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Sample records for unit references mn

  1. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  2. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of Mn{sub 6}Cr single-molecule-magnets and of manganese compounds as reference layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmstedt, Andreas; Gryzia, Aaron; Dohmeier, Niklas; Mueller, Norbert; Brechling, Armin; Sacher, Marc; Heinzmann, Ulrich [Faculty of Physics, Bielefeld University (Germany); Hoeke, Veronika; Glaser, Thorsten [Faculty of Chemistry, Bielefeld University (Germany); Fonin, Mikhail; Ruediger, Ulrich [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz (Germany); Neumann, Manfred [Department of Physics, Osnabrueck University (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The properties of the manganese-based single-molecule-magnet (SMM) Mn{sub 6}Cr are studied. This molecule exhibits a large spin ground state of S{sub T}=21/2. It contains six manganese centres arranged in two bowl-shaped Mn{sub 3}-triplesalen building blocks linked by a hexacyanochromate. The Mn{sub 6}Cr complex can be isolated with different counterions which compensate for its triply positive charge. The spin polarization of photoelectrons emitted from the manganese centres in Mn{sub 6}Cr SMM after resonant excitation with circularly polarized synchrotron radiation has been measured at selected energies corresponding to the prominent Mn L{sub 3}VV and L{sub 3}M{sub 2,3}V Auger peaks. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectra of the reference substances MnO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mn(II)acetate recorded after resonant excitation at the Mn-L{sub 3}-edge around 640eV are presented as well. The spin polarization value obtained from MnO at room temperature in the paramagnetic state is compared to XMCD measurements of Mn(II)-compounds at 5K and a magnetic field of 5T.

  3. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.

  4. Fourier transform imaging of impurities in the unit cells of crystals: Mn in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.-L.; Bihler, C.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W.; Daeubler, J.; Thieß, S.; Brandt, M. S.; Zegenhagen, J.

    2010-06-01

    The lattice sites of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As thin films were imaged using the x-ray standing wave technique. The model-free images, obtained straightforwardly by Fourier inversion, disclose immediately that the Mn mostly substitutes the Ga with a small fraction residing on minority sites. The images further reveal variations in the Mn concentrations of the different sites upon post-growth treatments. Subsequent model refinement based on the directly reconstructed images resolves with high precision the complete Mn site distributions. It is found that post-growth annealing increases the fraction of substitutional Mn at the expense of interstitial Mn whereas hydrogenation has little influence on the Mn site distribution. Our study offers an element-specific high-resolution imaging approach for accurately determining the detailed site distributions of dilute concentrations of atoms in crystals.

  5. Rectal cancer survival in a Brazilian Cancer Reference Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo da Silva Corrêa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malign tumors in men and women all over the world. In spite of prevention advances in the last few years, worldwide incidence remains significant, about one million per year. Objectives: Evaluate rectal cancer survival in patients diagnosed and surgically treated at the Cancer Reference Unit at Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Methods: Observational retrospective study composed by 135 patients assisted from 2007 to 2014 at Doctor Luiz Antonio Hospital, Natal, Brazil. Data were collected from the patient records revision and survival rates were calculated and analyzed by non-parametric Kaplan–Meier and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. All patients were submitted to surgical treatment, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Results: Overall survival was 62% in seven years, while disease-free survival in one, three and five years was 91.7%, 75.5% and 72.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Overall survival and disease-free survival remained enhanced until the end of the study, suggesting that the treatment protocols used in the institution have shown to be effective. Resumo: O câncer colorretal é um dos tumores malignos mais comuns em homens e mulheres em todo o mundo. Apesar das melhorias na prevenção nos últimos anos, a incidência global ainda é expressiva, cerca de um milhão por ano. Objetivos: Avaliar a sobrevida do câncer de reto nos pacientes diagnosticados e tratados cirurgicamente na Unidade de Referência do Câncer no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo composto por 135 pacientes, compreendido no período de 2007 a 2014 no Hospital Dr. Luiz Antônio, Natal, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados através da revisão de prontuários e as sobrevidas foram calculadas e comparadas utilizando, respectivamente, os métodos não-paramétricos de Kaplan-Meier e teste de Wilcoxon. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico, quimioterápico e radioter

  6. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Observations from Datalogger

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Datalogger files are raw USCRN data. However, instead of being collected via satellite, the raw data are collected from station dataloggers (also referred to as...

  7. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  8. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in benchmark soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.Heavy metals are a group of elements with specific features and natural occurrence in the environment, representing an accessory in the formation of rocks. These elements, although associated with toxicity, must be treated different from xenobiotics, since many

  9. High accuracy attitude reference stabilization and pointing using the Teledyne SDG-5 gyro and the DRIRU II inertial reference unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K. N.; van Alstine, R. L.

    This paper presents the current performance levels of the SDG-5 gyro, a high performance two-axis dynamically tuned gyro, and the DRIRU II redundant inertial reference unit relating to stabilization and pointing applications. Also presented is a discussion of a product improvement program aimed at further noise reductions to meet the demanding requirements of future space defense applications.

  10. Self-assembled decanuclear Na(I)2Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 complexes: from discrete clusters to 1-D and 2-D structures, with the Mn(II)4Mn(III)4 unit displaying a large spin ground state and probable SMM behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Murray, Keith S

    2011-12-07

    The synthesis, magnetic characterization and X-ray crystal structures are reported for five new manganese compounds, [Mn(III)(teaH(2))(sal)]·(1/2)H(2)O (1), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(4)]·6MeOH (2), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·7MeOH (3), [Na(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(MeOH)(2)](n)·2MeOH·Et(2)O (4) and [K(I)(2)Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4)(teaH)(6)(sal)(4)(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n)·5MeOH (5). Complex 1 is a mononuclear compound, formed via the reaction of Mn(NO(3))(2)·4H(2)O, triethanolamine (teaH(3)) and salicylic acid (salH(2)) in a basic methanolic solution. Compound 2 is a mixed-valent hetero-metallic cluster made up of a Mn(8)Na(2) decanuclear core and is formed via the reaction of sodium azide (NaN(3)) with 1. Compounds 3-5 are isolated as 1- or 2-D coordination polymers, each containing the decanuclear Mn(8)M(2) (M = Na(+) or K(+)) core building block as the repeating unit. Compound 3 is isolated when 1 is reacted with NaN(3) over a very short reaction time and forms a 1-D coordination polymer. Each unit displays inter-cluster bridges via the O-atoms of teaH(2-) ligands bonding to the sodium ions of an adjacent cluster. Increasing the reaction time appears to drive the formation of 4 which forms 2-D polymeric sheets and is a packing polymorph of 3. The addition of KMnO(4) and NaN(3) to 1 resulted in compound 5, which also forms a 1-D coordination polymer of the decanuclear core unit. The 1-D chains are now linked via inter-cluster potassium and salicylate bridges. Solid state DC susceptibility measurements were performed on compounds 1-5. The data for 1 are as expected for an S = 2 Mn(III) ion, with the isothermal M vs. H data being fitted by matrix diagonalization methods to give values of g and the axial (D) and rhombic (E) zero field splitting parameters of 2.02, -2.70 cm(-1) and 0.36 cm(-1) respectively. The data for 2-5, each with an identical Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)(4

  11. Contemporary Development of Academic Reference Librarianship in the United States: A 44-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanrong; Tang, Yingqi; Knight, Carley

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes job advertisements to identify the contemporary development of academic reference librarianship in the United States. Results show that more job openings, higher educational backgrounds, more duties & responsibilities, and variety of titles were assigned to academic reference librarian positions from 1966 through 2009.…

  12. Evaluation of a TRU fundamental criterion and reference TRU waste units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.

    1993-01-01

    The comparison of two options for regulating transuranic (TRU) waste disposal is explained in this paper. The two options are (1) fundamental and derived standards developed specifically for the TRU waste and (2) a family of procedures that use a reference to the TRU waste unit with procedures that use a reference to the TRU waste unit with commercial high-level waste (HLW) criteria. Background information pertaining to both options is covered. A section on criteria specifically for TRUE waste suggests a methodology for developing or adapting fundamental and derived criteria that are consistent with all other aspects of the standards. The section on references TRU waste units covers all the parameter variations that have been suggested for this option. The technical bases of each approach is reviewed, implementation is discussed and their relative attributes and deficiencies are evaluated

  13. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  14. Characterisation of a natural quartz crystal as a reference material for microanalytical determination of Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audetat, Andreas; Garbe-Schonberg, Dieter; Kronz, Andreas; Pettke, Thomas; Rusk, Brian G.; Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather

    2015-01-01

    A natural smoky quartz crystal from Shandong province, China, was characterised by laser ablation ICP-MS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and solution ICP-MS to determine the concentration of twenty-four trace and ultra trace elements. Our main focus was on Ti quantification because of the increased use of this element for titanium-in-quartz (TitaniQ) thermobarometry. Pieces of a uniform growth zone of 9 mm thickness within the quartz crystal were analysed in four different LA-ICP-MS laboratories, three EPMA laboratories and one solution-ICP-MS laboratory. The results reveal reproducible concentrations of Ti (57 ± 4 μg g-1), Al (154 ± 15 μg g-1), Li (30 ± 2 μg g-1), Fe (2.2 ± 0.3 μg g-1), Mn (0.34 ± 0.04 μg g-1), Ge (1.7 ± 0.2 μg g-1) and Ga (0.020 ± 0.002 μg g-1) and detectable, but less reproducible, concentrations of Be, B, Na, Cu, Zr, Sn and Pb. Concentrations of K, Ca, Sr, Mo, Ag, Sb, Ba and Au were below the limits of detection of all three techniques. The uncertainties on the average concentration determinations by multiple techniques and laboratories for Ti, Al, Li, Fe, Mn, Ga and Ge are low; hence, this quartz can serve as a reference material or a secondary reference material for microanalytical applications involving the quantification of trace elements in quartz.

  15. ENTREPRENEURIAL OPPORTUNITIES IN FOOD PROCESSING UNITS (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO BYADGI RED CHILLI COLD STORAGE UNITS IN THE KARNATAKA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. ISHWARA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available After the green revolution, we are now ushering in the evergreen revolution in the country; food processing is an evergreen activity. It is the key to the agricultural sector. In this paper an attempt has been made to study the workings of food processing units with special references to Red Chilli Cold Storage units in the Byadgi district of Karnataka State. Byadgi has been famous for Red Chilli since the days it’s of antiquity. The vast and extensive market yard in Byadagi taluk is famous as the second largest Red Chilli dealing market in the country. However, the most common and recurring problem faced by the farmer is inability to store enough red chilli from one harvest to another. Red chilli that was locally abundant for only a short period of time had to be stored against times of scarcity. In recent years, due to Oleoresin, demand for Red Chilli has grow from other countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, America, Europe, Nepal, Indonesia, Mexico etc. The study reveals that all the cold storage units of the study area have been using vapour compression refrigeration system or method. All entrepreneurs have satisfied with their turnover and profit and they are in a good economic position. Even though the average turnover and profits are increased, few units have shown negligible amount of decrease in turnover and profit. This is due to the competition from increasing number of cold storages and early established units. The cold storages of the study area have been storing Red chilli, Chilli seeds, Chilli powder, Tamarind, Jeera, Dania, Turmeric, Sunflower, Zinger, Channa, Flower seeds etc,. But the 80 per cent of the each cold storage is filled by the red chilli this is due to the existence of vast and extensivered chilli market yard in the Byadgi. There is no business without problems. In the same way the entrepreneurs who are chosen for the study are facing a few problems in their business like skilled labour, technical and management

  16. Single-ion anisotropy and exchange interactions in the cyano-bridged trimers MnIII2MIII(CN)6 (MIII = Co, Cr, Fe) species incorporating [Mn(5-Brsalen)]+ units: an inelastic neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Sheptyakov, Denis; Keller, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    expectations based on the unquenched orbital angular momentum of the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) anion, giving rise to an M(s) approximately +/-9/2 ground state, isolated by approximately 11.5 cm(-1) from the higher-lying levels. The reported INS and magnetic data should now serve as a benchmark against which theoretical...... interactions that define the low-lying states of the Mn-M(III)-Mn trimeric units. Despite the presence of an antiferromagnetic intertrimer interaction, the experimental evidence supports the classification of both the Cr(III) and Fe(III) compounds as single-molecule magnets. The value of 17(2) cm(-1...

  17. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients referred to psychiatric unit in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousafzai, A.W.; Kazim, M.; Jehangiri, A.U.R.

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies from Pakistan have examined the profile of patients seen by psychiatrists in general hospital. The aim of this research is to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients referred to the psychiatric unit of a general hospital over a one year period. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad, from January 1st to December 31st 2012. All patients being referred to psychiatry were included in the study over one year period. The information was recorded on a structured questionnaire and analysed the data using SPSS-19.0. Results: Out of the 105 patients referred to the psychiatric unit, 74 (72.3%) were females. A total of 69 (68.5%) patients were married. More than half were uneducated and only number 4 (3%) patients had university qualification. Housewives made up 64.4% of the patient population followed by students (11%). Majority 55 (53%) had less than Rs. 5000/ monthly income. About 30% patients were shifted to psychiatry ward while, nearly one tenth were discharged. In 35% cases the psychiatrist was asked to help in the management, while in 50% cases only opinion was sought. Aggressive and threatening behaviour was source of concern in majority of patients for the primary team while 34% exhibited suicidal behaviour. Depression was most frequent diagnosis in 45 43% patients, followed by conversion disorder 19 (17%) and delirium 16 (14%). Conclusion: The rate of psychiatric referrals is dismal with only one third of the patients being transferred to the psychiatric ward. The major psychiatric diagnosis was depression. Patients with aggressive and threatening behaviour were more frequently referred. (author)

  18. Chronology and References of Volcanic Eruptions and Selected Unrest in the United States, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Angela K.; Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The United States ranks as one of the top countries in the world in the number of young, active volcanoes within its borders. The United States, including the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is home to approximately 170 geologically active (age activity, unrest, that do not culminate in eruptions. Monitoring volcanic activity in the United States is the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) and is accomplished with academic, Federal, and State partners. The VHP supports five Volcano Observatories - the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO), Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), Long Valley Observatory (LVO), and Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). With the exception of HVO, which was established in 1912, the U.S. Volcano Observatories have been established in the past 27 years in response to specific volcanic eruptions or sustained levels of unrest. As understanding of volcanic activity and hazards has grown over the years, so have the extent and types of monitoring networks and techniques available to detect early signs of anomalous volcanic behavior. This increased capability is providing us with a more accurate gauge of volcanic activity in the United States. The purpose of this report is to (1) document the range of volcanic activity that U.S. Volcano Observatories have dealt with, beginning with the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, (2) describe some overall characteristics of the activity, and (3) serve as a quick reference to pertinent published literature on the eruptions and unrest documented in this report.

  19. Evidence for single-chain magnet behavior in a Mn(III)-Ni(II) chain designed with high spin magnetic units: a route to high temperature metastable magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clérac, Rodolphe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masahiro; Coulon, Claude

    2002-10-30

    We herein present the synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of a new heterometallic chain of MnIII and NiII ions, [Mn2(saltmen)2Ni(pao)2(py)2](ClO4)2 (1) (saltmen2- = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(salicylideneiminate) and pao- = pyridine-2-aldoximate). The crystal structure of 1 was investigated by X-ray crystallographic analysis: compound 1 crystallized in monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15) with a = 21.140(3) A, b = 15.975(1) A, c = 18.6212(4) A, beta = 98.0586(4) degrees , V = 6226.5(7) A3, and Z = 4. This compound consists of two fragments, the out-of-plane dimer [Mn2(saltmen)2]2+ as a coordination acceptor building block and the neutral mononuclear unit [Ni(pao)2(py)2] as a coordination donor building block, forming an alternating chain having the repeating unit [-Mn-(O)2-Mn-ON-Ni-NO-]n. In the crystal structure, each chain is well separated with a minimum intermetallic distance between Mn and Ni ions of 10.39 A and with the absence of interchain pi overlaps between organic ligands. These features ensure a good magnetic isolation of the chains. The dc and ac magnetic measurements were performed on both the polycrystalline sample and the aligned single crystals of 1. Above 30 K, the magnetic susceptibility of this one-dimensional compound was successfully described in a mean field approximation as an assembly of trimers (Mn...Ni...Mn) with a NiII...MnIII antiferromagnetic interaction (J = -21 K) connected through a ferromagnetic MnIII...MnIII interaction (J'). However, the mean field theory fails to describe the magnetic behavior below 30 K emphasizing the one-dimensional magnetic character of the title compound. Between 5 and 15 K, the susceptibility in the chain direction was fitted to a one-dimensional Ising model leading to the same value of J'. Hysteresis loops are observed below 3.5 K, indicating a magnet-type behavior. In the same range of temperature, combined ac and dc measurements show a slow relaxation of the magnetization

  20. Pathway to 2022: The Ongoing Modernization of the United States National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.; Caccamise, D.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) mission is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." The NSRS is an assemblage of geophysical and geodetic models, tools, and data, with the most-visible components being the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), which together provide a consistent spatial reference framework for myriad geospatial applications and positioning requirements throughout the United States. The NGS is engaged in an ongoing and comprehensive multi-year project of modernizing the NSRS, a makeover necessitated by technological developments and user accuracy requirements, all with a goal of providing a modern, accurate, accessible, and globally aligned national positioning framework exploiting the substantial power and utility of the Global Navigation Satellite System - of both today and tomorrow. The modernized NSRS will include four new-generation geometric terrestrial reference frames (replacing NAD83) and a technically unprecedented geopotential datum (replacing NAVD88), all to be released in 2022 (anticipated). This poster/presentation will describe the justification for this modernization effort and will update the status and planned evolution of the NSRS as 2022 draws ever closer. Also discussed will be recent developments, including the publication of "blueprint" documents addressing technical details of various facets of the modernized NSRS and a continued series of public Geospatial Summits. Supporting/ancillary projects such as Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D), which will result in the generation of a highly accurate gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential datum, and Geoid Slope Validation Surveys (GSVS), which are exploring the achievable

  1. Profile of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanlo, P; Heras, H; Pérez, D; Tiberio, G; Espinosa, G; Adan, A

    2017-05-01

    To describe the main characteristics of a cohort of patients with uveitis referred to a multidisciplinary unit in northern Spain. Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients evaluated in the Multidisciplinary Unit of the Navarra Hospital Complex from the period January 2010 until March 2015. An analysis was performed on the demographic characteristics, origin, types of uveitis, laterality, and aetiology. The present series was also compared with 2 previous series from Castilla y León and Barcelona. A total of 500 patients were identified, with a mean age of 47.9±16.4 years, with 50% women. The most frequent type of uveitis was anterior uveitis (65.4%), followed by posterior uveitis (17.6%), panuveitis (15.2%), and intermediate uveitis (1.8%). The origin was unclassifiable in 31.2%, followed by non-infectious systemic disease in 29.2%. Ankylosing spondylitis was the most frequent cause in 10.8% of patients, followed by herpes infection in 9.2%, and toxoplasmosis in 7.8%, respectively. Compared with the 2other cohorts, the present cohort showed a higher proportion of unilateral anterior uveitis. Furthermore, the patients from the Navarra series had a higher prevalence of unilateral and idiopathic uveitis compared to the series from Barcelona. The main characteristics of the present cohort of patients with uveitis are similar to those of patients from other regions of our country. Unilateral anterior uveitis and idiopathic uveitis were the most frequent in our series. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical reactions during sintering of Fe-Cr-Mn-Si-Ni-Mo-C-steels with special reference to processing in semi-closed containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cias A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintering of Cr, Mn and Si bearing steels has recently attracted both experimental and theoretical attention and processing in semiclosed containers has been reproposed. This paper brings together relevant thermodynamic data and considers the kinetics of some relevant chemical reactions. These involve iron and carbon, water vapour, carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen of the sintering atmospheres and the alloying elements Cr, Mn, Mo and Si. The paper concludes by presenting mechanical properties data for three steels sintered in local microatmosphere with nitrogen, hydrogen, nitrogen-5% hydrogen and air as the furnace gas.

  3. Theoretical Analysis of Moving Reference Planes Associated with Unit Cells of Nonreciprocal Lossy Periodic Transmission-Line Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lamultree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis of moving reference planes associated with unit cells of nonreciprocal lossy periodic transmission-line structures (NRLSPTLSs by the equivalent bi-characteristic-impedance transmission line (BCITL model. Applying the BCITL theory, only the equivalent BCITL parameters (characteristic impedances for waves propagating in forward and reverse directions and associated complex propagation constants are of interest. An infinite NRLSPTLS is considered first by shifting a reference position of unit cells along TLs of interest. Then, a semi-infinite terminated NRLSPTLS is investigated in terms of associated load reflection coefficients. It is found that the equivalent BCITL characteristic impedances of the original and shifted unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. In addition, the associated load reflection coefficients of both unit cells are mathematically related by the bilinear transformation. However, the equivalent BCITL complex propagation constants remain unchanged. Numerical results are provided to show the validity of the proposed theoretical analysis.

  4. Proposing an Empirically Justified Reference Threshold for Blood Culture Sampling Rates in Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Stefanie; Schwab, Frank; Geffers, Christine; Bongartz, Hannah; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Gastmeier, Petra; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.

    2014-01-01

    Early and appropriate blood culture sampling is recommended as a standard of care for patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSI) but is rarely taken into account when quality indicators for BSI are evaluated. To date, sampling of about 100 to 200 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days is recommended as the target range for blood culture rates. However, the empirical basis of this recommendation is not clear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association between blood culture rates and observed BSI rates and to derive a reference threshold for blood culture rates in intensive care units (ICUs). This study is based on data from 223 ICUs taking part in the German hospital infection surveillance system. We applied locally weighted regression and segmented Poisson regression to assess the association between blood culture rates and BSI rates. Below 80 to 90 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days, observed BSI rates increased with increasing blood culture rates, while there was no further increase above this threshold. Segmented Poisson regression located the threshold at 87 (95% confidence interval, 54 to 120) blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days. Only one-third of the investigated ICUs displayed blood culture rates above this threshold. We provided empirical justification for a blood culture target threshold in ICUs. In the majority of the studied ICUs, blood culture sampling rates were below this threshold. This suggests that a substantial fraction of BSI cases might remain undetected; reporting observed BSI rates as a quality indicator without sufficiently high blood culture rates might be misleading. PMID:25520442

  5. [Demographic features and difficulties in rehabilitation in patients referred to hand rehabilitation unit for phalangeal fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Füsun; Yücel, Serap Dalgiç; Yilmaz, Figen; Ergöz, Ernur; Kuran, Banu

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated demographic and occupational features of patients with phalangeal fractures of the hand, etiologies and types of injuries, and the results of rehabilitation. The study included 91 fingers of 62 patients (54 males, 8 females; mean age 28+/-13 years; range 4 to 59 years) who were referred to our hand rehabilitation unit for phalangeal fractures. Demographic features, the cause and localization of injury, the type of surgery, time from surgery to rehabilitation, and the follow-up period were determined. At the end of rehabilitation, range of motion (ROM) of the phalangeal joint and total ROM of the injured fingers were assessed using the Strickland-Glogovac rating system. A great majority of injuries were caused by work accidents, followed by sport injuries and falls occurring in students. Sixty patients (96.8%) were right-handed. The fractures occurred in the dominant hand in 29 patients (46.8%). The majority of patients (n=45) were primary school graduates. The most common mechanism of injury was accidents related to heavy work machinery (n=18). The most commonly injured finger and the phalanx were the third finger (n=25, 27.5%) and the proximal phalanx (n=59, 56.7%), respectively. Only 27 patients (43.6%) had a sufficient follow-up with a mean of 79.7+/-46.6 days (range 30 to 254 days). Following rehabilitation, the mean ROM and the total ROM were 45.0+/-22.9 degrees and 63.3+/-16.1 degrees for the injured joint and the thumb, and 31.3+/-22.5 degrees and 122+/-60.3 degrees for the injured joint and the other fingers, respectively. Our data provide important insight into appropriate treatment and rehabilitation of phalangeal fractures, in particular, shortcomings in the treatment and follow-up.

  6. Diagnostic reference levels for X-ray investigations in pain management units in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtherte, S.; Le Polain de Waroux, B.

    2008-01-01

    X-rays are commonly used in pain treatment centres where infiltrative techniques are performed. Although X-rays are useful in increasing the precision of infiltrative techniques, their use puts patients and staff at risk of radiation exposure. As a result, medical staff now have to obtain a certificate of training on the use of X-rays before being allowed to use X-rays in practice. This analysis was based on 373 detailed registrations of procedure-related parameters in the six centres that participated in this study between January 2009 and July 2009. Examinations chosen for inclusion in this study were the most commonly performed fluoroscopic imaging-guided procedures in a pain management unit: epidural (cervical/lumbar), facet joint nerve blocks (cervical/lumbar) and trans-foraminal (cervical/lumbar). The sample size, the dose-area product (DAP) range for whole population, the mean and the third quartile DAP corrected for patient size (DAP corr ), the screening time range, the mean and the third quartile screening time are presented. The proposed DRLs for epidural, facet joint nerve blocks and trans-foraminal are 0.5, 2.5 and 3 Gy cm 2 for DAP values and 12, 60 and 50 s for screening times, respectively. In the absence of national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for pain management fluoroscopic procedures, these DAP and screening time values provide a possible way of establishing provisional DRLs for local use. The values for each examination type could be used as a baseline against which to monitor the effectiveness of dose reduction strategies as part of the optimisation process that is the goal of any quality control and patient dose monitoring system. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of the reference unit method for herbaceous biomass estimation in native grasslands of southwestern South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Boyda

    2013-01-01

    The high costs associated with physically harvesting plant biomass may prevent sufficient data collection, which is necessary to account for the natural variability of vegetation at a landscape scale. A biomass estimation technique was previously developed using representative samples or "reference units", which eliminated the need to harvest biomass from all...

  8. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altzitzoglou, T.; Bohnstedt, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 40 K, and 90 Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented

  10. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU): a technical description of the reference design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tate, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU), a new radioisotope heater unit for use in space missions, is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled unit designed to provide a thermal watt in dispersed locations on a spacecraft. The LWRHU is required to maintain the temperature of a component at a level where the component will function reliably in space. Two major constraints are placed on the unit's design; it must be as light as possible and must provide enough protection to immobilize the plutonium fuel to the maximum extent in all phases of the unit's lifetime. The four components are pelletized fuel, platinum-alloy encapsulation, pyrolytic graphite thermal insulation, and high-technology graphite ablation shell. The LWRHU is a cylinder 32 mm (1.26 in.) high and 26 mm (1.02 in.) in diameter. It weighs slightly less than 40 g

  11. Self-assembly of linear [Mn II 2 Mn III ] units with end-on azido bridges: the construction of a ferromagnetic chain using S T = 7 high-spin trimers

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Yuan; Qin, Lei; Li, Guanghua; Abbas, Ghulam; Cao, Yaqun; Wu, Gang; Han, Tian; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Qiu, Shilun

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. The controlled organization of high-spin complexes into 1D coordination polymers is a challenge in molecular magnetism. In this work, we report a ferromagnetic Mn trimer Mn3(HL)2(CH3OH)6(Br)4·Br·(CH3OH)21 (H2L

  12. Synthesis of Li-Mn-O mesocrystals with controlled crystal phases through topotactic transformation of MnCO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Feng; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Oaki, Yuya; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen; Imai, Hiroaki

    2013-03-21

    Mesocrystals of Li-Mn-O compounds, such as LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, and LiMnO2-Li2MnO3, consisting of oriented nanoscale units were selectively produced under hydrothermal conditions from biomimetically prepared MnCO3 mesocrystals. Topotactic transformation through the intermediate phase of Mn5O8 inheriting a hierarchical structure of the MnCO3 precursor was essential for the formation of the mesocrystal compounds. The crystal phases were successfully controlled by varying the conditions for the hydrothermal reactions. The Li-Mn-O mesocrystals have considerable potential as cathodes of Li-ion batteries.

  13. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  14. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In

  15. Solvent-mediated secondary building units (SBUs) diversification in a series of MnII-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan-Fei; Cui, Li-Ting; Han, Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Li

    2016-09-01

    The role of auxiliary solvents in the formation of MOFs has been investigated for a series of MnII-based framework systems. Reactions of 4,4‧,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H3L) with MnII through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium resulted in the formation of diversified multinuclear MnII subunits in four new coordination polymers: [Mn3(L)(HCOO)3(DEF)3] (1), [Mn3(L)2(EtOH)2]·DMF (2), [Mn5(L)4(H2O)2]·2(H2NMe2)+·4DMF·2H2O (3), and [Mn3(L)2(py)4(H2O)]·H2O (4) (H3L=4,4‧,4‧-nitrilotribenzoic acid, DMF=dimethylformamide, DEF=N,N-diethylformamide, py=pyridine). These four compounds were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing interesting SBUs variations. For compound 1, it displays a (3,6)-connected kgd net with wheel [Mn6] cluster serving as SBU, whereas in 2, the sequence of Mn3(COO)9(EtOH)2 is repeated by inversion centers located between Mn1 and Mn3 to form an infinite Mn-carboxylate chain, which are further interlinked by L3- ligands to form a 3D architecture. In 3, the pentanuclear Mn5(CO2)12 clusters are interlinked to form a layer, which are further pillared by L3- to generate a 3D network. Compound 4 has a (3,6)-connected network in which the SBU is a linear trimeric Mn3(COO)6(py)4(H2O) cluster. In addition, the thermal stabilities, X-ray powder diffraction of all the compounds were studied, photoluminescence behaviors of compounds 1, 3 and 4 are discussed.

  16. BI-RADS categorisation of 2708 consecutive nonpalpable breast lesions in patients referred to a dedicated breast care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamy, A.S.; Giacchetti, S.; Cuvier, C.; Perret, F.; Bonfils, S.; Charveriat, P.; Hocini, H.; Espie, M.; Albiter, M.; Bazelaire, C. de; Roquancourt, A. de

    2012-01-01

    To determine the malignancy rate of nonpalpable breast lesions, categorised according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification in the setting of a Breast Care Unit. All nonpalpable breast lesions from consecutive patients referred to a dedicated Breast Care Unit were prospectively reviewed and classified into 5 BI-RADS assessment categories (0, 2, 3, 4, and 5). A total of 2708 lesions were diagnosed by mammography (71.6%), ultrasound (8.7%), mammography and ultrasound (19.5%), or MRI (0.2%). The distribution of the lesions by BI-RADS category was: 152 in category 0 (5.6%), 56 in category 2 (2.1%), 742 in category 3 (27.4%), 1523 in category 4 (56.2%) and 235 in category 5 (8.7%). Histology revealed 570 malignant lesions (32.9%), 152 high-risk lesions (8.8%), and 1010 benign lesions (58.3%). Malignancy was detected in 17 (2.3%) category 3 lesions, 364 (23.9%) category 4 lesions and 185 (78.7%) category 5 lesions. Median follow-up was 36.9 months. This pragmatic study reflects the assessment and management of breast impalpable abnormalities referred for care to a specialized Breast Unit. Multidisciplinary evaluation with BI-RADS classification accurately predicts malignancy, and reflects the quality of management. This assessment should be encouraged in community practice appraisal. (orig.)

  17. Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Penido Campos Júnior

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.

  18. Certification of the contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour and lyophilized brown bread reference materials. Wholemeal flour - CRM no. 189; brown bread - CRM no. 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaffe, P J; Griepink, B; Muntau, H; Schramel, P

    1987-01-01

    The report describes the preparation and certification of a wholemeal flour (CRM 189) and a lyophilised brown breas (CRM 191) for their contents (mass fractions) of elements of toxicological and nutritional importance: Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Indicative values are also given for As, Ca, Cl, Cr, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, P and K. Details are given of a preliminary intercomparison of methods for these elements in a wholemeal flour sample, homogeneity and stability studies on the two reference materials and the results and evaluation of the certification exercise which involved 21 European Laboratories. Summaries of the certification methods are also presented. The report concludes with a discussion of the most common sources of error in determining the elements of interest and the steps to be taken to control them. With 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfs, Paul G P

    2014-10-14

    In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In 2005, of all the doctors practising in the UK, 31% were educated outside the country. In most EEA-countries, health care is not dependent on the influx of IMGs.The aim of this study is to present data relating to the changes in IMG migration in the UK since the extension of the European Union in May 2004. In addition, data are presented on IMG migration in the Netherlands. These migration flows show that migration patterns differ strongly within these two EU-countries. This study makes use of registration data on migrating doctors from the General Medical Council (GMC) in the UK and from the Dutch Department of Health. Moreover, data on the ratio of medical doctors in relation to a country's population were extracted from the World Health Organization (WHO). The influx of IMGs in the UK has changed in recent years due to the extension of the European Union in 2004, the expansion of UK medical schools and changes in the policy towards non-EEA doctors.The influx of IMGs in the Netherlands is described in detail. In the Netherlands, many IMGs come from Afghanistan, Iraq and Surinam. There are clear differences between IMG immigration in the UK and in the Netherlands. In the UK, the National Health Service continues to be very reliant on immigration to fill shortage posts, whereas the number of immigrant doctors working in the Netherlands is much smaller. Both the UK and the Netherlands' regulatory bodies have shared great concerns about the linguistic and communication skills of both EEA and non-EEA doctors seeking to work in these countries. IMG migration is a global and intricate problem. The source countries, not only those where English is the first or second language, experience

  20. Synthesis of Li-Mn-O mesocrystals with controlled crystal phases through topotactic transformation of MnCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Feng; Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Oaki, Yuya; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen; Imai, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    Mesocrystals of Li-Mn-O compounds, such as LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, and LiMnO2-Li2MnO3, consisting of oriented nanoscale units were selectively produced under hydrothermal conditions from biomimetically prepared MnCO3 mesocrystals. Topotactic transformation through the intermediate phase of Mn5O8 inheriting a hierarchical structure of the MnCO3 precursor was essential for the formation of the mesocrystal compounds. The crystal phases were successfully controlled by varying the conditions for the hydrothermal reactions. The Li-Mn-O mesocrystals have considerable potential as cathodes of Li-ion batteries.Mesocrystals of Li-Mn-O compounds, such as LiMn2O4, Li2MnO3, and LiMnO2-Li2MnO3, consisting of oriented nanoscale units were selectively produced under hydrothermal conditions from biomimetically prepared MnCO3 mesocrystals. Topotactic transformation through the intermediate phase of Mn5O8 inheriting a hierarchical structure of the MnCO3 precursor was essential for the formation of the mesocrystal compounds. The crystal phases were successfully controlled by varying the conditions for the hydrothermal reactions. The Li-Mn-O mesocrystals have considerable potential as cathodes of Li-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33767g

  1. Intramolecular electron transfer in cyanide bridged adducts comprising Ru(II)/Ru(III) tetracarboxylate and [Mn(I)(CO)(CN)((t)BuNC)(4)] units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Wolfgang; Sterzik, Anke; Krieck, Sven; Schwierz, Markus; Hoffeld, Thomas; Spielberg, Eike T; Plass, Winfried; Patmore, Nathan

    2010-07-21

    Reaction of mixed valence ruthenium tetracarboxylates [Ru(2)(II,III)(R(1)COO)(2)(R(2)COO)(2)Cl] (R(1) = Me, R(2) = 2,4,6-(i)Pr-Ph or R(1) = R(2) = (t)Bu) with two equivalents of the octahedral manganese complex [Mn(I)(CO)(CN)((t)BuNC)(4)] leads to the formation of cyanide bridged heteronuclear coordination compounds of the general formula {[Ru(2)(II,III)(R(1)COO)(2)(R(2)COO)(2)][Mn(I)(CO)(CN)((t)BuNC)(4)](2)}Cl. In solution an intramolecular electron transfer from manganese towards the multiply bonded Ru(2) core occurs that is verified by EPR and IR spectroscopy, magnetic measurements and DFT calculations. Nevertheless, disproportionation of an initially formed {Mn(I)-Ru(2)(II,III)-Mn(I)}(+) adduct into {Mn(II)-Ru(2)(II,III)-Mn(I)}(2+) and {Mn(I)-Ru(2)(II,II)-Mn(I)} species cannot be completely ruled out.

  2. Quantitative estimation of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. 4. Toxoids as international reference materials defining Lf-units for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyng, J

    1990-01-01

    The Lf-unit, which is used in the control of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid production and in some countries also to follow immunization of horses for production of antitoxins, has hitherto been defined by means of antitoxin preparations. A diphtheria toxoid and a tetanus toxoid preparation, both freeze-dried, were examined in an international collaborative study for their suitability to serve as reference reagents in the flocculation tests and for defining the Lf-units. It was shown that flocculation tests using the reference toxoids are very reproducible and reliable and the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization established: the toxoid called DIFT as the International Reference Reagent of Diphtheria Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 900 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule; and the toxoid called TEFT as the International Reference Reagent of Tetanus Toxoid for Flocculation Test with a defined content of 1000 Lf-units of diphtheria toxoid per ampoule.

  3. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The ideas, values, and practices associated with the United States in public discourse remained relatively steady over time, which might explain the country’s longevity as a reference culture and its po...

  4. DRIRU I/SKIRU - The application of the DTG to spacecraft attitude control. [Dynamically-Tuned Gyro for Inertial Reference Unit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamically tuned gyro (DTG) was developed to replace the floated, rate integrating gyro used for space attitude control, as the DTG fulfills cost, performance, and reliability requirements not satisfied by its predecessor. The use of this gyro in the Dry Gyro Inertial Reference Unit I (DRIRU I) marked the first application of a DTG in a spacecraft attitude reference unit. Design and performance characteristics of DTG application in the Singer-Kearfott Inertial Reference Unit (SKIRU) are outlined, for example its minimal weight (7 lb), and operational reliability. The DTG has accomplished 156,000 failure-free hours, and a chart, logging test performance, indicates that this and other requirements were more than sufficiently satisfied. The unit has an unparalleled life span, with several units still operating after 70,000 to 130,000 hours, and a random drift which always remains under 0.0005 deg/h. Potential for improvements, such as drift performance, are considered.

  5. Medium-range reference evapotranspiration forecasts for the contiguous United States based on multi-model numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Hanoi; Tian, Di; Srivastava, Puneet; Pelosi, Anna; Chirico, Giovanni B.

    2018-07-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a fundamental role in agronomic, forestry, and water resources management. Estimating and forecasting ET0 have long been recognized as a major challenge for researchers and practitioners in these communities. This work explored the potential of multiple leading numerical weather predictions (NWPs) for estimating and forecasting summer ET0 at 101 U.S. Regional Climate Reference Network stations over nine climate regions across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Three leading global NWP model forecasts from THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) dataset were used in this study, including the single model ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (EC), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP), and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office forecasts (MO), as well as multi-model ensemble forecasts from the combinations of these NWP models. A regression calibration was employed to bias correct the ET0 forecasts. Impact of individual forecast variables on ET0 forecasts were also evaluated. The results showed that the EC forecasts provided the least error and highest skill and reliability, followed by the MO and NCEP forecasts. The multi-model ensembles constructed from the combination of EC and MO forecasts provided slightly better performance than the single model EC forecasts. The regression process greatly improved ET0 forecast performances, particularly for the regions involving stations near the coast, or with a complex orography. The performance of EC forecasts was only slightly influenced by the size of the ensemble members, particularly at short lead times. Even with less ensemble members, EC still performed better than the other two NWPs. Errors in the radiation forecasts, followed by those in the wind, had the most detrimental effects on the ET0 forecast performances.

  6. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  7. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload and the jib (or base of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  8. Solvent-mediated secondary building units (SBUs) diversification in a series of Mn{sup II}-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Yan-Fei; Cui, Li-Ting [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); Han, Jie, E-mail: chan@ouhk.edu.hk [School of Science & Technology, The Open University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Zhao, Xiao-Li, E-mail: xlzhao@chem.ecnu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The role of auxiliary solvents in the formation of MOFs has been investigated for a series of Mn{sup II}-based framework systems. Reactions of 4,4′,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H{sub 3}L) with Mn{sup II} through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium resulted in the formation of diversified multinuclear Mn{sup II} subunits in four new coordination polymers: [Mn{sub 3}(L)(HCOO){sub 3}(DEF){sub 3}] (1), [Mn{sub 3}(L){sub 2}(EtOH){sub 2}]·DMF (2), [Mn{sub 5}(L){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·2(H{sub 2}NMe{sub 2}){sup +}·4DMF·2H{sub 2}O (3), and [Mn{sub 3}(L){sub 2}(py){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O)]·H{sub 2}O (4) (H{sub 3}L=4,4′,4′-nitrilotribenzoic acid, DMF=dimethylformamide, DEF=N,N-diethylformamide, py=pyridine). These four compounds were fully characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, showing interesting SBUs variations. For compound 1, it displays a (3,6)-connected kgd net with wheel [Mn{sub 6}] cluster serving as SBU, whereas in 2, the sequence of Mn{sub 3}(COO){sub 9}(EtOH){sub 2} is repeated by inversion centers located between Mn1 and Mn3 to form an infinite Mn-carboxylate chain, which are further interlinked by L{sup 3−} ligands to form a 3D architecture. In 3, the pentanuclear Mn{sub 5}(CO{sub 2}){sub 12} clusters are interlinked to form a layer, which are further pillared by L{sup 3−} to generate a 3D network. Compound 4 has a (3,6)-connected network in which the SBU is a linear trimeric Mn{sub 3}(COO){sub 6}(py){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O) cluster. In addition, the thermal stabilities, X-ray powder diffraction of all the compounds were studied, photoluminescence behaviors of compounds 1, 3 and 4 are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Supramolecular assembly of C{sub 3}-symmetric ligand 4,4′,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H{sub 3}L) with Mn{sup II} through varying auxiliary solvents of the medium resulted in the formation of diversified multinuclear Mn{sup II} subunits in four new coordination polymers. The results exhibit the structures of Mn-SBUs in these

  9. Self-assembly of linear [Mn II 2 Mn III ] units with end-on azido bridges: the construction of a ferromagnetic chain using S T = 7 high-spin trimers

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. The controlled organization of high-spin complexes into 1D coordination polymers is a challenge in molecular magnetism. In this work, we report a ferromagnetic Mn trimer Mn3(HL)2(CH3OH)6(Br)4·Br·(CH3OH)21 (H2L = 2-[(9H-fluoren-9-yl)amino]propane-1,3-diol) with the ground spin state of ST = 7 that can be assembled into a one-dimensional coordination chain [Mn3(HL)2(CH3OH)2(Br)4(N3)(H2O)·CH3OH]∞2 using azido bridging ligands. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic nature of 1 is well retained in 2. However, due to the negligible magnetic anisotropy in 1, both 1 and 2 do not show slow-relaxation of magnetization, which indicates that during the process of molecular assembly not only the intratrimer magnetic interaction but also the magnetic anisotropy of the trimer can be reserved.

  10. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  11. EVALUASI PEMANFAATAN JURNAL DALAM DATABASE "EBSCO BIOMEDICAL REFERENCE COLLECTION" DI UNIT PERPUSTAKAAN DAN INFORMATIKA KEDOKTERAN (UPIK FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UGM YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Wardhani S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluasi terhadap pemanfaatan koleksi sangat diperlukan untuk mengetahui seberapa besar koleksi tersebut diakses dan dimanfaatkan oleh pengguna. Ebsco Biomedical Reference Collection (Ebsco BRC merupakan salah satu database jurnal yang berparadigma akses. Evaluasi pemanfaatan jurnal dalam database Ebsco BRC merupakan penelitian tentang pemanfaatan koleksi perpustakaan yang dilakukan di UPIK (Unit Perpustakaan dan Informatika Kedokteran Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat keterpakaian dan pemanfaatan jumal oleh sivitas akademika di FK UGM. Evaluasi dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. . Instrumen yang digunakan dalam evaluasi adalah kuesioner dan usage statistics report. Hasil Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat keterpakaian jurnal berdasarkan judul yang ada tinggi (97,96%, akan tetapi tingkat pengaksesannya belum dilakukan secara maksimal. Rata-rata pengaksesan jurnal setiap harinya 25%. Dari data usage statistics report dapat diketahui sebanyak 12 judul jumal yang diakses lebih dari 1000 kali yang dinyatakan sebagai jumal yang paling sering diakses oleh pengguna. Saran peneliti berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah bahwa kegiatan melanggan koleksi database Ebsco dapat terus dilakukan , akan tetapi UPIK harus berusaha meningkatkan sosialisasi koleksi, aksesibilitas, fasilitas, dan bimbingan bagi pengguna dalam melakukan penelusuran dalam database tersebut agar dapat dimanfaatkan secara maksimal. Kata Kunci: Evaluasi Koleksi, Ebsco

  12. A Comparative Reference Study for the Validation of HLA-Matching Algorithms in the Search for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors and Cord Blood Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    donors and cord blood units W. Bochtler1, L. Gragert2, Z. I. Patel3, J. Robinson3,4, D. Steiner5, J. A. Hofmann6, J. Pingel6, A. Baouz7, A. Melis8, J...cord blood units for individual patients is of primary importance. This challenging search process is routinely performed in a donor registry or cord...term ‘ donor ’ to refer to donors of HSCs from bone marrow or peripheral blood and cord blood units and the term ‘ donor registry’ shall include cord blood

  13. Consuming America : A Data-Driven Analysis of the United States as a Reference Culture in Dutch Public Discourse on Consumer Goods, 1890-1990

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, M.J.H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Consuming America offers a data-driven, longitudinal analysis of the historical dynamics that have underpinned a long-term, layered cultural-historical process: the emergence of the United States as a dominant reference culture in Dutch public discourse on consumer goods between 1890 and 1990. The

  14. Photoionization study of Ne-like K9+, Ca10+, Sc11+, Ti12+, V13+, Cr14+, Mn15+, and Fe16+ ions using the screening constant by unit nuclear charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Arun; Khatri, Indu; Sow, Malick; Sakho, Ibrahima; Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, A.K.; Mohan, Man

    2016-01-01

    Photoionization of the 2s 2 2p 6 ( 1 S 0 ) ground state of the Ne-like (Z=19–29) ions is presented in this paper. Resonance energies and total natural width of the 2s2p 6 np 1 P series of the Ne-like K 9+ , Ca 10+ , Sc 11+ , Ti 12+ , V 13+ , Cr 14+ , Mn 15+ , and Fe 16+ are reported. All the calculations are made using the Screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) formalism. New data for Ne-like K 9+ , Sc 11+ , Ti 12+ , V 13+ , Cr 14+ , and Mn 15+ ions are tabulated. Good agreements are found with available literature data. - Highlights: • Photoionization of ground state of the Ne-like (Z=19–29) presented. • good agreements with scarce literature data. • New data for Ne-like K 9+ , Sc 11+ , Ti 12+ , V 13+ , Cr 14+ , and Mn 15+ ions. • Useful guidelines for application in laboratory, astrophysics, and plasma physics.

  15. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndilimabaka Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  16. Development of a reference Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) for the monitoring and control of grid stability and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndilimabaka, Hervé; Blanc, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the details of the development of a Phasor Measurement Unit regarding the requirements of the IEEE C37.118-2005 synchrophasor standard relative to steady-state conditions on grid monitoring and control. This phasor measurement unit is intended to be used for field tests sooner.

  17. Report of the consultants' meeting on traceability of IAEA-AQCS reference materials to SI-units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the present Agency's Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS) procedure for the characterization of reference materials and to identify necessary improvements or changes needed to fulfill the requirements on traceability and uncertainty related to the property value of IAEA reference materials. This publication contains a summary of the discussions held at the meeting as well as specific recommendations made by the consultants. It also contains draft reports of two previous meetings and individual papers presented by the consultants at the meeting. These reports and papers have been provided with abstracts and indexed separately

  18. What is driving rates of social policy preliminary references to the CJEU? Evidence from the United Kingdom and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigafoos, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary references to the Court of Justice for the European Union are unevenly distributed across the EU, creating differing access to justice for European citizens. This study presents case studies of the UK and France, exploring factors affecting rates of social policy preliminary references from 1996–2009. The UK had a rate twice that of France. What accounts for this difference? Analysis of documentary evidence and 25 expert interviews help to explain the differing rates. Themes were related to policy, structural factors and the agency of actors. In the UK, policy themes are the free movement of persons and the ‘Right to Reside’ test. Legal aid and legal NGOs help individuals access the Court and drive test case strategies. In France, a high degree of dualisation in the welfare state creates an insider/outsider dynamic. Coupled with the resistance of courts and a lack of comparable actors to drive preliminary references, this contributes to a lower rate of references. PMID:23565042

  19. Magnetic structures of Er6Mn23 and Dy6Mn23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouladdiaf, B.; Deportes, J.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.

    1995-01-01

    The R 6 Mn 23 (R=rare earth) compounds crystallize in the cubic Th 6 Mn 23 -type structure with space group Fm3m. Powder neutron-diffraction experiments were performed on Dy 6 Mn 23 and Er 6 Mn 23 . The magnetic unit cell coincides with the chemical one. The R moments have a ferromagnetic non-collinear arrangement, whereas the Mn moments are parallel to the [1 1 1] direction. The magnetic structures belong to the three-dimensional Γ 5g irreducible representation of Fm3m associated with the wave vector K=[0 0 0]. The spin configurations in both compounds result from the competition between the R-R, R-Mn magnetic interactions and the crystal electric field on the R ions. (orig.)

