WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit production basis

  1. Mobile energy recording unit - the basis to improve energy productivity with principles of lean production; Mobile Energie-Erfassungseinheit (MobEE). Eine Grundlage zur Steigerung der Energieproduktivitaet auf Basis von Lean Production Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellbach, Peter [Fraunhofer IWU, Augsburg (Germany). Projektgruppe fuer Ressourceneffiziente mechatronische Verarbeitungsmaschinen; Beisbart, Ulrich [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany). Abt. Steuerung Facility Management, Energie, Mobilitaet, Dienstleistungsmanagement; Reinhardt, Gunther [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Betriebswissenschaften; RMV Augsburg (Germany). IWU Projektguppe; Schneider, Oliver

    2012-10-15

    Improvement of energy productivity in production processes will become more important in future. As one large customer, manufacturing industry has to take responsibility to make its contribution in this field. The mobile energy recording unit helps to create the necessary transparency to identify possible energy savings on the basis of lean production principles.

  2. Accelerator production of tritium authorization basis strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.; Edwards, J.; Rose, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project has proposed a strategy to develop the APT authorization basis and safety case based on DOE orders and fundamental requirements for safe operation. The strategy is viable regardless of whether the APT is regulated by DOE or by an external regulatory body. Currently the operation of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is authorized by DOE and regulated by DOE orders and regulations while meeting the environmental protection requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states. In the spring of 1994, Congress proposed legislation and held hearings related to requiring all DOE operations to be subject to external regulation. On January 25, 1995, DOE, with the support of the White House Council on Environmental Quality, created the Advisory Committee on External Regulation of Department of Energy Nuclear Safety. This committee divided its recommendations into three areas: (1) facility safety, (2) worker safety, and (3) environmental protection. In the area of facility safety the committee recommended external regulation of DOE nuclear facilities by either the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or a restructured Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). In the area of worker safety, the committee recommended that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulate DOE nuclear facilities. In the environmental protection area, the committee did not recommend a change in the regulation by the EPA and the states of DOE nuclear facilities. If these recommendations are accepted, all DOE nuclear facilities will be impacted to some extent

  3. Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of efficiency of agricultural production on the basis of margin approach. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... and systematized to the management of production costs of agricultural products, the proposed definition ...

  4. Developing a predictive model for the energy content of goat milk as the basis for a functional unit formulation to be used in the life cycle assessment of dairy goat production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, P P; Ronchi, B

    2018-02-01

    Recent reports on livestock environmental impact based on life cycle assessment (LCA) did not fully consider the case of the dairy goat. Assignment of an environmental impact (e.g. global warming potential) to a specific product needs to be related to the appropriate 'unitary amount' or functional unit (FU). For milk, the energy content may provide a common basis for a definition of the FU. To date, no ad hoc formulations for the FU of goat milk have been proposed. For these reasons, this study aimed to develop and test one or more predictive models (DPMs) for the gross energy (GE) content of goat milk, based on published compositional data, such as fat (F), protein, total solids (TS), solid non-fat matter (SNF), lactose (Lac) and ash. The DPMs were developed, selected and tested using a linear regression approach, as a meta-analysis (i.e. meta-regression) was not applicable. However, in the final stage, a control procedure for spurious findings was carried out using a Monte Carlo permutation test. Because several published predictive models (PPMs) for GE in cow milk and goat milk were found in the literature, they were tested on the same data set with which the DPMs were developed. The best-performing DPMs and PPMs were compared directly with a subset of the individual data retrieved from the literature. Overall, the paucity of direct measurements of the GE in goat milk was a limiting factor in collecting data from the literature; thus, only a small data set (n=26) was established, even though it was considered sufficiently representative of milks from different goat breeds. The three best PPMs based on F alone gave more biased estimates of the GE content of the goat milk than the three new DPMs based on F, F and SNF and F and TS, respectively. Accordingly, three different formulations of FU are proposed, depending on the availability of data including both F and TS (or F and SNF) or F alone. Even though several metrics can be used in defining the FU for milk to

  5. The Emergy Basis for Formal Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The education system of the United States from 1870 to 2006 was evaluated using emergy methods. The system was partitioned into three subsystems, elementary, secondary, and college education and the emergy inputs required to support each subsystem were determined for each year o...

  6. Chapter 2. The production units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the second chapter of this CD ROM the production units of the Slovak Electric, Plc. (Slovenske elektrarne, a.s.), are presented. It consist of next paragraphs: (1) Nuclear power plants (A-1 Nuclear Power Plant (History, Technological scheme, basic data are presented); V-1, V-2 Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (History 1972-1985, technological scheme; nuclear safety, radiation protection, heat supply, international co-operation and basic data are presented); Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant (History 1980-1998, technological scheme, construction completion, milestones of commissioning, safety and environmental protection as well as basic data are included). (2) Conventional sources of energy (Vojany fossil power plant (History 1959-1992, Technological units of power plant, Impact of operation on the environment, Plant of Vojany FPP Renewal and Reconstruction, Basic data are listed), Novaky fossil power plant (History 1949-1998, Technological scheme, current investment construction, basic data, Handlova heating plant). Kosice Combined Heat Power Plant (History 1960-1995, technological scheme, State metrology centre, acredited chemical laboratory, basic data). (3) Hydroelectric power plants (Trencin HPPs: Cierny Vah pumped storage HPP, Liptovska Mara HPP, Orava HPP, Sucany HPP, Miksova HPP, Nosice HPP, Velke Kozmalovce HPP, Gabcikovo HPP, Dubnica HPP, Nove Mesto n/V HPP, Madunice HPP, Kralova HPP) and Dobsina HPPs: (Dobsina HPP, Ruzin HPP, Domasa HPP, small HPPs) are presented

  7. PROGNOSTICATION OF PRODUCTION OF GOODS ON THE BASIS OF FUZZY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya TOTSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors forecast the issue of commodities by the enterprises of food retail industry of theVolyn region of Ukraine by the use of the fuzzy sets theory. The algorithm of such foresight consists in passing of thefollowing stages: construction of dynamic rows of issue of ten basic food stuffs in the last few years; equipping themafter growth; construction fuzzy interval for every commodity; determination optimistic estimation for every index. Onthe basis of obtained information the ge neral issue of food products is calculated also in next years. Determination ofoptimistic estimation is conducted after the original method developed by an author. Basic its idea consists in that aninterval which answers the “golden” mean of dynamic row is most credible.

  8. Modeling of the Gross Regional Product on the Basis of Production Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovin, Nikolay S.; Kokotkina, Tatiana N.; Barkalova, Tatiana G.; Tsaregorodsev, Evgeny I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to elaboration and construction of a static model of macroeconomics in which economics is considered as an unstructured holistic unit, the input of which receives the resources, and the output is the result of the functioning of economics in the form of gross domestic product or gross regional product. Resources are…

  9. Distinguishing the elements of a full product basis set needs only projective measurements and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2004-01-01

    Nonlocality without entanglement is an interesting field. A manifestation of quantum nonlocality without entanglement is the possible local indistinguishability of orthogonal product states. In this paper we analyze the character of operators to distinguish the elements of a full product basis set in a multipartite system, and show that distinguishing perfectly these product bases needs only local projective measurements and classical communication, and these measurements cannot damage each product basis. Employing these conclusions one can discuss local distinguishability of the elements of any full product basis set easily. Finally we discuss the generalization of these results to the locally distinguishability of the elements of incomplete product basis set

  10. Harvested wood products : basis for future methodological development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog

    2003-01-01

    The IPCC Guidelines (IPCC 1997) provide an outline of how harvested wood could be treated in national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. This section shows the relation of that outline to the approaches and estimation methods to be presented in this Appendix. Wood and paper products are referred to as harvested wood products (HWP). It does not include carbon in...

  11. RELEVANT DIRECTIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF COMPETITIVE CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS ON THE BASIS OF INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Levitskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The article substantiates the necessity for competitive innovative high-tech construction products at the present stage of modernisation of the construction industry and reveals some peculiarities of their manufacture.Methods. In the course of the research, a programme-targeted method was applied, underlying the development of a programme for the innovative development of construction production.Results. Relevant directions of innovative development of construction production are systematised. The world's application experience of a technical regulation parametric model for construction industry product manufacturing is generalised. In order to increase the level of innovative activity of construction organisations, a set of practical measures is proposed whose implementation will ensure the output of competitive building products to the market.Conclusion. Increasing the competitiveness of construction products is closely connected with the activation of innovative processes: the introduction of high technology (including resource-saving into production processes and the expansion of the output of innovative products with the best consumer properties capable of successfully competing on the market with foreign counterparts in the context of import substitution strategies. The modernisation of the construction industry on the basis of introduction of hightech production methods specifies new requirements to the professional competencies of personnel producing competitive building products. To solve the set problems, a tool for improving the management mechanism of the innovative activity of construction organisations was proposed, ensuring the integration of institutional and production conditions for the large-scale development of advanced technologies and production of science-intensive types of construction products

  12. Basis for a new product programme for fluid connections in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    If one decides to make a new product programme for fluid connections (known as tubes, hoses, fittings) certain conditions should be taken into consideration. This include which functionality that is needed, what the different stakeholders demand from the product programme, how the functionality...... is distributed between the fluid connections and other system components, which phenomena there is of interest and how to deal with them. This paper can provide help when a specification has to be set up for a new product programme for fluid connections....

  13. Genetic and physiology basis of the quality of livestock products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Mele

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The animal research gives more attention, for more than twenty years, to the improvement of food quality, because this aspect plays an important role in the consumer choice. In this paper are browsed the principal foods of animal origin (milk, meat and eggs, paying attention on the actual genetic and physiologic knowledge, which influence the quality characteristic. Particularly, we examined the role of Quantitative Genetic in bovine and swine and the growing knowledge about animal genomes and individuation of QTL. Information on genomic regions that control QTL, allow to organize genetic improvement programs, using Markers Assisted Selection (MAS and Markers Assisted Introgression (MAI. Moreover are reported the knowledge about metabolic processes that influence quality especially on lipid and protein component. About other productions are considered the physiology of eggs production and the genetic improvement of hens. Finally the qualitative aspects about poultry and rabbit meat and the actual genetic improvement strategy are reported.

  14. Magnesium silicide production and silane synthesis on its basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurbaev, T.I.; Mukashev, F.A.; Manakov, S.M.; Francev, U.V.; Kalblanbekov, B.M.; Akhter, P.; Abbas, M.; Hussain, A.

    2003-01-01

    We had developed an alternative method of production of magnesium silicide with use of ferroalloys of silicon. Magnesium silicide is raw material for silane synthesis. The essence of the method consist of sintering FS -75 (ferrosilicium with 75 % of silicon and 25 % of iron, made by ferroalloy factories) with metal magnesium at temperature of 650 deg. C. The X-ray analysis has shown formation of magnesium silicide. That is further used for synthesis of silane. The output of silane is 60 % in respect of the contents of silicon. After removing the water vapors the mass-spectrometer analysis has estimated the purity of silane as 99.95 % with no detection of phosphine and diborane. (author)

  15. The Use of Lean Production Techniques as the Basis of Innovative Development of Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Tyaglov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In article methods, the principles and the main tools of technology of "economical production" are investigated. The possibility of application of "the concept the economical region" at the level of regional economies is analyzed. In the conditions of the policy of import substitution realized now in Russia, economical technologies, in our opinion, need to be considered as a basis of further innovative development of regions. Recently the philosophy of "economical production" which arose in Japan actively takes root the management of the Russian enterprises which treat, in particular such large organizations as: LLC Gazpromneft-Khantos, PJSC Rosneft, PJSC Sberbank, PJSC Gorky Automobile Plant, RUSAL United company, PJSC Kamaz, etc. The philosophy of "economical production" is implemented by means of certain tools and the principles. Treat the basic principles of economical technologies: probe of the existing losses, drop of negative consequences from the found losses by special methods and tools, and also monitoring of efficiency of functioning of system in general. The traditional tools used in the course of "economical production" are: mapping of a stream of creation of value, the 5S system, kaizen, visual management, the standardized operational instructions, kanban, bystry readjustment, general care of the equipment, "the extending production", etc. Use of the principles and instruments of "economical production" in business management and the region allows to increase many times their general competitiveness and to provide transition of regional economy to new qualitative level. In this regard, the question of whether technologies of "economical production" the main of innovative development of regions are becomes very urgent.

  16. Physical basis of coastal productivity: The SEEP and MASAR experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanady, G. T.

    Two major cooperative experiments, code-named Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) I and II, were carried out on the northeast U.S. continental shelf and slope by an interdisciplinary group of scientists in the past decade. The work, supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research, had the broad aim of determining whether or to what extent energy-related human activities interfere with the high biological productivity of coastal waters. Much of SEEP I work was reported in a dedicated issue of Continental Shelf Research, including a summary article on the experiment as a whole [Walsh et al., 1988[. A parallel experiment, supported by the Minerals Management Service and code-named Mid Atlantic Slope and Rise (MASAR), had the objective of exploring physical processes over the continental slope and rise, including especially currents in the upper part of the water column. A good deal of MASAR work was also reported in the SEEP issue just mentioned, mainly in an article by Csanady and Hamilton (1988). There have been other papers and publications on these experiments, and more are forthcoming. While many questions remain, our horizons have broadened considerably after a decade of work on this problem, as if our aeroplane had just emerged from clouds to expose an interesting landscape. In this article I shall try to describe the physical (-oceanographic) features of that landscape, not in the chronological order in which we have espied them, but as the logic of the subject dictates.

  17. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  18. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  19. Product quality of parenteral vancomycin products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, S; Madurawe, R D; Zuk, S M; Khan, S R; Ellison, C D; Faustino, P J; Mans, D J; Trehy, M L; Hadwiger, M E; Boyne, M T; Biswas, K; Cox, E M

    2012-06-01

    In response to concerns raised about the quality of parenteral vancomycin products, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is investigating the product quality of all FDA-approved parenteral vancomycin products available in the United States. Product quality was evaluated independently at two FDA Office of Testing and Research (FDA-OTR) sites. In the next phase of the investigation, being done in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the in vivo activity of these products will be evaluated in an appropriate animal model. This paper summarizes results of the FDA investigation completed thus far. One site used a validated ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography method (OTR-UPLC), and the second site used the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for related substances provided in the British Pharmacopeia (BP) monograph for vancomycin intravenous infusion. Similar results were obtained by the two FDA-OTR laboratories using two different analytical methods. The products tested had 90 to 95% vancomycin B (active component of vancomycin) by the BP-HPLC method and 89 to 94% vancomycin by OTR-UPLC methods. Total impurities were 5 to 10% by BP-HPLC and 6 to 11% by OTR-UPLC methods. No single impurity was >2.0%, and the CDP-1 level was ≤ 2.0% across all products. Some variability in impurity profiles of the various products was observed. No adverse product quality issues were identified with the six U.S. vancomycin parenteral products. The quality parameters of all parenteral vancomycin products tested surpassed the United States Pharmacopeia acceptance criteria. Additional testing will characterize in vivo performance characteristics of these products.

  20. Factorization of products of discontinuous functions applied to Fourier-Bessel basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Evgeny; Nevière, Michel; Bonod, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The factorization rules of Li [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1870 (1996)] are generalized to a cylindrical geometry requiring the use of a Bessel function basis. A theoretical study confirms the validity of the Laurent rule when a product of two continuous functions or of one continuous and one discontinuous function is factorized. The necessity of applying the so-called inverse rule in factorizing a continuous product of two discontinuous functions in a truncated basis is demonstrated theoretically and numerically.

  1. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.P. Turner; W.D. Ritts; B.E. Law; W.B. Cohen; Z. Yan; T. Hudiburg; J.L. Campbell; M. Duane

    2007-01-01

    Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP) and net biome production (NBP) was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5x105 km2 ) in the Western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m) remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history...

  2. Unit Price Scaling Trends for Chemical Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Wei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathre, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, III, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    To facilitate early-stage life-cycle techno-economic modeling of emerging technologies, here we identify scaling relations between unit price and sales quantity for a variety of chemical products of three categories - metal salts, organic compounds, and solvents. We collect price quotations for lab-scale and bulk purchases of chemicals from both U.S. and Chinese suppliers. We apply a log-log linear regression model to estimate the price discount effect. Using the median discount factor of each category, one can infer bulk prices of products for which only lab-scale prices are available. We conduct out-of-sample tests showing that most of the price proxies deviate from their actual reference prices by a factor less than ten. We also apply the bootstrap method to determine if a sample median discount factor should be accepted for price approximation. We find that appropriate discount factors for metal salts and for solvents are both -0.56, while that for organic compounds is -0.67 and is less representative due to greater extent of product heterogeneity within this category.

  3. Assessing the utility of phase-space-localized basis functions: Exploiting direct product structure and a new basis function selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, James; Carrington, Tucker

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that it is possible to use an iterative eigensolver in conjunction with Halverson and Poirier’s symmetrized Gaussian (SG) basis [T. Halverson and B. Poirier, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 224101 (2012)] to compute accurate vibrational energy levels of molecules with as many as five atoms. This is done, without storing and manipulating large matrices, by solving a regular eigenvalue problem that makes it possible to exploit direct-product structure. These ideas are combined with a new procedure for selecting which basis functions to use. The SG basis we work with is orders of magnitude smaller than the basis made by using a classical energy criterion. We find significant convergence errors in previous calculations with SG bases. For sum-of-product Hamiltonians, SG bases large enough to compute accurate levels are orders of magnitude larger than even simple pruned bases composed of products of harmonic oscillator functions.

  4. Assessing the utility of phase-space-localized basis functions: Exploiting direct product structure and a new basis function selection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Carrington, Tucker

    2016-06-28

    In this paper we show that it is possible to use an iterative eigensolver in conjunction with Halverson and Poirier's symmetrized Gaussian (SG) basis [T. Halverson and B. Poirier, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 224101 (2012)] to compute accurate vibrational energy levels of molecules with as many as five atoms. This is done, without storing and manipulating large matrices, by solving a regular eigenvalue problem that makes it possible to exploit direct-product structure. These ideas are combined with a new procedure for selecting which basis functions to use. The SG basis we work with is orders of magnitude smaller than the basis made by using a classical energy criterion. We find significant convergence errors in previous calculations with SG bases. For sum-of-product Hamiltonians, SG bases large enough to compute accurate levels are orders of magnitude larger than even simple pruned bases composed of products of harmonic oscillator functions.

  5. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First Spouse Bronze Medals and 2010 First Spouse Bronze Medal Series: Four...

  6. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit (631-18G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1996-07-01

    This Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the Gunsite 720 Rubble Pit Unit is issued by the U.S. Department of Energy, the lead agency for the Savannah River Site remedial activities, with concurrence by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - Region IV, and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control

  7. Multifunctionality of forestry as basis for creating gross innovational forestry product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Mikhailovich Bolshakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological issues of defining the essence, role and place of multifunctional forest economy (MFFE from the perspective of the scientific rationale of the state forest policy, which contributes to transference of the forest sector to the innovative basis with the emphasis on the regeneration issues. The system-regeneration approach is used as a methodological tool, which is the combination of principles and analysis of the forest sector as a complicated social-economical system based on the methodology of the regeneration process. On the basis of objective economic laws and regulations, a political-economic analysis is carried out to find out the system interrelation of the quality of forest resource use and productivity of social labour in the forest sector. Common features in the circulation of the functions of forestry capable of creating a special form of an innovation, gross innovational forestry product are identified. A model of a multifunctional forestry providing an opportunity to predict the characteristics of innovational products in complex systems is suggested. This model makes the basis for research of the innovative changes potentional for modernization of the innovative forest product.

  8. On Tour... Primary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Housed within the Department of Wood Science and Forest Products at Virginia Polytechnic Institute is a three-person USDA Forest Service research work unit (with one vacancy) devoted to hardwood processing and recycling research. Phil Araman is the project leader of this truly unique and productive unit, titled ãPrimary Hardwood Processing, Products and Recycling.ä The...

  9. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  10. Unit labour costs, productivity and international competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van; Stuivenwold, Edwin; Ypma, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides international comparisons of relative levels of unit labour costs (ULC) for several OECD countries relative to the United States. The estimates are based on the Total Economy Database and the 60-Industry Database of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC), and are also

  11. Factors Affecting Productivity in the United States Naval Construction Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morton, Darren

    1997-01-01

    By using a craftsman questionnaire, this thesis identifies and ranks the most important factors impairing Petty Officer productivity and morale in the United States Naval Construction Force (Seabees...

  12. EDUCATION AS BASIS OF FORMATION OF «NEW PRODUCTIVE FORCES» IN POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Grechko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Search of trajectories of transformation of domestic economy and society, in aspect of transition to a post-industrial stage of development, is actual and significant for today. In the author presented to article it is reasoned that synchronous formation of the «new productive forces» adequate to the formed relations of production in post-industrial society has to become the main imperative of development of domestic economy. Taking into account conceptual results of the political economic, evolutionary and institutional economic theory, the author put forward and proved situation that the new productive forces serving subsequently as basis for formation of relations of production adequate to them in borders of a post-industrial stage of development, have to be formed in sectors of generation of knowledge, thus the special part is assigned to educational sector. In the conclusion the main conclusions on the conducted research are systematized.

  13. Principles for determining the economic competence of production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubanova, O D; Makhlina, M I

    1980-01-01

    In the general plan for controlling the sector ''Geology and Exploration of the Depths'', a reduction is stipulated in the number of independent organizations and their inclusion as production units in the production geological associations. Distribution of rights and duties between the association and the production units is very important. Presentation to rights of the leaders to the lowest level to independently solve operational questions allows the leadership of the association to focus attention on solving major problems. The production units are given qualitative fulfillment of geological and production assignments, guarantee of improved efficiency of work, labor productivity and decrease in cost of the work; introduction of the latest achievements of science and technology; observation of the regime for conservation and efficient use of monetary resources, material and labor resources. There are natural interrelationships between specialization of production, centralization of the control functions and a change in the volume of authority of the production units. The legal status of the production unit is presented in two documents: statutes on the production geological association and statutes on the given production unit approved by the general director of the association. Principles are revealed for centralizing the rights needed to fulfill the functions following from national economic responsibility of the production geological association. This is long-term planning and forecasting, control of scientific-technical progress, scientific research, etc., control of the property, establishment of unified conditions for organization of labor and wages, construction, etc.

  14. Rainfall Intensity and Frequency Explain Production Basis Risk in Cumulative Rain Index Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus P.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Huffaker, Ray G.

    2017-12-01

    With minimal moral hazard and adverse selection, weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions through swift compensation at affordable premium. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing gives rise to production basis risk as the selected weather indexes do not sufficiently correspond to actual damages. To address this problem, we develop a stochastic yield model, built upon a stochastic soil moisture model driven by marked Poisson rainfall. Our analysis shows that even under similar temperature and rainfall amount yields can differ significantly; this was empirically supported by a 2-year field experiment in which rain-fed maize was grown under very similar total rainfall. Here, the year with more intense, less-frequent rainfall produces a better yield—a rare counter evidence to most climate change projections. Through a stochastic yield model, we demonstrate the crucial roles of rainfall intensity and frequency in determining the yield. Importantly, the model allows us to compute rainfall pattern-related basis risk inherent in cumulative rain index insurance. The model results and a case study herein clearly show that total rainfall is a poor indicator of yield, imposing unnecessary production basis risk on farmers and false-positive payouts on insurers. Incorporating rainfall intensity and frequency in the design of rain index insurance can offer farmers better protection, while maintaining the attractive features of the weather index insurance and thus fulfilling its promise of financial resilience.

  15. Structural and optical features of state-of-the-art industrial solar cells and units on their basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykov, M.; Mazinov, A.; Bykov, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper presenting experimental research for solar energy production the day time is defined, using state-of-the-art industrial photo-electric converters (PEC) on the basis of crystalline silicon. Based on the obtained practical results, it has been constructed an experimental solar energy device. The device has been tested for a year and and its characteristics have been investigated

  16. Ranking production units according to marginal efficiency contribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    League tables associated with various forms of service activities from schools to hospitals illustrate the public need for ranking institutions by their productive performance. We present a new method for ranking production units which is based on each units marginal contribution to the technical...

  17. Uranium production, the United States perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasier, G.E.

    1984-06-01

    U.S. uranium production appears to be headed for a level of approximately one quarter of the peak production of the early 1980's. In a free world market the majority of the U.S. production capability is noncompetitive and unnecessary to supply the free world's demand. Those world producers which can produce into the competitive uranium market of the present and the foreseeable future will be sufficient to supply the uranium needs of the world for the next ten to fifteen years. Thus, the U.S. production industry once the leading producer in the world will not regain nor approach that status in the foreseeable future

  18. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  19. Spectral Method with the Tensor-Product Nodal Basis for the Steklov Eigenvalue Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses spectral method with the tensor-product nodal basis at the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points for solving the Steklov eigenvalue problem. A priori error estimates of spectral method are discussed, and based on the work of Melenk and Wohlmuth (2001, a posterior error estimator of the residual type is given and analyzed. In addition, this paper combines the shifted-inverse iterative method and spectral method to establish an efficient scheme. Finally, numerical experiments with MATLAB program are reported.

  20. X/Qs and unit dose calculations for Central Waste Complex interim safety basis effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective for this problem is to calculate the ground-level release dispersion factors (X/Q) and unit doses for onsite facility and offsite receptors at the site boundary and at Highway 240 for plume meander, building wake effect, plume rise, and the combined effect. The release location is at Central Waste Complex Building P4 in the 200 West Area. The onsite facility is located at Building P7. Acute ground level release 99.5 percentile dispersion factors (X/Q) were generated using the GXQ. The unit doses were calculated using the GENII code. The dimensions of Building P4 are 15 m in W x 24 m in L x 6 m in H

  1. Biochemical basis of drought tolerance in hybrid Populus grown under field production conditions. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wierman, C. [Boise Cascade Corp., Wallula, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this cooperative effort was to assess the use of osmotically active compounds as molecular selection criteria for drought tolerance in Populus in a large-scale field trial. It is known that some plant species, and individuals within a plant species, can tolerate increasing stress associated with reduced moisture availability by accumulating solutes. The biochemical matrix of such metabolites varies among species and among individuals. The ability of Populus clones to tolerate drought has equal value to other fiber producers, i.e., the wood products industry, where irrigation is used in combination with other cultural treatments to obtain high dry weight yields. The research initially involved an assessment of drought stress under field conditions and characterization of changes in osmotic constitution among the seven clones across the six moisture levels. The near-term goal was to provide a mechanistic basis for clonal differences in productivity under various irrigation treatments over time.

  2. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  3. The Maple Products: An Outdoor Education Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaple, Charles; And Others

    Designed to take advantage of the spring season, this resource packet on maple products centers upon a field lesson in harvesting and making maple syrup. The resources in this packet include: a narrative on the origins of maple sugar; an illustrated description of "old time maple sugarin'"; suggestions for pre-trip activities (history of…

  4. Nuclear fuel cycle cost estimation and sensitivity analysis of unit costs on the basis of an equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.; You, S. R.; Gao, R. X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the difference in the value of the nuclear fuel cycle cost calculated by the deterministic and probabilistic methods on the basis of an equilibrium model. Calculating using the deterministic method, the direct disposal cost and Pyro-SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) nuclear fuel cycle cost, including the reactor cost, were found to be 66.41 mills/kWh and 77.82 mills/kWh, respectively (1 mill = one thousand of a dollar, i.e., 10-3 $). This is because the cost of SFR is considerably expensive. Calculating again using the probabilistic method, however, the direct disposal cost and Pyro-SFR nuclear fuel cycle cost, excluding the reactor cost, were found be 7.47 mills/kWh and 6.40 mills/kWh, respectively, on the basis of the most likely value. This is because the nuclear fuel cycle cost is significantly affected by the standard deviation and the mean of the unit cost that includes uncertainty. Thus, it is judged that not only the deterministic method, but also the probabilistic method, would also be necessary to evaluate the nuclear fuel cycle cost. By analyzing the sensitivity of the unit cost in each phase of the nuclear fuel cycle, it was found that the uranium unit price is the most influential factor in determining nuclear fuel cycle costs.

  5. Building an Orthonormal Basis from a 3D Unit Vector Without Normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2012-01-01

    I present two tools that save the computation of a dot product and a reciprocal square root in operations that are used frequently in the core of many rendering programs. The first tool is a formula for rotating a direction sampled around the z -axis to a direction sampled around an arbitrary uni...

  6. Modelling a New Product Model on the Basis of an Existing STEP Application Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-R. Hoehn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years a great range of computer aided tools has been generated to support the development process of various products. The goal of a continuous data flow, needed for high efficiency, requires powerful standards for the data exchange. At the FZG (Gear Research Centre of the Technical University of Munich there was a need for a common gear data format for data exchange between gear calculation programs. The STEP standard ISO 10303 was developed for this type of purpose, but a suitable definition of gear data was still missing, even in the Application Protocol AP 214, developed for the design process in the automotive industry. The creation of a new STEP Application Protocol or the extension of existing protocol would be a very time consumpting normative process. So a new method was introduced by FZG. Some very general definitions of an Application Protocol (here AP 214 were used to determine rules for an exact specification of the required kind of data. In this case a product model for gear units was defined based on elements of the AP 214. Therefore no change of the Application Protocol is necessary. Meanwhile the product model for gear units has been published as a VDMA paper and successfully introduced for data exchange within the German gear industry associated with FVA (German Research Organisation for Gears and Transmissions. This method can also be adopted for other applications not yet sufficiently defined by STEP. 

  7. Unites States position paper on sodium fires. Design basis and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancet, R.T.; Johnson, R.P.; Matlin, E.; Vaughan, E.U.; Fields, D.E.; Glueckler, E.; McCormack, J.D.; Miller, C.W.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper focuses on designs, analyses, and tests performed since the last Sodium Fires Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors in May 1982. Since the U.S. Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program is focused on the two advanced LMRs, SAFR and PRISM, the paper relates this work to these designs. First, the design philosophy and approach taken by these advanced pool reactors are described. This includes methods of leak detection, the design basis leaks, and passive accommodation of sodium fires. Then the small- and large-scale sodium fire tests performed in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) program, including post-accident cleanup, are presented and related to the advanced LMR designs. Next, the assessment and behavior of the aerosols generated are discussed including generation rate, behavior within structures, release and dispersal, and deposition on safety-grade equipment. Finally, the impact of these aerosols on the performance of safety-grade decay heat removal heat exchange surfaces is discussed including some test results as well as planned tests. (author)

  8. Reduced nicotine product standards for combustible tobacco: building an empirical basis for effective regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donny, Eric C; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Benowitz, Neal L; Sved, Alan F; Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N

    2014-11-01

    Both the Tobacco Control Act in the U.S. and Article 9 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enable governments to directly address the addictiveness of combustible tobacco by reducing nicotine through product standards. Although nicotine may have some harmful effects, the detrimental health effects of smoked tobacco are primarily due to non-nicotine constituents. Hence, the health effects of nicotine reduction would likely be determined by changes in behavior that result in changes in smoke exposure. Herein, we review the current evidence on nicotine reduction and discuss some of the challenges in establishing the empirical basis for regulatory decisions. To date, research suggests that very low nicotine content cigarettes produce a desirable set of outcomes, including reduced exposure to nicotine, reduced smoking, and reduced dependence, without significant safety concerns. However, much is still unknown, including the effects of gradual versus abrupt changes in nicotine content, effects in vulnerable populations, and impact on youth. A coordinated effort must be made to provide the best possible scientific basis for regulatory decisions. The outcome of this effort may provide the foundation for a novel approach to tobacco control that dramatically reduces the devastating health consequences of smoked tobacco. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Matrix-product-state method with local basis optimization for nonequilibrium electron-phonon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Brockt, Christoph; Dorfner, Florian; Vidmar, Lev; Jeckelmann, Eric

    We present a method for simulating the time evolution of quasi-one-dimensional correlated systems with strongly fluctuating bosonic degrees of freedom (e.g., phonons) using matrix product states. For this purpose we combine the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm with a local basis optimization (LBO) approach. We discuss the performance of our approach in comparison to TEBD with a bare boson basis, exact diagonalization, and diagonalization in a limited functional space. TEBD with LBO can reduce the computational cost by orders of magnitude when boson fluctuations are large and thus it allows one to investigate problems that are out of reach of other approaches. First, we test our method on the non-equilibrium dynamics of a Holstein polaron and show that it allows us to study the regime of strong electron-phonon coupling. Second, the method is applied to the scattering of an electronic wave packet off a region with electron-phonon coupling. Our study reveals a rich physics including transient self-trapping and dissipation. Supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via FOR 1807.

  10. Measuring healthcare productivity - from unit to system level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämäräinen, Vesa Johannes; Peltokorpi, Antti; Torkki, Paulus; Tallbacka, Kaj

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare productivity is a growing issue in most Western countries where healthcare expenditure is rapidly increasing. Therefore, accurate productivity metrics are essential to avoid sub-optimization within a healthcare system. The purpose of this paper is to focus on healthcare production system productivity measurement. Design/methodology/approach - Traditionally, healthcare productivity has been studied and measured independently at the unit, organization and system level. Suggesting that productivity measurement should be done in different levels, while simultaneously linking productivity measurement to incentives, this study presents the challenges of productivity measurement at the different levels. The study introduces different methods to measure productivity in healthcare. In addition, it provides background information on the methods used to measure productivity and the parameters used in these methods. A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical information for managers. Findings - The study introduces different approaches and methods to measure productivity in healthcare. Practical implications - A pilot investigation of productivity measurement is used to illustrate the challenges of measurement, to test the developed measures and to prove the practical benefits for managers. Originality/value - The authors focus on the measurement of the whole healthcare production system and try to avoid sub-optimization. Additionally considering an individual patient approach, productivity measurement is examined at the unit level, the organizational level and the system level.

  11. [Development of a program theory as a basis for the evaluation of a dementia special care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlbrecht, Laura; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Mayer, Hanna

    2018-06-01

    Background: An existing dementia special care unit should be evaluated. In order to build a sound foundation of the evaluation a deep theoretical understanding of the implemented intervention is needed, which has not been explicated yet. One possibility to achieve this is the development of a program theory. Aim: The aim is to present a method to develop a program theory for the existing living and care concept of the dementia special care unit, which is used in a larger project to evaluate the concept theory-drivenly. Method: The evaluation is embedded in the framework of van Belle et al. (2010) and an action model and a change model (Chen, 2015) is created. For the specification of the change model the contribution analysis (Mayne, 2011) is applied. Data were collected in workshops with the developers and the nurses of the dementia special care unit and a literature research concerning interventions and outcomes was carried out. The results were synthesized in a consens workshop. Results: The action model describes the interventions of the dementia special care unit, the implementers, the organization and the context. The change model compromises the mechanisms through which interventions achieve outcomes. Conclusions: The results of the program theory can be employed to choose data collection methods and instruments for the evaluation. On the basis of the results of the evaluation the program theory can be refined and adapted.

  12. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  13. Development of Product Availability Monitoring System In Production Unit In Automotive Component Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Rachmad; Raharno, Sri; Yuwana Martawirya, Yatna; Arthaya, Bagus

    2018-03-01

    This paper described a methodology to monitor the availability of products in a production unit in the automotive component industry. Automotive components made are automotive components made through sheet metal working. Raw material coming into production unit in the form of pieces of plates that have a certain size. Raw materials that come stored in the warehouse. Data of raw each material in the warehouse are recorded and stored in a data base system. The material will then undergo several production processes in the production unit. When the material is taken from the warehouse, material data are also recorded and stored in a data base. The data recorded are the amount of material, material type, and date when the material is out of the warehouse. The material coming out of the warehouse is labeled with information related to the production processes that the material must pass. Material out of the warehouse is a product will be made. The products have been completed, are stored in the warehouse products. When the product is entered into the product warehouse, product data is also recorded by scanning the barcode contained on the label. By recording the condition of the product at each stage of production, we can know the availability of the product in a production unit in the form of a raw material, the product being processed and the finished product.

  14. Calculating vibrational spectra with sum of product basis functions without storing full-dimensional vectors or matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Arnaud; Carrington, Tucker

    2014-05-07

    We propose an iterative method for computing vibrational spectra that significantly reduces the memory cost of calculations. It uses a direct product primitive basis, but does not require storing vectors with as many components as there are product basis functions. Wavefunctions are represented in a basis each of whose functions is a sum of products (SOP) and the factorizable structure of the Hamiltonian is exploited. If the factors of the SOP basis functions are properly chosen, wavefunctions are linear combinations of a small number of SOP basis functions. The SOP basis functions are generated using a shifted block power method. The factors are refined with a rank reduction algorithm to cap the number of terms in a SOP basis function. The ideas are tested on a 20-D model Hamiltonian and a realistic CH3CN (12 dimensional) potential. For the 20-D problem, to use a standard direct product iterative approach one would need to store vectors with about 10(20) components and would hence require about 8 × 10(11) GB. With the approach of this paper only 1 GB of memory is necessary. Results for CH3CN agree well with those of a previous calculation on the same potential.

  15. Accurate Determination of the Values of Fundamental Physical Constants: The Basis of the New "Quantum" SI Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karshenboim, S. G.

    2018-03-01

    The metric system appeared as the system of units designed for macroscopic (laboratory scale) measurements. The progress in accurate determination of the values of quantum constants (such as the Planck constant) in SI units shows that the capabilities in high-precision measurement of microscopic and macroscopic quantities in terms of the same units have increased substantially recently. At the same time, relative microscopic measurements (for example, the comparison of atomic transition frequencies or atomic masses) are often much more accurate than relative measurements of macroscopic quantities. This is the basis for the strategy to define units in microscopic phenomena and then use them on the laboratory scale, which plays a crucial role in practical methodological applications determined by everyday life and technologies. The international CODATA task group on fundamental constants regularly performs an overall analysis of the precision world data (the so-called Adjustment of the Fundamental Constants) and publishes their recommended values. The most recent evaluation was based on the data published by the end of 2014; here, we review the corresponding data and results. The accuracy in determination of the Boltzmann constant has increased, the consistency of the data on determination of the Planck constant has improved; it is these two dimensional constants that will be used in near future as the basis for the new definition of the kelvin and kilogram, respectively. The contradictions in determination of the Rydberg constant and the proton charge radius remain. The accuracy of determination of the fine structure constant and relative atomic weight of the electron has improved. Overall, we give a detailed review of the state of the art in precision determination of the values of fundamental constants. The mathematical procedure of the Adjustment, the new data and results are considered in detail. The limitations due to macroscopic properties of material

  16. Life cycle assessment of genetically modified products as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of possible environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepffer, W.; Renner, I.; Schmidt, E.; Tappeser, B.; Gensch, C.O.; Gaugitsch, H.

    2001-01-01

    result, first steps to develop a new category, e.g. 'genetic engineering' were undertaken. This impact category shall enable to take into account the risks of the deliberate release of genetically modified crop plants in the course of agricultural production and the comparison of different genetically modified crop plants. For the calculation of a factor for characterizing a specific genetically modified crop plant, a risk number is determined on the basis of the likelihood of each risk category being realized. This depends on the likelihood of dissemination in a specific climate zone as well as on the number of transferred or modified genes. This risk number is combined with the number of the potentially affected areas of protection. The data are gained from the respective notification dossiers for the specific genetically modified plant. In the inventory analysis the agricultural production area (or the result of the area and the duration of application) of the genetically modified plant, relating to the functional unit, is determined. The resulting indicator is calculated by multiplying with the respective characterizing factor. This is shown taking the 2 model products Bt-maize 176 and herbicide tolerant winter oilseed rape as examples. The results of this study show that it is possible to operationalize the risks of the planting of genetically modified crop plants for the impact assessment in a LCA via a new category. The calculation of the characterizing factors is possible on the basis of the available data sources. (author)

  17. The ways of enhancement and optimization of production by separate types of meat on the basis of modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaymanova D.K.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available in this article the ways of optimization and enhancement of production of meat in the Kyrgyz Republic are considered. And also on the basis of statistical data and economic-mathematical modeling forecast calculations for the predicted years (2016–2020 are performed. Questions to increase the production volume by separate types of meat in the country are considered.

  18. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in Africa: Panel Unit Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested absolute and conditional convergence of Total Factor Productivity in Africa using a sample of 23 countries and TFP data covering the period between 1960 and 2003 while deploying the panel unit root methodology. Countries that have experienced sustained economic growth rate are found to have ...

  19. Braille in the United States: Its Production, Distribution, and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldish, Louis Harvey

    The braille production system in the United States is described. Aspects treated are the following: the need for braille (the braille system), the market for braille (size and characteristics), sources of braille (producers and braille book source information), and present methods and costs of producing braille. Technological advances are…

  20. Investigation reactor D-2201 polypropylene production unit using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibisono; Sugiharto; Jefri Simanjuntak

    2016-01-01

    D-2201 reactor is a unit in the polypropylene production process at Pertamina Refinery Unit III Plaju. Reactor with a capacity of 45 kilo liter is not operated in normal operation condition. The validity of liquid level indicator on the unit is doubtful when refers to the production quality. Gamma source of 150 mCi Cobalt-60 and a scintillation detector had been used to scan the outer wall of the reactor to detect the liquid level during operation with a capacity of 40 %. Measurements were made along the reactor walls with 25 mm scan resolution and 5 seconds time sampling. Experiment result shows that the liquid level at the position of 40 % and at normal level position are not observed. Investigation did not find the liquid level above normal. D-2201 is diagnose not normal operating condition diagnosed with liquid abundant passed the recommended limits. Investigation advised to repair or to calibrate the liquid level indicator which is currently installed. (author)

  1. Using a pruned, nondirect product basis in conjunction with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodraszka, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Wodraszka@chem.queensu.ca; Carrington, Tucker, E-mail: Tucker.Carrington@queensu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2016-07-28

    In this paper, we propose a pruned, nondirect product multi-configuration time dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method for solving the Schrödinger equation. MCTDH uses optimized 1D basis functions, called single particle functions, but the size of the standard direct product MCTDH basis scales exponentially with D, the number of coordinates. We compare the pruned approach to standard MCTDH calculations for basis sizes small enough that the latter are possible and demonstrate that pruning the basis reduces the CPU cost of computing vibrational energy levels of acetonitrile (D = 12) by more than two orders of magnitude. Using the pruned method, it is possible to do calculations with larger bases, for which the cost of standard MCTDH calculations is prohibitive. Pruning the basis complicates the evaluation of matrix-vector products. In this paper, they are done term by term for a sum-of-products Hamiltonian. When no attempt is made to exploit the fact that matrices representing some of the factors of a term are identity matrices, one needs only to carefully constrain indices. In this paper, we develop new ideas that make it possible to further reduce the CPU time by exploiting identity matrices.

  2. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600 m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

  3. Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elyse; Wang, Teresa W; Husten, Corinne G; Corey, Catherine G; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; King, Brian A

    2017-11-10

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). Despite declining cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults, shifts in the tobacco product landscape have occurred in recent years (2,3). Previous estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults were obtained from the National Adult Tobacco Survey, which ended after the 2013-2014 cycle. This year, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assessed the most recent national estimates of tobacco product use among adults aged ≥18 years using, for the first time, data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, nationally representative, in-person survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. The 2015 NHIS adult core questionnaire included 33,672 adults aged ≥18 years, reflecting a 55.2% response rate. Data were weighted to adjust for differences in selection probability and nonresponse, and to provide nationally representative estimates. In 2015, 20.1 % of U.S. adults currently (every day or some days) used any tobacco product, 17.6% used any combustible tobacco product, and 3.9% used ≥2 tobacco products. By product, 15.1% of adults used cigarettes; 3.5% used electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); 3.4% used cigars, cigarillos, or filtered little cigars; 2.3% used smokeless tobacco; and 1.2% used regular pipes, water pipes, or hookahs.* Current use of any tobacco product was higher among males; persons aged product was 47.2% among adults with serious psychological distress compared with 19.2% among those without serious psychological distress. Proven population-level interventions that focus on the diversity of tobacco product use are important to reducing tobacco-related disease and death in the United States (1).

  4. Youth tobacco product use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2015-03-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular among youth, especially cigarette smokers. Understanding multiple tobacco product use is necessary to assess the effects of tobacco products on population health. This study examines multiple tobacco product use and associated risk factors among US youth. Estimates of current use were calculated for cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah, e-cigarettes, pipes, bidis, kreteks, snus, and dissolvable tobacco by using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 24 658), a nationally representative sample of US middle and high school students. Associations between use patterns and demographic characteristics were examined by using multinomial logistic regression. Among youth, 14.7% currently use 1 or more tobacco products. Of these, 2.8% use cigarettes exclusively, and 4% use 1 noncigarette product exclusively; 2.7% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), and 4.3% use 3 or more products (polytobacco use). Twice as many youth use e-cigarettes alone than dual use with cigarettes. Among smokers, polytobacco use was significantly associated with male gender (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 3.71), by using flavored products (aRRR = 6.09), nicotine dependence (aRRR = 1.91), tobacco marketing receptivity (aRRR = 2.52), and perceived prevalence of peer use of tobacco products (aRRR = 3.61, 5.73). More than twice as many youth in the United States currently use 2 or more tobacco products than cigarettes alone. Continued monitoring of tobacco use patterns is warranted, especially for e-cigarettes. Youth rates of multiple product use involving combustible products underscore needs for research assessing potential harms associated with these patterns. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. China-United States Productivity Catch-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    China’s gap in industrial labor productivity with the United States has been steadily shrinking over recent decades. In this paper we examine the main sources of gap reduction and the potential for further catch-up. Using Chinese above-scale firm-level data during 1998-2007 period and BEA industry...... -level data in the US, we first document the respective rates of growth of labor productivity, gap reduction, and contributions to overall catch-up of China’s manufacturing sector during 1998-2007. We then aggregate the firm-level data to the 3-digit industry level to estimate a productivity gap...... reduction function and find that the key drivers for the productivity convergence are the initial technology gap, increased R&D spending, firm’s ownership restructuring, and industry level entry-exit ratio, a measure of competitive dynamism. A key finding is that the catch-up dynamic entails the break out...

  6. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  7. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  8. Classifying Floating Potential Measurement Unit Data Products as Science Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Victoria; Minow, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We are Co-Investigators for the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) on the International Space Station (ISS) and members of the FPMU operations and data analysis team. We are providing this memo for the purpose of classifying raw and processed FPMU data products and ancillary data as NASA science data with unrestricted, public availability in order to best support science uses of the data.

  9. Chemical data for the calculation of fission product releases in design basis faults in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.; Bawden, R.J.; Garbett, K.; Deane, A.M.; Large, N.R.

    1982-04-01

    This review considers the chemistry of caesium and iodine and their volatility under the conditions which would exist during a number of design-basis faults. It recommends values which should be used for the distribution of these elements between liquid and gas phases. (author)

  10. Representation of Industrial Knowledge - as a Basis for Developing and Maintaning Product Configurators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A product configurator is a software-based expert system that supports the user in the creation of product specifications by restricting how different components and properties may be combined. The use of product configurators has for several years provided many engineering-oriented comp......Abstract A product configurator is a software-based expert system that supports the user in the creation of product specifications by restricting how different components and properties may be combined. The use of product configurators has for several years provided many engineering......, not all configuration projects are successful, but in fact many fail or experience great problems during the course of the project. An important factor for the success of a configuration project is the quality of the methods, techniques and tools applied when extracting, representing and documenting...

  11. The Proximate Unit in Chinese Handwritten Character Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenn-Yeu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In spoken word production, a proximate unit is the first phonological unit at the sublexical level that is selectable for production (O’Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010. The present study investigated whether the proximate unit in Chinese handwritten word production is the stroke, the radical, or something in between. A written version of the form preparation task was adopted. Chinese participants learned sets of two-character words, later were cued with the first character of each word, and had to write down the second character (the target. Response times were measured from the onset of a cue character to the onset of a written response. In Experiment 1, the target characters within a block shared (homogeneous or did not share (heterogeneous the first stroke. In Experiment 2, the first two strokes were shared in the homogeneous blocks. Response times in the homogeneous blocks and in the heterogeneous blocks were comparable in both experiments (Exp. 1: 687 ms vs. 684 ms, Exp. 2: 717 vs. 716. In Experiment 3 and 4, the target characters within a block shared or did not share the first radical. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 3: 685 vs. 704, Exp. 4: 594 vs. 650. In Experiment 5 and 6, the shared component was a Gestalt-like form that is more than a stroke, constitutes a portion of the target character, can be a stand-alone character itself, can be a radical of another character but is not a radical of the target character (e.g., 士in聲, 鼓, 穀, 款; called a logographeme. Response times in the homogeneous blocks were significantly faster than those in the heterogeneous blocks (Exp. 5: 576 vs. 625, Exp. 6: 586 vs. 620. These results suggest a model of Chinese handwritten character production in which the stroke is not a functional unit, the radical plays the role of a morpheme, and the logographeme is the proximate unit.

  12. Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesjorde, Audun

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this thesis was to further develop a methodology for minimizing the entropy production of single and connected chemical process units. When chemical process equipment is designed and operated at the lowest entropy production possible, the energy efficiency of the equipment is enhanced. We have found for single process units that the entropy production could be reduced with up to 20-40%, given the degrees of freedom in the optimization. In processes, our results indicated that even bigger reductions were possible. The states of minimum entropy production were studied and important painter's for obtaining significant reductions in the entropy production were identified. Both from sustain ability and economical viewpoints knowledge of energy efficient design and operation are important. In some of the systems we studied, nonequilibrium thermodynamics was used to model the entropy production. In Chapter 2, we gave a brief introduction to different industrial applications of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The link between local transport phenomena and overall system description makes nonequilibrium thermodynamics a useful tool for understanding design of chemical process units. We developed the methodology of minimization of entropy production in several steps. First, we analyzed and optimized the entropy production of single units: Two alternative concepts of adiabatic distillation; diabatic and heat-integrated distillation, were analyzed and optimized in Chapter 3 to 5. In diabatic distillation, heat exchange is allowed along the column, and it is this feature that increases the energy efficiency of the distillation column. In Chapter 3, we found how a given area of heat transfer should be optimally distributed among the trays in a column separating a mixture of propylene and propane. The results showed that heat exchange was most important on the trays close to the re boiler and condenser. In Chapter 4 and 5, we studied how the entropy

  13. Analysis of Product Sampling for New Product Diffusion Incorporating Multiple-Unit Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhineng Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-unit ownership of nondurable products is an important component of sales in many product categories. Based on the Bass model, this paper develops a new model considering the multiple-unit adoptions as a diffusion process under the influence of product sampling. Though the analysis aims to determine the optimal dynamic sampling effort for a firm and the results demonstrate that experience sampling can accelerate the diffusion process, the best time to send free samples is just before the product being launched. Multiple-unit purchasing behavior can increase sales to make more profit for a firm, and it needs more samples to make the product known much better. The local sensitivity analysis shows that the increase of both external coefficients and internal coefficients has a negative influence on the sampling level, but the internal influence on the subsequent multiple-unit adoptions has little significant influence on the sampling. Using the logistic regression along with linear regression, the global sensitivity analysis gives a whole analysis of the interaction of all factors, which manifests the external influence and multiunit purchase rate are two most important factors to influence the sampling level and net present value of the new product, and presents a two-stage method to determine the sampling level.

  14. Combined heat and power production planning in a waste-to-energy plant on a short-term basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touš, Michal; Pavlas, Martin; Putna, Ondřej; Stehlík, Petr; Crha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    In many cases, WtE (waste-to-energy) plants are CHP (combined heat and power) producers. They are often integrated into a central heating system and they also export electricity to the grid. Therefore, they have to plan their operation on a long-term basis (months, years) as well as on a short-term basis (hours, days). Simulation models can effectively support decision making in CHP production planning. In general, CHP production planning on a short-term basis is a challenging task for WtE plants. This article presents a simulation based support. It is demonstrated on an example involving a real WtE plant. Most of the models of relevant WtE sub-systems (boilers, steam turbine) are developed using operational data and applying linear regression and artificial neural network technique. The process randomness given mainly by fluctuating heating value of waste leads to uncertainty in a calculation of CHP production and a stochastic approach is appropriate. The models of the sub-systems are, therefore, extended of a stochastic part and Monte-Carlo simulation is applied. Compared to the current planning strategy in the involved WtE plant, the stochastic simulation based planning provides increased CHP production resulting in better net thermal efficiency and increased revenue. This is demonstrated through a comparison using real operational data. - Highlights: • Introduction of a stochastic model of a CHP production in a waste-to-energy plant. • An application of the model for the next day CHP production planning. • Better net thermal efficiency and therefore increased revenue achieved.

  15. Practical Use of Nitrite and Basis for Dosage in the Manufacture of Meat Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Ekgreen, Maria Helbo; Risum, Jørgen

    . The particularities of the production methods make such a quantification rather uncertain. Furthermore, some dry cured products from South Europe are made with nitrate, which slowly and only partly is converted to nitrite and further to NO during the curing process. The Danish limitations on the use of nitrate......The use of nitrite (NaNO2) in the manufacture of salted (cured) meat products has a long tradition in the industry, dating back to the early twentieth century. Nitrite serves several technological purposes, primarily by the formation of a stable red colour in the meat and the inhibition...... of the growth of Clostridium botulinum. According to an assessment report by the European Food Safety Authority (The EFSA Journal, 14, p. 1-134, 2003) all evidence points to that it is the added amount of nitrite rather than the residual amount of nitrite in the product which exerts the antimicrobial effect...

  16. ENERGY SAVING TECHNOLOGY OF LIGATURES PRODUCTION ON THE BASIS OF MOLYBDENUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Slutsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on development of technology of the molybdenum-containing addition alloy production by method of aluminothermic restoration is provided in the article. Influence of conditions of production on quality and metallurgical output of addition alloy is studied. The received addition alloys were tested in industrial conditions at smelting of the low-alloyed steel 35HML and the received results confirmed efficiency of application of the developed addition alloy.

  17. Innovative Production of Polyvinychloride on the Basis of Vertical Integration of Business and Cluster Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashova, Irina; Zakharova, Natalia; Kharlampenkov, Evgeniy

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents the results of the research of the world and Russian market of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a comparative assessment is made and the similarities and differences of these segments at the present have been identified. The theoretical possibility of considerable prospects of the development of domestic production of PVC is justified, ensure that it can achieve import substitution and export substitutionof this product in Russia. Based on the theoryof value chains and cluster organization of the enterprises of coal and chemical industries, ferrous metallurgy and other enterprises of Kuzbass have been proposed new technological solutions for the production of PVC, taking into account regional features of naturalresource base and capacity of national and world markets. It is established that the organization of production of PVC, using coal chemistry technology can be a promising growth point for the business of the Kemerovo region, will help to diversify the coal industry, to expand its product structure and export potential of the region, increase its competitiveness.

  18. Modal Transition Systems as the Basis for Interface Theories and Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik

    and a subset of modal transition systems is proved. The developed interface theory, which can describe liveness properties, is also applied as a behavioral variability theory for product line development. The two last papers of the thesis concern themselves with modal and mixed transition systems. The first....... It also proves PSPACE-hardness for consistency of mixed specifications and establishes a number of reductions between the different decision problems. Keywords: Modeling, Software Product Lines, Embedded Software, Modal Refinement, Labeled Transition Systems, Modal Transition Systems, Mixed Transition......This thesis presents research taking its outset in component-based software development, interface theory and software product lines, as well as modeling formalisms for describing component based software systems and their interfaces. The main part of the thesis consists of five papers. The first...

  19. Multimedia Products as Basis of New Teaching Organisation (Within Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrinka Toteva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available University foreign language lecturers need to equalize prior language competence and expand students’ knowledge and skills. The existing teaching approaches prove insufficient, which is a reason to search for new and change the old ones. The development of learning skills using ICT extends basic information channels and thus stimulates the acquisition of new competences. When IT-assisted learning is used in cooperative environment, students gain more knowledge and retain it better. This article is based on practical experience in multimedia product development and study of international attempts to achieve identical teaching goals and turn products into good teaching materials.

  20. Waste disposal process on the basis of fission product solutions, and suitable plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, D.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrous fission product solution containing ruthenium is concentrated in a wiper blade evaporator. After intermediate drying the residue is vitrified adding vitrifying agents and NH4 in an amount of 20 to 300% referred to the nitrate content of the concentrated residue. (orig./PW)

  1. Material science as basis for nuclear medicine: Holmium irradiation for radioisotopes production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Otuka, Naohiko

    2018-05-01

    Material Science, being an interdisciplinary field, plays important roles in nuclear science. These applications are seen in weaponry, armoured vehicles, accelerator structure and development, semiconductor detectors, nuclear medicine and many more. Present study presents the applications of some metals in nuclear medicine (radioisotope production). The charged-particle-induced nuclear reactions by using cyclotrons or accelerators have become a very vital feature of the modern nuclear medicine. Realising the importance of excitation functions for the efficient production of medical radionuclides, some very high purity holmium metals are generally prepared or purchased for bombardment in nuclear accelerators. In the present work, various methods to obtain pure holmium for radioisotope production have been discussed while also presenting details of our present studies. From the experimental work of the present studies, some very high purity holmium foils have been used in the work for a comprehensive study of residual radionuclides production cross-sections. The study was performed using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with γ-ray spectrometry. The stack was bombarded with 50.4 MeV alpha particle beam from AVF cyclotron of RI Beam Factory, Nishina Centre for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Japan. The work produced thulium radionuclides useful in nuclear medicine.

  2. Production of advanced fuels and of chemicals by yeasts on the basis of second generation feedstocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de J.A.M.; Raab, A.; Schilling, M.; Tamame González, M.M.; los Ángeles Santos García, De M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Arjona Antolín, R.; Gutiérrez Gómez, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to modified eukaryotic microbial cells that have been engineered for producing fermentation products such as fatty acids, 1-alcohols, [beta]- keto-acids and -alcohols, [beta]-hydroxyacids, 1,3-diols, trans-[Delta]2-fatty acids, alkenes, alkanes and derivatives thereof,

  3. Genetic basis of aboveground productivity in two native Populus species and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojewski, Nathan R; Fischer, Dylan G; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Whitham, Thomas G; Hart, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Demonstration of genetic control over riparian tree productivity has major implications for responses of riparian systems to shifting environmental conditions and effects of genetics on ecosystems in general. We used field studies and common gardens, applying both molecular and quantitative techniques, to compare plot-level tree aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP(tree)) and individual tree growth rate constants in relation to plant genetic identity in two naturally occurring Populus tree species and their hybrids. In field comparisons of four cross types (Populus fremontii S. Wats., Populus angustifolia James, F(1) hybrids and backcross hybrids) across 11 natural stands, productivity was greatest for P. fremontii trees, followed by hybrids and lowest in P. angustifolia. A similar pattern was observed in four common gardens across a 290 m elevation and 100 km environmental gradient. Despite a doubling in productivity across the common gardens, the relative differences among the cross types remained constant. Using clonal replicates in a common garden, we found ANPP(tree) to be a heritable plant trait (i.e., broad-sense heritability), such that plant genetic factors explained between 38% and 82% of the variation in ANPP(tree). Furthermore, analysis of the genetic composition among individual tree genotypes using restriction fragment length polymorphism molecular markers showed that genetically similar trees also exhibited similar ANPP(tree). These findings indicate strong genetic contributions to natural variation in ANPP with important ecological implications.

  4. Reducing Production Basis Risk through Rainfall Intensity Frequency (RIF) Indexes: Global Sensitivity Analysis' Implication on Policy Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Chitsomanus; Huffaker, Ray; Munoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    The weather index insurance promises financial resilience to farmers struck by harsh weather conditions with swift compensation at affordable premium thanks to its minimal adverse selection and moral hazard. Despite these advantages, the very nature of indexing causes the presence of "production basis risk" that the selected weather indexes and their thresholds do not correspond to actual damages. To reduce basis risk without additional data collection cost, we propose the use of rain intensity and frequency as indexes as it could offer better protection at the lower premium by avoiding basis risk-strike trade-off inherent in the total rainfall index. We present empirical evidences and modeling results that even under the similar cumulative rainfall and temperature environment, yield can significantly differ especially for drought sensitive crops. We further show that deriving the trigger level and payoff function from regression between historical yield and total rainfall data may pose significant basis risk owing to their non-unique relationship in the insured range of rainfall. Lastly, we discuss the design of index insurance in terms of contract specifications based on the results from global sensitivity analysis.

  5. Fabrication and testing history prototypes and production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-09-01

    From April, 1951 to Aug, 1954, New York Shipbuilding Corp. carried out a subcontract with E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company that was without parallel in the shipyard`s history. The work, designated the NYX Project for reasons of security, was vital to the operations of the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C., which was then being designed and constructed by du Pont for the Atomic Energy Commission. It consisted of three broad parts: developmental and experimental work; fabrication and testing of a prototype unit; fabrication of production units. Five production units were ultimately built, one of them converted from the prototype. All were fabricated from stainless steel, and involved welding techniques, control of thermal distortion and tolerances never previously attempted on assemblies of comparable size. Du Pont`s technical experience and the background of New York Ship in heavy construction, particularly in the fabrication of naval gun turrets, were combined from the outset to resolve the difficult fabrication problems that occurred almost daily. Representatives of both companies worked together as a team in the shops and at supervisory levels to an unprecedented extent. The report is intended primarily to summarize New York Ship`s part in the project, but also includes some of du Pont`s activities since the work of the two organizations was so interrelated. Because of the scope of the program, it will not always be possible to provide detailed information, but rather to record what happened in general terms. Where the reader desires more specific data, he should refer to original plans and records, including various reports compiled during the course of the project.

  6. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  7. Defining the Structural Basis for Allosteric Product Release from E. coli Dihydrofolate Reductase Using NMR Relaxation Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, David; Fenwick, R Bryn; Aoto, Phillip C; Stanfield, Robyn L; Wilson, Ian A; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2017-08-16

    The rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of E. coli dihydrofolate reductase is tetrahydrofolate (THF) product release, which can occur via an allosteric or an intrinsic pathway. The allosteric pathway, which becomes accessible when the reduced cofactor NADPH is bound, involves transient sampling of a higher energy conformational state, greatly increasing the product dissociation rate as compared to the intrinsic pathway that obtains when NADPH is absent. Although the kinetics of this process are known, the enzyme structure and the THF product conformation in the transiently formed excited state remain elusive. Here, we use side-chain proton NMR relaxation dispersion measurements, X-ray crystallography, and structure-based chemical shift predictions to explore the structural basis of allosteric product release. In the excited state of the E:THF:NADPH product release complex, the reduced nicotinamide ring of the cofactor transiently enters the active site where it displaces the pterin ring of the THF product. The p-aminobenzoyl-l-glutamate tail of THF remains weakly bound in a widened binding cleft. Thus, through transient entry of the nicotinamide ring into the active site, the NADPH cofactor remodels the enzyme structure and the conformation of the THF to form a weakly populated excited state that is poised for rapid product release.

  8. Genetic Basis for Geosmin Production by the Water Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium, Anabaena ucrainica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geosmin is a common, musty-smelling sesquiterpene, principally produced by cyanobacteria. Anabaena ucrainica (Schhorb. Watanabe, a water bloom-forming cyanobacterium, is the geosmin producer responsible for odor problems in Dianchi and Erhai lakes in China. In this study, the geosmin synthase gene (geo of A. ucrainica and its flanking regions were identified and cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and genome walking. The geo gene was found to be located in a transcription unit with two cyclic nucleotide-binding protein genes (cnb. The two cnb genes were highly similar and were predicted members of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase regulator (Crp–Fnr family. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses implied that the evolution of the geosmin genes involved a horizontal gene transfer process in cyanobacteria. These genes showed a close relationship to 2-methylisoborneol genes in origin and evolution.

  9. Matching Social and Biophysical Scales in Extensive Livestock Production as a Basis for Adaptation to Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, N. F.; Bestelmeyer, B.

    2015-12-01

    Global livestock production is heterogeneous, and its benefits and costs vary widely across global contexts. Extensive grazing lands (or rangelands) constitute the vast majority of the land dedicated to livestock production globally, but they are relatively minor contributors to livestock-related environmental impacts. Indeed, the greatest potential for environmental damage in these lands lies in their potential for conversion to other uses, including agriculture, mining, energy production and urban development. Managing such conversion requires improving the sustainability of livestock production in the face of fragmentation, ecological and economic marginality and climate change. We present research from Mongolia and the United States demonstrating methods of improving outcomes on rangelands by improving the fit between the scales of social and biophysical processes. Especially in arid and semi-arid settings, rangelands exhibit highly variable productivity over space and time and non-linear or threshold dynamics in vegetation; climate change is projected to exacerbate these challenges and, in some cases, diminish overall productivity. Policy and governance frameworks that enable landscape-scale management and administration enable range livestock producers to adapt to these conditions. Similarly, livestock breeds that have evolved to withstand climate and vegetation change improve producers' prospects in the face of increasing variability and declining productivity. A focus on the relationships among primary production, animal production, spatial connectivity, and scale must underpin adaptation strategies in rangelands.

  10. Preliminary scoping safety analyses of the limiting design basis protected accidents for the Fast Flux Test Facility tritium production core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The SAS4A/SASSYS-l computer code is used to perform a series of analyses for the limiting protected design basis transient events given a representative tritium and medical isotope production core design proposed for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The FFTF tritium and isotope production mission will require a different core loading which features higher enrichment fuel, tritium targets, and medical isotope production assemblies. Changes in several key core parameters, such as the Doppler coefficient and delayed neutron fraction will affect the transient response of the reactor. Both reactivity insertion and reduction of heat removal events were analyzed. The analysis methods and modeling assumptions are described. Results of the analyses and comparison against fuel pin performance criteria are presented to provide quantification that the plant protection system is adequate to maintain the necessary safety margins and assure cladding integrity

  11. The hydrophobic modification of gypsum binder by peat products: physico-chemical and technological basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Misnikov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum binder is a quick-setting and fast-hardening material that is used widely in the construction industry for plastering and as an ingredient of concrete, other binding materials, etc. The issue addressed here is its short shelf life (around three months which arises because it is hygroscopic, i.e. it readily absorbs moisture and begins to set during transport and storage. The main methods that are currently available for protecting gypsum binder against unwanted exposure to moisture and water vapour are considered, and hydrophobic modification with the bitumen released during peat thermolysis (a method previously considered for cement is proposed as a promising alternative. Because there is overlap in the temperature ranges used in the manufacture of gypsum binder and those required for the initial stages of thermal decomposition of the organic matter in peat, it is expected that hydrophobisation could be achieved during the established manufacturing process without any changes to plant or procedures. The optimum concentration of organic (peat additive for gypsum rock mined from the Shushokskoye deposit in Russia is derived experimentally. With 0.5–1 % of peat additive, the strength grading of the gypsum plaster is preserved and its storage time without caking and hydration increases, even under adverse conditions (100 % relative humidity. The proposed method is compatible with current gypsum production technology, it does not require any changes in equipment, and the prices of mineral raw materials and semi-finished peat products are approximately the same. Thus, the incorporation of hydrophobic modification using peat into the manufacturing process for gypsum binder is unlikely to increase the cost of the product.

  12. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin and First Spouse Medal...

  13. Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K. L.

    2001-06-22

    Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

  14. Accurate SERS detection of malachite green in aquatic products on basis of graphene wrapped flexible sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Lei; Yao, Ling; Zhou, Taohong; Zhu, Lihua

    2018-10-16

    Malachite Green (MG) is a banned pesticide for aquaculture products. As a required inspection item, its fast and accurate determination before the products' accessing market is very important. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a promising tool for MG sensing, but it requires the overcoming of several problems such as fairly poor sensitivity and reproducibility, especially laser induced chemical conversion and photo-bleaching during SERS observation. By using a graphene wrapped Ag array based flexible membrane sensor, a modified SERS strategy was proposed for the sensitive and accurate detection of MG. The graphene layer functioned as an inert protector for impeding chemical transferring of the bioproduct Leucomalachite Green (LMG) to MG during the SERS detection, and as a heat transmitter for preventing laser induced photo-bleaching, which enables the separate detection of MG and LMG in fish extracts. The combination of the Ag array and the graphene cover also produced plentiful densely and uniformly distributed hot spots, leading to analytical enhancement factor up to 3.9 × 10 8 and excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation low to 5.8% for 70 runs). The proposed method was easily used for MG detection with limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2.7 × 10 -11  mol L -1 . The flexibility of the sensor enable it have a merit for in-field fast detection of MG residues on the scale of a living fish through a surface extraction and paste transferring manner. The developed strategy was successfully applied in the analysis of real samples, showing good prospects for both the fast inspection and quantitative detection of MG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for addressing the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at SRS in Aiken, SC, and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  16. Evaluation of proposed casemix criteria as a basis for costing patients in the adult general intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, V G; Hibbert, C L; Edbrooke, D L

    1998-10-01

    This study analyses the relationship between the actual patient-related costs of care calculated for 145 patients admitted sequentially to an adult general intensive care unit and a number of factors obtained from a previously described consensus of opinion study. The factors identified in the study were suggested as potential descriptors for the casemix in an intensive care unit that could be used to predict the costs of care. Significant correlations between the costs of care and severity of illness, workload and length of stay were found but these failed to predict the costs of care with sufficient accuracy to be used in isolation to define isoresource groups in the intensive care unit. No associations between intensive care unit mortality, reason for admission and intensive and unit treatments and costs of care were found. Based on these results, it seems that casemix descriptors and isoresource groups for the intensive care unit that would allow costs to be predicted cannot be defined in terms of single factors.

  17. Comparison of different eigensolvers for calculating vibrational spectra using low-rank, sum-of-product basis functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Arnaud; Thomas, Phillip S.; Carrington, Tucker

    2017-08-01

    Vibrational spectra and wavefunctions of polyatomic molecules can be calculated at low memory cost using low-rank sum-of-product (SOP) decompositions to represent basis functions generated using an iterative eigensolver. Using a SOP tensor format does not determine the iterative eigensolver. The choice of the interative eigensolver is limited by the need to restrict the rank of the SOP basis functions at every stage of the calculation. We have adapted, implemented and compared different reduced-rank algorithms based on standard iterative methods (block-Davidson algorithm, Chebyshev iteration) to calculate vibrational energy levels and wavefunctions of the 12-dimensional acetonitrile molecule. The effect of using low-rank SOP basis functions on the different methods is analysed and the numerical results are compared with those obtained with the reduced rank block power method. Relative merits of the different algorithms are presented, showing that the advantage of using a more sophisticated method, although mitigated by the use of reduced-rank SOP functions, is noticeable in terms of CPU time.

  18. Scientific basis of a new method for hydrophobic modification of mineral binders using peat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Misnikov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the issue of caking of mineral binding materials during storage and transportation. The author conducted a critical analysis of known methods for the protection of cement from exposure to moisture and water vapour. Common disadvantages of these methods are their low effectiveness and complexity of use in industrial and domestic environments. This article introduces a new method for hydrophobising construction materials using peat, which achieves high water repellency in the modified materials with relatively low expenditure on organic materials. The author proposes film coating of the mineral particles of dispersed hydrophilic materials as a protection mechanism against their undesirable exposure to moisture during storage. The insulating film consists of hydrophobic products (bitumens released during thermal decomposition of the organic matter in peat. The estimated thickness of the bitumen film is about 12 nm and it does not adversely affect the flow properties of the powder. A model of the formation of film coatings on mineral particles is provided and their elemental chemical composition is determined. It is shown experimentally that the modified hydrophobic cement is protected from exposure to liquid vapours, and optimal values of organic component concentrations in the dispersed mineral matter that do not reduce the strength of cement mortar are identified.

  19. Structural Basis for Inhibitor-Induced Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Na, Byeong Kwan; Chung, Jiwoung; Kim, Sulhee; Kwon, Sool Ki; Cha, Hyunju; Son, Jonghyeon; Cho, Joong Myung; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2018-04-19

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of flavin reduction and hydrogen peroxide production by KMO inhibitors are unknown. Herein, we report the structure of human KMO and crystal structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sc) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (pf) KMO with Ro 61-8048. Proton transfer in the hydrogen bond network triggers flavin reduction in p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase, but the mechanism triggering flavin reduction in KMO is different. Conformational changes via π-π interactions between the loop above the flavin and substrate or non-substrate effectors lead to disorder of the C-terminal α helix in scKMO and shifts of domain III in pfKMO, stimulating flavin reduction. Interestingly, Ro 61-8048 has two different binding modes. It acts as a competitive inhibitor in scKMO and as a non-substrate effector in pfKMO. These findings provide understanding of the catalytic cycle of KMO and insight for structure-based drug design of KMO inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High resolution production water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  1. An Innovative High-Tech Acupuncture Product: SXDZ-100 Nerve Muscle Stimulator, Its Theoretical Basis, Design, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the theoretical basis, design, and application of a patented innovative high-tech product, SXDZ-100 nerve and muscle stimulator. This product is featured with a built-in chip containing transcoding information from different acupuncture manipulation collected from the wide dynamic neurons (WDR in the spinal dorsal horn in animal experiments, which is bioinformation feedback therapy. The discharges of WDR neurons excited by different manipulations are analyzed using chaos theory in this study. It combines the advantages of manual acupuncture (MA like no receptor adaptation and treatment individualization and that of electroacupuncture (EA such as relatively low stimulation intensity and good quantification and thus makes it more effective than common stimulators in acupuncture clinic.

  2. Development of Pupils Picture Aesthetic Competences on the Basis of IT-didactic Designs of Digital Picture Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    : The research method refers to Design Based Research, since the project is based on a design theoretical view of learning. (Cobb et. All 2003, Van den Akker 2006, Collins 2004). Learning is here to be understood as “a sign producing activity in a specific situation within an institutional framing”, which makes...... Education” (English Title), The Danish University of Education Cobb, P. et al. (2003): “Design Experiments in Educational Research” in “Educational Researcher”, vol. 32, no. 1. Collins, Allan et. al. (2004): “Design Research: Theoretical and Metodological Issuses” in “Journal of the Learning Sciences”, Vol...... Competences on the Basis of IT-didactic Designs of Digital Picture Production Proposal information: The topic for this presentation is an ongoing investigation of the connection between the learning outcome of digital picture production and IT-didactic designs, and it refers to a Ph.D.-project in progress...

  3. The genetic basis underlying variation in production of the flavour compound diacetyl by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Raquel; Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Bansal, Nidhi; Turner, Mark S

    2018-01-16

    Diacetyl and the closely related compound acetoin impart desirable buttery flavour and odour to many foods including cheese and are generated through the metabolism of citrate by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). To increase the levels of these compounds, adjunct cultures capable of producing them can be added to cheese fermentations. In this study, we compared the diacetyl and acetoin producing abilities of 13 Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains from cheese sources. Diacetyl and acetoin production was found to be a common feature of Lb. rhamnosus grown in milk, with 12 strains producing these compounds. Whole genome sequencing of four strains revealed that genes encoding the citrate metabolising pathway present in other LAB are conserved in Lb. rhamnosus. One strain was, however, totally defective in diacetyl and acetoin production. This was likely due to an inability to produce the diacetyl/acetoin precursor compound acetolactate resulting from a frameshift mutation in the acetolactate synthase (als) gene. Complementation of this defective strain with a complete als gene from a diacetyl producing strain restored production of diacetyl and acetoin to levels equivalent to naturally high producing strains. Introduction of the same als-containing plasmid into the probiotic Lb. rhamnosus strain GG also increased diacetyl and acetoin levels. In model cheesemaking experiments, the als-complemented strain produced very high levels of diacetyl and acetoin over 35days of ripening. These findings identify the genetic basis for natural variation in production of a key cheese flavour compound in Lb. rhamnosus strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Onofrio Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

  5. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  6. Calculation of stricken to mortality and incidence cancers due to beyond design basis accidents of the Esfahan Fuel Production Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari Azar, A.; Shahshahani, M.; Roshanzamir, M.; Sabouhi, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this investigation the amount of absorbed doses by the different pathways of Cloud shine, Ground shine, deposition of radioactive materials on skin and cloths, ingestion, inhalation and the consequences of radioactive material releases due to Beyond Design Basis Accidents such as fire, sintering furnace explosion, criticality and earthquake in Esfahan Fuel Production factory by the residents are evaluated. The calculations related to atomic cloud distribution, estimation of delivered dose and decay chains are performed by PCCOSYMA dose. These computations are based on radioactive source terms, distribution height of radioactive materials. actions for reducing the absorbed dose, human body physiological characteristics, metrological condition and population distribution. Finally, the number of peoples who are stricken to mortality and morbidity cancers and risk values are calculated for 1 year and 50 years

  7. 76 FR 41525 - Hewlett Packard Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit Including Teleworkers Reporting to... workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit...). Since eligible workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles...

  8. The mechanism of action of lymphokines. IX. The enzymatic basis of hydrogen peroxide production by lymphokine-activated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, M; Pick, E

    1986-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the biochemical basis of the enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by guinea pig peritoneal macrophages (MP) cultured in lymphokine (LK)-containing medium. The markedly augmented H2O2 generation by these cells, demonstrable by the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed oxidation of phenol red, is distinguished by its lack of dependence on a second stimulus. We demonstrate that H2O2 production is truly spontaneous and is not caused by a stimulant present among the H2O2 assay reagents. The principal candidate for such a role was HRP type II (a mixture of five isoenzymes) that was reported to be capable of eliciting an oxidative burst in MP. Four distinct HRP isoenzymes that were found incapable of provoking an oxidative response were nevertheless adequate for demonstrating H2O2 production by LK-activated MP. Blocking the MP receptor for mannose by the addition of mannan to the assay system resulted in enhanced detection of H2O2 by low concentrations of HRP type II and by three out of four HRP isoenzymes. Treatment of MP with LK-containing medium for 72 hr did not result in a significant change in the activity of cellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with MP cultured for the same length of time in control medium. By using the specific inhibitor of copper, zinc-containing SOD, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), and the universal SOD inhibitor, sodium nitroprusside, we found that the predominant enzyme in guinea pig peritoneal MP is probably manganese-containing SOD. Incubation of LK-activated MP with nitroprusside resulted in almost total inhibition of H2O2 production and a simultaneous switch to superoxide (O2-) liberation. Similar exposure to DDC had no effect. These data indicate that H2O2 produced by LK-activated MP is derived exclusively by enzymatic dismutation of O2- mediated by a manganese-containing SOD. The increase in spontaneous H2O2 production induced by LK is therefore secondary to augmented O2

  9. Modeling of Tsunami Equations and Atmospheric Swirling Flows with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and Radial Basis Functions (RBF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J.; Piret, C.; Zhang, N.; Kadlec, B. J.; Liu, Y.; Yuen, D. A.; Wright, G. B.; Sevre, E. O.

    2008-12-01

    The faster growth curves in the speed of GPUs relative to CPUs in recent years and its rapidly gained popularity has spawned a new area of development in computational technology. There is much potential in utilizing GPUs for solving evolutionary partial differential equations and producing the attendant visualization. We are concerned with modeling tsunami waves, where computational time is of extreme essence, for broadcasting warnings. In order to test the efficacy of the GPU on the set of shallow-water equations, we employed the NVIDIA board 8600M GT on a MacBook Pro. We have compared the relative speeds between the CPU and the GPU on a single processor for two types of spatial discretization based on second-order finite-differences and radial basis functions. RBFs are a more novel method based on a gridless and a multi- scale, adaptive framework. Using the NVIDIA 8600M GT, we received a speed up factor of 8 in favor of GPU for the finite-difference method and a factor of 7 for the RBF scheme. We have also studied the atmospheric dynamics problem of swirling flows over a spherical surface and found a speed-up of 5.3 using the GPU. The time steps employed for the RBF method are larger than those used in finite-differences, because of the much fewer number of nodal points needed by RBF. Thus, in modeling the same physical time, RBF acting in concert with GPU would be the fastest way to go.

  10. 9 CFR 381.209 - Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returned United States inspected and marked poultry products; exemption. 381.209 Section 381.209 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  11. Basis for slow growth on non-fermentable substrates by a saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant UV-sensitive for rho- production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosby, B.; Colson, A.M.; Briquet, M.; Goffeau, A.; Moustacchi, E.

    1978-01-01

    The mutant uvsp 72 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae UV-sensitive for rho - production displays slower growth on media containing non-fermentable carbon sources such as glycerol or lactate. The slower growth on glycerol is not due to any deficiency in glycerol catabolism or mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. No modifications of the sensitivity to ethidium bromide of the mitochondrial ATPase activity could be detected. A mathematical model is presented which accounts for slower growth of uvsp 72 on the sole basis of the continuous and elevated rho - production in the mutant strain. This model, which estimates the rate of mutation from the rate of growth and vice versa, has been verified experimentally in the case of uvsp 72. The model has been generalised, so that it can be used for any microbial population subject to constant and high rates of any type of mutation providing that the mutant is stable, and either unable to grow or able to grow at this own rate different from that of the parental strain. (orig.) [de

  12. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  13. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah; H.O. Sherif; S.I. Hawash

    2017-01-01

    Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been con...

  14. PC based diagnostic system for nitrogen production unit of HWP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamba, D.S.; Rao, V.C.; Krishnan, S.; Kamaraj, T.; Krishnaswamy, C.

    1992-01-01

    The plant diagnostic system monitors the input data from local processing unit and tries to diagnose the cause of the failure. The system is a rule based application program that can perform tasks itself using fault tree model which displays the logical relationships between critical events and their possible ways occurrence, i.e. hardware failure, process faults and human error etc. Unit 37 Nitrogen Plant is taken as a prototype model for trying the plant diagnostics system. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  15. Tree-Fruit Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    Designed as a guide for teachers in planning and conducting young and adult farmer classes, the unit covers the basic areas of tree-fruit production. The format of the 10-lesson unit allows for the utilization of the problem-solving and discussion methods of teaching. The major objective of the unit is to develop the ability to effectively…

  16. Molecular basis for arsenic-Induced alteration in nitric oxide production and oxidative stress: implication of endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Yoshito; Pi Jingbo

    2004-01-01

    Accumulated epidemiological studies have suggested that prolonged exposure of humans to arsenic in drinking water is associated with vascular diseases. The exact mechanism of how this occurs currently unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), formed by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), plays a crucial role in the vascular system. Decreased availability of biologically active NO in the endothelium is implicated in the pathophysiology of several vascular diseases and inhibition of eNOS by arsenic is one of the proposed mechanism s for arsenic-induced vascular diseases. In addition, during exposure to arsenic, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can occur, resulting in oxidative stress, which is another major risk factor for vascular dysfunction. The molecular basis for decreased NO levels and increased oxidative stress during arsenic exposure is poorly understood. In this article, evidence for arsenic-mediated alteration in NO production and oxidative stress is reviewed. The results of a cross-sectional study in an endemic area of chronic arsenic poisoning and experimental animal studies to elucidate a potential mechanism for the impairment of NO formation and oxidative stress caused by prolonged exposure to arsenate in the drinking water are also reviewed

  17. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  18. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  19. An analysis of tropical hardwood product importation and consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Smith; Michael P. Haas; William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The consumption of forest products emanating from tropical rainforests is an issue that is receiving increasing attention in the United States. This attention stems from concerns over the sustainability of tropical ecosystems. However, trade statistics show the United States imported only 4.0 percent of all tropical timber products traded globally in 1989. In addition...

  20. 76 FR 34271 - Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,671] Hewlett Packard, Global Parts Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, Including Teleworkers Reporting to... Supply Chain, Global Product Life Cycles Management Unit, including teleworkers reporting to Houston...

  1. Combined heat and power unit using renewable raw materials. A cogeneration power plant with wood chips and pellets; BHKW auf Basis nachwachsender Rohstoffe. KWK mit Holzhackschnitzeln und Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Marc Wilhelm

    2013-07-15

    The combined heat and power units of the next generation operate with renewable resources. The plants working with wood chips or pellets now are ready for mass production. So, farmers and foresters, trade and municipalities may pile in the decentralized, energetic self-sufficiency. Two companies have developed procedures with which combined heat and power plants based can be operated on wood chips or pellets.

  2. Designing Production Based Learning as a Basic Strategy for Creating Income Generating Units at Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, D.; Supriatna, N.

    2018-02-01

    The establishment of Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (later to be referred as UPI) Statute as a State-Owned State University (PTN-BH) has implications for UPI requirements. One of them is the need for UPI to generate an Income Generating Unit (IGU) of at least IDR 100 Billion (one hundred billion rupiah). This requirement is considered difficult since UPI is one of the universities whose focus is on the world of education and not the business and industry. Surely this becomes the thinking of the entire academic community to make a breakthrough by optimizing their potential. This study aims to find the pattern of learning practice that produces economic value products as one indicator of IGU value achievement as an effort to support UPI as PTN-BH. Learning strategy is done by designing and implementing the production base learning (PBL) approach as the basis strategy for the development of production units capable of becoming IGU in UPI. The research method used refers to research and development methods with adjustments taking into account the effectiveness in validating and conducting field model trials. The result of this research is the basic design of PBL model as the development strategy of production unit in the achievement of IGU UPI PTN-BH.

  3. Cost of fuel cell systems on a mass basis as a function of production volume; Kosten von Brennstoffzellensystemen auf Massenbasis in Abhaengigkeit von der Absatzmenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werhahn, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    The currently high cost of fuel cells is determined by expensive materials and low production volume. A detailed understanding of the cost structures reveals unexploited potential that can reduce costs in future. However, this requires a method of predicting costs that can be applied with little effort and which offers both a sufficient degree of detail and also good accuracy. Existing forecasting methods do not, however, fulfil these requirements. The major objective of the present work was to apply mass-specific cost forecasting to fuel cell systems for the first time and to modify the approach for this application. In this method, the cost of an object is estimated solely by means of the object mass with the aid of empirical values (Euro/kg). The advantages of the method are its simple application and the accuracy of the forecast. Due to the considerable complexity of the fuel cell and the heterogeneity of the materials used, the application of mass-specific cost forecasting does not provide the desired benefits on the level of the aggregated system. The mass-specific cost forecast approach was therefore expanded and optimized. Instead of determining costs on the level of the aggregated system, the cost forecast was applied directly to the individual components. Cost parameters were also embedded in the method in order to include component-internal cost-relevant differences. Due to the great influence of the production rate on the manufacturing costs, an additional dependence on number of units was also integrated. Expanding the empirical values from discrete values to distribution functions enabled a detailed error analysis to be performed and also a statistical localization of the predicted production costs. Empirical values are necessary in order to implement the modified method and therefore an extensive data search was performed. To this end, a methodology was developed which comprehensively described the data acquisition and the required data evaluation on

  4. Self-organization comprehensive real-time state evaluation model for oil pump unit on the basis of operating condition classification and recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Yu, Xuchao; Zhang, Laibin; Lu, Wenqing

    2018-05-01

    In oil transmission station, the operating condition (OC) of an oil pump unit sometimes switches accordingly, which will lead to changes in operating parameters. If not taking the switching of OCs into consideration while performing a state evaluation on the pump unit, the accuracy of evaluation would be largely influenced. Hence, in this paper, a self-organization Comprehensive Real-Time State Evaluation Model (self-organization CRTSEM) is proposed based on OC classification and recognition. However, the underlying model CRTSEM is built through incorporating the advantages of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model (FCEM) first. That is to say, independent state models are established for every state characteristic parameter according to their distribution types (i.e. the Gaussian distribution and logistic regression distribution). Meanwhile, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is utilized to calculate the weights of state characteristic parameters. Then, the OC classification is determined by the types of oil delivery tasks, and CRTSEMs of different standard OCs are built to constitute the CRTSEM matrix. On the other side, the OC recognition is realized by a self-organization model that is established on the basis of Back Propagation (BP) model. After the self-organization CRTSEM is derived through integration, real-time monitoring data can be inputted for OC recognition. At the end, the current state of the pump unit can be evaluated by using the right CRTSEM. The case study manifests that the proposed self-organization CRTSEM can provide reasonable and accurate state evaluation results for the pump unit. Besides, the assumption that the switching of OCs will influence the results of state evaluation is also verified.

  5. DOE Project 353: TAMS Prototype and production coupling alignment units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, K.V.

    1996-02-01

    TAMS is an electronic measurement system used to determine the alignment of turbine-generator shafts at the coupling interface. The displacement transducer is a strain gage based sensor mounted in a portable probe. The measurement system was experiencing zero input drift and temperature induced drift. This project endeavored to determine the source of these problems and to revise a unit to be returned to a customer, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGE), within a period of five weeks.

  6. Improving rapeseed production practices in the southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D.L.; Breve, M.A.; Raymer, P.L.; Minton, N.A.; Sumner, D.R. (Georgia Univ., Tifton, GA (USA). Georgia Coastal Plain Experiment Station)

    1990-04-01

    Oilseed rape or rapeseed is a crop which offers a potential for double-cropping in the southeastern United States. This final project report describes the results from a three year study aimed at evaluating the effect of different planting and harvesting practices on establishment and yield of three rape cultivars, and the double cropping potential of rapeseed in the southeastern United States. The project was conducted on two yield sites in Tifton, Georgia during 1986--87, 1987--88 and 1988--89. The general objective of this research is to improve the seed and biomass yield of winter rapeseed in the southeastern United States by developing appropriate agronomic practices for the region. The primary constraint is to grow rapeseed within the allowable period for double cropping with an economically desirable crop, such as peanut or soybean. Planting and harvesting are the most critical steps in this process. Therefore, the specific objectives of this research were: evaluate and improve the emergence of rapeseed by developing planting techniques that enhance the soil, water and seed regimes for winter rapeseed in the southeast, and evaluate and improve the yields of harvested rapeseed by developing techniques for determining the optimum timing of harvest and efficient methods for harvesting winter rapeseed in the southeast. 6 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Production of short straight sections hits 100 units

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The 100th short straight section for the Large Hadron Collider was assembled at CERN at the beginning of April. These units combine superconducting quadrupoles and other multipole corrector magnets, housed in their cryostats, which are used to guide, focus and fine-tune the beam in the LHC. Building 904, where the 474 short straight sections are being assembled, is often called "Lego Land" by the workers, with a touch of humor and pride because of the wide variety of these sets of magnets and cryostats .

  8. United States Commercial Shipbuilding Productivity: An International View

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    produced, U.S. shipbuilders would have ranked 36th. The U.S. output is just above Malaysia (2758 GT), Peru (3136 GT) and Chile (3372 GT), but below...2 6,172 0.05 35 GREECE 4 5,219 0.04 36 UNITED STATES 10 4,078 0.03 37 CHILE 8 3,372 0.03 38 PERU 7 3,136 0.02 39 MALAYSIA 2 2,758 0.02 40 THAILAND 2...Korean shipbuilders’ rank second behind Japan in total GT produced. Collectively, the three major yards, Hyundai Heavy Industries (HH I), Samsung , and

  9. Behavior of copper corrosion products in water loops of heat-exchange units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarembo, V.I.; Kritskii, V.G.; Slobodov, A.A.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    This communication is dedicated to an examination of copper corrosion products (CP) in the conditions of real aqueous-chemical regime (ACR) parameters. The deposition of these CP in steam-generating zones (up to 85% of their total amount) stimulate local types of corrosion. The solubility in Cu CP (Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu(OH) 2 )-water (H 2 O)-gas (H 2 , O 2 )-conditioning additives (HCl, KOH) systems was determined by computer modeling according to the minimum Gibbs energy criterion on the basis of selected and matched thermodynamic constants for various chemical forms of copper under standard conditions. As a result of the authors' calculations they obtained the solubilities in water of CuO, Cu 2 O and Cu(OH) 2 when changing the dosage of active gases from 0 to 10 -2 mole/kg of water, of acid or equal to that of saturated vapor of pure water. Thus, they were able to monitor the behavior of copper CP in conditions modeling those of real ACR in operating heat exchange units, including in conditions deviating from the standard

  10. Green energy products in the United Kingdom, Germany and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Aira; McDermott, Liisa; Järvelä, Marja; Syri, Sanna

    2014-12-01

    In liberalized electricity markets, suppliers are offering several kinds of voluntary green electricity products marketed as environmentally friendly. This paper focuses on the development of these voluntary markets at household level in the UK, Germany and Finland. Since there are already existing renewable energy policies regulating and encouraging the use of renewable energy, it is important to consider whether voluntary products offer real additional benefits above these policies. Problems such as double counting or re-marketing hydropower produced in existing plants are identified. According to our study, the demand varies between countries: in Germany the number of green electricity customers has increased and is also higher than in the UK or Finland. Typically the average additional cost to consumer from buying green electricity product instead of standard electricity product is in the range of 0-5% in all studied countries, although the level of price premium depends on several factors like electricity consumption. Case study of Finland and literature show that the impacts of green energy are not solely environmental. Renewable energy can benefit local public policy.

  11. Soil nutrient budgets following projected corn stover harvest for biofuel production in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food and biofuel feedstocks may substantially affect soil nutrient budgets, especially in the United States where there is great potential for corn (Zea mays L) stover as a biofuel feedstock. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of projected stover harvest scenarios on budgets of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) currently and in the future across the conterminous United States. The required and removed N, P, and K amounts under each scenario were estimated on the basis of both their average contents in grain and stover and from an empirical model. Our analyses indicate a small depletion of soil N (−4 ± 35 kg ha−1) and K (−6 ± 36 kg ha−1) and a moderate surplus of P (37 ± 21 kg ha−1) currently on the national average, but with a noticeable variation from state to state. After harvesting both grain and projected stover, the deficits of soil N, P, and K were estimated at 114–127, 26–27, and 36–53 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2006–2010; 131–173, 29–32, and 41–96 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2020; and 161–207, 35–39, and 51–111 kg ha−1 yr−1, respectively, in 2050. This study indicates that the harvestable stover amount derived from the minimum stover requirement for maintaining soil organic carbon level scenarios under current fertilization rates can be sustainable for soil nutrient supply and corn production at present, but the deficit of P and K at the national scale would become larger in the future.

  12. ANALYSIS AND PARAMETRIC OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY-AND-TECHNOLOGY UNITS ON THE BASIS OF THE POWER EQUIPMENT OF COMPRESSOR PLANTS OF MAIN GAS PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the gas compressor units of compressor plants of a main gas pipeline mathematical models of the macro-level were generated for analysis and parametric optimization of combined energy-and-technology units. In continuation of the study these models was applied to obtain the regression dependencies. For this purpose, a numerical experiment was used which had been designed with the use of regression analysis mathematical tool, which assumes that the test results should represent independent, normally distributed, random variables with approximately equal variance. Herewith we study the dependence of the optimization criterion on the value of control parameters (factors. Planning, conducting and processing of results of the experiment was conducted in the following sequence: choice of the optimization criteria, selection of control parameters (factors, encoding factors, the matrix of experiment compiling, assessing significance of regression coefficients, testing the adequacy of the model and reproducibility of the experiments. As the optimization criteria the electricity capacity and efficiency of combined energy-technology units were adopted. As control parameters for the installation with a gas-expansion-and-generator machine the temperature of the fuel gas before the expander, the pressure of the fuel gas after the expander and the temperature of the air supplied to the compressor of the engine were adopted, while for the steam turbine the adopted optimization criteria were compression in the compressor of the engine, the steam consumption for the technology and the temperature of the air supplied to the compressor of the engine. The application of the outlined methodological approach makes it possible to obtain a simple polynomial dependence, which significantly simplify the procedures of analysis, parametric optimization and evaluation of efficiency in the feasibility studies of the options of construction of the energy

  13. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  14. Nuclear hydrogen production programme in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is focused on demonstrating the economic, commercial-scale production of hydrogen using process heat derived from nuclear energy. NHI-supported research has concentrated to date on three technologies compatible with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP): high temperature steam electrolysis (HTE); sulphur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical; and hybrid sulphur (HyS) thermochemical. In 2009 NHI will down select to a single technology on which to focus its future development efforts, for which the next step will be a pilot-scale experiment. (author)

  15. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text......The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...

  16. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  17. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  18. An analysis of unit tests of a flight software product line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganesan, D.; Lindvall, M.; McComas, D.; Bartholomew, M.; Slegel, S.; Medina, B.; Krikhaar, R.; Verhoef, C.; Dharmalingam, G.; Montgomery, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the unit testing approach developed and used by the Core Flight Software System (CFS) product line team at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the analysis is to understand, review, and recommend strategies for improving the CFS' existing unit

  19. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of Investigation To Terminate Certification of Eligibility Pursuant to... Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation...

  20. Non-Relative Value Unit-Generating Activities Represent One-Fifth of Academic Neuroradiologist Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, M; Zeineh, M; Zaharchuk, G; Srivastava, A; Fischbein, N

    2016-07-01

    A neuroradiologist's activity includes many tasks beyond interpreting relative value unit-generating imaging studies. Our aim was to test a simple method to record and quantify the non-relative value unit-generating clinical activity represented by consults and clinical conferences, including tumor boards. Four full-time neuroradiologists, working an average of 50% clinical and 50% academic activity, systematically recorded all the non-relative value unit-generating consults and conferences in which they were involved during 3 months by using a simple, Web-based, computer-based application accessible from smartphones, tablets, or computers. The number and type of imaging studies they interpreted during the same period and the associated relative value units were extracted from our billing system. During 3 months, the 4 neuroradiologists working an average of 50% clinical activity interpreted 4241 relative value unit-generating imaging studies, representing 8152 work relative value units. During the same period, they recorded 792 non-relative value unit-generating study reviews as part of consults and conferences (not including reading room consults), representing 19% of the interpreted relative value unit-generating imaging studies. We propose a simple Web-based smartphone app to record and quantify non-relative value unit-generating activities including consults, clinical conferences, and tumor boards. The quantification of non-relative value unit-generating activities is paramount in this time of a paradigm shift from volume to value. It also represents an important tool for determining staffing levels, which cannot be performed on the basis of relative value unit only, considering the importance of time spent by radiologists on non-relative value unit-generating activities. It may also influence payment models from medical centers to radiology departments or practices. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  1. Entropy dynamics in cone production of longleaf pine forests in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Dale G. Brockway; Qinfeng Guo

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic temporal patterns of seed production are a challenge for the regeneration and restoration of longleaf pine, which is a keystone component of an endangered ecosystem in the southeastern United States. In this study, long-term data for longleaf pine cone production, collected at six sites across the southeastern region, was examined from the perspective of...

  2. Production-history projections of fuels and some crucial metals in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, R A; Roper, L D

    1977-09-01

    The production-history projection method of the authors is refined to determine the earliest date at which reasonably well-determined depletion parameters can be ascertained. The method is applied to the United States production data for silver, crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, and uranium ore. 13 references.

  3. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  4. Wood products used for residential repair and remodeling in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson

    Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...

  5. Nontimber forest products in the United States: an analysis for the 2015 National Sustainable Forest Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Aaron Teets; Steve Kruger

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, forest plants and fungi that are harvested for their nontimber products are critical for the health of the ecosystems and the well-being of people who benefit from the harvest. This document provides an analysis of the volumes and values of nontimber forest products in the United States. It presents...

  6. Assessing variation in skeletal production from surface death assemblages on the basis of age-frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasovych, Adam; Kidwell, Susan M.; Foygel Barber, Rina

    2015-04-01

    Age-frequency distributions of dead skeletal material that capture information on the elapsed time since death of individuals on the landscape or seabed provide decadal- to millennial-scale windows into the history of production and on the processes that lead to skeletal disintegration and burial. However, models quantifying the dynamics of skeletal loss assumed that skeletal production has been constant during accumulation of death assemblages. Here, we assess the joint effects of temporally-variable production and skeletal loss on the shape of postmortem age-frequency distributions. We show that the modes of such distributions will tend to be shifted to younger age cohorts relative to the true timing of past production pulses. This shift in the timing of a past production will be higher where loss rates are high and/or the rate of decline in production is slow. We apply the models combining the dynamic of loss and production to death assemblages with the deposit-feeding bivalve Nuculana taphria from the Southern California continental shelf, finding that (1) an onshore-offshore gradient in time averaging is dominated by a gradient in the timing of production, corresponding to the tracking of shallow-water habitats under a sea-level rise, and (2) model estimates of the timing of past production are in good agreement with an independent sea-level curve.

  7. Quantitative Estimation of Risks for Production Unit Based on OSHMS and Process Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambayar, D.; Koshijima, I.; Eguchi, H.

    2017-06-01

    Three principal elements in the production field of chemical/petrochemical industry are (i) Production Units, (ii) Production Plant Personnel and (iii) Production Support System (computer system introduced for improving productivity). Each principal element has production process resilience, i.e. a capability to restrain disruptive signals occurred in and out of the production field. In each principal element, risk assessment is indispensable for the production field. In a production facility, the occupational safety and health management system (Hereafter, referred to as OSHMS) has been introduced to reduce a risk of accidents and troubles that may occur during production. In OSHMS, a risk assessment is specified to reduce a potential risk in the production facility such as a factory, and PDCA activities are required for a continual improvement of safety production environments. However, there is no clear statement to adopt the OSHMS standard into the production field. This study introduces a metric to estimate the resilience of the production field by using the resilience generated by the production plant personnel and the result of the risk assessment in the production field. A method for evaluating how OSHMS functions are systematically installed in the production field is also discussed based on the resilience of the three principal elements.

  8. An analysis of the feasibility for increasing woody biomass production from pine plantations in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsell, John F.; Fox, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, wood from the 130 000 km 2 of pine plantations in the southern United States could provide much of the feedstock for emerging bioenergy industries. Research and operational experience show that total plantation biomass productivity exceeding 22.4 Mg ha -1 y -1 green weight basis with rotations less than 25 years are biologically possible, financially attractive, and environmentally sustainable. These gains become possible when intensively managed forest plantations are treated as agro-ecosystems where both the crop trees and the soil are managed to optimize productivity and value. Intensive management of southern US pine plantations could significantly increase the amount of biomass available to supply bioenergy firms. Results from growth and yield simulations using models and a financial analysis suggest that if the 130 000 km 2 of cutover pine plantations and an additional 20 000 km 2 of planted idle farmland are intensively managed in the most profitable regimes, up to 77.5 Tg green weight basis of woody biomass could be produced annually. However, questions exist about the extent to which intensive management for biomass production can improve financial returns to owners and whether they would adopt these systems. The financial analysis suggests providing biomass for energy from pine plantations on cutover sites is most profitable when intensive management is used to produce a mixture of traditional forest products and biomass for energy. Returns from dedicated biomass plantations on cutover sites and idle farmland will be lower than integrated product plantations unless prices for biomass increase or subsidies are available. (author)

  9. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  10. Theoretical basis for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry is fundamental to all fields of science dealing with radiation effects and is concerned with problems which are often intricate as hinted above. A firm scientific basis is needed to face increasing demands on accurate dosimetry. This chapter is an attempt to review and to elucidate the elements for such a basis. Quantities suitable for radiation dosimetry have been defined in the unique work to coordinate radiation terminology and usage by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, ICRU. Basic definitions and terminology used in this chapter conform with the recent ''Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 33'' of the ICRU

  11. Complete sequencing and pan-genomic analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus reveal its genetic basis for industrial yogurt production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pei; Zheng, Huajun; Yu, Yao; Ding, Guohui; Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Shuting; Yu, Zhonghao; Ren, Shuangxi; Oda, Munehiro; Konno, Tomonobu; Wang, Shengyue; Li, Xuan; Ji, Zai-Si; Zhao, Guoping

    2011-01-17

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) is an important species of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) used for cheese and yogurt fermentation. The genome of Lb. bulgaricus 2038, an industrial strain mainly used for yogurt production, was completely sequenced and compared against the other two ATCC collection strains of the same subspecies. Specific physiological properties of strain 2038, such as lysine biosynthesis, formate production, aspartate-related carbon-skeleton intermediate metabolism, unique EPS synthesis and efficient DNA restriction/modification systems, are all different from those of the collection strains that might benefit the industrial production of yogurt. Other common features shared by Lb. bulgaricus strains, such as efficient protocooperation with Streptococcus thermophilus and lactate production as well as well-equipped stress tolerance mechanisms may account for it being selected originally for yogurt fermentation industry. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that Lb. bulgaricus 2038 was genetically closer to the common ancestor of the subspecies than the other two sequenced collection strains, probably due to a strict industrial maintenance process for strain 2038 that might have halted its genome decay and sustained a gene network suitable for large scale yogurt production.

  12. Complete sequencing and pan-genomic analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus reveal its genetic basis for industrial yogurt production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Hao

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus is an important species of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB used for cheese and yogurt fermentation. The genome of Lb. bulgaricus 2038, an industrial strain mainly used for yogurt production, was completely sequenced and compared against the other two ATCC collection strains of the same subspecies. Specific physiological properties of strain 2038, such as lysine biosynthesis, formate production, aspartate-related carbon-skeleton intermediate metabolism, unique EPS synthesis and efficient DNA restriction/modification systems, are all different from those of the collection strains that might benefit the industrial production of yogurt. Other common features shared by Lb. bulgaricus strains, such as efficient protocooperation with Streptococcus thermophilus and lactate production as well as well-equipped stress tolerance mechanisms may account for it being selected originally for yogurt fermentation industry. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that Lb. bulgaricus 2038 was genetically closer to the common ancestor of the subspecies than the other two sequenced collection strains, probably due to a strict industrial maintenance process for strain 2038 that might have halted its genome decay and sustained a gene network suitable for large scale yogurt production.

  13. Complete Sequencing and Pan-Genomic Analysis of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Reveal Its Genetic Basis for Industrial Yogurt Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guohui; Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Shuting; Yu, Zhonghao; Ren, Shuangxi; Oda, Munehiro; Konno, Tomonobu; Wang, Shengyue; Li, Xuan; Ji, Zai-Si; Zhao, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) is an important species of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) used for cheese and yogurt fermentation. The genome of Lb. bulgaricus 2038, an industrial strain mainly used for yogurt production, was completely sequenced and compared against the other two ATCC collection strains of the same subspecies. Specific physiological properties of strain 2038, such as lysine biosynthesis, formate production, aspartate-related carbon-skeleton intermediate metabolism, unique EPS synthesis and efficient DNA restriction/modification systems, are all different from those of the collection strains that might benefit the industrial production of yogurt. Other common features shared by Lb. bulgaricus strains, such as efficient protocooperation with Streptococcus thermophilus and lactate production as well as well-equipped stress tolerance mechanisms may account for it being selected originally for yogurt fermentation industry. Multiple lines of evidence suggested that Lb. bulgaricus 2038 was genetically closer to the common ancestor of the subspecies than the other two sequenced collection strains, probably due to a strict industrial maintenance process for strain 2038 that might have halted its genome decay and sustained a gene network suitable for large scale yogurt production. PMID:21264216

  14. Experimental plant for investigation of the possibility of production of medicine intended isotopes on the basis of linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avagyan, R.H.; Avetisyan, A.E.; Kerobyan, I.A.; Taroyan, S.P.; Mirzoyan, R.M.; Sargsyan, R.Ts.; Galumyan, S.A.; Yeganov, V.S.; Oganesyan, A.A.; