半群.作者用初等方法证明了Mn(K)的Bruhat分解,最后介绍了与Renner么半群密切相关的Hecke代数.%This article serves as an introduction to one of the amazing results established by Renner which is the analogue of the Bruhat decomposition of algebraic monoids. This result is a milestone in the system development of Putcha-Renner theory. It was even new to Mn(K) when it was first found by Renner. In this article we give an elementary description to Mn(K) using linear algebra knowledge and list all rank two, semisimple rank one reductive monoids. We prove the analogue of Bruhat decomposition for Mn(K) in an elementary way. Finally we pose some open problems on Hecke algebras related to Renner monoids.

  17. CaMn2Al10 : Itinerant Mn magnetism on the verge of magnetic order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, L.; Simonson, J. W.; Yin, W.-G.; Smith, G. J.; Kistner-Morris, J. J.; Zellman, S.; Puri, A.; Aronson, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    We report the discovery of CaMn2Al10 , a metal with strong magnetic anisotropy and moderate electronic correlations. Magnetization measurements find a Curie-Weiss moment of 0.83 μB/Mn , significantly reduced from the Hund's rule value, and the magnetic entropy obtained from specific heat measurements is correspondingly small, only ≈9 % of R ln 2 . These results imply that the Mn magnetism is highly itinerant, a conclusion supported by density functional theory calculations that find strong Mn-Al hybridization. Consistent with the layered nature of the crystal structure, the magnetic susceptibility χ is anisotropic below 20 K, with a maximum ratio of χ[010 ]/χ[001 ]≈3.5 . A strong power-law divergence χ (T ) ˜T-1.2 below 20 K implies incipient ferromagnetic order with a low Curie temperature TC<2 K . Our experiments indicate that CaMn2Al10 is a rare example of a system where the weak and itinerant Mn-based magnetism is poised on the verge of order.

  18. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  19. Reversing ferroelectric polarization in multiferroic DyMn2O5 by nonmagnetic Al substitution of Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Liu, M. F.; Li, X.; Wang, J. X.; Yan, Z. B.; Wang, K. F.; Liu, J.-M.

    2014-08-01

    The multiferroic RMn2O5 family, where R is rare-earth ion or Y, exhibits rich physics of multiferroicity which has not yet well understood. DyMn2O5 is a representative member of this family. The ferroelectric polarization of DyMn2O5 is claimed to be magnetically relevant and have more than one component. Therefore, the polarization reversal upon the sequent magnetic transitions is expected. We investigate the evolution of the ferroelectric polarization upon a partial substitution of Mn3+ by nonmagnetic Al3+ in order to tailor the Mn3+-Mn4+ interactions and then to modulate the polarization in DyMn2-x/2Alx/2O5. It is revealed that the polarization can be successfully reversed by Al-substitution via substantially suppressing the Mn3+-Mn4+ interactions, while the Dy3+-Mn4+ interactions can sustain against the substitution until a level as high as x = 0.2. In addition, the independent Dy spin ordering is shifted remarkably down to an extremely low temperature due to the Al3+ substitution. The present work unveils the possibility of tailoring the Mn3+-Mn4+ and Dy3+-Mn4+ interactions independently, and thus reversing the ferroelectric polarization.

  20. Dissolved Mn Speciation and Ligand Characteristics in a Coastal Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, V.; Jensen, L.; Luther, G. W., III

    2014-12-01

    Soluble manganese speciation (Mn(II) and Mn(III); 0.2 μm filtered) was measured along a salinity gradient in the Broadkill River, a coastal waterway bordered by wetlands and salt marshes in Delaware. We modified an established method of porphyrin (T-4(CP)P) addition, by incorporating a heating step and coupling a 100-cm cell to a UV/Vis detector, to achieve a 4.0 nM sample DL. Surface waters were collected from June to August, 2014 and total dissolved Mn (0.23 - 1.92 μM) first increased then decreased along the salinity gradient (31 ppt to freshwater). However, Mn speciation was highly variable; Mn(III) made up 0-49 % of the total dissolved Mn, where the highest Mn(III) values occurred at sites with high salt-marsh runoff. Mn(III) was not recoverable without the addition of a strong reducing agent, indicating that little or no weak ligand was present, and that a strong ligand was responsible for complexing Mn(III). An assessment of potential strong ligand character was made by precipitating humic matter, by acidifying subsamples to pHyellow color. Upon the addition of 500 μM desferrioxamine-B (DFOB) to the same sample, a peak at 310 nm appeared, indicating the formation of Mn(III)-DFOB. In acidified samples, the Mn(III)-pyrophosphate peak did not change. Humic matter, therefore, may be acting as an Mn(III) binding ligand, outcompeting pyrophosphate for Mn(III), however this natural ligand is outcompeted by a large excess of DFOB. The humic matter and increased Mn likely come from the salt marsh runoff during tidal exchange, and we observed that as salinity increased, the amount of humic binding decreased. These results present the first Mn speciation measurements along a salinity gradient in oxygenated waters.