  20. The economic costs and benefits of potassium iodide prophylaxis for a reference LWR facility in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.

    1995-01-01

    Policy decisions relating to radiation protection are commonly based on an evaluation in which the benefits of exposure reduction are compared to the economic costs of the protective measure. A generic difficulty countered in cost-benefit analyses, however, is the quantification of major elements that define the costs and the benefits in commensurate units. In this study, the costs of making KI (potassium iodine) available for public use and the avoidance of thyroidal health effects (i.e., the benefit) in the event of nuclear emergency are defined in the commensurate units of dollars. (Authors). 11 refs., 15 tabs

  1. Efektivitas Unit Pengolahan Air di Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang (DAMIU Dalam Menurunkan Kadar Logam (Fe, Mn dan Mikroba di Kota Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:The number of drinking-water-refill center were increasing only in quantity but not in providing the quality of water. Therefore it takes a special handling and attention, not only because the low-quality of water causing various diseases.The data from the Pekalongan City Health servic showed that only 13 of 55 drinking-water-refill center (24% which have actively examined their sample water each month in bacteriological test, 3 of them (20% proved to be unqualified. Furthermore, while for chemical examination, there were only 6 (11% which actively doing it, and 2 of them (33% mentioned as unqualified. After doing examination to the raw water, it was found that the content of Fe metal was 2.51 mg/1, Mn metal was 2.41 mg/1, the parameters found was beyond the standard. Methode:The kind of research held was explanatory research using cross sectional design. The sample was taken by proportional sampling. The number of samples was 35 refill centers.The data would be analyzed uding Chi-Square,pairedt-test,Kruskall Wallis, McNemar Test and multivariate test (Logistc regression. Result:The results of this research showed that 23 samples (66% had an unqualified Fe metal content with the average content was 0,34 mg/l, 19 samples (54% had an unqualified Mn metal content, with the average content was 0.47 mg/1, 26 samples (74% with The unqualified quality of E.coli. The other test carried out in the drinking-water refill, resulted that 25 samples (71% had a qualified Fe metal content, the average was 0.29/1 and 22 samples (63% had a qualified E.coli content.The results of Bivariate analysis showed that the condition of raw water, the equipment, the processing, the sanitation, the SOP compliance, significantly related to the decreasing of Fe, Mn metal content and E.coli (p. <0.05. While the results of the multivariate analysis from 5 variables, 1 of which were statistically proven that there was a asosiation relationship between raw water

  2. Use of a United States-based laboratory as a hematopathology reference center for a developing country: logistics and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, C O; Scott, M G; Ladenson, J H; Seyoum, M; Hassan, A; Kreisel, F H; Nguyen, T T; Frater, J L

    2013-02-01

    With proper logistical support and sponsorship, a laboratory in an industrialized nation might be able to act as a reference laboratory for clinicians based in a developing country. We built on previous experience in the clinical laboratory to see whether a specialized histopathology service (hematopathology) could be provided to a developing country without the expertise or experience to do it in country. Over an 13-year period, 582 cases from 579 individuals were analyzed. Principal pathologic findings included acute leukemia in 84 cases (14%), dyspoiesis in one or more of the hematopoietic lineages in 65 cases (11%, including three cases with high-grade myelodysplasia), 23 cases (4%) with findings suspicious for a chronic myeloproliferative disorder, 35 cases (6%) with findings suspicious for a lymphoproliferative disorder, and infectious organisms (presumably Leishmania in most instances) in 9 (1%) of cases. Specimens from 45 cases (8%) were unsatisfactory owing to extreme hemodilution and/or specimen degeneration. With proper support, a medical laboratory in an industrialized nation may serve as a reference facility for a developing nation. The use of existing infrastructure may be remarkably effective to achieve optimal turnaround time. Although the lack of ancillary studies and follow-up biopsies limit the ability to achieve a definitive diagnosis in many cases, this must be viewed in the context of the limited ability to diagnose or manage hematopoietic neoplasia in developing nations. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. De novo clustering methods outperform reference-based methods for assigning 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Westcott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. 16S rRNA gene sequences are routinely assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs that are then used to analyze complex microbial communities. A number of methods have been employed to carry out the assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to OTUs leading to confusion over which method is optimal. A recent study suggested that a clustering method should be selected based on its ability to generate stable OTU assignments that do not change as additional sequences are added to the dataset. In contrast, we contend that the quality of the OTU assignments, the ability of the method to properly represent the distances between the sequences, is more important.Methods. Our analysis implemented six de novo clustering algorithms including the single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, abundance-based greedy clustering, distance-based greedy clustering, and Swarm and the open and closed-reference methods. Using two previously published datasets we used the Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC to assess the stability and quality of OTU assignments.Results. The stability of OTU assignments did not reflect the quality of the assignments. Depending on the dataset being analyzed, the average linkage and the distance and abundance-based greedy clustering methods generated OTUs that were more likely to represent the actual distances between sequences than the open and closed-reference methods. We also demonstrated that for the greedy algorithms VSEARCH produced assignments that were comparable to those produced by USEARCH making VSEARCH a viable free and open source alternative to USEARCH. Further interrogation of the reference-based methods indicated that when USEARCH or VSEARCH were used to identify the closest reference, the OTU assignments were sensitive to the order of the reference sequences because the reference sequences can be identical over the region being considered. More troubling was the observation that while both USEARCH and

  4. Effects of dopant ion and Mn valence state in the La1-xAxMnO3 (A=Sr,Ba) colossal magnetoresistance films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Gyu; Wang, Seok-Joo; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hong, MunPyo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2010-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of Mn-based colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) thin films with controlled tolerance factor and Mn ion valance ratio were studied using crystal structure and chemical bonding character analyses. La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 , La 0.7 Ba 0.3 MnO 3 , and La 0.82 Ba 0.18 MnO 3 thin films with different contents of divalent cations and Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ ratios were deposited on amorphous SiO 2 /Si substrate by rf magnetron sputtering at a substrate temperature of 350 deg. C. The films showed the same crystalline structure as the pseudocubic structure. The change in the sheet resistance of films was analyzed according to strain state of the unit cell, chemical bonding character of Mn-O, and Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ ratio controlling the Mn 3+ -O 2- -Mn 4+ conducting path. Mn L-edge x-ray absorption spectra revealed that the Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ ratio changed according to different compositions of Sr or Ba and the Mn 2p core level x-ray photoelectron spectra showed that the Mn 2p binding energy was affected by the covalence of the Mn-O bond and Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ ratio. In addition, O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra showed covalently mixed Mn 3d and O 2p states and matched well with the resistivity changes of CMR films. Temperature coefficient of resistance values were obtained at approximately -2.16%/K to -2.46%/K of the CMR films and were correct for infrared sensor applications.

  5. Theoretical Mn K-edge XANES for Li2MnO3: DFT + U study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Tomoyuki; Ohwaki, Tsukuru; Ito, Atsushi; Ohsawa, Yasuhiko; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ogata, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    Spectral features of Mn K-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) for Li 2 MnO 3 were calculated using the first-principles full projector augmented wave method with the general gradient approximation plus U method. We demonstrated that the U parameter affects the spectral features in the pre-edge region while it does not affect those in the major absorption region. From the comparison with the experimental spectra and those of reference compounds, we showed that the spectral features of Mn K-edge XANES and the differences in the valence state can be reproduced well. (paper)

  6. Survey of doses and frequency of X-ray examinations on children at the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa de Azevedo, Ana Cecilia; Osibote, Adelaja Otolorin; Bastos Boechat, Marcia Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This work aims to evaluate the entrance surface dose (ESD), the body organ dose (BOD) and the effective dose (E) resulting from pediatric radiological procedures with the use of portable X-ray equipments. Materials and methods: The software DoseCal was used to evaluate the doses imparted to patients. The children were classified according to their weight and age groups, and the study included three sectors of the intensive care unit of a large reference pediatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: A total of 518 radiographs have been performed (424 for chest and 94 for abdomen). The statistical data were compared with previously published results. The BOD is presented for the most exposed organs. Conclusion: The mean value of ESD and E varied widely among neonates. The highest number of radiographs per infant peaked 33 for chest examination in the age group 0-1 year

  7. [Efficacy of agreements within the Enchede Stroke Service to refer patients with a stroke from the stroke unit in the hospital to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, N.M.; Stegge, B.M. aan de; Zuidema, S.U.; Sips, H.J.W.; Brouwers, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of agreements within the Enschede Stroke Service to refer patients with a stroke from the stroke unit in the hospital to a nursing home for short-term rehabilitation. DESIGN: Prospective, partly retrospective. METHOD: All patients who were referred from the stroke

  8. Molecular Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Yeast Isolates by Large Ribosomal Subunit Gene Sequencing: 2 Years of Experience at the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Christopher J.; Borman, Andrew M.; Cheung, Grace; Holmes, Ann D.; Szekely, Adrien; Palmer, Michael D.; Bridge, Paul D.; Campbell, Colin K.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples is particularly important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. We present here an analysis of the utility of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the hypervariable D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene for the identification of yeast species submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 2-year period. A total of 3,033 clinical isolates were received from 2004 to 2006 encompassing 50 different yeast species. While more than 90% of the isolates, corresponding to the most common Candida species, could be identified by using the AUXACOLOR2 yeast identification kit, 153 isolates (5%), comprised of 47 species, could not be identified by using this system and were subjected to molecular identification via 26S rRNA gene sequencing. These isolates included some common species that exhibited atypical biochemical and phenotypic profiles and also many rarer yeast species that are infrequently encountered in the clinical setting. All 47 species requiring molecular identification were unambiguously identified on the basis of D1/D2 sequences, and the molecular identities correlated well with the observed biochemical profiles of the various organisms. Together, our data underscore the utility of molecular techniques as a reference adjunct to conventional methods of yeast identification. Further, we show that PCR amplification and sequencing of the D1/D2 region reliably identifies more than 45 species of clinically significant yeasts and can also potentially identify new pathogenic yeast species. PMID:17251397

  9. Structure and properties of Mn4Cl9: An antiferromagnetic binary hyperhalogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yawei; Zhang, Shunhong; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru

    2013-02-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory show that the structure of Mn4Cl9 anion is that of a Mn atom at the core surrounded by three MnCl3 moieties. Since Mn is predominantly divalent and MnCl3 is known to be a superhalogen with a vertical detachment energy (VDE) of 5.27 eV, Mn4Cl9 can be viewed as a hyperhalogen with the formula unit Mn(MnCl3)3. Indeed, the calculated VDE of Mn4Cl9 anion, namely 6.76 eV, is larger than that of MnCl3 anion. More importantly, unlike previously discovered hyperhalogens, Mn4Cl9 is the first such hyperhalogen species composed of only two constituent atoms. We further show that Mn4Cl9 can be used as a ligand to design molecules with even higher VDEs. For example, Li[Mn(MnCl3)3]2 anion has a VDE of 7.26 eV. These negatively charged clusters are antiferromagnetic with most of the magnetic moments localized at the Mn sites. Our studies show new pathways for creating binary hyperhalogens.

  10. Magnetic structures of Er{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} and Dy{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France); Deportes, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme L. Neel, C.N.R.S., BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rodriguez-Carvajal, J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    1995-08-01

    The R{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} (R=rare earth) compounds crystallize in the cubic Th{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}-type structure with space group Fm3m. Powder neutron-diffraction experiments were performed on Dy{sub 6}Mn{sub 23} and Er{sub 6}Mn{sub 23}. The magnetic unit cell coincides with the chemical one. The R moments have a ferromagnetic non-collinear arrangement, whereas the Mn moments are parallel to the [1 1 1] direction. The magnetic structures belong to the three-dimensional {Gamma}{sub 5g} irreducible representation of Fm3m associated with the wave vector K=[0 0 0]. The spin configurations in both compounds result from the competition between the R-R, R-Mn magnetic interactions and the crystal electric field on the R ions. (orig.).

  11. Mn induced ferromagnetism spin fluctuation enhancement in Sr{sub 2}Ru{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Long; Cai, Jinzhu; Xie, Qiyun; Lv, Bin [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Mao, Z.Q. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Wu, X.S., E-mail: xswu@nju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-09-15

    We establish that Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is extremely close to incommensurate spin density wave instability. With increasing Mn content, the RuO{sub 6} octahedron in the unit cell varies. The octahedron of RuO{sub 6} contracts along c-axis for x<0.20, Mn element mainly showing the +3 chemical valence (Mn{sup 3+}), and it expands along c-axis with further increasing Mn content (x>0.20), and Mn element shows the +4 chemical valence (Mn{sup 4+}). Spin-glass-related ferromagnetism enhancement is observed for x>0.20, which indicates the critical ferromagnetic spin fluctuation due to Mn doping in Sr{sub 2}Ru{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4}. - Highlights: • The chemical valence of Mn ions changed from Mn{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 4+} with the increase of Mn content. • Spin-glass-related ferromagnetism enhancement behavior is observed. • The electrical resistivity can be fitted using Mott's variable-range hopping model. • The evolution of octahedron with increase of Mn content is given. • The spin fluctuation effect plays an important role in the magnetic property.

  12. Certified Reference Material for Use in 1H, 31P, and 19F Quantitative NMR, Ensuring Traceability to the International System of Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigger, Romana; Rück, Alexander; Hellriegel, Christine; Sauermoser, Robert; Morf, Fabienne; Breitruck, KathrinBreitruck; Obkircher, Markus

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, quantitative NMR (qNMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most important tools for content determination of organic substances and quantitative evaluation of impurities. Using Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) as internal or external standards, the extensively used qNMR method can be applied for purity determination, including unbroken traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The implementation of qNMR toward new application fields, e.g., metabolomics, environmental analysis, and physiological pathway studies, brings along more complex molecules and systems, thus making use of 1H qNMR challenging. A smart workaround is possible by the use of other NMR active nuclei, namely 31P and 19F. This article presents the development of three classes of qNMR CRMs based on different NMR active nuclei (1H, 31P, and 19F), and the corresponding approaches to establish traceability to the SI through primary CRMs from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Metrology Institute of Japan. These TraceCERT® qNMR CRMs are produced under ISO/IEC 17025 and ISO Guide 34 using high-performance qNMR.

  13. Magnetic and electrical properties of epitaxial GeMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, Stefan

    2009-01-15

    In this work, GeMn magnetic semiconductors will be investigated. The fabrication of GeMn thin films with Mn contents up to 11.7% was realised with molecular beam epitaxy. At a fabrication temperature of 60 C, the suppression of Mn{sub x}Ge{sub y} phases could reproducibly be obtained. Dislocation free epitaxy of diamond-lattice type GeMn thin films was observed. In all fabrication conditions where Mn{sub x}Ge{sub y} suppression was feasible, an inhomogeneous dispersion of Mn was observed in form of a self-assembly of nanometre sized, Mn rich regions in a Ge rich matrix. Each Mn rich region exhibits ferromagnetic coupling with high Curie temperatures exceeding, in part, room temperature. The local ferromagnetic ordering leads to the formation of large, spatially separated magnetic moments, which induce a superparamagnetic behaviour of the GeMn thin films. At low temperatures {<=} 20 K, remanent behaviour was found to emerge. X-ray absorption experiments revealed a similarity of the Mn incorporation in diamond-lattice type GeMn thin films and in the hexagonal lattice of the intermetallic Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} phase, respectively. These tetrahedra represent building blocks of the Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} unit cell. The incorporation of Mn{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} building blocks was found to be accompanied by local structural disorder. The electrical properties of GeMn thin films were addressed by transport measurements. It was shown that by using a n-type Ge substrate, a pn energy barrier between epilayers and substrate to suppress parallel substrate conduction paths can be introduced. With the pn barrier concept, first results on the magnetotransport behaviour of GeMn thin films were obtained. GeMn was found to be p-type, but of high resistivity. a series of GeMn thin films was fabricated, where intermetallic Mn{sub x}Ge{sub y} phase separation was supported in a controlled manner. Phase separation was found to result in the formation of partially coherent, nanometre sized Mn{sub 5

  14. Lean techniques to improve the flow of critically ill patients in a health region with its epicenter in the intensive care unit of a reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, J M; Gil, M; Alvarez, T; Martin, S; Vila, N; Colomer, M; March, E; Loma-Osorio, P; Metje, T

    2016-01-01

    To analyze whether the application of Lean techniques to improve the flow of critically ill patients in a health region with its epicenter in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a reference hospital. Observational study with pre and post intervention analysis. ICU of a reference hospital. We design projects and a value stream map of flow and compared pre and post intervention. We recorded demographic data, patient transfers by EMS for lack of beds and delay times in the discharge from ICU to ward. Multidisciplinary meetings and perform daily visual panel, with high priority ICU discharge. We promote temporary relocation of critically ill patients in other special areas of the hospital. We performed a professional satisfaction questionnaire with pre and post implementation of process. We make a statistical analysis of pre and post-intervention comparisons. We planned for 2013 and progressively implemented in 2014. Analysis of patients entering the critical process flow 1) evaluate patients who must transfer for lack of beds, focusing on a diagnosis: pre 10/22 vs. 3/21 post (P=.045); 2) analysis of time delay in the discharge from the ICU to ward: 360.8±163.9minutes in the first period vs. 276.7±149.5 in the second (P=.036); and 3) personal professional satisfaction questionnaire, with 6.6±1.5 points pre vs. 7.5±1.1 in post (P=.001). Analysis of indicators such as the ICU acquired infections, length of ICU stay, the rate of re-admissions and mortality, with no significant differences between the two periods. The application of Lean techniques in the critically ill process had a positive impact on improving patient flow within the health region, noting a decrease of transfers outside the region due to lack of beds, reduced delayed discharge from ICU to conventional ward and increased satisfaction of ICU professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative study of behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia in patients with dementia referred to psychogeriatric services in Korea and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Ellanchenny, Nalini; Suh, Guk-Hee

    2004-06-01

    There is a paucity of cross-cultural studies of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). BPSD were examined in a consecutive series of referrals to a psychogeriatric service in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and in Korea, using the BEHAVE-AD, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). The U.K. service served a well-defined geographical catchment area with a multidisciplinary team and emphasis on home assessments. The Korean service was a nationwide service with limited community resources. The correlates of individual BPSD in each country and the differences between the two countries were examined. Koreans were younger, were more likely to be married, less likely to be single, had a greater number of people in their household and were more likely to live in their own homes than the U.K. sample. Koreans were more likely to be referred by general psychiatrists or family members, and the U.K. sample was more likely to be referred by general practitioners. Koreans were more likely to have Alzheimer's disease and the U.K. sample to have vascular dementia. The Korean sample had a lower MMSE score than the U.K. sample. In both countries, the total BEHAVE-AD score and most subscale scores were negatively correlated with the MMSE score. The total BEHAVE-AD score and all subscale scores were higher in the Korean sample than in the U.K. sample. The prevalence of all BPSD measured with the BEHAVE-AD were higher in the Korean sample (except aggressivity). These differences may be explained by differing interpretation and administration of the measurement instruments, models of service delivery, availability of primary and secondary care services, health seeking behavior of patients and families, cultural influences, and knowledge, expectations and recognition of BPSD by professionals in primary and secondary care. However, despite this, there was possible evidence of genuine differences worthy of further cross

  16. Motor Unit Number Estimate and Isometric Hand Grip Strength in Military Veterans with or Without Muscular Complaints: Reference Values for Longitudinal Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Yao, Wenguo; Sundahl, Cynthia

    2018-03-26

    It remains unclear if Gulf War (GW) veterans have a higher risk of developing motor neuron disorder. We intended to establish baseline neurophysiological values, including thenar motor unit number estimate (MUNE) and isometric hand grip (IHG) strength, to compare future follow-ups of deployed GW veterans with or without muscular complaints. We evaluated 19 GW veterans with self-reported weakness, cramps, or excessive muscle fatigue (Ill-19) and compared them with 18 controls without such muscular complaints (C-18). We performed MUNE on hand thenar muscles using adapted multipoint stimulation method for Ill-19 and 15 controls (C-15). We measured IHG strength (maximum force, endurance, and fatigue level) on Ill-19 and C-18 with a hand dynamometer. We performed nerve conduction studies on all study participants to determine which subjects had mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We compared the MUNE and IHG strength measures between Ill group and controls and between those with CTS and those without CTS. We obtained thenar MUNE of Ill-19 (95% CI of mean: 143-215; mean age: 46 yr) and compared it with that of C-15 (95% CI of mean: 161-230; mean age: 45 yr), and 95% of CI of mean among IHG strength variables (maximum force: 324-381 Newton; endurance: 32-42 s; fatigue level: 24%-33%) compared with C-18 (maximum force: 349-408 Newton; endurance: 35-46 s; fatigue level: 21%-27%). There was no significant difference in either MUNE or IHG strength between Ill-19 group and controls. The MUNE and IHG maximum forces were significantly lower in those with CTS compared with those without CTS. As a surrogate of mild CTS, the median versus ulnar distal sensory latency on nerve conduction study was only weakly associated with MUNE, maximum force, and fatigue level, respectively. To our knowledge, no published study on MUNE reference values of military veteran population has been available. The quantifiable values of both thenar MUNE and IHG strength of military veterans serve as

  17. Effects of dopant ion and Mn valence state in the La{sub 1-x}A{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (A=Sr,Ba) colossal magnetoresistance films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sun Gyu; Wang, Seok-Joo; Park, Hyung-Ho; Hong, MunPyo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    The structural and electrical properties of Mn-based colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) thin films with controlled tolerance factor and Mn ion valance ratio were studied using crystal structure and chemical bonding character analyses. La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.7}Ba{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}, and La{sub 0.82}Ba{sub 0.18}MnO{sub 3} thin films with different contents of divalent cations and Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratios were deposited on amorphous SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by rf magnetron sputtering at a substrate temperature of 350 deg. C. The films showed the same crystalline structure as the pseudocubic structure. The change in the sheet resistance of films was analyzed according to strain state of the unit cell, chemical bonding character of Mn-O, and Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio controlling the Mn{sup 3+}-O{sup 2-}-Mn{sup 4+} conducting path. Mn L-edge x-ray absorption spectra revealed that the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio changed according to different compositions of Sr or Ba and the Mn 2p core level x-ray photoelectron spectra showed that the Mn 2p binding energy was affected by the covalence of the Mn-O bond and Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio. In addition, O K-edge x-ray absorption spectra showed covalently mixed Mn 3d and O 2p states and matched well with the resistivity changes of CMR films. Temperature coefficient of resistance values were obtained at approximately -2.16%/K to -2.46%/K of the CMR films and were correct for infrared sensor applications.

  18. Preparation and properties of a monomeric Mn(IV)-oxo complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsell, Trenton H; Behan, Rachel K; Green, Michael T; Hendrich, Michael P; Borovik, A S

    2006-07-12

    Manganese-oxo complexes have long been investigated because of their proposed roles in biological and chemical catalysis. However, there are few examples of monomeric complexes with terminal oxo ligands, especially those with oxomanganese(IV) units. A oxomanganese(IV) complex has been prepared from [MnIIIH3buea(O)]2- ([H3buea]3-, tris[(N'-tert-butylureaylato)-N-ethylene]aminato), a monomeric MnIII-O complex in which the oxo ligand arises from cleavage of dioxygen. Treating [MnIIIH3buea(O)]2- with [Cp2Fe]BF4 in either DMF at -45 degrees C or DMSO at room temperature produces [MnIVH3buea(O)]-: lambdamax = 635 nm; nu(Mn-16O) = 737 cm-1; nu(Mn-18O) = 709 cm-1; g = 5.15, 2.44, 1.63, D = 3.0 cm-1, E/D = 0.26, aMn = 66 G (A = 190 MHz). These spectroscopic properties support the assignment of a mononuclear MnIV-oxo complex with an S = 3/2 ground state. Density functional theory supports this assignment and the Jahn-Teller distortion around the high-spin MnIV center that would alter the molecular structure of [MnIVH3buea(O)]- from trigonal symmetry (as indicated by the highly rhombic EPR signal). [MnIVH3buea(O)]- is relatively unstable in DMSO, converting to [MnIIIH3buea(OH)]- via a proposed X-H bond cleavage. [MnIVH3buea(O)]- reacts with 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to from azobenzene (95% yield) and [MnIIIH3buea(OH)]-. The MnIV-oxo does not react with triphenyl- or tricyclohexylphosphine. However, O-atom transfer is observed with methyldiphenylphosphine and dimethylphenylphosphine, producing the corresponding phosphine oxides. These results illustrate the diverse reactivity of the MnIV-oxo unit.

  19. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  20. Energy levels of 56Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Assche, P. H. M.; Baader, H. A.; Koch, H. R.

    1971-01-01

    The low-energy spectrum of the 55Mn(n,γ)56 Mn reaction has been studied with a γ-diffraction spectrometer. These data allowed the construction of a level scheme for 56Mn with two previously unobserved doublets. High-energy γ-transitions to the low-energy states have been measured for different...

  1. Magnetic properties of MnAs nanoclusters embedded in a GaAs semiconductor matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, Pham Nam; Takahashi, Keisuke; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    We have clarified fundamental magnetic properties of MnAs nanoclusters (10 nm in diameter) embedded in a thin GaAs matrix (referred to as GaAs:MnAs) through tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) characteristics of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a GaAs:MnAs thin film and a MnAs metal thin film as ferromagnetic electrodes. Although MnAs nanoclusters have coercive forces as small as 150 Oe at 7 K, they show unusually high blocking temperature, which is as large as 300 K. The remanent magnetization of the MnAs nanocluster system linearly decreases with increasing temperature. Those magnetic behaviors cannot be explained by the non-interacting particle model, revealing the important existence of dipolar interactions in MnAs nanocluster system

  2. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  3. (BS-Mn) nanocomposite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamboo supported manganese (BS-Mn) nanocomposite was prepared in a single pot system via bottom-up approach using a chemical reduction method. Langmuir surface area, BET surface area, and Single pore surface area were 349.70 m2/g, 218.90 m2/g, and 213.50 m2/g, respectively. The pore size (24.34 Ȧ); pore ...

  4. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  5. Mn bioavailability by polarized Caco-2 cells: comparison between Mn gluconate and Mn oxyprolinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulgenzi Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micronutrient inadequate intake is responsible of pathological deficiencies and there is a need of assessing the effectiveness of metal supplementation, frequently proposed to rebalance poor diets. Manganese (Mn is present in many enzymatic intracellular systems crucial for the regulation of cell metabolism, and is contained in commercially available metal supplements. Methods We compared the effects of two different commercial Mn forms, gluconate (MnGluc and oxyprolinate (MnOxP. For this purpose we used the polarized Caco-2 cells cultured on transwell filters, an established in vitro model of intestinal epithelium. Since micronutrient deficiency may accelerate mitochondrial efficiency, the mitochondrial response of these cells, in the presence of MnGluc and MnOxP, by microscopy methods and by ATP luminescence assay was used. Results In the presence of both MnOxP and MnGluc a sustained mitochondrial activity was shown by mitoTraker labeling (indicative of mitochondrial respiration, but ATP intracellular content remained comparable to untreated cells only in the presence of MnOxP. In addition MnOxP transiently up-regulated the antioxidant enzyme Mn superoxide dismutase more efficiently than MnGluc. Both metal treatments preserved NADH and βNADPH diaphorase oxidative activity, avoided mitochondrial dysfunction, as assessed by the absence of a sustained phosphoERK activation, and were able to maintain cell viability. Conclusions Collectively, our data indicate that MnOxP and MnGluc, and primarily the former, produce a moderate and safe modification of Caco-2 cell metabolism, by activating positive enzymatic mechanisms, thus could contribute to long-term maintenance of cell homeostasis.

  6. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2010-05-29

    Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P review or meta-analysis (Australia, 84%, Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  7. Structure and magnetic transport properties of GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qiang; Guo, Yongquan, E-mail: yqguo@ncepu.edu.cn; Liu, Hanyuan

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structures and magneto-transport properties of GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} have been investigated using X-ray diffraction and magnetic and electric measurements. GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} crystallize in cubic structure, and their lattice parameters tend to decrease with increasing Mn content due to the size effect at In site by Mn substitution for In. Mn doped GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} order antiferromagnetically at low temperature. However, Mn doping into GdIn{sub 3} causes the decrease of Néel temperature due to the distortion of Gd(In,Mn){sub 3} tetrahedron formed by Gd at corners and (In,Mn) at face centers in unit cell. The resistivities of GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} are going up with increasing Mn content. The electric phase transition is associated with the magnetic transition, and the magneto-transport follows electron–magnon scattering model in low temperature region and the Stoner spin fluctuation model in high temperature region, respectively. - Highlights: • Novel GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} intermetallic compounds have been successfully prepared. • The lattice parameters tend to decrease with increasing Mn content. • GdIn{sub 3−x}Mn{sub x} orders antiferromagnetically at low temperature. • The strong correlation between the electric transport and magnetic state is observed.

  8. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  9. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitry Agnes I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. Methods A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Results Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%. In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P Conclusions The majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  10. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Layered-Structured Mn5O8 Nanorods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tao; Norby, Poul; Krumeich, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Mn5O8 nanorods were prepared by a topotactic conversion of γ-MnOOH nanorod precursors in nitrogen at 400 °C. The as-prepared Mn5O8 nanorods crystallized in a monoclinic structure (space group C2/m) with unit cell dimensions a = 10.3784(2) Å, b = 5.7337(7) Å, c = 4.8668(6) Å, and β = 109.491(6)°, ...

  12. The Magnetisation of MnB and its Variation with Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, N; Myers, H P

    1960-12-15

    It has been shown that MnB is the only ferromagnetic phase occurring in the Mn-B system. The magnetisation per unit mass at 0 K and in infinite field strength has been found to be 163 corresponding to a Bohr magneton value 1.92 per Mn atom. The Curie temperature in zero field is 300 C. The significance of this magnetic data is discussed.

  13. Synthesis, Hirshfeld surface analyses and magnetism of a 1D Mn(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new Mn-based complex of {[Mn(L)2(mi)]·H2O}n (1) (HL = p-hydroxy phenylacetic acid; mi = 1,1'-(1,4-butanediyl)bis(imidazole)), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray analyses reveal that compound 1 has a dinuclear Mn(II) unit linking by four carboxylate groups. The bridging N-donor ...

  14. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P., E-mail: apsantos@ff.ul.pt [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Batoreu, M. Camila [I-Med.UL, Department of Toxicology and Food Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E{sub 2} prostaglandin (PGE{sub 2}) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  15. Protective effects of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) against manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.; Lucas, Rui L.; Andrade, Vanda; Mateus, M. Luísa; Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael; Batoreu, M. Camila

    2012-01-01

    Chronic, excessive exposure to manganese (Mn) may induce neurotoxicity and cause an irreversible brain disease, referred to as manganism. Efficacious therapies for the treatment of Mn are lacking, mandating the development of new interventions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of ebselen (Ebs) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) in attenuating the neurotoxic effects of Mn in an in vivo rat model. Exposure biomarkers, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as behavioral parameters were evaluated. Co-treatment with Mn plus Ebs or Mn plus PAS caused a significant decrease in blood and brain Mn concentrations (compared to rats treated with Mn alone), concomitant with reduced brain E 2 prostaglandin (PGE 2 ) and enhanced brain glutathione (GSH) levels, decreased serum prolactin (PRL) levels, and increased ambulation and rearing activities. Taken together, these results establish that both PAS and Ebs are efficacious in reducing Mn body burden, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and locomotor activity impairments in a rat model of Mn-induced toxicity. -- Highlights: ► The manuscript is unique in its approach to the neurotoxicity of Mn. ► The manuscript incorporates molecular, cellular and functional (behavioral) analyses. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in restoring Mn behavioral function. ► Both PAS and Ebs are effective in reducing Mn-induced oxidative stress. ► Both PAS and Ebs led to a decrease in Mn-induced neuro-inflammation.

  16. Chiral Paramagnetic Skyrmion-like Phase in MnSi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappas, C.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Falus, P.; Bentley, P.M.; Moskvin, E.; Grigoriev, S.; Fouquet, P.; Farago, B.

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of chiral fluctuations in the reference helimagnet MnSi by polarized neutron scattering and neutron spin echo spectroscopy, which reveals the existence of a completely left-handed and dynamically disordered phase. This phase may be identified as a spontaneous

  17. Influence of geometrical parameters on the determination of the reference dose in Cobaltotherapy : case of the ALCYON II unit of the CHUA - HJRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASOLONJATOVO, A.H.D.

    1998-01-01

    In application of the in force regulations in Madagascar, every practice inducing ionising radiation exposure must be conformed with the international basic safety standards. Particularly, practices in radiation therapy require high doses of radiation to be delivered with increased accuracy. It has been shown for the cobalt unit ALCYON II that a better accuracy than 5% needed is verified. This requires periodical quality controls, good calibration and high precision in handling of instruments. [fr

  18. Sociodemographic profile and psychiatric diagnosis of patients referred to consultation-liaison psychiatric services of general hospital psychiatric unit at a Tertiary Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Gopal Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Previous studies have reported high psychiatric comorbidity with physical illness. However, referral rate to consultation-liaison (C-L psychiatry from other departments is very low. There is a paucity of literature from India in this subspecialty of psychiatry. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the sociodemographic profile and psychiatric diagnosis of patients referred to C-L psychiatric services at a tertiary care center. Settings and Design: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care multispecialty teaching institution. Patients and Methods: The study population comprised all the patients who were referred for psychiatric consultation from other departments to C-L services of psychiatry department for 2 months. Information was collected using semi-structured pro forma, and diagnosis was made based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria. Results: A total of 160 patients were referred for C-L psychiatric services. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 31–45 years, married, educated matriculation or beyond, belonged to Hindu religion, nuclear family, and residing in urban area. The maximum referrals were from internal medicine department (17.5 followed by nephrology (15.0% and neurology (10.6%. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was depression (12% followed by delirium (8%. The most common reason for seeking psychiatric consultation was psychiatric clearance of prospective kidney donor and bone marrow transplant/stem cell transplant recipient. Conclusions: Psychiatric comorbidity may present with chronic physical illness. The C-L psychiatry would play a major role in the management of psychiatric comorbidity.

  19. Replication of Annual Cycles in Mn in Hudson River Cores: Mn Peaks During High Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D. H.; Hutson, D.; Marrero, A. M.; Block, K. A.; Chang, C.; Cai, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using the results from an ITRAX, XRF scanner, we previously reported apparent annual cycles in Mn in a single, high sedimentation rate Hudson River core, LWB1-8, taken off Yonkers, NY (Carlson et al., 2016). We replicated these results in three more high sedimentation rate cores and found stratigraphic markers that verify our inferences about the annual nature of the Mn cycles. The three new cores are LWB4-5 taken off Peekskill, NY, and LWB3-44 and LWB3-25, both taken in Haverstraw Bay. The cores are from water depths of 7-9 meters and all have high magnetic susceptibilities (typically > 30 cgs units) in their upper 1 to 2 meters. The high susceptibilities are primarily produced by magnetite from modern industrial combustion. One core, LWB1-8, has reconnaissance Cs dates that verify the annual nature of the cycles. More Cs dates are expected before the meeting. We developed several new methods of verifying the annual nature of our layer counts. The first is looking at the grain size distribution and age of layers with unusually high Mn peaks. Peaks in Si, Ni and Ti and peaks in percentage of coarse material typically accompany the peaks in Mn. Some are visible as yellow sandy layers. The five highest peaks in Mn in LWB1-8 have layer counted ages that correspond (within 1 year in the top meter and within 2 years in the bottom meter) to 1996, 1948, 1913, 1857 and 1790. The latter three events are the three largest historical spring freshets on the Hudson. 1996 is a year of unusually high flow rate during the spring freshet. Based on our work and previous work on Mn cycling in rivers, we infer that the peaks in Mn are produced by extreme erosional events that erode sediment and release pore water Mn into the water column. The other methods of testing our chronology involve marine storms that increase Ca and Sr and a search for fragments of the Peekskill meteorite that fell in October 1992. More information on the latter will be available by the meeting.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF La o.9 MnO 3 BY COMBUSTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lao.9MnO3 has been synthesized from lanthanum acetylacetonate, manganese acetylacetonate and urea by combustion method at 800oC. The analysis of the synthesized Lao.9MnO3 show it to be a semi-conducting nanopolycrystalline material having orthorhombic geometry with unit-cell parameters: a = 5.50335Ao; ...

  1. An Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of Accidents Among under 5 Years of Age Referred to Emergency Hospital Units in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Accidents and injuries are the leading causes of avoidable illness and death in most of the countries in the world. For health policymakers, it is essential to have knowledge about the occurrence of accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of accidents in children under 5 years of age referring to emergency departments in Hamadan province. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study that all under 5 years of age patients referred to hospitals in Hamadan province were enrolled in the study during 2009 to 2014. Data were extracted from injury register software and by using descriptive and analytic statistics, data were analyzed with STATA software version 12 at the level of error less        than 5%. Results: A total of 7409 under 5 years of age patients were registered during this period. 70.4% were male and 38.97% of them were under 1 year old. Home accidents included 45.07% of the accidents. Car accidents (27.89%, hit (22.16% and fall (16.79% were the most occurred accidents in both sexes. Conclusion: Due to the high incidence of accidents at home and roads, necessary precautions should be taken in this regard

  2. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  3. Suggestions toward some discourse-analytic approaches to text difficulty: with special reference to ‘T-unit configuration’ in the textual unfolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Lotfipour-Saedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents some suggestions towards discourse-analytic approaches for ESL/EFL education, with the focus on identifying the textual forms which can contribute to the textual difficulty. Textual difficulty / comprehensibility, rather than being purely text-based or reader-dependent, is certainly a matter of interaction between text and reader. The paper will look at some of the textual factors which can be argued to make a text more or less readable for the same reader. The main focus here will be on academic texts. The high cognitive load and low readability of the expository texts in various academic disciplines will be argued to belong to certain textual strategies as well as variations in the configurations of the T-units as the prime scaffolding for the textualization process. Different categories of these variations to be discussed here will be exemplified from a few academic and expository registers. More extensive textual analyses will, of course, be necessary in order to be able to make evidential suggestions for possible correlations between certain types and clusters of T-unit configurations on the one hand, and cognitive load and readability indices on the other, across various academic registers, genres and disciplines.

  4. The regulatory approach to the assessment of containment structures in the United Kingdom, with reference to the proposed Sizewell 'B' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    The regulation of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom is carried out by means of a licensing system which is administered on behalf of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. A major part of this process lies in the assessment of an installation's designs and safety case, which must be submitted to the Inspectorate before a licence may be granted. This paper describes the work carried out in assessing the design proposed for the containment structure of the United Kingdom's first PWR, Sizewell 'B'. The roles of the Inspectorate's Safety Assessment Principles, and the engineering judgement of the individual assessor, are discussed. The reasons behind the Inspectorate's decision to commission independent design studies of the structure are explained, and the results of these studies are presented in outline. Views are also expressed upon the validation of analytical results, quality assurance, and further work planned by the Inspectorate in this field. The paper concludes that it is the flexibility and discretion allowed by the above approach which represents the principal strength of the UK's system of regulatory assessment. (author)

  5. Demographic determinants of survival of people living with HIV attending an outpatient reference unit in the city of Três Lagoas, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the period 1984-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelina da Silva Zuque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is increasing in small Brazilian cities, epidemiological studies are often conducted in large urban centers. METHODS: Our group conducted a retrospective analysis of survival determinants among 358 patients who attended a reference unit in a small city. RESULTS: Death risk was lower among men that had sex with men, patients with an HIV-seropositive partner, and those admitted after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was available. CONCLUSIONS: The study documents the striking beneficial effect of HAART. The finding of other groups with improved survival may aid in the development of programmatic strategies.

  6. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume I. A. Introduction and executive summary. B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the NASA Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Nuclear Projects (OSNP) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulate mission failures or malfunctions occur, which would result in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events

  7. Reference stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This data package contains information on interpretations of rock stratigraphic units in the upper Grande Ronde, Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts in the Cold Creek syncline. This data package contains correlations for Boreholes DC-2, -3, -4, -8, -12, RRL-2, -6, -14

  8. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.

  9. [A study of epilepsy according to the age at onset and monitored for 3 years in a regional reference paediatric neurology unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Gómez, Laura; López-Pisón, Javier; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Fuertes Rodrigo, Cristina; Fernando Martínez, Ruth; Samper-Villagrasa, Pilar; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis; García-Jiménez, María Concepción

    2017-01-01

    A study of epilepsy, according to the age at onset of the crisis and its causes, monitored by a Paediatric Neurology Unit over a period of three years. Historical cohorts study was conducted by reviewing the Paediatric Neurology medical records data base of epileptic children followed-up from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. A total of 4,595 children were attended during the study period. The diagnosis of epilepsy was established in 605 (13.17%): 277 (45.79%) symptomatic, 156 (25.79%) idiopathic, and 172 (28.43%) with cryptogenic epilepsy. Absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes are the idiopathic epileptic syndromes most prevalent, and the most prevalent symptomatic epilepsies are prenatal encephalopathies. More than one-quarter (26.12%) of epilepsies began in the first year of life, and 67.72% were symptomatic. Refractory epilepsy was observed in 25.29%, 42.46% with cognitive impairment, 26.45% with motor involvement, and 9.92% with an autism spectrum disorder, being more frequent at an earlier age of onset. The absence of a universally accepted classification of epileptic syndromes makes tasks like this difficult, starting with the terminology. A useful classification would be aetiological, with two groups: a large group with established aetiology, or very likely genetic syndromes, and another with no established cause. The age of onset of epilepsy in each aetiological group helps in the prognosis, which is worsened by refractoriness and associated neurodevelopmental disorders, and are generally worse at an earlier onset and in certain aetiologies. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. 54Mn release from LMFBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, M.V.

    1976-10-01

    The inventory of 54 Mn per unit exposed area of stainless steel in LMFBR cores may be calculated using a formula originally derived at HEDL. This treats the simultaneous production by activation and release by corrosion and diffusion of 54 Mn and assumes that the concentration at the steel surface is zero. The inventory per unit exposed area is calculated as a function of temperature and is compared with that calculated simply by assuming stoichiometric corrosion. An effective diffusion coefficient is used in the calculations which include contributions from both lattice and grain boundary diffusion. A general relationship is derived for the effective diffusion coefficient and it is shown how values may be obtained using the Levine-MacCallum and the Fisher theories of grain boundary diffusion. Values of the lattice diffusion coefficient were obtained by analysing data obtained from sodium loop experiments. The effect on the inventory due to the possible formation of a ferrite layers on the exposed surface is discussed and it is also shown how the inventory over several fuel cycles may be calculated. (U.K.)

  11. Magnetic properties of Tb1-xSmxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.; Kervan, S.; Gencer, A.

    2005-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of polycrystalline Tb 1-x Sm x Mn 2 Si 2 (0= 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Sm for Tb leads to a linear increase of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At low temperatures, the rare earth sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique decreases linearly with increase in Sm content x. The results are collected in an x-T magnetic-phase diagram

  12. Unsaturated Mn complex decorated hybrid thioarsenates: Syntheses, crystal structures and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Cheng-Yang [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Lei, Xiao-Wu, E-mail: xwlei_jnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Tian, Ya-Wei; Xu, Jing; Bai, Yi-Qun; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Fan [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry in Universities of Shandong, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jining University, Qufu, Shandong 273155 (China); Yi, Fei-Yan, E-mail: yifeiyan@nbu.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science & Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The incorporation of unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+}, [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} (1,2-dap=1,2-diaminopropane) complex cations with thioarsenate anions of [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} and [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} led to three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates, namely, [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} (1), [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{[Mn(1,2-dap)]_2As_2S_8} (2) and (NH{sub 4})[Mn(2,2-bipy){sub 2}]AsS{sub 4} (3). In compound 1, the unsaturated [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} complexes, [MnS{sub 4}]{sup 6−} tetrahedra and [As{sup III}S{sub 3}]{sup 3−} trigonal-pyramids are condensed to form the 1D [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sub 2}MnAs{sub 2}S{sub 6} chain, whereas compound 2 features 2D layer composed of [Mn(1,2-dap)]{sup 2+} and [Mn(1,2-dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+} complexes as well as [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} tetrahedral units. For compound 3, two [As{sup V}S{sub 4}]{sup 3−} anions bridge two [Mn(2,2-bipy)]{sup 2+} complex cations into a butterfly like {[Mn(2,2-bipy)]_2As_2S_8}{sup 2−} anionic unit. Magnetic measurements indicate the ferrimagnetic behavior for compound 1 and antiferromagnetic (AF) behaviors for compounds 2–3. The UV–vis diffuse-reflectance measurements and electronic structural calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) revealed the title compounds belong to semiconductors with band gaps of 2.63, 2.21, and 1.97 eV, respectively. The narrow band-gap of compound 3 led to the efficient and stable photocatalytic degradation activity over organic pollutant than N-doped P25 under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: Three new hybrid manganese thioarsenates have been prepared and structurally characterized. These hybrid phases feature interesting magnetic and visible light responding photocatalytic properties.

  13. Mn-DPDP, the first contrast agent for the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehl, H.B.; Vorwerk, D.; Klose, K.C.; Raber, H.; Guenther, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Mn-DPDP, known as a contrast agent for the hepatobiliary system, shows signal intensity increase of the pancreas as well. This paper describes the extent of signal intensity increase in the pancreas as a function of time. Six healthy volunteers were imaged with a 1.5-T MR unit using a T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence. Acquisitions were taken in 3-minute intervals for the first 45 minutes, followed by intervals of 30 minutes for 7 hours after infusion of Mn-DPDP. As a special formulation, 10 μmol per kg Mn-DPDP were infused. The enhancement of the head and the tail of the pancreas were measured and plotted as a function of time; the percentage increase in pancreas signal intensity was calculated and compared with the increase in liver signal intensity

  14. The Mn site in Mn-doped GaAs nanowires: an EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Acapito, F; Rovezzi, M; Boscherini, F; Jabeen, F; Bais, G; Piccin, M; Rubini, S; Martelli, F

    2012-01-01

    We present an EXAFS study of the Mn atomic environment in Mn-doped GaAs nanowires. Mn doping has been obtained either via the diffusion of the Mn used as seed for the nanowire growth or by providing Mn during the growth of Au-induced wires. As a general finding, we observe that Mn forms chemical bonds with As but is not incorporated in a substitutional site. In Mn-induced GaAs wires, Mn is mostly found bonded to As in a rather disordered environment and with a stretched bond length, reminiscent of that exhibited by MnAs phases. In Au-seeded nanowires, along with stretched MnAs coordination, we have found the presence of Mn in a MnAu intermetallic compound. (paper)

  15. Interfacial magnetic coupling in ultrathin all-manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-TbMnO3 superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Y. F.

    2014-04-14

    We report the growth and magnetic properties of all-manganite superlattices composed of ultrathin double-exchange ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and noncollinear multiferroic TbMnO3 layers. Spontaneous magnetization and hysteresis loops are observed in such superlattices with individual La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 layers as thin as two unit cells, which are accompanied by pronounced exchange bias and enhanced coercivity. Our results indicate substantial interfacial magnetic coupling between spin sublattices in such superlattices, providing a powerful approach towards tailoring the properties of artificial magnetic heterostructures.

  16. Interfacial magnetic coupling in ultrathin all-manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-TbMnO3 superlattices

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Y. F.; Lebedev, O. I.; Roddatis, V. V.; Lin, W. N.; Ding, J. F.; Hu, S. J.; Yan, S. S.; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    We report the growth and magnetic properties of all-manganite superlattices composed of ultrathin double-exchange ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and noncollinear multiferroic TbMnO3 layers. Spontaneous magnetization and hysteresis loops are observed in such superlattices with individual La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 layers as thin as two unit cells, which are accompanied by pronounced exchange bias and enhanced coercivity. Our results indicate substantial interfacial magnetic coupling between spin sublattices in such superlattices, providing a powerful approach towards tailoring the properties of artificial magnetic heterostructures.

  17. Sensitivity of annual and seasonal reference crop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    scheduling and water resources management. Ref- ... time, and refers to evapotranspiration rate from a reference ... variable per unit increase in independent variable. Sensitivity ...... Pereira L S 2007 Relating water productivity and crop.

  18. Magnetic interactions in martensitic Ni-Mn based Heusler systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Seda

    2010-04-22

    In this work, magnetic, magnetocaloric and structural properties are investigated in Ni-Mn-based martensitic Heusler alloys with the aim to tailor these properties as well as to understand in detail the magnetic interactions in the various crystallographic states of these alloys. We choose Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} as a prototype which undergoes a martensitic transformation and exhibits field-induced strain and the inverse magnetocaloric effect. Using the structural phase diagram of martensitic Ni-Mn-based Heusler alloys, we substitute gallium and tin for indium to carry these effects systematically closer to room temperature by shifting the martensitic transformation. A magneto-calorimeter is designed and built to measure adiabatically the magnetocaloric effect in these alloys. The temperature dependence of strain under an external magnetic field is studied in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 50-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga, Sn, In and Sb) and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16-x}Z{sub x} (Z: Ga and Sn). An argument based on the effect of the applied magnetic field on martensite nucleation is adopted to extract information on the direction of the magnetization easy axis in the martensitic unit cell in Heusler alloys. Parallel to these studies, the structure in the presence of an external field is also studied by powder neutron diffraction. It is demonstrated that martensite nucleation is influenced by cooling the sample under a magnetic field such that the austenite phase is arrested within the martensitic state. The magnetic interactions in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 40}Sb{sub 10} are characterized by using neutron polarization analysis. Below the martensitic transformation temperature, M{sub s}, an antiferromagnetically correlated state is found. Ferromagnetic resonance experiments are carried out on Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 37}Sn{sub 13} and Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16} to gain more detailed information on the nature of the magnetic interactions. The experimental

  19. Site-specific local structure of Mn in artificial manganese ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, E.; Haskel, D.; Cady, A.; Yang, A.; Vittoria, C.; Harris, V. G.; Zuo, X.

    2006-01-01

    Diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) spectroscopy has been applied to resolve site-specific Mn local structure in manganese ferrite films grown under nonequilibrium conditions. The DAFS spectra were measured at a number of Bragg reflections in the vicinity of the Mn absorption K edge. The DAFS data analysis done with an iterative Kramers-Kroenig algorithm made it possible to solve separately the local structure around crystallographically inequivalent Mn sites in the unit cell with nominal octahedral and tetrahedral coordination. The strong preference for Mn to be tetrahedrally coordinated in this compound is not only manifested in the relative site occupancies but also in a strong reduction in coordination number for Mn ions at nominal octahedral sites

  20. Unit Reference Sheet (URS) Cost Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    LAUNCHER MONORAIL GUIDED MISSILE: W/E (NIKE-HERCULES) L45740 LAUNCHER TUBULAR GUIDED MISSILE: (TOW) L45757 LAUNCHER ZERO LENGTH GUIDED MISSILE: (IMP-HAWK...L76762 LOADER TRANSPORTER GUIDED MISSILE: W/E (HAWK) M57503 MOBILE TARGET TRACKING SYSTEM: USED TO SUPPORT MQM 34 ( FIRE BEE) M57549 MOBILITY KIT GUIDED...HIGH RATE THREE BARREL W/E J96479 GUN AUTOMATIC 20 MILLIMETER: GAS OPERATED MANUAL OR ELECT FIRED J96481 GUN AUTOMATIC 20 MILLIMETER: ELECTRIC J96694 GUN

  1. The study of major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry in Shahrestanak Mn deposit, south of Qom: Implications for genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Shahrestanak Mn deposit is located in southern Qom province, 12 km southwest of the city of Kahak. Based on geological-structural divisions of Iran, the deposit belongs to central volcanic belt or Urumieh-Dokhtar zone. The Venarch deposit is one the most important known manganese deposits in Iran. The Sharestanak and Venarch deposits are spatially and temporally related to each other, and have similar geology, mineral texture and structure, host rocks, relationships with faults, and depositional environment. So, their magmatism and deposition conditions can be related to each other. Since no systematic study on the Shahrestanak deposit had been performed before discussing its geological and geochemical characteristics, here it is being attempted to study the geology, petrography, geochemistry of major, minor and trace elements, and Rare Earth Elements (REE of ore, to distinguish the depositional environments and genesis of this deposit and to compare REE of ore in this deposit with other deposits. Sampling and method of study Fourteen samples of manganese ore were selected for geochemical study and analyzing of major, minor, trace elements and REE by ICP-AES and ICP-MS and were sent to SGS Co., Toronto. Detection limits for major elements and trace elements are 0.01% and 0.05ppm, respectively. Result and discussion The deposit is characterized by various lithology and stratigraphy units, consist of: 1 Middle to -Upper Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks, 2 Oligocene lower red conglomerate and sandstone, 3 Oligo-Miocene limestone and marl (Qom Formation, and 4 Eocene and Lower Miocene basic to intermediate dykes. The most abundant minerals of the deposit are braunite, hausmannite, pyrolusite, and manganite. Evidences such as high Mn/Fe (11.33 and Si/Al (4.86 ratios, low contents of trace elements specially Co (11.40 ppm, Ni (24 ppm, Cu (81.85 ppm, and Ce, with high amounts of SiO2, Mn, Fe, Ba, Zn, As and Sr, all represent

  2. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layek, Samar, E-mail: samarlayek@gmail.com; Verma, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum. - Highlights: • Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. • Unit cell volume decreases with increasing doping concentration. • Mn-doping leads to room temperature ferromagnetism in NiO nanoparticles. • Magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping. • Above 2%, magnetization decreases with increasing doping.

  3. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni_1_−_xMn_xO (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum. - Highlights: • Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method. • Unit cell volume decreases with increasing doping concentration. • Mn-doping leads to room temperature ferromagnetism in NiO nanoparticles. • Magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping. • Above 2%, magnetization decreases with increasing doping.

  4. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  5. Coal Data: A reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of Coal Data: A Reference is to provide basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the United States. The report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ''Coal Terminology and Related Information'' provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces new terms. Topics covered are US coal deposits, resources and reserves, mining, production, employment and productivity, health and safety, preparation, transportation, supply and stocks, use, coal, the environment, and more. (VC)

  6. Calix[4]arene supported clusters: a dimer of [Mn(III)Mn(II)] dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Stephanie M; McIntosh, Ruaraidh D; Beavers, Christine M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphinate ligands allow for the transformation of a calix[4]arene supported [Mn(III)(2)Mn(II)(2)] tetramer cluster motif into an unusual [Mn(III)Mn(II)](2) dimer of dimers; the clusters self-assemble in the crystal to form bi-layer arrays reminiscent of the typical packing of calixarene solvates....

  7. Spin-polarized ballistic conduction through correlated Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Morari, C.

    2017-11-20

    We examine the ballistic conduction through Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures consisting of up to four units of the half-metallic NiMnSb in the scattering region, using density functional theory (DFT) methods. For a single NiMnSb unit the transmission function displays a spin polarization of around 50% in a window of 1eV centered around the Fermi level. By increasing the number of layers, an almost complete spin polarization of the transmission is obtained in this energy range. Supplementing the DFT calculations with local electronic interactions, of Hubbard-type on the Mn sites, leads to a hybridization between the interface and many-body states. The significant reduction of the spin polarization seen in the density of states is not apparent in the spin polarization of the conduction electron transmission, which suggests that the hybridized interface and many-body induced states are localized.

  8. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  9. Origin of the 20-electron structure of Mg3 MnH7 : Density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Singh, D. J.; Gupta, R.

    2005-03-01

    The electronic structure and stability of the 20-electron complex hydride, Mg3MnH7 is studied using density functional calculations. The heat of formation is larger in magnitude than that of MgH2 . The deviation from the 18-electron rule is explained by the predominantly ionic character of the band structure and a large crystal-field splitting of the Mn d bands. In particular, each H provides one deep band accomodating two electrons, while the Mn t2g bands hold an additional six electrons per formula unit.

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of layered perovskite manganite LaCaBiMn2O7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oubla M.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The layered perovskite oxide, LaCaBiMn2O7, has been prepared by the conventional aqueous solution precipitation method. The powder X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the phase crystallizes with tetragonal unit cell in the space group I4/mmm. The magnetic properties suggest that the ferromagnetic interactions are dominant and manganese ion in the phase is present in mixed valence states Mn3+and Mn4+. The thermomagnetization curve is found to obey the Bloch law. Spin wave stiffness constant D and the approximate value for JMnMnexchange interaction were estimated from the experimental results.

  11. The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of offenders diagnosed with epilepsy referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex Observation Unit in terms of section 77 and/or 78 of the Criminal Procedure Act 51 of 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P J Marais

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Limited information regarding the relation between psychopathology associated with epilepsy, crime and the legal aspects thereof is available in South Africa. Objectives: The demographic, clinical and forensic profile of alleged offenders diagnosed with epilepsy and referred to the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC Observation Unit from 2001 to 2006, was investigated. Design A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Results: Of the 69 alleged offenders, aged 17–79 years (median 30 years, 94.2% were male, 81.2% Black, 72.5% single, and 69.9% unemployed. The median qualification was grade six. Offences were violent in nature and committed against a person in 75% of cases. A direct link between epilepsy and the alleged offences occurred in 7% of cases. Generalised epilepsy (34.8% and interictal psychosis (20.3% were the most commonly diagnosed conditions. Twenty-nine (42% alleged offenders lacked criminal responsibility and were not fit to stand trial. Most observati (79.2% diagnosed with generalised epilepsy were criminally liable and fit to stand trial. The highest rate of criminal incapacity was found among observati with interictal psychoses (85.7% and comorbid mental retardation (90%. Almost 60% of referred cases were declared as state patients by the court. Conclusion: In only 16% of cases, observati were found unaccountable because of epilepsy (automatisms or postictal confusional states. Our findings confirmed an increased prevalence of violent behaviour during seizure-free periods. This contributes to evidence that factors associated with epilepsy, rather than the epilepsy itself, play an important role in the possible increased risk of violent behaviour in people with epilepsy.

  12. On the state of Mn in Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O nanoparticles and their surface modification with isonipecotic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez-Hernández, L.; Estévez-Hernández, O. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología de Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Ciudad México, México (Mexico); Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Hernández, M.P. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales (IMRE), Universidad de La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico); Díaz, J.A.; Farías, M.F. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología (CNyN), Ensenada, Baja California, México (Mexico); Reguera, E., E-mail: edilso.reguera@gmail.com [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología de Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Ciudad México, México (Mexico)

    2017-03-15

    Mn-doped ZnO (Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O) nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method and coated with isonipecotic acid as capping ligand. The structure, composition and morphology of the resulting nanomaterial were investigated by energy disperse X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy data. Such measurements showed that the solid obtained contains 6 at% of Mn and it is formed by a highly crystalline material with 3–5 nm range of crystallite size, and only a small elongation of its cell parameter with respect to undoped ZnO wurtzite unit cell. Information on the state of manganese atom in the Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O nanostructures formed was obtained from X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and electron energy loss (EELS) spectroscopies. XPS and EELS spectra are composed of four peaks, corresponding to two species of Mn(II) and signals from Mn(III) and Mn(IV). Such spectral data on the state of Mn in the material studied is consistent with the mapping of Mn distribution observed in recorded transmission electron microscopy images, which reveal presence of clusters of Mn atoms. Only a fraction of doping Mn atoms were found forming a solid solution with the host ZnO structure. The functionalization of the nanoparticles system with Isonipecotic acid shows that this molecule remains anchored to the nanoparticles surface mainly through its N basic site. The availability of free carboxylate groups in the capping molecule was tested by conjugation to type IV horseradish peroxidase. - Graphical abstract: State of Mn atoms in Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by the precipitation method, their capping with isonipecotic acid and subsequent conjugation to peroxidase. - Highlights: • State of manganese in manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. • Isonipecotic acid as surface modifier of ZnO nanoparticles. • Peroxidase conjugation to ZnO nanoparticles modified with isonipecotic acid.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. ... PubMed Badminton MN, Elder GH. Molecular mechanisms of dominant expression in porphyria. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005; ...

  14. Manganese-calcium intermixing facilitates heteroepitaxial growth at the <mn>10mn><mn>1mn>¯>4mn> calcite-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Man; Riechers, Shawn L.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Du, Yingge; Kovarik, Libor; Varga, Tamas; Arey, Bruce W.; Qafoku, Odeta; Kerisit, Sebastien

    2017-10-01

    In situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements were performed to probe surface precipitates that formed on the (10-14) surface of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals following reaction with Mn2+-bearing aqueous solutions with a range of initial concentrations. Three-dimensional epitaxial islands were observed to precipitate and grow on the surfaces and in situ time-sequenced measurements demonstrated that their growth rates were commensurate with those obtained for epitaxial islands formed on calcite crystals reacted with Cd2+-bearing aqueous solutions of the same range in supersaturation with respect to the pure metal carbonate phase. This finding was unexpected as rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and calcite display a 10% lattice mismatch, based on the area of their (10-14) surface unit cells, whereas the lattice mismatch is only 4% for otavite (CdCO3) and calcite. Coatings of varying thicknesses were therefore synthesized by reacting calcite single crystals with calcite-equilibrated aqueous solutions with concentrations of up to 250 µM MnCl2 and analyzed to determine the composition of the surface precipitates. Ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and AFM measurements of the reacted crystals demonstrated the formation of an epitaxial (Mn,Ca)CO3 solid solution with a spatially complex composition atop the calcite surface, whereby the first few nanometers were rich in Ca and the Mn content increased with distance from the original calcite surface, culminating in a topmost region of almost pure MnCO3 for the thickest coatings. These findings explain the measured growth rates (the effective lattice mismatch was much smaller than nominal mismatch) and highlight the strong influence played by the substrate on the composition of surface precipitates in aqueous conditions.

  15. NMR relaxation studies with MnDPDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southon, T.E.; Grant, D.; Bjoernerud, A.; Moen, O.M.; Spilling, B.; Martinsen, I.; Refsum, H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Our studies were designed to compare the efficacy of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan) as a tissue-specific MR agent with that of manganese chloride (MnCl 2 ), to compare the efficacy of different doses and rates of administration of MnDPDP, and to collect the data needed for predicting optimum pulse sequences. Material and Methods: The dose response for the relaxation rates R1 and R2 at 0.47 T, and the manganese (Mn) concentrations in rat liver and in the liver, pancreas, heart and adrenals of pigs was determined for both MnDPDP and MnCl 2 administered i.v. Computer simulations were carried out to model the effects of different tissue Mn concentrations and TR on signal intensities and contrast-to-noise ratios. Results: In rat liver and pig organs both compounds produced a positive dose-response in R1 and tissue Mn concentration, and only small or no response in R2. The Mn concentration in rat liver was positively correlated with R1, regardless of the form in which Mn was given, or the rate of administration. Optimal imaging parametes are therefore expected to be different pre- and post-MnDPDP administration. (orig./AJ)

  16. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs

  17. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, P J [Geosciences for Development and the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs.

  18. DAFS study of site-specific local structure of Mn in manganese ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, E.; Haskel, D.; Cady, A.; Yang, A.; Vittoria, C.; Zuo, X.; Harris, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Manganese ferrite (MnFe 2 O 4 ) is a well-known magnetic material widely used in electronics for many years. It is well established that its magnetic behavior is strongly influenced by local structural properties of Mn ions, which are distributed between crystallographically inequivalent tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the unit cell. In order to understand and be able to tune properties of these structures, it is necessary to have detailed site-specific structural information on the system. Here we report on the application of diffraction-anomalous fine structure (DAFS) spectroscopy to resolve site-specific Mn local structures in manganese ferrite films. The DAFS measurements were done at undulator beamline 4-ID-D of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The DAFS spectra (Fig. 1) were measured at several Bragg reflections in the vicinity of the Mn absorption K-edge, having probed separately contributions from tetrahedrally and octahedrally coordinated Mn sites. The DAFS data analysis done with an iterative Kramers-Kroenig algorithm made it possible to solve separately the local structure around different inequivalent Mn sites in the unit cell. The reliability of the data treatment was checked carefully, and it was showed that the site-specific structural parameters obtained with DAFS allow us to describe fluorescence EXAFS spectrum measured independently. Fig. 2 shows individual site contributions to the imaginary part of the resonant scattering amplitude obtained from the treatment of the data of Fig. 1. The analysis of the refined site-specific absorption spectra was done using EXAFS methods based on theoretical standards. We provided direct evidence for the tetrahedral Mn-O bond distance being increased relative to the corresponding Fe-O distance in bulk manganese ferrites. The first coordination shell number was found to be reduced significantly for Mn atoms at these sites. This finding is consistent with the well-known tendency of Mn

  19. Tuning the magnetic properties of GaAs:Mn/MnAs hybrids via the MnAs cluster shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidda, H-A Krug von; Kurz, T; Loidl, A; Hartmann, Th; Klar, P J; Heimbrodt, W; Lampalzer, M; Volz, K; Stolz, W

    2006-01-01

    We report a systematic study of ferromagnetic resonance in granular GaAs:Mn/MnAs hybrids grown on GaAs(001) substrates by metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy. The ferromagnetic resonance of the MnAs clusters can be resolved at all temperatures below T c . An additional broad absorption is observed below 60 K and is ascribed to localized charge carriers of the GaAs:Mn matrix. The anisotropy of the MnAs ferromagnetic resonance field originates from the magneto-crystalline field and demagnetization effects of the ferromagnetic MnAs clusters embedded in the GaAs:Mn matrix. Its temperature dependence basically scales with magnetization. Comparison of the observed angular dependence of the resonance field with model calculations yields the preferential orientation and shape of the clusters formed in hybrid layers of different thickness (150-1000 nm) grown otherwise at the same growth conditions. The hexagonal axes of the MnAs clusters are oriented along the four cubic GaAs space diagonals. Thin layers contain lens-shaped MnAs clusters close to the surface, whereas thick layers also contain spherical clusters in the bulk of the layer. The magnetic properties of the hexagonal MnAs clusters can be tuned by a controlled variation of the cluster shape

  20. Magneto-elastic coupling in La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy within the Bean-Rodbell model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves Bez, Henrique; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    , due to high internal stresses. A promising magnetocaloric material is La(Fe, Mn, Si)13Hy, where the transition temperature can be controlled through the Mn amount. In this work we use XRD measurements to evaluate the temperature dependence of the unit cell volume with a varying Mn amount. The system...... is modelled using the Bean-Rodbell model, which is based on the assumption that the spin-lattice coupling depends linearly on the unit cell volume. This coupling is defined by the model parameter η, where for η > 1 the material undergoes a first order transition and for η ≤ 1 a second order transition. We...

  1. Visible-light electroluminescence in Mn-doped GaAs light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam Hai, Pham; Maruo, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    We observed visible-light electroluminescence (EL) due to d-d transitions in light-emitting diodes with Mn-doped GaAs layers (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show two peaks at 1.89 eV and 2.16 eV, which are exactly the same as 4 A 2 ( 4 F) → 4 T 1 ( 4 G) and 4 T 1 ( 4 G) → 6 A 1 ( 6 S) transitions of Mn atoms doped in ZnS. The temperature dependence and the current-density dependence are consistent with the characteristics of d-d transitions. We explain the observed EL spectra by the p-d hybridized orbitals of the Mn d electrons in GaAs

  2. α-MnO2 nanowires transformed from precursor δ-MnO2 by refluxing under ambient pressure: The key role of pH and growth mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qin; Xiao Zhidong; Feng Xionghan; Tan Wenfeng; Qiu Guohong; Liu Fan

    2011-01-01

    α-MnO 2 nanowires were obtained by reflux treatment of precursor δ-MnO 2 in acidic medium under ambient pressure. The great effects of pH on the transformation of δ-MnO 2 to α-MnO 2 and the concentration of coexistent cations (K + , Mn 2+ ) was investigated in systematically designed experiments by using powder X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The specific surface area of the products could be simply controlled by adjusting the initial pH value of the suspension. The micro-morphologies during the transition process from the precursors to final products were characterized by SEM and TEM. A dissolution-recrystallization mechanism was proposed to describe the growth process of the one-dimensional nanowire. MnO x units or MnO 6 octahedra was formed firstly from the dissolution of outmost surfaces of δ-MnO 2 , followed by a rearrangement/crystallization to form one-dimensional α-MnO 2 nanowire. In addition, the time-dependent process of dissolution would take place gradually from the external to internal of the precursor.

  3. Kinetic Investigations of SiMn Slags From Different Mn Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa Peace; Tangstad, Merete

    2018-03-01

    The kinetics of MnO and SiO2 reduction were investigated for Silicomanganese (SiMn) slags using a Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) between 1773 K and 1923 K (1500 °C and 1650 °C) under CO atmospheric pressure. The charge materials were based on Assmang ore and HC FeMn Slag. Rate models for MnO and SiO2 reduction were applied to describe the metal-producing rates, as shown by the following equations: r_{MnO} = k_{MnO} × A × ( {a_{MnO} - {a_{Mn} }/{K_{T }}} ) r_{{{SiO}2 }} = k_{SiO2} × A × ( {a_{{{SiO}2 }} - {a_{Si} }/{K_{T }}} ). The results show that the choice of raw materials in the charge considerably affected the reduction rate of MnO and SiO2. The highest reduction rate was found to be from charges using HC FeMn slag. The difference in the driving forces was insignificant among the SiMn slags, and the similar slag viscosities could not explain the different reduction rates. Instead, the difference is attributed to small amounts of sulfur and the amount of iron in the charge. In addition, the rate models were applicable to describe the reduction of MnO and SiO2 in SiMn slags.

  4. INAA and flame AAS of various vegetable reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djingova, R.; Arpadjan, S.; Kuleff, I.

    1991-01-01

    INAA and flame AAS have been used for the analysis of a large number of vegetable reference materials. Out of all determined elements (28 by INAA and 11 by AAS) nine are common for both methods (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn) and for these the possibilities of the two methods have been compared. (orig.)

  5. Laser induced adjustment of the conductivity of rare earth doped Mn-Zn nanoferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Dek S. I.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two series of Mn-Zn nanoferrites (namely Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 and Mn1-xZnxFe2-yRyO4 were synthesized using standard ceramic technique. X-ray diffraction and FT-IR were employed in the chacterization of the nanopowder. The X-ray density for each sample increased after laser irradiation which was correlated with the decrease in the unit cell volume. The study involved the thermal and frequency variation of the dielectric constant and AC conductivity of the investigated samples before and after laser irradiation. The later altered the conductivity by decreasing its value for the rare earth doped samples except for the Sm3+ doped one. The results suggested the exploitation of Mn-Zn doped rare earth nanoferrites in many technological applications demanding high resistivity.

  6. Magnetic properties of Pr1-xGdxMn2Ge2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.; Kervan, S.; Oezcan, S.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of the Pr 1-x Gd x Mn 2 Ge 2 (0.0≤x≤1.0) compounds have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements. All compounds crystallize in the ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. Samples in this alloy system exhibit a crossover from ferromagnetic ordering for PrMn 2 Ge 2 to antiferromagnetic ordering for GdMn 2 Ge 2 as a function of Gd concentration x. At low temperatures, the rare earth sublattice also orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  7. Paramagnetic resonance of Mn4+ and Mn2+ centers in lanthanum gallate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazhenin, V. A.; Potapov, A. P.; Guseva, V. B.; Artyomov, M. Yu.

    2010-03-01

    An increase in the manganese concentration in lanthanum gallate in the range 0.5-5.0% has been found to result in a complete replacement of individual Mn4+ ions by Mn2+ ions. The relative concentrations and binding energies of individual Mn4+, Mn3+, and Mn2+ ions have been determined. The spin Hamiltonians of the Mn2+ and Mn4+ centers in the rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases, respectively, have been constructed and the orientation of the principal axes of the fine-structure tensor of Mn4+ at room temperature has been found. The possibility of using electron paramagnetic resonance for determining the rotation angles of oxygen octahedra of lanthanum gallate with respect to the perovskite structure has been discussed.

  8. New perovskite-based manganite Pb2Mn2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M.; Perkisas, Tyche; D'Hondt, Hans; Tan Haiyan; Verbeeck, Johan; Filonenko, Vladimir P.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2010-01-01

    A new perovskite based compound Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 has been synthesized using a high pressure high temperature technique. The structure model of Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 is proposed based on electron diffraction, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with parameters a=5.736(1) A∼√2a p , b=3.800(1) A∼a p , c=21.562(6) A∼4√2a p (a p -the parameter of the perovskite subcell) and space group Pnma. The Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 structure consists of quasi two-dimensional perovskite blocks separated by 1/2[110] p (101) p crystallographic shear planes. The blocks are connected to each other by chains of edge-sharing MnO 5 distorted tetragonal pyramids. The chains of MnO 5 pyramids and the MnO 6 octahedra of the perovskite blocks delimit six-sided tunnels accommodating double chains of Pb atoms. The tunnels and pyramidal chains adopt two mirror-related configurations ('left' L and 'right' R) and layers consisting of chains and tunnels of the same configuration alternate in the structure according to an -L-R-L-R-sequence. The sequence is sometimes locally violated by the appearance of -L-L- or -R-R-fragments. A scheme is proposed with a Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO 6 octahedra with two long and two short bonds lying in the a-c plane, along two perpendicular orientations within this plane, forming a d-type pattern. - Graphical abstract: Order of the Jahn-Teller distorted MnO 6 octahedra in Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 . Two long and two short bonds lie in the a-c plane, along two perpendicular orientations within this plane, forming a d-type pattern.

  9. Switchable Polarization in Mn Embedded Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad; Ullah, Hamid; Shin, Young-Han

    2018-03-14

    Graphene, despite its many unique properties, is neither intrinsically polar due to inversion symmetry nor magnetic. However, based on density functional theory, we find that Mn, one of transition metals, embedded in single or double vacancy (Mn@SV and Mn@DV) in a graphene monolayer induces a dipole moment perpendicular to the sheet, which can be switched from up to down by Mn penetration through the graphene. Such switching could be realized by an external stimuli introduced through the tip of a scanning probe microscope, as already utilized in the studies of molecular switches. We estimate the energy barriers for dipole switching, which are found to be 2.60 eV and 0.28 eV for Mn@SV and Mn@DV, respectively. However, by applying biaxial tensile strain, we propose a mechanism for tuning the barrier. We find that 10% biaxial tensile strain, which is already experimentally achievable in graphene-like two-dimensional materials, can significantly reduce the barrier to 0.16 eV in Mn@SV. Moreover, in agreement with previous studies, we find a high magnetic moment of 3 μ B for both Mn@SV and Mn@DV, promising the potential of these structures in spintronics as well as in nanoscale electro-mechanical or memory devices.

  10. Uranium tailings reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.W.; Steger, H.F.; Bowman, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of uranium tailings from Bancroft and Elliot Lake, Ontario, and from Beaverlodge and Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan, have been prepared as compositional reference materials at the request of the National Uranium Tailings Research Program. The four samples, UTS-1 to UTS-4, were ground to minus 104 μm, each mixed in one lot and bottled in 200-g units for UTS-1 to UTS-3 and in 100-g units for UTS-4. The materials were tested for homogeneity with respect to uranium by neutron activation analysis and to iron by an acid-decomposition atomic absorption procedure. In a free choice analytical program, 18 laboratories contributed results for one or more of total iron, titanium, aluminum, calcium, barium, uranium, thorium, total sulphur, and sulphate for all four samples, and for nickel and arsenic in UTS-4 only. Based on a statistical analysis of the data, recommended values were assigned to all elements/constituents, except for sulphate in UTS-3 and nickel in UTS-4. The radioactivity of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210 in UTS-1 to UTS-4 and of thorium-232, radium-228, and thorium-228 in UTS-1 and UTS-2 was determined in a radioanalytical program composed of eight laboratories. Recommended values for the radioactivities and associated parameters were calculated by a statistical treatment of the results

  11. First-principle investigation on stability of Co-doped spinel λ-Mn4-xCoxO8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ke-long; CHEN Chun-an; LIU Su-qin; LUO Qiong; LIU Zhi-guo

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of stability of Co-doped spinel λ-MnO2 that is referred to as spinel LiχMn2O4 (χ=0) was studied by using the first-principle calculation method. The total energy and formation enthalpy can be decreased remarkably due to the Co substation,resulting in a more stable structure of λ-MnχCr2-χO4. The bond order and DOS analysis were given in detail to explain the nature of stability improvement. The calculated results show that as the content of Co dopant increases, the bond order of Mn-O becomes larger and the peak of density of states around Fermi level shifts toward lower energy. The charge density distribution illustrates that the Mn-O bonding is ionic and partially covalent, and the covalent Mn-O bonding becomes stronger with the increase of Co dopant content. The results confirm that the Co-doping will enhance the stability of λ-MnO2 and hence improve the electrochemistry performance of LiχMn2O4.

  12. Influence of Mn-dopant on the properties of α-FeOOH particles precipitated in highly alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehula, Stjepko; Music, Svetozar

    2006-01-01

    The effects of Mn-dopant on the formation of solid solutions α-(Fe, Mn)OOH in dependence on the initial concentration ratio r = [Mn]/([Mn] + [Fe]), as well as on the size and morphology of the corresponding particles were investigated using Moessbauer and FT-IR spectroscopies, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyser (EDS). The value of the hyperfine magnetic field of 34.9 T, as recorded for the reference α-FeOOH sample at RT, decreased linearly up to 21.4 T for sample with r = 0.1667. Only a paramagnetic doublet at RT was recorded for sample with r = 0.2308, a ferrite phase was additionally found for r = 0.3333. Fe-OH bending IR bands, δ OH and γ OH , were influenced by the Mn-substitution as manifested through their gradual shifts. FE SEM micrographs showed a great elongation of the starting acicular particles along the c-axis with an increase in Mn-doping. For r = 0.1667 and 0.2308 star-shaped and dendritic twin α-(Fe, Mn)OOH particles were observed. The length of these α-(Fe, Mn)OOH particles decreased, whereas their width increased. The α-Fe 2 O 3 phase was not detected in any of the samples prepared

  13. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  14. Multilayers of GaAs/Mn deposited on a substrate of GaAs (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Salamanca, M; Pulzara-Mora, A; Rosales-Rivera, A; Molina-Valdovinos, S; Melendez-Lira, M; Lopez-Lopez, M

    2009-01-01

    In this work GaAs/Mn multilayers were deposited on GaAs (001) substrates by R.F magnetron sputtering technique, varying the deposition time (tg). Scanning electron and atomic force Microscopy studies were realized on the surface of the samples in order to determine the morphology and average roughness. X-ray diffraction spectra show that our samples tend to do amorphous. Raman spectroscopy at room temperature was employed to analyze the structural properties of the samples. We found that for a GaAs film taken as reference, the Raman spectra is dominated by the transverse (TO) and longitudinal (LO) modes located at 266 cm -1 and 291 cm -1 , respectively. However, for the GaAs/Mn multilayers the TO and LO modes decrease dramatically, and the Mn Raman modes in the range of 100 cm -1 and 250 cm -1 are evidenced. Additional new peaks located around 650 and 690 cm -1 are only observed for the samples with high Mn content. By using the mass reduced model we estimate that the Mn related peaks are located at 650.2 cm -1 and 695.2 cm -1 , in good agreement with the experimental data, these peaks are correlated with excitations due to (Mn) m As n localized structures.

  15. Multilayers of GaAs/Mn deposited on a substrate of GaAs (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernal-Salamanca, M; Pulzara-Mora, A; Rosales-Rivera, A [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, A.A. 127 (Colombia); Molina-Valdovinos, S; Melendez-Lira, M [Physics Department, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Av. IPN No. 2508, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Lopez-Lopez, M, E-mail: aopulzaram@unal.edu.c [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 1-1010, Queretaro 76000 (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    In this work GaAs/Mn multilayers were deposited on GaAs (001) substrates by R.F magnetron sputtering technique, varying the deposition time (tg). Scanning electron and atomic force Microscopy studies were realized on the surface of the samples in order to determine the morphology and average roughness. X-ray diffraction spectra show that our samples tend to do amorphous. Raman spectroscopy at room temperature was employed to analyze the structural properties of the samples. We found that for a GaAs film taken as reference, the Raman spectra is dominated by the transverse (TO) and longitudinal (LO) modes located at 266 cm{sup -1} and 291 cm{sup -1}, respectively. However, for the GaAs/Mn multilayers the TO and LO modes decrease dramatically, and the Mn Raman modes in the range of 100 cm{sup -1} and 250 cm{sup -1} are evidenced. Additional new peaks located around 650 and 690 cm {sup -1} are only observed for the samples with high Mn content. By using the mass reduced model we estimate that the Mn related peaks are located at 650.2 cm{sup -1} and 695.2 cm{sup -1}, in good agreement with the experimental data, these peaks are correlated with excitations due to (Mn){sub m}As{sub n} localized structures.

  16. The value of colonoscopy to assess rectal bleeding in patients referred from Primary Care Units Utilidad de la colonoscopia en pacientes derivados desde Atención Primaria por rectorragia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: rectal bleeding is very common in the general population. It is produced mainly because of benign disease originating in the anus and the rectum. Our aim was to evaluate the need for colonoscopy in patients presenting with rectal bleeding. Patients and methods: patients referred from Primary Care Units and complaining of rectal bleeding were included prospectively in a three-month study. All patients underwent a careful medical history along with physical examination, laboratory tests, and colonoscopy. Results: 126 patients with a mean age of 49.2 years (range: 19-80 were studied. Rectal digital examination was abnormal in 75 cases (59.5%. Severe disease was encountered in 22 patients (neoplasm, angiodysplasia, and inflammatory bowel disease; 10 patients had polyps, 6 had colorectal cancer, and 6 had inflammatory bowel disease. Out of 63 patients younger than 50 years, 5 had severe disease, all of them in the form of inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions: a neoplasm of the rectum and colon in patients younger than 50 years is a rare event. A colonoscopy must be performed in this group of patients to rule out inflammatory bowel disease.Objetivos: la rectorragia es frecuente en la población general. En la mayoría de las ocasiones está producida por patología anorrectal benigna. Nuestro objetivo era determinar la necesidad de realizar pruebas endoscópicas en pacientes con rectorragia. Pacientes y métodos: se incluyeron de forma prospectiva durante tres meses todos los pacientes que eran derivados desde la Atención Primaria por rectorragia. En todos los pacientes se realizó historia clínica y exploración física que incluía tacto rectal, analítica básica y una colonoscopia. Resultados: se incluyeron 126 pacientes con una edad media de 49,2 años (19-80. El tacto rectal fue anormal en 75 (59,5%. En 22 pacientes se encontró patología severa o positiva (lesiones neoplásicas, angiodisplasias y enfermedad inflamatoria

  17. Valence state of Mn in Ca-doped LaMnO3 studied by high-resolution Mn K ß emission spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tyson, T.A.; Qian, Q.; Kao, C.-C.; Rueff, J.-P.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Croft, M.; Cheong, S.-W.; Greenblatt, M.; Subramanian, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Mn K ß x-ray emission spectra provide a direct method to probe the effective spin state and charge density on the Mn atom and is used in an experimental study of a class of Mn oxides. Specifically, the Mn K ß line positions and detailed spectral shapes depend on the oxidation and the spin state of

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of Gd1-xPrxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, A.; Kervan, S.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction, AC susceptibility and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed on the polycrystalline Gd 1-x Pr x Mn 2 Si 2 (0≤x≤1) compounds. All compounds investigated crystallize in the body-centred tetragonal ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Pr for Gd leads to a linear increase of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At the Curie temperature T C (Gd), the Gd sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. This temperature becomes depressed and disappears with increasing Pr content x. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique decreases linearly with increasing Pr content x. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  19. Mn induced 1 × 2 reconstruction in the τ-MnAl(0 0 1) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J.; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2018-05-01

    We report on first principles total energy calculations to describe the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnAl(0 0 1) surfaces. We have concentrated in structural models having 1 × 1 and 1 × 2 periodicities, since recent experiments of the similar MnGa(0 0 1) surface have found 1 × 1 and 1 × 2 reconstructions. Our calculations show the existence of two stable structures for different ranges of chemical potential. A 1 × 1 surface is stable for Al-rich conditions, whereas a Mn-induced 1 × 2 reconstruction appears after increasing the Mn chemical potential up to Mn-rich conditions. It is important to notice that experimentally, Mn rich conditions are important for improved magnetic properties. The Mn layers in both structures have ferromagnetic arrangements, but they are aligned antiferromagnetically with the almost no magnetic Al atoms. Moreover, the on top Mn atoms, which produce the 1 × 2 reconstruction, align antiferromagnetically with the second layer Mn atoms. These findings are similar to those obtained experimentally in MnGa thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Therefore, this method could also be used to grow the proposed MnAl films.

  20. Strong correlation and ferromagnetism in (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippetti, A.; Spaldin, N.A.; Sanvito, S.

    2005-01-01

    The band energies of the ferromagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)N are calculated using a self-interaction-free approach which describes covalent and strongly correlated electrons without adjustable parameters. Both materials are half-metallic, although the contribution of Mn-derived d states to the bands around the Fermi energy is very different in the two cases. In (Ga,Mn)As the bands are strongly p-d hybridized, with a dominance of As p states. In contrast in (Ga,Mn)N the Fermi energy lies within three flat bands of mainly d character that are occupied by two electrons. Thus the Mn ion in (Ga,Mn)N behaves as a deep trap acceptor, with the hole at 1.39 eV above the GaN valence band top, and is in excellent agreement with the experimental data

  1. Nano-sized Mn3O4 and β-MnOOH from the decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn: 2. The water-oxidizing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafalu, Ramin; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Ebrahimi, Foad; Kaboudin, Babak

    2015-11-01

    Nano-sized Mn oxides contain Mn3O4, β-MnOOH and Mn2O3 have been prepared by a previously reported method using thermal decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn complexes. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these Mn oxides using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant are studied. The turnover frequencies for β-MnO(OH) and Mn3O4 are 0.24 and 0.01-0.17 (mmol O2/mol Mns), respectively. Subsequently, water-oxidizing activities of these compounds are compared to the other previously reported Mn oxides. Important factors affecting water oxidation by these Mn oxides are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theoretical investigation of the reaction of Mn+ with ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Wenyue; Zhao, Lianming; Liu, Zhaochun; Lu, Xiaoqing; Shan, Honghong

    2012-01-12

    The potential energy surfaces of Mn(+) reaction with ethylene oxide in both the septet and quintet states are investigated at the B3LYP/DZVP level of theory. The reaction paths leading to the products of MnO(+), MnO, MnCH(2)(+), MnCH(3), and MnH(+) are described in detail. Two types of encounter complexes of Mn(+) with ethylene oxide are formed because of attachments of the metal at different sites of ethylene oxide, i.e., the O atom and the CC bond. Mn(+) would insert into a C-O bond or the C-C bond of ethylene oxide to form two different intermediates prior to forming various products. MnO(+)/MnO and MnH(+) are formed in the C-O activation mechanism, while both C-O and C-C activations account for the MnCH(2)(+)/MnCH(3) formation. Products MnO(+), MnCH(2)(+), and MnH(+) could be formed adiabatically on the quintet surface, while formation of MnO and MnCH(3) is endothermic on the PESs with both spins. In agreement with the experimental observations, the excited state a(5)D is calculated to be more reactive than the ground state a(7)S. This theoretical work sheds new light on the experimental observations and provides fundamental understanding of the reaction mechanism of ethylene oxide with transition metal cations.

  3. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layek, Samar; Verma, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Mn-doped NiO nanoparticles of the series Ni1-xMnxO (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06) are successfully synthesized using a low temperature hydrothermal method. Samples up to 6% Mn-doping are single phase in nature as observed from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Rietveld refinement of the XRD data shows that all the single phase samples crystallize in the NaCl like fcc structure with space group Fm-3m. Unit cell volume decreases with increasing Mn-doping. Pure NiO nanoparticles show weak ferromagnetism, may be due to nanosize nature. Introduction of Mn within NiO lattice improves the magnetic properties significantly. Room temperature ferromagnetism is found in all the doped samples whereas the magnetization is highest for 2% Mn-doping and then decreases with further doping. The ZFC and FC branches in the temperature dependent magnetization separate well above 350 K indicating transition temperature well above room temperature for 2% Mn-doped NiO Nanoparticle. The ferromagnetic Curie temperature is found to be 653 K for the same sample as measured by temperature dependent magnetization study using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in high vacuum.

  4. Energy policy: selected references. [Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenwrick-Piercy, E [comp.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is based on material held in the UK Department of Energy Library. Energy-related documents published between 1973 and 1980 are emphasized in the 260 references listed. The bibliography is organized under the major headings of United Kingdom, Irish Republic, World, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, and Middle East. For continuing information on energy policy, 5 useful periodicals are listed.

  5. Developing prospects of NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Min

    1999-01-01

    The reason and information on high temperature shape memory alloy research are introduced briefly Also, referring to some experimental reports on NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy, it is pointed out that ductility and memory property of this alloy can be improved by adapting proper composition and procedure to control its microstructure. Meanwhile, the engineering details must be considered when NiAlMn high temperature shape memory alloy being developed so as to resolve the problems of its practical use

  6. Thermal annealing of recoil 56Mn in strontium permanganate under (n,γ) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Vijaya

    2002-01-01

    Chemical stabilization of recoil 56 Mn in strontium permanganate (hydrous and anhydrous) has been investigated with a special reference to pre-and post-activation thermal annealing treatments. The retention of 56 Mn in neutron irradiated strontium permanganate showed significant variation on thermal annealing in both pre-and post-activation heated target. The recoil re-entry process obeys simple first order kinetics and the activation energy deduced for thermal annealing process is very low as computed by classical Arrhenius plots. The results observed are discussed in the light of existing ideas for understanding the recoil stabilization mechanism of parent reformation and the nature of precursors in permanganates. (author)

  7. Synthesis, structural and ferromagnetic properties of La1–x Kx MnO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    2009-09-05

    Sep 5, 2009 ... Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India .... equation for the formation of samples can be proposed as follows ..... for La-site in LaMnO3 system by the rapid solution com-.

  8. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  9. 15 CFR 2008.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2008.1 Section 2008.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  10. Synthesis and Electrochemistry of Li3MnO4: Mn in the +5 OxidationState

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, Juliette.A.; Doeff, Marca M.; Reed, John

    2007-06-19

    Computational and experimental work directed at exploringthe electrochemical properties of tetrahedrally coordinated Mn in the +5oxidation state is presented. Specific capacities of nearly 700 mAh/g arepredicted for the redox processes of LixMnO4 complexes based on twotwo-phase reactions. One is topotactic extractionof Li from Li3MnO4 toform LiMnO4 and the second is topotactic insertion of Li into Li3MnO4 toform Li5MnO4. In experiments, it is found that the redox behavior ofLi3MnO4 is complicated by disproportionation of Mn5+ in solution to formMn4+ and Mn7+ and byother irreversible processes; although an initialcapacity of about 275 mAh/g in lithiumcells was achieved. Strategiesbased on structural considerations to improve the electrochemicalproperties of MnO4n- complexes are given.

  11. Binuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) clusters in coordination polymers derived from semirigid tetracarboxylate and N‑donor ligands: syntheses, new topology structures and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiao-Ling [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Henan Key Laboratory of Function-Oriented Porous Materials, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471934 (China); Liu, Guang-Zhen, E-mail: gzliuly@126.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Henan Key Laboratory of Function-Oriented Porous Materials, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471934 (China); Xin, Ling-Yun [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Henan Key Laboratory of Function-Oriented Porous Materials, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471934 (China); Wang, Li-Ya [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Henan Key Laboratory of Function-Oriented Porous Materials, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang 471934 (China); College of Chemistry and Pharmacy Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, Henan 473061 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Two topologically new Mn(II) coordination polymers, namely ([Mn{sub 2}(H{sub 4}ipca)(4,4′-bpy){sub 1.5}(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH){sub 0.5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 1.5}]·0.5CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH·2.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1) and (Mn{sub 4}(H{sub 4}ipca){sub 2}(bze)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}){sub n} (2) were prepared by the solvothermal reactions of Mn(II) acetate with 5-(2’,3’-dicarboxylphenoxy)isophthalic acid (H{sub 4}ipca) in the presence of different N-donor coligands (4,4′-bpy=4,4′-bipyridyl and bze=1, 4-bis(1-imidazoly)benzene). The single crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that two complexes display 3D metal-organic frameworks with binuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) units, respectively. Complex 1 features a (3,4,6)-connected porous framework based on dinuclear Mn(II) unit with the (4.5{sup 2}){sub 2}(4{sup 2}.6{sup 8}.8{sup 3}.9{sup 2})(5{sup 2}.8.9{sup 2}.10) new topology, and complex 2 possesses a (3,8)-connected network based on tetranuclear Mn(II) unit with the (4{sup 2}.6){sub 2}(4{sup 4}.6{sup 14}.7{sup 7}.8{sup 2}.9) new topology. Magnetic analyses indicate that both two compounds show weak antiferromagnetic interactions within binuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) units. - Graphical abstract: Two topologically new Mn(II) metal-organic frameworks with dinuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) units respectively were assembled by using 5-(2′,3′-Dicarboxylphenoxy)isophthalic acid and N-donor ancillary coligands. Magnetic analysis revealed the existence of dominant antiferromagnetic interactions within the polynuclear Mn(II) units. - Highlights: • Mixed ligand strategy produces two topologically new MOFs with dinuclear and tetranuclear Mn(II) respectively. • Magnetic fitting gives weak antiferromagnetic interactions within the polynuclear Mn(II) units.

  12. Development of MnBi permanent magnet: Neutron diffraction of MnBi powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J., E-mail: jun.cui@pnnl.gov; Choi, J. P.; Li, G.; Polikarpov, E.; Darsell, J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Kramer, M. J.; Zarkevich, N. A.; Wang, L. L.; Johnson, D. D. [Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Marinescu, M. [Electron Energy Corporation, Landisville, Pennsylvania 17538 (United States); Huang, Q. Z.; Wu, H. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-6102 (United States); Vuong, N. V.; Liu, J. P. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain because of the rather drastic peritectic reaction between Mn and Bi. In this paper, we report our effort on synthesizing high purity MnBi compound using conventional powder metallurgical approaches. Neutron diffraction was carried out to investigate the crystal and nuclear structure of the obtained powder. The result shows that the purity of the obtained powder is about 91 wt. % at 300 K, and the magnetic moment of the Mn atom in MnBi lattice is 4.424 and 4.013 μ{sub B} at 50 K and 300 K, respectively.

  13. Development of MnBi permanent magnet: Neutron diffraction of MnBi powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, J; Choi, JP; Li, G; Polikarpov, E; Darsell, J; Kramer, MJ; Zarkevich, NA; Wang, LL; Johnson, DD; Marinescu, M; Huang, QZ; Wu, H; Vuong, NV; Liu, JP

    2014-05-07

    MnBi attracts great attention in recent years for its great potential as permanent magnet materials. MnBi phase is difficult to obtain because of the rather drastic peritectic reaction between Mn and Bi. In this paper, we report our effort on synthesizing high purity MnBi compound using conventional powder metallurgical approaches. Neutron diffraction was carried out to investigate the crystal and nuclear structure of the obtained powder. The result shows that the purity of the obtained powder is about 91 wt. % at 300 K, and the magnetic moment of the Mn atom in MnBi lattice is 4.424 and 4.013 mu(B) at 50 K and 300 K, respectively. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  14. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-01

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (Al6(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content. PMID:28787888

  15. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al-5Mg-Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulin; Huang, Gaoren; Sun, Yimeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Wang, Jijie; Liu, Chunzhong

    2016-01-29

    Mn was an important alloying element used in Al-Mg-Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (Al-5Mg-Mn alloy with low Fe content (Al₆(Fe,Mn) was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al-5Mg-Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe), intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %). Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al₆(Fe,Mn) to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  16. Kinetics of physico-chemical processes during intensive mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M. [CIICAp-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Juarez-Arellano, E.A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.mx [Universidad del Papaloapan, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca (Mexico); Bykov, A. [Institute for Problems of Materials Science of NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Leon, I. [CIQ-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Siqueiros-Diaz, A. [FCQI-Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Experimental results of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that the kinetic of the physical and chemical processes that takes place during prolonged intensive mechanical processing (MP, 03120min) of powder mixtures of 50%wt ZnO+50%wt MnO{sub 2} can be described as a three stage process. (1) 030min, particles destruction, formation of superficial defects, fast increment of sample average temperature (from 290 to {approx}600K) and annealing of defects with the lowest energy of activation E{sub ac}. (2) 30390min, further particle destruction, slow increment of sample average temperature (from {approx}600 to {approx}700K), formation and growth of a very disordered layer of {beta}-MnO{sub 2} around ZnO particles, dehydration of MnO{sub 2}, formation of solid solution of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO, formation of nano-quasiamorphous states in the ZnO-MnO{sub 2} mixture and onset of the formation of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. (3) 3903120min, the sample average temperature remains constant ({approx}700K), the reaction is completed and the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase with a unit cell a=8.431(1) A and space group Fd3-barm is the only phase present in the sample. No ferromagnetism at room temperature was detected in this study. - Highlights: > The kinetics during mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO{sub 2} samples is a three stage process. > First stage, reduction of crystallites size and accumulation of defects. > Second stage, nano-quasiamorphous states formation and onset of the ZnMnO{sub 3} phase. > Third stage, complete reaction to the spinel ZnMnO{sub 3} phase.

  17. Kinetics of physico-chemical processes during intensive mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO2 powder mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazey, M.; Vlasova, M.; Dominguez-Patino, M.; Juarez-Arellano, E.A.; Bykov, A.; Leon, I.; Siqueiros-Diaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy demonstrate that the kinetic of the physical and chemical processes that takes place during prolonged intensive mechanical processing (MP, 0 MP >3120min) of powder mixtures of 50%wt ZnO+50%wt MnO 2 can be described as a three stage process. (1) 0 MP >30min, particles destruction, formation of superficial defects, fast increment of sample average temperature (from 290 to ∼600K) and annealing of defects with the lowest energy of activation E ac . (2) 30 MP >390min, further particle destruction, slow increment of sample average temperature (from ∼600 to ∼700K), formation and growth of a very disordered layer of β-MnO 2 around ZnO particles, dehydration of MnO 2 , formation of solid solution of Mn 2+ ions in ZnO, formation of nano-quasiamorphous states in the ZnO-MnO 2 mixture and onset of the formation of the ZnMnO 3 phase. (3) 390 MP >3120min, the sample average temperature remains constant (∼700K), the reaction is completed and the spinel ZnMnO 3 phase with a unit cell a=8.431(1) A and space group Fd3-barm is the only phase present in the sample. No ferromagnetism at room temperature was detected in this study. - Highlights: → The kinetics during mechanical processing of ZnO-MnO 2 samples is a three stage process. → First stage, reduction of crystallites size and accumulation of defects. → Second stage, nano-quasiamorphous states formation and onset of the ZnMnO 3 phase. → Third stage, complete reaction to the spinel ZnMnO 3 phase.

