75 FR 10345 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set, etc.
2010-03-05
... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 43 (Friday, March 5, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 10345-10346] [FR Doc No: 2010-4534] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set, etc. AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the...
Davis, Jon D.
2012-12-01
Students' struggles in learning reasoning and proof (RP) in mathematics are well known. Despite the instantiation of RP opportunities in mathematics textbooks in the USA and the important role that textbooks play in teachers' instructional decisions, little research has been conducted on analyzing student textbook tasks and narrative sections of mathematics textbooks in the USA. One polynomial functions unit located within a reform-oriented, conventional, and hybrid secondary mathematics textbook was examined for RP instances. RP tasks comprised 4, 9, and 22 % of the student tasks in the conventional, hybrid, and reform-oriented textbook units, respectively. The textbook exposition of all three textbook units promoted the presentation of proof building blocks (e.g., definitions) with no occurrences of conjecture development or testing. Overall, only 19 % of the learning objectives across the three textbook units were validated. The conventional and hybrid textbook units had the potential to promote an authoritative proof scheme in students while the reform-oriented textbook unit had the potential to promote an empirical proof scheme in students.
76 FR 15047 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof SetTM
2011-03-18
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set\\TM\\, etc. ACTION: Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Silver Proof Set...
78 FR 70414 - Pricing for the 2013 United States Mint Limited Edition Silver Proof SetTM
2013-11-25
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 United States Mint Limited Edition Silver Proof Set TM AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andriulli, JB
2002-04-03
The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李雨潭; 朱华; 李猛钢; 李鹏
2016-01-01
A new explosion-proof walking system was designed for the coal mine rescue robot (CMRR) by optimizing the mechanical structure and control algorithm. The mechanical structure innovation lies mainly in the dual-motor drive tracked unit used, which showed high dynamic performance compared with the conventional tracked unit. The control algorithm, developed based on decision trees and neural networking, facilitates autonomous switching between “Velocity-driven Mode” and “Torque- driven Mode”. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the control strategy, we built a self-designed test platform and used it to debug the control program; we then made a robot prototype and conducted further experiments on single-step, ramp, and rubble terrains. The results show that the proposed walking system has excellent dynamic performance and the control strategy is very efficient, suggesting that a robot with this type of explosion-proof walking system can be successfully applied in Chinese coal mines.
Davis, Jon D.
2012-01-01
Students' struggles in learning reasoning and proof (RP) in mathematics are well known. Despite the instantiation of RP opportunities in mathematics textbooks in the USA and the important role that textbooks play in teachers' instructional decisions, little research has been conducted on analyzing student textbook tasks and narrative sections of…
Active damping control unit using a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator.
González Díaz, Cristóbal; Paulitsch, Christoph; Gardonio, Paolo
2008-08-01
This paper presents a study on the design and use of a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator, with a low mounting resonance frequency, for velocity feedback control on a thin rectangular panel. A stability-performance formula is derived, which can be effectively used to assess the down scaling effects on the stability and control performance of the feedback loop. The design and tests of a velocity feedback loop with a prototype small scale proof mass actuator are also presented. When a feedback control having a gain margin of about 6 dB is implemented, so that there is little control spillover effect around the fundamental resonance of the actuator, reductions of vibration between 5 dB and 10 dB in the frequency band between 80 Hz and 250 Hz have been measured at the control position.
Feistritzer, Nancye R; Jones, Pam O
2014-03-01
The quest for decreased cost of care and improved outcomes has created the need for highly effective clinical roles and teams. This article describes the role of a unit-based advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) within a proof-of-concept implementation of a new care delivery model, the Vanderbilt Anticipatory Care Team. Role clarity is central to both structural empowerment of the APRN and team effectiveness. A modified PeaceHealth Team Development Measure tool measured baseline role clarity as a component of overall team effectiveness. A role description for the unit-based APRN based on a comprehensive assessment of the proof-of-concept unit is provided.
Kidron, Ivy; Dreyfus, Tommy
2014-01-01
The emergence of a proof image is often an important stage in a learner's construction of a proof. In this paper, we introduce, characterize, and exemplify the notion of proof image. We also investigate how proof images emerge. Our approach starts from the learner's efforts to construct a justification without (or before) attempting any…
Experimental proof of concept of a pilot-scale thermochemical storage unit
Tescari, Stefania; Singh, Abhishek; de Oliveira, Lamark; Breuer, Stefan; Agrafiotis, Christos; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian; Marcher, Johnny; Pagkoura, Chrysa; Karagiannakis, George; Konstandopoulos, Athanasios G.
2017-06-01
The present study presents installation and operation of the first pilot scale thermal storage unit based on thermochemical redox-cycles. The reactive core is composed of a honeycomb ceramic substrate, coated with cobalt oxide. This concept, already analyzed and presented at lab-scale, is now implemented at a larger scale: a total of 280 kg of storage material including 90 kg of cobalt oxide. The storage block was implemented inside an existing solar facility and connected to the complete experimental set-up. This experimental set-up is presented, with focus on the measurement system and the possible improvement for a next campaign. Start-up and operation of the system is described during the first complete charge-discharge cycle. The effect of the chemical reaction on the stored capacity is clearly detected by analysis of the temperature distribution data obtained during the experiments. Furthermore two consecutive cycles show no evident loss of reactivity inside the material. The system is cycled between 650°C and 1000°C. In this temperature range, the total energy stored was about 50 kWh, corresponding to an energy density of 630 kJ/kg. In conclusion, the concept feasibility was successfully shown, together with a first calculation on the system performance.
Joshi, Mark
2015-01-01
This innovative textbook introduces a new pattern-based approach to learning proof methods in the mathematical sciences. Readers will discover techniques that will enable them to learn new proofs across different areas of pure mathematics with ease. The patterns in proofs from diverse fields such as algebra, analysis, topology and number theory are explored. Specific topics examined include game theory, combinatorics, and Euclidean geometry, enabling a broad familiarity. The author, an experienced lecturer and researcher renowned for his innovative view and intuitive style, illuminates a wide range of techniques and examples from duplicating the cube to triangulating polygons to the infinitude of primes to the fundamental theorem of algebra. Intended as a companion for undergraduate students, this text is an essential addition to every aspiring mathematician’s toolkit.
Martinez, Mara V.; Castro Superfine, Alison
2012-01-01
In the United States, researchers argue that proof is largely concentrated in the domain of high school geometry, thus providing students a distorted image of what proof entails, which is at odds with the central role that proof plays in mathematics. Despite the centrality of proof, there is a lack of studies addressing how to integrate proof into…
Understanding mathematical proof
Taylor, John
2014-01-01
Introduction The need for proof The language of mathematics Reasoning Deductive reasoning and truth Example proofs Logic and ReasoningIntroduction Propositions, connectives, and truth tables Logical equivalence and logical implication Predicates and quantification Logical reasoning Sets and Functions Introduction Sets and membership Operations on setsThe Cartesian product Functions and composite functions Properties of functions The Structure of Mathematical ProofsIntroduction Some proofs dissected An informal framework for proofs Direct proof A more formal framework Finding Proofs Direct proo
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Helle Noorlind Brage
2014-01-01
Being a patient in a strange and unknown environment is sometimes very stressful. Research has shown that a healthpromoting environment can reduce anxiety and enhance wellbeing and views of nature can support this. This low-cost intervention wasperformed at a heart surgery intensive care unit.The aim was to use a simple method to improve the health care environment and tomonitor the experiences of patients and staf~ Two patients share the same room at the 1CU. The beds can be separated by roller shadesthat are plain grey and neutral. These were changed to new ones with nature motives. Questionnaires with fixed and open questionswere used for evaluation among patients and staff. Patients treated in an ICU seem to be aware of the surrounding environment even ifthey are severely ill. Both patients and staff stated that the roller shades with motive affected wellbeing in a positive way. An estheticalpleasing environment can contribute to wellbeing even if the effort is small and insignificant. Roller shades with nature motive might bean easy way to improve and strengthen a health promoting environment.
Celi, Leo Anthony; Hinske, L Christian; Alterovitz, Gil; Szolovits, Peter
2008-01-01
Introduction The goal of personalised medicine in the intensive care unit (ICU) is to predict which diagnostic tests, monitoring interventions and treatments translate to improved outcomes given the variation between patients. Unfortunately, processes such as gene transcription and drug metabolism are dynamic in the critically ill; that is, information obtained during static non-diseased conditions may have limited applicability. We propose an alternative way of personalising medicine in the ICU on a real-time basis using information derived from the application of artificial intelligence on a high-resolution database. Calculation of maintenance fluid requirement at the height of systemic inflammatory response was selected to investigate the feasibility of this approach. Methods The Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) is a database of patients admitted to the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ICU in Boston. Patients who were on vasopressors for more than six hours during the first 24 hours of admission were identified from the database. Demographic and physiological variables that might affect fluid requirement or reflect the intravascular volume during the first 24 hours in the ICU were extracted from the database. The outcome to be predicted is the total amount of fluid given during the second 24 hours in the ICU, including all the fluid boluses administered. Results We represented the variables by learning a Bayesian network from the underlying data. Using 10-fold cross-validation repeated 100 times, the accuracy of the model in predicting the outcome is 77.8%. The network generated has a threshold Bayes factor of seven representing the posterior probability of the model given the observed data. This Bayes factor translates into p < 0.05 assuming a Gaussian distribution of the variables. Conclusions Based on the model, the probability that a patient would require a certain range of fluid on day two can be predicted. In the
Celi, Leo Anthony; Hinske, L Christian; Alterovitz, Gil; Szolovits, Peter
2008-01-01
The goal of personalised medicine in the intensive care unit (ICU) is to predict which diagnostic tests, monitoring interventions and treatments translate to improved outcomes given the variation between patients. Unfortunately, processes such as gene transcription and drug metabolism are dynamic in the critically ill; that is, information obtained during static non-diseased conditions may have limited applicability. We propose an alternative way of personalising medicine in the ICU on a real-time basis using information derived from the application of artificial intelligence on a high-resolution database. Calculation of maintenance fluid requirement at the height of systemic inflammatory response was selected to investigate the feasibility of this approach. The Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) is a database of patients admitted to the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ICU in Boston. Patients who were on vasopressors for more than six hours during the first 24 hours of admission were identified from the database. Demographic and physiological variables that might affect fluid requirement or reflect the intravascular volume during the first 24 hours in the ICU were extracted from the database. The outcome to be predicted is the total amount of fluid given during the second 24 hours in the ICU, including all the fluid boluses administered. We represented the variables by learning a Bayesian network from the underlying data. Using 10-fold cross-validation repeated 100 times, the accuracy of the model in predicting the outcome is 77.8%. The network generated has a threshold Bayes factor of seven representing the posterior probability of the model given the observed data. This Bayes factor translates into p < 0.05 assuming a Gaussian distribution of the variables. Based on the model, the probability that a patient would require a certain range of fluid on day two can be predicted. In the presence of a larger database, analysis
Advanced Proof Viewing in ProofTool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomer Libal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Sequent calculus is widely used for formalizing proofs. However, due to the proliferation of data, understanding the proofs of even simple mathematical arguments soon becomes impossible. Graphical user interfaces help in this matter, but since they normally utilize Gentzen's original notation, some of the problems persist. In this paper, we introduce a number of criteria for proof visualization which we have found out to be crucial for analyzing proofs. We then evaluate recent developments in tree visualization with regard to these criteria and propose the Sunburst Tree layout as a complement to the traditional tree structure. This layout constructs inferences as concentric circle arcs around the root inference, allowing the user to focus on the proof's structural content. Finally, we describe its integration into ProofTool and explain how it interacts with the Gentzen layout.
Kane, Jonathan M
2016-01-01
This is a textbook on proof writing in the area of analysis, balancing a survey of the core concepts of mathematical proof with a tight, rigorous examination of the specific tools needed for an understanding of analysis. Instead of the standard "transition" approach to teaching proofs, wherein students are taught fundamentals of logic, given some common proof strategies such as mathematical induction, and presented with a series of well-written proofs to mimic, this textbook teaches what a student needs to be thinking about when trying to construct a proof. Covering the fundamentals of analysis sufficient for a typical beginning Real Analysis course, it never loses sight of the fact that its primary focus is about proof writing skills. This book aims to give the student precise training in the writing of proofs by explaining exactly what elements make up a correct proof, how one goes about constructing an acceptable proof, and, by learning to recognize a correct proof, how to avoid writing incorrect proofs. T...
The PROOF benchmark suite measuring PROOF performance
Ryu, S.; Ganis, G.
2012-06-01
The PROOF benchmark suite is a new utility suite of PROOF to measure performance and scalability. The primary goal of the benchmark suite is to determine optimal configuration parameters for a set of machines to be used as PROOF cluster. The suite measures the performance of the cluster for a set of standard tasks as a function of the number of effective processes. Cluster administrators can use the suite to measure the performance of the cluster and find optimal configuration parameters. PROOF developers can also utilize the suite to help them measure, identify problems and improve their software. In this paper, the new tool is explained in detail and use cases are presented to illustrate the new tool.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Puech, Matthias
2013-01-01
It is well known in proof theory that sequent-calculus proofs differ from natural deduction proofs by “reversing” elimination rules upside down into left introduction rules. It is also well known that to each recursive, functional program corresponds an equivalent iterative, accumulator...... and the sequent calculus by systematically deriving the rules of the latter from the former, and allows us to derive new sequent calculus rules from the introduction and elimination rules of new logical connectives....
Knuth, Eric J.; Choppin, Jeffrey M.; Bieda, Kristen N.
2009-01-01
The goal of this article is to help teachers both recognize and capitalize on classroom opportunities so that students can be meaningfully engaged in mathematical proof. To do so, the authors discuss students' thoughts about proof and their abilities to construct arguments. They also offer suggestions for teachers that are intended to support…
Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro
2012-01-01
The analysis of the complex LHC data usually follows a standard path that aims at minimizing not only the amount of data but also the number of observables used. After a number of steps of slimming and skimming the data, the remaining few terabytes of ROOT files hold a selection of the events and a flat structure for the variables needed that can be more easily inspected and traversed in the final stages of the analysis. PROOF arises at this point as an efficient mechanism to distribute the analysis load by taking advantage of all the cores in modern CPUs through PROOF Lite, or by using PROOF Cluster or PROOF on Demand tools to build dynamic PROOF cluster on computing facilities with spare CPUs. However using PROOF at the level required for a serious analysis introduces some difficulties that may scare new adopters. We have developed the PROOF Analysis Framework (PAF) to facilitate the development of new analysis by uniformly exposing the PROOF related configurations across technologies and by taking care of ...
Mixing Computations and Proofs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Beeson
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the relationship between proof and computation in mathematics, especially in formalized mathematics. We compare the various approaches to proofs with a significant computational component, including (i verifying the algorithms, (ii verifying the results of the unverified algorithms, and (iii trusting an external computation.
Burdens of Proof, Presumptions and Standards of Proof in Criminal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Worku_Y
This note highlights how issues of burden and standard of proof are ..... proof. The prosecutor is duty bound to convince that the accused has committed .... Burdens of proof and presumptions are intimately related concepts.33 The latter.
Memorizable Interactive Proof and Zero-Knowledge Proof Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ning Chen; Jia-Wei Rong
2004-01-01
Interactive proof and zero-knowledge proof systems are two important concepts in cryptography and complexity theory. In the past two decades, a great number of interactive proof and zero-knowledge proof protocols have been designed and applied in practice. In this paper, a simple memorizable zero-knowledge protocol is proposed for graph non-isomorphism problem, based on the memorizable interactive proof system,which is extended from the original definition of interactive proof and is more applicable in reality.
[Understanding mistake-proofing].
de Saint Maurice, G; Giraud, N; Ausset, S; Auroy, Y; Lenoir, B; Amalberti, R
2011-01-01
The mistake-proofing concept often refers to physical devices that prevent actors from making a wrong action. In anaesthesiology, one immediately thinks to specific design of outlets for medical gases. More generally, the principle of mistake-proofing is to avoid an error, by placing knowledge in the world rather than knowledge in the head. As it often happens in risk management, healthcare has received information transfers from the industry. Computer is changing the concept of mistake-proofing, initially based on physical design, such as aerospace and automotive industry. The mistake-proofing concept may be applied to prevention, detection, and mitigation of errors. The forcing functions are a specific part of mistake-proofing: they prevent a wrong action or they force a virtuous one. Grout proposes a little shortcut to identify mistake-proofing devices: "If it is not possible to picture it in action, it is probably not a mistake-proofing device". Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pohlers, Wolfram
1989-01-01
Although this is an introductory text on proof theory, most of its contents is not found in a unified form elsewhere in the literature, except at a very advanced level. The heart of the book is the ordinal analysis of axiom systems, with particular emphasis on that of the impredicative theory of elementary inductive definitions on the natural numbers. The "constructive" consequences of ordinal analysis are sketched out in the epilogue. The book provides a self-contained treatment assuming no prior knowledge of proof theory and almost none of logic. The author has, moreover, endeavoured not to use the "cabal language" of proof theory, but only a language familiar to most readers.
Helping Students Write Paragraph Proofs in Geometry.
Brandell, Joseph L.
1994-01-01
Demonstrates how instruction in writing paragraph proofs can be developed and implemented including organizing, writing proofs in paragraphs, evaluating a proof, sketching a proof, and drawing conclusions. (MKR)
Proof Auditing Formalised Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark Miles Adams
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The first three formalisations of major mathematical proofs have heralded a new age in formalised mathematics, establishing that informal proofs at the limits of what can be understood by humans can be checked by machine. However, formalisation itself can be subject to error, and yet there is currently no accepted process in checking, or even much concern that such checks have not been performed. In this paper, we motivate why we should be concerned about correctness, and argue the need for proof auditing, to rigorously and independently check a formalisation. We discuss the issues involved in performing an audit, and propose an effective and efficient auditing process. Throughout we use the Flyspeck Project, that formalises the Kepler Conjecture proof, to illustrate our point.
Strahm, Thomas; Studer, Thomas
2016-01-01
The aim of this volume is to collect original contributions by the best specialists from the area of proof theory, constructivity, and computation and discuss recent trends and results in these areas. Some emphasis will be put on ordinal analysis, reductive proof theory, explicit mathematics and type-theoretic formalisms, and abstract computations. The volume is dedicated to the 60th birthday of Professor Gerhard Jäger, who has been instrumental in shaping and promoting logic in Switzerland for the last 25 years. It comprises contributions from the symposium “Advances in Proof Theory”, which was held in Bern in December 2013. Proof theory came into being in the twenties of the last century, when it was inaugurated by David Hilbert in order to secure the foundations of mathematics. It was substantially influenced by Gödel's famous incompleteness theorems of 1930 and Gentzen's new consistency proof for the axiom system of first order number theory in 1936. Today, proof theory is a well-established branch ...
Proof nets for lingusitic analysis
Moot, R.C.A.
2002-01-01
This book investigates the possible linguistic applications of proof nets, redundancy free representations of proofs, which were introduced by Girard for linear logic. We will adapt the notion of proof net to allow the formulation of a proof net calculus which is soundand complete for the multimoda
Integrating Implicit Induction Proofs into Certified Proof Environments
Stratulat, Sorin
We give evidence of the direct integration and automated checking of implicit induction-based proofs inside certified reasoning environments, as that provided by the Coq proof assistant. This is the first step of a long term project focused on 1) mechanically certifying implicit induction proofs generated by automated provers like Spike, and 2) narrowing the gap between automated and interactive proof techniques inside proof assistants such that multiple induction steps can be executed completely automatically and mutual induction can be treated more conveniently. Contrary to the current approaches of reconstructing implicit induction proofs into scripts based on explicit induction tactics that integrate the usual proof assistants, our checking methodology is simpler and fits better for automation. The underlying implicit induction principles are separated and validated independently from the proof scripts that consist in a bunch of one-to-one translations of implicit induction proof steps. The translated steps can be checked independently, too, so the validation process fits well for parallelisation and for the management of large proof scripts. Moreover, our approach is more general; any kind of implicit induction proof can be considered because the limitations imposed by the proof reconstruction techniques no longer exist. An implementation that integrates automatic translators for generating fully checkable Coq scripts from Spike proofs is reported.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten
2009-01-01
Logical framework research is based on the philosophical point of view that it should be possible to capture mathematical concepts such as proofs, logics, and meaning in a formal system — directly, adequately (in the sense that there are no spurious or exotic witnesses), and without having to com...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Read
2010-06-01
Full Text Available What makes necessary truths true? I argue that all truth supervenes on how things are, and that necessary truths are no exception. What makes them true are proofs. But if so, the notion of proof needs to be generalized to include verification-transcendent proofs, proofs whose correctness exceeds our ability to verify it. It is incumbent on me, therefore, to show that arguments, such as Dummett's, that verification-truth is not compatible with the theory of meaning, are mistaken. The answer is that what we can conceive and construct far outstrips our actual abilities. I conclude by proposing a proof-theoretic account of modality, rejecting a claim of Armstrong's that modality can reside in non-modal truthmakers.O que faz verdadeiras as verdades necessárias? Defendo que qualquer verdade sobrevém das coisas como elas são, e que as verdades necessárias não são exceções. O que as faz verdadeiras são provas. Mas, se assim for, a noção de prova precisa ser generalizada para incluir provas de verificação-transcendente, provas cuja correção extrapola a nossa própria habilidade de verificação. Além disso, tenho a incumbência de mostrar que argumentos, como o de Dummett, segundo o qual a verdade em termos de verificação não é compatível com a teoria do significado, não procedem. A resposta consiste no fato de que aquilo que podemos conceber e construir ultrapassa nossas habilidades efetivas. Concluo propondo um tratamento das modalidades em termos de teoria da prova, rejeitando a afirmação de Armstrong de que modalidades podem residir em fazedores de verdade não modais.
Proof in geometry with "mistakes in geometric proofs"
Fetisov, A I
2006-01-01
This single-volume compilation of 2 books explores the construction of geometric proofs. It offers useful criteria for determining correctness and presents examples of faulty proofs that illustrate common errors. 1963 editions.
An Elementary Proof of the Polynomial Matrix Spectral Factorization Theorem
Ephremidze, Lasha
2010-01-01
A very simple and short proof of the polynomial matrix spectral factorization theorem (on the unit circle as well as on the real line) is presented, which relies on elementary complex analysis and linear algebra.
Evaluating a Digital Proofing Device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Markus Datwyler
2003-07-01
Full Text Available In the graphic arts industry color accuracy is one of the central quality criteria, particularly in connection with proof printing. This study is concerned with an assessment of color accuracy of professional digital proofing systems in reference to the ISO standard 12647-2 (offset printing and of the stability of both the proofing system and its proofs. For an AgfaJet Sherpa 43i, as an instance of a current high-quality equipment, the mean color deviation between a proof and the reference of DE1 less than 2 is demonstrated.
75 FR 5373 - United States Mint
2010-02-02
... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peregrin, Jaroslav [Academy of Sciences and Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)
2007-11-15
The usual way of interpreting Goedel's (1931) incompleteness result is as showing that there is a gap between truth and provability, i.e. that we can never prove everything that is true. Moreover, this result is supposed to show that there are unprovable truths which we can know to be true. This, so the story goes, shows that we are more than machines that are restricted to acting as proof systems. Hence our minds are 'not mechanical'.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张树立; 张成斌; 李世奇; 谢忠华; 马忠章
2016-01-01
Despite that the coiled tubing ( CT) technology has the advantages of high efficiency, low cost and working under pressure, etc�in the application of marine platform, stringent requirements and harsh working condi⁃tions of marine operations restrict the application of CT equipment in marine platform�Therefore, the LGQ360B split⁃type explosion⁃proof skid⁃mounted CT unit for marine applications is developed�This skid⁃mounted unit is composed of power skid, control skid, CT roller skid, injection head and well control skid�The skid⁃mounted unit uses hy⁃draulic drive and electro⁃hydraulic control�The engine drives hydraulic pump unit through a transfer case, and pro⁃vides power and control for the injection head, CT roller and BOP through quick connection of hydraulic lines among skid⁃mounted units, realizing CT tripping in the well�Field test and application results show that the indicators of skid⁃mounted unit all meet the design requirements�The unit is stable with reliable performances and favorable appli⁃cation effects�The conclusion could help promote the rapid development of CT operations in marine platforms.%连续管作业技术在海洋平台的应用中具有高效率、低成本和可带压作业等优点，但是海洋作业严格的要求和苛刻的工作环境制约了连续管设备在海洋平台的应用。为此，研发了LGQ360B分体式海洋防爆型连续管作业橇组。该橇组由动力橇、控制橇、连续管滚筒橇、注入头与井控橇组成。橇组采用液压驱动、电液控制，发动机通过分动箱驱动液压泵组，通过橇组之间快速连接液压管线为注入头、连续管滚筒及防喷器等提供动力与控制，实现连续管在井内的起下作业。现场测试及应用结果表明：橇组各项指标达到设计要求，机组运行稳定，性能可靠，使用效果良好。该设备的开发成功有助于推动海洋平台连续管作业的快速发展。
Proof of Ira Gessel's lattice path conjecture
Kauers, Manuel; Koutschan, Christoph; Zeilberger, Doron
2009-01-01
We present a computer-aided, yet fully rigorous, proof of Ira Gessel's tantalizingly simply stated conjecture that the number of ways of walking 2n steps in the region x + y ≥ 0,y ≥ 0 of the square lattice with unit steps in the east, west, north, and south directions, that start and end at the origin, equals 16n(5/6)n(1/2)n(5/3)n(2)n.
Analogy, explanation, and proof.
Hummel, John E; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer
2014-01-01
People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.
Aigner, Martin
2014-01-01
This revised and enlarged fifth edition features four new chapters, which contain highly original and delightful proofs for classics such as the spectral theorem from linear algebra, some more recent jewels like the non-existence of the Borromean rings and other surprises. From the Reviews "... Inside PFTB (Proofs from The Book) is indeed a glimpse of mathematical heaven, where clever insights and beautiful ideas combine in astonishing and glorious ways. There is vast wealth within its pages, one gem after another. ... Aigner and Ziegler... write: "... all we offer is the examples that we have selected, hoping that our readers will share our enthusiasm about brilliant ideas, clever insights and wonderful observations." I do. ... " Notices of the AMS, August 1999 "... This book is a pleasure to hold and to look at: ample margins, nice photos, instructive pictures, and beautiful drawings ... It is a pleasure to read as well: the style is clear and entertaining, the level is close to elementary, the necessary b...
Kramer, Simon
2012-01-01
We propose a logic of interactive proofs as the first and main step towards an intuitionistic foundation for interactive computation to be obtained via an interactive analog of the G\\"odel-Kolmogorov-Art\\"emov definition of intuitionistic logic as embedded into a classical modal logic of proofs, and of the Curry-Howard isomorphism between intuitionistic proofs and typed programs. Our interactive proofs effectuate a persistent epistemic impact in their intended communities of peer reviewers that consists in the induction of the (propositional) knowledge of their proof goal by means of the (individual) knowledge of the proof with the interpreting reviewer. That is, interactive proofs effectuate a transfer of propositional knowledge---(to-be-)known facts---via the transfer of certain individual knowledge---(to-be-)known proofs---in distributed and multi-agent systems. In other words, we as a community can have the formal common knowledge that a proof is that which if known to one of our peer members would induce...
Analogy, Explanation, and Proof
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John eHummel
2014-11-01
Full Text Available People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof. What do the cognitive operations underlying the (inductive inference that the milk is sour have in common with the (deductive proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This small-seeming difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning in the service of understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.
Generating Schemata of Resolution Proofs
Aravantinos, Vincent
2011-01-01
Two distinct algorithms are presented to extract (schemata of) resolution proofs from closed tableaux for propositional schemata. The first one handles the most efficient version of the tableau calculus but generates very complex derivations (denoted by rather elaborate rewrite systems). The second one has the advantage that much simpler systems can be obtained, however the considered proof procedure is less efficient.
Short proofs of strong normalization
Wojdyga, Aleksander
2008-01-01
This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.
Formal Proof And Exploratory Experimentation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misfeldt, Morten; Danielsen, Kristian; Krag Sørensen, Henrik
2015-01-01
This paper investigates conceptions of mathematical investigation and proof in upper-secondary students. The focus of the paper is an intervention that scaffolds the interaction between open explorative activities and the development of proof sketches through explorations of lattice polygons, aim...
Geometry: A Flow Proof Approach.
McMurray, Robert
The inspiration for this text was provided by an exposure to the flow proof approach to a proof format as opposed to the conventional two-column approach. Historical background is included, to provide a frame of reference to give the student an appreciation of the subject. The basic constructions are introduced early and briefly, to aid the…
Formal Proof And Exploratory Experimentation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Misfeldt, Morten; Danielsen, Kristian; Krag Sørensen, Henrik
2015-01-01
be explained as a problem of bringing their empirical investigations into the deductive proof process in relevant and productive ways. Through our analyses of the portfolios and deliberations of the students, we are able to assess their performance of proofs and the conceptions of mathematical methodology...
From Inductive Reasoning to Proof
Yopp, David A.
2009-01-01
Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…
Algebraic Proofs over Noncommutative Formulas
Tzameret, Iddo
2010-01-01
We study possible formulations of algebraic propositional proof systems operating with noncommutative formulas. We observe that a simple formulation gives rise to systems at least as strong as Frege---yielding a semantic way to define a Cook-Reckhow (i.e., polynomially verifiable) algebraic analogue of Frege proofs, different from that given in [BIKPRS96,GH03]. We then turn to an apparently weaker system, namely, polynomial calculus (PC) where polynomials are written as ordered formulas ("PC over ordered formulas", for short). This is an algebraic propositional proof system that operates with noncommutative polynomials in which the order of products in all monomials respects a fixed linear order on the variables, and where proof-lines are written as noncommutative formulas. We show that the latter proof system is strictly stronger than resolution, polynomial calculus and polynomial calculus with resolution (PCR) and admits polynomial-size refutations for the pigeonhole principle and the Tseitin's formulas. We...
76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins
2011-10-21
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United... the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins. The price of the...
Sublogarithmic uniform Boolean proof nets
Aubert, Clément
2012-01-01
Using a proofs-as-programs correspondence, Terui was able to compare two models of parallel computation: Boolean circuits and proof nets for multiplicative linear logic. Mogbil et. al. gave a logspace translation allowing us to compare their computational power as uniform complexity classes. This paper presents a novel translation in AC0 and focuses on a simpler restricted notion of uniform Boolean proof nets. We can then encode constant-depth circuits and compare complexity classes below logspace, which were out of reach with the previous translations.
Computerized proof techniques for undergraduates
Smith, Christopher J.; Tefera, Akalu; Zeleke, Aklilu
2012-12-01
The use of computer algebra systems such as Maple and Mathematica is becoming increasingly important and widespread in mathematics learning, teaching and research. In this article, we present computerized proof techniques of Gosper, Wilf-Zeilberger and Zeilberger that can be used for enhancing the teaching and learning of topics in discrete mathematics. We demonstrate by examples how one can use these computerized proof techniques to raise students' interests in the discovery and proof of mathematical identities and enhance their problem-solving skills.
Vote Counting as Mathematical Proof
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schürmann, Carsten; Pattinson, Dirk
2015-01-01
Trust in the correctness of an election outcome requires proof of the correctness of vote counting. By formalising particular voting protocols as rules, correctness of vote counting amounts to verifying that all rules have been applied correctly. A proof of the outcome of any particular election......-based formalisation of voting protocols inside a theorem prover, we synthesise vote counting programs that are not only provably correct, but also produce independently verifiable certificates. These programs are generated from a (formal) proof that every initial set of ballots allows to decide the election winner...
Proust: A Nano Proof Assistant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prabhakar Ragde
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Proust is a small Racket program offering rudimentary interactive assistance in the development of verified proofs for propositional and predicate logic. It is constructed in stages, some of which are done by students before using it to complete proof exercises, and in parallel with the study of its theoretical underpinnings, including elements of Martin-Lof type theory. The goal is twofold: to demystify some of the machinery behind full-featured proof assistants such as Coq and Agda, and to better integrate the study of formal logic with other core elements of an undergraduate computer science curriculum.
Moot, Richard
2007-01-01
This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.
Finding Proofs in Tarskian Geometry
Beeson, Michael; Wos, Larry
2016-01-01
We report on a project to use a theorem prover to find proofs of the theorems in Tarskian geometry. These theorems start with fundamental properties of betweenness, proceed through the derivations of several famous theorems due to Gupta and end with the derivation from Tarski's axioms of Hilbert's 1899 axioms for geometry. They include the four challenge problems left unsolved by Quaife, who two decades ago found some \\Otter proofs in Tarskian geometry (solving challenges issued in Wos's 1998...
Microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator
Horner, Garnett C.
1987-01-01
The objective of the microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator is to develop the capability to mount a small programmable device on laboratory models. This capability will allow research in the active control of flexible structures. The approach in developing the actuator will be to mount all components as a single unit. All sensors, electronic and control devices will be mounted with the actuator. The goal for the force output capability of the actuator will be one pound force. The programmable force actuator developed has approximately a one pound force capability over the usable frequency range, which is above 2 Hz.
Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Conceptions of Proof.
Knuth, Eric J.
2002-01-01
Examines in-service secondary school mathematics teachers' conceptions of proof. Suggests that teachers recognize the variety of roles that proof plays in mathematics. Noticeably absent, however, was a view of proof as a tool for learning mathematics. Many of the teachers held limited views of the nature of proof in mathematics and demonstrated…
Discrete mathematics proofs, structures and applications
Garnier, Rowan
2009-01-01
Logic Propositions and Truth Values Logical Connectives and Truth Tables Tautologies and Contradictions Logical Equivalence and Logical Implication The Algebra of Propositions Arguments Formal Proof of the Validity of Arguments Predicate Logic Arguments in Predicate Logic Mathematical Proof The Nature of Proof Axioms and Axiom Systems Methods of Proof Mathematical Induction Sets Sets and MembershipSubsets<
A simple Proof of Stolarsky's Invariance Principle
Brauchart, Johann S
2011-01-01
Stolarsky [Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 41 (1973), 575--582] showed a beautiful relation that balances the sums of distances of points on the unit sphere and their spherical cap $\\mathbb{L}_2$-discrepancy to give the distance integral of the uniform measure on the sphere a potential-theoretical quantity (Bj{\\"o}rck [Ark. Mat. 3 (1956), 255--269]). Read differently it expresses the worst-case numerical integration error for functions from the unit ball in a certain Hilbert space setting in terms of the $\\mathbb{L}_2$-discrepancy and vice versa (first author and Womersley [Preprint]). In this note we give a simple proof of the invariance principle using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.
Simplest proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-01-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality: a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate of what exactly the Bell inequality means, since the hypothesis at the basis of the proof become extremely transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
26 CFR 1.871-4 - Proof of residence of aliens.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of residence of aliens. 1.871-4 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations § 1.871-4 Proof of residence of aliens... alien within the United States has acquired residence therein for purposes of the income tax. (b...
Diagrams and Proofs in Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carter, Jessica M H Grund
2010-01-01
The article discusses the role of diagrams in mathematical reasoning based on a case study in analysis. In the presented example certain combinatorial expressions were first found by using diagrams. In the published proofs the pictures are replaced by reasoning about permutation groups...
Dessoff, Alan
2011-01-01
Under pressure to keep spending down but also keep pace with rapid technology changes, many districts are future-proofing their schools--trying to get the most out of tech spending by providing solutions they can use now and in the future without major, expensive infrastructure overhauls. In the Folsom Cordova (California) Unified School District,…
Climate Proof Cities : Final Report
Rovers, V.; Bosch, Peter; Albers, Ronald; Spit, Tejo
2014-01-01
All cities in the Netherlands, large and small, are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The degree of vulnerability varies considerably within urban areas. This means that making cities more climate proof can be done most efficiently by taking many relatively small and local measures. Many
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jon Y. Hardeberg
2007-11-01
Full Text Available One of latest developments for pre-press applications is the concept of soft proofing, which aims to provide an accurate preview on a monitor of how the final document will appear once it is printed. At the core of this concept is the problem of identifying, for any printed color, the most similar color the monitor can display. This problem is made difficult by such factors as varying viewing conditions, color gamut limitations, or the less studied color memory shift.Color matching experiments are usually done by examining samples viewed simultaneously. However, in soft proofing applications, the proof and the print are not always viewed together. This paper attempts to shed more light on the difference between simultaneous and time-spaced color matching, in order to contribute to improving the accuracy of soft proofs. A color matchingexperiment setup has been established in which observers were asked to match a color patch displayed on a LCD monitor, by adjusting its RGB values, to another color patch printed out on paper. In the first part of the experiment the two colors were viewed simultaneously. In the second part, the observers were asked to produce the match according to a previously memorized color. According to the obtained results, the color appearance attributes lightness and chroma were the most difficult components for the observers to remember, generating huge differences with the simultaneous match, whereas hue was the component which varied the least. This indicates that for soft proofing, getting the hues right is of primordial importance.
Refutation of stability proofs for dipole vortices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nycander, J.
1992-01-01
Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs.......Five stability proofs for dipole vortices (modons) that have been presented by various authors are examined. It is shown that they are all incorrect, and that westward-propagating dipoles are in fact unstable, in contradiction to some of the proofs....
A Proof of Onsager's Conjecture
Isett, Philip
2016-01-01
For any $\\alpha 1/3$ due to [Eyink] and [Constantin, E, Titi], solves Onsager's conjecture that the exponent $\\alpha = 1/3$ marks the threshold for conservation of energy for weak solutions in the class $L_t^\\infty C_x^\\alpha$. The previous best results were solutions in the class $C_tC_x^\\alpha$ for $\\alpha < 1/5$, due to the author, and in the class $L_t^1 C_x^\\alpha$ for $\\alpha < 1/3$ due to Buckmaster, De Lellis and Sz\\'{e}kelyhidi, both based on the method of convex integration developed for the incompressible Euler equations by De Lellis and Sz\\'ekelyhidi. The present proof combines the method of convex integration and a new "gluing approximation" technique. The convex integration part of the proof relies on the "Mikado flows" introduced by [Daneri, Sz\\'ekelyhidi] and the framework of estimates developed in the author's previous work.
Koplin, Julian J; Selgelid, Michael J
2015-11-01
A common strategy in bioethics is to posit a prima facie case in favour of one policy, and to then claim that the burden of proof (that this policy should be rejected) falls on those with opposing views. If the burden of proof is not met, it is claimed, then the policy in question should be accepted. This article illustrates, and critically evaluates, examples of this strategy in debates about the sale of organs by living donors, human enhancement, and the precautionary principle. We highlight general problems with this style of argument, and particular problems with its use in specific cases. We conclude that the burden ultimately falls on decision-makers (i.e. policy-makers) to choose the policy supported by the best reasons.
Students' Difficulties with Proof by Mathematical Induction.
Baker, John Douglas
The cognitive difficulties encountered by 40 high school and 13 college students beginning to learn the proof technique of mathematical induction were investigated. Students provided data in the form of proof-writing and proof-analysis tasks followed by interviews to clarify their written responses. Both groups of students had significant…
Proof, Explanation and Exploration: An Overview.
Hanna, Gila
2000-01-01
Explores the role of proof in mathematics education and provides justification for its importance in the curriculum. Discusses three applications of dynamic geometry software--heuristics, exploration, and visualization--as tools in the teaching of proof and as potential challenges to the importance of proof. (Author/MM)
Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems
Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke
2006-01-01
We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a
Proof assistants: History, ideas and future
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
H Geuvers
2009-02-01
In this paper I will discuss the fundamental ideas behind proof assistants: What are they and what is a proof anyway? I give a short history of the main ideas, emphasizing the way they ensure the correctness of the mathematics formalized. I will also brieﬂy discuss the places where proof assistants are used and how we envision their extended use in the future. While being an introduction into the world of proof assistants and the main issues behind them, this paper is also a position paper that pushes the further use of proof assistants. We believe that these systems will become the future of mathematics, where deﬁnitions, statements, computations and proofs are all available in a computerized form. An important application is and will be in computer supported modelling and veriﬁcation of systems. But there is still a long road ahead and I will indicate what we believe is needed for the further proliferation of proof assistants.
Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhinesh Kumar S.
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server.
Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhinesh Kumar S.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server..
76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin
2011-06-07
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...
76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin
2011-08-29
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the re-pricing...
77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin
2012-03-15
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...
A proof of Bertrand's postulate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Asperti
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the formalization, in the Matita Interactive Theorem Prover, of some results by Chebyshev concerning the distribution of prime numbers, subsuming, as a corollary, Bertrand's postulate.Even if Chebyshev's result has been later superseded by the stronger prime number theorem, his machinery, and in particular the two functions psi and theta still play a central role in the modern development of number theory. The proof makes use of most part of the machinery of elementary arithmetics, and in particular of properties of prime numbers, gcd, products and summations, providing a natural benchmark for assessing the actual development of the arithmetical knowledge base.
The direct liquefaction proof of concept program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Stalzer, R.H. [New York & Puritan Avenues, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)
1995-12-31
The goal of the Proof of Concept (POC) Program is to develop Direct Coal Liquefaction and associated transitional technologies towards commercial readiness for economically producing premium liquid fuels from coal in an environmentally acceptable manner. The program focuses on developing the two-stage liquefaction (TSL) process by utilizing geographically strategic feedstocks, commercially feasible catalysts, new prototype equipment, and testing co-processing or alternate feedstocks and improved process configurations. Other high priority objectives include dispersed catalyst studies, demonstrating low rank coal liquefaction without solids deposition, improving distillate yields on a unit reactor volume basis, demonstrating ebullated bed operations while obtaining scale-up data, demonstrating optimum catalyst consumption using new concepts (e.g. regeneration, cascading), producing premium products through on-line hydrotreating, demonstrating improved hydrogen utilization for low rank coals using novel heteroatom removal methods, defining and demonstrating two-stage product properties for upgrading; demonstrating efficient and economic solid separation methods, examining the merits of integrated coal cleaning, demonstrating co-processing, studying interactions between the preheater and first and second-stage reactors, improving process operability by testing and incorporating advanced equipment and instrumentation, and demonstrating operation with alternate coal feedstocks. During the past two years major PDU Proof of Concept runs were completed. POC-1 with Illinois No. 6 coal and POC-2 with Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal. Results from these operations are continuing under review and the products are being further refined and upgraded. This paper will update the results from these operations and discuss future plans for the POC program.
Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Bayat
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The concept of Mathematical Proof has been controversial for the past few decades. Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other. It seems that a comparison and critical review of these two theories will lead to a better understanding of the concept of mathematical proof and will be a big step towards solving many related problems. Lakatos and Hersh argue that, firstly, “mathematical proof” has two different meanings, formal and informal; and, secondly, informal proofs are affected by human factors, such as individual decisions and collective agreements. I call these two thesis, respectively, “proof dualism” and “humanism”. But on the other hand, their theories have significant dissimilarities and are by no means equivalent. Lakatos is committed to linear proof dualism and methodological humanism, while Hersh’s theory involves some sort of parallel proof dualism and sociological humanism. According to linear proof dualism, the two main types of proofs are provided in order to achieve a common goal: incarnation of mathematical concepts and methods and truth. However, according to the parallel proof dualism, two main types of proofs are provided in order to achieve two different types of purposes: production of a valid sequence of signs (the goal of the formal proof and persuasion of the audience (the goal of the informal proof. Hersh’s humanism is informative and indicates pluralism; whereas, Lakatos’ version of humanism is normative and monistic.
Formal Proofs for Nonlinear Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Magron
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We present a formally verified global optimization framework. Given a semialgebraic or transcendental function f and a compact semialgebraic domain K, we use the nonlinear maxplus template approximation algorithm to provide a certified lower bound of f over K.This method allows to bound in a modular way some of the constituents of f by suprema of quadratic forms with a well chosen curvature. Thus, we reduce the initial goal to a hierarchy of semialgebraic optimization problems, solved by sums of squares relaxations. Our implementation tool interleaves semialgebraic approximations with sums of squares witnesses to form certificates. It is interfaced with Coq and thus benefits from the trusted arithmetic available inside the proof assistant. This feature is used to produce, from the certificates, both valid underestimators and lower bounds for each approximated constituent.The application range for such a tool is widespread; for instance Hales' proof of Kepler's conjecture yields thousands of multivariate transcendental inequalities. We illustrate the performance of our formal framework on some of these inequalities as well as on examples from the global optimization literature.
Sequent calculus proof systems for inductive definitions
Brotherston, James
2006-01-01
Inductive definitions are the most natural means by which to represent many families of structures occurring in mathematics and computer science, and their corresponding induction / recursion principles provide the fundamental proof techniques by which to reason about such families. This thesis studies formal proof systems for inductive definitions, as needed, e.g., for inductive proof support in automated theorem proving tools. The systems are formulated as sequent calculi for...
Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof
حسین بیات
2015-01-01
The concept of Mathematical Proof has been controversial for the past few decades. Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other. It seems that a comparison and critical review of these two theories will lead to a better understanding of the concept of mathematical proof and will be a big step towards solving many related proble...
Introduction to proof in abstract mathematics
Wohlgemuth, Andrew
2011-01-01
The primary purpose of this undergraduate text is to teach students to do mathematical proofs. It enables readers to recognize the elements that constitute an acceptable proof, and it develops their ability to do proofs of routine problems as well as those requiring creative insights. The self-contained treatment features many exercises, problems, and selected answers, including worked-out solutions. Starting with sets and rules of inference, this text covers functions, relations, operation, and the integers. Additional topics include proofs in analysis, cardinality, and groups. Six appendixe
Bistatic SAR: Proof of Concept.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yocky, David A.; Doren, Neall E.; Bacon, Terry A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Eichel, Paul H.; Jakowatz, Charles V,; Delaplain, Gilbert G.; Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.; White, Kyle R.
2014-10-01
Typical synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) imaging employs a co-located RADAR transmitter and receiver. Bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. A bistatic SAR configuration allows for the transmitter and receiver(s) to be in a variety of geometric alignments. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) / New Mexico proposed the deployment of a ground-based RADAR receiver. This RADAR receiver was coupled with the capability of digitizing and recording the signal collected. SNL proposed the possibility of creating an image of targets the illuminating SAR observes. This document describes the developed hardware, software, bistatic SAR configuration, and its deployment to test the concept of a ground-based bistatic SAR. In the proof-of-concept experiments herein, the RADAR transmitter will be a commercial SAR satellite and the RADAR receiver will be deployed at ground level, observing and capturing RADAR ground/targets illuminated by the satellite system.
Why College or University Students Hate Proofs in Mathematics?
Mbaïtiga Zacharie
2009-01-01
Problem Statement: A proof is a notoriously difficult mathematical concept for students. Empirical studies have shown that students emerge from proof-oriented courses such as high-school geometry, introduction to proof, complex and abstract algebra unable to construct anything beyond very trivial proofs. Furthermore, most university students do not know what constitutes a proof and cannot determine whether a purported proof is valid. A proof is a convincing method that demonstrates with gener...
Zazkis, Dov; Zazkis, Rina
2016-01-01
A significant body of research literature in mathematics education attends to mathematical proofs. However, scant research attends to proof comprehension, which is the focus of this study. We examine perspective secondary teachers' conceptions of what constitutes comprehension of a given proof and their ideas of how students' comprehension can be…
Proof Problems with Diagrams: An Opportunity for Experiencing Proofs and Refutations
Komatsu, Kotaro; Tsujiyama, Yosuke; Sakamaki, Aruta; Koike, Norio
2014-01-01
It has become gradually accepted that proof and proving are essential at all grades of mathematical learning. Among the various aspects of proof and proving, this study addresses proofs and refutations described by Lakatos, in particular a part of increasing content by deductive guessing, to introduce an authentic process into mathematics…
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich; Oliva, Paulo Borges
2003-01-01
n this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach...
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oliva, Paulo Borges; Kohlenbach, Ulrich
2001-01-01
In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed...
Proof as Answer to the Question Why.
Dreyfus, Tommy; Hadas, Nurit
1996-01-01
Shows how an empirical approach to geometry using computer-based dynamic geometry software can create didactic situations in which students require proofs. Reports classroom experiences that show where students felt the need for proof in order to explain phenomena or to convince themselves of counterintuitive results. (Author/MKR)
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oliva, Paulo Borges; Kohlenbach, Ulrich
2001-01-01
In this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed...
Proof Mining in L1-Approximation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich; Oliva, Paulo Borges
2003-01-01
n this paper, we present another case study in the general project of proof mining which means the logical analysis of prima facie non-effective proofs with the aim of extracting new computationally relevant data. We use techniques based on monotone functional interpretation developed in Kohlenbach...
Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol
2015-01-01
by maximizing a separably concave function over a polyhedral extension of the set of Pareto-efficient allocations is strategy-proof. Moreover, these are the only strategy-proof, unanimous, consistent, and resource-monotonic mechanisms. These mechanisms generalize the parametric rationing mechanisms (Young, 1987...
A Short Proof of Krattenthaler Formulas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Xin Rong
2002-01-01
With an effort to investigate a unified approach to the Lagrange inverse Krattenthaler established operator method we finally found a general pair of inverse relations, called the Krattenthaler formulas. The present paper presents a very short proof of this formula via Lagrange interpolation.Further, our method of proof declares that the Krattenthaler result is unique in the light of Lagrange interpolation.
Multiparty Session Types as Coherence Proofs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carbone, Marco; Montesi, Fabrizio; Schürmann, Carsten;
2015-01-01
We propose a Curry-Howard correspondence between a language for programming multiparty sessions and a generalisation of Classical Linear Logic (CLL). In this framework, propositions correspond to the local behaviour of a participant in a multiparty session type, proofs to processes, and proof...
Verifying Process Algebra Proofs in Type Theory
Sellink, M.P.A.
2008-01-01
In this paper we study automatic verification of proofs in process algebra. Formulas of process algebra are represented by types in typed λ-calculus. Inhabitants (terms) of these types represent proofs. The specific typed λ-calculus we use is the Calculus of Inductive Constructions as implemented in
Parallelizing TTree::Draw functionality with PROOF
Marinaci, Stefano
2014-01-01
In ROOT, the software context of this project, multi-threading is not currently an easy option, because ROOT is not by construction thread-aware and thread-safeness can only be achieved with heavy locking. Therefore, for a ROOT task, multi-processing is currently the most eective way to achieve cuncurrency. Multi-processing in ROOT is done via PROOF. PROOF is used to enable interactive analysis of large sets of ROOT les in parallel on clusters of computers or many-core machines. More generally PROOF can parallelize tasks that can be formulated as a set of independent sub-tasks. The PROOF technology is rather ecient to exploit all the CPU's provided by many-core processors. A dedicated version of PROOF, PROOF-Lite, provides an out-of-the-box solution to take full advantage of the additional cores available in today desktops or laptops. One of the items on the PROOF plan of work is to improve the inte- gration of PROOF-Lite for local processing of ROOT trees. In this project we investigate the case of the Draw ...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.209 Section 136.209 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.209 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.221 Section 136.221 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.221 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.233 Section 136.233 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.233 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.203 Section 136.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.203 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.227 Section 136.227 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.227 Proof. In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.215 Section 136.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.215 Proof. (a) In addition to...
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof. 136.239 Section 136.239 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.239 Proof. In addition to...
Conversion of HOL Light proofs into Metamath
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario M Carneiro
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present an algorithm for converting proofs from the OpenTheory interchange format, which can be translated to and from any of the HOL family of proof languages (HOL4, HOL Light, ProofPower, and Isabelle, into the ZFC-based Metamath language. This task is divided into two steps: the translation of an OpenTheory proof into a Metamath HOL formalization, hol.mm, followed by the embedding of the HOL formalization into the main ZFC foundations of the main Metamath library, set.mm. This process provides a means to link the simplicity of the Metamath foundations to the intense automation efforts which have borne fruit in HOL Light, allowing the production of complete Metamath proofs of theorems in HOL Light, while also proving that HOL Light is consistent, relative to Metamath's ZFC axiomatization.
The nuts and bolts of proofs an introduction to mathematical proofs
Cupillari, Antonella
2005-01-01
The Nuts and Bolts of Proof instructs students on the basic logic of mathematical proofs, showing how and why proofs of mathematical statements work. It provides them with techniques they can use to gain an inside view of the subject, reach other results, remember results more easily, or rederive them if the results are forgotten.A flow chart graphically demonstrates the basic steps in the construction of any proof and numerous examples illustrate the method and detail necessary to prove various kinds of theorems.* The "List of Symbols" has been extended.* Set Theory section has been strengthened with more examples and exercises.* Addition of "A Collection of Proofs"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El Houfi A
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Ashraf El Houfi,1 Nadeem Javed,2 Caitlyn T Solem,3 Cynthia Macahilig,4 Jennifer M Stephens,3 Nirvana Raghubir,5 Richard Chambers,6 Jim Z Li,7 Seema Haider81Dubai Hospital, Dubai, UAE; 2Rashid Hospital, Dubai, UAE; 3Pharmerit International, Bethesda, MD, USA; 4Medical Data Analytics, Parsippany, NJ, USA; 5Pfizer, New York, NY, USA; 6Pfizer, Collegeville, PA, USA; 7Pfizer, La Jolla, CA, USA; 8Pfizer, Groton, CT, USAObjectives: To describe real-world treatment patterns and health care resource use and to estimate opportunities for early-switch (ES from intravenous (IV to oral (PO antibiotics and early-discharge (ED for patients hospitalized in the United Arab Emirates (UAE with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections.Methods: This retrospective observational medical chart review study enrolled physicians from four UAE sites to collect data for 24 patients with documented MRSA complicated skin and soft tissue infections, hospitalized between July 2010 and June 2011, and discharged alive by July 2011. Data include clinical characteristics and outcomes, hospital length of stay (LOS, MRSA-targeted IV and PO antibiotic use, and ES and ED eligibility using literature-based and expert-validated criteria.Results: Five included patients (20.8% were switched from IV to PO antibiotics while being inpatients. Actual length of MRSA-active treatment was 10.8±7.0 days, with 9.8±6.6 days of IV therapy. Patients were hospitalized for a mean 13.9±9.3 days. The most frequent initial MRSA-active therapies used were vancomycin (37.5%, linezolid (16.7%, and clindamycin (16.7%. Eight patients were discharged with MRSA-active antibiotics, with linezolid prescribed most frequently (n=3; 37.5%. Fifteen patients (62.5% met ES criteria and potentially could have discontinued IV therapy 8.3±6.0 days sooner, and eight (33.3% met ED criteria and potentially could have been discharged 10.9±5.8 days earlier
Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol
2015-01-01
We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained...... by maximizing a separably concave function over a polyhedral extension of the set of Pareto-efficient allocations is strategy-proof. Moreover, these are the only strategy-proof, unanimous, consistent, and resource-monotonic mechanisms. These mechanisms generalize the parametric rationing mechanisms (Young, 1987...
Structured Event-B Models and Proofs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hallerstede, Stefan
2010-01-01
two unfortunate consequences: such models become less comprehensible - we have to infer sequential ordering from the use of program counters; proof obligation generation does not consider ordering - generating too many proof obligations (although these are usually trivially discharged......). In this article we propose a method for specifying structured models avoiding, in particular, the use of abstract program counters. It uses a notation that mainly serves to drive proof obligation generation. However, the notation also describes the structure of a model explicitly. A corresponding graphical...
Proof of payment for all reimbursement claims
HR Department
2006-01-01
Members of the personnel are kindly requested to note that only documents proving that a payment has been made are accepted as proof of payment for any claims for reimbursement, including specifically the reimbursement of education fees. In particular, the following will be accepted as proof of payment: bank or post office bank statements indicating the name of the institution to which the payment was made; photocopies of cheques made out to the institution to which the payments were made together with bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; proof of payment in the form of discharged payment slips; invoices with acknowledgement of settlement, receipts, bank statements detailing operations crediting another account or similar documents. As a result, the following documents in particular will no longer be accepted as proof of payment: photocopies of cheques that are not submitted together with bank or post office bank statements showing the numbers of the relevant cheques; details of ...
Evaluating Google Compute Engine with PROOF
Ganis, Gerardo; Panitkin, Sergey
2014-06-01
The advent of private and commercial cloud platforms has opened the question of evaluating the cost-effectiveness of such solution for computing in High Energy Physics . Google Compute Engine (GCE) is a IaaS product launched by Google as an experimental platform during 2012 and now open to the public market. In this contribution we present the results of a set of CPU-intensive and I/O-intensive tests we have run with PROOF on a GCE resources made available by Google for test purposes. We have run tests on large scale PROOF clusters (up to 1000 workers) to study the overall scalability of coordinated multi-process jobs. We have studied and compared the performance of ephemeral and persistent storage with PROOF-Lite on the single machines and of standard PROOF on the whole cluster. We will discuss our results in perspective, in particular with respect to the typical analysis needs of an LHC experiment.
Lakatos and Hersh on Mathematical Proof
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hossein Bayat
2015-01-01
.... Different philosophers have offered different theories about the nature of Mathematical Proof, among which theories presented by Lakatos and Hersh have had significant similarities and differences with each other...
Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help
... news/fullstory_163889.html Finally, Proof That Hearing Aids Help High-quality digital devices provide 'significant benefit' ... but solid evidence about the value of hearing aids has been lacking -- until now. New research findings " ...
Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs
Autexier, Serge; Schiller, Marvin; 10.4204/EPTCS.79.1
2012-01-01
Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.
Towards an Intelligent Tutor for Mathematical Proofs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Serge Autexier
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Computer-supported learning is an increasingly important form of study since it allows for independent learning and individualized instruction. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach to developing an intelligent tutoring system for teaching textbook-style mathematical proofs. We characterize the particularities of the domain and discuss common ITS design models. Our approach is motivated by phenomena found in a corpus of tutorial dialogs that were collected in a Wizard-of-Oz experiment. We show how an intelligent tutor for textbook-style mathematical proofs can be built on top of an adapted assertion-level proof assistant by reusing representations and proof search strategies originally developed for automated and interactive theorem proving. The resulting prototype was successfully evaluated on a corpus of tutorial dialogs and yields good results.
Problems and proofs in numbers and algebra
Millman, Richard S; Kahn, Eric Brendan
2015-01-01
Designed to facilitate the transition from undergraduate calculus and differential equations to learning about proofs, this book helps students develop the rigorous mathematical reasoning needed for advanced courses in analysis, abstract algebra, and more. Students will focus on both how to prove theorems and solve problem sets in-depth; that is, where multiple steps are needed to prove or solve. This proof technique is developed by examining two specific content themes and their applications in-depth: number theory and algebra. This choice of content themes enables students to develop an understanding of proof technique in the context of topics with which they are already familiar, as well as reinforcing natural and conceptual understandings of mathematical methods and styles. The key to the text is its interesting and intriguing problems, exercises, theorems, and proofs, showing how students will transition from the usual, more routine calculus to abstraction while also learning how to “prove” or “sol...
A short proof of increased parabolic regularity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Pankavich
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.
Deriving Safety Cases from Automatically Constructed Proofs
Basir, Nurlida; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd
2009-01-01
Formal proofs provide detailed justification for the validity of claims and are widely used in formal software development methods. However, they are often complex and difficult to understand, because the formalism in which they are constructed and encoded is usually machine-oriented, and they may also be based on assumptions that are not justified. This causes concerns about the trustworthiness of using formal proofs as arguments in safety-critical applications. Here, we present an approach ...
Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof
Agler, David
2012-01-01
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into English and from English into formal language; how to use truth trees and truth tables to test propositions for logical properties; and how to construct and strategically use derivation rules in proofs.
Symbolic logic syntax, semantics, and proof
Agler, David
2012-01-01
Brimming with visual examples of concepts, derivation rules, and proof strategies, this introductory text is ideal for students with no previous experience in logic. Symbolic Logic: Syntax, Semantics, and Proof introduces students to the fundamental concepts, techniques, and topics involved in deductive reasoning. Agler guides students through the basics of symbolic logic by explaining the essentials of two classical systems, propositional and predicate logic. Students will learn translation both from formal language into
Robustness Proof on A United Watermarking Based on CRT Theorem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Li-gang; CHEN Xiao-su; XIAO Dao-ju; HU Lei
2005-01-01
A new method of embedding and detecting a joint watermarking is proposed. It applies the asmuth-bloom secret sharing scheme, which is based on CRT (Chinese remainder theorem) theorem, to the digital watermarking technology. On the base of describing the watermarking embedding proceeding and analyzing the watermarking detection proceeding, a series of experiments is done. The experiments emphasize on the method's robust proving and security analysis. And the experiments show that the method can resist the attacks of JPEG compress, geometry, noise and gray adjusting. The results of the experiments show that the method has a nice recognition of copyright for joint ownership.
Automatic Parallelization and Optimization of Programs by Proof Rewriting
Hurlin, C.; Palsberg, J.; Su, Z.
2009-01-01
We show how, given a program and its separation logic proof, one can parallelize and optimize this program and transform its proof simultaneously to obtain a proven parallelized and optimized program. To achieve this goal, we present new proof rules for generating proof trees and a rewrite system on
Is There a Need for Proof in Secondary Mathematics Education?
Gatward, Rebecca
2011-01-01
Mathematical proof is a strange concept; it is ironical that there is no precise definition of what constitutes a mathematical proof since without definitions there can be no proof--Dreyfus, 1999. Proof can be divided into many different categories. In this article, the author discusses these categories. She looks first at the background of proof…
An Intuitive Formal Proof for Deadline Driven Scheduler
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
詹乃军
2001-01-01
This paper presents another formal proof for the correctness of the Deadline Driven Scheduler (DDS). This proof is given in terms of Duration Calculus which provides abstraction for random preemption of processor. Compared with other approaches, this proof relies on many intuitive facts. Therefore this proof is more intuitive, while it is still formal.
Santos, Richard P.
1989-04-01
IRIS Graphics, Inc., is a new start-up company chartered to develop, manufacture, and market direct digital filmless color imaging systems. IRIS is pleased to have been the recipient of the Graphic Art Technologies Foundation INTERTEC '87 Award for innovative excellence. IRIS is extremely proud to have been given this honor. IRIS was incorporated in April 1984 and received its initial funding of approximately 1 million by September 1984. The first 2044 Beta unit was installed in August 1985, and the first 2044 sales were made in December 1985 to R. R. Donnelley, the largest printer in the United States, and to G. S. Litho, the largest U.S. color separation house. In May 1986, IRIS received an additional 3 million in its second round of financing. A smaller version of the 2044, the 2024 was introduced at Lasers In Graphics in September 1986. IRIS achieved additional financing in July 1987 and completed the introduction of the new breakthrough Series 3000 again at Lasers In Graphics in September 1987 in Orlando, Florida. IRIS occupies 20,000 square feet at its new location in Bedford, Massachusetts, which located off of Route 128 in the high technology area near Boston.
Interfacing Automatic Proof Agents in Atelier B: Introducing "iapa"
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilian Burdy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The application of automatic theorem provers to discharge proof obligations is necessary to apply formal methods in an efficient manner. Tools supporting formal methods, such as Atelier~B, generate proof obligations fully automatically. Consequently, such proof obligations are often cluttered with information that is irrelevant to establish their validity. We present iapa, an "Interface to Automatic Proof Agents", a new tool that is being integrated to Atelier~B, through which the user will access proof obligations, apply operations to simplify these proof obligations, and then dispatch the resulting, simplified, proof obligations to a portfolio of automatic theorem provers.
A proof of Sethares' conjecture
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YAO; Guowu
2004-01-01
Let ψ(z) be holomorphic in the unit disk △ and meromorphic on -△. Suppose f is a Teichmuller mapping with complex dilatation k-ψ/|ψ|. In 1968, Sethares conjectured that f is extremal if and only if either (i) ψ has a double pole or (ii) ψ has no pole of order exceeding two on △. The "if" part of the conjecture had been solved by himself. We will give the affirmative answer to the "only if" part of the conjecture. In addition, a more general criterion for extremality of quasiconformal mappings is constructed in this paper,which generalizes the "if" part of Sethares' conjecture and improves the result by Reich and Shapiro in 1990.
Proof-Carrying Code with Correct Compilers
Appel, Andrew W.
2009-01-01
In the late 1990s, proof-carrying code was able to produce machine-checkable safety proofs for machine-language programs even though (1) it was impractical to prove correctness properties of source programs and (2) it was impractical to prove correctness of compilers. But now it is practical to prove some correctness properties of source programs, and it is practical to prove correctness of optimizing compilers. We can produce more expressive proof-carrying code, that can guarantee correctness properties for machine code and not just safety. We will construct program logics for source languages, prove them sound w.r.t. the operational semantics of the input language for a proved-correct compiler, and then use these logics as a basis for proving the soundness of static analyses.
Zero Data Remnance Proof in Cloud Storage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mithun Paul
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In a cloud environment where Storage is offered as a service, a client stores his data with a provider andpays as per the usage. Once the contract ends, the client, as the data owner, may like to see, due to privacyreasons and otherwise that the data is properly shredded in the provider storage. In this paper we proposea scheme for Zero Data Remnance Proof (ZDRP – a comprehensive proof given by the cloud data storageprovider as regards to zero data remnance post the SLA period. In absence of such shredding the providercan consume the data to his benefit without coming in legal framework. The proof of data destruction canbe achieved together by clauses in the SLA and a comprehensive destruction-verifier algorithm. Theimplementation of this can be achieved by appropriate modification of the data updation mechanismsprovided by open source cloud providers.
Multi-shaped beam proof of lithography
Slodowski, Matthias; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Dorl, Wolfgang; Stolberg, Ines A.
2010-03-01
In this paper a full package high throughput multi electron-beam approach, called Multi Shaped Beam (MSB), for applications in mask making as well as direct write will be presented including complex proof-of-lithography results. The basic concept enables a significant exposure shot count reduction for advanced patterns compared to standard Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) systems and allows full pattern flexibility by concurrently using MSB, VSB and Cell Projection (CP). Proof of lithography results will be presented, which have been performed using a fully operational electron-beam lithography system including data path and substrate scanning by x/y-stage movement.
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Set theory an introduction to independence proofs
Kunen, K
1984-01-01
Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, Volume 102: Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs offers an introduction to relative consistency proofs in axiomatic set theory, including combinatorics, sets, trees, and forcing.The book first tackles the foundations of set theory and infinitary combinatorics. Discussions focus on the Suslin problem, Martin's axiom, almost disjoint and quasi-disjoint sets, trees, extensionality and comprehension, relations, functions, and well-ordering, ordinals, cardinals, and real numbers. The manuscript then ponders on well-founded sets and
Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol
2015-01-01
We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained...
Data-oriented scheduling for PROOF
Xu, Neng; Guan, Wen; Wu, Sau Lan; Ganis, Gerardo
2011-12-01
The Parallel ROOT Facility - PROOF - is a distributed analysis system optimized for I/O intensive analysis tasks of HEP data. With LHC entering the analysis phase, PROOF has become a natural ingredient for computing farms at Tier3 level. These analysis facilities will typically be used by a few tenths of users, and can also be federated into a sort of analysis cloud corresponding to the Virtual Organization of the experiment. Proper scheduling is required to guarantee fair resource usage, to enforce priority policies and to optimize the throughput. In this paper we discuss an advanced priority system that we are developing for PROOF. The system has been designed to automatically adapt to unknown length of the tasks, to take into account the data location and availability (including distribution across geographically separated sites), and the {group, user} default priorities. In this system, every element - user, group, dataset, job slot and storage - gets its priority and those priorities are dynamically linked with each other. In order to tune the interplay between the various components, we have designed and started implementing a simulation application that can model various type and size of PROOF clusters. In this application a monitoring package records all the changes of them so that we can easily understand and tune the performance. We will discuss the status of our simulation and show examples of the results we are expecting from it.
Crazy-Proofing High School Sports
Tufte, John E.
2012-01-01
"Crazy-Proofing High School Sports" examines the often troubling high school sports phenomenon in two parts. Part one focuses on the problems facing educators, students, and parents as they struggle to make high school sports worthwhile. Few if any strategies for improvement in education are effective without first knowing what the real reasons…
Proofs of certain properties of irrational roots
Belbas, S. A.
2009-01-01
We give two elementary proofs, at a level understandable by students with only pre-calculus knowledge of Algebra, of the well known fact that an irreducible irrational n-th root of a positive rational number cannot be solution of a polynomial of degree less than n with rational coefficients. We also state and prove a few simple consequences.
Basic proof skills of computer science students
Hartel, P.H.; Es, van B.; Tromp, Th.J.M.
1995-01-01
Computer science students need mathematical proof skills. At our University, these skills are being taught as part of various mathematics and computer science courses. To test the skills of our students, we have asked them to work out a number of exercises. We found that our students are not as well
An Entropic Proof of Chang's Inequality
Impagliazzo, Russell; Russell, Alexander
2012-01-01
Chang's lemma is a useful tool in additive combinatorics and the analysis of Boolean functions. Here we give an elementary proof using entropy. The constant we obtain is tight, and we give a slight improvement in the case where the variables are highly biased.
An Automatic Proof of Euler's Formula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Zhang
2005-05-01
Full Text Available In this information age, everything is digitalized. The encoding of functions and the automatic proof of functions are important. This paper will discuss the automatic calculation for Taylor expansion coefficients, as an example, it can be applied to prove Euler's formula automatically.
Playing with Dominoes: Proof by Induction
Kaplan, Gail
2009-01-01
This article describes a hands-on approach to learning proofs by induction. Students create patterns of dominos so that when the first domino is pushed, the entire design collapses, one domino at a time. Students then build designs that do not work. By constructing a list of conditions that ensure a given pattern will collapse, students discover…
Proof theory of epistemic logic of programs
Maffezioli, Paolo; Naibo, Alberto
2014-01-01
A combination of epistemic logic and dynamic logic of programs is presented. Although rich enough to formalize some simple game-theoretic scenarios, its axiomatization is problematic as it leads to the paradoxical conclusion that agents are omniscient. A cut-free labelled Gentzen-style proof system
Decorated proofs for computational effects: States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Guillaume Dumas
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The syntax of an imperative language does not mention explicitly the state, while its denotational semantics has to mention it. In this paper we show that the equational proofs about an imperative language may hide the state, in the same way as the syntax does.
Environmental Friendly Route and Wool Shrink Proofing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱泉; 吴婵娟
2003-01-01
The shrink proofing on wool with treatment of protease named Argaenzyme STL was studied. The various pretreating auxiliaries, different parameters for protease treating process and the effect of stabilizer were discussed in detail. The varieties of some properties before and after protease treatment were also investigated.
Bijective Proofs of Gould's and Rothe's Identities
Guo, Victor J W
2010-01-01
We first give a bijective proof of Gould's identity in the model of binary words. Then we deduce Rothe's identity from Gould's identity again by a bijection, which also leads to a double-sum extension of the $q$-Chu-Vandermonde formula.
Playing with Dominoes: Proof by Induction
Kaplan, Gail
2009-01-01
This article describes a hands-on approach to learning proofs by induction. Students create patterns of dominos so that when the first domino is pushed, the entire design collapses, one domino at a time. Students then build designs that do not work. By constructing a list of conditions that ensure a given pattern will collapse, students discover…
A vector bundle proof of Poncelet theorem
Vallès, Jean
2012-01-01
In the town of Saratov where he was prisonner, Poncelet, continuing the work of Euler and Steiner on polygons simultaneously inscribed in a circle and circumscribed around an other circle, proved the following generalization : "Let C and D be two smooth conics in the projective complex plane. If D passes through the n(n-1)/2 vertices of a complete polygon with n sides tangent to C then D passes through the vertices of infinitely many such polygons." According to Marcel Berger this theorem is the nicest result about the geometry of conics. Even if it is, there are few proofs of it. To my knowledge there are only three. The first proof, published in 1822 and based on infinitesimal deformations, is due to Poncelet. Later, Jacobi proposed a new proof based on finite order points on elliptic curves; his proof, certainly the most famous, is explained in a modern way and in detail by Griffiths and Harris. In 1870 Weyr proved a Poncelet theorem in space (more precisely for two quadrics) that implies the one above whe...
Hash3: Proofs, Analysis and Implementation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gauravaram, Praveen
2009-01-01
This report outlines the talks presented at the winter school on Hash3: Proofs, Analysis, and Implementation, ECRYPT II Event on Hash Functions. In general, speakers may not write everything what they talk on the slides. So, this report also outlines such findings following the understanding...
Proofs of certain properties of irrational roots
Belbas, S. A.
2009-01-01
We give two elementary proofs, at a level understandable by students with only pre-calculus knowledge of Algebra, of the well known fact that an irreducible irrational n-th root of a positive rational number cannot be solution of a polynomial of degree less than n with rational coefficients. We also state and prove a few simple consequences.
Explosion proof vehicle for tank inspection
Zollinger, William T [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Bauer, Scott G [Idaho Falls, ID
2012-02-28
An Explosion Proof Vehicle (EPV) having an interior substantially filled with an inert fluid creating an interior pressure greater than the exterior pressure. One or more flexible tubes provide the inert fluid and one or more electrical conductors from a control system to the vehicle. The vehicle is preferably used in subsurface tank inspection, whereby the vehicle is submerged in a volatile fluid.
Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.
2007-12-10
With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.
Dependencies between soft proofing and prepress production
Tuijn, Chris
2008-01-01
In order to save time and money, more and more printing organizations are investing in on-line customer portals to allow uploading content and giving formal approvals based on soft proofs before the final production process (plate making and printing) can be initiated. The approvals are typically made on soft proofs of pages whereas, obviously, the images used for plate making are so-called imposed flats (a combination of pages rotated in such a way that the printed matter can be obtained after folding and cutting). The main goal of a soft proof of a page is to simulate accurately on a display device how the page will be finally printed. The quality expectations of a soft proof are very high since a formal approval implies contractual obligations from the printing organization. This quality, however, can be influenced by many parameters. By definition, soft proofs will be displayed on a monitor (being a light emitting device), whereas a print on paper can only be seen as the reflection of a light source. As a consequence, monitors can be described by an additive color model whereas printers or presses will be modeled by a subtractive color model. Other differences relate to how the image is generated: presses can only output binary information (ink or no ink) and continuous tones are simulated by using screening techniques whereas, on a monitor, a multi-level signal can generate different shades of a specific color. The differences described above are addressed by many color management systems available on the market today. An upcoming requirement in this area is that people do not only expect the color management software to behave well but also expect this software to validate its behavior. Another range of problems with soft proofs relates to the rendering (converting vector-based page data into bitmaps) and separation process. These can be divided in two classes: spatial issues (related to resolution differences, high-frequency patterns, aliasing problems etc
An algebro-geometric proof of Witten's conjecture
Kazarian, M. E.; Lando, S. K.
2007-10-01
We present a new proof of Witten's conjecture. The proof is based on the analysis of the relationship between intersection indices on moduli spaces of complex curves and Hurwitz numbers enumerating ramified coverings of the 2 -sphere.
On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications
Ray, Partha
2010-01-01
By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.
A Short Proof to Some Results of Sun and Wang
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei Cao
2007-01-01
We give a short proof to some results of Sun and Wang on counting the number of solutions of a class of equations over finite fields. Our proof is elementary and only based on matrix properties and recursion techniques.
Teaching Mathematical Proofs That Rely on Ideas from Physics.
Hanna, Gila; Jahnke, H. Niels; DeBruyn, Ysbrand; Lomas, Dennis
2001-01-01
Describes empirical research into the effectiveness of using concepts and principles of physics in the teaching of geometrical proofs. Demonstrates, tentatively, that proofs from physics could be a viable addition to the mathematics curriculum. (Author/MM)
Why College or University Students Hate Proofs in Mathematics?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mbaïtiga Zacharie
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem Statement: A proof is a notoriously difficult mathematical concept for students. Empirical studies have shown that students emerge from proof-oriented courses such as high-school geometry, introduction to proof, complex and abstract algebra unable to construct anything beyond very trivial proofs. Furthermore, most university students do not know what constitutes a proof and cannot determine whether a purported proof is valid. A proof is a convincing method that demonstrates with generally accepted theorem that some mathematical statement is true and each proofs step must follow from previous proof steps and definition that have already been proved. To motivate students hating proofs and to help mathematics teachers, how a proof can be taught, we investigated in this study the idea of mathematical proofs. Approach: To tackle this issue, the modified Moore method and the researcher method called Z.Mbaïtiga method are introduced follow by two cases studies on proof of triple integral. Next a survey is conducted on fourth year college students on which of the proposed two cases study they understand easily or they like. Results: The result of the survey showed that more than 95% of the responded students pointed out the proof that is done using details explanation of every theorem used in the proof construction, the case study2. Conclusion: From the result of this survey, we had learned that mathematics teachers have to be very careful about the selection of proofs to include when introducing topics and filtering out some details which can obscure important ideas and discourage students.
Web Page Watermarking for Tamper-Proof
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
This paper proposed a watermarking algorithm for tamper-proof of web pages. For a web page, it generates a watermark consisting of a sequence of Space and Tab. The watermark is then embedded into the web page after each word and each line. When a watermarked web page is tampered, the extracted watermark can detect and locate the modifications to the web page. Besides, the framework of watermarked Web Server system was given.Compared with traditional digital signature methods, this watermarking method is more transparent in that there is no necessary to detach the watermark before displaying web pages. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is an effective tool for tamper-proof of web pages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roly Perera
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Formalising the pi-calculus is an illuminating test of the expressiveness of logical frameworks and mechanised metatheory systems, because of the presence of name binding, labelled transitions with name extrusion, bisimulation, and structural congruence. Formalisations have been undertaken in a variety of systems, primarily focusing on well-studied (and challenging properties such as the theory of process bisimulation. We present a formalisation in Agda that instead explores the theory of concurrent transitions, residuation, and causal equivalence of traces, which has not previously been formalised for the pi-calculus. Our formalisation employs de Bruijn indices and dependently-typed syntax, and aligns the "proved transitions" proposed by Boudol and Castellani in the context of CCS with the proof terms naturally present in Agda's representation of the labelled transition relation. Our main contributions are proofs of the "diamond lemma" for residuation of concurrent transitions and a formal definition of equivalence of traces up to permutation of transitions.
A Proof of the Conformal Collider Bounds
Hofman, Diego M; Meltzer, David; Poland, David; Rejon-Barrera, Fernando
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove that the "conformal collider bounds" originally proposed by Hofman and Maldacena hold for any unitary parity-preserving conformal field theory (CFT) with a unique stress tensor in spacetime dimensions larger than 2. In particular this implies that the ratio of central charges for a unitary 4d CFT lies in the interval $\\frac{31}{18} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{3}$. For superconformal theories this is further reduced to $\\frac{3}{2} \\geq \\frac{a}{c} \\geq \\frac{1}{2}$. The proof relies only on CFT first principles - in particular, bootstrap methods - and thus constitutes the first complete field theory proof of these bounds. We further elaborate on similar bounds for non-conserved currents and relate them to results obtained recently from deep inelastic scattering.
7 CFR 1430.505 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 1430.505 Section 1430.505... Program § 1430.505 Proof of production. (a) Dairy operations selected for spotchecks by CCC must, in... must also provide proof of production for the 1997 or 1998 calendar year to verify the base period. The...
7 CFR 760.1305 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 760.1305 Section 760.1305....1305 Proof of production. (a) Dairy producers requesting benefits must, as required by this subpart, provide adequate proof of the dairy operation's eligible production during the months of February through...
29 CFR 1919.31 - Proof tests-loose gear.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof tests-loose gear. 1919.31 Section 1919.31 Labor... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Vessels: Tests and Proof Loads; Heat Treatment; Competent Persons § 1919.31 Proof tests—loose gear. (a) Chains, rings, shackles and other loose gear...
A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
We present a calculus of "circular proofs": the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction...
A short proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
Sjödin, Tord
2013-01-01
D'Alembert made the first serious attempt to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra (FTA) in 1746. An elementary proof of (FTA) based on the same idea is given in Proofs from THE BOOK. We give a shorter and more transperant version of this proof.
31 CFR 341.4 - Proof of purchase.
2010-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 341.4 Section 341... BONDS § 341.4 Proof of purchase. At the time a Retirement Plan Bond is issued, the issuing agent will... name the bond is inscribed, to the registered owner as well, proof of the purchase on Form PD 3550....
A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
We present a calculus of "circular proofs": the graph underlying a proof is not a finite tree but instead it is allowed to contain a certain amount of cycles.The main challenge in developing a theory for the calculus is to define the semantics of proofs, since the usual method by induction on the...
16 CFR 614.1 - Appropriate proof of identity.
2010-01-01
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appropriate proof of identity. 614.1 Section... IDENTITY § 614.1 Appropriate proof of identity. (a) Consumer reporting agencies shall develop and implement reasonable requirements for what information consumers shall provide to constitute proof of identity...
A Graphical User Interface for Formal Proofs in Geometry.
Narboux, Julien
2007-01-01
International audience; We present in this paper the design of a graphical user interface to deal with proofs in geometry. The software developed combines three tools: a dynamic geometry software to explore, measure and invent conjectures, an automatic theorem prover to check facts and an interactive proof system (Coq) to mechanically check proofs built interactively by the user.
An Assessment Model for Proof Comprehension in Undergraduate Mathematics
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Fuller, Evan; Weber, Keith; Rhoads, Kathryn; Samkoff, Aron
2012-01-01
Although proof comprehension is fundamental in advanced undergraduate mathematics courses, there has been limited research on what it means to understand a mathematical proof at this level and how such understanding can be assessed. In this paper, we address these issues by presenting a multidimensional model for assessing proof comprehension in…
5 CFR 843.406 - Proof of dependency.
2010-01-01
... considerable value; (5) Proof of coverage of the child as a family member under the employee's or retiree's... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of dependency. 843.406 Section 843... Proof of dependency. (a) A child is considered to have been dependent on the deceased employee or...
A proof of the Goldbach conjecture
Tan, Shanguang
2011-01-01
The Goldbach conjecture was proved in this paper. The proof was by contradiction based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and the theory of Linear Algebra. First, by an assumption, the Goldbach conjecture was converted into a group of linear equations. Then, by investigating solutions to the group of linear equations, reductions to absurdity were derived to prove the assumption false. Hence, the Goldbach conjecture was proved that even numbers greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes.
Polaroid Graphics Imaging Direct Digital Color Proofing
King, Patrick F.
1989-04-01
Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I represent Polaroid Graphics Imaging, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Polaroid Corporation. We wish to thank Ken Cloud and the SPIE for the opportunity to speak today. Several criterion are fundamental in the role for Direct Digital Color Proofing (DDCP), First, the DDCP must represent a first generation hardcopy of the exact color information in the production stream. If must, as it's name suggests be an exact, proof (hence the name direct) of the electronic or digital information which would otherwise be directed toward film working. It is after all the most critical means to evaluate the quality of whatever pagination, scanner or color work which has gone be for it. Second, the DDCP must represent an opportunity. That opportunity is to reconvene the production stream and move to film making, optical or magnetic storage, or satellite transmission with the confidence that the DDCP is identical to some conventional counterpart. In the case of film it must match a conventional proof and press sheet, dot for dot. Otherwise it is merely an exercise in interpretation. For magnetic or optical storage and satellite transmission there must be assurance that at any opportunity either a duplicate DDCP or a conventional film/proof could reproduce earlier results. Finally as the printed product is the final goal and direct to press is evolving in direct to plate and direct to gravure printing the DDCP must share the half toner lineage of these products. Thirdly and hardly least, the whole purpose for DDCP is increased productivity. However, our industry struggles to maintain individuality and variety. Somehow DDCP must balance these forces.
Productive Use of Failure in Inductive Proof
Ireland, A.; Bundy, Alan
1996-01-01
Proof by mathematical induction gives rise to various kinds of eureka steps, e.g., missing lemmata and generalization. Most inductive theorem provers rely upon user intervention in supplying the required eureka steps. In contrast, we present a novel theorem-proving architecture for supporting the automatic discovery of eureka steps. We build upon rippling, a search control heuristic designed for inductive reasoning. We show how the failure if rippling can be used in bridging gaps in the searc...
Faithfulness of Recurrence Plots: A Mathematical Proof
Hirata, Yoshito; Komuro, Motomasa; Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki
It is practically known that a recurrence plot, a two-dimensional visualization of time series data, can contain almost all information related to the underlying dynamics except for its spatial scale because we can recover a rough shape for the original time series from the recurrence plot even if the original time series is multivariate. We here provide a mathematical proof that the metric defined by a recurrence plot [Hirata et al., 2008] is equivalent to the Euclidean metric under mild conditions.
Proof and proving in secondary school
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vimolan Mudaly
2007-10-01
Full Text Available This paper argues that mathematics should be a human activity in which the process of guided invention takes the learner through the various stages and steps of the discovery of mathematical ideas and concepts. The central premise is that proof functions as an explanation, where experimental mathematics is used to empirically convince the learner that the conjecture holds true. Inductive reasoning used while working with the computer software Sketchpad assists learners in arriving at and testing their conjectures.
Proof and proving in secondary school
Vimolan Mudaly
2007-01-01
This paper argues that mathematics should be a human activity in which the process of guided invention takes the learner through the various stages and steps of the discovery of mathematical ideas and concepts. The central premise is that proof functions as an explanation, where experimental mathematics is used to empirically convince the learner that the conjecture holds true. Inductive reasoning used while working with the computer software Sketchpad assists learners in arriving at and test...
The moment of proof mathematical epiphanies
Benson, Donald C
2000-01-01
When Archimedes, while bathing, suddenly hit upon the principle of buoyancy, he ran wildly through the streets of Syracuse, stark naked, crying "eureka!" In The Moment of Proof, Donald Benson attempts to convey to general readers the feeling of eureka--the joy of discovery--that mathematicians feel when they first encounter an elegant proof. This is not an introduction to mathematics so much as an introduction to the pleasures of mathematical thinking. And indeed the delights of this book are many and varied. The book is packed with intriguing conundrums--Loyd''s Fifteen Puzzle, the Petersburg Paradox, the Chaos Game, the Monty Hall Problem, the Prisoners'' Dilemma--as well as many mathematical curiosities. We learn how to perform the arithmetical proof called "casting out nines" and are introduced to Russian peasant multiplication, a bizarre way to multiply numbers that actually works. The book shows us how to calculate the number of ways a chef can combine ten or fewer spices to flavor his soup (1,024) and ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Candaş Uygan
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research pre-service elementary mathematics teachers’ beliefs on meaning and features of mathematical proof, their proving processes and their reasoning process while evaluating validities of proof examples. This study is a qualitative research. Participants of the study are three pre-service elementary mathematics teachers who continue to study in a state university from Central Anatolia Region. Participants’ beliefs on proof were researched with semi-structured interview whilst proving processes and evaluation processes of proof examples were researched with clinical interviews. Interviews were recorded with video camera and data were analyzed according to qualitative methods. When beliefs on proof were analyzed, it was indicated that participants see mathematical proofs as problem solving process and exploration of source of mathematical knowledge, and believe that proofs have to be deductive, apprehensible and have to include generalizable results. Also according to opinions of all three participants, they believe that their proving abilities are insufficient. Analyze results related to proving processes indicated that pre-service teachers considered conclusions of theorems as if they are conditions of theorems and also used proving strategies uncomprehendingly in proving process. Finally, analyze results related to proof evaluation process indicated that participants assessed computer based experimental verifications as valid mathematical proofs and had mistakes when they evaluated warrants used in verifications that break axiomatical structure of proofs.Key Words: Beliefs in the context of proof, proving, proof evaluation, teacher education
An illustration of the explanatory and discovery functions of proof
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael de Villiers
2012-10-01
Full Text Available This article provides an illustration of the explanatory and discovery functions of proof with an original geometric conjecture made by a Grade 11 student. After logically explaining (proving the result geometrically and algebraically, the result is generalised to other polygons by further reflection on the proof(s. Different proofs are given, each giving different insights that lead to further generalisations. The underlying heuristic reasoning is carefully described in order to provide an exemplar for designing learning trajectories to engage students with these functions of proof.
On the proof of the first Carnot theorem in thermodynamics
Morad, M. R.; Momeni, F.
2013-11-01
The proof of the first Carnot theorem in classical thermodynamics is revisited in this study. The underlying conditions of a general proof of this principle presented by Senft (1978 Phys. Educ. 13 35-37) are explored and discussed. These conditions are analysed in more detail using a physical description of heat and work to present a simpler proof of the first principle prior to using the violation of the second law of thermodynamics. Finally, a new simple proof is also presented based on Gibbs relation. This discussion will benefit the teaching of classical thermodynamics and promote better understanding of the proof of the first Carnot theorem in general form.
2nd International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics
Schroeder-Heister, Peter
2016-01-01
This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of deductions, the relation between Heyting's and Gentzen's approaches to meaning, knowability paradoxes, proof-theoretic foundations of set theory, Dummett's justification of logical laws, Kreisel's theory of constructions, paradoxical reasoning, and the defence of model theory. The field of proof-theoretic semantics has existed for almost 50 years, but the term itself was proposed by Schroeder-Heister in the 1980s. Proof-theoretic semantics explains the meaning of linguistic expressions in general and of logical constants in particular in terms of the notion of proof. This volume emerges from presentations at the Second International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics in Tübingen in 2013, where contributing authors were asked to provide a self-contained descri...
Graham, Michelle; Gray, David
As wireless networks become increasingly ubiquitous, the demand for a method of locating a device has increased dramatically. Location Based Services are now commonplace but there are few methods of verifying or guaranteeing a location provided by a user without some specialised hardware, especially in larger scale networks. We propose a system for the verification of location claims, using proof gathered from neighbouring devices. In this paper we introduce a protocol to protect this proof gathering process, protecting the privacy of all involved parties and securing it from intruders and malicious claiming devices. We present the protocol in stages, extending the security of this protocol to allow for flexibility within its application. The Secure Location Verification Proof Gathering Protocol (SLVPGP) has been designed to function within the area of Vehicular Networks, although its application could be extended to any device with wireless & cryptographic capabilities.
ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2015-01-01
pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool NaDeA (Natural......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...
ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen
2016-01-01
using pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool Na......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...
Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arkowitz Martin
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Let be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, any map and the th power map. Duan proved that has a fixed point if . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a -structure as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that and each has a fixed point.
Open Assessment of Proofs in Litigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaltrina Zekolli
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The key of existence and success in all domains of life to the entity of justice is the thorough compliance to the truth and justice. Therefore when a certain right is violated, liable or challenged entrusted to solve that, are the institutions of justice, rather the courts. Courts are competent to find the right path towards the truth applying different methods with intention to satisfy the justice. In this paper special attention we dedicated to the method of open assessment of proofs in litigation, that in fact is the subject of this research.
ATAC Process Proof of Concept Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman
2014-03-01
Researchers at INL with funding from the Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) evaluated a novel approach for near real-time consumption of threat intelligence. Demonstration testing in an industry environment supported the development of this new process to assist the electric sector in securing their critical networks. This report provides the reader with an understanding of the methods used during this proof of concept project. The processes and templates were further advanced with an industry partner during an onsite assessment. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these materials for use by industry.
A standardisation proof for algebraic pattern calculi
Kesner, Delia; Ríos, Alejandro; 10.4204/EPTCS.49.5
2011-01-01
This work gives some insights and results on standardisation for call-by-name pattern calculi. More precisely, we define standard reductions for a pattern calculus with constructor-based data terms and patterns. This notion is based on reduction steps that are needed to match an argument with respect to a given pattern. We prove the Standardisation Theorem by using the technique developed by Takahashi and Crary for lambda-calculus. The proof is based on the fact that any development can be specified as a sequence of head steps followed by internal reductions, i.e. reductions in which no head steps are involved.
Mathematics and Proof Presentation in Pcoq
Amerkad, Ahmed; Bertot, Yves; Pottier, Loïc; Rideau, Laurence
2001-01-01
We present PCOQ , a user-interface for the Coq system which provides elaborate mathematical formulas lay-out.We first show how the organization of thegraphic- al user-interface around structured data makes it possible to obtain this. In particular, we insist on the three-level extension mechanisms that supports the customiation of the layout for specific applications. In the next section, we describe the data-structure that is used in the logical engine to record proofs-in-the-making and we s...
Gerlach, Moritz
2011-01-01
We prove that every bounded, positive, irreducible, stochastically continuous semigroup on the space of bounded, measurable functions which is strong Feller, consists of kernel operators and possesses an invariant measure converges pointwise. This differs from Doob's theorem in that we do not require the semigroup to be Markovian and request a fairly weak kind of irreducibility. In addition, we elaborate on the various notions of kernel operators in this context, show the stronger result that the adjoint semigroup converges strongly and discuss as an example diffusion equations on rough domains. The proofs are based on the theory of positive semigroups and do not use probability theory.
Minimal proofs of state-independent contextuality
Cabello, Adan
2012-01-01
We show that a corollary of the results in arXiv:1112.5149v1 provides proofs of state-independent contextuality (SIC) in any finite dimension d>2 with a smaller number of rays than those recently presented by Yu and Oh (arXiv:1112.5513v1). Specifically, we show that d+10 rays are sufficient to prove SIC. These results are compared with the Kochen-Specker (KS) sets with the smallest number of rays known. We also identify in which dimensions the minimum SIC and KS sets are still unknown.
The Versatile Transceiver Proof of Concept
Troska, J; Papadopoulos, S; Papakonstantinou, I; Rui Silva, S; Seif el Nasr, S; Sigaud, C; Stejskal,; Soos, C; Vasey, F
2009-01-01
SLHC experiment upgrades will make substantial use of optical links to enable high-speed data readout and control. The Versatile Link project will develop and assess optical link architectures and components suitable for deployment at SLHC. The on-detector element will be bidirectional optoelectronic module: the Versatile Transceiver that will be based on a commercially available module type minimally customized to meet the constraints of the SLHC on-detector environment in terms of mass, volume, power consumption, operational temperature and radiation environment. We report on the first proof of concept phase of the development, showing the steps towards customization and first results of the radiation resistance of candidate optoelectronic components.
Proof of a Quantum Bousso Bound
Bousso, Raphael; Fisher, Zachary; Maldacena, Juan
2014-01-01
We prove the generalized Covariant Entropy Bound, $\\Delta S\\leq (A-A')/4G\\hbar$, for light-sheets with initial area $A$ and final area $A'$. The entropy $\\Delta S$ is defined as a difference of von Neumann entropies of an arbitrary state and the vacuum, with both states restricted to the light-sheet under consideration. The proof applies to free fields, in the limit where gravitational backreaction is small. We do not assume the null energy condition. In regions where it is violated, we find that the bound is protected by the defining property of light-sheets: that their null generators are nowhere expanding.
Significant issues in proof testing: A critical appraisal
Chell, G. G.; McClung, R. C.; Russell, D. A.; Chang, K. J.; Donnelly, B.
1994-09-01
Issues which impact on the interpretation and quantification of proof test benefits are reviewed. The importance of each issue in contributing to the extra quality assurance conferred by proof testing components is discussed, particularly with respect to the application of advanced fracture mechanics concepts to enhance the flaw screening capability of a proof test analysis. Items covered include the role in proof testing of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile instability analysis, deterministic versus probabilistic analysis, single versus multiple cycle proof testing, and non-destructive examination (NDE). The effects of proof testing on subsequent service life are reviewed, particularly with regard to stress redistribution and changes in fracture behavior resulting from the overload. The importance of proof test conditions are also addressed, covering aspects related to test temperature, simulation of service environments, test media and the application of real-time NDE. The role of each issue in a proof test methodology is assessed with respect to its ability to: promote proof test practice to a state-of-the-art; aid optimization of proof test design; and increase awareness and understanding of outstanding issues.
A simplified proof of a conjecture for the perturbed Gelfand equation from combustion theory
Korman, Philip; Li, Yi; Ouyang, Tiancheng
2017-09-01
For the perturbed Gelfand's equation on the unit ball in two dimensions, Y. Du and Y. Lou [5] proved that the curve of positive solutions is exactly S-shaped, for sufficiently small values of the secondary parameter. We present a simplified proof and some extensions. This problem is prominent in combustion theory, see e.g., the book of J. Bebernes and D. Eberly [1].
A Coinductive Approach to Proof Search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Espírito Santo
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We propose to study proof search from a coinductive point of view. In this paper, we consider intuitionistic logic and a focused system based on Herbelin's LJT for the implicational fragment. We introduce a variant of lambda calculus with potentially infinitely deep terms and a means of expressing alternatives for the description of the "solution spaces" (called Böhm forests, which are a representation of all (not necessarily well-founded but still locally well-formed proofs of a given formula (more generally: of a given sequent. As main result we obtain, for each given formula, the reduction of a coinductive definition of the solution space to a effective coinductive description in a finitary term calculus with a formal greatest fixed-point operator. This reduction works in a quite direct manner for the case of Horn formulas. For the general case, the naive extension would not even be true. We need to study "co-contraction" of contexts (contraction bottom-up for dealing with the varying contexts needed beyond the Horn fragment, and we point out the appropriate finitary calculus, where fixed-point variables are typed with sequents. Co-contraction enters the interpretation of the formal greatest fixed points - curiously in the semantic interpretation of fixed-point variables and not of the fixed-point operator.
Semantic Contamination and Mathematical Proof: Can a Non-Proof Prove?
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Inglis, Matthew
2011-01-01
The way words are used in natural language can influence how the same words are understood by students in formal educational contexts. Here we argue that this so-called semantic contamination effect plays a role in determining how students engage with mathematical proof, a fundamental aspect of learning mathematics. Analyses of responses to…
Secondary Teachers' Knowledge of Elementary Number Theory Proofs: The Case of General-Cover Proofs
Tabach, Michal; Levenson, Esther; Barkai, Ruthi; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Dreyfus, Tommy
2011-01-01
In light of recent reform recommendations, teachers are expected to turn proofs and proving into an ongoing component of their classroom practice. Two questions emerging from this requirement are: Is the mathematical knowledge of high school teachers sufficient to prove various kinds of statements? Does teachers' knowledge allow them to determine…
Semantic Contamination and Mathematical Proof: Can a Non-Proof Prove?
Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Inglis, Matthew
2011-01-01
The way words are used in natural language can influence how the same words are understood by students in formal educational contexts. Here we argue that this so-called semantic contamination effect plays a role in determining how students engage with mathematical proof, a fundamental aspect of learning mathematics. Analyses of responses to…
Experience with PROOF-Lite in ATLAS data analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panitkin S. Y.; Hollowell C.; Ma H.; Ye S.
2011-01-01
We discuss our experience with PROOF-Lite in a context of ATLAS Collaboration physics analysis of data obtained during the LHC physics run of 2009-2010. In particular we discuss PROOF-Lite performance in virtual and physical machines, its scalability on different types of multi-core processors and effects of multithreading. We will also describe PROOF-Lite performance with Solid State Drives (SSDs).
Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property
2015-05-22
hardware intellectual property (PCHIP) framework, which aims to ensure the trustworthiness of third-party hardware IPs utilizing formal methods. We...published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Trusted Module Acquisition Through Proof-Carrying Hardware Intellectual Property Report Title By...borrowing ideas from the proof carrying code (PCC) in software domain, in this project we introduced the proof carrying hardware intellectual property
Proof Validation in Real Analysis: Inferring and Checking Warrants
Alcock, Lara; Weber, Keith
2005-01-01
In the study reported here, we investigate the skills needed to validate a proof in real analysis, i.e., to determine whether a proof is valid. We first argue that when one is validating a proof, it is not sufficient to make certain that each statement in the argument is true. One must also check that there is good reason to believe that each…
Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal
2014-05-07
UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ER-GLSV11389-001.docx Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal SBIR Phase I: Topic A13-061...Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal Christian Muehfeld Steve Pennala Great Lakes Sound & Vibration, Inc. 47140 North Main Street Houghton, MI 49931 ER...061. The purpose of this report is to show the feasibility of developing an efficient, leak proof plenum seal for the M1 Abrams . It also shows the
An Application of Quantum Finite Automata to Interactive Proof Systems
Nishimura, H; Nishimura, Harumichi; Yamakami, Tomoyuki
2004-01-01
Quantum finite automata have been studied intensively since their introduction in late 1990s as a natural model of a quantum computer with finite-dimensional quantum memory space. This paper seeks their direct application to interactive proof systems in which a mighty quantum prover communicates with a quantum-automaton verifier through a common communication cell. Our quantum interactive proof systems are juxtaposed to Dwork-Stockmeyer's classical interactive proof systems whose verifiers are two-way probabilistic automata. We demonstrate strengths and weaknesses of our systems and further study how various restrictions on the behaviors of quantum-automaton verifiers affect the power of quantum interactive proof systems.
Duan's fixed point theorem: proof and generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:X→X any map and p k :X→X the k th power map. Duan proved that p k f :X→X has a fixed point if k≥2 . We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a θ -structure μ θ :X→X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that μ θ f and f μ θ each has a fixed point.
Group online mindfulness training: proof of concept.
Kemper, Kathi J; Yun, Jonathan
2015-01-01
Mindfulness-based stress reduction training is attractive, but training with an expert teacher is often inconvenient and costly. This proof-of-concept project assessed the feasibility of providing a hybrid of free online mindfulness-based stress reduction training with small group peer facilitation. Six medical students asked a family medicine resident with 5 years of meditation experience but no formal training as a teacher to facilitate 8 weekly group sessions using a free online mindfulness-based stress reduction course. They completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires online. Six of the 7 trainees completed at least half the sessions. Completers and noncompleters had similar age (29 years), gender (about half male), and health status. Changes in the expected direction were observed for perceived stress, mindfulness, resilience, and confidence in providing calm, compassionate care. The hybrid of online mindfulness-based stress reduction training with peer support is feasible. Additional research is warranted to formally evaluate the impact of this approach.
Scada Malware, a Proof of Concept
Carcano, Andrea; Fovino, Igor Nai; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto
Critical Infrastructures are nowadays exposed to new kind of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of ICT and Network technologies into such complex critical systems. Of particular interest are the set of vulnerabilities related to the class of communication protocols normally known as “SCADA” protocols, under which fall all the communication protocols used to remotely control the RTU devices of an industrial system. In this paper we present a proof of concept of the potential effects of a set of computer malware specifically designed and created in order to impact, by taking advantage of some vulnerabilities of the ModBUS protocol, on a typical Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system.
A Toy Penrose Inequality and its Proof
Bengtsson, Ingemar
2016-01-01
We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: A shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.
A toy Penrose inequality and its proof
Bengtsson, Ingemar; Jakobsson, Emma
2016-12-01
We formulate and prove a toy version of the Penrose inequality. The formulation mimics the original Penrose inequality in which the scenario is the following: a shell of null dust collapses in Minkowski space and a marginally trapped surface forms on it. Through a series of arguments relying on established assumptions, an inequality relating the area of this surface to the total energy of the shell is formulated. Then a further reformulation turns the inequality into a statement relating the area and the outer null expansion of a class of surfaces in Minkowski space itself. The inequality has been proven to hold true in many special cases, but there is no proof in general. In the toy version here presented, an analogous inequality in (2 + 1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space turns out to hold true.
Quantifying reliability uncertainty : a proof of concept.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diegert, Kathleen V.; Dvorack, Michael A.; Ringland, James T.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Huzurbazar, Aparna (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Lorio, John F.; Fatherley, Quinn (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Anderson-Cook, Christine (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Alyson G. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Zurn, Rena M.
2009-10-01
This paper develops Classical and Bayesian methods for quantifying the uncertainty in reliability for a system of mixed series and parallel components for which both go/no-go and variables data are available. Classical methods focus on uncertainty due to sampling error. Bayesian methods can explore both sampling error and other knowledge-based uncertainties. To date, the reliability community has focused on qualitative statements about uncertainty because there was no consensus on how to quantify them. This paper provides a proof of concept that workable, meaningful quantification methods can be constructed. In addition, the application of the methods demonstrated that the results from the two fundamentally different approaches can be quite comparable. In both approaches, results are sensitive to the details of how one handles components for which no failures have been seen in relatively few tests.
Jung, E.
1984-05-01
A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.
A correctness proof of the bakery protocol in $ mu $CRL
Groote, J.F.; Korver, H.P.
1994-01-01
A specification of a bakery protocol is given in $mu$CRL. We provide a simple correctness criterion for the protocol. Then the protocol is proven correct using a proof system that has been developed for $mu$CRL. The proof primarily consists of algebraic manipulations based on specifications of abstr
7 CFR 1430.305 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 1430.305 Section 1430.305... Payment Program § 1430.305 Proof of production. (a) Evidence of production is required to establish the commercial marketing and production history of the dairy operation so that production and spoilage losses can...
7 CFR 1430.605 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 1430.605 Section 1430.605... Payment Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.605 Proof of production. (a) Evidence of production is required to establish the commercial marketing and production history of the dairy operation so that dairy production...
A Simple Correctness Proof of the Direct-Style Transformation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein
2002-01-01
We build on Danvy and Nielsen's first-order program transformation into continuation-passing style (CPS) to present a new correctness proof of the converse transformation, i.e., a one-pass transformation from CPS back to direct style. Previously published proofs were based on, e.g., a one...
28 CFR 79.46 - Proof of nonmalignant respiratory disease.
2010-07-01
... section, and for proof of cor pulmonale must also submit one or more forms of documentation specified in... (d)(3) of this section, and for proof of cor pulmonale must also submit one or more forms of..., cor pulmonale related to fibrosis of the lung, silicosis, and pneumoconiosis: (i) Pathology report...
A new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture
Buryak, A
2009-01-01
We give a new proof of Faber's intersection number conjecture concerning the top intersections in the tautological ring of the moduli space of curves $\\M_g$. The proof is based on a very straightforward geometric and combinatorial computation with double ramification cycles.
Why prove it again? alternative proofs in mathematical practice
Dawson, Jr , John W
2015-01-01
This monograph considers several well-known mathematical theorems and asks the question, “Why prove it again?” while examining alternative proofs. It explores the different rationales mathematicians may have for pursuing and presenting new proofs of previously established results, as well as how they judge whether two proofs of a given result are different. While a number of books have examined alternative proofs of individual theorems, this is the first that presents comparative case studies of other methods for a variety of different theorems. The author begins by laying out the criteria for distinguishing among proofs and enumerates reasons why new proofs have, for so long, played a prominent role in mathematical practice. He then outlines various purposes that alternative proofs may serve. Each chapter that follows provides a detailed case study of alternative proofs for particular theorems, including the Pythagorean Theorem, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Desargues’ Theorem, the...
Towards Verification of Constituent Systems through Automated Proof
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Couto, Luis Diogo Monteiro Duarte; Foster, Simon; Payne, R
2014-01-01
to specify contractual obligations on the constituent systems of a SoS. To support verification of these obligations we have developed a proof obligation generator and theorem prover plugin for Symphony. The latter uses the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover to automatically discharge the proof obligations arising...
A Choice Option between Proofs in Linear Algebra
Rensaa, Ragnhild Johanne
2007-01-01
At their final exam in linear algebra students at the author's university were given the possibility to choose between two types of proofs to be done. They could either prove two short statements by themselves or they could explain four steps in a given proof. This paper reports on investigations of students' responses to the choice option…
Velocity feedback control with a flywheel proof mass actuator
Kras, Aleksander; Gardonio, Paolo
2017-08-01
This paper presents four new proof mass actuators to be used in velocity feedback control systems for the control of vibrations of machines and flexible structures. A classical proof mass actuator is formed by a coil-magnet linear motor, with either the magnet or the armature-coil proof mass suspended on soft springs. This arrangement produces a net force effect at frequencies above the fundamental resonance frequency of the springs-proof mass system. Thus, it can be used to implement point velocity feedback loops, although the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system poses some stability and control performance limitations. The four proof mass actuators presented in this study include a flywheel element, which is used to augment the inertia effect of the suspended proof mass. The paper shows that the flywheel element modifies both the dynamic response and static deflection of the springs-proof mass system in such a way as the stability and control performance of velocity feedback loops using these actuators are significantly improved.
Automated Proof Compression by Invention of New Definitions
Vyskočil, Jiří; Stanovský, David; Urban, Josef
State-of-the-art automated theorem provers (ATPs) are today able to solve relatively complicated mathematical problems. But as ATPs become stronger and more used by mathematicians, the length and human unreadability of the automatically found proofs become a serious problem for the ATP users. One remedy is automated proof compression by invention of new definitions.
A simple proof of the density Hales-Jewett theorem
Dodos, Pandelis; Kanellopoulos, Vassilis; Tyros, Konstantinos
2012-01-01
We give a purely combinatorial proof of the density Hales--Jewett Theorem that is modeled after Polymath's proof but is significantly simpler. In particular, we avoid the use of the equal-slices measure and work exclusively with the uniform measure.
Preservice Teachers' Knowledge of Proof by Mathematical Induction
Stylianides, Gabriel J.; Stylianides, Andreas J.; Philippou, George N.
2007-01-01
There is a growing effort to make "proof" central to all students' mathematical experiences across all grades. Success in this goal depends highly on teachers' knowledge of proof, but limited research has examined this knowledge. This paper contributes to this domain of research by investigating preservice elementary and secondary school…
A simple proof of Renner's exponential de Finetti theorem
Vidick, Thomas; Yuen, Henry
2016-01-01
We give a simple proof of the exponential de Finetti theorem due to Renner. Like Renner's proof, ours combines the post-selection de Finetti theorem, the Gentle Measurement lemma, and the Chernoff bound, but avoids virtually all calculations, including any use of the theory of types.
A Formal Proof Of The Riesz Representation Theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anthony Narkawicz
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a formal proof of the Riesz representation theorem in the PVS theorem prover. The Riemann Stieltjes integral was defined in PVS, and the theorem relies on this integral. In order to prove the Riesz representation theorem, it was necessary to prove that continuous functions on a closed interval are Riemann Stieltjes integrable with respect to any function of bounded variation. This result follows from the equivalence of the Riemann Stieltjes and Darboux Stieltjes integrals, which would have been a lengthy result to prove in PVS, so a simpler lemma was proved that captures the underlying concept of this integral equivalence. In order to prove the Riesz theorem, the Hahn Banach theorem was proved in the case where the normed linear spaces are the continuous and bounded functions on a closed interval. The proof of the Riesz theorem follows the proof in Haaser and Sullivan's book Real Analysis. The formal proof of this result in PVS revealed an error in textbook's proof. Indeed, the proof of the Riesz representation theorem is constructive, and the function constructed in the textbook does not satisfy a key property. This error illustrates the ability of formal verification to find logical errors. A specific counterexample is given to the proof in the textbook. Finally, a corrected proof of the Riesz representation theorem is presented.
Coqoon - An IDE for Interactive Proof Development in Coq
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faithfull, Alexander; Bengtson, Jesper; Tassi, Enrico
2016-01-01
”s for proof assistants typically only operate on files in isolation, relying on external tools to integrate those files into larger projects. In this paper we present Coqoon, an IDE for Coq developments integrated into Eclipse. Coqoon manages proofs as projects rather than isolated source files, and compiles...
25 CFR 75.11 - Proof of relationship.
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of relationship. 75.11 Section 75.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT REVISION OF THE MEMBERSHIP ROLL OF THE EASTERN BAND OF CHEROKEE INDIANS, NORTH CAROLINA § 75.11 Proof of relationship. If the applicant's...
31 CFR 346.4 - Proof of purchase.
2010-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 346.4 Section 346.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... RETIREMENT BONDS § 346.4 Proof of purchase. At the time an Individual Retirement Bond is issued, the...
14 CFR 25.651 - Proof of strength.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of strength. 25.651 Section 25.651 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Surfaces § 25.651 Proof of...
14 CFR 23.651 - Proof of strength.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of strength. 23.651 Section 23.651 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Surfaces § 23.651 Proof of strength. (a) Limit load tests of control surfaces are required. These...
14 CFR 23.641 - Proof of strength.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of strength. 23.641 Section 23.641 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....641 Proof of strength. The strength of stressed-skin wings must be proven by load tests or by...
28 CFR 79.16 - Proof of medical condition.
2010-07-01
... Cancer Institute can make a diagnosis of leukemia to a reasonable degree of medical certainty: (i) Bone... COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims Relating to Leukemia § 79.16 Proof of medical condition. (a... leukemia. Proof that the claimant contracted leukemia must be made either by using the procedure outlined...
The burden of proof in dealing with political accountability
Andone, C.; Săftoiu, R.; Neagu, M.-L.; Măda, S.
2015-01-01
The aim of this paper is to explain from a pragma-dialectical argumentative perspective the use of the concept of burden of proof in dealing with political accountability. In the first part of the paper, a procedural view of the burden of proof is sketched which is fundamental for understanding its
21 CFR 1310.07 - Proof of identity.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof of identity. 1310.07 Section 1310.07 Food... CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.07 Proof of identity. (a) Each regulated person who engages in a... be accomplished by having the other party present documents which would verify the identity,...
A Proof Rule for While Loop in VDM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
姜馨; 徐永森
1989-01-01
A proof rule for while loop which can be used in justification of programs w.r.t.specifications using two-state post-conditions is presented in this paper,accompanied with a soundness proof and a comparison with Aczel'w rule for while loop
14 CFR 29.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 29.307 Section 29.307... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 29.307 Proof of structure. (a... loading condition accounting for the environment to which the structure will be exposed in...
14 CFR 23.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 23.307 Section 23.307... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 23.307 Proof of structure. (a) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of § 23.305 must be shown for...
14 CFR 27.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 27.307 Section 27.307... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements General § 27.307 Proof of structure. (a... loading condition accounting for the environment to which the structure will be exposed in...
14 CFR 25.307 - Proof of structure.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of structure. 25.307 Section 25.307... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure General § 25.307 Proof of structure. (a) Compliance with... condition. Structural analysis may be used only if the structure conforms to that for which experience...
An Algebraic Proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1
Whale, Ben
2009-01-01
In his 1973 paper Quillen proved a resolution theorem for the K-Theory of an exact category; his proof was homotopic in nature. By using the main result of a paper by Nenashev, we are able to give an algebraic proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1 of an exact category.
A compositional proof system for the modal μ-calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Henrik Reif; Stirling, C.; Winskel,, G.
1994-01-01
We present a proof system for determining satisfaction between processes in a fairly general process algebra and assertions of the modal μ-calculus. The proof system is compositional in the structure of processes. It extends earlier work on compositional reasoning within the modal μ-calculus and ...
Proof in Mathematics ("If,""Then," and "Perhaps").
Baxandall, P. R.; And Others
This collection of material is designed to illustrate the nature and variety of the idea of proof in mathematics. It is intended to be a "background book" for the use of teachers, particularly those in initial training courses. Individual chapter titles are: (1) The Role of Proof in Mathematics; (2) Logical Reasoning: The Idea of Implication; (3)…
Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving
Ersen, Zeynep Bahar
2016-01-01
Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…
Values and Norms of Proof for Mathematicians and Students
Dawkins, Paul Christian; Weber, Keith
2017-01-01
In this theoretical paper, we present a framework for conceptualizing proof in terms of mathematical values, as well as the norms that uphold those values. In particular, proofs adhere to the values of establishing a priori truth, employing decontextualized reasoning, increasing mathematical understanding, and maintaining consistent standards for…
47 CFR 80.862 - Proof of capacity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proof of capacity. 80.862 Section 80.862 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... Proof of capacity. (a) When directed by the Commission or its authorized representative, the...
30 CFR 18.42 - Explosion-proof distribution boxes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof distribution boxes. 18.42 Section 18.42 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING... and Design Requirements § 18.42 Explosion-proof distribution boxes. (a) A cable passing through...
30 CFR 18.43 - Explosion-proof splice boxes.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-proof splice boxes. 18.43 Section 18.43 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... Design Requirements § 18.43 Explosion-proof splice boxes. Internal connections shall be rigidly held...
Duan's fixed point theorem: Proof and generalization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Arkowitz
2006-02-01
Full Text Available Let X be an H-space of the homotopy type of a connected, finite CW-complex, f:XÃ¢Â†Â’X any map and pk:XÃ¢Â†Â’X the kth power map. Duan proved that pkf:XÃ¢Â†Â’X has a fixed point if kÃ¢Â‰Â¥2. We give a new, short and elementary proof of this. We then use rational homotopy to generalize to spaces X whose rational cohomology is the tensor product of an exterior algebra on odd dimensional generators with the tensor product of truncated polynomial algebras on even dimensional generators. The role of the power map is played by a ÃŽÂ¸-structure ÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸:XÃ¢Â†Â’X as defined by Hemmi-Morisugi-Ooshima. The conclusion is that ÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸f and fÃŽÂ¼ÃŽÂ¸ each has a fixed point.
BaffleText: a Human Interactive Proof
Chew, Monica; Baird, Henry S.
2003-01-01
Internet services designed for human use are being abused by programs. We present a defense against such attacks in the form of a CAPTCHA (Completely Automatic Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) that exploits the difference in ability between humans and machines in reading images of text. CAPTCHAs are a special case of 'human interactive proofs,' a broad class of security protocols that allow people to identify themselves over networks as members of given groups. We point out vulnerabilities of reading-based CAPTCHAs to dictionary and computer-vision attacks. We also draw on the literature on the psychophysics of human reading, which suggests fresh defenses available to CAPTCHAs. Motivated by these considerations, we propose BaffleText, a CAPTCHA which uses non-English pronounceable words to defend against dictionary attacks, and Gestalt-motivated image-masking degradations to defend against image restoration attacks. Experiments on human subjects confirm the human legibility and user acceptance of BaffleText images. We have found an image-complexity measure that correlates well with user acceptance and assists in engineering the generation of challenges to fit the ability gap. Recent computer-vision attacks, run independently by Mori and Jitendra, suggest that BaffleText is stronger than two existing CAPTCHAs.
Quantum interactive proofs with short messages
Beigi, Salman; Watrous, John
2010-01-01
This paper considers three variants of quantum interactive proof systems in which short (meaning logarithmic-length) messages are exchanged between the prover and verifier. The first variant is one in which the verifier sends a short message to the prover, and the prover responds with an ordinary, or polynomial-length, message; the second variant is one in which any number of messages can be exchanged, but where the combined length of all the messages is logarithmic; and the third variant is one in which the verifier sends polynomially many random bits to the prover, who responds with a short quantum message. We prove that in all of these cases the short messages can be eliminated without changing the power of the model, so the first variant has the expressive power of QMA and the second and third variants have the expressive power of BQP. These facts are proved through the use of quantum state tomography, along with the finite quantum de Finetti theorem for the first variant.
On Feynman's proof of the Maxwell equations
Noyes, H. P.
1991-03-01
Dyson has presented a derivation of the free space Maxwell Equations and the Lorentz force starting from Newton's Second Law and the commutation relations between x(sub i), x(sub j), and x(sub k). The proof is attributed to Feynman. The reason why it works is puzzling. The finite and discrete reconciliation between relativity and quantum mechanics offers a less problematic logical chain. The mass ratios are defined using deBroglie wave interference in a theory which necessarily entails the commutation relations. It is shown that this route implies Newton's Third Law. Following Mach, Newton's Second Law then becomes a definition of force, and given this the Lorentz force becomes a definition of the electromagnetic fields. The use of the relativistic Zitterbewegun with the step length h/mc consistently introduces the limiting velocity c into the calculation, and removes a puzzle about dimensions from the Feynman results. By adopting the Wheeler-Feynman point of view that the energy and momenta of massless quanta are defined by the sources and sinks, the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations are derived from quantum particle physics - which Feynman was unable to do - and hence the classical electromagnetic theory was established as a well defined continuum approximation to the fully discrete relativistic quantum mechanics. Exploration of quantum gravity along these lines appears to be promising.
Cylinder Block Fixture for Mistake Proofing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.B.Raut
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The project idea basically developed from trunnion tables which are one type of fixture having ability to rotate about its axis and able to fix the component at any angle, so there is no requirement of angle plate and sine plates, drilling process is also computer controlled so no guide bush is required, So robust design for extra rigidity, flexibility and simple to use. In this project task is difficult as design rotary cage type fixture for component like cylinder block, which is heavy of 76 kg. it is not possible to rotate or handle component manually and proceed on them to make this process accident proof and automated for this purpose we are designing a rotary cage which rotate 360 degree and allow indexing to process on the component. Processes are to be operated on the component are drilling tapping and air blow washing ,Since drilling don’t need clamping here components self weight will enough to carry drilling force and tapping force coming through power tools. Therefore, rotary cage type fixture is critical importance.
Natural Tuning: Towards A Proof of Concept
Dubovsky, Sergei; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad
2013-01-01
The cosmological constant problem and the absence of new natural physics at the electroweak scale, if confirmed by the LHC, may either indicate that the nature is fine-tuned or that a refined notion of naturalness is required. We construct a family of toy UV complete quantum theories providing a proof of concept for the second possibility. Low energy physics is described by a tuned effective field theory, which exhibits relevant interactions not protected by any symmetries and separated by an arbitrary large mass gap from the new "gravitational" physics, represented by a set of irrelevant operators. Nevertheless, the only available language to describe dynamics at all energy scales does not require any fine-tuning. The interesting novel feature of this construction is that UV physics is not described by a fixed point, but rather exhibits asymptotic fragility. Observation of additional unprotected scalars at the LHC would be a smoking gun for this scenario. Natural tuning also favors TeV scale unification.
Proviola: A Tool for Proof Re-animation
Tankink, Carst; McKinna, James; Wiedijk, Freek
2010-01-01
To improve on existing models of interaction with a proof assistant (PA), in particular for storage and replay of proofs, we in- troduce three related concepts, those of: a proof movie, consisting of frames which record both user input and the corresponding PA response; a camera, which films a user's interactive session with a PA as a movie; and a proviola, which replays a movie frame-by-frame to a third party. In this paper we describe the movie data structure and we discuss a proto- type implementation of the camera and proviola based on the ProofWeb system. ProofWeb uncouples the interaction with a PA via a web- interface (the client) from the actual PA that resides on the server. Our camera films a movie by "listening" to the ProofWeb communication. The first reason for developing movies is to uncouple the reviewing of a formal proof from the PA used to develop it: the movie concept enables users to discuss small code fragments without the need to install the PA or to load a whole library into it. Other a...
Experiments concerning the automated search for elegant proofs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wos, L.
1997-07-01
The research reported in this technical report was spawned by the request to find an elegant proof (of a theorem from Boolean algebra) to replace the known proof consisting of 816 deduced steps. The request was met by finding a proof consisting of 100 deduced steps. The methodology used to obtain the far shorter proof is presented in detail through a sequence of experiments. Although clearly not an algorithm, the methodology is sufficiently general to enable its use for seeking elegant proofs regardless of the domain of study. The methodology relies heavily on the assistance of McCune`s automated reasoning program OTTER. Of the aspects of proof elegance, the main focus here is on proof length, with brief attention paid to the type of term present, the number of variables required, and the complexity of deduced steps. The methodology is iterative, relying heavily on the use of three strategies: the resonance strategy, the hot list strategy, and McCune`s ratio strategy. To provide some insight regarding the value of the methodology, the author discusses its successful application to other problems from Boolean algebra and to problems from lattice theory. Research suggestions and challenges are also offered.
Distributed Parallel Interactive Data Analysis Using the Proof System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ReneBrun; FonsRademakers
2001-01-01
The only way Terabytes of data can be processed and analyzed in a reasonable time is by using parallel processing architectures.The Paralle ROOT Facility,PROOF,is s system for the parallel interactive analysis of such datasets on clusters of heterogeneous computers.Early prototypes have confirmed the validity of the basic PROOF architecture However,some important work still has to be done before PROOF can be used as a production facility.The basic architecture and the planned developments are described in this paper.
Tree Resolution Proofs of the Weak Pigeon-Hole Principle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dantchev, Stefan Stajanov; Riis, Søren
2001-01-01
We prove that any optimal tree resolution proof of PHPn m is of size 2&thetas;(n log n), independently from m, even if it is infinity. So far, only a 2Ω(n) lower bound has been known in the general case. We also show that any, not necessarily optimal, regular tree resolution proof PHPn m is bounded...... by 2O(n log m). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the worst case proof complexity has been considered. Finally, we discuss possible connections of our result to Riis' (1999) complexity gap theorem for tree resolution...
The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen
The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered...... only much later in more advanced math courses - is comprehensible with only a little extension of the first year curriculum. Moreover, it is more intuitive than the static proof. We support this intuition further by unfolding and visualizing a few examples with increasing complexity. In these examples...
Skolem and pessimism about proof in mathematics.
Cohen, Paul J
2005-10-15
Attitudes towards formalization and proof have gone through large swings during the last 150 years. We sketch the development from Frege's first formalization, to the debates over intuitionism and other schools, through Hilbert's program and the decisive blow of the Gödel Incompleteness Theorem. A critical role is played by the Skolem-Lowenheim Theorem, which showed that no first-order axiom system can characterize a unique infinite model. Skolem himself regarded this as a body blow to the belief that mathematics can be reliably founded only on formal axiomatic systems. In a remarkably prescient paper, he even sketches the possibility of interesting new models for set theory itself, something later realized by the method of forcing. This is in contrast to Hilbert's belief that mathematics could resolve all its questions. We discuss the role of new axioms for set theory, questions in set theory itself, and their relevance for number theory. We then look in detail at what the methods of the predicate calculus, i.e. mathematical reasoning, really entail. The conclusion is that there is no reasonable basis for Hilbert's assumption. The vast majority of questions even in elementary number theory, of reasonable complexity, are beyond the reach of any such reasoning. Of course this cannot be proved and we present only plausibility arguments. The great success of mathematics comes from considering 'natural problems', those which are related to previous work and offer a good chance of being solved. The great glories of human reasoning, beginning with the Greek discovery of geometry, are in no way diminished by this pessimistic view. We end by wishing good health to present-day mathematics and the mathematics of many centuries to come.
Alternation-Trading Proofs, Linear Programming, and Lower Bounds
Williams, Ryan
2010-01-01
A fertile area of recent research has demonstrated concrete polynomial time lower bounds for solving natural hard problems on restricted computational models. Among these problems are Satisfiability, Vertex Cover, Hamilton Path, Mod6-SAT, Majority-of-Majority-SAT, and Tautologies, to name a few. The proofs of these lower bounds follow a certain proof-by-contradiction strategy that we call alternation-trading. An important open problem is to determine how powerful such proofs can possibly be. We propose a methodology for studying these proofs that makes them amenable to both formal analysis and automated theorem proving. We prove that the search for better lower bounds can often be turned into a problem of solving a large series of linear programming instances. Implementing a small-scale theorem prover based on this result, we extract new human-readable time lower bounds for several problems. This framework can also be used to prove concrete limitations on the current techniques.
20 CFR 726.312 - Burdens of proof.
2010-04-01
... Money Penalties § 726.312 Burdens of proof. (a) The Director shall bear the burden of proving the... Director has requested the operator to supply information with respect to its size under § 726.303 and the...
The quadratic reciprocity law a collection of classical proofs
Baumgart, Oswald
2015-01-01
This book is the English translation of Baumgart’s thesis on the early proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law (“Über das quadratische Reciprocitätsgesetz. Eine vergleichende Darstellung der Beweise”), first published in 1885. It is divided into two parts. The first part presents a very brief history of the development of number theory up to Legendre, as well as detailed descriptions of several early proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law. The second part highlights Baumgart’s comparisons of the principles behind these proofs. A current list of all known proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law, with complete references, is provided in the appendix. This book will appeal to all readers interested in elementary number theory and the history of number theory.
A tropical proof of the Brill-Noether Theorem
Cools, Filip; Draisma, Jan; Payne, Sam; Robeva, Elina
2010-01-01
We produce Brill-Noether general graphs in every genus, confirming a conjecture of Baker and giving a new proof of the Brill-Noether Theorem, due to Griffiths and Harris, over any algebraically closed field.
9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.
2010-01-01
... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will...
27 CFR 479.71 - Proof of registration.
2010-04-01
... EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Tax on Making Firearms Registration § 479.71 Proof of registration. The approval by...
Proof mining in ${\\mathbb R}$-trees and hyperbolic spaces
Leustean, Laurentiu
2008-01-01
This paper is part of the general project of proof mining, developed by Kohlenbach. By "proof mining" we mean the logical analysis of mathematical proofs with the aim of extracting new numerically relevant information hidden in the proofs. We present logical metatheorems for classes of spaces from functional analysis and hyperbolic geometry, like Gromov hyperbolic spaces, ${\\mathbb R}$-trees and uniformly convex hyperbolic spaces. Our theorems are adaptations to these structures of previous metatheorems of Gerhardy and Kohlenbach, and they guarantee a-priori, under very general logical conditions, the existence of uniform bounds. We give also an application in nonlinear functional analysis, more specifically in metric fixed-point theory. Thus, we show that the uniform bound on the rate of asymptotic regularity for the Krasnoselski-Mann iterations of nonexpansive mappings in uniformly convex hyperbolic spaces obtained in a previous paper is an instance of one of our metatheorems.
Introduction to mathematical proofs a transition to advanced mathematics
Roberts, Charles
2014-01-01
Logic Statements, Negation, and Compound Statements Truth Tables and Logical Equivalences Conditional and Biconditional Statements Logical Arguments Open Statements and Quantifiers Chapter Review Deductive Mathematical Systems and Proofs Deductive Mathematical Systems Mathematical Proofs Chapter Review Set Theory Sets and Subsets Set Operations Additional Set Operations Generalized Set Union and Intersection Chapter ReviewRelations Relations The Order Relations , Reflexive, Symmetric, Transitive, and Equivalence Relations Equivalence Relations, Equivalence Classes, and Partitions Chapter Revie
An Algebraic Characterization of Inductive Soundness in Proof by Consistency
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邵志清; 宋国新
1995-01-01
Kapur and Musser studied the theoretical basis for proof by consistency and obtained an inductive completeness result:p=q if and only if p=q is true in every inductive model.However,there is a loophole in their proof for the soundness part:p=q implies p=q is true in every inductive model.The aim of this paper is to give a correct characterization of inductive soundness from an algebraic view by introducing strong inductive models.
Efficient 4-round zero-knowledge proof system for NP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A 4-round zero-knowledge interactive proof system for NP (Non-deterministic Polynomial) is presented when assuming the existence of one-way permutations and collision-free hash functions. This construction is more efficient than the original construction of 5-round zero-knowledge proof system for NP. The critical tools used in this paper are: zap, hash-based commitment scheme and non-interactive zero-knowledge.
A Simple Proof of Dieudonné-Manin Classification Theorem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yi Wen DING; Yi OUYANG
2012-01-01
The Dieudonné-Manin classification theorem on φ-modules (φ-isocrystals) over a perfect field plays a very important role in p-adic Hodge theory.In this note,in a more general setting we give a new proof of this result,and in the course of the proof,we also give an explicit construction of the Harder-Narasimhan filtration of a φ-module.
S Matrix Proof of Consistency Condition Derived from Mixed Anomaly
Bhansali, Vineer
For a confining quantum field theory with conserved current J and stress tensor T, the JJJ> and anomalies computed in terms of elementary quanta must be precisely equal to the same anomalies computed in terms of the exact physical spectrum if the conservation law corresponding to J is unbroken. These strongly constrain the allowed representations of the low energy spectrum. We present a proof of the latter consistency condition based on the proof by Coleman and Grossman of the former consistency condition.
A short list color proof of Grotzsch's theorem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomassen, Carsten
2000-01-01
We give a short proof of the result that every planar graph of girth $5$is $3$-choosable and hence also of Gr\\"{o}tzsch's theorem saying that everyplanar triangle-free graph is $3$-colorable.......We give a short proof of the result that every planar graph of girth $5$is $3$-choosable and hence also of Gr\\"{o}tzsch's theorem saying that everyplanar triangle-free graph is $3$-colorable....
CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jukkola, Glen
2010-06-30
Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas
Groupness in Preverbal Infants: Proof of Concept
Bradley, Benjamin Sylvester; Smithson, Michael
2017-01-01
Infant sociability is generally conceived in terms of dyadic capacities and behaviors. Recently, quantitative evidence has been published to support arguments that infants achieve a criterion for groupness: the capacity to interact simultaneously with two others. Such studies equate this capacity with alternating dyadic acts to the two other members of an interacting trio. Here we propose a stricter threefold criterion for infant groupness, of which the crux is whether the social behavior of an infant at time B is shown to be influenced by what two or more group-members were previously doing at time A. We test the viability of this conceptualization: (a) through its justification of the novel laboratory procedure of studying infant sociability in infant–peer quartets (rather than trios); and, (b) in an analysis of a pilot study of gaze-behavior recorded in 5-min interactions among two quartets of infants aged 6–9 months. We call this a ‘proof of concept’ because our aim is to show that infants are capable of groupness, when groupness is conceptualized in a supra-dyadic way—not that all infants will manifest it, nor that all conditions will produce it, nor that it is commonplace in infants’ everyday lives. We found that both quartets did achieve the minimum criterion of groupness that we propose: mutual gaze predicting coordinated gaze (where two babies, A and B, are looking at each other, and B is then looked at by C, and sometimes D) more strongly than the reverse. There was a significant absence of ‘parallel mutual gaze,’ where the four babies pair off. We conclude that, under specific conditions, preverbal infants can manifest supra-dyadic groupness. Infants’ capacities to exhibit groupness by 9 months of age, and the paucity of parallel mutual gaze in our data, run counter to the assumption that infant sociability, when in groups, is always generated by a dyadic program. Our conceptualization and demonstration of groupness in 8-month-olds thus
Proof Pad: A New Development Environment for ACL2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caleb Eggensperger
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Most software development projects rely on Integrated Development Environments (IDEs based on the desktop paradigm, with an interactive, mouse-driven user interface. The standard installation of ACL2, on the other hand, is designed to work closely with Emacs. ACL2 experts, on the whole, like this mode of operation, but students and other new programmers who have learned to program with desktop IDEs often react negatively to the process of adapting to an unfamiliar form of interaction. This paper discusses Proof Pad, a new IDE for ACL2. Proof Pad is not the only attempt to provide ACL2 IDEs catering to students and beginning programmers. The ACL2 Sedan and DrACuLa systems arose from similar motivations. Proof Pad builds on the work of those systems, while also taking into account the unique workflow of the ACL2 theorem proving system. The design of Proof Pad incorporated user feedback from the outset, and that process continued through all stages of development. Feedback took the form of direct observation of users interacting with the IDE as well as questionnaires completed by users of Proof Pad and other ACL2 IDEs. The result is a streamlined interface and fast, responsive system that supports using ACL2 as a programming language and a theorem proving system. Proof Pad also provides a property-based testing environment with random data generation and automated interpretation of properties as ACL2 theorem definitions.
Wireless Roadside Inspection Proof of Concept Test Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Knee, Helmut E [ORNL; Plate, Randall S [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL
2009-03-01
The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) FMCSA commissioned the Wireless Roadside Inspection (WRI) Program to validate technologies and methodologies that can improve safety through inspections using wireless technologies that convey real-time identification of commercial vehicles, drivers, and carriers, as well as information about the condition of the vehicles and their drivers. It is hypothesized that these inspections will: -- Increase safety -- Decrease the number of unsafe commercial vehicles on the road; -- Increase efficiency -- Speed up the inspection process, enabling more inspections to occur, at least on par with the number of weight inspections; -- Improve effectiveness -- Reduce the probability of drivers bypassing CMV inspection stations and increase the likelihood that fleets will attempt to meet the safety regulations; and -- Benefit industry -- Reduce fleet costs, provide good return-on-investment, minimize wait times, and level the playing field. The WRI Program is defined in three phases which are: Phase 1: Proof of Concept Test (POC) Testing of commercially available off-the-shelf (COTS) or near-COTS technology to validate the wireless inspection concept. Phase 2: Pilot Test Safety technology maturation and back office system integration Phase 3: Field Operational Test Multi-vehicle testing over a multi-state instrumented corridor This report focuses on Phase 1 efforts that were initiated in March, 2006. Technical efforts dealt with the ability of a Universal Wireless Inspection System (UWIS) to collect driver, vehicle, and carrier information; format a Safety Data Message Set from this information; and wirelessly transmit a Safety Data Message Set to a roadside receiver unit or mobile enforcement vehicle.
Learning Completable Reactive Plans through Achievability Proofs
1990-05-01
achieve the associated goals. Genal, plans for use n this ingrated approach ame leamed thmugh a modified explanation- based learnig strategy calledc...0309 Sc. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. jACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE...explanation- based 0 10 learning, imperfect domain theory problem 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)Tbis
Integrating Algebra and Proof in High School Mathematics: An Exploratory Study
Martinez, Mara V.; Brizuela, Barbara M.; Superfine, Alison Castro
2011-01-01
Frequently, in the US students' work with proofs is largely concentrated to the domain of high school geometry, thus providing students with a distorted image of what proof entails, which is at odds with the central role that proof plays in mathematics. Despite the centrality of proof in mathematics, there is a lack of studies addressing how to…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Hoorik, P.; Westerga, R. [Energy Valley, Groningen (Netherlands)
2011-05-15
The SmartProofs program aims to develop tools which must show that the principle of a Smart Power System (SPS) works and how. An SPS can ensure that the supply and demand of electricity in the grid is balanced, even in case more decentralized energy techniques will be put into use. This final report summarizes the main results and conclusions of the SmartProofs program. As part of the SPS program attention is paid to the impacts on the girds, the effects of centralized and decentralized management, disaster resilience, pricing models, potential benefits of control and new business models [Dutch] Het SmartProofs programma heeft tot doel om een concept van een Smart Power System (SPS) te ontwikkelen waarmee kan worden aangetoond dat het principe van een SPS werkt en op welke manier. Een SPS kan zorgen dat het aanbod van elektriciteit op het net op elk moment van de dag overeenkomt met de vraag, ook als er straks veel meer decentrale energietechnieken gebruikt worden waarmee zowel de vraag als het aanbod van elektriciteit onvoorspelbaar wordt. Dit eindrapport geeft een overzicht van de belangrijkste resultaten en conclusies van het SmartProofs programma. Het programma heeft in de werkpakketten deelvraagstukken rondom SmartProofS onderzocht rondom de effecten op onze energienetten, de effecten van zowel centrale- als decentrale aansturing, disaster resilience, prijsmodellen, mogelijke baten van aansturing en nieuwe business modellen.
A portable virtual machine target for proof-carrying code
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Franz, Michael; Chandra, Deepak; Gal, Andreas
2005-01-01
Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and mor...... simultaneously providing efficient justin-time compilation and target-machine independence. In particular, our approach reduces the complexity of the required proofs, resulting in fewer proof obligations that need to be discharged at the target machine.......Virtual Machines (VMs) and Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) are two techniques that have been used independently to provide safety for (mobile) code. Existing virtual machines, such as the Java VM, have several drawbacks: First, the effort required for safety verification is considerable. Second and more...... subtly, the need to provide such verification by the code consumer inhibits the amount of optimization that can be performed by the code producer. This in turn makes justin-time compilation surprisingly expensive. Proof-Carrying Code, on the other hand, has its own set of limitations, among which...
Frost-proof heat recovery; Frostsikker varmegjenvinning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Groenbaek, Henning; Jenssen, Henning Bent
2011-07-01
Technical regulations (TEK10) sets high standards for temperature efficiency of ventilation systems. Heat recovery equipment should be selected from the risk of leakage. Rotating heat exchanger has normally no problem with icing before the temperature approaches -20 C. For the countercurrent heat exchanger bypass-icing is the best method of frost resistant heat exchanger. In addition to selecting the best frost protection method, it is also important how to monitor the formation of ice in the exchanger. The best way is to measure the pressure drop over the heat exchanger. Bypass deicing requires that the unit is designed so that outside air can be led outside heat exchanger and directly to the heater. (AG)
Continuous Tamper-proof Logging using TPM2.0
2014-06-16
ua ⊃ oldKeyAdv(u, ua) 2. ∀u.u ≤ ua ⊃ keyMemIn(u) 4. ∀u.u > ua ⊃ oldKeyNotInMem(u, ua) The proofs of these invariants use transfinite induction on...keyMemIn(u) 4. ∀u.u > ua ⊃ oldKeyNotInMem(u, ua) E.1 Proofs of 1 and 2 The proof proceeds by transfinite induction on u. First, we show that keyOwnerIn...property 3 and 4, i.e., ∀u.u > ua ⊃ oldKeyAdv(u, ua) ∧ oldKeyNotInMem(u, ua). We do transfinite induction on u. We first prove the base case where u
A Modular Framework for Quantum-Proof Randomness Extractors
Liu, Yipeng; Guo, JianSheng; Cui, Jingyi
2016-08-01
A quantum-proof extractor is a function that is used to extract randomness from any weakly random source X in the presence of prior quantum information about X. It is known that some constructions are quantum-proof, such as Trevisan's construction. However, these extractors are generally restrictive for applications on the one-bit output construction and the weak design. Here, we give a modular framework to combine multi-bit output extractors (not only one-bit) with pseudorandom transform, and show that it is sound in the presence of quantum side information. Then combined with the theory of operator spaces, we improve previous theoretical proofs, and discuss the security of two-bit output extractor by giving a tighter bound for it.
On Inductive and Coinductive Proofs via Unfold/Fold Transformations
Seki, Hirohisa
We consider a new application condition of negative unfolding, which guarantees its safe use in unfold/fold transformation of stratified logic programs. The new condition of negative unfolding is a natural one, since it is considered as a special case of replacement rule. The correctness of our unfold/fold transformation system in the sense of the perfect model semantics is proved. We then consider the coinductive proof rules proposed by Jaffar et al. We show that our unfold/fold transformation system, when used together with Lloyd-Topor transformation, can prove a proof problem which is provable by the coinductive proof rules by Jaffar et al. To this end, we propose a new replacement rule, called sound replacement, which is not necessarily equivalence-preserving, but is essential to perform a reasoning step corresponding to coinduction.
Another Direct Proof of Oka's Theorem (Oka IX)
Noguchi, Junjiro
2011-01-01
In 1953 K. Oka IX solved in first and in a final form Levi's problem (Hartogs' inverse problem) for domains or Riemann domains over $\\C^n$ of arbitrary dimension. Later on a number of the proofs were given; cf.\\ e.g., Docquier-Grauert's paper in 1960, R. Narasimhan's paper in 1961/62, Gunning-Rossi's book, and H\\"ormander's book (in which the holomorphic separability is pre-assumed in the definition of Riemann domains and thus the assumption is stronger than the one in the present paper). Here we will give another direct elementary proof of Oka's Theorem, relying only on Grauert's finiteness theorem by the {\\it induction on the dimension} and the {\\it jets over Riemann domains}; hopefully, the proof is most comprehensive.
US NDC Modernization: Service Oriented Architecture Proof of Concept
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamlet, Benjamin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Encarnacao, Andre Villanova [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jackson, Keilan R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hays, Ian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barron, Nathan E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simon, Luke B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2014-12-01
This report is a progress update on the US NDC Modernization Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) study describing results from a proof of concept project completed from May through September 2013. Goals for this proof of concept are 1) gain experience configuring, using, and running an Enterprise Service Bus (ESB), 2) understand the implications of wrapping existing software in standardized interfaces for use as web services, and 3) gather performance metrics for a notional seismic event monitoring pipeline implemented using services with various data access and communication patterns. The proof of concept is a follow on to a previous SOA performance study. Work was performed by four undergraduate summer student interns under the guidance of Sandia staff.
A Modular Framework for Quantum-Proof Randomness Extractors
Liu, Yipeng; Guo, JianSheng; Cui, Jingyi
2016-12-01
A quantum-proof extractor is a function that is used to extract randomness from any weakly random source X in the presence of prior quantum information about X. It is known that some constructions are quantum-proof, such as Trevisan's construction. However, these extractors are generally restrictive for applications on the one-bit output construction and the weak design. Here, we give a modular framework to combine multi-bit output extractors (not only one-bit) with pseudorandom transform, and show that it is sound in the presence of quantum side information. Then combined with the theory of operator spaces, we improve previous theoretical proofs, and discuss the security of two-bit output extractor by giving a tighter bound for it.
Simple unified proof of state-independent contextuality
Cabello, Adan
2011-01-01
For years, the statement that quantum mechanics exhibits state-independent contextuality (SIC) has been based on a mathematical result pointed out by Kochen and Specker (KS) and Bell: the existence of the so-called KS sets. Recently, Yu and Oh have observed that KS sets are not necessary to prove SIC. Here we show that a set of observables in dimension d represented by rank-1 projectors reveals SIC if and only if the graph in which vertices represent vectors and edges link orthogonal ones has chromatic number larger than d. This provides a simple unified characterization of all SIC proofs, including KS, Peres-Mermin, Yu-Oh, and others' proofs. We apply this result to prove Yu and Oh's conjecture about the simplest SIC proof and to prove that any SIC set assisted with maximum entanglement generates nonlocality which cannot be improved by nonsignaling resources.
Constructive proof of deficiency theorem of (g,f)-factor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Berge(1958) gave a formula for computing the deficiency of maximum matchings of a graph.More generally,Lov’asz obtained a deficiency formula of(g,f)-optimal graphs and consequently a criterion for the existence of(g,f)-factors.Moreover,Lov’asz proved that there is one of these decompositions which is "canonical" in a sense.In this paper,we present a short constructive proof for the defficiency formula of(g,f)-optimal graphs,and the proof implies an efficient algorithm of time complexity O(g(V)|E|) for computing the deficiency.Furthermore,this proof implies this canonical decomposition via efficient algorithms(i.e.,in polynomial time).
Certification of Prefixed Tableau Proofs for Modal Logic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomer Libal
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Different theorem provers tend to produce proof objects in different formats and this is especially the case for modal logics, where several deductive formalisms (and provers based on them have been presented. This work falls within the general project of establishing a common specification language in order to certify proofs given in a wide range of deductive formalisms. In particular, by using a translation from the modal language into a first-order polarized language and a checker whose small kernel is based on a classical focused sequent calculus, we are able to certify modal proofs given in labeled sequent calculi, prefixed tableaux and free-variable prefixed tableaux. We describe the general method for the logic K, present its implementation in a prolog-like language, provide some examples and discuss how to extend the approach to other normal modal logics
Proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem a mathematical excursion
Hinkis, Arie
2013-01-01
This book offers an excursion through the developmental area of research mathematics. It presents some 40 papers, published between the 1870s and the 1970s, on proofs of the Cantor-Bernstein theorem and the related Bernstein division theorem. While the emphasis is placed on providing accurate proofs, similar to the originals, the discussion is broadened to include aspects that pertain to the methodology of the development of mathematics and to the philosophy of mathematics. Works of prominent mathematicians and logicians are reviewed, including Cantor, Dedekind, Schröder, Bernstein, Borel, Zermelo, Poincaré, Russell, Peano, the Königs, Hausdorff, Sierpinski, Tarski, Banach, Brouwer and several others mainly of the Polish and the Dutch schools. In its attempt to present a diachronic narrative of one mathematical topic, the book resembles Lakatos’ celebrated book Proofs and Refutations. Indeed, some of the observations made by Lakatos are corroborated herein. The analogy between the two books is clearly an...
A Victorian Age Proof of the Four Color Theorem
Cahit, I.
2010-11-01
In this paper we have given an algorithmic proof of the four color theorem which is based only on the coloring faces (regions) of a cubic planar maps. Our algorithmic proof has been given in three steps. The first two steps are the maximal mono-chromatic and then maximal dichromatic coloring of the faces in such a way that the resulting uncolored (white) regions of the incomplete two-colored map induce no odd-cycles so that in the (final) third step four coloring of the map has been obtained almost trivially.
Special integrals of Gradshteyn and Ryzhik the proofs
Moll, Victor H
2014-01-01
A Guide to the Evaluation of IntegralsSpecial Integrals of Gradshetyn and Ryzhik: The Proofs provides self-contained proofs of a variety of entries in the frequently used table of integrals by I.S. Gradshteyn and I.M. Ryzhik. The book gives the most elementary arguments possible and uses Mathematica® to verify the formulas. Readers discover the beauty, patterns, and unexpected connections behind the formulas.Volume I collects 15 papers from Revista Scientia covering logarithmic integrals, the gamma function, trigonometric integrals, the beta function, the digamma function, the incomplete beta
Yet another proof of the Nualart-Peccati criterion
Nourdin, Ivan
2011-01-01
In 2005, Nualart and Peccati showed that, surprisingly, the convergence in distribution of a normalized sequence of multiple Wiener-It\\^o integrals towards a standard Gaussian law is equivalent to convergence of just the fourth moment to 3. Recently, this result has been extended to a sequence of multiple Wigner integrals, in the context of free Brownian motion. The goal of the present paper is to offer an elementary, unifying proof of these two results. The only advanced, needed tool is the product formula for multiple integrals. Apart from this formula, the rest of the proof only relies on soft combinatorial arguments.
Proof of cipher text ownership based on convergence encryption
Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong
2017-08-01
Cloud storage systems save disk space and bandwidth through deduplication technology, but with the use of this technology has been targeted security attacks: the attacker can get the original file just use hash value to deceive the server to obtain the file ownership. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of cloud storage system files, an efficient information theory security proof of ownership scheme is proposed. This scheme protects the data through the convergence encryption method, and uses the improved block-level proof of ownership scheme, and can carry out block-level client deduplication to achieve efficient and secure cloud storage deduplication scheme.
A Simple Proof of a Folklore Theorem about Delimited Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier
2006-01-01
We formalize and prove the folklore theorem that the static delimited-control operators shift and reset can be simulated in terms of the dynamic delimited-control operators control and prompt. The proof is based on small-step operational semantics.......We formalize and prove the folklore theorem that the static delimited-control operators shift and reset can be simulated in terms of the dynamic delimited-control operators control and prompt. The proof is based on small-step operational semantics....
A survey of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system and its applications.
Wu, Huixin; Wang, Feng
2014-01-01
Zero knowledge proof system which has received extensive attention since it was proposed is an important branch of cryptography and computational complexity theory. Thereinto, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system contains only one message sent by the prover to the verifier. It is widely used in the construction of various types of cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms because of its good privacy, authentication, and lower interactive complexity. This paper reviews and analyzes the basic principles of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, and summarizes the research progress achieved by noninteractive zero knowledge proof system on the following aspects: the definition and related models of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system of NP problems, noninteractive statistical and perfect zero knowledge, the connection between noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, interactive zero knowledge proof system, and zap, and the specific applications of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system. This paper also points out the future research directions.
Students' proofs of one-to-one and onto properties in introductory abstract algebra
Wheeler, Ann; Champion, Joe
2013-12-01
Learning to write formal mathematical proofs presents a major challenge to undergraduates. Students who have succeeded in algorithm-intensive courses such as calculus often find the abstract logic and nonprocedural nature of proof writing to be technically difficult, ambiguous and filled with potential errors and misconceptions. This mixed-methods study examines 23 undergraduate students' attempts to write one-to-one and onto proofs in an introductory abstract algebra course. Data collected consisted of six rounds of assessments on one-to-one and onto proofs, including homework, quizzes and exams. Using an existing framework of undergraduate proof writing, the researchers found that students' misconceptions and errors varied substantially by student and task, with one-to-one proofs presenting unique challenges. Implications for teaching and research include emphasis on the logic of proof approaches and providing structured proof frameworks to assist undergraduates with the procedural and conceptual challenges in learning to write proofs.
Forensic devices for activism: Metadata tracking and public proof
van der Velden, L.
2015-01-01
The central topic of this paper is a mobile phone application, ‘InformaCam’, which turns metadata from a surveillance risk into a method for the production of public proof. InformaCam allows one to manage and delete metadata from images and videos in order to diminish surveillance risks related to o
Formalizing Termination Proofs under Polynomial Quasi-interpretations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naohi Eguchi
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Usual termination proofs for a functional program require to check all the possible reduction paths. Due to an exponential gap between the height and size of such the reduction tree, no naive formalization of termination proofs yields a connection to the polynomial complexity of the given program. We solve this problem employing the notion of minimal function graph, a set of pairs of a term and its normal form, which is defined as the least fixed point of a monotone operator. We show that termination proofs for programs reducing under lexicographic path orders (LPOs for short and polynomially quasi-interpretable can be optimally performed in a weak fragment of Peano arithmetic. This yields an alternative proof of the fact that every function computed by an LPO-terminating, polynomially quasi-interpretable program is computable in polynomial space. The formalization is indeed optimal since every polynomial-space computable function can be computed by such a program. The crucial observation is that inductive definitions of minimal function graphs under LPO-terminating programs can be approximated with transfinite induction along LPOs.
7 CFR 786.105 - Proof of production.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of production. 786.105 Section 786.105... production. (a) Evidence of production is required to establish the commercial marketing and production history of the dairy operation so that dairy production losses can be computed in accordance with § 786...
An Elementary Proof of a Criterion for Linear Disjointness
Dobbs, David E.
2013-01-01
An elementary proof using matrix theory is given for the following criterion: if "F"/"K" and "L"/"K" are field extensions, with "F" and "L" both contained in a common extension field, then "F" and "L" are linearly disjoint over "K" if (and only if) some…
An Elementary Proof of a Converse Mean-Value Theorem
Almeida, Ricardo
2008-01-01
We present a new converse mean value theorem, with a rather elementary proof. [The work was supported by Centre for Research on Optimization and Control (CEOC) from the "Fundacaopara a Ciencia e a Tecnologia" FCT, co-financed by the European Community Fund FEDER/POCTI.
A new proof of the Lagrange multiplier rule
J. Brinkhuis (Jan); V. Protassov (Vladimir)
2015-01-01
textabstractWe present an elementary self-contained proof for the Lagrange multiplier rule. It does not refer to any substantial preparations and it is only based on the observation that a certain limit is positive. At the end of this note, the power of the Lagrange multiplier rule is analyzed.
An Elementary Proof of a Converse Mean-Value Theorem
Almeida, Ricardo
2008-01-01
We present a new converse mean value theorem, with a rather elementary proof. [The work was supported by Centre for Research on Optimization and Control (CEOC) from the "Fundacaopara a Ciencia e a Tecnologia" FCT, co-financed by the European Community Fund FEDER/POCTI.
A Calculus of Circular Proofs and its Categorical Semantics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santocanale, Luigi
2002-01-01
on the structure is not available. We solve this problem by associating to each proof a system of equations - defining relations among undetermined arrows of an arbitrary category with finite products and coproducts as well as constructible initial algebras and final coalgebras - and by proving that this system...
36 CFR 1150.79 - Offer of proof.
2010-07-01
... Section 1150.79 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE... documentary or written form or refers to documents or records, a copy of the evidence shall be marked for identification and shall accompany the record as the offer of proof. ...
Enhancing Proof Writing via Cross-Institutional Peer Review
Ernst, Dana C.; Hodge, Angie; Schultz, Andrew
2015-01-01
In the Spring of 2011, two of the authors of this paper taught number theory courses at their respective institutions. Twice during the semester, students in each class submitted proofs of two to three theorems to be peer reviewed by students in the other class. Each student wrote anonymous and formal referee reports of the submitted theorems,…
Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving.
Hipólito, Inês
2015-12-01
Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Automatic Generation of Proof Tactics for Finite-Valued Logics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Marcos
2010-03-01
Full Text Available A number of flexible tactic-based logical frameworks are nowadays available that can implement a wide range of mathematical theories using a common higher-order metalanguage. Used as proof assistants, one of the advantages of such powerful systems resides in their responsiveness to extensibility of their reasoning capabilities, being designed over rule-based programming languages that allow the user to build her own `programs to construct proofs' - the so-called proof tactics. The present contribution discusses the implementation of an algorithm that generates sound and complete tableau systems for a very inclusive class of sufficiently expressive finite-valued propositional logics, and then illustrates some of the challenges and difficulties related to the algorithmic formation of automated theorem proving tactics for such logics. The procedure on whose implementation we will report is based on a generalized notion of analyticity of proof systems that is intended to guarantee termination of the corresponding automated tactics on what concerns theoremhood in our targeted logics.
Semiotic and Theoretic Control in Argumentation and Proof Activities
Arzarello, Ferdinando; Sabena, Cristina
2011-01-01
We present a model to analyze the students' activities of argumentation and proof in the graphical context of Elementary Calculus. The theoretical background is provided by the integration of Toulmin's structural description of arguments, Peirce's notions of sign, diagrammatic reasoning and abduction, and Habermas' model for rational behavior.…
Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq
Choppy, Christine; Mayero, Micaela; Petrucci, Laure
2009-01-01
In this work, we address the formalisation of symmetric nets, a subclass of coloured Petri nets, refinement in COQ. We first provide a formalisation of the net models, and of their type refinement in COQ. Then the COQ proof assistant is used to prove the refinement correctness lemma. An example adapted from a protocol example illustrates our work.
The Use of Models in Teaching Proof by Mathematical Induction
Ron, Gila; Dreyfus, Tommy
2004-01-01
Proof by mathematical induction is known to be conceptually difficult for high school students. This paper presents results from interviews with six experienced high school teachers, concerning the use of models in teaching mathematical induction. Along with creative and adequate use of models, we found explanations, models and examples that…
20 CFR 901.40 - Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings.
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proof; variance; amendment of pleadings. 901.40 Section 901.40 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...
43 CFR 4.1307 - Elements; burdens of proof.
2010-10-01
... individual shall have the ultimate burden of persuasion by a preponderance of the evidence as to the elements... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elements; burdens of proof. 4.1307 Section... Review of Proposed Individual Civil Penalty Assessments Under Section 518(f) of the Act § 4.1307 Elements...
28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by...
28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...
28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To...
Quality management systems: a reliable proof of conformity.
Suppo, M
1997-01-01
Doubts have been raised about whether proof of conformity via a certified full quality management system is appropriate for in vitro diagnostic products used for screening blood donations, for example, tests for HIV and hepatitis B and C. This article reviews all the arguments and finds in favour of the proposed system because it involves requirements that extend beyond the normal quality system standard.
"Rabbit Proof Fence": A Struggle for Cultural Existence
Al-Momani, Hassan Ali Abdullah
2016-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to depict the struggle for cultural existence in "Rabbit Proof Fence." It also reflects the cultural conflict represented in the three aboriginal girls' characters which is due to their rejection and resistance for the colonialists' culture. Besides, the paper presents the cognitive analysis of the cultural…
Proof of Bekenstein-Mukhanov ansatz in loop quantum gravity
Majhi, Abhishek
2016-01-01
A simple proof of Bekenstein-Mukhanov(BM) ansatz is given within the loop quantum gravity(LQG) framework. The macroscopic area of an equilibrium black hole horizon indeed manifests a linear quantization. The quantum number responsible for this discreteness of the macroscopic area has a physical meaning in the LQG framework, unlike the ad hoc one that remained unexplained in BM ansatz.
Teaching logic using a state-of-art proof assistant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maxim Hendriks
2010-06-01
Full Text Available This article describes the system ProofWeb developed for teaching logic to undergraduate computer science students. The system is based on the higher order proof assistant Coq, and is made available to the students through an interactive web interface. Part of this system is a large database of logic problems. This database will also hold the solutions of the students. The students do not need to install anything to be able to use the system (not even a browser plug-in, and the teachers are able to centrally track progress of the students. The system makes the full power of Coq available to the students, but simultaneously presents the logic problems in a way that is customary in undergraduate logic courses. Both styles of presenting natural deduction proofs (Gentzen-style `tree view' and Fitch-style `box view' are supported. Part of the system is a parser that indicates whether the students used the automation of Coq to solve their problems or that they solved it themselves using only the inference rules of the logic. For these inference rules dedicated tactics for Coq have been developed. The system has already been used in type theory courses and logic undergraduate courses. The ProofWeb system can be tried at http://proofweb.cs.ru.nl/.
A Model of Reading Comprehension of Geometry Proof
Yang, Kai-Lin; Lin, Fou-Lai
2008-01-01
This study aims to investigate a construct of reading comprehension of geometry proof (RCGP). The research aims to investigate (a) the facets composing RCGP, and (b) the structure of these facets. Firstly, we conceptualize this construct with relevant literature and on the basis of the discrimination between the logical and the epistemic meanings…
Electronic Vehicle Identification Architecture and Proof of Concept
Passchier, I.; Chevrollier, N.G.; Mulder,A.; Vliet,A.O.T.van
2009-01-01
An architecture and a proof of concept for Electronic Vehicle Identification have beendeveloped. The system has been successfully tested in a pilot with 23 participants over a period of three months and a total distance of 75.000 km travelled. The architecture consists of a functional definition, a
34 CFR 34.14 - Burden of proof.
2010-07-01
... evidence that withholding the amount of wages proposed in the notice would leave you unable to meet the basic living expenses of you and your dependents. (2) The standards for proving financial hardship are... of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.14 Burden of proof. (a...
8 CFR 287.6 - Proof of official records.
2010-01-01
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of official records. 287.6 Section 287.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS... deemed to be public documents: (i) Documents emanating from an authority or an official connected...
8 CFR 1287.6 - Proof of official records.
2010-01-01
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of official records. 1287.6 Section 1287.6 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... official connected with the courts of tribunals of the state, including those emanating from a...
A strongly complete proof system for propositional dynamic logic
Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Kooi, Barteld; Verbrugge, Rineke
2002-01-01
Propositional dynamic logic (PDL) is complete but not compact. As a consequence, strong completeness (the property Γ |= φ ⇒ Γ |- φ) does not hold for the standard finitary axiomatisation. In this paper, we present an infinitary proof system of PDL and prove strong completeness. The result is extende
An application of proof mining to nonlinear iterations
Leustean, Laurentiu
2012-01-01
In this paper we apply methods of proof mining to obtain a highly uniform effective rate of asymptotic regularity for the Ishikawa iteration associated to nonexpansive self-mappings of convex subsets of a class of uniformly convex geodesic spaces. Moreover, we show that these results are guaranteed by a combination of logical metatheorems for classical and semi-intuitionistic systems.
28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...
28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...
Rotationally invariant proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities
Cabello, A
2003-01-01
The singlet state of two spin-/sup 3///sub 2/ particles allows a proof of Bell's theorem without inequalities with two distinguishing features: any local observable can be regarded as an Einstein- Podolsky-Rosen element of reality, and the contradiction with local realism occurs not only for some specific local observables but for any rotation whereof. (19 refs).
Evaluation of TENCompetence proof of concept assessment tools
Petrov, Milen; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Stefanov, Krassen; Schoonenboom, Judith; Miao, Yongwu
2008-01-01
Petrov, M., Aleksieva-Petrova, A., Stefanov, K., Schoonenboom, J., & Miao, Y. (2008). Evaluation of TENCompetence proof of concept assessment tools. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagog
Electronic Vehicle Identification Architecture and Proof of Concept
Passchier, I.; Chevrollier, N.G.; Mulder,A.; Vliet,A.O.T.van
2009-01-01
An architecture and a proof of concept for Electronic Vehicle Identification have beendeveloped. The system has been successfully tested in a pilot with 23 participants over a period of three months and a total distance of 75.000 km travelled. The architecture consists of a functional definition, a
Validation techniques for object-oriented proof outlines
Pierik, C.
2006-01-01
This thesis presents a proof outline logic for a simple object-oriented programming language. The language has all object-oriented features of popular programming languages like Java and C#. In particular, it supports inheritance, field shadowing, aliasing, dynamic object creation, subtype polymorph
How Technology Can Promote the Learning of Proof
Muller, Kimberly O.
2010-01-01
While serving in the U.S. Congress, Abraham Lincoln, a self-taught learner, mastered Euclid's Elements (Basler 1953). Most students today do not study mathematics for recreation. Unlike Lincoln, they need a little help in learning how to write a geometry proof. Today's technology--specifically, The Geometer's Sketchpad[R] (GSP)--can help make…
Pengaruh Fire Proofing pada Balok Beton Pasca Bakar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gathot Heri Sudibyo
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Problem of buildingfire, which is often happened, cannot be avoided. Burning that happened generally reach temperature of above 200oC, what of course influence concrete strength. Concrete material will become brittle, spelling, and barest easyto and its strength is downhill effect of high temperature. In this research the specimens are cylinder shape of concrete and reinforced concrete beams. For this type of concrete cylinder specimens were made with size of 15 cm diameter and 30 cm high, while for the typeof reinforcedconcrete beam specimens were made with size of 15 cm x 20 cm x 150 cm. Each type of specimen for each variety is made of 3 repetitions. Variations in temperature used are normal temperatures, 400o C, 600o C and 800o C.The results of research show that the use of fire proofing provide the value of concrete compressive strength better than the concrete without fire proofing.The fire proofing increased the compressive strength by 2.50%, 5.70% and 11.89% for temperature of 400o C, 600o C and 800o C respectively. While the influence of fire proofing on the flexural strength of reinforced concrete beams at the respective temperatures are 4.99%, 23.97% and 20.55%.
47 CFR 80.921 - Proof of capacity.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proof of capacity. 80.921 Section 80.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... capacity. (a) When directed by a representative of the Commission the vessel must prove by demonstration...
Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment
Francez, Nissim; Dyckhoff, Roy
We propose a Proof - Theoretic Semantics (PTS) for a (positive) fragment E+0 of Natural Language (NL) (English in this case). The semantics is intended [7] to be incorporated into actual grammars, within the framework of Type - Logical Grammar (TLG) [12]. Thereby, this semantics constitutes an alternative to the traditional model - theoretic semantics (MTS), originating in Montague's seminal work [11], used in TLG.
Semiotic and Theoretic Control in Argumentation and Proof Activities
Arzarello, Ferdinando; Sabena, Cristina
2011-01-01
We present a model to analyze the students' activities of argumentation and proof in the graphical context of Elementary Calculus. The theoretical background is provided by the integration of Toulmin's structural description of arguments, Peirce's notions of sign, diagrammatic reasoning and abduction, and Habermas' model for rational behavior.…
28 CFR 79.56 - Proof of primary renal cancer.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.56... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by medical documentation. In...
28 CFR 79.66 - Proof of primary renal cancer.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary renal cancer. 79.66... renal cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary renal cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary renal cancer must be supported by...
Interpreting a Classical Geometric Proof with Interactive Realizability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni Birolo
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We show how to extract a monotonic learning algorithm from a classical proof of a geometric statement by interpreting the proof by means of interactive realizability, a realizability sematics for classical logic. The statement is about the existence of a convex angle including a finite collections of points in the real plane and it is related to the existence of a convex hull. We define real numbers as Cauchy sequences of rational numbers, therefore equality and ordering are not decidable. While the proof looks superficially constructive, it employs classical reasoning to handle undecidable comparisons between real numbers, making the underlying algorithm non-effective. The interactive realizability interpretation transforms the non-effective linear algorithm described by the proof into an effective one that uses backtracking to learn from its mistakes. The effective algorithm exhibits a "smart" behavior, performing comparisons only up to the precision required to prove the final statement. This behavior is not explicitly planned but arises from the interactive interpretation of comparisons between Cauchy sequences.
Lakatos' Proofs and Refutations Comes Alive in an Elementary Classroom.
Atkins, Sandra L.
1997-01-01
Presents an alternative pedagogy implicit in Imre Lakatos's "Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery." Lakatos reveals that learning mathematics is a discourse-laden activity in which it is acceptable, if not preferable, to refute conjecture. Provides examples of using a Lakatosian approach in an elementary classroom.…
Proofs and Refutations in the Undergraduate Mathematics Classroom
Larsen, Sean; Zandieh, Michelle
2008-01-01
In his 1976 book, "Proofs and Refutations," Lakatos presents a collection of case studies to illustrate methods of mathematical discovery in the history of mathematics. In this paper, we reframe these methods in ways that we have found make them more amenable for use as a framework for research on learning and teaching mathematics. We present an…
Evaluation of TENCompetence proof of concept assessment tools
Petrov, Milen; Aleksieva-Petrova, Adelina; Stefanov, Krassen; Schoonenboom, Judith; Miao, Yongwu
2008-01-01
Petrov, M., Aleksieva-Petrova, A., Stefanov, K., Schoonenboom, J., & Miao, Y. (2008). Evaluation of TENCompetence proof of concept assessment tools. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagog
Enhancing Proof Writing via Cross-Institutional Peer Review
Ernst, Dana C.; Hodge, Angie; Schultz, Andrew
2015-01-01
In the Spring of 2011, two of the authors of this paper taught number theory courses at their respective institutions. Twice during the semester, students in each class submitted proofs of two to three theorems to be peer reviewed by students in the other class. Each student wrote anonymous and formal referee reports of the submitted theorems,…
Sugita, M; Watanabe, S; Kanamori, M; Izuno, T
1993-09-01
Members of The Japanese Society of Cancer Epidemiology were questioned about relative risk in cancer epidemiology. The notable minimum value of relative risk recognized by the epidemiologists distributed from 1.1 to 5.0, and the mean and the standard deviation of the notable minimum value were 1.92 and 0.760. In civil litigation of United States a plaintiff must prove one's case by a "preponderance of evidence," which means that a causal relationship between risk factors and a health disturbance to a plaintiff is proved when relative risk is 2.0 or more. The mean value 1.92 of the notable minimum value of relative risk nearly corresponded to the relative risk 2.0, which indicates that opinion of Japanese epidemiologists did not disagree with the rule of the proof in civil litigation of United States. It is mentioned that the standard of the proof should be "high probability" based on "a high level of conviction in the judge's own mind" in Japanese civil trials, and that the "high probability" means that relative risk is 5.0 or more if we dare to quantify the vagueness. This value corresponded to the maximum value of the notable minimum relative risk in the questionnaire to the Japanese epidemiologists. In civil litigation of Japan, the standard of the proof based on epidemiological results may be more conservative than the opinion of Japanese epidemiologists.
Existence of 3-round zero-knowledge proof systems for NP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI HongDa; LI Bao
2008-01-01
This paper considers the existence of 3-round zero-knowledge proof systems for NP. Whether there exist 3-round non-black-box zero-knowledge proof systems for NP language is an open problem. By introducing a new interactive proof model, we con- struct a 3-round zero-knowledge proof system for graph 3-coloring under standard assumptions. Our protocol is a non-black-box zero-knowledge proof because we adopt a special strategy to prove the zero-knowledge property. Consequently, our construction shows the existence of 3-round non-black-box zero-knowledge proof for all languages in NP under the DDH assumption.
Clinical procedure in sealing pit and fissure using technological aids: VistaCam iX Proof and Combi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabrizio Guerra
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The effectiveness of sealants in preventing pits and fissures decay is currently assessed by retention as principal clinical evaluation criteria. Among the determinants for sealant retention, an incomplete removal of plaque debris can cause lack of adhesion at the sealant-enamel interface. Therefore, in order to optimize the caries prevention outcome, clinical procedures of biofilm detection and cleansing are crucial. Technological aids can help clinicians in these critical phases. A clinical procedure is described of sealant application using VistaCam iX Proof fluorescence camera for quantitative assessment of surface demineralization and Combi air polishing unit for plaque removal. Pre and post air polishing intraoral VistaCam iX Proof images show the effectiveness of glycine airpolish technology in plaque removal. The results encourage technological aided clinical procedures in enhancing sealant application for pit and fissures caries prevention. Further clinical research is needed to validate our preliminary outcomes.
Elementary Proof of Yu. V. Nesterenko Expansion of the Number Zeta(3 in Continued Fraction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gutnik Leonid
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Yu. V. Nesterenko has proved that , , , , , , and for ; , , and , for His proof is based on some properties of hypergeometric functions. We give here an elementary direct proof of this result.
TOREX-4: a torsatron proof of principle experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Politzer, P A; Lidsky, L M; Montgomery, D B
1979-03-01
TOREX-4 is a torsatron Proof of Principle experiment designed to simultaneously achieve ntau approx. = to 5 x 10/sup 13/, n approx. = to 5 x 10/sup 14//cm/sup 3/, and T greater than or equal to 1 keV. TOREX-4 is capable of operating without externally driven currents; sufficient neutral beam power to reach betas of 2 to 5% is provided. The unique 4(+2) constant pitch angle winding configuration allows the reliable design of large systems with far greater experimental flexibility than can be achieved in conventional stellarators of comparable size. This will allow investigation of the basic physics questions of the torsatron configuration over a wide range of plasma properties and field configurations without sacrifice of the Proof of Principle goals. (MOW)
Evaluating Effectiveness of Tamper Proofing on Dynamic Graph Software Watermarks
Khiyal, Malik Sikandar Hayat; Amjad, Sehrish; Khalil, M Shahid
2010-01-01
For enhancing the protection level of dynamic graph software watermarks and for the purpose of conducting the analysis which evaluates the effect of integrating two software protection techniques such as software watermarking and tamper proofing, constant encoding technique along with the enhancement through the idea of constant splitting is proposed. In this paper Thomborson technique has been implemented with the scheme of breaking constants which enables to encode all constants without having any consideration about their values with respect to the value of watermark tree. Experimental analysis which have been conducted and provided in this paper concludes that the constant encoding process significantly increases the code size, heap space usage, and execution time, while making the tamper proofed code resilient to variety of semantic preserving program transformation attacks.
Algebraic Proof of the Distributive Law for Vector Multiplication
Korn, Charles
2014-03-01
Courses in first year mechanics generally start with an introduction to vector methods which include scalar and vector multiplication1. While the demonstration of the validity of the distributive law for scalar multiplication is straightforward, this is not so for vector multiplication. The latter requires complicated geometrical visualization, so its proof is often skipped1. Neither the commutative nor associative law holds for vector multiplication, so there is no a priori reason that the distributive law should hold. In this paper we present an algebraic approach to the proof that requires no geometric visualization. It is based on two relations: (1) the distributive law for scalar multiplication and (2) a*(bxc) =c*(axb) =b*(cxa). 1. e.g. C. Kittlel, W.D. Knight, M.A. Ruderman, Mechanics, Berkeley Physics Course Vol. 1, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill, pp34-39.
Algebraic proof and application of Lumley's realizability triangle
Gerolymos, G A
2016-01-01
Lumley [Lumley J.L.: Adv. Appl. Mech. 18 (1978) 123--176] provided a geometrical proof that any Reynolds-stress tensor $\\overline{u_i'u_j'}$ (indeed any tensor whose eigenvalues are invariably nonnegative) should remain inside the so-called Lumley's realizability triangle. An alternative formal algebraic proof is given that the anisotropy invariants of any positive-definite symmetric Cartesian rank-2 tensor in the 3-D Euclidian space $\\mathbb{E}^3$ define a point which lies within the realizability triangle. This general result applies therefore not only to $\\overline{u_i'u_j'}$ but also to many other tensors that appear in the analysis and modeling of turbulent flows. Typical examples are presented based on DNS data for plane channel flow.
General proof of (maximum) entropy principle in Lovelock gravity
Cao, Li-Ming; Xu, Jianfei
2015-02-01
We consider a static self-gravitating perfect fluid system in Lovelock gravity theory. For a spacial region on the hypersurface orthogonal to static Killing vector, by the Tolman's law of temperature, the assumption of a fixed total particle number inside the spacial region, and all of the variations (of relevant fields) in which the induced metric and its first derivatives are fixed on the boundary of the spacial region, then with the help of the gravitational and fluid equations of the theory, we can prove a theorem says that the total entropy of the fluid in this region takes an extremum value. A converse theorem can also be obtained following the reverse process of our proof. We also propose the definition of isolation quasilocally for the system and explain the physical meaning of the boundary conditions in the proof of the theorems.
Notes on the proof of the KKV conjecture
Pandharipande, R
2014-01-01
The Katz-Klemm-Vafa conjecture expresses the Gromov-Witten theory of K3 surfaces (and K3-fibred 3-folds in fibre classes) in terms of modular forms. Its recent proof gives the first non-toric geometry in dimension greater than 1 where Gromov-Witten theory is exactly solved in all genera. We survey the various steps in the proof. The MNOP correspondence and a new Pairs/Noether-Lefschetz correspondence for K3-fibred 3-folds transform the Gromov-Witten problem into a calculation of the full stable pairs theory of a local K3-fibred 3-fold. The stable pairs calculation is then carried out via degeneration, localisation, vanishing results, and new multiple cover formulae.
Visualizing Digital Forensic Datasets: A Proof of Concept.
Tassone, Christopher F R; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond
2017-02-01
Digital forensic visualization is an understudied area despite its potential to achieve significant improvements in the efficiency of an investigation, criminal or civil. In this study, a three-stage forensic data storage and visualization life cycle is presented. The first stage is the decoding of data, which involves preparing both structured and unstructured data for storage. In the storage stage, data are stored within our proposed database schema designed for ensuring data integrity and speed of storage and retrieval. The final stage is the visualization of stored data in a manner that facilitates user interaction. These functionalities are implemented in a proof of concept to demonstrate the utility of the proposed life cycle. The proof of concept demonstrates the utility of the proposed approach for the storage and visualization of digital forensic data. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Efficient proof of ownership for cloud storage systems
Zhong, Weiwei; Liu, Zhusong
2017-08-01
Cloud storage system through the deduplication technology to save disk space and bandwidth, but the use of this technology has appeared targeted security attacks: the attacker can deceive the server to obtain ownership of the file by get the hash value of original file. In order to solve the above security problems and the different security requirements of the files in the cloud storage system, an efficient and information-theoretical secure proof of ownership sceme is proposed to support the file rating. Through the K-means algorithm to implement file rating, and use random seed technology and pre-calculation method to achieve safe and efficient proof of ownership scheme. Finally, the scheme is information-theoretical secure, and achieve better performance in the most sensitive areas of client-side I/O and computation.
A new proof for small cancellation conditions of 2-bridge link groups
Kim, Daewa
2012-01-01
In this paper, we give a simple proof for the small cancellation conditions of the upper presentations of 2-bridge link groups, which holds the key to the proof of the main result of [1]. We also give an alternative proof of the main result of [1] using transfinite induction.
Engendering Proof Attitudes: Can the Genesis of Mathematical Knowledge Teach Us Anything?
Almeida, Dennis
2003-01-01
Suggests that there is continued poverty in student understanding of proof. Reports on how proof attitudes could be inculcated in students by offering them a course design that is somewhat faithful to the historical genesis of modern mathematics. Contends that such a design can enable students to discover a sense of proof for themselves. (Contains…
Proofs Produced by Secondary School Students Learning Geometry in a Dynamic Computer Environment.
Marrades, Ramon; Gutierrez, Angel
2000-01-01
Presents an analytic framework to describe and analyze students' answers to proof problems. Employs the framework to investigate ways in which dynamic geometry software can be used to improve students' understanding of the nature of mathematical proof and improve their proof skills. (Author/MM)
Teachers' Conceptions of Proof in the Context of Secondary School Mathematics.
Knuth, Eric J.
2002-01-01
Examines experienced secondary school mathematics teachers' (n=17) conceptions of proof from their perspectives as teachers of school mathematics. Suggests that implementing "proof for all" may be difficult for teachers--teachers viewed proof as appropriate for the mathematics education of a minority of students. (Author/MM)
28 CFR 79.63 - Proof of employment as an ore transporter.
2010-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of employment as an ore transporter... RADIATION EXPOSURE COMPENSATION ACT Eligibility Criteria for Claims by Ore Transporters § 79.63 Proof of employment as an ore transporter. (a) The Department will accept, as proof of employment for the time...
Encoding Featherweight Java with Assignment and Immutability using The Coq Proof Assistant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackay, Julian; Mehnert, Hannes; Potanin, Alex;
2012-01-01
We develop a mechanized proof of Featherweight Java with Assignment and Immutability in the Coq proof assistant. This is a step towards more machine-checked proofs of a non-trivial type system. We used object immutability close to that of IGJ [9] . We describe the challenges of the mech- anisation...
Bridging the Gap between Graphical Arguments and Verbal-Symbolic Proofs in a Real Analysis Context
Zazkis, Dov; Weber, Keith; Mejía-Ramos, Juan Pablo
2016-01-01
We examine a commonly suggested proof construction strategy from the mathematics education literature--that students first produce a graphical argument and then work to construct a verbal-symbolic proof based on that graphical argument. The work of students who produce such graphical arguments when solving proof construction tasks was analyzed to…
46 CFR 111.105-9 - Explosion-proof and flameproof equipment.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosion-proof and flameproof equipment. 111.105-9... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-9 Explosion-proof and flameproof equipment. Each item of electrical equipment required by this subpart to be explosion-proof under...
30 CFR 18.80 - Approval of machines assembled with certified or explosion-proof components.
2010-07-01
... or explosion-proof components. 18.80 Section 18.80 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field... assembled with certified or explosion-proof components. (a) A machine may be a new assembly, or a...
30 CFR 27.33 - Test to determine explosion-proof construction.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine explosion-proof construction... Test to determine explosion-proof construction. Any assembly, subassembly, or component which, in the opinion of MSHA, requires explosion-proof construction shall be tested in accordance with the...
Proof of the equivalence theorem in the chiral lagrangian formalism
He, H J; Li, X; Hong-Jian He; He, Hong-Jian; Kuang, Yu-Ping; Li, Xiaoyuan; Xiaoyuan Li
1994-01-01
A general proof of the equivalence theorem in electroweak theories with the symmetry breaking sector described by the chiral Lagrangian is given in the $R_{\\xi}$ gauge by means of the Ward-Takahashi identities. The precise form of the theorem contains a modification factor $C_{mod}$ associated with each external Goldstone boson similar to that in the standard model. $C_{mod}$ is exactly unity in our previously proposed renormalization scheme, {\\it Scheme-II}.
Alternative proofs for Kocik's Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Velocity Addition
Sasane, Amol
2015-01-01
A geometric construction for the Poincare formula for relativistic addition of velocities in one dimension was given by Jerzy Kocik in "Geometric Diagram for Relativistic Addition of Velocities", American Journal of Physics, volume 80, page 737, 2012. While the proof given there used Cartesian coordinate geometry, three alternative approaches are given in this article: a trigonometric one, one via Euclidean geometry, and one using projective geometry.
A note on the proof of Bertrand's theorem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovanović Vladimir
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we fill a common gap in the proof of Bertrand' theorem present both the in Bertrand's original paper Théorème relatif au movement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe and in the Arnold's book Mathematical methods of classical mechanics, by providing missing details which pertain to the problem of how to single out elastic and gravitational potentials among the power law ones.
A note on the proof of Bertrand's theorem
Jovanović Vladimir
2015-01-01
In this paper we fill a common gap in the proof of Bertrand' theorem present both the in Bertrand's original paper Théorème relatif au movement d'un point attiré vers un centre fixe and in the Arnold's book Mathematical methods of classical mechanics, by providing missing details which pertain to the problem of how to single out elastic and gravitational potentials among the power law ones.
Residual Stress Measurements After Proof and Flight: ETP-0403
Webster, Ronald L..
1997-01-01
The intent of this testing was to evaluate the residual stresses that occur in and around the attachment details of a case stiffener segment that has been subjected to flight/recovery followed by proof loading. Not measured in this test were stresses relieved at joint disassembly due to out-of-round and interference effects, and those released by cutting the specimens out of the case segment. The test article was lightweight case stiffener segment 1U50715, S/N L023 which was flown in the forward stiffener position on flight SRM 14A and in the aft position on flight SRM24A. Both of these flights were flown with the 3 stiffener ring configuration. Stiffener L023 had a stiffener ring installed only on the aft stub in its first flight, and it had both rings installed on its second flight. No significant post flight damage was found on either flight. Finally, the segment was used on the DM-8 static test motor in the forward position. No stiffener rings were installed. It had only one proof pressurization prior to assignment to its first use, and it was cleaned and proof tested after each flight. Thus, the segment had seen 3 proof tests, two flight pressurizations, and two low intensity water impacts prior to manufacturing for use on DM-8. On DM-8 it received one static firing pressurization in the horizontal configuration. Residual stresses at the surface and in depth were evaluated by both the x-ray diffraction and neutron beam diffraction methods. The x-ray diffraction evaluations were conducted by Technology for Energy Corporation (TEC) at their facilities in Knoxville, TN. The neutron beam evaluations were done by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories in Ontario. The results showed general agreement with relatively high compressive residual stresses on the surface and moderate to low subsurface tensile residual stresses.
Automating change of representation for proofs in discrete mathematics
Raggi, Daniel; Bundy, Alan; Grov, Gudmund; Pease, Alison
2015-01-01
Representation determines how we can reason about a specific problem. Sometimes one representation helps us find a proof more easily than others. Most current automated reasoning tools focus on reasoning within one representation. There is, therefore, a need for the development of better tools to mechanise and automate formal and logically sound changes of representation. In this paper we look at examples of representational transformations in discrete mathematics, and show how we have used I...
Lightweight Proofs of Retrievability for Electronic Evidence in Cloud
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyao Deng
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Proofs of Retrievability (PoR is one of the basic functions of electronic evidence preservation center in cloud. This paper proposes two PoR schemes to execute the workflow of evidence preservation center, which are named Finer Grained Proofs of Retrievability (FG-PoR and More Lightweight Proofs of Retrievability (ML-PoR. The two PoR schemes do not use multi-replication technology or erasure code technology, but employ the verification tags and signatures to implement provable data possession and data recovery dual functions. When some data blocks have been lost in Archive Storage Area (ASA, FG-PoR can recover each data block of evidence matrix, but ML-PoR can only recover a column of evidence matrix. The analysis results show our two PoR schemes do not only provide the integrity verification guarantee but also have robust recovery guarantee to electronic evidence in cloud. The two schemes can allow for lower computation and storage costs than other similar schemes; moreover, ML-PoR can provide lower costs than FG-PoR.
Social proof in social media shopping: An experimental design research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul Talib Yurita Yakimin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The practices of social proof techniques to attract consumers to shop on social media have proliferated over time and been used extensively. The reviewed literature uncovers that social community recommendation, customers’ ratings and reviews, celebrity’s endorser and numbers of likes, affect consumers’ purchasing decisions. However, the effect of different types of social proof techniques on purchasing intention is unknown. This study empirically compares the effect of number of followers, celebrity endorser and social community recommendation on consumers’ purchasing intention. An experiment has been conducted and the results reveal that the consumers’ purchasing intention differs between groups. Further analysis discovers that the impact on consumers’ purchasing intention is different between high number of followers and low number of followers, and between having social community recommendation and not having social community recommendation. Though, the impact of these two techniques is equal wherein no technique is superior to other. In order to gain purchasing engagement and boost online sales, online businesses on social media are encouraged to use the power of social proof technique, either by increasing the number of followers or providing more social community recommendations.
High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC): Proofs of Concept
Jones, Christopher A.; Arney, Dale C.; Bassett, George Z.; Clark, James R.; Hennig, Anthony I.; Snyder, Jessica C.
2015-01-01
The atmosphere of Venus is an exciting destination for both further scientific study and future human exploration. A recent internal NASA study of a High Altitude Venus Operational Concept (HAVOC) led to the development of an evolutionary program for the exploration of Venus, with focus on the mission architecture and vehicle concept for a 30-day crewed mission into Venus's atmosphere at 50 kilometers. Key technical challenges for the mission include performing the aerocapture maneuvers at Venus and Earth, inserting and inflating the airship at Venus during the entry sequence, and protecting the solar panels and structure from the sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. Two proofs of concept were identified that would aid in addressing some of the key technical challenges. To mitigate the threat posed by the sulfuric acid ambient in the atmosphere of Venus, a material was needed that could protect the systems while being lightweight and not inhibiting the performance of the solar panels. The first proof of concept identified candidate materials and evaluated them, finding FEP-Teflon (Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene-Teflon) to maintain 90 percent transmittance to relevant spectra even after 30 days of immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid. The second proof of concept developed and verified a packaging algorithm for the airship envelope to inform the entry, descent, and inflation analysis.
The physical underpinning of security proofs for quantum key distribution
Boileau, Jean Christian
The dawn of quantum technology unveils a plethora of new possibilities and challenges in the world of information technology, one of which is the quest for secure information transmission. A breakthrough in classical algorithm or the development of a quantum computer could threaten the security of messages encoded using public key cryptosystems based on one-way function such as RSA. Quantum key distribution (QKD) offers an unconditionally secure alternative to such schemes, even in the advent of a quantum computer, as it does not rely on mathematical or technological assumptions, but rather on the universality of the laws of quantum mechanics. Physical concepts associated with quantum mechanics, like the uncertainty principle or entanglement, paved the way to the first successful security proof for QKD. Ever since, further development in security proofs for QKD has been remarkable. But the connection between entanglement distillation and the uncertainty principle has remained hidden under a pile of mathematical burden. Our main goal is to dig the physics out of the new advances in security proofs for QKD. By introducing an alternative definition of private state, which elaborates the ideas of Mayers and Koashi, we explain how the security of all QKD protocols follows from an entropic uncertainty principle. We show explicitly how privacy amplification protocol can be reduced to a private state distillation protocol constructed from our observations about the uncertainty principle. We also derive a generic security proof for one-way permutation-invariant QKD protocols. Considering collective attack, we achieve the same secret key generation rate as the Devetak-Winter's bound. Generalizing an observation from Kraus, Branciard and Renner, we have provided an improved version of the secret key generation rates by considering a different symmetrization. In certain situations, we argue that Azuma's inequality can simplify the security proof considerably, and we explain
Garris, Paul A; Ensman, Robert; Poehlman, John; Alexander, Andy; Langley, Paul E; Sandberg, Stefan G; Greco, Phillip G; Wightman, R Mark; Rebec, George V
2004-12-30
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) provides exquisite temporal and spatial resolution for monitoring brain chemistry. The utility of this approach has recently been demonstrated by measuring sub-second dopamine changes associated with behavior. However, one drawback is the cable link between animal and recording equipment that restricts behavior and precludes monitoring in complex environments. As a first step towards developing new instrumentation to overcome this technical limitation, the goal of the present study was to establish proof of principle for the wireless transmission of FSCV at a CFM. Proof of principle was evaluated in terms of measurement stability, fidelity, and susceptibility to ambient electrical noise. Bluetooth digital telemetry provided bi-directional communication between remote and home-base units and stable, high-fidelity data transfer comparable to conventional, wired systems when tested using a dummy cell (i.e., a resistor and capacitor in series simulating electrical properties of a CFM), and dopamine measurements with flow injection analysis and in the anesthetized rat with electrical stimulation. The wireless system was also less susceptible to interference from ambient electrical noise. Taken together, the present findings establish proof of principle for the wireless transmission of FSCV at a CFM.
Accounting for Proof Test Data in a Reliability Based Design Optimization Framework
Ventor, Gerharad; Scotti, Stephen J.
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the use of proof (or acceptance) test data during the reliability based design optimization of structural components. It is assumed that every component will be proof tested and that the component will only enter into service if it passes the proof test. The goal is to reduce the component weight, while maintaining high reliability, by exploiting the proof test results during the design process. The proposed procedure results in the simultaneous design of the structural component and the proof test itself and provides the designer with direct control over the probability of failing the proof test. The procedure is illustrated using two analytical example problems and the results indicate that significant weight savings are possible when exploiting the proof test results during the design process.
An evaluation of the pressure proof test concept for 2024-T3 aluminium alloy sheet
Dawicke, D. S.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Newman, J. C.; Harris, C. E.
1991-01-01
The concept of pressure proof testing of fuselage structures with fatigue cracks to insure structural integrity was evaluated from a fracture mechanics viewpoint. A generic analytical and experimental investigation was conducted on uniaxially loaded flat panels with crack configurations and stress levels typical of longitudinal lap splice joints in commercial transport aircraft fuselages. The results revealed that the remaining fatigue life after a proof cycle was longer than that without the proof cycle because of crack growth retardation due to increased crack closure. However, based on a crack length that is slightly less than the critical value at the maximum proof stress, the minimum assured life or proof test interval must be no more than 550 pressure cycles for a 1.33 proof factor and 1530 pressure cycles for a 1.5 proof factor to prevent in-flight failures.
Dickerson, David S.; Doerr, Helen M.
2014-12-01
Proof serves many purposes in mathematics. In this qualitative study of 17 high school mathematics teachers, we found that these teachers perceived that two of the most important purposes for proof in school mathematics were (a) to enhance students' mathematical understanding and (b) to develop generalized thinking skills that were transferable to other fields of endeavor. We found teachers were divided on the characteristics (or features) of proofs that would serve these purposes. Teachers with less experience tended to believe that proofs in the high school should adhere to strict standards of language and reasoning while teachers with more experience tended to believe that proofs based on concrete or visual features were well suited for high school mathematics. This study has implications for teacher preparation because it appears that there is a wide variation in how teachers think about proof. It seems likely that students would experience proof very differently merely because they were seated in different classrooms.
These are the echoes: Sound Proof 2008-2012
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monica Biagioli
2014-11-01
Full Text Available As a series of yearly exhibitions emerging from an organic process, Sound Proof represented an active cultural memory of the development of the Stratford site of London 2012, from 2008 until the opening of the Games. Through its twenty-eight artist commissions over a five-year period, the series reflected on changes to the site and expressed the evolving mood as the event neared. Sound Proof had heritage concerns at its core. One of the key aims was to retain a record of a moment in time highlighting the tangible cultural landscape and the intangible dimension of memory while the site was still in a state of becoming. The memories generated during that period are expressed most directly by the seventeen original sound works produced for the series, works which threaded physical sound with sensed experience so as to convey feeling and intent. The works fall under four general categories: sound as field of interactions, sound as experience, sound as active cultural memory, and sound as memory track. The key link between the exhibition series as a whole and the individual sound works produced by the artists was the context for the works: the locations, settings and communities that engendered those works. Some key works in the series isolated sound as pure experience; others conveyed active cultural memories of the people and places affected by the arrival of the Olympics. And a number of pieces built up a sense of time passing through the build up of a memory track, unfolding as layered historical records. Through the various works, Sound Proof developed a comprehensive catalogue during the period between 2008 and 2012, thus preserving sonic memory traces of London 2012 as it evolved over time.
Determinantal approach to a proof of the Riemann hypothesis
Nuttall, John
2011-01-01
We discuss the application of the determinantal method to the proof of the Riemann hypothesis. We start from the fact that, if a certain doubly infinite set of determinants are all positive, then the hypothesis is true. This approach extends the work of Csordas, Norfolk and Varga in 1986, and makes extensive use of the results described by Karlin. We have discovered and proved or conjectured relations in five areas of the problem, as summarized in the Introduction. Further effort could well lead to more progress.
A Proof System for the Linear Time μ-Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dax, Christian; Hofmann, Martin; Lange, Martin
2006-01-01
for the latter because of nestings of fixpoint operators and variables with several occurrences. We present a simple sound and complete infinitary proof system for the linear time μ-calculus and then present two decision procedures for provability in the system, hence validity of formulas. One uses......The linear time μ-calculus extends LTL with arbitrary least and greatest fixpoint operators. This gives it the power to express all ω-regular languages, i.e. strictly more than LTL. The validity problem is PSPACE-complete for both LTL and the linear time μ-calculus. In practice it is more difficult...
VAMP in Stellarium/VirGO: A Proof of Concept
Kapadia, Amit; Chéreau, Fabien; Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Gauthier, Adrienne; Hurt, Robert; Wyatt, Ryan
2008-06-01
The Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project (VAMP) and the Astronomy Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard will give observatories and astronomers an easy way to distribute their astronomical visualisation products. The CAP2007 demonstration which is described here is an early, although fully functioning, proof-of-concept for the VAMP project showing the capabilities and functionalities of the AVM. Our hope is to encourage people to begin applying the AVM standard to their Education and Public Outreach (EPO) images as they witness the spectacular end results that applications like Stellarium, World Wide Telescope, and Sky in Google Earth can bring to the future.
A variational proof of Thomson's theorem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fiolhais, Miguel C.N., E-mail: miguel.fiolhais@cern.ch [Department of Physics, City College of the City University of New York, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Department of Physics, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); LIP, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Essén, Hanno [Department of Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm SE-10044 (Sweden); Gouveia, Tomé M. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)
2016-08-12
Thomson's theorem of electrostatics, which states the electric charge on a set of conductors distributes itself on the conductor surfaces to minimize the electrostatic energy, is reviewed in this letter. The proof of Thomson's theorem, based on a variational principle, is derived for a set of normal charged conductors, with and without the presence of external electric fields produced by fixed charge distributions. In this novel approach, the variations are performed on both the charge densities and electric potentials, by means of a local Lagrange multiplier associated with Poisson's equation, constraining the two variables.
A new proof of a lemma by Phelps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonia E. Cardwell
2006-08-01
Full Text Available We give a different proof of a lemma by Phelps (1960 which asserts, roughly speaking, that if two norm-one functionals f and g have their hyperplanes fÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1(0 and gÃ¢ÂˆÂ’1(0 sufficiently close together, then either Ã¢Â€Â–fÃ¢ÂˆÂ’gÃ¢Â€Â– or Ã¢Â€Â–f+gÃ¢Â€Â– must be small. We also extend this result to a complex Banach space.
Melos: a Rhetoric Proof in Songs in Semiotic Perspective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adriano Dantas de Oliveira
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We will have, in this work, the exposure of an approach to cancional text as a specific rhetorical situation. We assimilated the melos as all musical aspects of the song as a rhetorical proof that articulates the traditional trilogy: ethos, logos and pathos. We will use an interdisciplinary theoretical framework, articulating the classical rhetoric to semiotics applied to the song, exploring, from this model, discursive aspects of cancional text. As corpus, we have the analysis of a buarquiana song sample sociopolitical theme composed and recorded during the period of dictatorship.
ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman
2014-03-01
The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.
An analytical proof for Lehmer's totient conjecture using Mertens' theorems
2016-01-01
We make an analytical proof for Lehmer's totient conjecture. Lehmer conjectured that there is no solution for the congruence equation $n-1\\equiv 0~(mod~\\phi(n))$ with composite integers,$n$, where $\\phi(n)$ denotes Euler's totient function. He also showed that if the equation has any composite solutions, $n$ must be odd, square-free, and divisible by at least 7 primes. Several people have obtained conditions on values ,$n$, and number of square-free primes constructing $n$ if the equation can...
Isolated Proofs of Knowledge and Isolated Zero Knowledge
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wichs, Daniel
2008-01-01
. This is because the prover may just be forwarding messages between the environment and the verifier while the environment performs all the necessary computation. In this paper we consider an ℓ-isolated prover, which is restricted to exchanging at most ℓ bits of information with its environment. We introduce a new...... notion called ℓ-isolated proofs of knowledge (ℓ-IPoK). These protocols securely ensure that an ℓ-isolated prover knows the witness. To prevent the above-mentioned attack, an ℓ-IPoK protocol has to have communication complexity greater than ℓ. We show that for any relation in NP and any value ℓ...
Roads to infinity the mathematics of truth and proof
Stillwell, John C
2010-01-01
Winner of a CHOICE Outstanding Academic Title Award for 2011!This book offers an introduction to modern ideas about infinity and their implications for mathematics. It unifies ideas from set theory and mathematical logic, and traces their effects on mainstream mathematical topics of today, such as number theory and combinatorics. The treatment is historical and partly informal, but with due attention to the subtleties of the subject. Ideas are shown to evolve from natural mathematical questions about the nature of infinity and the nature of proof, set against a background of broader questions
An analytical proof for Lehmer's totient conjecture using Mertens' theorems
Sabihi, Ahmad
2016-01-01
We make an analytical proof for Lehmer's totient conjecture. Lehmer conjectured that there is no solution for the congruence equation $n-1\\equiv 0~(mod~\\phi(n))$ with composite integers,$n$, where $\\phi(n)$ denotes Euler's totient function. He also showed that if the equation has any composite solutions, $n$ must be odd, square-free, and divisible by at least 7 primes. Several people have obtained conditions on values ,$n$, and number of square-free primes constructing $n$ if the equation can...
Combinatorial theory of Macdonald polynomials I: Proof of Haglund's formula
Haglund, J.; Haiman, M.; Loehr, N
2005-01-01
Haglund recently proposed a combinatorial interpretation of the modified Macdonald polynomials H̃μ. We give a combinatorial proof of this conjecture, which establishes the existence and integrality of H̃μ. As corollaries, we obtain the cocharge formula of Lascoux and Schützenberger for Hall–Littlewood polynomials, a formula of Sahi and Knop for Jack's symmetric functions, a generalization of this result to the integral Macdonald polynomials Jμ, a formula for H̃μ in terms of Lascoux–Leclerc–Th...
HGP-A wellhead generator proof-of-feasibility project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1978-11-03
The HGP-A Wellhead Generator Proof-of-Feasibility Project consists of a nominal 3 Megawatt geothermal steam turbine electric power generating facility, the first geothermal power plant in Hawaii. The plant is being constructed as a research and development project to evaluate geothermal steam as a viable resource to be considered for larger commercial electric power generating stations in Hawaii. The project facilities include a turbine building, with a contiguous service area for plant operations and maintenance, visitor center, and the power plant equipment.
Synthetic Completeness Proofs for Seligman-style Tableau Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Bolander, Thomas
2016-01-01
Hybrid logic is a form of modal logic which allows reference to worlds. We can think of it as ‘modal logic with labelling built into the object language’ and various forms of labelled deduction have played a central role in its proof theory. Jerry Seligman’s work [11,12] in which ‘rules involving...... Seligman-style and labelled tableaus, but our results only covered the minimal hy- brid logic; in the present paper we provide completeness results for a wider range of hybrid logics and languages. We do so by adapting the synthetic approach to tableau completeness (due to Smullyan, and widely applied...
Stationary Black-Hole Binaries: A Non-existence Proof
Neugebauer, Gernot; Hennig, Jörg
We resume former discussions of the question, whether the spin-spin repulsion and the gravitational attraction of two aligned black holes can balance each other. Based on the solution of a boundary problem for disconnected (Killing) horizons and the resulting violation of characteristic black hole properties, we present a non-existence proof for the equilibrium configuration in question. From a mathematical point of view, this result is a further example for the efficiency of the inverse ("scattering") method in non-linear theories.
Stationary black-hole binaries: A non-existence proof
Neugebauer, Gernot
2013-01-01
We resume former discussions of the question, whether the spin-spin repulsion and the gravitational attraction of two aligned black holes can balance each other. Based on the solution of a boundary problem for disconnected (Killing) horizons and the resulting violation of characteristic black hole properties, we present a non-existence proof for the equilibrium configuration in question. From a mathematical point of view, this result is a further example for the efficiency of the inverse ("scattering") method in non-linear theories.
The Research and Application of Webpage Temper-proofing System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Yongquan
2012-06-01
Full Text Available With the sharp increase of hacking attacks over the last couple of years, web application security has become a key concern. The attack to websites, especially the explosion of webpage interpolating incidents has becomeone of the most serious problems of it. In this paper, the system adopts Web server core embedded technology to imbed tamper detection module and application protection module into the Web server, define correspondingstrategies for temper-proofing, and realize the real-time monitoring and protection of web pages and the dynamic content in databases.
The Impermeability Mechanism of Self-compacting Water Proof Concrete
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Houxiang; TANG Chun'an; XIONG Jianmin; LI Sinian
2005-01-01
The impermeability mechanism of water-proof self-compacting concrete (WPSCC )was studied. The mechanism and influential factors, such as water-cement ratio(w/c), dosage of powder, superplasticizer, sand content, aggregate content, fly ash, UEA, PP fiber, on compactibility and crack resistance of WPSCC were analyzed. A type of WPSCC successfully applied in tunnel liner with its validities, conveniences and economies by mockup test was developed and optimized. Experimental results show that the WPSCC has good workability, mechanical properties and impermeability when reasonable requirements are fulfilled.
SSFF Health Management Analysis Report. Part 2: Proof of Concept
Wilson, L.; Spruill, J.; Hong, Y.
1995-01-01
In this Proof of Concept analysis on SSFF Health Management the following area was described: the Gas Distribution Subsystem (GDS) was studied and evaluated utilizing the PDR Configuration and with respect to the design features encompassing Health Management (HM) aspects outlined in the Generic Handbook. From the results of this study, it was found that there is a definite need for coordinating measurements within and between the subsystems that will ensure that Functional Failures are properly revealed and substantiated as valid by other measurements, even those from other interfacing subsystems.
Math Attendees Find There's Life After Fermat Proof.
Cipra, B
1994-02-01
The uncertain status of the recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem (Science, 24 December 1993, p. 1967) was the hot topic in the hallways at the joint meetings of the American Mathematical Society and the Mathematical Association of America, held 12-15 January in Cincinnati. But a few other topics did manage to get discussed. Among them: How gambling pays off in computing the volume of high-dimensional shapes; how a mathematical description of water dripping down a window pane might lead to the design of digital pulses that could race through the optical fibers of the future; and how one can be fooled infinitely often by another theorem of Fermat's.
A Holographic Proof of R\\'enyi Entropic Inequalities
Nakaguchi, Yuki
2016-01-01
We prove R\\'enyi entropic inequalities in a holographic setup based on the recent proposal for the holographic formula of R\\'enyi entropies. Regarding the R\\'enyi parameter as an inverse temperature, we reformulate the entropies in analogy with statistical mechanics, which provides us a concise interpretation of the inequalities as the positivities of entropy, energy and heat capacity. This analogy also makes clear a thermodynamic structure in deriving the holographic formula. As a by-product of the proof we obtain a holographic formula to calculate the quantum fluctuation of the modular Hamiltonian. A few examples of the capacity of entanglement are examined in detail.
The existence of a measure-preserving bijection from a unit square to a unit segment
Pham, Cong Dan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we prove the existence of a measure-preserving bijection from unit square to unit segment. This bijection is also called the probability isomorphism between two probability spaces. Then we give a new proof of the existence of the independent random variables on Borel probability space $([0,1],\\B([0,1]),\\Lb)$ that their distribution functions are the given distribution functions.
Shimazoe, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Hideto; Takei, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenji
Recent types of train protection systems such as ATC require the large amounts of low-level configuration data compared to conventional types of them. Hence management of the configuration data is becoming more important than before. Because of this, the authors developed an error-proof system focusing on human operations in the configuration data management. This error-proof system has already been introduced to the Tokaido Shinkansen ATC data management system. However, as effectiveness of the system has not been presented objectively, its full perspective is not clear. To clarify the effectiveness, this paper analyses error-proofing cases introduced to the system, using the concept of QFD and the error-proofing principles. From this analysis, the following methods of evaluation for error-proof systems are proposed: metrics to review the rationality of required qualities are provided by arranging the required qualities according to hazard levels and work phases; metrics to evaluate error-proof systems are provided to improve their reliability effectively by mapping the error-proofing principles onto the error-proofing cases which are applied according to the required qualities and the corresponding hazard levels. In addition, these objectively-analysed error-proofing cases are available to be used as error-proofing-cases database or guidelines for safer HMI design especially for data management.
Development and proof-testing of advanced absorption refrigeration cycle concepts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Modahl, R.J.; Hayes, F.C. (Trane Co., La Crosse, WI (United States). Applied Unitary/Refrigeration Systems Div.)
1992-03-01
The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate, develop, and proof-test advanced absorption refrigeration cycles that are applicable to residential and commercial heat pumps for space conditioning. The heat pump system is to be direct-fired with natural gas and is to use absorption working fluids whose properties are known. Target coefficients of performance (COPs) are 1.6 at 47{degrees}F and 1.2 at 17{degrees} in the heating mode, and 0.7 at 95{degree}F in the cooling mode, including the effect of flue losses. The project is divided into three phases. Phase I entailed the analytical evaluation of advanced cycles and included the selection of preferred concepts for further development. Phase II involves the development and testing of critical components and of a complete laboratory breadboard version of the selected system. Phase III calls for the development of a prototype unit and is contingent on the successful completion of Phase II. This report covers Phase I work on the project. In Phase 1, 24 advanced absorption cycle/fluid combinations were evaluated, and computer models were developed to predict system performance. COP, theoretical pump power, and internal heat exchange were calculated for each system, and these calculations were used as indicators of operating and installed costs in order to rank the relative promise of each system. The highest ranking systems involve the cycle concept of absorber/generator heat exchange, generator heat exchanger/absorber heat exchange, regeneration, and resorption/desorption, in combination with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O/LiBr ternary absorption fluid mixture or with the NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O binary solution. Based upon these conclusions, the recommendation was made to proceed to Phase II, the laboratory breadboard proof-of- concept.
Phonetic compliance: a proof-of-concept study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Véronique eDelvaux
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the concept of phonetic compliance, which is defined as the intrinsic individual ability to produce speech sounds that are unusual in the native language, and constitutes a part of the ability to acquire L2 phonetics and phonology. We argue that phonetic compliance represents a systematic source of variance that needs to be accounted for if one wants to improve the control over the independent variables manipulated in SLA experimental studies. We then present the results of a two-fold proof-of-concept study aimed at testing the feasibility of assessing phonetic compliance in terms of gradient. In study 1, a pilot data collection paradigm is implemented on an occasional sample of 10 native French speakers engaged in two reproduction tasks involving respectively vowels and aspirated stops, and data are analysed using descriptive statistics. In study 2, complementary data including L1-typical realizations are collected, resulting in the development of a first set of indicators that may be useful to appropriately assess, and further refine the concept of, phonetic compliance. Based on a critical analysis of the contributions and limitations of the proof-of-concept study, general discussion formulates the guidelines for the following stages of development of a reliable and valid test of phonetic compliance.
Living proof and the pseudoscience of alternative cancer treatments.
Vickers, Andrew J; Cassileth, Barrie R
2008-01-01
Michael Gearin-Tosh was an English professor at Oxford University who was diagnosed with multiple myeloma in 1994. He rejected conventional chemotherapeutic approaches and turned to a variety of alternative cancer treatments, particularly those involving nutritional supplements and dietary change. In 2002, Dr. Gearin-Tosh published a book, Living Proof: A Medical Mutiny, recounting his experiences. The book gained significant public and media attention. One chapter was written by Carmen Wheatley, an advocate of alternative cancer treatments. In distinction to Dr. Gearin-Tosh's personal story, Dr. Wheatley makes general claims about cancer treatment that are supposedly based on the research literature. This appears to provide scientific validation for a highly unconventional program of cancer care. However, the scientific case made for alternative cancer treatments in Living Proof does not bear serious examination. There are numerous inaccuracies, omissions, and misrepresentations. Many important claims are either entirely unsubstantiated or not supported by the literature cited. In conclusion, a highly publicized book gives the impression that alternative cancer treatments are supported by scientific research. It also suggests that little progress has been made in the conventional treatment of myeloma. This is highly misleading and may lead to cancer patients rejecting effective treatments.
Formal proof of the AVM-1 microprocessor using the concept of generic interpreters
Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.
1991-01-01
A microprocessor designated AVM-1 was designed to demonstrate the use of generic interpreters in verifying hierarchically decomposed microprocessor specifications. This report is intended to document the high-order language (HOL) code verifying AVM-1. The organization of the proof is discussed and some technical details concerning the execution of the proof scripts in HOL are presented. The proof scripts used to verify AVM-1 are also presented.
Proof of generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dedekind zetas and Dirichlet L-functions
Mcadrecki, Andrzej
2007-01-01
A short proof of the generalized Riemann hypothesis (gRH in short) for zeta functions $\\zeta_{k}$ of algebraic number fields $k$ - based on the Hecke's proof of the functional equation for $\\zeta_{k}$ and the method of the proof of the Riemann hypothesis derived in [$M_{A}$] (algebraic proof of the Riemann hypothesis) is given. The generalized Riemann hypothesis for Dirichlet L-functions is an immediately consequence of (gRH) for $\\zeta_{k}$ and suitable product formula which connects the Dedekind zetas with L-functions.
A Numerical Proof of Concept for Thermal Flow Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Dragan
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper computational fluid dynamics is used to provide a proof of concept for controlled flow separation using thermal wall interactions with the velocity boundary layer. A 3D case study is presented, using a transition modeling Shear Stress Transport turbulence model. The highly loaded single slot flap airfoil was chosen to be representative for a light aircraft and the flow conditions were modeled after a typical landing speed. In the baseline case, adiabatic walls were considered while in the separation control case, the top surface of the flaps was heated to 500 K. This heating lead to flow separation on the flaps and a significant alteration of the flow pattern across all the elements of the wing. The findings indicate that this control method has potential, with implications in both aeronautical as well as sports and civil engineering applications.
Incomplete Regulation, Asymmetric Information, and Collusion-Proofness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Meireles
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In an incomplete regulation framework, the regulator cannot replicate all the possible outcomes by himself since he has no influence over some firms in the market. Due to asymmetric information, it may be better for the regulator to allow the unregulated firms to extract a truthful report from the regulated firm through side-payments under collusion, and therefore the “collusion-proofness principle” may not hold. In fact, by introducing an exogenous number of unregulated firms, social welfare differences seem to favour a collusion-allowing equilibrium. However, such result will depend on the relative importance given by the regulator to the consumer surplus in the social welfare function.
The Renegotiation-Proofness Principle and Costly Renegotiation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James R. Brennan
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We study contracting and costly renegotiation in settings of complete, but unverifiable information, using the mechanism-design approach. We show how renegotiation activity is best modeled in the fundamentals of the mechanism-design framework, so that noncontractibility of renegotiation amounts to a constraint on the problem. We formalize and clarify the Renegotiation-Proofness Principle (RPP, which states that any state-contingent payoff vector that is implementable in an environment with renegotiation can also be implemented by a mechanism in which renegotiation does not occur in equilibrium. We observe that the RPP is not valid in some settings. However, we prove a general monotonicity result that confirms the RPP’s message about renegotiation opportunities having negative consequences. Our monotonicity theorem states that, as the costs of renegotiation increase, the set of implementable state-contingent payoffs becomes larger.
Proofs and fundamentals a first course in abstract mathematics
Bloch, Ethan D
2003-01-01
In an effort to make advanced mathematics accessible to a wide variety of students, and to give even the most mathematically inclined students a solid basis upon which to build their continuing study of mathematics, there has been a tendency in recent years to introduce students to the for mulation and writing of rigorous mathematical proofs, and to teach topics such as sets, functions, relations and countability, in a "transition" course, rather than in traditional courses such as linear algebra. A transition course functions as a bridge between computational courses such as Calculus, and more theoretical courses such as linear algebra and abstract algebra. This text contains core topics that I believe any transition course should cover, as well as some optional material intended to give the instructor some flexibility in designing a course. The presentation is straightforward and focuses on the essentials, without being too elementary, too exces sively pedagogical, and too full to distractions. Some of ...
General proof of (maximum) entropy principle in Lovelock gravity
Cao, Li-Ming
2014-01-01
We consider a static self-gravitating perfect fluid system in Lovelock gravity theory. For a spacial region on the hypersurface orthogonal to static Killing vector, by the Tolman's law of temperature, the assumption of a fixed total particle number inside the spacial region, and all of the variations (of relevant fields) in which the induced metric and its first derivatives are fixed on the boundary of the spacial region, then with the help of the gravitational equations of the theory, we can prove a theorem says that the total entropy of the fluid in this region takes an extremum value. A converse theorem can also be obtained following the reverse process of our proof.
Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design
Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.
2014-03-01
Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.
Proceedings Types for Proofs and Programs, Revised Selected Papers
Hirschowitz, Tom
2011-01-01
Types for Proofs and Programs is the annual meeting of the Types Project, whose aim is to develop the technology of formal reasoning and computer programming based on Type Theory. This is done by improving the languages and computerised tools for reasoning, and by applying the technology in several domains such as analysis of programming languages, certified software, formalisation of mathematics and mathematics education. The 2009 meeting took place in Aussois, France, and we thank the invited speakers Richard Garner, Peter Hancock, Pawe{\\l} Urzyczyn for excellent talks. The present volume consists of papers not necessarily presented at the workshop, selected by Thorsten Altenkirch, Tom Hirschowitz, Christophe Raffalli, and Alan Schmitt, with help from Matthieu Sozeau and Makarius Wenzel.
Integrated Workforce Planning Model: A Proof of Concept
Guruvadoo, Eranna K.
2001-01-01
Recently, the Workforce and Diversity Management Office at KSC have launched a major initiative to develop and implement a competency/skill approach to Human Resource management. As the competency/skill dictionary is being elaborated, the need for a competency-based workforce-planning model is recognized. A proof of concept for such a model is presented using a multidimensional data model that can provide the data infrastructure necessary to drive intelligent decision support systems for workforce planing. The components of competency-driven workforce planning model are explained. The data model is presented and several schemes that would support the workforce-planning model are presented. Some directions and recommendations for future work are given.
Synthetic Completeness Proofs for Seligman-style Tableau Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Bolander, Thomas;
2016-01-01
Hybrid logic is a form of modal logic which allows reference to worlds. We can think of it as ‘modal logic with labelling built into the object language’ and various forms of labelled deduction have played a central role in its proof theory. Jerry Seligman’s work [11,12] in which ‘rules involving...... labels’ are rejected in favour of ‘rules for all’ is an interesting exception to this. Seligman’s approach was originally for natural deduction; the authors of the present paper recently extended it to tableau inference [1,2]. Our earlier work was syntactic: we showed completeness by translating between...... Seligman-style and labelled tableaus, but our results only covered the minimal hy- brid logic; in the present paper we provide completeness results for a wider range of hybrid logics and languages. We do so by adapting the synthetic approach to tableau completeness (due to Smullyan, and widely applied...
Completing Einstein's Proof of E=mc2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lo C. Y.
2006-10-01
Full Text Available It is shown that Einstein’s proof for E=mc2 is actually incomplete and therefore is not yet valid. A crucial step is his implicit assumption of treating the light as a bundle of massless particles. However, the energy-stress tensor of massless particles is incompatible with an electromagnetic energy-stress tensor. Thus, it is necessary to show that the total energy of a light ray includes also non-electromagnetic energy. It turns out, the existence of intrinsic difference between the photonic and the electromagnetic energy tensors is independent of the coupling of gravity. Nevertheless, their difference is the energy-stress tensor of the gravitational wave component that is accompanying the electromagnetic wave component. Concurrently, it is concluded that Einstein’s formula E=mc2 necessarily implies that the photons include non- electromagnetic energy and that the Einstein equation of 1915 must be rectified.
Özdemir, Emine; Övez, Filiz Tuba Dikkartin
2017-01-01
The cognitive development of prospective teacher needs to be taken into estimate so that proofs are presented in forms that are potentially meaningful for them. This requires educators and mathematicians to rethink consider the use of types of proof related to the logical thinking improvement of the singular. The purpose of the study is to…
Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU".
Siu, Man-Keung
1993-01-01
Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume. (Contains 25 references.) (MDH)
2011-06-23
... commercial products or services of any third-party software providers. Proof of Concept Demonstration for... software provider selected for participating in the technical proof of concept demonstration by EPA must... concept by the software provider are: Ability of the software provider's electronic reporting software...
Müller, Sebastian
2011-01-01
Separating different propositional proof systems---that is, demonstrating that one proof system cannot efficiently simulate another proof system---is one of the main goals of proof complexity. Nevertheless, all known separation results between non-abstract proof systems are for specific families of hard tautologies: for what we know, in the average case all (non-abstract) propositional proof systems are no stronger than resolution. In this paper we show that this is not the case by demonstrating polynomial-size propositional refutations whose lines are $TC^0$ formulas (i.e., $TC^0$-Frege proofs) for random 3CNF formulas with $ n $ variables and $ \\Omega(n^{1.4}) $ clauses. By known lower bounds on resolution refutations, this implies an exponential separation of $TC^0$-Frege from resolution in the average case. The idea is based on demonstrating efficient propositional correctness proofs of the random 3CNF unsatisfiability witnesses given by Feige, Kim and Ofek [FOCS'06]. Since the soundness of these witnesse...
Ugurel, Isikhan; Morali, H. Sevgi; Karahan, Ozge; Boz, Burcak
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study is to describe the procedure and examples of visual proofs (VP-or proof without words) developed by gifted mathematics secondary school students after their experiences. The participants of this study are three male 9th grade students enrolled in a private science high school. In the first stage of the research a briefing…
A simple proof of the existence of adiabatic invariants for perturbed reversible problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chartier, P; Faou, E [INRIA Rennes and Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, Antenne de Bretagne, Avenue Robert Schumann, 35170 Bruz (France)], E-mail: Philippe.Chartier@inria.fr, E-mail: Erwan.Faou@inria.fr
2008-11-28
In this paper, we give a simple proof of the existence of invariants for reversible perturbations of action-angle systems. The originality of this proof is that it does not rely on canonical transformations that bring the system gradually closer to a normal form, but rather on a formal development of the invariant itself.
Demiray, Esra; Işıksal Bostan, Mine
2017-03-01
The purposes of this study are to investigate whether pre-service middle school mathematics teachers evaluate discussions in the cases regarding proof by contradiction correctly, to what extent they explain their correct evaluations by referring to proof by contradiction, and the reasons of their misinterpretations of discussions in the cases regarding proof by contradiction. Data were collected from pre-service middle school mathematics teachers enrolled in a state university in Ankara, Turkey, by asking them to evaluate discussions in two cases related to proof by contradiction. In data analysis, descriptive statistics and item-based analysis were employed. The results of the study indicated that pre-service middle school mathematics teachers are successful in evaluating discussions in the cases regarding proof by contradiction. In terms of year level, it was found that the percentage of the second year students' correct answers was the lowest in both cases. Moreover, the first year students were the most successful group in the first case, and the third year students were the most successful group in the second case. Nearly half of the students explained their correct answers by referring to proof by contradiction in the first case while the percentage of students who explained their correct answers by mentioning proof by contradiction in the second case was considerably low. When incorrect answers of pre-service middle school mathematics teachers were analyzed, two reasons of their misinterpretations of discussions were emerged as "misunderstanding of the assumption" and "perceiving proof as unnecessary".
Opportunities to Learn Reasoning and Proof in High School Mathematics Textbooks
Thompson, Denisse R.; Senk, Sharon L.; Johnson, Gwendolyn J.
2012-01-01
The nature and extent of reasoning and proof in the written (i.e., intended) curriculum of 20 contemporary high school mathematics textbooks were explored. Both the narrative and exercise sets in lessons dealing with the topics of exponents, logarithms, and polynomials were examined. The extent of proof-related reasoning varied by topic and…
A 3-axis force balanced accelerometer using a single proof-mass
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemkin, M.A.; Boser, B.E.; Auslander, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-04-01
This paper presents a new method for wideband force balancing a proof-mass in multiple axes simultaneously. Capacitive position sense and force feedback are accomplished using the same air-gap capacitors through time multiplexing. Proof of concept is experimentally demonstrated with a single-mass monolithic surface micromachined 3-axis accelerometer.
13 CFR 134.314 - Standard of review and burden of proof.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard of review and burden of proof. 134.314 Section 134.314 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... law. The appellant has the burden of proof, by a preponderance of the evidence, in both size and...
21 CFR 1404.855 - Who has the burden of proof in a debarment action?
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who has the burden of proof in a debarment action? 1404.855 Section 1404.855 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.855 Who has the burden of proof in a...
21 CFR 1404.850 - What is the standard of proof in a debarment action?
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the standard of proof in a debarment action? 1404.850 Section 1404.850 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Debarment § 1404.850 What is the standard of proof in a...
Proof and Proving in the Classroom: Dynamic Geometry Systems as Tools of Semiotic Mediation
Mariotti, Maria Alessandra
2012-01-01
The objective of this paper is to discuss the didactic potential offered by the use of a Dynamic Geometry System (DGS) in introducing students to theoretical thinking and specifically to the practice of proof. Starting from a discussion about what constitutes the general objective in developing students' sense of proof, the notion of Theorem is…
Alternative proof with interpretations for a recent state-dependent importance sampling scheme
de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.
Recently, a state-dependent change of measure for simulating overflows in the two-node tandem queue was proposed by Dupuis et al. (2005), together with a proof of its asymptotic efficiency. In the present paper, we present an alternative, shorter and simpler proof. Furthermore, we give intuitive
A proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using causal interactions
Robins, James M; Gill, Richard D
2012-01-01
We give a simple proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics which, in conjunction with experiments, demonstrates that the local hidden variables assumption is false. The proof sheds light on relationships between the notion of causal interaction and interference between particles.
Classroom Sociomathematical Norms for Proof Presentation in Undergraduate in Abstract Algebra
Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy
2012-01-01
This paper is a case study of the teaching of an undergraduate abstract algebra course with a particular focus on the manner in which the students presented proofs and the class engaged in a subsequent discussion of those proofs that included validating the work. This study describes norms for classroom work that include a set of norms that the…
Critique of some thermodynamic proofs based on the pump-engine couple
Bhattacharyya, Kamal
2008-01-01
We argue that all the common thermodynamic proofs based on the pump-engine couple possess an inherent circularity and hence are of doubtful value. In certain cases, ways of avoiding them are suggested. In others, the difficulties are discussed. Particularly, we emphasize that a neat proof of Carnot theorems requires the entropic formulation of the second law.
49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? 40.385 Section 40.385 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official...
On the Different Ways That Mathematicians Use Diagrams in Proof Construction
Samkoff, Aron; Lai, Yvonne; Weber, Keith
2012-01-01
The processes by which individuals can construct proofs based on visual arguments are poorly understood. We investigated this issue by presenting eight mathematicians with a task that invited the construction of a diagram, and examined how they used this diagram to produce a formal proof. The main findings were that participants varied in the…
Proponents of Creationism but Not Proponents of Evolution Frame the Origins Debate in Terms of Proof
Barnes, Ralph M.; Church, Rebecca A.
2013-01-01
In Study 1, 72 internet documents containing creationism, ID (intelligent design), or evolution content were selected for analysis. All instances of proof cognates (the word "proof" and related terms such as "proven", "disproof", etc.) contained within these documents were identified and labeled in terms of the manner in which the terms were used.…
The Failure to Construct Proof Based on Assimilation and Accommodation Framework from Piaget
Netti, Syukma; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Abadyo; Anwar, Lathiful
2016-01-01
The purpose of this article is to describe the process of a proof construction. It is more specific on the failure of the process. Piaget's frameworks, assimilation and accommodation, were used to analyze it. Method of this research was qualitative method. Data were collected by asking five students working on problems of proof using think aloud…
33 CFR 25.119 - Proof of amount claimed for loss of, or damage to, property.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of amount claimed for loss..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS General § 25.119 Proof of amount claimed for loss of, or... lost item, evidence of its value such as a bill of sale and a written appraisal, or two written...
30 CFR 18.62 - Tests to determine explosion-proof characteristics.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests to determine explosion-proof... Inspections and Tests § 18.62 Tests to determine explosion-proof characteristics. (a) In testing for explosion... the explosion pressure developed therefrom recorded. The point of ignition within the enclosure...
A proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using causal interactions.
Robins, James M; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Gill, Richard D
2015-06-01
We give a simple proof of Bell's inequality in quantum mechanics using theory from causal interaction, which, in conjunction with experiments, demonstrates that the local hidden variables assumption is false. The proof sheds light on relationships between the notion of causal interaction and interference between treatments.
47 CFR 1.254 - Nature of the hearing; burden of proof.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nature of the hearing; burden of proof. 1.254 Section 1.254 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.254 Nature of the hearing; burden of proof. Any hearing upon...
Komatsu, Kotaro
2016-01-01
The process of proofs and refutations described by Lakatos is essential in school mathematics to provide students with an opportunity to experience how mathematical knowledge develops dynamically within the discipline of mathematics. In this paper, a framework for describing student processes of proofs and refutations is constructed using a set of…
The Logical Heart of a Classic Proof Revisited: A Guide to Godel's "Incompleteness" Theorems
Padula, Janice
2011-01-01
The study of Kurt Godel's proof of the "incompleteness" of a formal system such as "Principia Mathematica" is a great way to stimulate students' thinking and creative processes and interest in mathematics and its important developments. This article describes salient features of the proof together with ways to deal with potential difficulties for…
Demiray, Esra; Işıksal Bostan, Mine
2016-12-01
The purposes of this study are to investigate whether pre-service middle school mathematics teachers evaluate discussions in the cases regarding proof by contradiction correctly, to what extent they explain their correct evaluations by referring to proof by contradiction, and the reasons of their misinterpretations of discussions in the cases regarding proof by contradiction. Data were collected from pre-service middle school mathematics teachers enrolled in a state university in Ankara, Turkey, by asking them to evaluate discussions in two cases related to proof by contradiction. In data analysis, descriptive statistics and item-based analysis were employed. The results of the study indicated that pre-service middle school mathematics teachers are successful in evaluating discussions in the cases regarding proof by contradiction. In terms of year level, it was found that the percentage of the second year students' correct answers was the lowest in both cases. Moreover, the first year students were the most successful group in the first case, and the third year students were the most successful group in the second case. Nearly half of the students explained their correct answers by referring to proof by contradiction in the first case while the percentage of students who explained their correct answers by mentioning proof by contradiction in the second case was considerably low. When incorrect answers of pre-service middle school mathematics teachers were analyzed, two reasons of their misinterpretations of discussions were emerged as "misunderstanding of the assumption" and "perceiving proof as unnecessary".
Proof support for RAISE - by a Reuse Approach Based on Institutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindegaard, Morten Peter
2004-01-01
specification language RSL and a proof system. Computer-based proof tools are available for RAISE, but a higher degree of automation is desired. Isabelle/HOL is a proof assistant for higher-order logic (HOL). It is an instantiation of the generic proof assistant Isabelle which offers a suitable degree...... of automation and flexibility. In order to use the Isabelle/HOL proof assistant for the RAISE method, translation from RSL to HOL is considered. The translation is based on institutions which formalize the informal notion of "a logical system". Institutions and morphisms between institutions are presented......RSL", is defined. Then, a well-known institution for HOL is presented, and Isabelle/HOL is briefly described. An institution comorphism from the mRSL institution to the HOL institution is defined, providing a translation from mRSL to Isabelle/HOL, and it is proved that the light institution comorphism has...
Riemann integration via primitives for a new proof to the change of variable theorem
Pouso, Rodrigo López
2011-01-01
We approach the Riemann integral via generalized primitives to give a new proof for a general result on change of variable originally proven by Kestelman and Davies. Our proof is similar to Kestelman's, but we hope readers will find it clearer thanks to the use of a new test for the Riemann integrability (which we introduce in this paper) along with some ingredients from some other more recent proofs available in the literature. We also include a bibliographical review of related results and proofs. Although this paper emphasizes in the change of variable theorem, our contributions to the Riemann integration theory are of independent interest. For instance, we present a very simple proof to the fact that continuous functions are integrable which avoids the use of uniform continuity.
A Machine-Checked Proof of A State-Space Construction Algorithm
Catano, Nestor; Siminiceanu, Radu I.
2010-01-01
This paper presents the correctness proof of Saturation, an algorithm for generating state spaces of concurrent systems, implemented in the SMART tool. Unlike the Breadth First Search exploration algorithm, which is easy to understand and formalise, Saturation is a complex algorithm, employing a mutually-recursive pair of procedures that compute a series of non-trivial, nested local fixed points, corresponding to a chaotic fixed point strategy. A pencil-and-paper proof of Saturation exists, but a machine checked proof had never been attempted. The key element of the proof is the characterisation theorem of saturated nodes in decision diagrams, stating that a saturated node represents a set of states encoding a local fixed-point with respect to firing all events affecting only the node s level and levels below. For our purpose, we have employed the Prototype Verification System (PVS) for formalising the Saturation algorithm, its data structures, and for conducting the proofs.
Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.
Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang
2014-09-01
RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks.
Performance evaluation of a proof-of-concept 70 W internal reforming methanol fuel cell system
Avgouropoulos, G.; Schlicker, S.; Schelhaas, K.-P.; Papavasiliou, J.; Papadimitriou, K. D.; Theodorakopoulou, E.; Gourdoupi, N.; Machocki, A.; Ioannides, T.; Kallitsis, J. K.; Kolb, G.; Neophytides, S.
2016-03-01
A proof-of-concept 70 W Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC) stack including Balance-of-Plant (BoP) was designed, assembled and tested. Advent TPS® high-temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane electrode assemblies were employed for fuel cell operation at 200 °C. In order to avoid phosphoric acid poisoning of the reformer, the anode electrocatalyst of each cell was indirectly adjoined, via a separation plate, to a highly active CuMnAlOx catalyst coated onto copper foam, which served as methanol reforming layer. The reformer was in-situ converting the methanol/steam feed to the required hydrogen (internal reforming concept) at 200 °C, which was readily oxidized at the anode electrodes. The operation of the IRMFC was supported through a number of BoP components consisting of a start-up subsystem (air blower, evaporator and monolithic burner), a combined afterburner/evaporator device, methanol/water supply and data acquisition units (reactants/products analysis, temperature control, flow control, system load/output control). Depending on the composition of the liquid MeOH/H2O feed streams, current densities up to 0.18 A cm-2 and power output up to 70 W could be obtained with remarkable repeatability. Specific targets for improvement of the efficiency were identified.
Proof of Concept of Automated Collision Detection Technology in Rugby Sevens.
Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B
2017-04-01
Clarke, AC, Anson, JM, and Pyne, DB. Proof of concept of automated collision detection technology in rugby sevens. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1116-1120, 2017-Developments in microsensor technology allow for automated detection of collisions in various codes of football, removing the need for time-consuming postprocessing of video footage. However, little research is available on the ability of microsensor technology to be used across various sports or genders. Game video footage was matched with microsensor-detected collisions (GPSports) in one men's (n = 12 players) and one women's (n = 12) rugby sevens match. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative events between video and microsensor-detected collisions were used to calculate recall (ability to detect a collision) and precision (accurately identify a collision). The precision was similar between the men's and women's rugby sevens game (∼0.72; scale 0.00-1.00); however, the recall in the women's game (0.45) was less than that for the men's game (0.69). This resulted in 45% of collisions for men and 62% of collisions for women being incorrectly labeled. Currently, the automated collision detection system in GPSports microtechnology units has only modest utility in rugby sevens, and it seems that a rugby sevens-specific algorithm is needed. Differences in measures between the men's and women's game may be a result of physical size, and strength, and physicality, as well as technical and tactical factors.
Proof-of-Concept of the Phytoimmobilization Technology for TNX Outfall Delta: Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaplan, D.I.
2001-06-04
A series of proof-of-principle studies was initiated to evaluate the soil remediation technology, phytoimmobilization, for application at the TNX Outfall Delta (TNX OD) operable unit. Phytoimmobilization involves two steps. The first step is entitled phytoextraction, and it takes place mostly during the spring and summer. During this step the plants extract contaminants from the sediment into the roots and then translocate the contaminants to the aboveground plant parts. The second step is referred to as sequestration and it takes place largely during the autumn and winter when annual plants senesce or deciduous trees drop their leaves. This step involves the immobilization of the contaminant once it leaches form the fallen leaves into a ''geomat,'' a geotextile embedded with mineral sequestering agents. This final report describes the results to date, including those reported in the status report (Kaplan et al. 2000a), those completed since the report was issued, and the preliminary calculations of the phytoimmobilization effectiveness.
Fluorescent particle tracers in surface hydrology: a proof of concept in a semi-natural hillslope
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Tauro
2012-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a proof of concept experiment is conducted to assess the feasibility of tracing overland flow on an experimental hillslope plot via a novel fluorescent particle tracer. Experiments are performed by using beads of diameters ranging from 75 to 1180 μm. Particles are sensed through an experimental apparatus comprising a light source and a video acquisition unit. Runoff on the experimental plot is artificially simulated by using a custom-built rainfall system. Particle transits are detected through supervised methodologies requiring the presence of operators and unsupervised procedures based on image analysis techniques. Average flow velocity estimations are executed based on travel time measurements of the particles as they are dragged by the overland flow on the hillslope. Velocities are compared to flow measurements obtained using rhodamine dye. Experimental findings demonstrate the potential of the methodology for understanding overland flow dynamics in complex natural settings. In addition, insights on the optimization of particle size are presented based on the visibility of the beads and their accuracy in flow tracing.
SPARCLE: Electrostatic Dust Control Tool Proof of Concept
Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Minetto, F.; Marshall, J.; Nuth, J.; Calle, C.
2010-01-01
Successful exploration of most planetary surfaces, with their impact-generated dusty regoliths, will depend on the capabilities to keep surfaces free of the performance-compromising dust. Once in contact with surfaces, whether set in motion by natural or mechanical means, regolith fines, or dust, behave like abrasive Velcro, coating surfaces, clogging mechanisms, making movement progressively more difticult, and being almost impossible to remove by mechanical mcans (brushing). The successful dust removal strategy will deal with dust dynamics resulting from interaction between Van der Waals and Coulombic forces. Here, proof of concept for an electrostatically-based concept for dust control tool is described and demonstrated. A low power focused electron beam is used in the presence of a small electrical field to increase the negative charge to mass ratio of a dusty surface until dust repulsion and attraction to a lower potential surface, acting as a dust collector, occurred. Our goal is a compact device of less than 5 kg mass and using less than 5 watts of power to be operational in less than 5 years with heritage from ionic sweepers for active spacecraft potential control (e.g ., on POLAR). Rovers could be fitted with devices that could hamess the removal of dust for sampling as part of the extended exploration process on Mercury, Mars, asteroids or outer solar system satellites, as well as the Moon.
The paperless labeling initiative: a proof-of-concept study.
Ruchalski, Charles
2004-01-01
Traditional paper professional package inserts (PPIs) are used on a daily basis by a variety of healthcare providers to locate and disseminate drug information. Unfortunately, paper PPIs are sometimes not accessible to the healthcare provider, appear unreadable due to varied font sizes, and are often considered not to be user-friendly. In December 2000, the Food and Drug Administration proposed regulations that would revise the format of PPIs. To determine whether electronic delivery of PPI information is achievable in community pharmacy practice settings. Electronic PPIs are an alternative means of delivering this information. This 12-week proof-of-concept study evaluated the Health Information Designs/Thomson Healthcare and Etreby Computer Company for electronic delivery of PPIs in 6 chain and 4 independent community pharmacies, with 5 pharmacies evaluating each system. Participating pharmacists were asked 9 questions designed to determine the feasibility of implementing electronic PPI delivery, as well as pharmacist satisfaction with each system. Pharmacists deemed both systems to be accessible and user-friendly. Pharmacists from both groups felt that the electronic PPIs were challenging to read and that printing took too long. Future studies in a more diverse selection of dispensing sites, including pharmacies (community and hospital based), clinics, and physician practices, need to be performed to maximize the use of electronic PPIs.
Forensic devices for activism: Metadata tracking and public proof
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lonneke van der Velden
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The central topic of this paper is a mobile phone application, ‘InformaCam’, which turns metadata from a surveillance risk into a method for the production of public proof. InformaCam allows one to manage and delete metadata from images and videos in order to diminish surveillance risks related to online tracking. Furthermore, it structures and stores the metadata in such a way that the documentary material becomes better accommodated to evidentiary settings, if needed. In this paper I propose InformaCam should be interpreted as a ‘forensic device’. By using the conceptualization of forensics and work on socio-technical devices the paper discusses how InformaCam, through a range of interventions, rearranges metadata into a technology of evidence. InformaCam explicitly recognizes mobile phones as context aware, uses their sensors, and structures metadata in order to facilitate data analysis after images are captured. Through these modifications it invents a form of ‘sensory data forensics'. By treating data in this particular way, surveillance resistance does more than seeking awareness. It becomes engaged with investigatory practices. Considering the extent by which states conduct metadata surveillance, the project can be seen as a timely response to the unequal distribution of power over data.
Forensic devices for activism: Metadata tracking and public proof
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lonneke van der Velden
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The central topic of this paper is a mobile phone application, ‘InformaCam’, which turns metadata from a surveillance risk into a method for the production of public proof. InformaCam allows one to manage and delete metadata from images and videos in order to diminish surveillance risks related to online tracking. Furthermore, it structures and stores the metadata in such a way that the documentary material becomes better accommodated to evidentiary settings, if needed. In this paper I propose InformaCam should be interpreted as a ‘forensic device’. By using the conceptualization of forensics and work on socio-technical devices the paper discusses how InformaCam, through a range of interventions, rearranges metadata into a technology of evidence. InformaCam explicitly recognizes mobile phones as context aware, uses their sensors, and structures metadata in order to facilitate data analysis after images are captured. Through these modifications it invents a form of ‘sensory data forensics'. By treating data in this particular way, surveillance resistance does more than seeking awareness. It becomes engaged with investigatory practices. Considering the extent by which states conduct metadata surveillance, the project can be seen as a timely response to the unequal distribution of power over data.
Robust stochastic maximum principle: Complete proof and discussions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poznyak Alex S.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a version of Robust Stochastic Maximum Principle (RSMP applied to the Minimax Mayer Problem formulated for stochastic differential equations with the control-dependent diffusion term. The parametric families of first and second order adjoint stochastic processes are introduced to construct the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. The Hamiltonian function used for the construction of the robust optimal control is shown to be equal to the Lebesque integral over a parametric set of the standard stochastic Hamiltonians corresponding to a fixed value of the uncertain parameter. The paper deals with a cost function given at finite horizon and containing the mathematical expectation of a terminal term. A terminal condition, covered by a vector function, is also considered. The optimal control strategies, adapted for available information, for the wide class of uncertain systems given by an stochastic differential equation with unknown parameters from a given compact set, are constructed. This problem belongs to the class of minimax stochastic optimization problems. The proof is based on the recent results obtained for Minimax Mayer Problem with a finite uncertainty set [14,43-45] as well as on the variation results of [53] derived for Stochastic Maximum Principle for nonlinear stochastic systems under complete information. The corresponding discussion of the obtain results concludes this study.
Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub
Wagner, M.; Binz, H.
2011-10-01
Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value KI0 where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the KIC value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below KIC, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than KI0 the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.
Proof test of hybrid shrink fits with ceramic hub
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, M; Binz, H, E-mail: markus.wagner@iktd.uni-stuttgart.de [Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design, University of Stuttgart (Germany)
2011-10-29
Advanced ceramic machine components are required in many applications because of their specific material properties like high hardness, resistance to chemicals, corrosion and wear, low specific weight etc. The most suitable shaft-hub connection to ceramics is an interference fit assembly because it is free of geometrical notches and transmission of forces takes place in a large area. Such a shrink fit is rated for endurance strength when the stress intensity factor is below the specific value K{sub I0} where no crack growth occurs. The total component suddenly fails, when the stress intensity factor exceeds the K{sub IC} value. The load to the press fit during the joining process, caused by the interference of the assembly, could be regulated by ambient conditions. In case of undetected material defects or microcracks in the ceramic and if the stress intensity is below K{sub IC}, the ceramic will not fail but a crack could grow. Thus, the joining process only seems to be a proof test. When the load during operation leads to a stress intensity that remains higher than K{sub I0} the crack grows until the whole ceramic component fails. This effect was verified in tests at the Institute for Engineering Design and Industrial Design.
Proof that Casimir force does not originate from vacuum energy
Nikolic, H
2016-01-01
We present a simple general proof that Casimir force cannot originate from the vacuum energy of electromagnetic (EM) field. The full QED Hamiltonian consists of 3 terms: the pure electromagnetic term $H_{\\rm em}$, the pure matter term $H_{\\rm matt}$ and the interaction term $H_{\\rm int}$. The $H_{\\rm em}$-term commutes with all matter fields because it does not have any explicit dependence on matter fields. As a consequence, $H_{\\rm em}$ cannot generate any forces on matter. Since it is precisely this term that generates the vacuum energy of EM field, it follows that the vacuum energy does not generate the forces. The erroneous statements in the literature that vacuum energy generates Casimir force can be boiled down to the fact that $H_{\\rm em}$ attains an implicit dependence on matter fields by the use of the equations of motion and the erroneous treatment of the implicit dependence as if it was explicit. The true origin of the Casimir force is van der Waals force generated by $H_{\\rm int}$.
Noncommutative Geometry Framework and The Feynman's Proof of Maxwell Equations
Boulahoual, A
2003-01-01
The main focus of the present work is to study the Feynman's proof of the Maxwell equations using the NC geometry framework. To accomplish this task, we consider two kinds of noncommutativity formulations going along the same lines as Feynman's approach. This allows us to go beyond the standard case and discover non-trivial results. In fact, while the first formulation gives rise to the static Maxwell equations, the second formulation is based on the following assumption $m[x_{j},\\dot{x_{k}}]=i\\hbar \\delta_{jk}+im\\theta_{jk}f.$ The results extracted from the second formulation are more significant since they are associated to a non trivial $\\theta $-extension of the Bianchi-set of Maxwell equations. We find $div_{\\theta}B=\\eta_{\\theta}$ and $\\frac{\\partial B_{s}}{\\partial t}+\\epsilon_{kjs}\\frac{\\partial E_{j}}{\\partial x_{k}}=A_{1}\\frac{d^{2}f}{dt^{2}}+A_{2}\\frac{df}{dt}+A_{3},$ where $\\eta_{\\theta}$, $A_{1}$, $A_{2}$ and $A_{3}$ are local functions depending on the NC $\\theta $-parameter. The novelty of this...
Proof that Casimir force does not originate from vacuum energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hrvoje Nikolić
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We present a simple general proof that Casimir force cannot originate from the vacuum energy of electromagnetic (EM field. The full QED Hamiltonian consists of 3 terms: the pure electromagnetic term Hem, the pure matter term Hmatt and the interaction term Hint. The Hem-term commutes with all matter fields because it does not have any explicit dependence on matter fields. As a consequence, Hem cannot generate any forces on matter. Since it is precisely this term that generates the vacuum energy of EM field, it follows that the vacuum energy does not generate the forces. The misleading statements in the literature that vacuum energy generates Casimir force can be boiled down to the fact that Hem attains an implicit dependence on matter fields by the use of the equations of motion and to the illegitimate treatment of the implicit dependence as if it was explicit. The true origin of the Casimir force is van der Waals force generated by Hint.
A constructive proof of the Lovasz Local Lemma
Moser, Robin A
2008-01-01
The Lovasz Local Lemma [EL75] is a powerful tool to prove the existence of combinatorial objects meeting a prescribed collection of criteria. The technique can directly be applied to the satisfiability problem, yielding that a k-CNF formula in which each clause has common variables with at most 2^(k-2) other clauses is always satisfiable. All hitherto known proofs of the Local Lemma are non-constructive and do thus not provide a recipe as to how a satisfying assignment to such a formula can be efficiently found. In his breakthrough paper [Bec91], Beck demonstrated that if the neighbourhood of each clause be restricted to O(2^(k/48)), a polynomial time algorithm for the search problem exists. Alon simplified and randomized his procedure and improved the bound to O(2^(k/8)) [Alo91]. Srinivasan presented in [Sri08] a variant that achieves a bound of essentially O(2^(k/4)). In [Mos08], we improved this to O(2^(k/2)). In the present paper, we give a randomized algorithm that finds a satisfying assignment to every ...
A proof of Friedman's ergosphere instability for scalar waves
Moschidis, Georgios
2016-01-01
Let $(\\mathcal{M}^{3+1},g)$ be a real analytic, stationary and asymptotically flat spacetime with a non-empty ergoregion $\\mathscr{E}$ and no future event horizon $\\mathcal{H}^{+}$. On such spacetimes, Friedman provided a heuristic argument that the energy of certain solutions $\\phi$ of $\\square_{g}\\phi=0$ grows to $+\\infty$ as time increases. In this paper, we provide a rigorous proof of Friedman's instability. Our setting is, in fact, more general. We consider smooth spacetimes $(\\mathcal{M}^{d+1},g)$, for any $d\\ge2$, not necessarily globally real analytic. We impose only a unique continuation condition for the wave equation across the boundary $\\partial\\mathscr{E}$ of $\\mathscr{E}$ on a small neighborhood of a point $p\\in\\partial\\mathscr{E}$. This condition always holds if $(\\mathcal{M},g)$ is analytic in that neighborhood of $p$, but it can also be inferred in the case when $(\\mathcal{M},g)$ possesses a second Killing field $\\Phi$ such that the span of $\\Phi$ and the stationary Killing field $T$ is timel...
SPARCLE: Electrostatic Dust Control Tool Proof of Concept
Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Minetto, F.; Marshall, J.; Nuth, J.; Calle, C.
2010-01-01
Successful exploration of most planetary surfaces, with their impact-generated dusty regoliths, will depend on the capabilities to keep surfaces free of the performance-compromising dust. Once in contact with surfaces, whether set in motion by natural or mechanical means, regolith fines, or dust, behave like abrasive Velcro, coating surfaces, clogging mechanisms, making movement progressively more difticult, and being almost impossible to remove by mechanical mcans (brushing). The successful dust removal strategy will deal with dust dynamics resulting from interaction between Van der Waals and Coulombic forces. Here, proof of concept for an electrostatically-based concept for dust control tool is described and demonstrated. A low power focused electron beam is used in the presence of a small electrical field to increase the negative charge to mass ratio of a dusty surface until dust repulsion and attraction to a lower potential surface, acting as a dust collector, occurred. Our goal is a compact device of less than 5 kg mass and using less than 5 watts of power to be operational in less than 5 years with heritage from ionic sweepers for active spacecraft potential control (e.g ., on POLAR). Rovers could be fitted with devices that could hamess the removal of dust for sampling as part of the extended exploration process on Mercury, Mars, asteroids or outer solar system satellites, as well as the Moon.
Quality prediction and mistake proofing: An LDRD final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, M.J.
1998-03-01
Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for assuring that the US nuclear deterrent remains credible and that the one in a billion disaster of unintended nuclear detonation never occurs. Letting mistake-generated defects into the stockpile would undermine its mission. The current era of shrinking stockpiles is shrinking Sandia`s opportunities to discover and correct mistakes and fine tune processes over long production runs. In response, Sandia has chosen to develop and use a science-based, life cycle systems engineering practices that, in part, require understanding the design to manufacturing issues in enough detail to tune processes and eliminate mistakes before ever making a part. Defect prevention is a key area of concern that currently lacks sufficient theoretical understanding. This report is the result of a scoping study in the application of best-practice quality techniques that could address Sandia`s stockpile mission. The study provides detail on sources and control of mistakes, poka-yoke or mistake-proofing techniques, the Toyota Production system, and design theory in relation to manufacturing quality prediction. Scoping experiments are described and areas for future research are identified.
Mestrovic, Romeo
2012-01-01
In this article, we provide a comprehensive historical survey of different proofs of famous Euclid's theorem on the infinitude of prime numbers. The Bibliography of this article contains 99 references consisting of 24 textbooks and monographs, 73 articles (including 20 {\\it Notes} published in {\\it Amer. Math. Monthly} and a few unpublished works that are found on Internet Websites, especially on {\\tt http:arxiv.org/}), one {\\it Ph.D. thesis} and {\\it Sloane's On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences}. The all references concerning to proofs of Euclid's theorem that use similar methods and ideas are exposed subsequently. Moreover, in Appendix we present a list of all 70 different proofs of Euclid's theorem presented here together with the corresponding reference(s), the name(s) of his (their) author(s) and the main method(s) and/or idea(s) used in it (them). This list is arranged by year of publication. In Section 2, we give a new simple proof of the {\\it infinitude of primes}. The first step of our proof is...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TANG ChunMing; PEI DingYi; WANG XiaoFeng; LIU ZhuoJun
2008-01-01
A delegateable signature scheme (DSS) which was first introduced by Barak is mainly based on the non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (NIZK) for preventing the signing verifier from telling which witness (i.e., restricted subset) is being used. However, the scheme is not significantly efficient due to the difficulty of constructing NIZK. We first show that a non-Interactive witness indistinguishable (NIWI) proof sys-tern and a non-interactive witness hiding (NIWH) proof system are easier and more efficient proof models than NIZK in some cases. Furthermore, the witnesses em-ployed in these two protocols (NIWI and NIWT) cannot also be distinguished by the verifiers. Combined with the Σ-protocol, we then construct NlWl and NIWH proofs for any NP statement under the existence of one-way functions and show that each proof is different from those under the existence of trapdoor permutations. Finally, based on our NIWI and NIWH proofs, we construct delegateable signature schemes under the existence of one-way functions, which are more efficient than Barak's scheme under the existence of trapdoor permutations.
Moore"s Proof of an External World. Just Begging the Question
Coliva, Annalisa
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to assess Moore"s Proof of an external world, in light of recent interpretations of it, namely Crispin Wright"s (1985) and James Pryor"s (unpublished). In the first section I will present Moore"s original proof and claim that, despite Moore"s intentions, it can be read as an anti-sceptical proof. In the following two sections I will present Wright"s and Pryor"s interpretations of it. Finally, I will claim that if we grant some of Pryor"s intuition...
A formalized proof of Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Harrison
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We describe the formalization using the HOL Light theorem prover of Dirichlet's theorem on primes in arithmetic progression. The proof turned out to be more straightforward than expected, but this depended on a careful choice of an informal proof to use as a starting-point. The goal of this paper iis twofold. First we describe a simple and efficient proof of the theorem informally, which iis otherwise difficult to find in one self-contained place at an elementary level. We also describe its, largely routine, HOL Light formalization, a task that took only a few days.
Automated Generation of Machine Verifiable and Readable Proofs: A Case Study of Tarski's Geometry
Stojanovic Durdevic, Sana; Narboux, Julien; Janicic, Predrag
2015-01-01
International audience; The power of state-of-the-art automated and interactive the-orem provers has reached the level at which a significant portion of non-trivial mathematical contents can be formalized almost fully automat-ically. In this paper we present our framework for the formalization of mathematical knowledge that can produce machine verifiable proofs (for different proof assistants) but also human-readable (nearly textbook-like) proofs. As a case study, we focus on one of the twent...
All-versus-nothing proofs with n qubits distributed between m parties
Cabello, Adan; 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.042110
2010-01-01
All-versus-nothing (AVN) proofs show the conflict between Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen's elements of reality and the perfect correlations of some quantum states. Given an n-qubit state distributed between m parties, we provide a method with which to decide whether this distribution allows an m-partite AVN proof specific for this state using only single-qubit measurements. We apply this method to some recently obtained n-qubit m-particle states. In addition, we provide all inequivalent AVN proofs with less than nine qubits and a minimum number of parties.
A Proof-Irrelevant Model of Martin-Löf's Logical Framework
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fridlender, Daniel
2003-01-01
We extend the proof-irrelevant model defined in Smith (1988) to the whole of Martin-Löf's logical framework. The main difference here is the existence of a type whose objects themselves represent types rather than proof-objects. This means that the model must now be able to distinguish between...... also show how to extend it when the logical framework itself is enlarged with inductive definitions. In doing so, a variant of Church numerals is introduced. As in Smith (1988), the model can only be defined in the absence of universes, and it is useful to obtain an elementary proof of consistency...
Meteorological Sensor Array (MSA)-Phase I. Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: Proof of Concept)
2014-10-01
Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof of Concept”) by Sandra Harrison and Gail Vaucher ARL...Missile Range, NM 88002-5501 ARL-TR-7133 October 2014 Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof...2014–September 30, 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Meteorological Sensor Array ( MSA )–Phase I, Volume 2 (Data Management Tool: “Proof of Concept”) 5a
A new proof-of-principle contraband detection system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sredniawski, J.J.; Debiak, T.; Kamykowski, E.; Rathke, J. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States). Advanced Technology and Development Center; Schmor, P.; Altman, A.; Rogers, J.; Boyd, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility; Brondo, J. [Scientific Innovations, Inc., East Hampton, NY (United States)
1995-12-01
A new concept for a CDS has been developed under a Phase I ARPA funded program; it uses gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect certain illegal drugs that may be transported in man-portable containers. A high detection probability for heroin and cocaine is possible with a device that is also searching for explosives. Elemental detection of both N and Cl is utilized, and with tomography, a 3D density image of the elements is generated. Total density image is also developed. These two together may be used with considerable confidence in determining if heroin or cocaine is present in the interrogated containers in a small quantity (1 kg). The CDS employs a high current ({ge}10 mA) DC accelerator that produces a beam of 1.75 or 1.89 MeV protons. These protons impact a target with coatings of {sup 13}C and {sup 34}S. Depending on the coating, the resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The resonant gammas come off the target in a conical fan at 80.7{degree} for N and 82{degree} for Cl; a common array of segmented BGO detectors is used over an arc of 53{degree} to provide input to an imaging subsystem. The tomography makes use of rotation and vertical translation of a baggage carousel holding typically 18 average sized bags for batch processing of the contents. The single proton accelerator and target can supply multiple detection stations with the appropriate gammas, a feature that may lead to very high throughput potential approaching 2000 bags/hr. Each detection station can operate somewhat independently from the others. This paper presents the overall requirements, design, operating principles, and characteristics of the CDS proof-of-principle device developed in the Phase I program.
Proton-minibeam radiation therapy: A proof of concept
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prezado, Y. [IMNC-UMR 8165, CNRS, Paris 7 and Paris 11 Universities, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Fois, G. R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Cagliari, Strada provinciale Monserrato Sestu km 0.700, Monserrato, Cagliari 09042 (Italy)
2013-03-15
Purpose: This Monte Carlo simulation work aims at studying a new radiotherapy approach called proton-minibeam radiation therapy (pMBRT). The main objective of this proof of concept was the evaluation of the possible gain in tissue sparing, thanks to the spatial fractionation of the dose, which could be used to deposit higher and potentially curative doses in clinical cases where tissue tolerances are a limit for conventional methods. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations (GATE v.6) have been used as a method to calculate the ratio of the peak-to-valley doses (PVDR) for arrays of proton minibeams of 0.7 mm width and several center-to-center distances, at different depths in a water phantom. The beam penumbras were also evaluated as an important parameter for tissue sparing, for example, in the treatment of non-cancer diseases like epilepsy. Two proton energies were considered in this study: a clinically relevant energy (105 MeV) and a very high energy (1 GeV), to benefit from a reduced lateral scattering. For the latter case, an interlaced geometry was also evaluated. Results: Higher or similar PVDR than the ones obtained in x-rays minibeam radiation therapy were achieved in several pMBRT configurations. In addition, for the two energies studied, the beam penumbras are smaller than in the case of Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Conclusions: The high PVDR obtained for some configurations and the small penumbras in comparison with existing radiosurgery techniques, suggest a potential gain in healthy tissue sparing in this new technique. Biological studies are warranted to assess the effects of pMBRT on both normal and tumoral tissues.
Preparing dossiers: strength of the evidence and problems of proof.
Richardson, David P
2012-02-01
In Europe, for authorisation of a health claim, applicants must follow the procedures in the legislation and in the guidelines for submission of a dossier set out by the European Food Safety Authority. The Functional Foods in Europe (FUFOSE) and Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods (PASSCLAIM) projects underpinned the laws and provided criteria against which the quality of the totality of the available data could be judged. Whereas the regulations and PASSCLAIM require an assessment of the extent to which cause and effect can be demonstrated between a food category, a food or constituent and a health benefit, the European Food Safety Authority requires conclusive evidence of cause and effect. This latter standard of proof and a focus on randomised controlled trials done on isolated components and using validated physiological biomarkers may not always be appropriate to assess nutrition science. The aims of this paper are to address the strengths and weaknesses of different sources of evidence that contribute to the totality of the available data, to undertake a critical examination of the application of a drug-like assessment model in evidence-based nutrition and to encourage research on new biomarkers of health and homeostatic adaptability. There is a need for (a) a robust and pragmatic scientific framework for assessing the strength, consistency and biological plausibility of the evidence, and (b) consumer understanding research on claims that use qualifying language and/or graphics to reflect the weight of evidence. Such scientific, policy and communication approaches are proportionate and could help stimulate academic research, promote fair trade and product innovation and contribute to consumer education about food and health.
Bullet dents – “Proof marks” or battle damage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Williams, Alan
2006-12-01
Full Text Available
It is well known that the breastplates of many armours from the later 16th century and the 17th century bear the hemispherical dents generally known as proof marks. It has been taken as axiomatic that these marks were made in order to demonstrate the armours’ effectiveness against firearms. If however some of these dents are compared with dents which are the result of battle damage, it appears that they were made by energy levels of a different order of magnitude, and offer little guarantee as to the “proof” of the armour.
Como es bien sabido, muchos petos de armaduras de finales del siglo XVI y del XVII tienen abolladuras semiesféricas conocidas como pruebas de arcabuz. Se ha considerado axiomático que estas abolladuras fueron hechas para demostrar la efectividad de las armaduras frente a las armas de fuego. Sin embargo, si se comparan con otras debidas a daños en combate, parece que fueron producidas por energías de diferente orden o magnitud, al tiempo que ofrecen pocas garantías como “pruebas” de las armaduras.
The Role of Proof in Comprehending and Teaching Elementary Linear Algebra.
Uhlig, Frank
2002-01-01
Describes how elementary linear algebra can be taught successfully while introducing students to the concept and practice of mathematical proof. Suggests exploring the concept of solvability of linear systems first via the row echelon form (REF). (Author/KHR)
Using Composition Techniques To Improve Classroom Instruction and Students' Understanding of Proof.
Goff, Christopher Dale
2002-01-01
Describes an effort to incorporate standard composition exercises into a sophomore-level discrete mathematics class. Provides an example of how peer review can be integrated with a mathematical curriculum through the writing of proofs. (Author/KHR)
Between Precautionary Principle and "Sound Science": Distributing the Burdens of Proof
Belt, v.d. H.; Gremmen, B.
2002-01-01
Opponents of biotechnology ofteninvoke the Precautionary Principle to advancetheir cause, whereas biotech enthusiasts preferto appeal to ``sound science.'' Publicauthorities are still groping for a usefuldefinition. A crucial issue in this debate isthe distribution of the burden of proof amongthe pa
Supersymmetric Proof of the Hirzebruch-Riemann-Roch Theorem for Non-Kähler Manifolds
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrei V. Smilga
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We present the proof of the HRR theorem for a generic complex compact manifold by evaluating the functional integral for the Witten index of the appropriate supersymmetric quantum mechanical system.
Analytic proof of the existence of the Lorenz attractor in the extended Lorenz model
Ovsyannikov, I. I.; Turaev, D. V.
2017-01-01
We give an analytic (free of computer assistance) proof of the existence of a classical Lorenz attractor for an open set of parameter values of the Lorenz model in the form of Yudovich-Morioka-Shimizu. The proof is based on detection of a homoclinic butterfly with a zero saddle value and rigorous verification of one of the Shilnikov criteria for the birth of the Lorenz attractor; we also supply a proof for this criterion. The results are applied in order to give an analytic proof for the existence of a robust, pseudohyperbolic strange attractor (the so-called discrete Lorenz attractor) for an open set of parameter values in a 4-parameter family of 3D Henon-like diffeomorphisms.
The Development of the Idea of Mathematical Proof: A 5-Year Case Study.
Maher, Carolyn A.; Martino, Amy M.
1996-01-01
Interviews of one child through grades one through five on several combinatorics tasks indicated the student's progress in classifying, organizing, and reorganizing data. Provides significant insight into the process by which the student learned to make proofs. (Author/MKR)
Wigner's theorem - revisited. A simple proof using projective geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keller, Kai Johannes [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Papadopoulos, Nikolaos A. [Institut fuer Physik der Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Reyes Lega, Andres Fernando [Universidad de los Andes, Bogota (Colombia)
2008-07-01
This talk presents a a simple, geometric proof of Wigner's theorem on the realization of symmetries in quantum mechanics, that clarifies its relation to projective geometry. Although there exist several proofs, it seems that the relevance of Wigner's theorem is not fully appreciated in general. It is Wigner's theorem, which allows the use of linear realizations of symmetries and therefore guarantees that, in the end, quantum theory stays a linear theory. The proof presented here takes a strictly geometrical point of view. It becomes apparent, that Wigner's theorem is nothing else but a corollary of the fundamental theorem of projective geometry. In this sense the proof is simple, transparent and therefore accessible even to elementary treatments in quantum mechanics.
A unified proof of dynamic stability of interior ESS for projection dynamics
Joosten, Reinoud A.M.G.; Roorda, Berend
2011-01-01
We present a unified proof of dynamic stability for interior evolutionarily stable strategies for two recently introduced projection dynamics using the angle between certain vectors as a Lyapunov function.
An algebraic proof for the identities for the degree of syzygies in numerical semigroup
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neeraj Kumar
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In the article [4] two new identities for the degree of syzygies are given. We present an algebraic proof of them, using only basic homological algebra tools. We also extend these results.