  1. Neutron diffraction study of the La1-xPrxMn2Si2 ( x=0.4, 0.7 and 1) compounds and the general description of the magnetic behavior of Mn in RMn2Ge2 and RMn2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Elmali, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; André, G.

    2007-06-01

    The magnetic structures of the La1-xPrxMn2Si2 ( x=0.4, 0.7 and 1) have been investigated by powder neutron diffraction between 2 and 308 K. According to magnetic measurements, the x=0.4 sample shows a typical SmMn2Ge2-like magnetic behavior. Neutron diffraction indicates a canted antiferromagnetic structure below 130 K and a canted ferromagnetic structure above 240 K. Between 130 and 240 K, the canted ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic structures coexist. Since the magnetic moments of Mn atoms, the unit cell parameters and the scale parameters of the canted antiferromagnetism and canted ferromagnetism are highly correlated between 130 and 240 K, a special refinement procedure was introduced. The critical Mn-Mn value was determined as 2.87 A˚, and the spontaneous volume change and linear magnetostriction are derived. Neutron diffraction revealed a canted antiferromagnetic structure for La0.3Pr0.7Mn2Si2. A canted antiferromagnetic structure was also detected for PrMn2Si2 by neutron diffraction in contrast to previous reports of a collinear arrangement. The present results are compiled together with previous ones on RMn2Ge2 and RMn2Si2 (R: Y, La and rare-earth) compounds in two magnetic phase diagrams. These two graphics summarize the general magnetic behavior of Mn in the RMn2Ge2 and RMn2Si2 compounds.

  2. Magnetic signature of charge ordering in Li[Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 and Li sub 0 sub . sub 2 [Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Verhoeven, V W J; Mulder, F M

    2002-01-01

    The stoichiometric compound LiMn sub 2 O sub 4 is known to show charge ordering with well-defined Mn sup 3 sup + and Mn sup 4 sup + sites just below room temperature (RT). Above RT the electrons are hopping rapidly between sites. For lithium-ion batteries the material Li[Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 is technologically relevant. Due to the small amount of Li on the Mn site, the low-T regular ordering of the Mn charge appears to be destroyed completely, as is evidenced by neutron diffraction in the magnetically ordered state. However, the charges are still fixed in an irregular fashion, as can also be deduced from sup 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. In the lithium-extracted compound Li sub 0 sub . sub 2 [Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 , predominantly Mn sup 4 sup + is present. Neutron diffraction in the magnetically ordered state shows a well-defined antiferromagnetic ordering, with doubling of the unit cell in three directions. Clear...

  3. Charge and Zener polaron order in Bi{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3}: a comparison with Bi{sub 0.75}Ca{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frontera, C.; Garcia-Munoz, J.L.; Carrillo, A.E.; Hervieu, M.; Calleja, A.; Capdevila, X.G.; Casais, M.T.; Ritter, C

    2004-07-15

    We present a detailed magnetic and structural study of Bi{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3}. With the aid of electron diffraction, neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction measurements we have found that at {approx}600 K the structure presents a considerable distortion of the cell parameters accompanied by a change in the space group and by the appearance of a modulation of the average structure. This modulation doubles the a and c lattice parameters (in the P bnm setting) of the high-temperature structure. Magnetic data reveal below this temperature that the paramagnetic units are not single Mn ions but a coexistence of Mn{sup 3+} and Mn-Mn pairs. This behavior strongly contrasts with that of Bi{sub 0.75}Ca{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3} evidencing the strong differences between the Bi{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and Bi{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} families.

  4. The Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Cortese, L; Bendo, G; Chanial, P; Buat, V; Davies, J; Auld, R; Rigby, E; Baes, M; Barlow, M; Bock, J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Charlot, S; Clements, D; Cormier, D; Dwek, E; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Zeilinger, W

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Reference Survey is a guaranteed time Herschel key project and will be a benchmark study of dust in the nearby universe. The survey will complement a number of other Herschel key projects including large cosmological surveys that trace dust in the distant universe. We will use Herschel to produce images of a statistically-complete sample of 323 galaxies at 250, 350 and 500 micron. The sample is volume-limited, containing sources with distances between 15 and 25 Mpc and flux limits in the K-band to minimize the selection effects associated with dust and with young high-mass stars and to introduce a selection in stellar mass. The sample spans the whole range of morphological types (ellipticals to late-type spirals) and environments (from the field to the centre of the Virgo Cluster) and as such will be useful for other purposes than our own. We plan to use the survey to investigate (i) the dust content of galaxies as a function of Hubble type, stellar mass and environment, (ii) the connection betwe...

  5. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  6. Preliminary reference Earth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  7. Reference change values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Callum G

    2011-09-30

    Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines.

  8. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  9. Conhecimento e promoção do uso do preservativo feminino por profissionais de unidades de referência para DST/HIV de Fortaleza-CE: o preservativo feminino precisa sair da vitrine Knowledge and fostering of the female condom by professionals of the STD/HIV reference units of Fortaleza-CE: the female condom needs to get out of the shop windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy da Silva Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo-exploratório realizado nas 10 instituições públicas de referência para o tratamento de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis do município de Fortaleza-CE. Objetivou-se identificar o conhecimento de médicos e enfermeiros com relação ao preservativo feminino; verificar a dinâmica de promoção do método adotada por esses profissionais e averiguar a associação entre conhecer a colocação do preservativo feminino com as variáveis profissão e sexo. Participaram do estudo 26 dos 57 profissionais, ficando a amostra composta de 11 médicos e 15 enfermeiros, que se fizeram presentes nas unidades no período da coleta de dados e que aceitaram participar livremente do estudo. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário, de janeiro a março de 2006. Foram organizados em tabelas contendo apenas os valores absolutos, haja vista ser pequeno o tamanho da amostra. Os testes de Fisher e de Fisher-Reeman-Halton foram realizados para verificar a existência de associação entre variáveis. Os profissionais, indiferentemente à categoria, apresentaram déficit de conhecimento com relação às características básicas de método e modo de colocação (valores de p de Fisher maiores que 10%. Todavia, houve associação entre conhecer os passos de colocação do preservativo feminino e sexo feminino (p = 0,034. A promoção do método é pouco realizada por esses profissionais pelas seguintes razões: preço elevado do insumo, a unidade não oferece o método, a mulher desconhece o método ou não vai aderir a ele, e o maior acesso ao uso do preservativo masculino, razões que merecem ser banidas do discurso profissional.This exploratory-descriptive study took place in the 10 public reference institutions for treating sexually transmitted diseases in the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará. The goal was to identify the doctors' and nurses' knowledge related to the female condom; to investigate the way these professionals foster

  10. From discrete [Mn4] cluster to 1D complex: Two new mixed-valence manganese complexes with slow magnetization relaxation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A tetranuclear manganese complex [Mn4(HL)4(MeOH)4(SCN)2]·3MeOH (1) and a one-dimensional assembly of [Mn4] units, [Mn4(HL)4(MeOH)4(N(CN)2)2]·2.5MeOH (2) (H3L = 2,6-bis(hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-phenol), have been synthesized and studied. Complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the triclinic space group P 1and monoclinic space group P21/n, respectively. Complex 1 possesses a mixed-valence tetranuclear dicubane unit, which comprises two MnⅡ and two MnⅢ ions. Complex 2 is built from the similar tetranuclear [Mn4] units connected through two N(CN)2-anions into a 1-D chain. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibilities of 1 and 2 indicates ferromagnetic interactions between the manganese ions. Frequency-dependent out-of-phase signals of alternating current magnetic susceptibilities are observed in the low temperature range for both complexes, indicating a slow magnetic relaxation.

  11. Flight test evaluations of the head-up display and the inertial reference unit of the NAL QSTOL experimental aircraft (Aska) by the NAL B-65 Queen Air research aircraft. Teisoon STOL jikkenkiyo HUD (head up display) oyobi IRU (kansei kijun sochi) no hiko hyoka shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    A head-up display (HUD) and an inertial reference unit (IRU) were developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) for the NAL QSTOL (Quiet Short Take Off and Landing) experimental air craft (Aska). In order to evaluate both the performance of the HUD which provides the pilot with landing aid information, and the accuracy and characteristics of the IRU to be used for flight control and measurements, flight tests were conducted on board the B-65 Queen Air research aircraft. The results indicated that the characteristics of the HUD as an approach and landing aid system were good, and also that the IRU was useful as a sensor for flight control and measurements. Furthermore, it was shown that fundamental methods of evaluating the HUD characteristics and the IRU accuracy in actual flight were established for application of the HUD and the IRU to a new aircraft in the future. In addition, possibility of a new technology with landing aid information by means of the HUD was made clear. 21 refs., 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Wear Evaluation on Ni3Al/MnS Composite Related to Metallurgical Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karin Gong; LUO He-li; ZHOU Zhi-feng; TIAN Zhi-ling; Lars Nyborg; LI Chang-hai

    2012-01-01

    Iron alloyed Ni3Al with composition of Ni-18. 8Ab10. 7Fe-0. 5Mn-0. 5Ti-0. 2B in atom percent (NAC alloy) showed attractive tribological properties under unlubrication condition at room temperature. The alloy was prepared by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) process. The wear properties were associated with its intrinsic deformation mechanism. Unfortunately, the single phase NAC-alloy worked inadequately with its counterpart disk, and also showed a poor machinability. In the present work, NAC-alloy matrix composite with 6 % (volume percent) MnS particle addi- tion was studied to improve its wear behaviors and performance on machining. Two metallurgical processes of HIP and vacuum casting were applied to produce the testing materials. Pin-on-disk (POD) measurements were carried out at room temperature. A commercial vermicular graphite cast iron was selected as a reference material. The counter- part disk was made of a grey cast iron as liner material in ship engines. The contact pressures of 2.83 MPa and 5.66 MPa were normally applied in the tests. The investigation indicated that MnS particle addition in the NAC-alloy composites functions as an effective solid lubricant, and improved wear properties and machinability of the materials. Obvi- ously, as-cast NAC-alloy with in-situ formed MnS-phase was working more effectively with the counterpart, compa- ring to the HIPed NAC-alloy composite with MnS particles. At the high contact pressure of 5.66 MPa, the specific wear rate of the as-cast NAC-alloy composite was high. The phenomenon of the negative effect is mostly due to the brittle second NiAl phase as evidenced in the microstructure analysis.

  13. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  14. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  15. Detection of colorectal liver metastases: a prospective multicenter trial comparing unenhanced MRI, MnDPDP-enhanced MRI, and spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, Carlo; Donati, Francescamaria; Cioni, Dania; Lencioni, Riccardo [Department of Radiology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, 56100, Pisa (Italy); Procacci, Carlo; Morana, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, University of Verona, Piazzale L.A. Scuro 1, 37134, Verona (Italy); Chiesa, Antonio; Grazioli, Luigi [Department of Radiology, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25023, Brescia (Italy); Cittadini, Giorgio; Cittadini, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, University of Genova, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy); Giovagnoni, Andrea [Department of Radiology, University of Ancona, Concam, Torrette, 60020, Ancona (Italy); Gandini, Giovanni; Maass, Jochen [Department of Radiology, University of Torino, Genova 3, 10110, Torino (Italy)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare unenhanced MRI, MnDPDP-enhanced MRI, and spiral CT in the detection of hepatic colorectal metastases. Forty-four patients with hepatic colorectal metastases were examined with unenhanced and MnDPDP-enhanced MRI and with unenhanced and contrast-enhanced spiral CT. The MR examination protocol included baseline T1-weighted spin-echo (SE), T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (GRE), and T2-weighted fast-SE sequences; and T1-weighted SE and T1-weighted GRE sequences obtained 30-60 min after administration of 0.5 {mu}mol/kg (0.5 ml/kg) mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP). Images were interpreted by three blinded readers. Findings at CT and MRI were compared with those at intraoperative US, which were used as term of reference. Intraoperative US detected 128 metastases. In a lesion-by-lesion analysis, the overall detection rate was 71% (91 of 128) for spiral CT, 72% (92 of 128) for unenhanced MRI, and 90% (115 of 128) for MnDPDP-enhanced MRI. MnDPDP-enhanced MRI was more sensitive than either unenhanced MRI (p<0.0001) or spiral CT (p=0.0007). In a patient-by-patient analysis, agreement with gold standard was higher for MnDPDP-enhanced MRI (33 of 44 cases) than for spiral CT (22 of 44 cases, p=0.0023) and unenhanced MRI (21 of 44 cases, p=0.0013). MnDPDP-enhanced MRI is superior to unenhanced MRI and spiral CT in the detection of hepatic colorectal metastases. (orig.)

  16. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Erdemoglu, Sema; Ozmen, Nesrin; Asilturk, Meltem

    2015-08-01

    The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO2. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO2 was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO2 nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO2 increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2-4h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO2 and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn-doped TiO2 should be considered due to nanomaterial applications and for spilled nanoparticles in an aquatic ecosystem. Also, the risk of nanoparticles should be considered using indicator reference biochemical markers to verify the environmental health impacts.

  17. L10-MnGa based magnetic tunnel junction for high magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. P.; Lu, J.; Mao, S. W.; Yu, Z. F.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, X. L.; Wei, D. H.; Zhao, J. H.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the investigation of the magnetic tunnel junction structure designed for high magnetic field sensors with a perpendicularly magnetized L10-MnGa reference layer and an in-plane magnetized Fe sensing layer. A large linear tunneling magnetoresistance ratio up to 27.4% and huge dynamic range up to 5600 Oe have been observed at 300 K, with a low nonlinearity of 0.23% in the optimized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The field response of tunneling magnetoresistance is discussed to explain the field sensing properties in the dynamic range. These results indicate that L10-MnGa based orthogonal MTJ is a promising candidate for a high performance magnetic field sensor with a large dynamic range, high endurance and low power consumption.

  18. Effect of the Mn Oxidation State on Single-Molecule-Magnet Properties: Mn(III) vs Mn(IV) in Biologically Inspired DyMn3O4 Cubanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Heng; Tsui, Emily Y; Habib, Fatemah; Murugesu, Muralee; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-06-20

    Inspired by the ferromagnetic coupling in the cubane model CaMn(IV)3O4 of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, 3d-4f mixed-metal DyMn3O4 clusters were prepared for investigation of the magnetic properties. For comparison, YMn(IV)3O4 and YMn(IV)2Mn(III)O4 clusters were investigated as well and showed ferromagnetic interactions, like the calcium analogue. DyMn(IV)3O4 displays single-molecule-magnet properties, while the one-electron-reduced species (DyMn(IV)2Mn(III)O4) does not, despite the presence of a Mn(III) center with higher spin and single-ion anisotropy.

  19. High-Field Magnetization of Some Mn Alloys(Magnetism)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiei, Hori; Hiroshi, Shiraishi; Hiroshi, Niida; Hiroaki, Kato; Giyuu, Kido; Yasuo, Yamaguchi; Yasuaki, Nakagawa; Shibaura Institute of Technology; Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University

    1993-01-01

    We have made high-field magnetization measurements for some Mn alloys : ε-Mn_Ga with δ= -0.30, ε-(Mn_Fe_x)_3Sn with x=0.1 and 0.3, Fe_3Mn_4Ge_ and γ-(Mn_Fe_x)_Ga_y with x=0.44 and y=0.27. The ε-Mn_Ga has the hexagonal D0_ type structure and a distorted triangular antiferromagnetic spin structure. The hexagonal lattice is slightly distorted to an orthorhombic lattice at T_d of about 290 K with large magnetization. Pseudo-binary ε-(Mn_Fe_x)_3Sn has also the D0_ type structure, and the alloys wi...

  20. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).