  18. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  19. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  20. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  1. Swelling of Fe-Mn and Fe-Cr-Mn alloys at high neutron fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Brager, H.R.

    1986-06-01

    Swelling data on neutron-irradiated simple Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Mn alloys, as well as commercial Fe-Cr-Mn base alloys are now becoming available at exposure levels approaching 50 dpa. The swelling rate decreases from the ∼1%/dpa found at lower exposures, probably due to the extensive formation of ferritic phases. As expected, commercial alloys swell less than the simple alloys

  2. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  3. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G., E-mail: gubbiotti@fisica.unipg.it; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (IOM-CNR), Unità di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Del Bianco, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  4. Translocation of Cd and Mn from Bark to Leaves in Willows on Contaminated Sediments: Delayed Budburst Is Related to High Mn Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Vandecasteele

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the hydrology of sediments in tidal marshes or landfills may affect the uptake of metals in the vegetation. Leaf and stem samples of Salix cinerea (grey sallow were collected during four consecutive growing seasons at six contaminated plots on a polluted dredged sediment landfill and one plot on an uncontaminated reference site. The first three contaminated plots were already emerged in the first half of the first growing season, while the other three were submerged in the first year, but became increasingly dry over the study period. Foliar and stem cutting concentrations for Cd, Zn and Mn increased on the latter three plots over the four years. Willow bark contained high concentrations of Cd, Zn and Mn. In two consecutive greenhouse experiments with willow cuttings from different origins (uncontaminated and contaminated sites and grown under different soil conditions (uncontaminated and contaminated, we observed an important translocation of Mn from bark to shoots. In a third experiment with willow cuttings collected on soils with a range of heavy metal concentrations and, thus, with a broad range of Cd (4–67 mg/kg dry matter, Zn (247–660 mg/kg dry matter and Mn (38–524 mg/kg dry matter concentrations in the bark, high Mn concentrations in the bark were found to affect the budburst of willow cuttings, while no association of delayed budburst with Cd and Zn concentrations in the bark was found. We conclude that wood and, especially, bark are not a sink for metals in living willows. The high Mn concentrations in the bark directly or indirectly caused delayed or restricted budburst of the willow cuttings.

  5. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  6. Antiferromagnetic MnN layer on the MnGa(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Sánchez, J., E-mail: guerrero@cnyn.unam.mx; Takeuchi, Noboru

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A ferromagnetic Gallium terminated surface is stable before N incorporation. • After N incorporation, an antiferromagnetic MnN layer becomes stable in a wide range of chemical potential. • Spin density distribution shows an antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (MnN/MnGa) arrangement at the surface. - Abstract: Spin polarized first principles total energy calculations have been applied to study the stability and magnetic properties of the MnGa(001) surface and the formation of a topmost MnN layer with the deposit of nitrogen. Before nitrogen adsorption, surface formation energies show a stable gallium terminated ferromagnetic surface. After incorporation of nitrogen atoms, the antiferromagnetic manganese terminated surface becomes stable due to the formation of a MnN layer (Mn-N bonding at the surface). Spin density distribution shows a ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic arrangement in the first surface layers. This thermodynamically stable structure may be exploited to growth MnGa/MnN magnetic heterostructures as well as to look for exchange biased systems.

  7. Transition probabilities and dissociation energies of MnH and MnD molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, K.; Rajamanickam, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Frank-Condon factors (vibrational transition probabilities) and r-centroids have been evaluated by the more reliable numerical integration procedure for the bands of A-X system of MnH and MnD molecules, using a suitable potential. By fitting the Hulburt- Hirschfelder function to the experimental potential curve using correlation coefficient, the dissociation energy for the electronic ground states of MnH and MnD molecules, respectively have been estimated as D 0 0 =251±5 KJ.mol -1 and D 0 0 =312±6 KJ.mol -1 . (authors)

  8. Fourier transform spectroscopy of MnH and MnD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, W. J.; Launila, O.; Klynning, L.

    Two infrared band systems, centred near 846 nm and 1060 nm in both MnH and MnD have been rotationally analysed and shown to have a common lower state. The electronic transitions lie within the quintet manifold and are here designated c 5Σ-a 5Σ and b 5Πi-a 5Σ for the 846 and 1060 nm systems, respectively. In the 846 nm system in MnH all 10 main branches have been found in the 0-0 and 1-1 bands, while in MnD the data are complete only for 0-0. Satellite branches have been identified in the 1060 nm system and all spin and Λ-type doublings have been established. The number of assigned 0-0 branches in the 1060 nm system is 35 for MnH and 37 for MnD. Molecular constants have been determined for all three states involved. Λ-doubling diagrams are presented for b 5Πi state with v = 1, 2 levels in MnH and with the v = 2 level in MnD. Local perturbations in c5Σ (v = 1) in MnH are suspected to originate from the v = 3 level of b 5Πi.

  9. Resonant optical alignment and orientation of Mn2+ spins in CdMnTe crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, K. A.; Langer, L.; Akimov, I. A.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Averkiev, N. S.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2015-11-01

    We report on spin orientation and alignment of Mn2 + ions in (Cd,Mn)Te diluted magnetic semiconductor crystals using resonant intracenter excitation with circular- and linear-polarized light. The resulting polarized emission of the magnetic ions is observed at low temperatures when the spin relaxation time of the Mn2 + ions is in the order of 1 ms , which considerably exceeds the photoluminescence decay time of 23 μ s . We demonstrate that the experimental data on optical orientation and alignment of Mn2 + ions can be explained using a phenomenological model that is based on the approximation of isolated centers.

  10. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis and magnetic properties of the thin film exchange spring system of MnBi/FeCo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabet, S.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L.

    2017-10-01

    Manganese bismuth thin films with a nominal thickness of ∼40 nm were grown at room temperature onto quartz glass substrate in a DC magnetron sputtering unit. In contrast to the usual multilayer approach, the MnBi films were deposited using a single sputtering target with a stoichiometry of Mn55Bi45 (at. %). A subsequent in-situ annealing step was performed in vacuum in order to form the ferromagnetic LTP of MnBi. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of a textured LTP MnBi hard phase after annealing at 330 °C. This film shows a maximum saturation magnetization of 530 emu/cm3, high out-of-plane coercivity of 15 kOe induced by unreacted bismuth. The exchange coupling effect was investigated by deposition of a second layer of FeCo with 1 nm and 2 nm thickness onto the LTP MnBi films. The MnBi/FeCo double layer showed as expected higher saturation magnetization with increasing thickness of the FeCo layer while the coercive field remained constant. The fabrication of the MnBi/FeCo double layer for an exchange spring magnet was facilitated by deposition from a single stoichiometric target.

  12. Oxygen-atom transfer chemistry and thermolytic properties of a di-tert-butylphosphate-ligated Mn4O4 cubane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allsburg, Kurt M; Anzenberg, Eitan; Drisdell, Walter S; Yano, Junko; Tilley, T Don

    2015-03-16

    [Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Alshareef, Husam N.; Kasiviswanathan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  14. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  15. High-pressure phase of the cubic spinel NiMn2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åsbrink, S.; Waskowska, A.; Olsen, J. Staun

    1998-01-01

    experimental uncertainty, there is no volume change at the transition. The cia ratio of the tetragonal spinel is almost independent of pressure and equal to 0.91. The phase transition is attributed to the Jahn-Teller-type distortion and the ionic configurationcan be assumed as (Mn3+)(tetr)[Ni2+Mn3+](oct......It has been observed that the fee spinel NiMn2O4 transforms to a tetragonal structure at about 12 GPa. The tetragonal phase does not revert to the cubic phase upon decompression and its unit-cell constants at ambient pressure are a(0)=8.65(8) and c(0)=7.88(15) Angstrom (distorted fee). Within thr......). The bulk modulus of the cubic phase is 206(4) GPa....

  16. Gradual pressure-induced change in the magnetic structure of the noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, A. S.; Singh, Sanjay; Caron, L.; Hansen, Th.; Hoser, A.; Kumar, V.; Borrmann, H.; Fitch, A.; Devi, P.; Manna, K.; Felser, C.; Inosov, D. S.

    2018-06-01

    By means of powder neutron diffraction we investigate changes in the magnetic structure of the coplanar noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Ge caused by an application of hydrostatic pressure up to 5 GPa. At ambient conditions the kagomé layers of Mn atoms in Mn3Ge order in a triangular 120∘ spin structure. Under high pressure the spins acquire a uniform out-of-plane canting, gradually transforming the magnetic texture to a noncoplanar configuration. With increasing pressure the canted structure fully transforms into the collinear ferromagnetic one. We observed that magnetic order is accompanied by a noticeable magnetoelastic effect, namely, spontaneous magnetostriction. The latter induces an in-plane magnetostrain of the hexagonal unit cell at ambient pressure and flips to an out-of-plane strain at high pressures in accordance with the change of the magnetic structure.

  17. Development of beta reference radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoyong; Cai Shanyu; Li Yanbo; Yin Wei; Feng Jiamin; Sun Yuhua; Li Yongqiang

    1997-09-01

    A system of beta reference radiation has been developed, that is composed of 740 MBq 147 Pm beta source, 74 MBq and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y β sources, compensation filters, a source handling tool, a source jig, spacing bars, a shutter, a control unit and a beta dose meter calibration stand. For 740 MBq 147 Pm and 74 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiations with compensation filters and 740 MBq 90 Sr + 90 Y beta reference radiation without compensation filter, at 20 cm, 30 cm and 30 cm distance separately; the residual energy of maximum is 0.14 MeV, 1.98 MeV and 2.18 MeV separately; the absorbed dose to tissue D (0.07) is 1.547 mGy/h (1996-05-20), 5.037 mGy/h (1996-05-10) and 93.57 mGy/h (1996-05-15) separately; the total uncertainty is 3.0%, 1.7% and 1.7% separately. For the first and the second beta reference radiation, the dose rate variability in the area of 18 cm diameter in the plane perpendicular to the beta-ray beam axis is within +-6% and +-3% separately. (3 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.)

  18. Monodispersed MnO nanoparticles with epitaxial Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, A E; Rodriguez, G F [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Hong, J I; Fullerton, E E [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California-San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); An, K; Hyeon, T [National Creative Research Initiative Center for Oxide Nanocrystalline Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Agarwal, N; Smith, D J [School of Materials and Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2008-07-07

    We report the microstructural and magnetic properties of monodispersed nanoparticles (NPs) of antiferromagnetic MnO (T{sub N} = 118 K), with epitaxial ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} (T{sub C} = 43 K) shells. Above T{sub C}, an unusually large magnetization is present, produced by the uncompensated spins (UCSs) on the surface of the MnO particles. These spins impart a net anisotropy to the MnO particles that is approximately three orders of magnitude larger than the bulk value. As a result, an anomalously high blocking temperature is exhibited by the MnO particles, and finite coercivity and exchange bias are present above T{sub C}. When field cooled below T{sub C}, a strong exchange bias was established in the Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} shells as a result of high net anisotropy of the MnO particles. A large coercivity was also observed. Models of several aspects of the behaviour of this unusual system emphasized the essential role of the UCSs on the surfaces of the MnO NPs.

  19. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.; Yang, Y. M.; Guo, Z. B.; Wu, Y. H.; Qiu, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb

  20. Tempering of Mn and Mn-Si-V dual-phase steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, G. R.; Schwoeble, A. J.; Huffman, G. P.

    1983-06-01

    Changes in the yield behavior, strength, and ductility of a Mn and a Mn-Si-V d11Al-phase (ferrite-martensite) steel were investigated after tempering one hour at 200 to 600 °C. The change in yield behavior was complex in both steels with the yield strength first increasing and then decreasing as the tempering temperature was increased. This complex behavior is attributed to a combination of factors including carbon segregation to dislocations, a return of discontinuous yielding, and the relief of resid11Al stresses. In contrast, the tensile strength decreased continuously as the tempering temperature was increased in a manner that could be predicted from the change in hardness of the martensite phase using a simple composite strengthening model. The initial tensile ductility (total elongation) of the Mn-Si-V steel was much greater than that of the Mn steel. However, upon tempering up to 400 °C, the ductility of the Mn-Si-V decreased whereas that of the Mn steel increased. As a result, both steels had similar ductilities after tempering at 400 °C or higher temperatures. These results are attributed to the larger amounts of retained austenite in the Mn-Si-V steel (9 pct) compared to the Mn steel (3 pct) and its contribution to tensile ductility by transforming to martensite during plastic straining. Upon tempering at 400 °C, the retained austenite decomposes to bainite and its contribution to tensile ductility is eliminated.

  1. Preliminary Experiment on Neutron-Induced Mn Activity in Mn-Cd Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1942-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda, J. Gueron and L. Kowarski at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in June 1942 and is about a preliminary experiment on neutron-induced Mn activity in Mn-Cd solutions. The description of the experiment and the results can be found also in this report. (nowak)

  2. Na2MnSiO4 as an attractive high capacity cathode material for sodium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Markas; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Balaya, Palani

    2017-08-01

    Here we report a polyanion-based cathode material for sodium-ion batteries, Na2MnSiO4, registering impressive sodium storage performances with discharge capacity of 210 mAh g-1 at an average voltage of 3 V at 0.1 C, along with excellent long-term cycling stability (500 cycles at 1 C). Insertion/extraction of ∼1.5 mol of sodium ion per formula unit of the silicate-based compound is reported and the utilisation of Mn2+ ⇋ Mn4+ redox couple is also demonstrated by ex-situ XPS. Besides, this study involves a systematic investigation of influence of the electrolyte additive (with different content) on the sodium storage performance of Na2MnSiO4. The electrolyte additive forms an optimum protective passivation film on the electrode surface, successfully reducing manganese dissolution.

  3. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  4. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  5. Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of MnH and MnD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Iouli E.; Appadoo, Dominique R. T.; Shayesteh, Alireza; Walker, Kaley A.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2005-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of MnH and MnD were observed in the ground X7Σ + electronic state. The vibration-rotation bands from v = 1 → 0 to v = 3 → 2 for MnH and from v = 1 → 0 to v = 4 → 3 for MnD were recorded at an instrumental resolution of 0.0085 cm -1. Spectroscopic constants were determined for each vibrational level and equilibrium constants were found from a Dunham-type fit. The equilibrium vibrational constant ( ωe) for MnH was found to be 1546.84518(65) cm -1, the equilibrium rotational constant ( Be) is 5.6856789(103) cm -1 and the eqilibrium bond distance ( re) was determined to be 1.7308601(47) Å.

  6. Frequency-domain terahertz transmission spectra of Mn3 and Mn12 single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, RuiYuan; Zuo, JunWei; Li, YanRong; Zhou, YuRong; Wang, YunPing

    2012-07-01

    Frequency-domain terahertz transmission spectra of Mn3 and Mn12 single molecule magnets (SMMs) have been measured at different temperatures, and hence the anisotropic parameters D 2 and D 4 of the spin Hamiltonian hat H = D_2 hat S_z^2 + D_4 hat S_z^4 have been calculated. For Mn12 SMM, D 2=-10.9 GHz and D 4=-2.59×10-2 GHz, while for Mn3 SMM, D 2=-22.0 GHz and D 4 can be considered negligible. This suggests Mn3 SMM can be considered as a simpler and more suitable candidate for magnetic quantum tunneling research.

  7. [Reference values for cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in a population of Hispanic children from 6 to 11 y, in the northern border of Mexico and the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Berumen, Ever; Gómez Miranda, Luis Mario; Torres Balcázar, Elías; Padilla Alvarado, Victor Hugo; Renteria, Ivan

    2014-10-31

    Overweight and obesity in children in the Mexico-USA border have evolved differently to the rest of their respective countries. New reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose are required to treatment. To determine the reference values of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years in the Mexico-USA border. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study. A population of Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years of both boys and girls, belonging to three public institutions in the cities of Ensenada and Chihuahua, randomly selected, were studied. The study variables were the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and glucose (G). From 300 subjects studied just 54 children completed the study. Higher average values of TC (168.7 ± 27.2 mg / dl), TG (80.6 ± 48.4 mg / dl) and G (88.3 ± 8.9 mg / dl) were observed. An additional behavior was founded, never reported previously to the limit of the knowledge of the authors; glucose levels of the children studied decreased with increased of cholesterol and triglycerides. To discard a random relationship between the variables, the Pearson correlation coefficient was determined between waist circumference and BMI, verifying an inverse association with G and direct with the TG. The reference values for Hispanic children between 6 and 11 years living on the northern border of Mexico-USA differ with respect to the national average values of the countries studied. Further studies are needed in larger populations to confirm the trend ob served in glucose levels of normal children, overweight and obese. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Mn(II,III) oxidation and MnO2 mineralization by an expressed bacterial multicopper oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Cristina N.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Spiro, Thomas G.; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Mn(IV) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and control the bioavailability and distribution of many toxic and essential elements and organic compounds. Their formation is thought to be dependent on microbial enzymes, because spontaneous Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxidation is slow. Several species of marine Bacillus spores oxidize Mn(II) on their exosporium, the outermost layer of the spore, encrusting them with Mn(IV) oxides. Molecular studies have identified the mnx (Mn oxidation) genes, including mnxG, encoding a putative multicopper oxidase (MCO), as responsible for this two-electron oxidation, a surprising finding because MCOs only catalyze single-electron transfer reactions. Characterization of the enzymatic mechanism has been hindered by the lack of purified protein. By purifying active protein from the mnxDEFG expression construct, we found that the resulting enzyme is a blue (absorption maximum 590 nm) complex containing MnxE, MnxF, and MnxG proteins. Further, by analyzing the Mn(II)- and (III)-oxidizing activity in the presence of a Mn(III) chelator, pyrophosphate, we found that the complex facilitates both electron transfers from Mn(II) to Mn(III) and from Mn(III) to Mn(IV). X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the Mn mineral product confirmed its similarity to Mn(IV) oxides generated by whole spores. Our results demonstrate that Mn oxidation from soluble Mn(II) to Mn(IV) oxides is a two-step reaction catalyzed by an MCO-containing complex. With the purification of active Mn oxidase, we will be able to uncover its mechanism, broadening our understanding of Mn mineral formation and the bioinorganic capabilities of MCOs. PMID:23818588

  9. Magnetic ordering of GdMn2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouladdiaf, B.; Ritter, C.; Ballou, R.; Deportes, J.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. GdMn 2 crystallizes in the C15 cubic Laves phase structure. Within this structure Mn atoms lie at the vertices of regular tetrahedra stacked in the diamond arrangement connected by sharing vertices, leading to a strong geometric frustration. An antiferromagnetic magnetic order sets in below T N ∼ 105 K. It gives rise to a large magnetovolume effect (ΔV/V ∼ 1%). Thermal expansion data show two anomalies at 105 K and 35 K. The second anomaly was often interpreted as the ferromagnetic ordering of Gd sublattice. Moessbauer data indicate however, that Gd sublattice orders at T N ∼ 105 K as the Mn moments. Elastic neutron scattering measurements were performed using short wavelength neutron beam (λ = 0.5 A) on D9 at ILL. No magnetic contribution to the nuclear peaks was found excluding thereby any K = [0 0 0] component. However antiferromagnetic peaks indexed by a propagation vector [2/3 2/3 0] were observed leading to a non collinear magnetic arrangement of both Mn and Gd sublattices. The results are discussed by invoking the geometric frustration associated with the Mn atomic packing and the singlet state of the Gd ions. (author)

  10. Noncollinear antiferromagnetic Mn3Sn films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, A.; Taylor, J. M.; Kalache, A.; Werner, P.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Felser, C.

    2018-05-01

    Noncollinear hexagonal antiferromagnets with almost zero net magnetization were recently shown to demonstrate giant anomalous Hall effect. Here, we present the structural and magnetic properties of noncollinear antiferromagnetic Mn3Sn thin films heteroepitaxially grown on Y:ZrO2 (111) substrates with a Ru underlayer. The Mn3Sn films were crystallized in the hexagonal D 019 structure with c -axis preferred (0001) crystal orientation. The Mn3Sn films are discontinuous, forming large islands of approximately 400 nm in width, but are chemical homogeneous and characterized by near perfect heteroepitaxy. Furthermore, the thin films show weak ferromagnetism with an in-plane uncompensated magnetization of M =34 kA/m and coercivity of μ0Hc=4.0 mT at room temperature. Additionally, the exchange bias effect was studied in Mn3Sn /Py bilayers. Exchange bias fields up to μ0HEB=12.6 mT can be achieved at 5 K. These results show Mn3Sn films to be an attractive material for applications in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  11. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  12. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  13. Magnetic properties of Heusler alloy Mn2RuGe and Mn2RuGa ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ling; Liu, Bohua; Meng, Fanbin; Liu, Heyan; Luo, Hongzhi; Liu, Enke; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2015-01-01

    Heusler alloys Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa have been prepared by melt-spinning method successfully. Theoretical and experimental studies reveal a ferrimagnetic ground state in the two alloys. The Curie temperatures are 303 K for Mn 2 RuGe and 272 K for Mn 2 RuGa. The calculated total spin moments of Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa are integral values of 2.00 μ B and 1.03 μ B , respectively. And the theoretical spin polarization ratio is also quite high. However, due to the atomic disorder in the ribbons, the saturation moments of them measured at 5 K are smaller than the calculated values, especially that of Mn 2 RuGa. This coincides with the disappearance of the superlattice reflection (111) and (200) peaks in the XRD pattern of Mn 2 RuGa. Annealing Mn 2 RuGa ribbon at 773 K can enhance the atomic ordering. Both saturation magnetic moment and Curie temperature increase obviously after the heat treatment. - Highlights: • Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa have been prepared by melt-spinning successfully. • Ferrimagnetic ground state has been confirmed in Mn 2 RuGe and Mn 2 RuGa. • High spin polarization has been predicted in Mn 2 RuGe. • Melt-spinning can be a possible way to adjust the atomic order of Heusler alloys

  14. S. 210: This Act may be referred to as the Comprehensive Uranium Act of 1991, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, January 15, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This bill would establish the United States Enrichment Corporation to operate the Federal uranium enrichment program on a profitable and efficient basis in order to maximize the long term economic value to the US, provide assistance to the domestic uranium industry, and provide a Federal contribution for the reclamation of mill tailings generated pursuant to Federal defense contracts at active uranium and thorium processing sites. The bill describes congressional findings; definitions, establishment of corporation, and purposes; corporate offices; powers and duties of the corporation; organization, finance, and management; licensing, taxation, and miscellaneous provisions; decontamination and decommissioning; and uranium security and tailing reclamation

  15. Room Temperature Ferromagnetic Mn:Ge(001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Adrian Lungu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of a room temperature ferromagnetic Mn-Ge system obtained by simple deposition of manganese on Ge(001, heated at relatively high temperature (starting with 250 °C. The samples were characterized by low energy electron diffraction (LEED, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID, and magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE. Samples deposited at relatively elevated temperature (350 °C exhibited the formation of ~5–8 nm diameter Mn5Ge3 and Mn11Ge8 agglomerates by HRTEM, while XPS identified at least two Mn-containing phases: the agglomerates, together with a Ge-rich MnGe~2.5 phase, or manganese diluted into the Ge(001 crystal. LEED revealed the persistence of long range order after a relatively high amount of Mn (100 nm deposited on the single crystal substrate. STM probed the existence of dimer rows on the surface, slightly elongated as compared with Ge–Ge dimers on Ge(001. The films exhibited a clear ferromagnetism at room temperature, opening the possibility of forming a magnetic phase behind a nearly ideally terminated Ge surface, which could find applications in integration of magnetic functionalities on semiconductor bases. SQUID probed the co-existence of a superparamagnetic phase, with one phase which may be attributed to a diluted magnetic semiconductor. The hypothesis that the room temperature ferromagnetic phase might be the one with manganese diluted into the Ge crystal is formulated and discussed.

  16. Application of neutron activation analysis to evaluate the health status of equines by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Avila, R.L.; Piasentin, R.M.; Saiki, M.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to evaluate the clinical status of equines, belonging to the Military Police of Sao Paulo State, by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair. Comparison of the results obtained in these analyses with reference values indicated Zn deficiency in the equines, Fe is in the minimum limit and the elements Cu and Mn are within the normal range. (author)

  17. ENDOR/ESR of Mn atoms and MnH molecules in solid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zee, R. J.; Garland, D. A.; Weltner, W., Jr.

    1986-09-01

    Mn atoms and MnH molecules, the latter formed by reaction between metal and hydrogen atoms, were trapped in solid argon and their ESR/ENDOR spectra measured at 4 K. At each pumping magnetic field two ENDOR lines were observed for 55Mn(I=5/2) atoms, corresponding to hyperfine transitions within the MS =±1/2 levels. Values of the hyperfine interaction constant and nuclear moment of 55Mn were derived from the six sets of data. For MnH, three sets of signals were detected: a proton ``matrix ENDOR'' line, transitions in the MS =0,±1 levels involving MI (55Mn)=1/2, 3/2, 5/2 levels, and proton transitions corresponding to νH and νH±aH. Analysis yielded the hyperfine constant aH =6.8(1) MHz and the nuclear quadrupole coupling constant Q'(55Mn)=-11.81(2) MHz. The latter compared favorably with a theoretical value derived earlier by Bagus and Schaefer. A higher term in the spin Hamiltonian appeared to be necessary to fit the proton hyperfine data.

  18. The Submillimeter Spectrum of MnH and MnD (X7Σ+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfen, D. T.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    The submillimeter-wave spectrum of the MnH and MnD radicals in their 7Σ+ ground states has been measured in the laboratory using direct absorption techniques. These species were created in the gas phase by the reaction of manganese vapor, produced in a Broida-type oven, with either H2 or D2 gas in the presence of a DC discharge. The N = 0 → 1 transition of MnH near 339 GHz was recorded, which consisted of multiple hyperfine components arising from both the manganese and hydrogen nuclear spins. The N = 2 → 3 transition of MnD near 517 GHz was measured as well, but in this case only the manganese hyperfine interactions were resolved. Both data sets were analyzed with a Hund's case b Hamiltonian, and rotational, fine structure, magnetic hyperfine, and electric quadrupole constants have been determined for the two manganese species. An examination of the magnetic hyperfine constants shows that MnH is primarily an ionic species, but has more covalent character than MnF. MnH is a good candidate species for astronomical searches with Herschel, particularly toward material associated with luminous blue variable stars.

  19. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  20. Novel detached system to MnCO3 nanowires: A self-sacrificing template for homomorphous Mn3O4 and α-Mn2O3 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Shuijin; Peng Xiaomin; Li Xiuping; Liang Zhihong; Yang Yi; Cheng Baochang; Xiao Yanhe; Zhou Lang

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A novel detached system along with solvothermal treatment was developed. → Radially aggregated MnCO 3 nanowires were successfully fabricated. → The detached system, solvent, surfactant and reaction time were important. → MnCO 3 nanowires could act as the self-sacrificing template for Mn 3 O 4 and α-Mn 2 O 3 . - Abstract: MnCO 3 , an important raw material, exhibits attractive properties and significant industrial applications. However, few concerns have been raised on the fabrication of its 1D nanostructures. In this paper, a novel detached system was successfully employed for the preparation of MnCO 3 nanowires by a surfactant-assisted solvothermal treatment using N,N-dimethylformamide as the solvent and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the surfactant. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to study the crystal structure and morphologies of the products. Experiments showed that the detached system, solvent, surfactant and reaction time were critical for the formation of the MnCO 3 nanowires. The thermal characterization was studied by differential scanning calorimetric analysis and thermogravimetric analysis measurements. The experimental results demonstrated that the as-prepared MnCO 3 nanocrystals can act as an efficient precursor for production of homomorphous Mn 3 O 4 and α-Mn 2 O 3 nanostructures by calcination at 400 deg. C under the atmosphere of argon and air, respectively. A possible growth mechanism for the MnCO 3 nanowires was also proposed.

  1. Shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C alloys with low Mn contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, X.H., E-mail: MIN.Xiaohua@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Sawaguchi, T.; Ogawa, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Maruyama, T. [Awaji Materia Co., Ltd. 2-3-13, Kanda ogawamachi, Chiyoda, Tokyo 101-0052 (Japan); Yin, F.X. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Tsuzaki, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} A class of new Fe-Mn-Ni-Si-C shape memory alloys with low Mn contents has been designed. {yields} A Mn content for the onset of the {alpha}' martensite is less than 13 mass%, and the {epsilon} martensite still exists in the alloy with a 9 mass% Mn. {yields} The shape recovery strain decreases considerably when the Mn content is reduced from 13 to 11 mass%. {yields} The sudden decrease in the shape recovery strain is mainly caused by the formation of {alpha}' martensite. - Abstract: An attempt was made to develop a new Fe-Mn-Si-based shape memory alloy from a Fe-17Mn-6Si-0.3C (mass%) shape memory alloy, which was previously reported to show a superior shape memory effect without any costly training treatment, by lowering its Mn content. The shape memory effect and the phase transformation behavior were investigated for the as-solution treated Fe-(17-2x)Mn-6Si-0.3C-xNi (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) polycrystalline alloys. The shape recovery strain exceeded 2% in the alloys with x = 0-2, which is sufficient for an industrially applicable shape memory effect; however, it suddenly decreased in the alloys between x = 2 and 3 although the significant shape recovery strain still exceeded 1%. In the alloys with x = 3 and 4, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscope observation revealed the existence of {alpha}' martensite, which forms at the intersection of the {epsilon} martensite plates and suppresses the crystallographic reversibility of the {gamma} austenite to {epsilon} martensitic transformation.

  2. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  3. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  4. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  5. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  6. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  7. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  8. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  9. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  10. Magnetic properties of PrMn2-xFexGe2-57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J L; Campbell, S J; Cadogan, J M; Tegus, O; Studer, A J; Hofmann, M

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic behaviour of PrMn 2-x Fe x Ge 2 compounds with x = 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 over the temperature range 4.2-350 K using ac magnetic susceptibility, dc magnetization and 57 Fe Moessbauer effect spectroscopy, as well as neutron diffraction for the PrMn 1.2 Fe 0.8 Ge 2 compound. Replacement of Mn with Fe leads to contraction of the unit cell and a shortening of the Mn-Mn spacing, resulting in modification of the magnetic structure. PrMn 1.6 Fe 0.4 Ge 2 is an intralayer antiferromagnet at room temperature and ferromagnetic below T C inter ∼230 K with additional ferromagnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice detected below T C Pr ∼30 K. Re-entrant ferromagnetism has been observed in PrMn 1.4 Fe 0.6 Ge 2 with four magnetic transitions (T N intra ∼333 K, T C inter ∼168 K, T N inter ∼152 K and T C Pr ∼40 K). Moreover, it was found that T C inter and T C Pr increase with applied field while T N inter decreases. PrMn 1.2 Fe 0.8 Ge 2 is antiferromagnetic with T N intra ∼242 K and T N inter ∼154 K. The magnetic transition temperatures for all compounds are also marked by changes in the 57 Fe magnetic hyperfine field and the electric quadrupole interaction parameters. The 57 Fe transferred hyperfine field at 4.5 K in PrMn 1.6 Fe 0.4 Ge 2 and PrMn 1.4 Fe 0.6 Ge 2 is reduced (below the ordering temperature of the Pr sublattice) compared with that at 80 K (above T C Pr ), indicating that the transferred hyperfine field from Pr acts in the opposite direction to that from the Mn atoms. The neutron data for PrMn 1.2 Fe 0.8 Ge 2 demonstrate that an anisotropic thermal expansion occurs within the interplanar antiferromagnetic range

  11. In vivo evaluation of a radiogallium-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical, Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kohei; Okada, Mayumi; Hisada, Hayato; Shimokawa, Kenta; Saji, Hideo; Maeda, Minoru; Mukai, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the findings obtained by X-ray crystallography of Ga-DOTA chelates and the drug design concept of bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals, we previously designed and synthesized a radiogallium-labeled DOTA chelate containing two metronidazole moieties, (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2, for hypoxic tumor imaging. As expected, (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited high in vivo stability, although two carboxyl groups in the DOTA skeleton were conjugated with metronidazole moieties. In this study, we evaluated (67/68)Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors. (67)Ga-labeling of DOTA-MN2 with (67)GaCl(3) was achieved with high radiochemical yield (>85%) by 1-min of microwave irradiation (50 W). The pharmacokinetics of (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2 were examined in FM3A tumor-bearing mice, and compared with those of (67)Ga-DOTA-MN1 containing one metronidazole unit and (67)Ga-DOTA. Upon administration, (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2 exhibited higher accumulation in the implanted tumors than (67)Ga-DOTA. Tumor-to-blood ratios of (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2 were about two-fold higher than those of (67)Ga-DOTA-MN1. Autoradiographic analysis showed the heterogeneous localization of (67)Ga-DOTA-MN2 in the tumors, which corresponds to hypoxic regions suggested by well-established hypoxia marker drug, pimonidazole. Furthermore, in positron emission tomography (PET) study, the tumors of mice administered (68)Ga-labeled DOTA-MN2 were clearly imaged by small-animal PET at 1 h after administration. This study demonstrates the potential usefulness of (67/68)Ga-DOTA-MN2 as a nuclear imaging agent for hypoxic tumors and suggests that two functional moieties, such as metronidazole, can be conjugated to radiogallium-DOTA chelate without reducing the complex stability. The present findings provide useful information about the chemical design of radiogallium-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies.

  12. Characterization of Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria from Mn-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana and their impact on Mn accumulation of hybrid penisetum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Wei; He, Lin-Yan; Wang, Qi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2015-10-01

    Three hundred Mn-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from the Mn-hyperaccumulator, Phytolacca americana, grown at different levels of Mn (0, 1, and 10mM) stress. Under no Mn stress, 90%, 92%, and 11% of the bacteria produced indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, respectively. Under Mn stress, 68-94%, 91-92%, and 21-81% of the bacteria produced IAA, siderophore, and ACC deaminase, respectively. Greater percentages of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria were found in the Mn-treated P. americana. Furthermore, the ratios of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria were significantly higher in the Mn treated plant leaves, while the ratio of ACC deaminase-producing bacteria was significantly higher in the Mn treated-roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, Mn-resistant bacteria were affiliated with 10 genera. In experiments involving hybrid penisetum grown in soils treated with 0 and 1000mgkg(-1) of Mn, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the root (ranging from 6.4% to 18.3%) and above-ground tissue (ranging from 19.3% to 70.2%) mass and total Mn uptake of above-ground tissues (64%) compared to the control. Furthermore, inoculation with strain 1Y31 was found to increase the ratio of IAA-producing bacteria in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of hybrid penisetum grown in Mn-added soils. The results showed the effect of Mn stress on the ratio of the plant growth-promoting factor-producing endophytic bacteria of P. americana and highlighted the potential of endophytic bacterium as an inoculum for enhanced phytoremediation of Mn-polluted soils by hybrid penisetum plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AC susceptibility, XRD and DSC studies of Sm1-xGdxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervan, S.; Kilic, A.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction, AC susceptibility and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed on the polycrystalline Sm 1-x Gd x Mn 2 Si 2 (0≤x≤1) compounds. All compounds investigated crystallize in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Gd for Sm leads to a linear decrease of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At low temperatures, the rare earth sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The samples with x=0.6 and 0.8 exhibit spin reorientation phenomenon. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique and the Curie temperature T C (RE) increase linearly with increasing Gd content x. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  14. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  15. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  16. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  17. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  18. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  19. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  20. High resolution imaging of La0.5Ba0.5MnO-LaMnO superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapoval, O.; Belenchuk, A.; Verbeeck, J.; Moshnyaga, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Artificial low dimensional systems of tailored on atomic layer level manganites is a very promising class of materials for future spintronic applications. The high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging provides a powerful approach to extract structural, chemical and functional information on atomic level in a real space. Recently, we have reported on the Metalorganic Aerosol Deposition synthesis and properties of superlattices (SL) composed from (LaMnO 3 ) n and (La 0.5 Ba 0.5 MnO 3 ) 2n with n=1-2 of perovskite monolayers. The functional properties of digitally synthesized SL are similar to the optimal doped 'bulk' thin film material. The similarities between their properties can be interpreted in frame of the many-body interactions responsible for the properties of the single-layer and bilayer manganites. This work presents the systematic studies of atomically resolved structure of (LaMnO 3 ) n /(La 0.5 Ba 0.5 MnO 3 ) 2n , n=1 by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The combination of atomic-resolution Z-contrast and EELS represents a powerful method to link the atomic and electronic structure of solids with macroscopic properties. All images were obtained along orientations and low magnification one shows an overview of a whole 40-nm thick structure, whereas magnified high-resolution images demonstrate an epitaxial growth of LBMO/LMO superlattice on SrTiO 3 substrate. The SL-substrate interface is coherent and free of defects, but reveals a high level of La diffusion into SrTiO 3 . EELS together with STEM are used for probing of a local chemical composition as well as a local electronic state of transition metals and oxygen. Small modulations in the La and Ba EELS signals, which are corresponded to the LBMO and LMO layers, can be observed. The observed features at the substrate interface as well as the SL periodicity in EELS profiles are

  1. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  2. Enhanced Cycleability of Amorphous MnO₂ by Covering on α-MnO₂ Needles in an Electrochemical Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanbing; Ji, Shan; Yang, Juan; Wang, Hui; Pollet, Bruno G; Wang, Rongfang

    2017-08-24

    An allomorph MnO₂@MnO₂ core-shell nanostructure was developed via a two-step aqueous reaction method. The data analysis of Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and N₂ adsorption-desorption isotherms experiments indicated that this unique architecture consisted of a porous layer of amorphous-MnO₂ nano-sheets which were well grown onto the surface of α-MnO₂ nano-needles. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the double-layer charging and Faradaic pseudo -capacity of the MnO₂@MnO₂ capacitor electrode contributed to a specific capacitance of 150.3 F·g -1 at a current density of 0.1 A·g -1 . Long cycle life experiments on the as-prepared MnO₂@MnO₂ sample showed nearly a 99.3% retention after 5000 cycles at a current density of 2 A·g -1 . This retention value was found to be significantly higher than those reported for amorphous MnO₂-based capacitor electrodes. It was also found that the remarkable cycleability of the MnO₂@MnO₂ was due to the supporting role of α-MnO₂ nano-needle core and the outer amorphous MnO₂ layer.

  3. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  4. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  5. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Electron microscopic study on SrGdMnO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hiromi; Ishizawa, Nobuo; Kamegashira, Naoki; Zulhadjri; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Single crystals of SrGdMnO 4 have been synthesized by the floating zone method. The structure was characterized as the K 2 NiF 4 -type, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Presence of weak reflections breaking the archetypal tetragonal symmetry was observed from the selected area diffraction (SAD). The compound was found to have an orthorhombic unit cell of a ≅ b = 0.532(4) nm, c = 1.271(6) nm, by taking the a and b axes along the diagonal directions on the basal plane of the tetragonal archetype. Structural change occurred around 1018 K. The weak reflections disappeared in the SAD pattern, suggesting that crystal is of the archetype above 1018 K

  7. Three NiAs-Ni 2In Type Structures in the Mn-Sn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elding-Pontén, Margareta; Stenberg, Lars; Larsson, Ann-Kristin; Lidin, Sven; Ståhl, Kenny

    1997-03-01

    TheB8-type structure field of the Mn-Sn system has been investigated. Two high temperature phases (HTP1 and HTP2) and one low temperature phase (Mn3Sn2) were found. They all crystallize with the NiAs structure type with part of the trigonal bipyramidal interstices filled by manganese atoms in an ordered manner. The ordering as well as the manganese content is different for the three phases, giving rise to three different orthorhombic superstructures. Mn3Sn2seems to have the lowest manganese content, since the corresponding basal unit cell is smaller than for HTP1-2. Structural models of the phases are based on selected area electron diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, and preliminary single crystal X-ray measurements. The ideal cell parameters found are (a=7ahex,b=3ahex,c=chex), (a=5ahex,b=3ahex,c=chex), and (a=2ahex,b=3ahex,c=chex) for HTP1, HTP2, and Mn3Sn2, respectively. The crystal structure of Mn3Sn2has been refined by means of the Rietveld method from X-ray powder diffraction data. Mn3Sn2is orthorhombic,Pnma,a=7.5547(2),b=5.4994(2),c=8.5842(2) Å,Z=4. (Pbnmin the setting above.) The compound is isostructural with Ni3Sn2andγ‧-Co3Sn2(H. Fjellvåg and A. Kjekshus,Acta Chem. Scand.A40, 23-30 (1986)). FinalRp=8.97%,Rwp=11.44%, GOF=2.86, andRBragg=4.11% using 43 parameters and 5701 observations and 330 Bragg reflections.

  8. Final report on COOMET.AUV.A-S1: Technical report on supplementary comparison 'Comparison of national standards of the sound pressure unit in air through calibration of working reference microphones'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeeva, Valentina; Chalyy, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The supplementary comparison COOMET.AUV.A-S1 for secondary calibration methods using WS1 and WS2 measurement microphones was carried out from 2009 to 2010. The results were submitted to and approved by CCAUV in April 2014. Four National Metrology Institutes took part in this comparison and are as follows: BelGIM (Belarus), VNIIFTRI (Russia), SMU (Slovakia) and DP NDI 'Sistema' (Ukraine). Three of the above NMIs (VNIIFTRI, SMU and DP NDI 'Sistema') had earlier participated in COOMET key comparisons and one NMI (VNIIFTRI) had also participated in CCAUV key comparisons. The Comparison Reference Values were calculated as the weighted mean values from results obtained by three institutes. The comparison results show agreement for all participants in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 12.5 kHz for WS1 microphones, and in the frequency range from 20 Hz to 16 kHz for WS2 microphones. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, and vibrational spectroscopic and UV-visible studies of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoua, Saida; Krimi, Saida [LPCMI, Faculte des Sciences Aien Chok, UH2C, Casablanca (Morocco); Pechev, Stanislav; Gravereau, Pierre; Chaminade, Jean-Pierre [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87, Avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac (France); Couzi, Michel [CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, ISM, UMR 5255, F-33400 Talence (France); El Jazouli, Abdelaziz, E-mail: eljazouli_abdelaziz@yahoo.fr [LCMS, URAC 17, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, UH2MC, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2013-02-15

    A new member of the A{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate family, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure was determined by single crystal X-Ray diffraction. Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma ( Music-Sharp-Sign 62), with the unit cell parameters a=16.3398(3), b=5.3872(1), c=9.8872(2) A, Z=4 and V=870.33(3) A{sup 3}. The structure parameters were refined to a final R{sub 1}/wR{sub 2}=0.0194/0.0441 for 1650 observed reflections. The 2D framework of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} structure consists of P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and MnO{sub 5} units. The corner-shared MnO{sub 5} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} units are alternately arranged along the b axis to form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium atoms are located between the sheets in 9- and 10-fold coordinated sites. The infrared and Raman vibrational spectra have been investigated. A factor group analysis leads to the determination of internal modes of (P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) groups. UV-visible spectrum consists of weak bands, between 340 and 700 nm, assigned to the forbidden d-d transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ion, and of a strong band around 250 nm, attributed to the O--Mn charge transfer. - Graphical abstract: Structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}: The 2D structure of Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7} is built from P{sub 2}O{sub 7} diphosphate groups and MnO{sub 5} square pyramids which share corners and form [(MnO)P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub {infinity}} chains along b axis. These chains are interconnected by an oxygen atom to form wavy (MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sup 2-} sheets parallel to the (b, c) plane. The cesium ions are located between these sheets in the inter-layers space, in zigzag positions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new diphosphate, Cs{sub 2}MnP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, has been synthesized and structurally

  10. An ab initio study on the structural, electronic and mechanical properties of quaternary full-Heusler alloys FeMnCrSn and FeMnCrSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkişi, Aytaç

    2018-06-01

    The quaternary full Heusler alloys FeMnCrSn and FeMnCrSb, which have face-centred cubic (FCC) crystal structure and conform to ? space group with 216 space number, have been investigated using Generalised Gradient Approximation (GGA) in the Density Functional Theory (DFT) as implemented in VASP (Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package) software. These alloys are considered in ferromagnetic (FM) order. After the investigation of structural stability of these alloys, their mechanical and thermal properties and also electronic band structures have been examined. The calculated spin-polarised electronic band structures and total electronic density of states (DOS) within GGA approximation show that these alloys can exhibit both metallic and half-metallic characters in different structural phases. The calculated formation enthalpies and the plotted energy-volume graphs show that Type-III phase is most stable structural phase for these materials. Also, FeMnCrSb alloy in Type-I/Type-III phases and FeMnCrSn alloy in Type-III phase show half-metallic behaviour with integer total magnetic moments almost 2 and 1 μB per formula unit, respectively, since there are band gaps observed in spin-down states, whereas they have metallic behaviour in majority bands. Other structural phases of both systems are also metallic. Moreover, the calculated elastic constants and the estimated anisotropy shear factors indicate that these materials are stable mechanically in all of three phases except FeMnCrSn in Type-I phase that does not satisfy Born stability criteria in this phase and have high anisotropic behaviour.

  11. Versatility of MnO2 for lithium battery applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thackeray, MM

    1993-03-15

    Full Text Available , layered-MnO2, spinel-related Li2O.yMnO2 (y > = 2.5) and ramsdellite-MnO2 materials. An attempt has been made to clarify issues relating to the structural features of 'CDMO'-type materials that are prepared by the reaction of gamma-MnO2 with LiNO3 (or Li...

  12. Control of the magnetic properties of LaMnO3 epitaxial thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Benjamin; Roqueta, Jaume; Pomar, Alberto; Balcells, Lluis; Frontera, Carlos; Konstantinovic, Zorica; Sandiumenge, Felip; Santiso, Jose; Advanced materials characterization Team; Thin films growth Team

    2015-03-01

    LaMnO3 (LMO), the parent compound of colossal magnetoresistance based manganites has gained renewed attention as a building block in heterostructures with unexpected properties. In its bulk phase, stoichiometric LMO is an A-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator (TN = 140K) with orthorhombic structure that easily accommodate an oxygen excess by generating cationic (La or Mn) vacancies. As a result, a fraction of Mn 3+ changes to Mn 4+ leading to a double-exchange mediated ferromagnetic (FM) behavior. In thin films the AFM phase has been elusive up to now and thin films with FM ordering are usually reported. In this work, we have systematically studied the growth process of LaMnO3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 (001) substrates under different oxygen partial pressures (PO2) . A close correlation between the structure (explored by XRD) and the magnetic properties (SQUID measurements) of the films with PO2 has been identified. At high PO2 FM behavior is observed. In contrast, at very low PO2, the results obtained for unit cell volume (close to stoichiometric bulk values) and magnetic moment (0.2 μB/Mn) strongly indicate antiferromagnetic ordering. We acknowledge financial support from the Spanish MINECO (MAT2012-33207).

  13. Beryllium abundances in Hg-Mn stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesgaard, A.M.; Heacox, W.D.; Wolff, S.C.; Borsenberger, J.; Praderie, F.

    1982-01-01

    The Hg-Mn stars show anomalous line strengths of many chemical elements including Be. We have observed the Be ii resonance doublet at lambdalambda 3130, 3131 at 6.7 A mm -1 in 43 Hg-Mn stars and 10 normal stars in the same temperature range with the coude spectrograph of the 2.24 m University of Hawaii telescope at Mauna Kea. Measured equivalent widths of the two lines and/or the blend of the doublet have been compared with predictions from (1) LTE model atmospheres and (2) non-LTE line formation on non-LTE model atmospheres. (For strong Be ii lines, the LTE calculations result in more Be by factors of 2 to 4 than do the non-LTE calculations.) Overabundances of factors of 20--2 x 10 4 relative to solar have been found for 75% of the Hg-Mn stars. The 25% with little or no Be are typically among the cooler Hg-Mn stars, but for the stars with Be excesses, there is only marginal evidence for a correlationi of the size of the overabundance and temperature. It is suggested that diffusion driven by radiation pressure is responsible for the observed Be abundance anomalies

  14. 75 FR 22167 - Minnesota Disaster #MN-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12132 and 12133] Minnesota Disaster MN-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of MINNESOTA (FEMA- 1900-DR), dated...

  15. CATALYTIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Mn(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    method is based on the catalytic effect of Mn(II) with the oxidation of Celestine blue .... water samples were filtered through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter to remove suspended .... slope of the calibration graph as the optimization criterion. ..... In presence of Phen as stability enhancement agent in indicator system. ( ) +.

  16. Decay data evaluation project: Evaluation of 52Mn and 52mMn nuclear decay data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Aurelian

    2017-09-01

    All nuclear decay data within the 52Fe-52m,52Mn-52Cr decay chain have been evaluated at IFIN-HH, Romania, as part of an IAEA coordinated research project (F41029) and incorporated into the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP). Both 52Fe and daughter 52Mn are two potentially promising radionuclides to be incorporated into suitable radiopharmaceuticals for PET and SPECT imaging. The decay data evaluation of 52Fe has previously been published and reported to the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. Equivalent DDEP evaluations for 52Mn and 52mMn have also been completed recently, and are presented in summary form below. These improved decay data sets have also been reported to the IAEA in detail, and are highly suitable in dose rate calculations for their application in nuclear medicine.

  17. Impurity model for mixed-valent Mn3+/Mn4+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlottmann, P.; Lee, K.

    1997-01-01

    Intermediate valent tri- and tetravalent manganese ions play an important role in LaMnO 3 -based systems. We consider a Mn impurity with five orbitals in cubic symmetry which hybridize with conduction electrons. The exchange interaction in the d shell maximizes the impurity spin. We study the valence of the Mn impurity as a function of the splitting of the e g to t 2g orbitals in zero magnetic field and for the totally spin-polarized state. The lifting of the degeneracy of the e g levels due to a small quadrupolar field, related to the Mn-O bond length or a Jahn-Teller effect, is also investigated. Possible implications on the magnetoresistance are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. τ-MnAl with high coercivity and saturation magnetization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, high purity τ-Mn54Al46 and Mn54−xAl46Cxalloys were successfully prepared using conventional arc-melting, melt-spinning, and heat treatment process. The magnetic and the structural properties were examined using x-ray diffraction (XRD, powder neutron diffraction and magnetic measurements. A room temperature saturation magnetization of 650.5 kAm-1, coercivity of 0.5 T, and a maximum energy product of (BHmax = 24.7 kJm-3 were achieved for the pure Mn54Al46 powders without carbon doping. The carbon substituted Mn54−xAl46Cx, however, reveals a lower Curie temperature but similar saturation magnetization as compared to the carbon-free sample. The electronic structure of MnAl shows that the Mn atom possesses a magnetic moment of 2.454 μB which results from strong hybridization between Mn-Al and Mn-Mn. We also investigated the volume and c/a ratio dependence of the magnetic moments of Mn and Al. The results indicate that an increase in the intra-atomic exchange splitting due to the cell volume expansion, leads to a large magnetic moment for the Mn atom. The Mn magnetic moment can reach a value of 2.9 μB at a volume expansion rate of ΔV/V ≈ 20%.

  19. Mn valence state and electrode performance of perovskite-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    increase in the oxidation state of Mn ions was due to the formation of Mn4+ ions and oxygen vacancies. The addition of Cu ions to LSM systems could lead to enhanced electrode performance for oxygen reduction reactions originating from the change in valence of Mn ions. Keywords. Cu-doped LSM; electrical conductivity; ...

  20. Luminescence of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, J.F.; Wuister, S.F.; Kelly, J.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2000-01-01

    The luminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZnSe:Mn^(2+) prepared via an inorganic chemical synthesis are described. Photoluminescence spectra show distinct ZnSe and Mn^(2+) related emissions, both of which are excited via the ZnSe host lattice. The Mn^(2+) emission wavelength and the

  1. High temperature strength and aging behavior of 12%Cr-15%Mn austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Kazuya; Bae, Dong-Su; Sakai, Hidenori; Hosoi, Yuzo

    1993-01-01

    High Mn-Cr austenitic steels are still considered to be an important high temperature structural material from the point of view of reduced radio-activation. The objective of the present study is to make a fundamental research of mechanical properties and microstructure of 12%Cr-15%Mn austenitic steels. Especially the effects of alloying elements of V and Ti on the mechanical properties and microstructure evolution of high Mn-Cr steels were studied. Precipitation behaviors of carbides, nitrides and σ phase are investigated and their remarkable effects on the high temperature strength are found. The addition of V was very effective for strengthening the materials with the precipitation of fine VN. Ti was also found to be beneficial for the improvement of high temperature strength properties. The results of high temperature strengths of the 12Cr-15Mn austenitic steels were compared with those of the other candidate and/or reference materials, for example, JFMS (modified 9Cr-2Mo ferritic stainless steel) and JPCAs (modified 316 austenitic stainless steels). (author)

  2. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  3. The Factors that Affect Indian Migrants' Decision to Stay in or Counter Migrate from the United States: A Study with Special Reference to the Role of Tourism Related Imagery as a Determinant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu P. GEORGE

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing socio-economic realities of the presenttimes, this paper explores the complex dynamics underlying Indian immigrants' decision to continue to stay in the United States or to counter migrate back to India. In a reversal of fortunes, the specific set of conditions that once triggered a massive inflow of economic migrants from India to the US has been causing a counter migration to India. Based on a review of literature and an exploratory study involving focus groups the paper identifiessome of the major migration / counter migration related factors. Then, employing a survey, the relative importance of each of these factors is gauged for individuals associated with different professions. In addition, the study explores as a special case the role of tourism related images about the US being held by immigrants as determinants of their migration related decisions. Tourism images held by the migrants and the tourism opportunities provided by the US act more as hygiene factors than as motivators. In course of theexploration, a number of hypotheses are emerged that are of interest to future researchers. The study has got significant implications for migration / counter migration policy makers, industry practitioners, and the migrants themselves.

  4. Low-temperature molar heat capacities and entropies of MnO2 (pyrolusite), Mn3O4 (hausmanite), and Mn2O3 (bixbyite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolusite (MnO2), hausmanite (Mn3O4), and bixbyite (Mn2O3), are important ore minerals of manganese and accurate values for their thermodynamic properties are desirable to understand better the {p(O2), T} conditions of their formation. To provide accurate values for the entropies of these important manganese minerals, we have measured their heat capacities between approximately 5 and 380 K using a fully automatic adiabatically-shielded calorimeter. All three minerals are paramagnetic above 100 K and become antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic at lower temperatures. This transition is expressed by a sharp ??-type anomaly in Cpmo for each compound with Ne??el temperatures TN of (92.2??0.2), (43.1??0.2), and (79.45??0.05) K for MnO2, Mn3O4, and Mn2O3, respectively. In addition, at T ??? 308 K, Mn2O3 undergoes a crystallographic transition, from orthorhombic (at low temperatures) to cubic. A significant thermal effect is associated with this change. Hausmanite is ferrimagnetic below TN and in addition to the normal ??-shape of the heat-capacity maxima in MnO2 and Mn2O3, it has a second rounded maximum at 40.5 K. The origin of this subsidiary bump in the heat capacity is unknown but may be related to a similar "anomalous bump" in the curve of magnetization against temperature at about 39 K observed by Dwight and Menyuk.(1) At 298.15 K the standard molar entropies of MnO2, Mn3O4, and Mn2O3, are (52.75??0.07), (164.1??0.2), and (113.7??0.2) J??K-1??mol-1, respectively. Our value for Mn3O4 is greater than that adopted in the National Bureau of Standards tables(2) by 14 per cent. ?? 1985.

  5. Structural Directed Growth of Ultrathin Parallel Birnessite on β-MnO2 for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shijin; Li, Li; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Yuxin; Zhang, Lili; Ruoff, Rodney S; Dong, Fan

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional birnessite has attracted attention for electrochemical energy storage because of the presence of redox active Mn 4+ /Mn 3+ ions and spacious interlayer channels available for ions diffusion. However, current strategies are largely limited to enhancing the electrical conductivity of birnessite. One key limitation affecting the electrochemical properties of birnessite is the poor utilization of the MnO 6 unit. Here, we assemble β-MnO 2 /birnessite core-shell structure that exploits the exposed crystal face of β-MnO 2 as the core and ultrathin birnessite sheets that have the structure advantage to enhance the utilization efficiency of the Mn from the bulk. Our birnessite that has sheets parallel to each other is found to have unusual crystal structure with interlayer spacing, Mn(III)/Mn(IV) ratio and the content of the balancing cations differing from that of the common birnessite. The substrate directed growth mechanism is carefully investigated. The as-prepared core-shell nanostructures enhance the exposed surface area of birnessite and achieve high electrochemical performances (for example, 657 F g -1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 electrolyte based on the weight of parallel birnessite) and excellent rate capability over a potential window of up to 1.2 V. This strategy opens avenues for fundamental studies of birnessite and its properties and suggests the possibility of its use in energy storage and other applications. The potential window of an asymmetric supercapacitor that was assembled with this material can be enlarged to 2.2 V (in aqueous electrolyte) with a good cycling ability.

  6. X-ray spectroscopy at the Mn K edge in LaMnO3 : An ab initio study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, L.; Vries, A.H. de; Broer, R.

    2001-01-01

    We present ab initio quantum chemical embedded cluster calculations of Mn core-valence and d-d transitions in LaMnO3. The results are also important for the analysis of recent x-ray absorption and x-ray scattering experiments at the Mn K edge in LaMnO3. We find that the first two peaks of the

  7. Catalytic Oxidation of NO over MnOx–CeO2 and MnOx–TiO2 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of MnOx–CeO2 and MnOx–TiO2 catalysts were prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method and their catalytic activities for the NO oxidation in the absence or presence of SO2 were evaluated. Results show that the optimal molar ratio of Mn/Ce and Mn/Ti are 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. The MnOx–CeO2 catalyst exhibits higher catalytic activity and better resistance to SO2 poisoning than the MnOx–TiO2 catalyst. On the basis of Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning transmission electron microscope with mapping (STEM-mapping analyses, it is seen that the MnOx–CeO2 catalyst possesses higher BET surface area and better dispersion of MnOx over the catalyst than MnOx–TiO2 catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements reveal that MnOx–CeO2 catalyst provides the abundance of Mn3+ and more surface adsorbed oxygen, and SO2 might be preferentially adsorbed to the surface of CeO2 to form sulfate species, which provides a protection of MnOx active sites from being poisoned. In contrast, MnOx active sites over the MnOx–TiO2 catalyst are easily and quickly sulfated, leading to rapid deactivation of the catalyst for NO oxidation. Furthermore, temperature programmed desorption with NO and O2 (NO + O2-TPD and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared transform spectroscopy (in situ DRIFTS characterizations results show that the MnOx–CeO2 catalyst displays much stronger ability to adsorb NOx than the MnOx–TiO2 catalyst, especially after SO2 poisoning.

  8. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  9. Direct evidence of the existence of Mn3+ ions in MnTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, R. K.; Sharma, Priyamedha; Patel, Ashutosh; Bindu, R.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the room temperature electronic properties of MnTiO3 synthesised by different preparation conditions. For this purpose, we prepared MnTiO3 under two different cooling rates, one is naturally cooled while the other is quenched in liq.nitrogen. The samples were studied using optical absorbance, photoemission spectroscopy and band structure calculations. We observe significant changes in the structural parameters as a result of quenching. Interestingly, in the parent compound, our combined core level, valence band and optical absorbance studies give evidence of the Mn existence in both 2+ and 3+ states. The fraction of Mn3+ ions has been found to increase on quenching MnTiO3 suggests an increase in oxygen non-stoichiometry. The increase in the fraction of the Mn3+ ions has been manifested a) as slight enhancement in the intensity of the optical absorbance in the visible region. There occurs persistent photo-resistance when the incident light is terminated after shining; b) in the behaviour of the features (close to Fermi level) in the valence band spectra. Hence, the combined analysis of the core level, valence band and optical absorbance spectra suggests that the charge carriers are hole like which further leads to the increase in the electrical conductivity of the quenched sample. The present results provide a recipe to tune the optical absorption in the visible range for its applications in optical sensors, solar cell, etc.

  10. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  11. Quantum tunneling of magnetization in a new [Mn18]2+ single-molecule magnet with s = 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechin, Euan K; Boskovic, Colette; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Yoo, Jae; Yamaguchi, Akira; Sañudo, E Carolina; Concolino, Thomas R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Ishimoto, Hidehiko; Hendrickson, David N; Christou, George

    2002-08-21

    The reaction between 2-(hydroxyethyl)pyridine (hepH) and a 2:1 molar mixture of [Mn3O(O2CMe)6(py)3](ClO4) and [Mn3O(O2CMe)6(py)3](py) in MeCN leads to isolation of [Mn18O14(O2CMe)18(hep)4(hepH)2(H2O)2](ClO4)2 (1) in 10% yield. The complex is 2MnII,16MnIII and consists of a Mn4O6 central unit to either side of which is attached a Mn7O9 unit. Magnetization data collected in the 2.0-4.0 K and 20-50 kG ranges were fit to yield S = 13, g = 1.86, and D = -0.13 cm-1 = -0.19 K, where D is the axial zero-field splitting parameter. AC susceptibility studies in the 0.04-4.0 K range at frequencies up to 996 Hz display out-of-phase (chiM' ') signals, indicative of a single-molecule magnet (SMM). Magnetization vs applied DC field scans exhibit hysteresis at SMM. DC magnetization decay data were collected on both a microcrystalline sample and a single crystal, and the combined data were used to construct an Arrhenius plot. Between 3.50 and 0.50 K, the relaxation rate is temperature-dependent with an effective barrier to relaxation (Ueff) of 14.8 cm-1 = 21.3 K. Below ca. 0.25 K, the relaxation rate is temperature-independent at 1.3 x 10-8 s-1, indicative of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) between the lowest energy Ms = +/-13 levels of the S = 13 state. Complex 1 is both the largest spin and highest nuclearity SMM to exhibit QTM.

  12. Controllable synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Monomer-Dimer Cocrystallized MnIII Salen-type composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Wei; Wu, Yongmei; Li, Weili; Qiao, Yongfeng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Baoling

    2018-04-01

    By the reaction of manganese-Schiff-base complexes with penta-anionic Anderson heteropolyanion, a new supramolecular architecture [Mn2(Salen)2(H2O)2][Mn(Salen)(H2O)2]2Na[IMo6O24]·8H2O (1) (salen = N,N‧-ethylene-bis (salicylideneiminate) has been isolated. Compound 1 was characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental, IR and thermal gravimetric analyses. Structural analysis reveals that the unit cell simultaneously contains MnIII-Salen dimer and monomer cation fragments, for which the Anderson-type polyanions serve as counter anions. In the packing arrangement, all the MnIII dimers are well separated by polyoxometalate units and form tertiary structure together with MnIII monomers. Interestingly, different from the previous work, in the exact same reaction conditions, we are able to template MnIII-Salen complexes into different configurations by varying the charge state of polyanions. Besides, the magnetic properties of 1 were also examined by using both dc and ac magnetic field of the superconducting quantum interference devices. Most importantly, our fitting of the experimental data to a Heisenberg-type spin model shows that there exists a ferromagnetic exchange interaction ∼5 K between the spins (S = 2) on MnIII in the dimer, while antiferromagnetic ones exist among monomers and dimer (∼2 K). This meta-magnetic state could induce a slight spin frustration at low temperature, which would in turn affect the magnetic behavior. In addition, our ac field measurement of the susceptibilities suggests a typical signature for a single-molecule magnet.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of new fluoride-containing manganese vanadates A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn{sub 2}VO{sub 4}F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjeewa, Liurukara D. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); McGuire, Michael A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Smith Pellizzeri, Tiffany M.; McMillen, Colin D. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Ovidiu Garlea, V. [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Willett, Daniel; Chumanov, George [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States); Kolis, Joseph W., E-mail: kjoseph@clemson.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Large single crystals of A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn{sub 2}VO{sub 4}F were grown using a high-temperature (~600 °C) hydrothermal technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction were utilized to characterize the structures, which both possess MnO{sub 4}F{sub 2} building blocks. The A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} series crystallizes as a new structure type in space group Pbcn (No. 60), Z=4 (Rb{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2}: a=7.4389(17) Å, b=11.574(3) Å, c=10.914(2) Å; Cs{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2}: a=7.5615(15) Å, b=11.745(2) Å, c=11.127(2) Å). The structure is composed of zigzag chains of edge-sharing MnO{sub 4}F{sub 2} units running along the a-axis, and interconnected through V{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrovanadate groups. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements on this interesting one-dimensional structural feature based on Mn{sup 2+} indicated that Cs{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} is antiferromagnetic with a Neél temperature, T{sub N}=~3 K and a Weiss constant, θ, of −11.7(1) K. Raman and infrared spectra were also analyzed to identify the fundamental V–O vibrational modes in Cs{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2}. Mn{sub 2}(VO{sub 4})F crystalizes in the monoclinic space group of C2/c (no. 15), Z=8 with unit cell parameters of a=13.559(2) Å, b=6.8036(7) Å, c=10.1408(13) Å and β=116.16(3)°. The structure is associated with those of triplite and wagnerite. Dynamic fluorine disorder gives rise to complex alternating chains of five-and six-coordinate Mn{sup 2+}. These interpenetrating chains are additionally connected through isolated VO{sub 4} tetrahedra to form the condensed structure. - Graphical abstract: New vanadate fluorides A{sub 2}Mn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}F{sub 2} (A=Rb, Cs) and Mn{sub 2}(VO{sub 4})F have been synthesized hydrothermally. Upon cooling, the one-dimensional Mn(II) substructure results in antiferromagnetic

  14. Genetics Home Reference: cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... year in the United States. This type of cancer occurs much more frequently in Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, where it is related to infection with a parasite that is common there. For unknown reasons, cholangiocarcinoma ...

  15. Enteric parasites in HIV-1/AIDS-infected patients from a Northwestern São Paulo reference unit in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era Enteroparasitas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV-1/AIDS em uma unidade de referência do noroeste paulista na era da terapia antirretroviral de alto impacto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ventura Cardoso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We describe the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in patients from an AIDS reference service in Northeastern São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation was done for all HIV-1/AIDS-positive patients whose Hospital de Base/São José do Rio Preto laboratorial analysis was positive for enteroparasites after diagnosis of HIV-1 infection, from January 1998 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed using the R statistical software version 2.4.1. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The most frequent protozoan was Isospora belli (4.2%, followed by Giardia lamblia (3.5%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, and Cryptosporidium parvum (0.3%. Ancylostoma duodenale (1.4% was the most frequently detected helminth, while Taenia saginata and Strongiloides stercoralis were found in 0.7% of the samples. The results showed that diarrhea was significantly associated with giardiasis and isosporiasis. However, no association was observed between CD4+ cell counts, viral load, and the characteristics of any particular parasite. CONCLUSIONS: Our data may be useful for further comparisons with other Brazilian regions and other developing countries. The data may also provide important clues toward improving the understanding, prevention, and control of enteric parasites around the world.INTRODUÇÃO: Descrevemos a epidemiologia de enteroparasitoses em pacientes de um serviço de referência de AIDS, no noroeste paulista, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Durante o período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 2008, foi realizado este estudo retrospectivo por meio da análise dos prontuários dos pacientes diagnosticados com HIV-1/AIDS atendidos no Ambulatório de Doenças Infecto-Parasitárias do Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas usando a versão 2.4.1 do software estatístico R. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O protozoário mais frequente foi o Isospora belli

  16. Reference costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terraz, N.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation of electric power production reference costs is used in France, even in the present case of over-capacity, for comparing the relative interest of the various means of power generation (nuclear plants, coal plants, hydroelectricity, gas combined cycles, etc.) and as an aid for future investment decisions. Reference costs show a sharp decrease between 1993 and 1997 due to advancements in nuclear plant operating ability and fossil fuel price decrease. Actuarial rates, plant service life, fuel costs and exchange rates are important parameters. The various costs from the research stage to the waste processing stages are discussed and the reference costs of the various power generation systems are presented and compared together with their competitiveness; the future of wind energy and cogeneration and the prospective of the renewal of nuclear plants at the 2010 horizon are also addressed

  17. Setting reference targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets

  18. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R

    2013-01-01

    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  19. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  20. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...... (citations). A comparative study of the two measures shows a strong relationship between the 3R and the JIF. Yet, the 3R appears to correct for citation habits, citation dynamics, and composition of document types - problems that typically are raised against the JIF. In addition, contrary to traditional...

  1. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  2. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  3. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  4. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  5. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  6. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-05-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  7. Atomic and magnetic structure of MnF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.A.; Kennedy, B.J.; Vogt, T.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The magnetic and atomic structure of MnF 3 has been determined from 4K to 300K using neutron powder diffraction. The MnF 3 compound is the archetypical Mn-based colossal magnetoresistive compound. A Neel temperature of approximately 40K was observed from the temperature variation of the magnetic moment. Below the Neel temperature a large negative thermal expansion was observed, in striking similarity to other Mn-based colossal magnetoresistive compounds. The variation in structure is discussed in relation to other Mn-based compounds, particularly as this compound cannot support charge ordering

  8. Unilateral and Bilateral Adrenalectomy for Pheochromocytoma Requires Adjustment of Urinary and Plasma Metanephrine Reference Ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Thamara E.; van den Eijnden, Maartje H. A.; Kema, Ido P.; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Links, Thera P.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.

    Context: Follow-up after adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma is recommended because of a recurrence risk. During follow-up, plasma and/or urinary metanephrine (MN) and normetanephrine (NMN) are interpreted using reference ranges obtained in healthy subjects. Objective: Because adrenalectomy may

  9. Synthesis of layered LiMnO2 as an electrode for rechargeable lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. Robert; Bruce, Peter G.

    1996-06-01

    RECHARGEABLE lithium batteries can store more than twice as much energy per unit weight and volume as other rechargeable batteries1,2. They contain lithium ions in an electrolyte, which shuttle back and forth between, and are intercalated by, the electrode materials. The first commercially successful rechargeable lithium battery3, introduced by the Sony Corporation in 1990, consists of a carbon-based negative electrode, layered LiCoO2 as the positive electrode, and a non-aqueous liquid electrolyte. The high cost and toxicity of cobalt compounds, however, has prompted a search for alternative materials that intercalate lithium ions. One such is LiMn2O4, which has been much studied as a positive electrode material4-7 the cost of manganese is less than 1% of that of cobalt, and it is less toxic. Here we report the synthesis and electrochemical performance of a new material, layered LiMnO2, which is structurally analogous to LiCoO2. The charge capacity of LiMnO2 (~270mAhg-1) compares well with that of both LiCoO2 and LiMn2O4, and preliminary results indicate good stability over repeated charge-discharge cycles.

  10. Crystal structure and thermal expansion of Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyadkin, Vadim; Grigoriev, Sergey; Ovsyannikov, Sergey V; Bykova, Elena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Tsvyashchenko, Anatoly; Fomicheva, L N; Chernyshov, Dmitry

    2014-08-01

    A series of temperature-dependent single-crystal and powder diffraction experiments has been carried out using synchrotron radiation in order to characterize the monogermanides of Mn, Fe and their solid solutions. The MnGe single crystal is found to be enantiopure and we report the absolute structure determination. The thermal expansion, parametrized with the Debye model, is discussed from the temperature-dependent powder diffraction measurements for Mn(1-x)Fe(x)Ge (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.75, 0.8, 0.9). Whereas the unit-cell dimension and the Debye temperature follow a linear trend as a function of composition, the thermal expansion coefficient deviates from linear dependence with increasing Mn content. No structural phase transformations have been observed for any composition in the temperature range 80-500 K for both single-crystal and powder diffraction, indicating that the phase transition previously observed with neutron powder diffraction most probably has a magnetic origin.

  11. Synthesis, structure and magnetic behavior of a new three-dimensional Manganese phosphite-oxalate: [C2N2H10][Mn2II(OH2)2(HPO3)2(C2O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaswamy, Padmini; Mandal, Sukhendu; Natarajan, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    A novel manganese phosphite-oxalate, [C 2 N 2 H 10 ][Mn 2 II (OH 2 ) 2 (HPO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )] has been hydothermally synthesized and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure consists of neutral manganese phosphite layers, [Mn(HPO 3 )] ∞ , formed by MnO 6 octahedra and HPO 3 units, cross-linked by the oxalate moieties. The organic cations occupy the middle of the 8-membered one-dimensional channels. Magnetic studies indicate weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn 2+ ions. - Abstract: A new antiferromagnetic three-dimensional inorganic-organic hybrid compound, [C 2 N 2 H 10 ][Mn 2 II (OH 2 ) 2 (HPO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )] has been prepared hydrothermally. The compound has neutral manganese layers pillared by oxalate units. The neutral manganese layers are shown here. Display Omitted

  12. Multireversible redox processes in pentanuclear bis(triple-helical) manganese complexes featuring an oxo-centered triangular {Mn(II)2Mn(III)(μ3-O)}5+ or {Mn(II)Mn(III)2(μ3-O)}6+ core wrapped by two {Mn(II)2(bpp)3}-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sophie; Rich, Jordi; Sens, Cristina; Stoll, Thibaut; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Llobet, Antoni; Rodriguez, Montserrat; Romero, Isabel; Clérac, Rodolphe; Mathonière, Corine; Duboc, Carole; Deronzier, Alain; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle

    2011-09-05

    A new pentanuclear bis(triple-helical) manganese complex has been isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction in two oxidation states: [{Mn(II)(μ-bpp)(3)}(2)Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(μ-O)](3+) (1(3+)) and [{Mn(II)(μ-bpp)(3)}(2)Mn(II)Mn(III)(2)(μ-O)](4+) (1(4+)). The structure consists of a central {Mn(3)(μ(3)-O)} core of Mn(II)(2)Mn(III) (1(3+)) or Mn(II)Mn(III)(2) ions (1(4+)) which is connected to two apical Mn(II) ions through six bpp(-) ligands. Both cations have a triple-stranded helicate configuration, and a pair of enantiomers is present in each crystal. The redox properties of 1(3+) have been investigated in CH(3)CN. A series of five distinct and reversible one-electron waves is observed in the -1.0 and +1.50 V potential range, assigned to the Mn(II)(4)Mn(III)/Mn(II)(5), Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2)/Mn(II)(4)Mn(III), Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3)/Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2), Mn(II)Mn(III)(4)/Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3), and Mn(III)(5)/Mn(II)Mn(III)(4) redox couples. The two first oxidation processes leading to Mn(II)(3)Mn(III)(2) (1(4+)) and Mn(II)(2)Mn(III)(3) (1(5+)) are related to the oxidation of the Mn(II) ions of the central core and the two higher oxidation waves, close in potential, are thus assigned to the oxidation of the two apical Mn(II) ions. The 1(4+) and 1(5+) oxidized species and the reduced Mn(4)(II) (1(2+)) species are quantitatively generated by bulk electrolyses demonstrating the high stability of the pentanuclear structure in four oxidation states (1(2+) to 1(5+)). The spectroscopic characteristics (X-band electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR, and UV-visible) of these species are also described as well as the magnetic properties of 1(3+) and 1(4+) in solid state. The powder X- and Q-band EPR signature of 1(3+) corresponds to an S = 5/2 spin state characterized by a small zero-field splitting parameter (|D| = 0.071 cm(-1)) attributed to the two apical Mn(II) ions. At 40 K, the magnetic behavior is consistent for 1(3+) with two apical S = 5/2 {Mn(II)(bpp)(3)}(-) and one S

  13. Book Catalogs; Selected References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Wesley T.

    The 116 citations on book catalogs are divided into the following two main sections: (1) Selected References, in alphabetic sequence by personal or institutional author and (2) Anonymous Entries, in alphabetic sequence by title. One hundred and seven of the citations cover the years 1960 through March 1969. There are five scattered citations in…

  14. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  15. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  16. Quantum frames of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufherr, T.

    1981-01-01

    The idea that only relative variables have physical meaning came to be known as Mach's principle. Carrying over this idea to quantum theory, has led to the consideration of finite mass, macroscopic reference frames, relative to which all physical quantities are measured. During the process of measurement, a finite mass observer receives a kickback, and this reaction of the measuring device is not negligible in quantum theory because of the quantization of the action. Hence, the observer himself has to be included in the system that is being considered. Using this as the starting point, a number of thought experiments involving finite mass observers is discussed which have quantum uncertainties in their time or in their position. These thought experiments serve to elucidate in a qualitative way some of the difficulties involved, as well as pointing out a direction to take in seeking solutions to them. When the discussion is extended to include more than one observer, the question of the covariance of the theory immediately arises. Because none of the frames of reference should be preferred, the theory should be covariant. This demand expresses an equivalence principle which here is extended to include reference frames which are in quantum uncertainties relative to each other. Formulating the problem in terms of canonical variables, the ensueing free Hamiltonian contains vector and scalar potentials which represent the kick that the reference frame receives during measurement. These are essentially gravitational type potentials, resulting, as it were, from the extension of the equivalence principle into the quantum domain

  17. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  18. Virtual Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  19. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  20. Genetics Home Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Genetics Home Reference provides consumer-friendly information about the effects of genetic variation on human health. Health Conditions More than 1,200 health ...

  1. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  2. Formation process and superparamagnetic properties of (Mn,Ga)As nanocrystals in GaAs fabricated by annealing of (Ga,Mn)As layers with low Mn content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadowski, Janusz; Domagala, Jaroslaw Z.; Mathieu, Roland

    2011-01-01

    °C) annealing of (Ga,Mn)As layers with Mn concentrations between 0.1% and 2%, grown by molecular beam epitaxy at 270°C. Decomposition of (Ga,Mn)As is already observed at the lowest annealing temperature of 400°C for layers with initial Mn content of 1% and 2%. Both cubic and hexagonal (Mn......,Ga)As nanocrystals, with similar diameters of 7-10 nm, are observed to coexist in layers with an initial Mn content of 0.5% and 2% after higher-temperature annealing. Measurements of magnetization relaxation in the time span 0.1-10 000 s provide evidence for superparamagnetic properties of the (Mn,Ga)As nanocrystals......X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magnetization measurements are employed to study the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-rich (Mn,Ga)As nanocrystals embedded in GaAs. These nanocomposites are obtained by moderate-temperature (400°C) and high-temperature (560°C and 630...

  3. Topotactic reduction as a route to new close-packed anion deficient perovskites: structure and magnetism of 4H-BaMnO(2+x).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M; Adkin, Josephine J; Hayward, Michael A

    2009-08-05

    The anion-deficient perovskite 4H-BaMnO(2+x) has been obtained by a topotactic reduction, with LiH, of the hexagonal perovskite 4H-BaMnO(3-x). The crystal structure of 4H-BaMnO(2+x) was solved using electron diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction and further refined using neutron powder diffraction (S.G. Pnma, a = 10.375(2) A, b = 9.466(2) A, c = 11.276(3) A, at 373 K). The orthorhombic superstructure arises from the ordering of oxygen vacancies within a 4H (chch) stacking of close packed c-type BaO(2.5) and h-type BaO(1.5) layers. The ordering of the oxygen vacancies transforms the Mn(2)O(9) units of face-sharing MnO(6) octahedra into Mn(2)O(7) (two corner-sharing tetrahedra) and Mn(2)O(6) (two edge-sharing tetrahedra) groups. The Mn(2)O(7) and Mn(2)O(6) groups are linked by corner-sharing into a three-dimensional framework. The structures of the BaO(2.5) and BaO(1.5) layers are different from those observed previously in anion-deficient perovskites providing a new type of order pattern of oxygen atoms and vacancies in close packed structures. Magnetization measurements and neutron diffraction data reveal 4H-BaMnO(2+x) adopts an antiferromagnetically ordered state below T(N) approximately 350 K.

  4. Speciation of Mn(II), Mn(VII) and total manganese in water and food samples by coprecipitation-atomic absorption spectrometry combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    A speciation procedure based on the coprecipitation of manganese(II) with zirconium(IV) hydroxide has been developed for the investigation of levels of manganese species. The determination of manganese levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Total manganese was determined after the reduction of Mn(VII) to Mn(II) by ascorbic acid. The analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc., were investigated for the quantitative recoveries of manganese(II). The effects of matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries for manganese(II) were in the range of 95-98%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 50. The detection limit for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n = 21) was 0.75 μg L -1 for Mn(II). The relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 7%. The validation of the presented procedure was performed by analysis of certified reference material having different matrices, NIST SRM 1515 (Apple Leaves) and NIST SRM 1568a (Rice Flour). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples.

  5. Core-shell structured MnSiO3 supported with CNTs as a high capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Li, Qin; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2018-04-17

    Metal silicates are good candidates for use in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), however, their electrochemical performance is hindered by their poor electrical conductivity and volume expansion during Li+ insertion/desertion. In this work, one-dimensional core-shell structured MnSiO3 supported with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (referred to as CNT@MnSiO3) with good conductivity and electrochemical performance has been successfully synthesized using a solvothermal process under moderate conditions. In contrast to traditional composites of CNTs and nanoparticles, the CNT@MnSiO3 composite in this work is made up of CNTs with a layer of MnSiO3 on the surface. The one-dimensional CNT@MnSiO3 nanotubes provide a useful channel for transferring Li+ ions during the discharge/charge process, which accelerates the Li+ diffusion speed. The CNTs inside the structure not only enhance the conductivity of the composite, but also prevent volume expansion. A high reversible capacity (920 mA h g-1 at 500 mA g-1 over 650 cycles) and good rate performance were obtained for CNT@MnSiO3, showing that this strategy of synthesizing coaxial CNT@MnSiO3 nanotubes offers a promising method for preparing other silicates for LIBs or other applications.

  6. Magnetic signature of charge ordering in Li[Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 and Li sub 0 sub . sub 2 [Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Verhoeven, V W J; Mulder, F M

    2002-01-01

    The stoichiometric compound LiMn sub 2 O sub 4 is known to show charge ordering with well-defined Mn sup 3 sup + and Mn sup 4 sup + sites just below room temperature (RT). Above RT the electrons are hopping rapidly between sites. For lithium-ion batteries the material Li[Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 is technologically relevant. Due to the small amount of Li on the Mn site, the low-T regular ordering of the Mn charge appears to be destroyed completely, as is evidenced by neutron diffraction in the magnetically ordered state. However, the charges are still fixed in an irregular fashion, as can also be deduced from sup 7 Li nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. In the lithium-extracted compound Li sub 0 sub . sub 2 [Mn sub 1 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Li sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4]O sub 4 , predominantly Mn sup 4 sup + is present. Neutron diffraction in the magnetically ordered state shows a well-defined antiferromagnetic ordering, with doubling of the unit cell in three directions. Clear...

  7. Interface adjustment and exchange coupling in the IrMn/NiFe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Chinni, F.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Del Bianco, L., E-mail: lucia.delbianco@unife.it

    2017-01-01

    The exchange bias effect was investigated, in the 5–300 K temperature range, in samples of IrMn [100 Å]/NiFe [50 Å] (set A) and in samples with inverted layer-stacking sequence (set B), produced at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering in a static magnetic field of 400 Oe. The samples of each set differ for the nominal thickness (t{sub Cu}) of a Cu spacer, grown at the interface between the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers, which was varied between 0 and 2 Å. It has been found out that the Cu insertion reduces the values of the exchange field and of the coercivity and can also affect their thermal evolution, depending on the stack configuration. Indeed, the latter also determines a peculiar variation of the exchange bias properties with time, shown and discussed with reference to the samples without Cu of the two sets. The results have been explained considering that, in this system, the exchange coupling mechanism is ruled by the glassy magnetic behavior of the IrMn spins located at the interface with the NiFe layer. Varying the stack configuration and t{sub Cu} results in a modulation of the structural and magnetic features of the interface, which ultimately affects the spins dynamics of the glassy IrMn interfacial component. - Highlights: • Exchange bias effect in IrMn/NiFe samples with interfacial Cu spacer. • A variation of exchange bias with time is observed in as-deposited samples. • Magnetic modification of the interface by varying the stack sequence and Cu thickness. • Interface adjustment affects the dynamics of interfacial IrMn spins. • The exchange bias properties can be tuned by interface adjustment.

  8. Avalanches in Mn12-Acetate: ``Magnetic Burning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Suzuki, Y.; Graybill, D.; Sarachik, M. P.; Avraham, N.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.

    2006-03-01

    From local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization in single crystals of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, we have shown[1] that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. This phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. The propagation speed of the avalanche depends on the energy stored in each molecule, which can be controlled and tuned using an external magnetic field. We report studies of propagation speed with different external fields in Mn12-acetate. [1] Yoko Suzuki, M.P. Sarachik, E.M. Chudnovsky, S. McHugh, R. Gonzalez-Rubio, N. Avraham, Y. Myasoedov, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, N.E. Chakov and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005).

  9. Half-life of 51Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Engle, Jonathan W.

    2017-07-01

    The half-life of 51Mn was measured by serial gamma spectrometry of the 511-keV annihilation photon following decay by β+ emission. Data were collected every 100 seconds for 100,000-230,000 seconds within each measurement (n =4 ). The 511-keV incidence rate was calculated from the 511-keV spectral peak area and count duration, corrected for detector dead time and radioactive decay. Least-squares regression analysis was used to determine the half-life of 51Mn while accounting for the presence of background contaminants, notably 55Co. The result was 45.59 ±0.07 min, which is the highest precision measurement to date and disagrees with the current Nuclear Data Sheets value by over 6 σ .

  10. Neutron scattering studies of Mn12-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The S=10 magnetic molecule Mn 12 -acetate, which crystallises into a tetragonal crystal structure, has attracted substantial recent attention by virtue of its low temperature bulk magnetic properties, which give evidence for resonant quantum tunnelling of the magnetisation. We report a full neutron crystal structure including positions of all protons/deuterons, including the solvated water and acetic acid, a polarised-neutron study of the real space magnetisation, which confirms a simple magnetic-structure model for the molecule, albeit with reduced Mn moments, and inelastic neutron scattering data containing both the excitations within the 21-fold degenerate S=10 manifold, and those from S=10 to the S=9 manifolds. Both manifolds are split by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and we report coefficients for 2nd and 4th-order terms in the magnetic Hamiltonian

  11. Microwave firing of MnZn-ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakaloudi, V.; Papazoglou, E.; Zaspalis, V.T.

    2004-01-01

    Microwave firing is evaluated in comparison to conventional firing for MnZn-ferrites. For otherwise identical conditions, microwave firing results to higher densities and coarser microstructures. Initial magnetic permeability values (25 kHz, 25 deg. C, <0.1 mT) after conventional firing are approximately 5000, but the corresponding values after microwave firing are approximately 6000. Unlike the conventional firing process, the final density after microwave firing is increased by increasing the prefiring temperature. As appears from the results of this study, microwave firing could be in principle a promising MnZn-ferrite firing technology for materials to be used in high magnetic permeability applications. No advantages of microwave firing are evident for materials intended to be used in high field power applications

  12. Combined in situ PXRD and PDF study of hydrothermal formation of α- and β-MnO2 nanocrystallites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisson, Steinar; Shen, Yanbin; Saha, Dipankar

    resolved powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and total scattering (TS) data is then measured using synchrotron radiation.[5, 6] By Rietveld refinement of PXRD data, information about the quantity of different crystalline phases, unit cell size, crystallite size and morphology as function of reaction time...... it looks like the smallest α-MnO2 nanocrystallites transform to β-MnO2 first, before subsequent transformation of larger crystallites. 1. Thackeray, M.M., Manganese oxides for lithium batteries. Progress in Solid State Chemistry, 1997. 25(1–2): p. 1-71. 2. Palomares, V., et al., Update on Na-based battery...

  13. Ionic Strength-Controlled Mn (Hydr)oxide Nanoparticle Nucleation on Quartz: Effect of Aqueous Mn(OH)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haesung; Jun, Young-Shin

    2016-01-05

    The early formation of manganese (hydr)oxide nanoparticles at mineral-water interfaces is crucial in understanding how Mn oxides control the fate and transport of heavy metals and the cycling of nutrients. Using atomic force microscopy, we investigated the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Mn (hydr)oxide under varied ionic strengths (IS; 1-100 mM NaNO3). Experimental conditions (i.e., 0.1 mM Mn(2+) (aq) concentration and pH 10.1) were chosen to be relevant to Mn remediation sites. We found that IS controls Mn(OH)2 (aq) formation, and that the controlled Mn(OH)2 (aq) formation can affect the system's saturation and subsequent Mn(OH)2 (s) and further Mn3O4 (s) nanoparticle formation. In 100 mM IS system, nucleated Mn (hydr)oxide particles had more coverage on the quartz substrate than those in 1 mM and 10 mM IS systems. This high IS also resulted in low supersaturation ratio and thus favor heterogeneous nucleation, having better structural matching between nucleating Mn (hydr)oxides and quartz. The unique information obtained in this work improves our understanding of Mn (hydr)oxide formation in natural as well as engineered aqueous environments, such as groundwater contaminated by natural leachate and acid mine drainage remediation.

  14. Magnetocapacitance effects in MnZn ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The magnetocapacitance effects of MnZn ferrites with different initial permeabilities have been studied systematically. Both intrinsic effect associated with magnetoelectric coupling and extrinsic effect, which means the combined contribution of magnetoresistance and the Maxwell-Wagner effect, have been observed simultaneously. Analysis shows that the relationship between the origins of both is in competitive equilibrium. Either of both mechanisms plays a dominant role in magnetocapacitance effects under different conditions, respectively, such as permeability and frequency of applied signals.

  15. L10-MnGa based magnetic tunnel junction for high magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X. P.; Lu, J.; Mao, S. W.; Yu, Z. F.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, X. L.; Wei, D. H.; Zhao, J. H.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the investigation of the magnetic tunnel junction structure designed for high magnetic field sensors with a perpendicularly magnetized L10-MnGa reference layer and an in-plane magnetized Fe sensing layer. A large linear tunneling magnetoresistance ratio up to 27.4% and huge dynamic range up to 5600 Oe have been observed at 300 K, with a low nonlinearity of 0.23% in the optimized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The field response of tunneling magnetoresistance is discussed to explain the field sensing properties in the dynamic range. These results indicate that L10-MnGa based orthogonal MTJ is a promising candidate for a high performance magnetic field sensor with a large dynamic range, high endurance and low power consumption.

  16. Mn nanoparticles produced by inert gas condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, M B; Brydson, R; Cochrane, R F

    2006-01-01

    The results from experiments using the inert gas condensation method to produce nanoparticles of manganese are presented. Structural and compositional data have been collected through electron diffraction, EDX (energy dispersive X-ray) and EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy). Both Mn 3 O 4 and pure Mn particles have been produced. Moisture in untreated helium gas causes the particles to oxidize, whereas running the helium through a liquid nitrogen trap removes the moisture and produces β-Mn particles in a metastable state. The particle sizes and the size distribution have been determined. Particle sizes range from 2nm to above 100 nm, however the majority of particles lie in the range below 20 nm with a modal particle size of 6 nm. As well as the modal particle size of 6 nm, there is another peak in the frequency curve at 16 nm that represents another group particles that lie in the range 12 to 20 nm. The smaller particles are single crystals, but the larger particles appear to have a dense region around their edge with a less dense centre. Determination of their exact nature is ongoing

  17. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Mn12-acetat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiter, J.; Reissner, M.; Hilscher, G.; Steiner, W.; Pajic, D.; Zadro, K.; Bartel, M.; Linert, W.

    2004-01-01

    Molecules provide the exciting opportunity to study magnetism on the passage from atomic to macroscopic level. One of the most interesting effects in such mesoscopic systems is the appearance of quantum tunnelling of magnetization (MQT) at low temperatures. In the last decade molecular chemistry has had a large impact in this field by providing new single molecule magnets. They consist of small clusters exhibiting superparamagnetic behavior, similar to that of conventional nanomagnetic particles. The advantage of these new materials is that they form macroscopic samples consisting of regularly arranged small identical high-spin clusters which are widely separated by organic molecules. The lack of distributions in size and shape of the magnetic clusters and the very weak intercluster interaction lead in principle to only one barrier for the spin reversal. We present detailed magnetic investigations on a Mn 12 -ac single crystal. In this compound the tetragonal ordered clusters consist of a central tetrahedron of four Mn 4+ (S = 3/2) atoms surrounded by eight Mn 3+ (S = 2) atoms with antiparallel oriented spins, leading to an overall spin moment of S = 10. In the hysteresis loops nine different jumps at regularly spaced fields are identified in the investigated temperature range (1.5 < T < 3 K). At these fields the relaxation of moment due to thermal activation is superimposed by strong quantum tunnelling. In lowering the temperature the time dependence changes from thermally activated to thermally assisted tunnelling. (author)

  18. Interface characteristics in Co2MnSi/Ag/Co2MnSi trilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yang; Chen, Hong; Wang, Guangzhao; Yuan, Hongkuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inferface DO 3 disorder is most favorable in Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer. • Interface itself and inferface DO 3 disorder destroy the half-metallicity of interface layers. • Magnetoresistance is reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. • Magnetotransport coefficient is largely reduced by the interface itself and interface disorder. - Abstract: Interface characteristics of Co 2 MnSi/Ag/Co 2 MnSi trilayer have been investigated by means of first-principles. The most likely interface is formed by connecting MnSi-termination to the bridge site between two Ag atoms. As annealed at high temperature, the formation of interface DO 3 disorder is most energetically favorable. The spin polarization is reduced by both the interface itself and interface disorder due to the interface state occurs in the minority-spin gap. As a result, the magneto-resistance ratio has a sharp drop based on the estimation of a simplified modeling.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4 by constructing a stable Mn2+-rich interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongpei; Lu, Xiaojun; Ding, Jingjing; Zhou, Ting; Ge, Tao; Yang, Gang; Yin, Fan; Wu, Mingfang

    2017-12-01

    Spinel LiMn2O4 has drawn continuous attentions due to its low cost, good electrochemical performance, environmental friendliness and natural abundant resources. In view of its severe capacity fading, some types of manganese-based compounds with different Mn oxidation states are selected to protect bare LiMn2O4 by constructing a stable coating layer. In this work, LiMn2O4@LiMnPO4 composite, spherical LiMn2O4 (LMO) as core and Mn2+-rich phase of LiMnPO4 (LMP) as shell, is designed and synthesized. Two composites of LiMn2O4 particles coated with 3 wt% and 10 wt% LiMnPO4 have been compared studied. After 100 cycles at 0.5C rate, the two samples deliver capacity retentions of 96.63% and 93.23% of their initial capacities. Moreover, LMO coated by 3 wt% LiMnPO4 delivers 100.3 mAh g-1 after 200 cycles at 10C rate and 76.3 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at 20C rate, much higher than bare LiMn2O4 with 90 mAh g-1 and 45.8 mAh g-1, respectively. This core-shell structure with Mn2+-rich phase as a coating layer effectively enhance the material's cycling performance and rate capacity by reducing the contact of LiMn2O4 with electrolyte.

  20. ``Frames of Reference'' revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn-Ross, Alistair; Ivey, Donald G.

    1992-12-01

    The PSSC teaching film, ``Frames of Reference,'' was made in 1960, and was one of the first audio-visual attempts at showing how your physical ``point of view,'' or frame of reference, necessarily alters both your perceptions and your observations of motion. The gentle humor and original demonstrations made a lasting impact on many audiences, and with its recent re-release as part of the AAPT Cinema Classics videodisc it is timely that we should review both the message and the methods of the film. An annotated script and photographs from the film are presented, followed by extension material on rotating frames which teachers may find appropriate for use in their classrooms: constructions, demonstrations, an example, and theory.

  1. Program reference schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Program Reference Schedule Baseline (PRSB) provides the baseline Program-level milestones and associated schedules for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. It integrates all Program-level schedule-related activities. This schedule baseline will be used by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and his staff to monitor compliance with Program objectives. Chapter 1 includes brief discussions concerning the relationship of the PRSB to the Program Reference Cost Baseline (PRCB), the Mission Plan, the Project Decision Schedule, the Total System Life Cycle Cost report, the Program Management Information System report, the Program Milestone Review, annual budget preparation, and system element plans. Chapter 2 includes the identification of all Level 0, or Program-level, milestones, while Chapter 3 presents and discusses the critical path schedules that correspond to those Level 0 milestones

  2. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  3. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  4. Radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Outline of radioactive certified reference materials (CRM) for the analysis of nuclear materials and radioactive nuclides were described. The nuclear fuel CRMs are supplied by the three institutes: NBL in the US, CETAMA in France and IRMM in Belgium. For the RI CRMs, the Japan Radioisotope Association is engaged in activities concerning supply. The natural-matrix CRMs for the analysis of trace levels of radio-nuclides are prepared and supplied by NIST in the US and the IAEA. (author)

  5. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  6. Hazardous chemicals desk reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Richard J., Sr

    2008-01-01

    ... of the entries have been revised for t h s edition. Most of the new entries were selected because they are on the EPA TSCA Inventory. These are reported to be used in commerce in the United States. Emphasis was placed on adding and updating physical properties and updating all DOT Classifications. The information was extracted from Dangerous Propedes Of...

  7. Reference handbook: Level detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide Rocky Flats personnel with the information necessary to understand level measurement and detection. Upon completion of this handbook you should be able to do the following: List three reasons for measuring level. Describe the basic operating principles of the sight glass. Demonstrate proper techniques for reading a sight glass. Describe the basic operating principles of a float level detector. Describe the basic operating principles of a bubbler level indicating system. Explain the differences between a wet and dry reference leg indicating system, and describe how each functions. This handbook is designed for use by experienced Rocky Flats operators to reinforce and improve their current knowledge level, and by entry-level operators to ensure that they possess a minimum level of fundamental knowledge. Level Detectors is applicable to many job classifications and can be used as a reference for classroom work or for self-study. Although this reference handbook is by no means all-encompassing, you will gain enough information about this subject area to assist you in contributing to the safe operation of Rocky Flats Plant

  8. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M

    2002-01-01

    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  9. Exchange interaction in MnPt/FeCo sputtered multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Nawate, M.; Norikane, T.

    2000-01-01

    MnPt single-layer films have been prepared on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering for studying the composition dependencies of resistivity and crystalline structure. In the as-deposited state, the resistivity increases with Mn content and reaches the maximum at 69 at%. By annealing, the resistivity of the films having the Mn content around 51 at% increases, closely relating to the growth of the ordered CuAu FCT-type MnPt crystals. For the both film structures of the glass/Cu/FeCo/MnPt/Cu and the glass/MnPt/FeCo/Cu, which have been sputter-deposited on glass substrates, the exchange interaction between MnPt and FeCo layers, and the coercivity of the FeCo layer have been examined as functions of the Mn content, the layer thickness and the annealing temperature. In the as-deposited state, the exchange field (H ex ) is nearly zero up to 75 at% of Mn content, above which the value of H ex increases and shows the maximum at 85 at%, in which the blocking temperature is about 100 deg. C. By annealing, the value of H ex increases for the films of Mn content around 40-60 at%, exhibiting the higher blocking temperature than 360 deg. C. The temperature stability has also been examined using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

  10. Synthesis and characterization of composites HoMn_1_-_x(Ni,Co)_xO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Cassio Morilla dos

    2011-01-01

    In this work was accomplished the synthesis process and structural and magnetic characterization of HoMn_1_-_X(Ni,Co)_XO_3 compounds of perovskite structure. The samples synthesis were performed through modified polymeric precursor method. After synthesis and solvent removal, the polymer resin formed was treated at 350 deg C/4h for organic constituents removal, followed by heating treatment at 500 deg C/4h and 900 deg C/20h to obtain the crystalline phase. For structural characterization, it was used D10B-XPD beam line of Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), where X-rays wavelengths below cobalt, manganese and nickel absorption edge, were used. The formation of HoNi_0_._5_0Mn_0_._5_0O_3, HoCo_0_._5_0Mn_0_._5_0O_3 and HoNi_0_._2_5Co_0_._2_5Mn_0_._5_0O_3 phases were observed by X-ray diffraction technique. By Rietveld refinement method for sample HoNi_0_._2_5Co_0_._2_5Mn_0_._5_0O_3, it was determined that cobalt and nickel had similar occupations at the top and bottom of unit cell, while the manganese preferentially occupied plan 002. The magnetic response of samples was studied through magnetization curves according to the temperature function and the applied magnetic field. The ZFC curves showed a paramagnetic response associated to holmium magnetic moment, and ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism coexistence, due to sublattices formed by transition metals. The FC curves evidenced the spin reversal phenomenon, associated to the interaction between the sublattice formed by transition metals with sublattices formed by rare-earth, considering a mechanism of antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. (author)

  11. High-field torque magnetometry for investigating magnetic anisotropy in Mn12-acetate nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornia, Andrea; Affronte, Marco; Gatteschi, Dante; Jansen, Aloysius G.M.; Caneschi, Andrea; Sessoli, Roberta

    2001-01-01

    The single-molecule superparamagnet [Mn 12 O 12 (OAc) 16 (H 2 O) 4 ]·2AcOH·4H 2 O (Mn 12 -acetate) has attracted considerable attention because it shows exceedingly slow paramagnetic relaxation at low temperature. The cluster has S 4 symmetry in the solid state and comprises four Mn(IV) ions (S=((3)/(2))) and eight Mn(III) ions (S=2) which are magnetically coupled to give an S=10 ground state. The ground manifold is largely split in zero magnetic field and many efforts have been spent to determine the zero-field splitting (zfs) parameters α, β and γ appearing in the fourth-order spin-Hamiltonian H=αS z 2 +βS z 4 +γ(S + 4 +S - 4 )+μ B B·g·S. These are of paramount importance for defining the magnetic anisotropy of the cluster, which in turn determines the slow relaxation of the magnetization and quantum tunneling effects at low temperatures. We want to show that cantilever torque magnetometry in high fields is a suitable technique for determining second- and fourth-order anisotropic contributions in high-spin molecules, such as Mn 12 -acetate. The main advantage of the method lies in its high sensitivity which allows to use very small single crystals. Torque curves have been recorded at 4.2 K by applying the magnetic field (0-28 T) very close to the ab-plane of the tetragonal unit cell. The zfs parameters obtained by this procedure [α=-0.389(5) cm -1 and β=-8.4(5)x10 -4 cm -1 ] are in excellent agreement with those determined by spectroscopic techniques, such as high-frequency EPR and inelastic neutron scattering

  12. NMR studies of 55Mn in amorphous CexMn100-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, H.; Okamura, K.; Yogi, M.; Amakai, Y.; Takano, H.; Murayama, S.; Obi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the heavy-fermion like behavior of amorphous alloy Ce x Mn 100-x , the NMR measurements of 55 Mn (I=5/2 ) in Ce 65 Mn 35 have been carried out from 4.2 to 270 K using powdered sample. A broadened NMR spectrum containing five NQR lines split due to NQR interaction is observed. Quadrupole coupling constant 3e 2 Qq/2I(2I-1)h is gradually changed from about 1.8 MHz at 4.2 K to about 1.6 MHz at 270 K. Temperature dependence of the line width is expressed in the Curie-Weiss law with θ p =-10.5K. The value of Knight shift would be almost constant from 4.2 to 270 K

  13. Atomistic spin dynamics simulations on Mn-doped GaAs and CuMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsvik, Johan, E-mail: johan.hellsvik@fysik.uu.s [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic dynamical behavior of two random alloys have been investigated in atomistic spin dynamics (ASD) simulations. For both materials, magnetic exchange parameters calculated with first principles electronic structure methods were used. From experiments it is well known that CuMn is a highly frustrated magnetic system and a good manifestation of a Heisenberg spin glass. In our ASD simulations the behavior of the autocorrelation function indicate spin glass behavior. The diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Mn-doped GaAs is engineered with hopes of high enough Curie temperatures to operate in spintronic devices. Impurities such as As antisites and Mn interstitials change the exhange couplings from being mainly ferromagnetic to also have antiferromagnetic components. We explore how the resulting frustration affects the magnetization dynamics for a varying rate of As antisites.

  14. Growth and magnetic properties of multiferroic LaxBi1-xMnO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, M.; Bibes, M.; Wyczisk, F.; Varela, M.; Fontcuberta, J.; Barthélémy, A.

    2007-05-01

    A comparative study of LaxBi1-xMnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates is reported. It is shown that these films grow epitaxially in a narrow pressure-temperature range. A detailed structural and compositional characterization of the films is performed within the growth window. The structure and the magnetization of this system are investigated. We find a clear correlation between the magnetization and the unit-cell volume that we ascribe to Bi deficiency and the resultant introduction of a mixed valence on the Mn ions. On these grounds, we show that the reduced magnetization of LaxBi1-xMnO3 thin films compared to the bulk can be explained quantitatively by a simple model, taking into account the deviation from nominal composition and the Goodenough-Kanamori-Anderson rules of magnetic interactions.

  15. Mechano-chemical synthesis K2MF6 (M = Mn, Ni) by cation-exchange reaction at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Pooja; Nagarajan, Rajamani

    2018-02-01

    In order to establish the power of mechanochemistry to produce industrially important phosphors, synthesis of K2MnF6 has been attempted by the successive grinding reactions of manganese (II) acetate with ammonium fluoride and potassium fluoride. The progress of reaction was followed by ex-situ characterization after periodic intervals of time. Cubic symmetry of K2MnF6 was evident from its powder X-ray diffraction pattern which was refined successfully in cubic space group (Fm-3m) with a = 8.4658 (20) Å. Stretching and bending vibration modes of MnF62- octahedral units appeared at 740 and 482 cm-1 in the fourier transformed infrared spectrum. Bands at 405 and 652 cm-1 appeared in the Raman spectrum and they were finger-print positions of cubic K2MnF6. Other than the ligand to metal charge transfer transition at 242 nm, transitions from 4A2g to 4T1g, 4T2g and 2T2g of Mn4+-ion appeared at 352, 429, 474 and 569 nm in the UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrum of the sample. Red emission due to Mn4+ was observed in the photoluminescence spectrum with a decay time of 0.22 ms. Following the success in forming cubic K2MnF6, this approach has been extended to synthesize cubic K2NiF6 at room temperature. All these results confirmed the susceptibility of acetate salts of transition metals belonging to first-row of the periodic table to facile fluorination at room temperature aided by mechanical forces.

  16. Optical properties of Mn doped ZnO films and wires synthesized by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sima, M., E-mail: msima@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Mihut, L. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Vasile, E. [University “Politehnica”of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Department of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, No. 1-7 Gh. Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania); Sima, Ma.; Logofatu, C. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 105bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Magurele (Romania)

    2015-09-01

    Mn doped ZnO films and wires, having different manganese concentrations were synthesized by thermal oxidation of the corresponding ZnMn alloy films and wires electrodeposited on a gold substrate. Structural and optical properties were addressed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). To estimate the manganese concentration in Mn doped ZnO films, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used. XRD patterns indicate that the incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} ions into the Zn{sup 2+} site of ZnO lattice takes place. Quenching of the ZnO PL appears due to Mn{sup 2+} ions in the ZnO lattice. Moreover, a significant decrease in the green emission of ZnO is reported in the case of the Mn doped ZnO wire array with a Mn concentration of 1.45%. The wurtzite ZnO has a total of 12 phonon modes, namely, one longitudinal acoustic (LA), two transverse acoustic (TA), three longitudinal optical (LO), and six transverse optical branches. Compared to the undoped ZnO, a gradual up-shift of the Raman lines assigned to the 2LA and A{sub 1} (LO) vibrational modes, from 482 and 567 cm{sup −1} to 532 and 580 cm{sup −1}, respectively, takes place for the Mn doped ZnO films having a Mn concentration between 2 and 15%. Additionally, in the case of the Mn doped ZnO films with 7 and 15% Mn concentration, Raman spectra show the appearance and increase in the relative intensity of the ZnO Raman line assigned to the TA + LO vibrational mode in the 600–750 cm{sup −1} spectral range. For the Mn-doped ZnO wires, the presence of the Raman line peaking at 527 cm{sup −1} confirms the insertion of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZnO lattice. - Highlights: • Mn doped ZnO films and wires grown by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy • Incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} ions into Zn{sup 2+} site of ZnO lattice • Appearance of a strong Raman line in the spectral range 600–800 cm{sup −1} at high Mn concentration • Compensation of the oxygen vacancy at higher

  17. Optical properties of Mn doped ZnO films and wires synthesized by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, M.; Mihut, L.; Vasile, E.; Sima, Ma.; Logofatu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mn doped ZnO films and wires, having different manganese concentrations were synthesized by thermal oxidation of the corresponding ZnMn alloy films and wires electrodeposited on a gold substrate. Structural and optical properties were addressed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). To estimate the manganese concentration in Mn doped ZnO films, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used. XRD patterns indicate that the incorporation of Mn 2+ ions into the Zn 2+ site of ZnO lattice takes place. Quenching of the ZnO PL appears due to Mn 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. Moreover, a significant decrease in the green emission of ZnO is reported in the case of the Mn doped ZnO wire array with a Mn concentration of 1.45%. The wurtzite ZnO has a total of 12 phonon modes, namely, one longitudinal acoustic (LA), two transverse acoustic (TA), three longitudinal optical (LO), and six transverse optical branches. Compared to the undoped ZnO, a gradual up-shift of the Raman lines assigned to the 2LA and A 1 (LO) vibrational modes, from 482 and 567 cm −1 to 532 and 580 cm −1 , respectively, takes place for the Mn doped ZnO films having a Mn concentration between 2 and 15%. Additionally, in the case of the Mn doped ZnO films with 7 and 15% Mn concentration, Raman spectra show the appearance and increase in the relative intensity of the ZnO Raman line assigned to the TA + LO vibrational mode in the 600–750 cm −1 spectral range. For the Mn-doped ZnO wires, the presence of the Raman line peaking at 527 cm −1 confirms the insertion of Mn 2+ ions in ZnO lattice. - Highlights: • Mn doped ZnO films and wires grown by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy • Incorporation of Mn 2+ ions into Zn 2+ site of ZnO lattice • Appearance of a strong Raman line in the spectral range 600–800 cm −1 at high Mn concentration • Compensation of the oxygen vacancy at higher Mn concentration in ZnO lattice

  18. [Degradation of lignocellulose in the corn straw by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MN-8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-ya; Li, Shu-na; Wang, Shu-xiang; Wang, Quan; Xue, Yin-yin; Zhu, Bao-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Microbial degradation of lignocellulose is one of the key problems that need to be solved urgently in the process of utilizing biomass resource. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MN-8 is our previously isolated bacterium capable of degrading lignin. To determine the capability of strain MN-8 to degrade lignocellulose of corn straw, B. amyloliquefaciens MN-8 was inoculated and fermented with solid-state corn straw powder-MSM culture medium. The changes in the enzyme activity and degradation products of lignocellulose were monitored in the process of fermentation using the FTIR and GC/MS. The results showed that B. amyloliquefaciens MN-8 could produce lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes. The activities of all these enzymes reached the peak after being incubated for 10-16 days, and the highest enzyme activities were 55.0, 16.7, 45.4 and 60.5 U · g(-1), respectively. After 24 d of incubation, the degradation percentages of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose were up to 42.9%, 40.6% and 27.1%, respectively. The spectroscopic data by FTIR indicated that the intensities of characteristic absorption peaks of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose of the corn straw were decreased, indicating that the lignocellulose was degraded partly after being fermented by B. amyloliquefaciens MN-8. GC/MS analysis also demonstrated that strain MN-8 could degrade lignocellulose efficiently. It could depolymerize lignin into some monomeric compounds with retention of phenylpropane structure unit, such as amphetamine, benzene acetone and benzene propanoic acids, by the rupture of β-O-4 bond connected between lignin monomer, and it further oxidized some monomer compounds into Cα carbonyl compounds, such as 2-amino-1-benzeneacetone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone. The GC/MS analysis of the degradation products of cellulose and hemicellulose showed that there were not only monosaccharide compounds, such as glucose, mannose and galactose, but also some

  19. Correlation between magnetoresistance and magnetization in Ag Mn and Au Mn spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, A.K.

    1982-08-01

    Magnetization has been measured between 2 and 77 K and mostly up to fields of 20 K Oe in Ag Mn (1.1 and 5.4 at %) and Au Mn (1.8 and 4.6 at %) spin glass samples where the transverse magnetoresistance was measured earlier. It is found for the first time over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field that the negative magnetoresistance varies as the square of the bulk magnetization resulting in an universal curve in the spin glass regime. A theoretical justification is provided in terms of exciting theories. (author)

  20. Moessbauer study of Mn-Zn and Mn ferrites prepared by wet method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalk, C.

    1985-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed to study Mn-Zn ferrites before and after low-temperature annealing. The unannealed Mn-Zn ferrite prepared by a wet method and also the sintered material after annealing at 400 deg C in air show the presence of paramagnetic clusters. These findings are explained as being due to nonrandom ordering of Fe 3+ and Zn 2+ ions caused by local charge compensation in the neighbourhood of cation vacancies. A change of cation distribution after annealing at relatively low temperatures was observed. 10 refs., 3 figs. (author)

  1. Interplay between localization and magnetism in (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)As

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ye; Xu, Chi; Hübner, René; Jakiela, Rafal; Böttger, Roman; Helm, Manfred; Sawicki, Maciej; Dietl, Tomasz; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2017-01-01

    Ion implantation of Mn combined with pulsed laser melting is employed to obtain two representative compounds of dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors (DFSs): Ga1-xMnxAs and In1-xMnxAs. In contrast to films deposited by the widely used molecular beam epitaxy, neither Mn interstitials nor As antisites are present in samples prepared by the method employed here. Under these conditions the influence of localization on the hole-mediated ferromagnetism is examined in two DFSs with a differing strengt...

  2. Formation of Mn3O4(001) on MnO(001): Surface and interface structural stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Veronika; Podloucky, Raimund; Franchini, Cesare; Allegretti, Francesco; Xu, Bo; Parteder, Georg; Ramsey, Michael G.; Surnev, Svetlozar; Netzer, Falko P.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopies, high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy, spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction, and density functional theory calculations are employed to study the growth of (001) oriented Mn 3 O 4 surfaces on a Pd(100)-supported MnO(001) substrate, with the Hausmannite planar lattice constants aligned along the [110] direction of the underlying MnO(001) support. We show that despite the rather large lattice mismatch, abrupt interfaces may exist between rocksalt MnO and Hausmannite. We argue that this process is facilitated by the relatively low computed strain energy and we propose realistic models for the interface. An atop site registry between the Mn(O) atoms of the oxygen rich Mn 3 O 4 termination and the MnO(001) O(Mn) atoms underneath is found to be the energetically most favorable configuration. The significant planar expansion is accompanied by a large compression of the Mn 3 O 4 vertical lattice constant, yielding structural distortion of the O-Mn-O octahedral axis. Spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction experiments show that the conversion reaction proceeds easily in both directions, thus indicating the reversible redox character of the transition

  3. Magnetic phase change in Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 thin films depending on Mn concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchitomi, Naotaka; Hidaka, Shiro; Saito, Shin; Asubar, Joel T.; Toyota, Hideyuki

    2018-04-01

    The relationship between Mn concentration and Curie temperature (TC) is studied for Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 ferromagnetic semiconductors, epitaxially grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. In the ferromagnetic phase, Mn distributions in a (Zn,Mn,Sn)As2 thin film with 7.2 cation percent (cat. %) Mn are investigated using three-dimensional atom probe tomography. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution which spreads to a relatively high Mn concentration of 9.0 at. % (at. %). In the paramagnetic phase, it is found that the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition takes place sharply with a TC of 334 K when the Mn doping concentration increases to about 4 cat. % Mn, which corresponds to a magnetic percolation threshold for ferromagnetism in (Zn,Mn,Sn)As2. An effective Curie temperature ⟨TC⟩ is considered to bridge the Curie temperatures obtained experimentally to those calculated theoretically in inhomogeneous magnetic semiconductors. The behavior of magnetism in Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 can be explained by three different phases within the present framework.

  4. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D; Woodrow, Ian E; Baker, Alan J; Batianoff, George N

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for 'new' hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible 'new' Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible 'new' subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be followed up by field studies.

  5. Foliar Mn accumulation in eastern Australian herbarium specimens: prospecting for ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators and potential applications in taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Denise R.; Guymer, Gordon; Reeves, Roger D.; Woodrow, Ian E.; Baker, Alan J.; Batianoff, George N.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The analysis of herbarium specimens has previously been used to prospect for ‘new’ hyperaccumulators, while the use of foliar manganese (Mn) concentrations as a taxonomic tool has been suggested. On the basis of their geographic and taxonomic affiliations to known Mn hyperaccumulators, six eastern Australian genera from the Queensland Herbarium collection were sampled for leaf tissue analyses. Methods ICP-OES was used to measure Mn and other elemental concentrations in 47 species within the genera Austromyrtus, Lenwebbia, Gossia (Myrtaceae), Macadamia (Proteaceae), Maytenus and Denhamia (Celastraceae). Key Results The resulting data demonstrated (a) up to seven ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, mostly tropical rainforest species; (b) that one of these ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators also had notably elevated foliar Ni concentrations; (c) evidence of an interrelationship between foliar Mn and Al uptake among the Macadamias; (d) considerable variability of Mn hyperaccumulation within Gossia; and (e) the possibility that Maytenus cunninghamii may include subspecies. Conclusions Gossia bamagensis, G. fragrantissima, G. sankowsiorum, G. gonoclada and Maytenus cunninghamii were identified as ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators, while Gossia lucida and G. shepherdii are possible ‘new’ Mn hyperaccumulators. Of the three Myrtaceae genera examined, Mn hyperaccumulation appears restricted to Gossia, supporting its recent taxonomic revision. In the context of this present investigation and existing information, a reassesment of the general definition of Mn hyperaccumulation may be warranted. Morphological variation of Maytenus cunninghamii at two extremities was consistent with variation in Mn accumulation, indicating two possible ‘new’ subspecies. Although caution should be exercised in interpreting the data, surveying herbarium specimens by chemical analysis has provided an effective means of assessing foliar Mn accumulation. These findings should be

  6. Electrochemical performances of LiMnPO4 synthesized from non-stoichiometric Li/Mn ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Chernova, Natasha A; Upreti, Shailesh; Chen, Xilin; Li, Zheng; Deng, Zhiqun; Choi, Daiwon; Xu, Wu; Nie, Zimin; Graff, Gordon L; Liu, Jun; Whittingham, M Stanley; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2011-10-28

    In this paper, the influences of the lithium content in the starting materials on the final performances of as-prepared Li(x)MnPO(4) (x hereafter represents the starting Li content in the synthesis step which does not necessarily mean that Li(x)MnPO(4) is a single phase solid solution in this work.) are systematically investigated. It has been revealed that Mn(2)P(2)O(7) is the main impurity when Li Li(3)PO(4) begins to form once x > 1.0. The interactions between Mn(2)P(2)O(7) or Li(3)PO(4) impurities and LiMnPO(4) are studied in terms of the structural, electrochemical, and magnetic properties. At a slow rate of C/50, the reversible capacity of both Li(0.5)MnPO(4) and Li(0.8)MnPO(4) increases with cycling. This indicates a gradual activation of more sites to accommodate a reversible diffusion of Li(+) ions that may be related to the interaction between Mn(2)P(2)O(7) and LiMnPO(4) nanoparticles. Among all of the different compositions, Li(1.1)MnPO(4) exhibits the most stable cycling ability probably because of the existence of a trace amount of Li(3)PO(4) impurity that functions as a solid-state electrolyte on the surface. The magnetic properties and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of the MnPO(4)·H(2)O precursor, pure and carbon-coated Li(x)MnPO(4) are also investigated to identify the key steps involved in preparing a high-performance LiMnPO(4). This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  7. Synthesis and crystal structure of the cesium silver permanganate Cs_3Ag[MnO_4]_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchert, Joerg M.; Henning, Harald; Schleid, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    After successful syntheses and structural refinements of the already known permanganates of cesium (Cs[MnO_4]) and silver (Ag[MnO_4]) we started to blend aqueous solutions of both components in various molar ratios. From crystallization experiments of these mixtures only three species of crystals with different chemical compositions were obtained: tricesium monosilver tetrakispermanganate (Cs_3Ag[MnO_4]_4) and, depending upon the respective ratio, either additional silver permanganate or surplus cesium permanganate, namely. The new title compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnnm (no. 58) with two formula units per unit cell and cell dimensions of a = 764.53(4), b = 1883.57(9) and c = 584.34(3) pm. The crystal structure of Cs_3Ag[MnO_4]_4 consists of two crystallographically distinguishable cesium cations. (Cs1)"+ is surrounded by fourteen oxygen atoms constructing a slightly distorted bicapped hexagonal prism. These polyhedra are connected through edge-sharing with two other polyhedra of this kind to form chains along [001]. The chains are linked to each other via sixfold coordinated Ag"+ cations (d(Ag-O) = 238-246 pm), arranged in such a manner that they link three oxygen atoms of two cesium polyhedra, leading to a two-dimensional layer spreading out parallel to the (001) plane. Together with the two crystallographically different tetrahedral oxomanganate(VII) anions [MnO_4]"- (d(Mn-O) = 161-162 pm) the other kind of cesium cations ((Cs2)"+ with CN = 13) finally connect these layers three-dimensionally. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Magnetic and transport properties of Ce 6MnSb 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, Claude; Rogl, Peter; Alleno, Eric; Gonçalves, António P.; Rouleau, Olivier

    2006-05-01

    In our effort to look for new Ce/Yb-based compounds with large unit cell, we studied Ce 6MnSb 15. Rietveld refinements of X-ray powder diffraction confirm that the material crystallizes in orthorhombic structure La 6MnSb 15-type, Imm2 space group, with 2 Ce sites (8e and 4d) and lattice parameters a=15.1643 Å, b=19.3875 Å and c=4.2794 Å, which closely agree with those already published. Magnetic susceptibility results show a paramagnetic behavior and no magnetic order down to 2 K in contrast to antiferromagnetic order previously reported at 7 K. Resistivity shows a metallic behavior and the Seebeck coefficient is very low, typically -2 μV/K.

  9. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  10. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  11. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  12. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  13. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron

    2008-01-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  14. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  15. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  16. Structural and magnetic properties of Mn-implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Zhang Gufei; Muecklich, A.; Eichhorn, F.; Schell, N.; Groetzschel, R.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Geiger, D.

    2007-01-01

    Structural and magnetic properties in Mn-implanted, p-type Si were investigated. High resolution structural analysis techniques such as synchrotron x-ray diffraction revealed the formation of MnSi 1.7 nanoparticles already in the as-implanted samples. Depending on the Mn fluence, the size increases from 5 nm to 20 nm upon rapid thermal annealing. No significant evidence is found for Mn substituting Si sites either in the as-implanted or annealed samples. The observed ferromagnetism yields a saturation moment of 0.21μ B per implanted Mn at 10 K, which could be assigned to MnSi 1.7 nanoparticles as revealed by a temperature-dependent magnetization measurement

  17. Impact of environmental chemistry on mycogenic Mn oxide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, C. M.; Farfan, G. A.; Post, A.; Post, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial environments and their presence can have broad environmental consequences. In particular, Mn oxides scavenge nutrients and metals, degrade complex organics, and oxidize a variety of inorganic contaminants. The "reactivity" of Mn oxides, however, is highly dependent upon crystallite size, composition, and structure, which are largely determined by environmental factors such as solution chemistry. It is has been suggested that most Mn oxides in terrestrial and aquatic environments are formed by microbial activity; indeed, a diversity of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria and fungi have been isolated and their mineral byproducts are consistent with those observed in natural systems. Previous studies showed that Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi produce highly-disordered, nanocrystalline Mn oxides that are structurally similar to synthetic δ-MnO2 or natural vernadite. Unlike related studies with Mn-oxidizing bacteria, Mn oxides produced by these fungi did not "age" or transform to more crystalline mineral phases with time. We hypothesize that fungal growth conditions, in particular the low concentration of cations, are inhibiting secondary mineral formation. The overall goal of this research is to examine the structure and speciation of fungally-precipitated Mn oxides with respect to fungal species, time, and concentration of soluble Mn(II), Na, and Ca - three environmentally relevant cations that promote the transformation of δ-MnO2 to more crystalline mineral phases such as feitknechtite, birnessite, or ranciéite. For this study, we examined the Mn oxides formed by different species of Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (Pyrenochaeta sp., Stagonospora sp., Plectosphaerella cucumerina., and Acremonium strictum). Isolates were grown for 8 or 16 days in a nutrient lean media consisting of yeast extract, trace elements and 0.2 mM MnCl2 supplemented with varying concentrations of Na, Ca, or Mn(II) compounds. The

  18. Mn-substituted perovskites RECoxMn1-xO3: a comparison between magnetic properties of LaCoxMn1-xO3 and GdCoxMn1-xO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barahona, P.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative phenomena constitute important mechanisms to explain the magnetic properties of the perovskite manganites REMnO3, in which the rare-earth and/or Mn is partially replaced by divalent elements. In this way, the manganese ion changes its valence state (Mn3+ Mn4+, triggering strong magnetic interactions. In this work we describe the case of GdCoxMn1-xO3 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 for which the antiferromagnetic interaction between the Gd sublattice and the Mn/Co network leads to a reversal of the magnetic moment at low temperature. No inversion is observed for the LaCoxMn1-xO3 series, in which the ordering temperature may attain a maximum of 235 K for LaCo0.50Mn0.50O3, while it is only 120 K for similar Co/Mn ratio in the case of GdCo0.50Mn0.50O3. Magnetic properties are described in terms of two regimes: one, for x 3 manganite and another one, for x > 0.5, when Mn substitutes Co in the GdCoO3 cobaltite, while the magnetic interactions are maximized at x(Co = 0.50. This hypothesis is discussed in terms of the respective oxidation states of both manganese (Mn3+ / Mn4+ and cobalt (Co2+ / Co3+.El fenómeno cooperativo constituye un importante mecanismo para explicar las propiedades magnéticas de las perovskitas manganitas TRMnO3, en las que el catión de tierra rara, TR, y/o el catión Mn3+ son parcialmente reemplazados por cationes divalentes. Por esta vía el ión de manganeso cambia de estado de valencia (Mn3+ Mn4+, generando fuertes interacciones magnéticas. En el presente trabajo se describe el caso de las soluciones sólidas GdCoxMn1-xO3 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0 para las que la interacción antiferromagnética entre la subred del Gd3+ y la red Mn/Co lleva a una inversión del momento magnético a baja temperatura. No se ha observado inversión para la serie LaCoxMn1-xO3, en que la temperatura de orden puede alcanzar un máximo de 235K para LaCo0.50Mn0.50O3, mientras que en el caso de GdCo0.50Mn0.50O3, en que sí se observa inversión, la

  19. Luminescence in colloidal Mn2+-doped semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulac, Remi; Archer, Paul I.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystal doping chemistries have substantially broadened the variety of photophysical properties that can be observed in colloidal Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals. A brief overview is provided, focusing on Mn 2+ -doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals prepared by direct chemical synthesis and capped with coordinating surface ligands. These Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation. A brief outlook on future research directions is provided. - Graphical abstract: Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation

  20. Zn–Mn alloy coatings from acidic chloride bath: Effect of deposition conditions on the Zn–Mn electrodeposition-morphological and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukil, N., E-mail: nloukil87@gmail.com; Feki, M.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Mn co-deposition from an additives-free chloride bath is possible. • Effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration and current density on Zn-Mn electrodeposition and particularly Mn content into Zn-Mn deposits were investigated. • A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration as well as the applied potential on Zn-Mn nucleation process. • Effect of current density on the morphology and structure of Zn-Mn alloys deposits. • A transition from crystalline to amorphous structure may occur in the Mn alloy electrodeposits at high current densities. - Abstract: Zn–Mn alloy electrodeposition on steel electrode in chloride bath was investigated using cyclic voltammetric, chronopotentiometric and chronoamperometric techniques. Cyclic voltammetries (CV) reveal a deep understanding of electrochemical behaviors of each metal Zn, Mn, proton discharge and Zn–Mn co-deposition. The electrochemical results show that with increasing Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath, Mn{sup 2+} reduction occurs at lower over-potential leading to an enhancement of Mn content into the Zn–Mn deposits. A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration on Zn–Mn nucleation process. It was found that the nucleation process is not extremely affected by Mn{sup 2+} concentration. Nevertheless, it significantly depends on the applied potential. Several parameters such as Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration, current density and stirring were investigated with regard to the Mn content into the final Zn–Mn coatings. It was found that the Mn content increases with increasing the applied current density j{sub imp} and Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath. However, stirring of the solution decreases the Mn content in the Zn–Mn coatings. The phase structure and surface morphology of Zn–Mn deposits are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning

  1. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  2. Magnetic anisotropy in GaMnAs; Magnetische Anisotropie in GaMnAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeubler, Joachim

    2009-07-02

    The goal of the present work was the detailed investigation of the impact of parameters like vertical strain, hole concentration, substrate orientation and patterning on the MA in GaMnAs. At first a method is introduced enabling us to determine the MA from angle-dependent magnetotransport measurements. This method was used to analyze the impact of vertical strain {epsilon}{sub zz} on the MA in a series of GaMnAs layers with a Mn content of 5% grown on relaxed InGaAs-templates. While hole concentration and Curie temperature were found to be unaffected by vertical strain, a significant dependence of the MA on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found. The most pronounced dependence was observed for the anisotropy parameter B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to}, representing the intrinsic contribution to the MA perpendicular to the layer plane. For this parameter a linear dependence on {epsilon}{sub zz} was found, resulting in a strain-induced transition of the magnetic easy axis with increasing strain from in-plane to out-of-plane at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.13%. Post-growth annealing of the samples leads to an outdiffusion and/or regrouping of the highly mobile Mn interstitial donor defects, resulting in an increase in both p and T{sub C}. For the annealed samples, the transition from in-plane to out-of-plane easy axis takes place at {epsilon}{sub zz} {approx} -0.07%. From a comparison of as-grown and annealed samples, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} was found to be proportional to both p and {epsilon}{sub zz}, B{sub 2} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} {proportional_to} p .{epsilon}{sub zz}. To study the influence of substrate orientation on the magnetic properties of GaMnAs, a series of GaMnAs layers with Mn contents up to 5% was grown on (001)- and (113)A-oriented GaAs substrates. The hole densities and Curie temperatures, determined from magnetotransport measurements, are drastically reduced in the (113)A layers. The differences in the magnetic properties of (113)A- and

  3. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  4. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Quality Controlled Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — USCRN Products are available on public FTP and derived from the USCRN processed data. Available parameters include averages and calculated values for precipitation,...

  5. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Processed Data (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous...

  6. United States Climate Reference Network (USCRN) Raw Experimental Datasets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Experimental USCRN data consists of data from four separate locations. Two of these stations--Johnstown, PA and Sterling, VA--were used to establish USCRN data...

  7. A Stellar Reference Unit Design Study for SIRTF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    performance levels for SIRTF are based on actual, real sky, test data taken at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory and at the University of Hawaii, Mauna Kea Observatories in conjunction with JPL. This performance is projected to have a staring mode NEA of only 0.037 arcseconds (both BOL and EOL......) and a precision of 0.502 (BOL) and 0.504 arcseconds (EOL), all RMS. These remarkable results are achieved at low cost with a head mass of less than 2.5 kg and a power dissipation of only 400 mW. The low power and mass, together with an operating temperature of about -40 C greatly ease the difficult problems...

  8. AREVA - 2013 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, as well as estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Description of major risks confronting the company; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Situation and activities of the company and its subsidiaries; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Management and supervisory bodies; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of the management and supervisory bodies; 17 - Human resources information; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - Information on holdings; Appendix 1: report of the supervisory board chairman on the preparation and organization of the board's activities and internal control procedures; Appendix 2: statutory auditors' reports; Appendix 3: environmental report; Appendix 4: non-financial reporting methodology and independent third-party report on social, environmental and societal data; Appendix 5: ordinary and extraordinary general shareholders' meeting; Appendix 6: values charter; Appendix 7: table of concordance of the management report; glossaries

  9. Balinese Frame of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Aryawibawa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Balinese Frame of Reference. Wassmann and Dasen (1998 did a study on the acquisition of Balinese frames of reference. They pointed out that, in addition to the dominant use of absolute system, the use of relative system was also observed. This article aims at verifying Wassmann and Dasen’ study. Employing monolingual Balinese speakers and using linguistic and non-linguistic tasks, Aryawibawa (2010, 2012, 2015 showed that Balinese subjects used an absolute system dominantly in responding the two tasks, e.g. The man is north/south/east/west of the car. Unlike Wassmann and Dasen’s results, no relative system was used by the subjects in solving the tasks. Instead of the relative system, an intrinsic system was also observed in this study, even though it was unfrequent. The article concludes that the absolute system was dominantly employed by Balinese speakers in describing spatial relations in Balinese. The use of the system seems to affect their cognitive functions.

  10. Antares Reference Telescope System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Kaprelian, E.; Swann, T.; Parker, J.; Wolfe, P.; Woodfin, G.; Knight, D.

    1983-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam, 40-TW carbon-dioxide laser-fusion system currently nearing completion at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 24 beams will be focused onto a tiny target (typically 300 to 1000 μm in diameter) located approximately at the center of a 7.3-m-diameter by 9.3-m-long vacuum (10 - 6 torr) chamber. The design goal is to position the targets to within 10 μm of a selected nominal position, which may be anywhere within a fixed spherical region 1 cm in diameter. The Antares Reference Telescope System is intended to help achieve this goal for alignment and viewing of the various targets used in the laser system. The Antares Reference Telescope System consists of two similar electro-optical systems positioned in a near orthogonal manner in the target chamber area of the laser. Each of these consists of four subsystems: (1) a fixed 9X optical imaging subsystem which produces an image of the target at the vidicon; (2) a reticle projection subsystem which superimposes an image of the reticle pattern at the vidicon; (3) an adjustable front-lighting subsystem which illuminates the target; and (4) an adjustable back-lighting subsystem which also can be used to illuminate the target. The various optical, mechanical, and vidicon design considerations and trade-offs are discussed. The final system chosen (which is being built) and its current status are described in detail

  11. Benthic foraminiferal Mn / Ca ratios reflect microhabitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koho, Karoliina A.; de Nooijer, Lennart J.; Fontanier, Christophe; Toyofuku, Takashi; Oguri, Kazumasa; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-06-01

    The Mn / Ca of calcium carbonate tests of living (rose-Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera (Elphidium batialis, Uvigerina spp., Bolivina spissa, Nonionellina labradorica and Chilostomellina fimbriata) were determined in relation to pore water manganese (Mn) concentrations for the first time along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the continental slope along the NE Japan margin (western Pacific). The local bottom water oxygen (BWO) gradient differs from previous field study sites focusing on foraminiferal Mn / Ca and redox chemistry, therefore allowing further resolution of previously observed trends. The Mn / Ca ratios were analysed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), allowing single-chamber determination of Mn / Ca. The incorporation of Mn into the carbonate tests reflects environmental conditions and is not influenced by ontogeny. The inter-species variability in Mn / Ca reflected foraminiferal in-sediment habitat preferences and associated pore water chemistry but also showed large interspecific differences in Mn partitioning. At each station, Mn / Ca ratios were always lower in the shallow infaunal E. batialis, occupying relatively oxygenated sediments, compared to intermediate infaunal species, Uvigerina spp. and B. spissa, which were typically found at greater depth, under more reducing conditions. The highest Mn / Ca was always recorded by the deep infaunal species N. labradorica and C. fimbriata. Our results suggest that although partitioning differs, Mn / Ca ratios in the intermediate infaunal taxa are promising tools for palaeoceanographic reconstructions as their microhabitat exposes them to higher variability in pore water Mn, thereby making them relatively sensitive recorders of redox conditions and/or bottom water oxygenation.

  12. Large Magnetic Anisotropy in HfMnP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Lamichhane, Tej; Taufour, Valentin; Masters, Morgan; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'Ko, Ser'gey; Canfield, Paul

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of two little-studied manganese phosphide ferromagnets, HfMnP and ZrMnP, with Curie temperatures above room temperature. We find an anisotropy field in HfMnP approaching 10 T - larger than that of the permanent magnet workhorse NdFeB magnets. From theory we determine the source of this anisotropy. Our results show the potential of 3d-element-based magnetic materials for magnetic applications.

  13. Sonocatalytic Degradation of Antibiotics Tetracycline by Mn-Modified Diatomite

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yiping; Mi, Xiao; Li, Guoting; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Mn-modified diatomite was prepared by wet impregnation and subsequent calcinations processes. It was used as catalyst for sonocatalytic degradation of antibiotics tetracycline. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the morphology and crystal structure of the modified diatomite were similar to these of raw diatomite. Despite containing very limited amount of Mn oxides, the Mn-modified diatomite showed much higher sonocatalytic activity than...

  14. Sensor employing internal reference electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same.......The present invention concerns a novel internal reference electrode as well as a novel sensing electrode for an improved internal reference oxygen sensor and the sensor employing same....

  15. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  16. Effect of MnO2 doped on physical, structure and optical properties of zinc silicate glasses from waste rice husk ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nidawi, Ali Jabbar Abed; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Zakaria, Azmi; Mohd Zaid, Mohd Hafiz

    In this study, an investigation was conducted to explore and synthesize silicate (SiO2) glass from waste rice husk ash (RHA). MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses with chemical formula [(ZnO)55 + (WRHA)45]100-X[MnO2]X, (where X = 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt%) was prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The glass samples were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The results revealed that by increasing the concentration of MnO2, the color of glass samples changed from colorless to brown and the density of glass increased. XRD results showed that a broad halo peak which centered on the low angle (2θ = 30°) indicated the amorphous nature of the glass. FTIR results showed basic structural units of Si-O-Si in non-bridging oxygen, Si-O and Mn-O in the glass network. FESEM result showed a decreasing porosity with an increasing MnO2 content, which was attributed to the Mn ions resort to occupy interstitial sites inside the pores of glass. Besides, the absorption intensity of glass increased and the band gap value decreased with increasing the MnO2 percentage. In this synthesized glass system of MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses using RHA as a source of silica, the MnO2 affect most of the properties of the glass system under investigation.

  17. Effect of MnO2 doped on physical, structure and optical properties of zinc silicate glasses from waste rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jabbar Abed Al-Nidawi

    Full Text Available In this study, an investigation was conducted to explore and synthesize silicate (SiO2 glass from waste rice husk ash (RHA. MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses with chemical formula [(ZnO55 + (WRHA45]100-X[MnO2]X, (where X = 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt% was prepared by conventional melt quenching technique. The glass samples were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis spectroscopy. The results revealed that by increasing the concentration of MnO2, the color of glass samples changed from colorless to brown and the density of glass increased. XRD results showed that a broad halo peak which centered on the low angle (2θ = 30° indicated the amorphous nature of the glass. FTIR results showed basic structural units of Si-O-Si in non-bridging oxygen, Si-O and Mn-O in the glass network. FESEM result showed a decreasing porosity with an increasing MnO2 content, which was attributed to the Mn ions resort to occupy interstitial sites inside the pores of glass. Besides, the absorption intensity of glass increased and the band gap value decreased with increasing the MnO2 percentage. In this synthesized glass system of MnO2 doped zinc silicate glasses using RHA as a source of silica, the MnO2 affect most of the properties of the glass system under investigation. Keywords: Rice husk, Manganese dioxide, Glass, Zinc silicate, Sintering, Optical properties

  18. The Paramagnetism of Dissolved Mn in {alpha} and {beta} Brasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, H P; Westin, R

    1962-12-15

    Paramagnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on {alpha} and {beta} brasses containing {approx} 1 w/o Mn. The susceptibility varied with temperature according to the Curie Weiss law and the Curie constant and thereby the Bohr magneton number per Mn atom were determined. Interpreted in terms of valency, Mn monovalent in copper has a valency in {alpha} brass which decreases progressively with zinc content attaining the value 0.58 at the limiting of composition. Mn in {beta} brass exhibits a valency 0.8. These results are not in keeping with previous values for the valency of manganese as determined from phase boundary relationships and electron to atom ratios.

  19. XAS and XMCD investigation of Mn12 monolayers on gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Matteo; Sainctavit, Philippe; Sessoli, Roberta; Cartier dit Moulin, Christophe; Pineider, Francesco; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Cornia, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2008-01-01

    The deposition of Mn(12) single molecule magnets on gold surfaces was studied for the first time using combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) methods at low temperature. The ability of the proposed approach to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Mn(12) complexes without significant sample damage was successfully checked on bulk samples. Detailed information on the oxidation state and magnetic polarization of manganese ions in the adsorbates was obtained from XAS and XMCD spectra, respectively. Partial reduction of metal ions to Mn(II) was clearly observed upon deposition on Au(111) of two different Mn(12) derivatives bearing 16-acetylthio-hexadecanoate and 4-(methylthio)benzoate ligands. The average oxidation state, as well as the relative proportions of Mn(II), Mn(III) and Mn(IV) species, are strongly influenced by the deposition protocol. Furthermore, the local magnetic polarizations are significantly decreased as compared with bulk Mn(12) samples. The results highlight an utmost redox instability of Mn(12) complexes at gold surfaces, presumably accompanied by structural rearrangements, which cannot be easily revealed by standard surface analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunnelling microscopy.

  20. Fe-Mn-Si based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Characteristics of martensitic transformation fcc(γ)→hcp(ε) in Fe-Mn-Si based alloys are briefly reviewed. By analyzing the influences of constituents and treatments on shape memory effect (SME) in Fe-Mn-Si, the main factors controlling SME are summarized as austenite strengthening, stacking fault energy (probability) and antiferromagnetic temperature. Contribution of thermomechanical training to SME is introduced. The Fe-Mn-Si-RE (rare earth elements) and Fe-Mn-Si-Cr-N alloys are recommended as two novel shape memory alloys with superior SME. (orig.)

  1. Electronic transport properties of nanostructured MnSi-films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, D.; Steinki, N.; Scarioni, A. Fernández; Schumacher, H. W.; Süllow, S.; Menzel, D.

    2018-05-01

    MnSi, which crystallizes in the cubic B20 structure, shows intriguing magnetic properties involving the existence of skyrmions in the magnetic phase diagram. Bulk MnSi has been intensively investigated and thoroughly characterized, in contrast to MnSi thin film, which exhibits widely varying properties in particular with respect to electronic transport. In this situation, we have set out to reinvestigate the transport properties in MnSi thin films by means of studying nanostructure samples. In particular, Hall geometry nanostructures were produced to determine the intrinsic transport properties.

  2. Ferromagnetic properties of Mn-doped AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Bao, H.Q.; Song, B.; Wang, W.J.; Chen, X.L.; He, L.J.; Yuan, W.X.

    2008-01-01

    Mn-doped AlN polycrystalline powders with a wurtzite structure were synthesized by solid-state reactions. A red-orange band at 600 nm, due to Mn 3+ incorporated into the AlN lattice, is observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum at room temperature (RT). Magnetic measurements show the samples possess hysteresis loops up to 300 K, indicating that the obtained powders are ferromagnetic at around RT. The Mn concentration-induced RT ferromagnetism is less than 1 at%. Our results confirm that the RT ferromagnetism can be realized in Mn-doped AlN

  3. Dynamical control of Mn spin-system cooling by photogenerated carriers in a (Zn,Mn)Se/BeTe heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, J.; Maksimov, A. A.; Dunker, D.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Waag, A.; Bayer, M.

    2010-08-01

    The magnetization dynamics of the Mn spin system in an undoped (Zn,Mn)Se/BeTe type-II quantum well was studied by a time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence technique. The Mn spin temperature was evaluated from the giant Zeeman shift of the exciton line in an external magnetic field of 3 T. The relaxation dynamics of the Mn spin temperature to the equilibrium temperature of the phonon bath after the pump-laser-pulse heating can be accelerated by the presence of free electrons. These electrons, generated by a control laser pulse, mediate the spin and energy transfer from the Mn spin system to the lattice and bypass the relatively slow direct spin-lattice relaxation of the Mn ions.

  4. Tuning magnetization avalanches in Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; McHugh, S.; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of magnetic avalanches (abrupt magnetization reversals) in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate using a micron-sized Hall sensor array. Measurements were taken for: (a) fixed magnetic field (constant barrier against spin reversal); and (b) fixed energy release obtained by adjusting the barrier and δM. A detailed comparison with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [1] will be presented and discussed. [1] D. A. Garanin and E. M. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)

  5. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... failed to detect magnetic fields, indicating an upper limit on the longitudinal field between 8 and 15G. In these LSD studies, assumptions were made that all spectral lines are identical in shape and can be described by a scaled mean profile. Aims. We re-analyse the available spectropolarimetric material...

  6. 12 CFR 404.3 - Public reference facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public reference facilities. 404.3 Section 404.3 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Procedures for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act. § 404.3 Public reference facilities. Ex-Im Bank...

  7. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  8. Toxicological aspects of photocatalytic degradation of selected xenobiotics with nano-sized Mn-doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozmen, Murat, E-mail: murat.ozmen@inonu.edu.tr [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Malatya (Turkey); Güngördü, Abbas [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Malatya (Turkey); Erdemoglu, Sema [Inonu University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Malatya (Turkey); Ozmen, Nesrin [Inonu University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Teaching Program, Malatya (Turkey); Asilturk, Meltem [Akdeniz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Antalya (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. • The photocatalytic efficiency of the photocatalysts was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. • Toxicity of photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products were determined. • Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality on X. laevis. • Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects. - Abstract: The toxic effects of two selected xenobiotics, bisphenol A (BPA) and atrazine (ATZ), were evaluated after photocatalytic degradation using nano-sized, Mn-doped TiO{sub 2}. Undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis-diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and BET surface area. The photocatalytic efficiency of the undoped and Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} was evaluated for BPA and ATZ. The toxicity of the synthesized photocatalysts and photocatalytic by-products of BPA and ATZ was determined using frog embryos and tadpoles, zebrafish embryos, and bioluminescent bacteria. Possible toxic effects were also evaluated using selected enzyme biomarkers. The results showed that Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles did not cause significant lethality in Xenopus laevis embryos and tadpoles, but nonfiltered samples caused lethality in zebrafish. Furthermore, Mn-doping of TiO{sub 2} increased the photocatalytic degradation capability of nanoparticles, and it successfully degraded BPA and AZT, but degradation of AZT caused an increase of the lethal effects on both tadpoles and fish embryos. Degradation of BPA caused a significant reduction of lethal effects, especially after 2–4 h of degradation. However, biochemical assays showed that both Mn-doped TiO{sub 2} and the degradation by-products caused a significant change of selected biomarkers on X. laevis tadpoles; thus, the ecological risks of Mn

  9. AREVA 2009 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This Reference Document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. This information provides an adequate picture of the size of these markets and of the AREVA group's competitive position. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the Reference Document and Attestation by the person responsible for the Reference Document; 2 - Statutory and Deputy Auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risks: Risk management and coverage, Legal risk, Industrial and environmental risk, Operating risk, Risk related to major projects, Liquidity and market risk, Other risk; 5 - Information about the issuer: History and development, Investments; 6 - Business overview: Markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, AREVA customers and suppliers, Overview and strategy of the group, Business divisions, Discontinued operations: AREVA Transmission and Distribution; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment: Principal sites of the AREVA group, Environmental issues that may affect the issuer's; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance: Overview, Financial position, Cash flow, Statement of financial position, Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2009; 10 - Capital Resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 -trend information: Current situation, Financial objectives; 13 - Profit forecasts or estimates; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of corporate bodies; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties: French state, CEA, EDF group; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information: Share capital, Certificate of incorporation and by-laws; 22 - Major

  10. Epitaxy of (Ga,Mn)As; Epitaxie von (Ga,Mn)As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utz, Martin

    2012-09-14

    The focus of this work lies on the enhancement of the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic semiconductor Gallium manganese arsenide (GaMnAs), which is a basic material for the research in spintronics: It is told, how a high sample reproducibility and a strong control over the growth process can be gained by applying band edge spectroscopy and a special procedure for the material flux calibration. Also the most important methods for the electrical characterization of GaMnAs are discussed in a critical manner by showing that the anomalous Hall Effect contributes significantly to the Hall resistance even at room temperature and that Novak's method for the termination of the Curie-temperature provides correct values for layers with low defect concentration. Furthermore it is reported on the considerable enlargement of the useable parameter space of GaMnAs which was enabled by the enhanced control over the growth process: It was possible to grow layers with a very high Manganese content of 22% and Curie temperatures of 172 K and even once were produced which showed a strong magnetic moment despite an insulating behaviour at low temperatures. A last key aspect is the growth and characterization of ultra-thin GaMnAs layers, giving prospects for gating experiments or experiments on the proximity effect as these layers combine high Curie temperatures with insulating behaviour.

  11. Traceable calibration of photovoltaic reference cells using natural sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllejans, H.; Zaaiman, W.; Pavanello, D.; Dunlop, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    At the European Solar Test Installation (ESTI) photovoltaic (PV) reference cells are calibrated traceably to SI units via the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) using natural sunlight. The Direct Sunlight Method (DSM) is described in detail and the latest measurement results and an updated uncertainty budget are reported. These PV reference cells then provide a practical means for measuring the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight during the calibration of other PV devices.

  12. Areva - 2016 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 36,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva

  13. A reference tristimulus colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, George P.

    2002-06-01

    A reference tristimulus colorimeter has been developed at NIST with a transmission-type silicon trap detector (1) and four temperature-controlled filter packages to realize the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) x(λ), y(λ) and z(λ) color matching functions (2). Instead of lamp standards, high accuracy detector standards are used for the colorimeter calibration. A detector-based calibration procedure is being suggested for tristimulus colorimeters wehre the absolute spectral responsivity of the tristimulus channels is determined. Then, color (spectral) correct and peak (amplitude) normalization are applied to minimize uncertainties caused by the imperfect realizations of the CIE functions. As a result of the corrections, the chromaticity coordinates of stable light sources with different spectral power distributions can be measured with uncertainties less than 0.0005 (k=1).

  14. Tank characterization reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research

  15. Areva, reference document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: - 1 Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; - 2 Information pertaining to the transaction (Not applicable); - 3 General information on the company and its share capital: Information on AREVA, on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; - 4 Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts, The principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and development programs, intellectual property and trademarks, Risk and insurance; - 5 Assets - Financial position - Financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, 2006 Human Resources Report, Environmental Report, Consolidated financial statements, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, AREVA SA financial statements, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate Governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Combined General Meeting of Shareholders of May 3, 2007; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2006, Outlook; 8 - Glossary; 9 - Table of concordance

  16. Areva reference document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This reference document contains information on the AREVA group's objectives, prospects and development strategies, particularly in Chapters 4 and 7. It contains also information on the markets, market shares and competitive position of the AREVA group. Content: 1 - Person responsible for the reference document and persons responsible for auditing the financial statements; 2 - Information pertaining to the transaction (not applicable); 3 - General information on the company and its share capital: Information on Areva, Information on share capital and voting rights, Investment certificate trading, Dividends, Organization chart of AREVA group companies, Equity interests, Shareholders' agreements; 4 - Information on company operations, new developments and future prospects: Overview and strategy of the AREVA group, The Nuclear Power and Transmission and Distribution markets, The energy businesses of the AREVA group, Front End division, Reactors and Services division, Back End division, Transmission and Distribution division, Major contracts 140 Principal sites of the AREVA group, AREVA's customers and suppliers, Sustainable Development and Continuous Improvement, Capital spending programs, Research and Development programs, Intellectual Property and Trademarks, Risk and insurance; 5 - Assets financial position financial performance: Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance, Human Resources report, Environmental report, Consolidated financial statements 2007, Notes to the consolidated financial statements, Annual financial statements 2007, Notes to the corporate financial statements; 6 - Corporate governance: Composition and functioning of corporate bodies, Executive compensation, Profit-sharing plans, AREVA Values Charter, Annual Ordinary General Meeting of Shareholders of April 17, 2008; 7 - Recent developments and future prospects: Events subsequent to year-end closing for 2007, Outlook; Glossary; table of concordance

  17. Formation of self-organized Mn3O4 nanoinclusions in LaMnO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomar, Alberto; Konstantinović, Zorica; Bagués, Nuria; Roqueta, Jaume; López-Mir, Laura; Balcells, Lluis; Frontera, Carlos; Mestres, Narcis; Gutiérrez-Llorente, Araceli; Šćepanović, Maja; Lazarević, Nenad; Popović, Zoran; Sandiumenge, Felip; Martínez, Benjamín; Santiso, José

    2016-09-01

    We present a single-step route to generate ordered nanocomposite thin films of secondary phase inclusions (Mn3O4) in a pristine perovskite matrix (LaMnO3) by taking advantage of the complex phase diagram of manganese oxides. We observed that in samples grown under vacuum growth conditions from a single LaMnO3 stoichiometric target by Pulsed Laser Deposition, the most favourable mechanism to accommodate Mn2+ cations is the spontaneous segregation of self-assembled wedge-like Mn3O4 ferrimagnetic inclusions inside a LaMnO3 matrix that still preserves its orthorhombic structure and its antiferromagnetic bulk-like behaviour. A detailed analysis on the formation of the self-assembled nanocomposite films evidences that Mn3O4 inclusions exhibit an epitaxial relationship with the surrounding matrix that it may be explained in terms of a distorted cubic spinel with slight ( 9º) c-axis tilting. Furthermore, a Ruddlesden-Popper La2MnO4 phase, helping to the stoichiometry balance, has been identified close to the interface with the substrate. We show that ferrimagnetic Mn3O4 columns influence the magnetic and transport properties of the nanocomposite by increasing its coercive field and by creating local areas with enhanced conductivity in the vicinity of the inclusions.

  18. Coupling between magnetic, dielectric properties and crystal structure in MnT2O4 (T = V, Cr, Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T; Adachi, K; Katsufuji, T

    2006-01-01

    We measured the temperature dependence of dielectric constant and striction for spinel MnT 2 O 4 (T = V, Cr, Mn) under magnetic field. We found critical changes of the dielectric constant and striction with ferrimagnetic ordering as well as applied magnetic field in MnV 2 O 4 and Mn 3 O 4 , which have orbital degree of freedom in the T 3+ ion. This result indicates the importance of the orbital degree of freedom for the coupling between dielectric, magnetic properties and crystal structure in these spinel compounds

  19. Formation of self-organized Mn3O4 nanoinclusions in LaMnO3 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pomar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a single-step route to generate ordered nanocomposite thin films of secondary phase inclusions (Mn3O4 in a pristine perovskite matrix (LaMnO3 by taking advantage of the complex phase diagram of manganese oxides. We observed that in samples grown under vacuum growth conditions from a single LaMnO3 stoichiometric target by Pulsed Laser Deposition, the most favourable mechanism to accommodate Mn2+ cations is the spontaneous segregation of self-assembled wedge-like Mn3O4 ferrimagnetic inclusions inside a LaMnO3 matrix that still preserves its orthorhombic structure and its antiferromagnetic bulk-like behaviour. A detailed analysis on the formation of the self-assembled nanocomposite films evidences that Mn3O4 inclusions exhibit an epitaxial relationship with the surrounding matrix that it may be explained in terms of a distorted cubic spinel with slight (~9º c-axis tilting. Furthermore, a Ruddlesden-Popper La2MnO4 phase, helping to the stoichiometry balance, has been identified close to the interface with the substrate. We show that ferrimagnetic Mn3O4 columns influence the magnetic and transport properties of the nanocomposite by increasing its coercive field and by creating local areas with enhanced conductivity in the vicinity of the inclusions.

  20. The influence of Mn species on the SO{sub 2} removal of Mn-based activated carbon catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Yi-Fan [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Guo, Jia-Xiu, E-mail: guojiaxiu@scu.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chu, Ying-Hao [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065 (China); Sun, Ming-Chao [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yin, Hua-Qiang, E-mail: hqyin@scu.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Using Mn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} as precursor, a series of Mn-based activated carbon catalysts were prepared by ultrasound-assisted excessive impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The influences of Mn species and nitric acid pretreatment on the removal role of SO{sub 2} were investigated. MnO and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} coexist in catalysts calcined at 650 and 800 °C and exhibit best SO{sub 2} removal ability, whereas Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed in the catalyst calcined at 500 °C and shows poor activity. After treatment by nitric acid, the C=O of activated carbon support increases and the crystal size of MnO decreases, resulting in the enhancement of the catalytic activity. During reaction process, manganese oxides are gradually transferred into MnO{sub 2}. And this change directly results in a decrease of activity. But the SO{sub 2} removal rate has been maintained in the range of 30–40%, indicating that MnO{sub 2} still has a certain SO{sub 2} removal ability.

  1. The influence of Mn species on the SO2 removal of Mn-based activated carbon catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Yi-Fan; Guo, Jia-Xiu; Chu, Ying-Hao; Sun, Ming-Chao; Yin, Hua-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Using Mn(NO 3 ) 2 as precursor, a series of Mn-based activated carbon catalysts were prepared by ultrasound-assisted excessive impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The influences of Mn species and nitric acid pretreatment on the removal role of SO 2 were investigated. MnO and Mn 3 O 4 coexist in catalysts calcined at 650 and 800 °C and exhibit best SO 2 removal ability, whereas Mn 2 O 3 formed in the catalyst calcined at 500 °C and shows poor activity. After treatment by nitric acid, the C=O of activated carbon support increases and the crystal size of MnO decreases, resulting in the enhancement of the catalytic activity. During reaction process, manganese oxides are gradually transferred into MnO 2 . And this change directly results in a decrease of activity. But the SO 2 removal rate has been maintained in the range of 30–40%, indicating that MnO 2 still has a certain SO 2 removal ability.

  2. Determination of Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, Mn and K in milk samples by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work cow milk samples distributed for Sao Paulo government institutions, by means of the 'Viva leite' programme, have been monitored. The concentrations of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na were determined in five milk samples and in three different kinds of commercial powder milk, by instrumental neutron activation. For quality control, the reference materials NIST whole milk powder and non fat milk powder were analysed. The results obtained are in the range of the concentrations mentioned in the literature for these elements. (author)

  3. Synthesis of NiO@MnO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junjiao; Huang, Ying, E-mail: chenjunjiao001@163.com; Li, Chao; Chen, Xuefang; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2} nanosheets were grown on the surface of porous NiO microtube. • The NiO@MnO{sub 2} nanocomposite exhibits excellent cycle performance. • The nanocomposite exhibits specific capacitance of 266.7 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1}. - Abstract: In this work, NiO@MnO{sub 2} core/shell nanocomposites were fabricated by a two-step method. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and thermal gravity analysis. In addition, the supercapacitive performances were examined by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical results indicate that the composite exhibits a specific capacitance of 266.7 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1} and excellent cycling stability (81.7% retention after 2000 cycles at 1 A g{sup −1}). Therefore, this wok offers meaningful reference for supercpacitor applications in the future.

  4. Asymmetric carbon nanotube-MnO2 two-ply yarn supercapacitors for wearable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Miao, Menghe

    2014-04-01

    Strong and flexible two-ply carbon nanotube yarn supercapacitors are electrical double layer capacitors that possess relatively low energy storage capacity. Pseudocapacitance metal oxides such as MnO2 are well known for their high electrochemical performance and can be coated on carbon nanotube yarns to significantly improve the performance of two-ply carbon nanotube yarn supercapacitors. We produced a high performance asymmetric two-ply yarn supercapacitor from as-spun CNT yarn and CNT@MnO2 composite yarn in aqueous electrolyte. The as-spun CNT yarn serves as negative electrode and the CNT@MnO2 composite yarn as positive electrode. This asymmetric architecture allows the operating potential window to be extended from 1.0 to 2.0 V and results in much higher energy and power densities than the reference symmetric two-ply yarn supercapacitors, reaching 42.0 Wh kg-1 at a lower power density of 483.7 W kg-1, and 28.02 Wh kg-1 at a higher power density of 19 250 W kg-1. The asymmetric supercapacitor can sustain cyclic charge-discharge and repeated folding/unfolding actions without suffering significant deterioration of specific capacitance. The combination of high strength, flexibility and electrochemical performance makes the asymmetric two-ply yarn supercapacitor a suitable power source for flexible electronic devices for applications that require high durability and wearer comfort.

  5. Synthesis of NiO@MnO_2 core/shell nanocomposites for supercapacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Junjiao; Huang, Ying; Li, Chao; Chen, Xuefang; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnO_2 nanosheets were grown on the surface of porous NiO microtube. • The NiO@MnO_2 nanocomposite exhibits excellent cycle performance. • The nanocomposite exhibits specific capacitance of 266.7 F g"−"1 at 0.5 A g"−"1. - Abstract: In this work, NiO@MnO_2 core/shell nanocomposites were fabricated by a two-step method. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and thermal gravity analysis. In addition, the supercapacitive performances were examined by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical results indicate that the composite exhibits a specific capacitance of 266.7 F g"−"1 at 0.5 A g"−"1 and excellent cycling stability (81.7% retention after 2000 cycles at 1 A g"−"1). Therefore, this wok offers meaningful reference for supercpacitor applications in the future.

  6. Evaluation of erosion-corrosion resistance in Fe-Mn-Al austenitic steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arnulfo Aperador

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of Mn and Al against corrosion/errosion resistance of three samples of the Fe-Mn-Al austenitic alloys are evaluated. The samples have composition Fe-(4,9 ~ 11,0 wt. (% Al-(17,49 ~ 34,3 wt. (% Mn-(0,43 ~ 1,25 wt. (%C, those were prepared in an induction furnace from high purity materials. The alloys were evaluated in a composed solution of NaCl 0,5 M and Silica in a special chamber and AISI 316 stainless steel as reference material. The electrochemical characterization was performed by Tafel curve polarizations technique. This microstructural characterization was by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. It was observed the significant decrease in the corrosion rate for steels Fermanal with a lower percentage of aluminum and manganese under conditions of dynamic corrosion and erosion-corrosion. SEM allows assessment of the dominant damage mechanisms and corroborated the results obtained by electrochemical measurements.

  7. The Fe/Mn constraint on precursors of basaltic achondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jeremy S.; Boesenberg, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Most achondritic meteorites have Fe/Mn ratios that are lower than those of carbonaceous chondrites and of course are lower than the solar system abundance ratio of these elements. Models of the origin of achondritic assemblages must, therefore, account for these ratios. Fe/Mn ratios are suggested to be distinctive for samples from each achondrite parent body and for the Earth and Moon, but the correspondence between the Fe/Mn systematics of achondrites and chondritic precursors is unclear. Most models of achondrite genesis involve magmatic differentiation of chondritic precursors. The Fe/Mn difference between achondrites and chondrites is particularly significant since Fe and Mn are geochemically similar elements with similar partitioning behavior in familiar magmatic systems and are generally coupled during crystal-liquid fractionation. In contrast, however, Mn is more volatile than Fe in a nebular setting. Variation of Fe/Mn ratios based on the relative volatility of these elements in the early nebula provides a constraint for models by which the basaltic achondrites (with Fe/Mn ratios approximately = 25-50) are derived from mixtures of nebular components that were enriched in volatile components such as Mn. However, such volatile enriched components have not been identified in chondrites. When the abundance in achondrites of elements of similar volatility is examined, anomalies appear. For example, Na is massively depleted in basaltic achondrites when compared to Mn. These anomalies might be explained using current models but the alternative hypothesis, that Fe/Mn ratio is controlled not by nebular volatility constraints, but by planetary differentiation should be explored.

  8. EDF group - Reference Document 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The EDF Group is a leading player in the European energy industry, active in all areas of the electricity value chain, from generation to trading and network management. The leader in the French electricity market, the Group also has solid positions in the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy, with a portfolio of 38.5 million European customers and a generation fleet which is unique in the world. It intends to play a major role in the global revival of nuclear and is increasingly active in the gas chain. The Group has a sound business model, evenly balanced between regulated and deregulated activities. Given its R and D capability, its track record and expertise in nuclear, fossil-fired and hydro generation and in renewable energies, together with its energy eco-efficiency offers, EDF is well placed to deliver competitive solutions to reconcile sustainable economic growth and climate preservation. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document and Annual Financial Report for the year 2007. It contains information about Group profile, governance, business, investments, property, plant and equipment, management, financial position, human resources, shareholders, etc. The document includes the 2008 half-year financial report and consolidated financial statements, and the report drafted by the Statutory Auditors

  9. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  10. Phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn and Au-Fe) alloys at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Kayali, Fawaz A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The spin glass of: (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn, Au-Fe) alloys has been extensively studied. The availability of published and assured experimental data on the susceptibility x(T) of this alloys has enabled the design and application of phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of these interesting alloys. The use of and advanced (S.P.S.S) computer software has resulted revealing some important features of the spin glass in these alloys, the most important of which is that the spin glass state do not represent as phase change

  11. Experimental and first-principles study of ferromagnetism in Mn-doped zinc stannate nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Rui; Zhou, Hang; Li, Yong-Feng; Wu, Tao; Yao, Bin; Qin, Jie-Ming; Wan, Yu-Chun; Jiang, Da-Yong; Liang, Qing-Cheng; Liu, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Mn-doped zinc stannate (ZTO:Mn) nanowires, which were prepared by chemical vapor transport. Structural and magnetic properties and Mn chemical states of ZTO:Mn nanowires were investigated by X-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Manganese predominantly existed as Mn2+ and substituted for Zn (Mn Zn) in ZTO:Mn. This conclusion was supported by first-principles calculations. MnZn in ZTO:Mn had a lower formation energy than that of Mn substituted for Sn (MnSn). The nearest neighbor MnZn in ZTO stabilized ferromagnetic coupling. This observation supported the experimental results. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  12. Experimental and first-principles study of ferromagnetism in Mn-doped zinc stannate nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Rui

    2013-07-17

    Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Mn-doped zinc stannate (ZTO:Mn) nanowires, which were prepared by chemical vapor transport. Structural and magnetic properties and Mn chemical states of ZTO:Mn nanowires were investigated by X-ray diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Manganese predominantly existed as Mn2+ and substituted for Zn (Mn Zn) in ZTO:Mn. This conclusion was supported by first-principles calculations. MnZn in ZTO:Mn had a lower formation energy than that of Mn substituted for Sn (MnSn). The nearest neighbor MnZn in ZTO stabilized ferromagnetic coupling. This observation supported the experimental results. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. (Na,□)5[MnO2]13 nanorods: a new tunnel structure for electrode materials determined ab initio and refined through a combination of electron and synchrotron diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaioli, Enrico; Gemmi, Mauro; Merlini, Marco; Gregorkiewitz, Michele

    2016-01-01

    (Nax□1 − x)5[MnO2]13 has been synthesized with x = 0.80 (4), corresponding to Na0.31[MnO2]. This well known material is usually cited as Na0.4[MnO2] and is believed to have a romanèchite-like framework. Here, its true structure is determined, ab initio, by single-crystal electron diffraction tomography (EDT) and refined both by EDT data applying dynamical scattering theory and by the Rietveld method based on synchrotron powder diffraction data (χ2 = 0.690, R wp = 0.051, R p = 0.037, R F2 = 0.035). The unit cell is monoclinic C2/m, a = 22.5199 (6), b = 2.83987 (6), c = 14.8815 (4) Å, β = 105.0925 (16)°, V = 918.90 (4) Å3, Z = 2. A hitherto unknown [MnO2] framework is found, which is mainly based on edge- and corner-sharing octahedra and comprises three types of tunnels: per unit cell, two are defined by S-shaped 10-rings, four by egg-shaped 8-rings, and two by slightly oval 6-rings of Mn polyhedra. Na occupies all tunnels. The so-determined structure excellently explains previous reports on the electrochemistry of (Na,□)5[MnO2]13. The trivalent Mn3+ ions concentrate at two of the seven Mn sites where larger Mn—O distances and Jahn–Teller distortion are observed. One of the Mn3+ sites is five-coordinated in a square pyramid which, on oxidation to Mn4+, may easily undergo topotactic transformation to an octahedron suggesting a possible pathway for the transition among different tunnel structures. PMID:27910840

  14. AREVA - 2012 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    After a presentation of the person responsible for this Reference Document, of statutory auditors, and of a summary of financial information, this report address the different risk factors: risk management and coverage, legal risk, industrial and environmental risk, operational risk, risk related to major projects, liquidity and market risk, and other risks (related to political and economic conditions, to Group's structure, and to human resources). The next parts propose information about the issuer, a business overview (markets for nuclear power and renewable energies, customers and suppliers, group's strategy, operations), a brief presentation of the organizational structure, a presentation of properties, plants and equipment (principal sites, environmental issues which may affect these items), analysis and comments on the group's financial position and performance, a presentation of capital resources, a presentation of research and development activities (programs, patents and licenses), a brief description of financial objectives and profit forecasts or estimates, a presentation of administration, management and supervision bodies, a description of the operation of corporate bodies, an overview of personnel, of principal shareholders, and of transactions with related parties, a more detailed presentation of financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance. Addition information regarding share capital is given, as well as an indication of major contracts, third party information, available documents, and information on holdings

  15. Reference thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driggers, F.E.

    1978-08-01

    In the reference fuel cycle for the TFCT program, fissile U will be denatured by mixing with 238 U; the plants will be located in secure areas, with Pu being recycled within these secure areas; Th will be recycled with recovered U and Pu; the head end will handle a variety of core and blanket fuel assembly designs for LWRs and HWRs; the fuel may be a homogeneous mixture either of U and Th oxide pellets or sol-gel microspheres; the cladding will be Zircaloy; and MgO may be added to the fuel to improve Th dissolution. Th is being considered as the fertile component of fuel in order to increase proliferation resistance. Spent U recovered from Th-based fuels must be re-enriched before recycle to prevent very rapid buildup of 238 U. Stainless steel will be considered as a backup to Zircaloy cladding in case Zr is incompatible with commercial aqueous dissolution. Storage of recovered irradiated Th will be considered as a backup to its use in the recycle of recovered Pu and U. Estimates are made of the time for introducing the Th fuel cycle into the LWR power industry. Since U fuel exposures in LWRs are likely to increase from 30,000 to 50,000 MWD/MT, the Th reprocessing plant should also be designed for Th fuel with 50,000 MWD/MT exposure

  16. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  17. Ferromagnetic dinuclear mixed-valence Mn(II)/Mn(III) complexes: building blocks for the higher nuclearity complexes. structure, magnetic properties, and density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Mikko M; Välivaara, Juha; Mota, Antonio J; Colacio, Enrique; Lloret, Francesc; Sillanpää, Reijo

    2013-02-18

    A series of six mixed-valence Mn(II)/Mn(III) dinuclear complexes were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The reactivity of the complexes was surveyed, and structures of three additional trinuclear mixed-valence Mn(III)/Mn(II)/Mn(III) species were resolved. The magnetic properties of the complexes were studied in detail both experimentally and theoretically. All dinuclear complexes show ferromagnetic intramolecular interactions, which were justified on the basis of the electronic structures of the Mn(II) and Mn(III) ions. The large Mn(II)-O-Mn(III) bond angle and small distortion of the Mn(II) cation from the ideal square pyramidal geometry were shown to enhance the ferromagnetic interactions since these geometrical conditions seem to favor the orthogonal arrangement of the magnetic orbitals.

  18. 78 FR 48301 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-0266; Airspace Docket No. 13-AGL-11] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN AGENCY: Federal... at Walker, MN. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Walker Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the...

  19. Cooled optically stimulated luminescence in CaF2:Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.D.; Endres, G.W.R.; McDonald, J.C.; Swinth, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new optically stimulated luminescence technique has been developed for the readout of CaF 2 :Mn thermoluminescent material. Minimum detectable gamma exposures may potentially be measured at 10 nC.kg -1 using the 254 nm line of a mercury lamp. Additional studies were done on CaF 2 :Mn using 351 nm excimer laser stimulation. (author)

  20. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of MnB2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat, Morocco ... Abstract. The self-consistent ab-initio calculations, based on density functional theory approach and using the full ... The exchange interactions between the magnetic atoms Mn–Mn in MnB2 are ... involved, and on the local environment of the transition-.

  1. The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuister, P.H.

    The 52Cr(p, γ)53Mn reaction was investigated in the energy region Ep = 1.36–2.26 MeV. The resonance energies, the corresponding 53Mn excitation energies and the resonance strengths of 199 resonances, assigned to this reaction, are reported. The excitation energies and gamma-ray branchings of 13

  2. Low temperature magnetic structure of MnSe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper we report low temperature neutron diffraction studies on MnSe in order to understand the anomalous behaviour of their magnetic and transport prop- erties. Our study indicates that at low temperatures MnSe has two coexisting crystal structures, high temperature NaCl and hexagonal NiAs. NiAs phase ...

  3. MnDOT Library strategic plan : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    MnDOTs Senior Leadership asked MnDOT Library to develop a Strategic Plan that identifies and reviews the challenges facing the Library over the next five years to better address the evolving needs of the department and users. The strategic plan is...

  4. Chemical Evolution of Mn in Three Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies Men ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thesis and explosion rate of SNeIa and CCSNe, we studied Mn evolution for three local ... different types of supernovae and the time delay between the birth and death of supernovae .... We find the theory can explain most distribution of Mn.

  5. Neutron Diffraction Investigation of MnAs under High Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, A.F; Fjellvag, H; Lebech, Bente

    1984-01-01

    Powdered MnAs has been investigated by neutron diffraction in a pressure cryostat, at hydrostatic pressures up to 13 kbar and temperatures down to 4.2 K. It has been found that in the orthorhombic MnP type structure, which under pressure is retained at low temperature, a spiral magnetic structure...

  6. Oxygen evolution from BF3/MnO4-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Shek-Man; Man, Wai-Lun; Wang, Xin; Lam, William W Y; Ng, Siu-Mui; Kwong, Hoi-Ki; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lau, Tai-Chu

    2011-04-14

    MnO(4)(-) is activated by BF(3) to undergo intramolecular coupling of two oxo ligands to generate O(2). DFT calculations suggest that there should be a spin intercrossing between the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces on going from the active intermediate [MnO(2)(OBF(3))(2)](-) to the O···O coupling transition state.

  7. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud' ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Masters, Morgan W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Parker, David S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Thimmaiah, Srinivasa [The Ames Laboratory, US Department of Energy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2016-08-29

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ{sub B}/f.u. and 2.1 μ{sub B}/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m{sup −3} K{sup −1} around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  8. Discovery of ferromagnetism with large magnetic anisotropy in ZrMnP and HfMnP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamichhane, Tej N.; Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.; Masters, Morgan W.; Parker, David S.; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa

    2016-01-01

    ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ_B/f.u. and 2.1 μ_B/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m"−"3 K"−"1 around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is [100] for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the [010] axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the [001] axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.

  9. Investigation on the electrode process of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple in redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Fangqin; Wang Yongliang; Wang Wenhong; Wang Xindong

    2008-01-01

    The Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple has been recognized as a potential anode for redox flow batteries to take the place of the V(IV)/V(V) in all-vanadium redox battery (VRB) and the Br 2 /Br - in sodium polysulfide/bromine (PSB) because it has higher standard electrode potential. In this study, the electrochemical behavior of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple on carbon felt and spectral pure graphite were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, steady polarization curve, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, transient potential-step experiment, X-ray diffraction and charge-discharge experiments. Results show that the Mn(III) disproportionation reaction phenomena is obvious on the carbon felt electrode while it is weak on the graphite electrode owing to its fewer active sites. The reaction mechanism on carbon felt was discussed in detail. The reversibility of Mn(II)/Mn(III) is best when the sulfuric acid concentration is 5 M on the graphite electrode. Performance of a RFB employing Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple as anolyte active species and V(III)/V(II) as catholyte ones was evaluated with constant-current charge-discharge tests. The average columbic efficiency is 69.4% and the voltage efficiency is 90.4% at a current density of 20 mA cm -2 . The whole energy efficiency is 62.7% close to that of the all-vanadium battery and the average discharge voltage is about 14% higher than that of an all-vanadium battery. The preliminary exploration shows that the Mn(II)/Mn(III) couple is electrochemically promising for redox flow battery

  10. Photoelectrochemical performance of Mn-TiO{sub 2} thin films mounted on FTO prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.C.; Song, G.H. [National Central Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lu, C.W. [Jen-Teh Junior College, Hou- Lung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Information Management; Tseng, C.J. [National Central Univ., Chung-Li, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, K.W. [Chang Gung Univ., Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Tin oxide (TiO{sub 2}) sol-gels with Mn{sup 2+} molar ratios ranging from 0 to 0.1 per cent were used to form nano-structured Mn(x)Ti(1-x)O(2) thin films. A layer-by-layer spincoating (LLSC) technique was used, in which 10 very thin and uniform coating layers of Mn(x)Ti(1-x)O(2) were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Properties of the thin films were determined as a function of annealing temperature and molar ratio of the Mn{sup 2+} ions by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements. The PEC measurements were obtained in a dry-type three-electrode cell consisting of sample, platinized and reference Ag/AgCl electrodes. The results revealed that the Mn(x)Ti(1-x)O(2) thin films have better structure and electrochemical characteristics when the annealing temperature is 550 degrees C. The TiO{sub 2} thin films with Mn{sup 2+} ions also had higher photocurrent than undoped TiO{sub 2}. The optimum Mn{sup 2+} loading in this study was found to be 0.1 ml per cent. The maximum photocurrent of Mn(0.1)Ti(0.9)O(2) thin films is about 0.68 mA/cm2 when the bias potential is 0.8 V (vs.Ag/AgCl).

  11. Materials for spintronic: Room temperature ferromagnetism in Zn-Mn-O interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Crespo, P.; Hernando, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the room temperature ferromagnetism reported on Mn-doped ZnO and ascribed to spin polarization of conduction electrons. We experimentally show that the ferromagnetic behaviour is associated to the coexistence of Mn 3+ and Mn +4 in MnO 2 grains where diffusion of Zn promotes the Mn 4+→ Mn 3+ reduction. Potential uses of this material in spintronic devices are analysed

  12. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  13. Global Reference Tables Services Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database stores the reference and transactional data used to provide a data-driven service access method to certain Global Reference Table (GRT) service tables.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: PURA syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TJ, Vreeburg M, Rouhl RPW, Stevens SJC, Stegmann APA, Schieving J, Pfundt R, van Dijk K, Smeets ... article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary ...

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of Mg doped YbMnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattibabu, Bhumireddi, E-mail: bsb.satti@gmail.com [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Bhatnagar, Anil K., E-mail: anilb42@gmail.com [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Rayaprol, Sudhindra [UGC-DAE CSR, Mumbai Centre, R-5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mohan, Dasari; Das, Dibakar; Sundararaman, Mahadevan [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Siruguri, Vasudeva [UGC-DAE CSR, Mumbai Centre, R-5 Shed, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-09-01

    We have studied the effect of Mg doping on structure and magnetism of multiferroic YbMnO{sub 3}. Room temperature neutron diffraction studies were carried out on polycrystalline Yb{sub 1−x}Mg{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.00 and 0.05) samples to determine phase formation as well as cation distribution and structural properties such as bond length and bond angles. The structural analysis shows that with Mg substitution, there is a marginal change in a and c parameters of the hexagonal unit cell, c/a ratio remains constant for x=0 and 0.05 samples. Due to changes in bond angle and bond lengths on substituting Mg, there is a slight decrease in the distortion of MnO{sub 5} polyhedra. Magnetic measurements show that the Néel temperature (T{sub N}) increases marginally from 85 K for x=0.00 to 89 K for x=0.05 sample.

  16. Preparation and certification of Sargasso seaweed reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kensaku

    1988-01-01

    Sargasso seaweed reference material was prepared from Sargassum felvellum obtained from an unpolluted area in Japan. The sargasso samples were washed, freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved to pass a 80-mesh screen and finally homogenized. Collaborative studies on the elemental analysis of the sargasso reference material were performed using various analytical techniques. Certified values are provided for Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn, based on results of determinations by at least three independent analytical techniques. Reference values are reported for Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Cs, Hg, I, P, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti and U. The sargasso certified reference material contains high levels of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, I, Br, As and U, while the concentration of trace elements may be considered to be at the lower end of the range of reported values for marine brown algae. The sargasso sample will be of practical use in marine and environmental sciences as a certified reference material having an elemental composition close to background levels.

  17. Local Structure and Magnetism of (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Temst, Kristiaan

    Throughout the years, dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) have emerged as promising materials for semiconductor-based spintronics. In particular, (Ga,Mn)As has become the model system in which to explore the physics of carrier-mediated ferromagnetism in semiconductors and the associated spintronic phenomena, with a number of interesting functionalities and demonstrated proof-of-concept devices. It constitutes the perfect example of how the magnetic behavior of DMS materials is strongly influenced by local structure. In this thesis, we address key aspects of the interplay between local structure and ferromagnetism of (Ga,Mn)As. We unambiguously identify the lattice site occupied by interstitial Mn as the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors T(As). We show, furthermore, that the T(As) is the most energetically favorable site regardless of the interstitial atom forming or not complexes with substitutional Mn. We also evaluate the thermal stability of both interstitial and substitutional Mn si...

  18. Diffusion of $^{52}$Mn in GaAs

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Following our previous diffusion studies performed with the modified radiotracer technique, we propose to determine the diffusion of Mn in GaAs under intrinsic conditions in a previously un-investigated temperature region. The aim of the presently proposed experiments is twofold. \\begin{itemize} \\item A quantitative study of Mn diffusion in GaAs at low Mn concentrations would be decisive in providing new information on the diffusion mechanism involved. \\item As Ga vacancies are expected to be involved in the Mn diffusion process it can be predicted that also the GaAs material growth technique most likely plays a role. To clarify this assumption diffusion experiments will be conducted for GaAs material grown by two different techniques. \\end{itemize} For such experiments we ask for two runs of 3 shifts (total of 6 shifts) with $^{52}$Mn$^{+}$ ion beam.

  19. Spin properties of charged Mn-doped quantum dota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besombes, L.; Léger, Y.; Maingault, L.; Mariette, H.

    2007-04-01

    The optical properties of individual quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom and charged with a single carrier are analyzed. The emission of the neutral, negatively and positively charged excitons coupled with a single magnetic atom (Mn) are observed in the same individual quantum dot. The spectrum of the charged excitons in interaction with the Mn atom shows a rich pattern attributed to a strong anisotropy of the hole-Mn exchange interaction slightly perturbed by a small valence-band mixing. The anisotropy in the exchange interaction between a single magnetic atom and a single hole is revealed by comparing the emission of a charged Mn-doped quantum dot in longitudinal and transverse magnetic field.

  20. Areva - 2014 Reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Areva supplies high added-value products and services to support the operation of the global nuclear fleet. The company is present throughout the entire nuclear cycle, from uranium mining to used fuel recycling, including nuclear reactor design and operating services. Areva is recognized by utilities around the world for its expertise, its skills in cutting-edge technologies and its dedication to the highest level of safety. Areva's 44,000 employees are helping build tomorrow's energy model: supplying ever safer, cleaner and more economical energy to the greatest number of people. This Reference Document contains information on Areva's objectives, prospects and development strategies. It contains estimates of the markets, market shares and competitive position of Areva. Contents: 1 - Person responsible; 2 - Statutory auditors; 3 - Selected financial information; 4 - Risk factors; 5 - Information about the issuer; 6 - Business overview; 7 - Organizational structure; 8 - Property, plant and equipment; 9 - Analysis of and comments on the group's financial position and performance; 10 - Capital resources; 11 - Research and development programs, patents and licenses; 12 - Trend information; 13 - Profit forecasts; 14 - Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 15 - Compensation and benefits; 16 - Functioning of administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management; 17 - Employees; 18 - Principal shareholders; 19 - Transactions with related parties; 20 - Financial information concerning assets, financial positions and financial performance; 21 - Additional information; 22 - Major contracts; 23 - Third party information, statements by experts and declarations of interest; 24 - Documents on display; 25 - information on holdings; appendix: Report of the Chairman of the Board of Directors on governance, internal control procedures and risk management, Statutory Auditors' report, Corporate social

  1. The influence of Mn on the crystallography and electrochemistry of nonstoichiometric AB5-type hydride-forming compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notten, P.H.L.; Latroche, M.; Percheron-Guegan, A.

    1999-01-01

    To design Co-free, low-pressure, hydride-forming compounds for application in rechargeable nickel metal hydride batteries, nonstoichiometric AB x materials were investigated. The influence of both the Mn content and the degree of nonstoichiometry on the crystallography, electrochemical cycling stability, and electrode morphology were studied. The investigated composition was in the range of La(Ni 1-z Mn z ) x with 5.0 le x le 6.0 and 0 le xz le 2.0. The annealing temperature was essential in preparing homogeneous compounds. In agreement with geometric considerations, both the a and c axis of the hexagonal unit cell increase with increasing Mn content. In contrast, the a axis decreases with increasing degree of nonstoichiometry. As proved by neutron-diffraction experiments, the introduction of dumbbell pairs of Ni or Mn atoms on the La positions in the crystal lattice is responsible for this behavior. The electrochemical cycling stability is found to be strongly dependent on both the chemical and nonstoichiometric composition. Electrochemically stable materials are characterized by the absence of a significant particle-size reduction upon electrode cycling, reducing the overall oxidation rate. Unstable materials suffer from severe mechanical cracking through which the oxidation rate is increased. The improved mechanical stability is attributed to the reduced discrete lattice expansion. The most stable compound has a partial hydrogen pressure of only 0.1 bar, which matches well with that desirable in practical NiMH batteries. Neutron-diffraction experiments confirmed the hypothesis that La atoms are replaced by dumbbell pairs of Ni, in the case of the binary LaNi 5.4 , and by Mn atoms in the case of the mn-containing nonstoichiometric compounds. Electron-probe microanalyses and density measurements support the dumbbell hypothesis

  2. Luminescent characteristic of the CsBr phosphor activated with Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Téllez-Flores, E., E-mail: bluedays8i@hotmail.com [Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias (Física), Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Blvd. Transversal S/N, 83000 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Aceves, R., E-mail: raceves@cifus.uson.mx [Centro de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Pérez-Salas, R., E-mail: rperez@cifus.uson.mx [Centro de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son., México (Mexico); Camarillo, I., E-mail: as99@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Delegación Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Caldiño, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Delegación Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-12-15

    Spectra of excitation and emission were measured at RT and 15 K in crystals quenched (Q) of CsBr:Eu{sup 2+}, CsBr:Mn{sup 2+} and CsBr:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+}. Emission bands at 444, 480, 520 and 570 nm with different relative intensities are generated in the samples after UV excitation. The blue band at 444 nm was ascribed with unknown clusters or aggregated centers (AC) of dipoles type Eu{sup 2+}–V{sub C}{sup −} and insulated dipole centers (IDC) like Eu{sup 2+}–O{sup 2−}. The bands at 480, 520 and 570 nm were assigned to Cs{sub 4}EuBr{sub 6} nanocrystals; AC containing MnBr{sub 4}{sup 2−} units in tetrahedral symmetry and another yet unidentified AC defect, respectively. In crystals of CsBr:Eu{sup 2+},Mn{sup 2+} the excitation and emission spectra taken at 15 K show no clear evidence of an energy transfer mechanism. Instead, the results suggest that the emission is produced by direct excitation of the ions of Eu{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}. Accordingly, single- or double-doped CsBr crystals may contain the same type of defects, either AC and/or IDC. -- Highlights: • The PL consists of several overlapping bands in the entire visible region. • The emission bands were ascribed to dipoles, aggregated and nanocrystals of different nature. • No clear evidence of energy transfer, meaning Eu and Mn pairs are not formed. • The material shows potential characteristics for its use as LED to white emission.

  3. Kerlinger's Criterial Referents Theory Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai; Birenbaum, Menucha

    1980-01-01

    Kerlinger's criterial referents theory of attitudes was tested cross-culturally by administering an education attitude referents summated-rating scale to 713 individuals in Israel. The response pattern to criterial and noncriterial referents was examined. Results indicated empirical cross-cultural validity of theory, but questioned measuring…

  4. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  5. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  6. Formation of Nano-crystalline Todorokite from Biogenic Mn Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; Zhu, M; Ginder-Vogel, M; Ni, C; Parikh, S; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    Todorokite, as one of three main Mn oxide phases present in oceanic Mn nodules and an active MnO{sub 6} octahedral molecular sieve (OMS), has garnered much interest; however, its formation pathway in natural systems is not fully understood. Todorokite is widely considered to form from layer structured Mn oxides with hexagonal symmetry, such as vernadite ({delta}-MnO{sub 2}), which are generally of biogenic origin. However, this geochemical process has not been documented in the environment or demonstrated in the laboratory, except for precursor phases with triclinic symmetry. Here we report on the formation of a nanoscale, todorokite-like phase from biogenic Mn oxides produced by the freshwater bacterium Pseudomonas putida strain GB-1. At long- and short-range structural scales biogenic Mn oxides were transformed to a todorokite-like phase at atmospheric pressure through refluxing. Topotactic transformation was observed during the transformation. Furthermore, the todorokite-like phases formed via refluxing had thin layers along the c* axis and a lack of c* periodicity, making the basal plane undetectable with X-ray diffraction reflection. The proposed pathway of the todorokite-like phase formation is proposed as: hexagonal biogenic Mn oxide {yields} 10-{angstrom} triclinic phyllomanganate {yields} todorokite. These observations provide evidence supporting the possible bio-related origin of natural todorokites and provide important clues for understanding the transformation of biogenic Mn oxides to other Mn oxides in the environment. Additionally this method may be a viable biosynthesis route for porous, nano-crystalline OMS materials for use in practical applications.

  7. Local structure in LaMnO3 and CaMnO3 perovskites: A quantitative structural refinement of Mn K-edge XANES data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monesi, C.; Meneghini, C.; Bardelli, F.; Benfatto, M.; Mobilio, S.; Manju, U.; Sarma, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Hole-doped perovskites such as La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 present special magnetic and magnetotransport properties, and it is commonly accepted that the local atomic structure around Mn ions plays a crucial role in determining these peculiar features. Therefore experimental techniques directly probing the local atomic structure, like x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), have been widely exploited to deeply understand the physics of these compounds. Quantitative XAS analysis usually concerns the extended region [extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)] of the absorption spectra. The near-edge region [x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES)] of XAS spectra can provide detailed complementary information on the electronic structure and local atomic topology around the absorber. However, the complexity of the XANES analysis usually prevents a quantitative understanding of the data. This work exploits the recently developed MXAN code to achieve a quantitative structural refinement of the Mn K-edge XANES of LaMnO 3 and CaMnO 3 compounds; they are the end compounds of the doped manganite series La x Ca 1-x MnO 3 . The results derived from the EXAFS and XANES analyses are in good agreement, demonstrating that a quantitative picture of the local structure can be obtained from XANES in these crystalline compounds. Moreover, the quantitative XANES analysis provides topological information not directly achievable from EXAFS data analysis. This work demonstrates that combining the analysis of extended and near-edge regions of Mn K-edge XAS spectra could provide a complete and accurate description of Mn local atomic environment in these compounds

  8. Reference: 10 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available at Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) stimulated formation of a phosphoenzyme intermediate, consistent with the tran...utant to toxic levels of Mn(2+) (1 mM) and Zn(2+)(3 mM), consistent with removal of these ions from the cyto

  9. Thermal behaviour of Cu-Mg-Mn and Ni-Mg-Mn layered double hydroxides and characterization of formed oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Grygar, Tomáš; Dorničák, V.; Rojka, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Jirátová, Květa

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, 1-4 (2005), s. 121-136 ISSN 0169-1317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Cu-Mg-Mn basic carbonates * Ni-Mg-Mn hydrotalcite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2005

  10. Double perovskite Ca2GdNbO6:Mn4+ deep red phosphor: Potential application for warm W-LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zuizhi; Huang, Tianjiao; Deng, Ruopeng; Wang, Huan; Wen, Lingling; Huang, Meixin; Zhou, Liya; Yao, Chunying

    2018-05-01

    A novel Mn4+-doped Ca2GdNbO6 (CGN) phosphor was prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction. The crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction patterns and unit cell structure. Mn4+ replaced the location of Nb5+ in the CGN lattice, and the value of energy gap (Egap) decreased from 2.16 eV to 1.13 eV, indicating that Mn4+ ions play a great influence on the absorption of CGN hosts. The broad excitation band from 250 nm to 550 nm matches well with commercial near-UV light emitting diodes, and the emission peak centered at 680 nm is due to 2E→4A2g transition in Mn4+ ions. The CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.698, 0.303) of CGN:Mn4+ phosphor was close to standard red color coordinates (0.666, 0.333). These investigations demonstrate CGN:Mn4+ phosphor as an efficient red phosphor for potential applications.

  11. Siderophore-mediated oxidation of Ce and fractionation of HREE by Mn (hydr)oxide-coprecipitation and sorption on MnO2: Experimental evidence for negative Ce-anomalies in abiogenic manganese precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Dennis; Tepe, Nathalie; Bau, Michael

    2014-05-01

    )oxides (e.g., Tanaka et al., 2010, Loges et al., 2012). Our experimental results demonstrate that biogenic organic ligands such as hydroxamate siderophores, may produce solutions with positive Ce anomaly (Bau et al., 2013) and may even counteract the surface oxidation of Ce on Mn (hydr)oxides. References Bau, M., Tepe, N., Mohwinkel, D., 2013. Siderophore-promoted transfer of rare earth elements and iron from volcanic ash into glacial meltwater, river and ocean water. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 364, 30-36. Christenson E. A. and Schijf J. (2011) Stability of YREE complexes with the trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B at seawater ionic strength. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75, 7047-7062. Loges, A., Wagner, T., Barth, M., Bau, M., Göb, S., and Markl, G. 2012. Negative Ce anomalies in Mn oxides: The role of Ce4+ mobility during water-mineral interaction. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta 86, 296-317 Ohta A. and Kawabe I. (2001) REE (III) adsorption onto Mn dioxide (delta-MnO2) and Fe oxyhydroxide: Ce(III) oxidation by delta-MnO2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65, 695-703. Tanaka K., Tani Y., Takahashi Y., Tanimizu M., Suzuki Y., Kozai N. and Ohnuki T. (2010) A specific Ce oxidation process during sorption of rare earth elements on biogenic Mn oxide produced by Acremonium sp. strain KR21-2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 5463-5477.

  12. Magnetocaloric behavior of Mn rich Ni46Cu2Mn43In11 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mayukh K.; Obaidat, I. M.; Banerjee, Sangam

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we studied the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) across the martensite transformation (MT) in Mn-rich Ni46Cu2Mn43ln11 alloy. This compound undergoes a MT and a magnetic phase transition around the temperatures (TM=) 272 K and (TCA=) 325 K, respectively. A large field induced shift (=0.28 K/kOe) of the MT temperatures is observed. An application of magnetic field (H =) of 50 kOe causes a large ΔSM of 20 J/kg-K and -4.4 J/kg-K around TM and TCA, respectively. We also found that the change in magnetic field induced isothermal ΔSM(H)T is mainly depends on the induced austenite phase fraction by the applied magnetic field at that temperature. Possible reasons for the observed behaviours are comprehensively discussed.

  13. Martensitic transformation and magnetic properties of manganese-rich Ni-Mn-In and Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenke, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the martensitic transition and the magnetic properties of Manganese rich Ni 50 Mn 50-x Sn x and Ni 50 Mn 50-y In y alloys with 5 at%≤x(y)≤25 at% were investigated. Calorimetry, X-ray and neutron diffraction, magnetization, and strain measurements were performed on polycrystalline samples. It was shown that alloys close to the stoichiometric composition Ni 50 Mn 25 Sn 25 and Ni 50 Mn 25 Sn 25 do not exhibit a structural transition on lowering of the temperature, whereas alloys with x≤15 at% Tin and y≤16 at% Indium transform martensitically. The structural transition temperatures increase linearly with decreasing Tin or Indium content. The crystal structures of the low temperature martensite are modulated as well as unmodulated. Alloys with compositions close to stoichiometry are dominated by ferromagnetic interactions, whereas those close to the binary composition Ni 50 Mn 50 order antiferromagnetically. Ferromagnetic order and structural instability coexist in a narrow composition range between 13 at%≤x≤15 at% and 15 at%≤x≤16 at% for Ni 50 Mn 50-x Sn x and Ni 50 Mn 50-y In y respectively. As a consequence, interesting magnetoelastic effects are observed. The Ni 50 Mn 34 In 16 alloy shows a magnetic field-induced structural transition, whereby application of an external magnetic field in the martensitic state stabilizes the high temperature L2 1 structure. Evidence for this was given by neutron diffraction experiments in external magnetic fields. Moreover, the structural transition temperatures of this alloy show large magnetic field dependencies. By use of calorimetry, M(T), and strain measurements, changes in M s up to -11 K/Tesla are observed. Such large values have, until now, not been observed in Heusler alloys. Since during transformation the volume changes reversibly, magnetic field-induced strains of about 0.12 % appear. Additionally, the alloys Ni 50 Mn 35 Sn 15 , Ni 50 Mn 37 Sn 13 , Ni 50 Mn 34 In 16 , Ni 51.5 Mn 33 In

  14. The spectroscopy of MnH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Rendell, Alistair P.

    1989-11-01

    The low-lying quintet and septet states of MnH have been studied using the state-averaged {CASSCF}/{MRCI} method. Our study focuses on the A7Π- X7Σ +, c5Σ +- a5Σ +, and b5Π- a5Σ + band systems, which almost certainly correspond to the 566-, 847-, and 939-nm band systems observed in emission. The radiative lifetimes for the v' = 0 level of the A7Π, b5Π, and c5Σ + states are 96.6 ns and 3.2 and 0.39 μs, respectively. Although the CASSCF calculations are not inconsistent with the assignment of the 480-nm band system to a 5Π- a5Σ + transition, they indicate the existence of a stronger 5Σ +- a5Σ + transition in the same energy region. The calculations also show that the quintet spectrum above 20 000 cm -1 is very complicated.

  15. Inelastic Neutron Scattering Study of Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Y.; Sarachik, M.P.; Friedman, J.R.; Robinson, R.A.; Kelley, T.M.; Nakotte, H.; Christianson, A.C.; Trouw, F.; Aubin, S.M.J.; Hendrickson, D.N.

    1998-11-09

    The authors report zero-field inelastic neutron scattering experiments on a 14-gram deuterated sample of Mn{sub 12}-Acetate consisting of a large number of identical spin-10 magnetic clusters. Their resolution enables them to see a series of peaks corresponding to transitions between the anisotropy levels within the spin-10 manifold. A fit to the spin Hamiltonian H = {minus}DS{sub z}{sup 2} + {mu}{sub B}B{center_dot}g{center_dot}S-BS{sub z}{sup 4} + C(S{sub +}{sup 4} + S{sub {minus}}{sup 4}) yields an anisotropy constant D = (0.54 {+-} 0.02) K and a fourth-order diagonal anisotropy coefficient B = (1.2 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}3}K. Unlike EPR measurements, their experiments do not require a magnetic field and yield parameters that do not require knowledge of the g-value.

  16. Mn3O4 precipitates in Ag and Cu studied with HRTEM : orientation relations and tetragonal twinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Sarton, LAJ; Zeedijk, HB

    1997-01-01

    Internal oxidation of Ag-3at.%Mn resulted in Mn3O4 precipitates and of Cu-1at.%Mn gave rise to MnO and a minor amount of Mn3O4 precipitates. In Cu Mn3O4 transformed out of MnO, whereas in Ag Mn3O4 developed directly. Predominantly, precipitates with parallel topotaxy and an octahedron shape due to 8

  17. Interfacial reactions of Ba 2YCu 3O 6+z with coated conductor buffer layer, LaMnO 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Wong-Ng, W.; Kaduk, J. A.; Cook, L. P.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical interactions between the Ba 2YCu 3O 6+x superconductor and the LaMnO 3 buffer layers employed in coated conductors have been investigated experimentally by determining the phases formed in the Ba 2YCu 3O 6+x-LaMnO 3 system. The Ba 2YCu 3O 6+x-LaMnO 3 join within the BaO-(Y 2O 3-La 2O 3)-MnO 2-CuO x multi-component system is non-binary. At 810 °C ( pO2 = 100 Pa) and at 950 °C in purified air, four phases are consistently present along the join, namely, Ba 2-x(La 1+x-yY y)Cu 3O 6+z, Ba(Y 2-xLa x)CuO 5, (La 1-xY x)MnO 3, (La,Y)Mn 2O 5. The crystal chemistry and crystallography of Ba(Y 2-xLa x)CuO 5 and (La 1-xY x)Mn 2O 5 were studied using the X-ray Rietveld refinement technique. The Y-rich and La-rich solid solution limits for Ba(Y 2-xLa x)CuO 5 are Ba(Y 1.8La 0.2)CuO 5 and Ba(Y 0.1La 1.9)CuO 5, respectively. The structure of Ba(Y 1.8La 0.2)CuO 5 is Pnma (No. 62), a = 12.2161(5) Å, b = 5.6690(2) Å, c = 7.1468(3) Å, V = 494.94(4) Å 3, and D x = 6.29 g cm -3. YMn 2O 5 and LaMn 2O 5 do not form solid solution at 810 °C ( pO2 = 100 Pa) or at 950 °C (in air). The structure of YMn 2O 5 was confirmed to be Pbam (No. 55), a = 7.27832(14) Å, b = 8.46707(14) Å, c = 5.66495(10) Å, and V = 349.108(14) Å 3. A reference X-ray pattern was prepared for YMn 2O 5.

  18. MRI characteristics in focal hepatic disease before and after administration of MnDPDP: discriminant analysis as a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Jung, Gregor; Sievers, Klaus; Doehring, Wilfried; Meurer, Karoline

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if different types of focal hepatic lesions can be differentiated by specific quantitative and qualitative imaging characteristics pre- and post-Mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP) administration using a computerized multivariable, discriminant analysis (DA). In a multicenter trial, 151 patients with focal liver disease were studied at 1.5 and 1.0 T using gradient-recalled echo T1 and fast spin-echo T2-weighted images pre and post MnDPDP (0.005 mmol/kg b.w.) i.v. administration. Analysis could be performed in 141 of 151 of the patients. The variables used in both single variable analysis and DA included contrast-to-noise ratios pre and post MnDPDP, presence of rim enhancement, margin, and heterogeneity of a lesion pre and post MnDPDP. The classification of diagnoses using DA was compared with a standard of reference (HCC in 23%, metastases in 25%, cyst in 13%, FNH in 10%, hemangioma in 11%, and other or no lesion in 18% of the patients; histology in 49%, long-term follow-up in 51% of the cases). In the differentiation of the various hepatic lesions, CNR together with the presence of heterogeneity or rim enhancement as variables for DA gave the highest sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy which ranged between 65 and 93, 44 and 83, and 65 and 86%, respectively. The DA models based on post-MnDPDP variables showed better classification results than the models based on pre-MnDPDP variables. An improvement of accuracy was observed when differentiating HCC from FNH lesion groups (48.9-67.4%; p≤0.05), and when differentiating HCC from metastasis lesion groups (68.3-84.1%; p≤0.01). In all regards there was no difference for T2-weighted images pre and post MnDPDP. By combining quantitative and qualitative variables, DA proved to be a useful tool in lesion discrimination. Due to considerable heterogeneity within some of the lesion type groups, the definite diagnostic impact of MnDPDP cannot be completely established yet, and further

  19. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Y.; Cabelli, D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O 2 - ). This behavior limits the amount of H 2 O 2 produced at high [O 2 - ]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H 2 O 2 in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O 2 - ], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn 3+ species in yeast Mn 3+ SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn 3+ species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn 3+ species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O 2 - ].

  20. Trace and rare earth elements fractionation in volcanic- and sediment-hosted Mn ores: a study case of Sardinia (western Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisi, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    and REE in Mn ores from different geological settings and the geochemical processes promoting the metal accumulation. Results clearly showed that in the studied deposits only the contents of trace metals may be referred to uptake process on Mn mineral phases. On the contrary, REE are probably hosted in silicates, such as zircons and clay minerals, that also characterize the mineralization or their presence is due to redox processes not linked to Mn ore deposition. Sinisi R., Mameli P., Mongelli G., Oggiano G. (2012). Different Mn-ores in a continental arc setting: geochemical and mineralogical evidence from Tertiary deposits of Sardinia (Italy). Ore Geology Reviews, 47, 110-125.

  1. What is the Valence of Mn in Ga(1-x)Mn(x)N?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ryky; Berlijn, Tom; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Ku, Wei

    2015-11-06

    We investigate the current debate on the Mn valence in Ga(1-x)Mn(x)N, a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) with a potentially high Curie temperature. From a first-principles Wannier-function analysis, we unambiguously find the Mn valence to be close to 2+ (d(5)), but in a mixed spin configuration with average magnetic moments of 4μ(B). By integrating out high-energy degrees of freedom differently, we further derive for the first time from first-principles two low-energy pictures that reflect the intrinsic dual nature of the doped holes in the DMS: (1) an effective d(4) picture ideal for local physics, and (2) an effective d(5) picture suitable for extended properties. In the latter, our results further reveal a few novel physical effects, and pave the way for future realistic studies of magnetism. Our study not only resolves one of the outstanding key controversies of the field, but also exemplifies the general need for multiple effective descriptions to account for the rich low-energy physics in many-body systems in general.

  2. Interplay between localization and magnetism in (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)As

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Xu, Chi; Hübner, René; Jakiela, Rafal; Böttger, Roman; Helm, Manfred; Sawicki, Maciej; Dietl, Tomasz; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2017-10-01

    Ion implantation of Mn combined with pulsed laser melting is employed to obtain two representative compounds of dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors (DFSs): G a1 -xM nxAs and I n1 -xM nxAs . In contrast to films deposited by the widely used molecular beam epitaxy, neither Mn interstitials nor As antisites are present in samples prepared by the method employed here. Under these conditions the influence of localization on the hole-mediated ferromagnetism is examined in two DFSs with a differing strength of p-d coupling. On the insulating side of the transition, ferromagnetic signatures persist to higher temperatures in I n1 -xM nxAs compared to G a1 -xM nxAs with the same Mn concentration x . This substantiates theoretical suggestions that stronger p-d coupling results in an enhanced contribution to localization, which reduces hole-mediated ferromagnetism. Furthermore, the findings support strongly the heterogeneous model of electronic states at the localization boundary and point to the crucial role of weakly localized holes in mediating efficient spin-spin interactions even on the insulator side of the metal-insulator transition.

  3. Structural characterization of layered Na0.5Co0.5Mn0.5O2 material as a promising cathode for sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Palanisamy; Heo, Seongwoo; Kim, Hyun Woo; Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Eungje; Kim, Youngsik

    2017-09-01

    Layered Na0.5Co0.5Mn0.5O2 material is synthesized through a facile mixed hydroxy-carbonate route using (Co0.5Mn0.5)2(OH)2CO3 precursor and well characterized as a hexagonal layered structure under P63/mmc space group. The lattice parameters and unit cell volume (a = 2.8363 Å, c = 11.3152 Å and V = 78.83 Å3) are calculated by Rietveld refinement analysis. A flaky-bundle morphology is obtained to the layered Na0.5Co0.5Mn0.5O2 material with the hexagonal flake size ∼30 nm. Advanced transmission electron microscopic images are revealed the local structure of the layered Na0.5Co0.5Mn0.5O2 material with contrasting bright dots and faint dark dots corresponding to the Co/Mn and Na atoms. Two oxidation and reduction peaks are occurred in a cyclic voltammetric analysis corresponding to Co3+/Co4+ and Mn3+/Mn4+ redox processes. These reversible processes are attributed to the intercalation/de-intercalation of Na+ ions into the host structure of layered Na0.5Co0.5Mn0.5O2 material. Accordingly, the sodium cell is delivered the initial charge-discharge capacity 53/144 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C, which cycling studies are extended to rate capability test at 1 C, 3 C and 5C. Eventually, the Na-ion full-cell is yielded cathode charge-discharge capacity 55/52 mAh g-1 at 0.212 mA and exhibited as a high voltage cathode for Na-ion batteries.

  4. Temporal and spatial variability of Fe and Mn in perched groundwater flowing through weathered argillite underlying a steep forested hillslope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Bishop, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flowing through weathered bedrock dictates the runoff chemistry to streams in many catchments yet; its chemical evolution has been rarely documented. In particular, observations of Fe and Mn dynamics in groundwater are extremely challenging due to their high reactivity. To preserve the sample integrity for these elements we have developed a new sampling scheme that is applicable to autosamplers; a gravitational filtration system (GFS). GFS is capable of filtering samples by gravity within 30 minutes after the sampling. The GFS samples showed a good agreement with reference samples, which were collected following the standard sampling method for trace metals (i.e. immediate filtration and acidification). Since October 2011, GFS has been employed to monitor Fe and Mn in perched groundwater that moves through weathered argillite in an intensively instrumented hillslope (Rivendell), in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve. The study site is located at the headwaters of the Eel River, northern California, characterized by a typical coastal Californian Mediterranean climate. We collected groundwater samples at 3 wells along the hillslope (upslope (W10), mid-slope (W3) and near the creek (W1)) with 1-3 day intervals. Additionally, rainwater and throughfall samples were collected at a meadow near the hillslope and at the middle of the hillslope, respectively. The results from our observations indicate that Fe and Mn exhibit distinct spatial and temporal behavior under variable hydrologic conditions. The concentrations of Fe in throughfall vs. rainwater were similar (0.45μM vs. 0.49μM), but Mn in throughfall was 10-fold higher than that in rainwater (1.2 μM vs. 0.1 μM). In the early rainy season, W10's water table was deep (-18m) and Fe and Mn in W10 were 30-150 nM and 1-2 μM, respectively. As the rainy season proceeds, W10's water table rose by 4-6m, indicating the arrival of new water. At this time, Mn in W10 decreased to ~0.1 μM, synchronizing with the water

  5. Energy transfer between Pr3+ and Mn2+ in K2YZr(PO4)3: Pr, Mn phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wei; Wang Yuhua

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ co-doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 phosphor is a novel type of practical visible quantum cutting phosphor in promising application. → The optimal quantum efficiency (QE) of this co-doped system K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 : Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ reached to 126.3%. → The Mn 2+6 A 1g → 4 E g - 4 A 1g transition was found to coincide well with the 1 S 0 → 1 I 6 transition of Pr 3+ . → The energy transfer from Pr 3+ to Mn 2+ was also observed, converting the first photon from the PCE of Pr 3+ into the red emission of Mn 2+ , and the QC process occurred in this Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ co-doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 phosphor. - Abstract: Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ co-doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 samples were prepared by solid-state reaction method and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated in ultra-violet (UV) and vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) region. The results indicated that in Pr 3+ singly doped K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 sample, the first-step transition ( 1 S 0 → 1 I 6 , 3 P J around 405 nm) of Pr 3+ is near the ultraviolet (UV) range, not useful for practical application. When Mn 2+ was doped as a co-activator ion, the energy of 1 S 0 → 1 I 6 , 3 P J transition can be transferred synchronously from Pr 3+ to Mn 2+ and then emit a visible photon. The optimal quantum efficiency (QE) of this co-doped system K 2 YZr(PO 4 ) 3 : Pr 3+ , Mn 2+ reached to 126.3%, suggesting a novel type of practical visible quantum cutting phosphor in promising application.

  6. EDF group - Reference Document 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The EDF Group is an integrated energy supplier operating in a wide range of electricity-related businesses: generation, transmission, distribution, sale and trading of energy. It is the main operator in the French electricity market and holds strong positions in the other three principal European markets (Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy) making it one of the leading electricity groups in Europe, and a recognized actor in the gas market. With an installed capacity of 123.7 GW in Europe (128.2 GW worldwide) it holds, among the major European energy specialists, the largest production fleet and the one emitting the least CO 2 , owing to the share of nuclear technology and hydropower in its generation mix. The EDF group supplies electricity, gas and associated services to more than 37.8 million customers throughout the world and in Europe (more than 28 million of whom are in France). The EDF Group has built a business model balanced between France and the international markets, and between deregulated and regulated operations. In 2006, the Group recorded consolidated sales of euros 58,932 million, net income (Group share) of euros 5,605 million, and it achieved earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization of euros 13,930 million. From July 1, 2007, the EDF group will carry out its trading activities in a European energy market fully open to competition. This document is EDF Group's Reference Document for the year 2006. It contains information about: the Group activities, risk factors, Business overview, Organizational structure, Property, plants and equipment, Operating and financial review, Capital resources and cash flows, Research and Development, Patents and Licenses, Trend information, Financial forecasts or estimates, Administrative, management and supervisory bodies and senior management, Remuneration and benefits, Board practices, Employees/Human resources, Major shareholders, Related party transactions, Financial information

  7. Magnetic and electrical properties of several Mn-based amorphous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Y.; Morita, H.; Fujimori, H.

    1987-03-01

    Magnetic and electrical properties of amorphous Mn-Y, Mn-Zr, and Mn-Nb alloys have been investigated. All these alloys have a temperature-dependent susceptibility which is well fitted by a Curie-Weiss law. This implies the existence of localized magnetic moments associated with the Mn atoms. In addition, amorphous Mn-Y alloys exhibit spin-glass characteristics at low temperature. The experimental results of the electrical resistivity show that the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) of both Mn-Y and Mn-Zr are negative, while Mn-Nb has a positive TCR. On the other hand, the resistivity-temperature curves of Mn-Zr and Mn-Nb have nearly the same tendency but are different from that of Mn-Y.

  8. Ferrite re-crystallization kinetics on a C-Mn steel and on two micro alloyed steels after dual-phase strain; Cinetica de recristalizacao da ferrita em um aco C-Mn e dois acos microligados apos deformacao na regiao bifasica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simieli, Eider A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    Ferrite recrystallization was investigated in two micro alloyed steels deformed in the inter critical range. A reference steel was also used, which had a composition of 0,06% C and 1,31% Mn. (author). 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Study of intergranular embrittlement in Fe-12Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.

    1982-06-01

    A high resolution scanning Auger microscopic study has been performed on the intergranular fracture surfaces of Fe-12Mn steels in the as-austenitized condition. Fracture mode below the ductile-brittle transition temperature was intergranular whenever the alloy was quenched from the austenite field. The intergranular fracture surface failed to reveal any consistent segregation of P, S, As, O, or N. The occasional appearance of S or O on the fracture surface was found to be due to a low density precipitation of MnS and MnO 2 along the prior austenite boundaries. An AES study with Ar + ion-sputtering showed no evidence of manganese enrichment along the prior austenite boundaries, but a slight segregation of carbon which does not appear to be implicated in the tendency toward intergranular fracture. Addition of 0.002% B with a 1000 0 C/1h/WQ treatment yielded a high Charpy impact energy at liquid nitrogen temperature, preventing the intergranular fracture. High resolution AES studies showed that 3 at. % B on the prior austenite grain boundaries is most effective in increasing the grain boundary cohesive strength in an Fe-12Mn alloy. Trace additions of Mg, Zr, or V had negligible effects on the intergranular embrittlement. A 450 0 C temper of the boron-modified alloys was found to cause tempered martensite embrittlement, leading to intergranular fracture. The embrittling treatment of the Fe-12Mn alloys with and without boron additions raised the ductile-brittle transition by 150 0 C. This tempered martensite embrittlement was found to be due to the Mn enrichment of the fracture surface to 32 at. % Mn in the boron-modified alloy and 38 at. % Mn in the unmodified alloy. The Mn-enriched region along the prior austenite grain boundaries upon further tempering is believed to cause nucleation of austenite and to change the chemistry of the intergranular fracture surfaces. 61 figures

  10. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D R

    1991-06-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process.

  11. Effect of Ce addition on microstructure of Al20Cu2Mn3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhongwei; Chen Pei; Li Shishun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy. ► Patterns of the particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. ► The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. ► The twins of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn casting alloys. - Abstract: Effects of Ce addition on microstructure of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase and mechanical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and tensile test. The results show that rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn alloy. Compared with the Ce containing alloy, patterns of particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. In addition, twins of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn alloy.

  12. Structural Series in the Ternary A-Mn-As System (A = Alkali Metal): Double-Layer-Type CsMn4As3 and RbMn4As3 and Tunnel-Type KMn4As3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Iimura, Soshi; Hosono, Hideo

    2018-04-16

    New manganese arsenides CsMn 4 As 3 , RbMn 4 As 3 , and KMn 4 As 3 were synthesized by solid-state reaction. They consist of edge-sharing MnAs 4 tetrahedra, which are a building block similar to those of Fe-based superconductors. CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 adopt the KCu 4 S 3 -type structure (tetragonal P4/ mmm space group, No. 123) with a Mn 4 As 3 double layer, while KMn 4 As 3 has the CaFe 4 As 3 -type structure (orthorhombic Pnma space group, No. 62) with a Mn 4 As 3 tunnel framework. The structural change from CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 to KMn 4 As 3 as well as the structural trend of the other ternary A-Mn-As (A = alkali metal) and AE-Mn-As (AE = alkaline-earth metal) compounds is understood as a consequence of reduction of the coordination number around the A and AE sites owing to the decrease of the ionic radius from Cs + to Mg 2+ . Electrical resistivity measurements confirm that the three new phases are Mott insulators with band gaps of 0.52 (CsMn 4 As 3 ), 0.43 (RbMn 4 As 3 ), and 0.31 eV (KMn 4 As 3 ). Magnetic and heat capacity measurements revealed that CsMn 4 As 3 and RbMn 4 As 3 are antiferromagnets without apparent phase transitions below 400 K, which is similar to the magnetism of LaMnAsO and BaMn 2 As 2 , while the existence of the ferromagnetic component was indicated in KMn 4 As 3 with a magnetic transition at 179 K.

  13. Properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanopowder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, E.; Bakin, A.; Wehmann, H.H.; Al-Suleiman, M.; Waag, A. [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Schmid, H.; Mader, W. [Universitaet Bonn, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Bonn (Germany); Bremers, H.; Hangleiter, A. [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Applied Physics, Braunschweig (Germany); Luedke, J.; Albrecht, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanopowder are investigated and compared to undoped ZnO crystals. Mn incorporation leads to an increase in the lattice constants as revealed by X-ray diffraction measurements. An inhomogeneous distribution of the Mn atoms within the nanopowder was detected by energy-dispersive X-ray and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy measurements. Magnetic features are investigated by means of SQUID magnetometry on ensembles of powder particles as well as by magnetic force microscopy to study the behavior of single grains. (orig.)

  14. Moessbauer and magnetic investigation of Fe-Mn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Moessbauer, X-ray, magnetization and susceptibility measurements were performed to study Fe 100-x Mn x , x = 5, 15, 39, 50. The different phases of Fe-Mn were identified, and hyperfine interaction parameters and average magnetic moments of some samples were determined. The average hyperfine field and average magnetic moment decrease as x increases. The influence of the Mn neighbourhood on the derived parameters is discussed in the light of calculations using the first principle discrete variational method in the local density approximation. (orig.)

  15. Influence of Fe substitution on structural and magnetic features of BiMn2O5 nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Vishwajit M.; Goyal, Saveena; Yanda, Premakumar; Sundaresan, A.; Chakraverty, Suvankar; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructures of complex oxides [BiFexMn2-xO5 (x = 0, 1, 2)] have been designed to study their structural, optical and magnetic behaviour. X-ray diffraction data (XRD) revealed orthorhombic phase with Pbam space group. Noticeable expansion in unit cell parameters has been found from BiMn2O5 (x = 0) to BiFe2O4.5 (x = 2). The observed structural changes via tuning of B-site (x = 0-2) played an important role in overall magnetic properties. Transmission electron microscopic images confirm that the average particle size of all the materials are in nano domain range with different morphologies. From optical studies, it has been found that the observed energy band gap values are strongly related to 3d electron numbers. These values appear to be larger than that reported for bulk. Isothermal magnetization plots (at 5 K) show increase in coercivity (Hc) from x = 0 to x = 2. Temperature dependent magnetization studies implied anti-ferromagnetic interactions for BiMn2O5, frustrated magnet for BiFeMnO5 and ferromagnetic behaviour for BiFe2O4.5. Ferromagnetic state of nanostructured BiFe2O4.5 is in contrast with its bulk counterparts.

  16. Aluminium alleviates manganese toxicity to rice by decreasing root symplastic Mn uptake and reducing availability to shoots of Mn stored in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xue Qiang; Hu, Zhen Min; Shao, Ji Feng; Che, Jing; Chen, Rong Fu; Dong, Xiao Ying; Shen, Ren Fang

    2015-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) and aluminium (Al) phytotoxicities occur mainly in acid soils. In some plant species, Al alleviates Mn toxicity, but the mechanisms underlying this effect are obscure. Rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings (11 d old) were grown in nutrient solution containing different concentrations of Mn(2+) and Al(3+) in short-term (24 h) and long-term (3 weeks) treatments. Measurements were taken of root symplastic sap, root Mn plaques, cell membrane electrical surface potential and Mn activity, root morphology and plant growth. In the 3-week treatment, addition of Al resulted in increased root and shoot dry weight for plants under toxic levels of Mn. This was associated with decreased Mn concentration in the shoots and increased Mn concentration in the roots. In the 24-h treatment, addition of Al resulted in decreased Mn accumulation in the root symplasts and in the shoots. This was attributed to higher cell membrane surface electrical potential and lower Mn(2+) activity at the cell membrane surface. The increased Mn accumulation in roots from the 3-week treatment was attributed to the formation of Mn plaques, which were probably related to the Al-induced increase in root aerenchyma. The results show that Al alleviated Mn toxicity in rice, and this could be attributed to decreased shoot Mn accumulation resulting from an Al-induced decrease in root symplastic Mn uptake. The decrease in root symplastic Mn uptake resulted from an Al-induced change in cell membrane potential. In addition, Al increased Mn plaques in the roots and changed the binding properties of the cell wall, resulting in accumulation of non-available Mn in roots. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of Mn and Al on the Intragranular Acicular Ferrite Formation in Rare Earth Treated C-Mn Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingming; Song, Bo; Yang, Zhanbing; Zhang, Shenghua; Hu, Chunlin

    2017-07-01

    The influence of Al, Mn and rare earth (RE) on microstructure of C-Mn steel was investigated. The capacities of different RE inclusions to induce intragranular acicular ferrite (AF) formation were compared. Result shows that RE treatment could make C-Mn steel from large amounts of intragranular AF. Al killed is detrimental to the formation of intragranular AF in RE-treated C-Mn steel. An upper bainite structure would replace the AF when Al content increased to 0.027 mass %. The optimal Mn content to form AF is about 0.75-1.31 mass %. The effective RE inclusion which could induce AF nucleation is La2O2S. When patches of MnS are attached on the surface of La2O2S inclusion, AF nucleation capacity of RE-containing inclusion could enlarge obviously. The existence of manganese-depleted zone and low lattice misfit would be the main reason of La-containing inclusion inducing AF nucleation in C-Mn steel.

  18. First-principles analysis of ferroelectric transition in MnSnO3 and MnTiO3 perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Gu

    2018-06-01

    The ferroelectric instabilities of an artificially adopted Pnma structure in low tolerance perovskites have been explored (Kang et al., 2017) [4], where an unstable A-site environment was reported to be the major driving source for the low tolerance perovskites to exhibit ferroelectric instability. This study examined the ferroelectric transition of two magnetic perovskite materials, MnSnO3 and MnTiO3, in Pnma phase. Phase transitions to the Pnma phase at elevated pressures were observed. MnSnO3, which has a lower (larger) tolerance factor (B-site cation radius), showed a higher ferroelectric mode amplitude than MnTiO3. The distribution of the bond length of Mn-O and the mean quadratic elongation (QE) of octahedra (SnO6 or TiO6) were investigated for structural analysis. However, MnTiO3 showed a larger spontaneous polarization than MnSnO3 due to high Born effective charges of titanium. This study is useful because it provides a valuable pathway to the design of promising multiferroic materials.

  19. Synthesis of highly efficient Mn2O3 catalysts for CO oxidation derived from Mn-MIL-100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Hongxin; Hou, Fulin; Yang, Yang; Dong, Han; Liu, Ning; Wang, Yuxin; Cui, Lifeng

    2017-07-01

    In this work, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) Mn-MIL-100 were first prepared, which were next used as templates to obtain the irregular porous Mn2O3 cubes through calcination with air at different temperature. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H2-temperature program reduction (H2-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS). The catalytic activity for CO oxidation over Mn2O3 catalysts was investigated. It was found that calcination temperature had a strong effect on the structure and catalytic activity of Mn2O3 catalyst. Mn2O3 catalyst obtained by calcined at 700 °C (Mn2O3-700) showed a smaller specific surface area, but displayed a high catalytic activity and excellent stability with a complete CO conversion temperature (T98) of 240 °C, which was attributed to the unique structure, a high quantity of surface active oxygen species, smaller particle size, oxygen vacancies and good low temperature reduction behavior. The effect of water vapor on catalytic activity was also examined. The introduction of water vapor to the feedstock induced a positive effect on CO oxidation over Mn2O3-700 catalyst. Furthermore, no obvious drop is observed in activity over catalysts even in the presence of water vapor during 48 h.

  20. User Preferences in Reference Services: Virtual Reference and Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Joel; Cummings, Lara; Frederiksen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the use of chat in an academic library's user population and where virtual reference services might fit within the spectrum of public services offered by academic libraries. Using questionnaires, this research demonstrates that many within the academic community are open to the idea of chat-based reference or using chat for…

  1. Synthesis and magnetic structure of the layered manganese oxide selenide Sr{sub 2}MnO{sub 2}Ag{sub 1.5}Se{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandy, Jack N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Boskovic, Jelena C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Clarke, Simon J., E-mail: simon.clarke@chem.ox.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    The synthesis of a high-purity sample of the layered oxide selenide Sr{sub 2}MnO{sub 2}Ag{sub 1.5}Se{sub 2} is reported. At ambient temperature it crystallises in the space group I4/mmm with two formula units in the unit cell and lattice parameters a=4.08771(1) Å, c=19.13087(8) Å. The compound displays mixed-valent manganese in a formal oxidation state close to +2.5 and powder neutron diffraction measurements reveal that below the Néel temperature of 63(1) K this results in an antiferromagnetic structure which may be described as A-type, modelled in the magnetic space group P{sub I}4/mnc (128.410 in the Belov, Neronova and Smirnova (BNS) scheme) in which localised Mn moments of 3.99(2) μ{sub B} are arranged in ferromagnetic layers which are coupled antiferromagnetically. In contrast to the isostructural compound Sr{sub 2}MnO{sub 2}Cu{sub 1.5}S{sub 2}, Sr{sub 2}MnO{sub 2}Ag{sub 1.5}Se{sub 2} does not display long range ordering of coinage metal ions and vacancies, nor may significant amounts of the coinage metal readily be deintercalated using soft chemical methods. - Graphical abstract: Sr{sub 2}MnO{sub 2}Ag{sub 1.5}Se{sub 2} containing mixed valent Mn ions undergoes magnetic ordering with ferromagnetic coupling within MnO{sub 2} sheets and antiferromagnetic coupling between MnO{sub 2} sheets. - Highlights: • High purity sample of Sr{sub 2}MnO{sub 2}Ag{sub 1.5}Se{sub 2} obtained. • Magnetic structure determined. • Compared with related mixed-valent manganite oxide chalcogenides.

  2. Java for dummies quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2012-01-01

    A reference that answers your questions as you move through your coding The demand for Android programming and web apps continues to grow at an unprecedented pace and Java is the preferred language for both. Java For Dummies Quick Reference keeps you moving through your coding while you solve a problem, look up a command or syntax, or search for a programming tip. Whether you're a Java newbie or a seasoned user, this fast reference offers you quick access to solutions without requiring that you wade through pages of tutorial material. Leverages the true reference format that is organized with

  3. Characterization of natural microporous metal-oxides: the case of todorokite ([Mn2+,Ca,Mg]Mn4+3O7.H2O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godelitsas, A.; Misaelides, P; Katranas, T.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Triantafyllidis, C.; Pavlidou, E.; Anousis, I.

    1998-01-01

    Todorokite is a naturally occurring hydrous Mn-oxide exhibiting a complicated chemical composition. It shows a referred unusual crystal structure characterized by the presence of micropores (tunnels) with a free aperture of 0.69 x 0.69 nm and therefore exceptional physicochemical properties. In order to define the compositional and structural characteristics of the mineral and especially its physicochemical properties. For this purpose a number of characterization techniques were used including XRD, SEM-EDS, XRF, AAS, FT-IR, XPS, TPD, Z-potential measurements and TG/TDA combined with micro-porosimetry. The obtained results were compared to relevant ones concerning other natural microporous materials (e.g. clays, zeolites, micas) and were used to predict potential applications of the material.(author)

  4. Mn fraction substitutional site and defects induced magnetism in Mn-implanted 6H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouziane, K., E-mail: Khalid.bouziane@uir.ac.ma [Pôle Energies Renouvelables et Etudes Pétrolières, Université Internationale de Rabat, 11000 – Salé el Jadida, Technopolis (Morocco); Al Azri, M.; Elzain, M. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman); Chérif, S.M. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris, 13-Nord, 99, Avenue Jean Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Mamor, M. [Equipe MSISM, Faculté Poly-Disciplinaire, B.P. 4162 Safi, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Declémy, A. [Institut P’, CNRS – Université de Poitiers – ENSMA, UPR 3346, SP2MI – Téléport 2, 11 boulevard Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179, F-86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Thomé, L. [CSNSM-Orsay, Bât. 108, Université d’Orsay, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • Shallow Mn-implanted 6H-SiC crystal. • Correlation between Mn-substitutional site concentration and magnetism. • Correlation between defects nature surrounding Mn site and magnetism. • Correlation of magnetism in Mn-doped SiC to Mn at Si sites and vacancy-related defect. - Abstract: n-type 6H-SiC (0 0 0 1) single crystal substrates were implanted with three fluences of manganese (Mn{sup +}) ions: 5 × 10{sup 15}, 1 × 10{sup 16} and 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} with implantation energy of 80 keV at 365 °C to stimulate dynamic annealing. The samples were characterized using Rutherford backscattering channeling spectroscopy (RBS/C), high-resolution X-ray diffraction technique (HRXRD), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. Two main defect regions have been identified using RBS/C spectra fitted with the McChasy code combined to SRIM simulations. Intermediate defects depth region is associated with vacancies (D{sub V}) and deeper defect (D{sub N}) essentially related to the Si and C interstitial defects. The defect concentration and the maximum perpendicular strain exhibit similar increasing trend with the Mn{sup +} fluence. Furthermore, the amount of Mn atoms at Si substitutional sites and the corresponding magnetic moment per Mn atom were found to increase with increasing Mn fluence from 0.7 μ{sub B} to 1.7 μ{sub B} and then collapsing to 0.2 μ{sub B}. Moreover, a strong correlation has been found between the magnetic moment and the combination of both large D{sub V}/D{sub N} ratio and high Mn at Si sites. These results are corroborated by our ab initio calculations considering the most stable configurations showing that besides the amount of Mn substituting Si sites, local vacancy-rich environment is playing a crucial role in enhancing the magnetism.

  5. Cation Effects on the Layer Structure of Biogenic Mn-Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, M.; Ginder-Vogel, M; Parikh, S; Feng, X; Sparks, D

    2010-01-01

    Biologically catalyzed Mn(II) oxidation produces biogenic Mn-oxides (BioMnO{sub x}) and may serve as one of the major formation pathways for layered Mn-oxides in soils and sediments. The structure of Mn octahedral layers in layered Mn-oxides controls its metal sequestration properties, photochemistry, oxidizing ability, and topotactic transformation to tunneled structures. This study investigates the impacts of cations (H{sup +}, Ni(II), Na{sup +}, and Ca{sup 2+}) during biotic Mn(II) oxidation on the structure of Mn octahedral layers of BioMnO{sub x} using solution chemistry and synchrotron X-ray techniques. Results demonstrate that Mn octahedral layer symmetry and composition are sensitive to previous cations during BioMnO{sub x} formation. Specifically, H{sup +} and Ni(II) enhance vacant site formation, whereas Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} favor formation of Mn(III) and its ordered distribution in Mn octahedral layers. This study emphasizes the importance of the abiotic reaction between Mn(II) and BioMnO{sub x} and dependence of the crystal structure of BioMnO{sub x} on solution chemistry.

  6. Nonspecific bowel activity in imaging inflammation with Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti-NCA-90 Fab' fragment MN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancevic, V.; Wolter, A.; Munz, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Since the Tc-99m labelled monoclonal anti-NCA 90 granulocyte antibody Fab' fragment MN3 (MN3 Fab') might be of interest for imaging abdominal inflammation which could be hampered by nonspecific bowel activity, we prospectively investigated the appearance of bowel activity in MN3 Fab' imaging. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients (age range 12-85 years) referred for suspected nonabdominal, mostly musculoskeletal infection, were included. Abdominal inflammation was excluded clinically and there were no signs of inflammatory bowel disease in the patients' histories. One, 5, and 24 hours after introvenous injection of up to 1.1 GBq of MN3 Fab' planar images of the abdomen were performed. Bowel activity was graded visually using a 5-point scale. Results: The one (N = 80), 5 (N = 79), and 24 (N = 52) hour images revealed 46 (10%), 162 (34%), and 173 (55%) accumulating bowel segments, respectively, in 37 (46%), 69 (87%), and 52 (100%) patients. The mean intensity score per accumulating segment was 1.1, 1.8 and 2.7 (p = 0), respectively. Relative frequencies of appearance of the small intestine were 38%, 57%, and 21%, ileocaecal region 6%, 53%, and 48%, ascending colon 5%, 67%, and 89%, transverse colon 1%, 9%, and 69%, descending colon 8%, 15%, and 67%, and rectosigmoid 0%, 4%, and 38%, respectively. Follow-up investigations in 13 patients revealed diverging uptake patterns. Conclusion: Nonspecific bowel activity is often present in the early and almost always and more intense, in the delayed images. Early imaging at one hour after administration seems feasible, but a loss in sensitivity has to be considered. Thus, nonspecific bowel activity can be anticipated to be a pitfall in imaging abdominal inflammation with MN3 Fab'. (orig.) [de

  7. XPS and EELS characterization of Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosvenor, A.P., E-mail: andrew.grosvenor@usask.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C9 (Canada); Bellhouse, E.M., E-mail: erika.bellhouse@arcelormittal.com [Global R & D—Hamilton, ArcelorMittal Dofasco, 1330 Burlington St. E, Hamilton, ON L8N 3J5 (Canada); Korinek, A., E-mail: korinek@mcmaster.ca [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Bugnet, M., E-mail: bugnetm@mcmaster.ca [Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); McDermid, J.R., E-mail: mcdermid@mcmaster.ca [Steel Research Centre, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2016-08-30

    Graphical abstract: XPS and EELS spectra were acquired from Mn2Al2O4, MnSiO3 and Mn2SiO4 standards and unique features identified that will allow unambiguous identification of these compounds when studying the selective oxidation of advanced steels. - Highlights: • Mn2Al2O4, MnSiO3 and Mn2SiO4 standards were synthesized and characterized using both XPS and EELS. • Unique features in both the XPS high resolution and EELS spectra were identified for all compounds. • The spectra can be used to identify these compounds when studying the selective oxidation of steels. - Abstract: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) are strong candidate techniques for characterizing steel surfaces and substrate-coating interfaces when investigating the selective oxidation and reactive wetting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) during the continuous galvanizing process. However, unambiguous identification of ternary oxides such as Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3}, and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} by XPS or EELS, which can play a significant role in substrate reactive wetting, is difficult due to the lack of fully characterized standards in the literature. To resolve this issue, samples of Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized and characterized by XPS and EELS. The unique features of the XPS and EELS spectra for the Mn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and MnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} standards were successfully derived, thereby allowing investigators to fully differentiate and identify these oxides at the surface and subsurface of Mn, Si and Al alloyed AHSS using these techniques.

  8. On the “alpha-phase” of Ca2−xSrxMnO4 and extending the chemistry of Sr7−yCayMn4O15 to y>1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, Sarah; Senn, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    There has been renewed interest in the Ruddlesden-Popper phase (n=2) of composition Ca n+1 Mn n O 3 n+1 in the light of recent research that has highlighted the nature of the improper ferroelectric ground state, which arises due to the couplings between specific combinations of MnO 6 octahedral rotations and tilts. A fruitful route to control these octahedral degrees of freedom, and hence such desired physical properties, is through chemical substitution on the A–site cation i.e. Ca 2−x Sr x MnO 4 for n =1, and in light of this, we have reinvestigated the chemistry of this solid solution. Here we focus on a common impurity phase observed during this synthesis which has been termed the “alpha-phase” in the literature. We show that this impurity phase is actually comprised mainly of a structure related to Sr 7 Mn 4 O 15 but is found here with significantly higher Ca substitution than previously believed possible. Sr 7 Mn 4 O 15 is an interesting structural type in its own right, but has been mainly overlooked to date, exhibiting interesting physics related to low dimensional magnetic ordering and dimer interactions, and we show here that the structural type is a likely candidate for exhibiting a multiferroic ground state. The prospect of being able to tune the lattice and the exchange interactions through further chemical substitution is likely to lead to a renewed interest in this material. - Graphical abstract: Extending the chemistry of Sr 7−y Ca y Mn 4 O 15 beyond y>1, revealing highly anisotropic cation ordering and tunable magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Chemistry of the unique structural type Sr 7 Mn 4 O 15 is extended to high Ca concentrations. • Cation occupancy model is determined, showing highly anisotropic solubility of Ca on the 7 unique Sr crystallographic sites. • Anomalies in the magnetic susceptibility data are discussed with reference to symmetry arguments pointing towards a possible novel multiferroic mechanism in this material.

  9. PECULIAR OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF Co2MnGa ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Yull Rhee

    2017-11-01

    potential during the self-consistent calculation significantly modifies the minorityspin Co and Mn 3d bands, resulting in a contraction of the energy gaps between states which are strongly involved in interband absorption peaks.

  10. Thermal decomposition study of manganese sulfide (MnS) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jiten P.; Khimani, Ankurkumar J.; Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2018-05-01

    The as-synthesized manganese sulfide (MnS) nanoparticles were used for the thermal study. The nanoparticles were synthesized by simple wet chemical route at ambient temperature. The photoelectron binding energy and chemical composition of MnS nanoparticles was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were carried out on the as-synthesized MnS nanoparticles. The thermocurves were recorded in inert N2 atmosphere in the temperature range of ambient to 1173 K. The heating rates employed were 5, 10, 15 and 20 K/min. The thermodynamic parameters like activation energy (Ea), enthalpy change (ΔH), entropy change (ΔS) and change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) of as-synthesized MnS nanoparticles were determined using Kissinger method. The obtained XPS and thermal results are discussed.

  11. Supersonic Molecular Beam Optical Stark Spectroscopy of MnH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengler, Jamie; Ma, Tongmei; Harrison, Jeremy; Steimle, Timothy

    2006-03-01

    The large moment of inertia, large magnetic moment, and possible large permanent electric dipole moment of manganese monohydride, MnH, makes it a prime candidate for ultra-cold molecule production via Stark deceleration and magnetic trapping. Here we report the first molecular beam production of MnH and the analysis of the Stark effect in the (0,0) A^7 π -- X^ 7σ^+ band. The sample was prepared by laser ablation of solid Mn in an H2 supersonic expansion. The low rotational temperature (MnH and the analysis of T.D. Varberg, J.A. Gray, R.W. Field, and A.J. Merer, J. Mol. Spec. 156, 296-318 (1992). I.E. Gordon, D.R.T. Appadoo, A. Shayesteh, K.A. Walker, and P.F. Bernath, J. Mol. Spec., 229, 145-149 (2005).

  12. Moessbauer spectroscopy of Fe-Mn-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paduani, Clederson; Krause, Joao Carlos; Yoschida, M.I. Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Although a continuous series of solid solutions exists between Cu and Mn, Fe and Cu are miscible only a few percent at higher temperatures. In moderately concentrated Cu-Mn alloys the Mn moments are bound to the long ranged antiferromagnetic order and the perpendicular components form an X-Y spin glass. Copper alloys are largely employed in various industrial applications. In this work we study the magnetic properties of iron-rich disordered Fe-Mn-Cu alloys with the bcc structure with the experimental techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and thermogravimetry (TGA). We investigate the formation of a solid solution with the bcc structure as well as the effect of the composition on the structural and magnetic properties of these alloys. A Rietveld analysis of the XRD diffractograms indicate that all prepared samples are single phase and are well crystallized with a bcc structure. (author)

  13. Rietveld analysis, dielectric and impedance behaviour of Mn /Fe ion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 1 compares X-ray diffraction patterns of pow- ders calcined at temperature .... ground, absorption coefficient, atomic positions, two theta zero error, thermal ... attributed to segregation of Mn and Fe at grain boundaries. (Dai et al 1995).

  14. Mn-AlInN: a new diluted magnetic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar; Sharif, Rehana; Zhu, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mn ions have been incorporated into MOCVD grown Al 1-x In x N/GaN thin films by ion implantation to achieve the room temperature ferromagnetism in the samples. Magnetic characterizations revealed the presence of two ferromagnetic transitions: one has Curie points at ∝260 K and the other above room temperature. In-diffusion of indium caused by the Mn implantation leads to the partition of AlInN epilayer into two diluted magnetic semiconductor sub-layers depending on the Mn concentration. The Curie temperature of 260 K is assigned to the layer having lower concentration, whereas T c above room temperature is assumed to be associated to the layer having higher Mn concentration. (orig.)

  15. Mn-AlInN: a new diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Abdul; Ali, Akbar [Quaid-i-Azam University, Advance Materials Physics Laboratory, Physics Department, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sharif, Rehana [University of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Zhu, J.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    Mn ions have been incorporated into MOCVD grown Al{sub 1-x}In{sub x}N/GaN thin films by ion implantation to achieve the room temperature ferromagnetism in the samples. Magnetic characterizations revealed the presence of two ferromagnetic transitions: one has Curie points at {proportional_to}260 K and the other above room temperature. In-diffusion of indium caused by the Mn implantation leads to the partition of AlInN epilayer into two diluted magnetic semiconductor sub-layers depending on the Mn concentration. The Curie temperature of 260 K is assigned to the layer having lower concentration, whereas T{sub c} above room temperature is assumed to be associated to the layer having higher Mn concentration. (orig.)

  16. Structure of MnSi on SiC(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynell, S. A.; Spitzig, A.; Edwards, B.; Robertson, M. D.; Kalliecharan, D.; Kreplak, L.; Monchesky, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the growth and magnetoresistance of MnSi films grown on SiC(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The growth resulted in a textured MnSi(111) film with a predominantly [1 1 ¯0 ] MnSi (111 )∥[11 2 ¯0 ] SiC(0001) epitaxial relationship, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. The 500 ∘C temperature required to crystallize the film leads to a dewetting of the MnSi layer. Although the sign of the lattice mismatch suggested the films would be under compressive stress, the films acquire an in-plane tensile strain likely driven by the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the film and substrate during annealing. As a result, the magnetoresistive response demonstrates that the films possess a hard-axis out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  17. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  18. Exchange bias in Co nanoparticles embedded in an Mn matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Neus; Testa, Alberto M.; Fiorani, Dino; Binns, Chris; Baker, Stephen; Tejada, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic properties of Co nanoparticles of 1.8 nm diameter embedded in Mn and Ag matrices have been studied as a function of the volume fraction (VFF). While the Co nanoparticles in the Ag matrix show superparamagnetic behavior with T B =9.5 K (1.5% VFF) and T B =18.5 K (8.9% VFF), the Co nanoparticles in the antiferromagnetic Mn matrix show a transition peak at ∼65 K in the ZFC/FC susceptibility measurements, and an increase of the coercive fields at low temperature with respect to the Ag matrix. Exchange bias due to the interface exchange coupling between Co particles and the antiferromagnetic Mn matrix has also been studied. The exchange bias field (H eb ), observed for all Co/Mn samples below 40 K, decreases with decreasing volume fraction and with increasing temperature and depends on the field of cooling (H fc ). Exchange bias is accompanied by an increase of coercivity

  19. Unit area control in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Hallin

    1951-01-01

    There is a definite distinction between the basic concept of unit area control and the specific techniques or treatments used for specific units. Unit area control as a term was first used in connection with a cutting trial in the sugar pine-fir type; consequently, many foresters think the term refers merely to the technique used in sugar pine management, This is not...

  20. Making Mn substitutional impurities in InAs using a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Jae; Erwin, Steven C; Rutter, Gregory M; First, Phillip N; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A

    2009-12-01

    We describe in detail an atom-by-atom exchange manipulation technique using a scanning tunneling microscope probe. As-deposited Mn adatoms (Mn(ad)) are exchanged one-by-one with surface In atoms (In(su)) to create a Mn surface-substitutional (Mn(In)) and an exchanged In adatom (In(ad)) by an electron tunneling induced reaction Mn(ad) + In(su) --> Mn(In) + In(ad) on the InAs(110) surface. In combination with density-functional theory and high resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging, we have identified the reaction pathway for the Mn and In atom exchange.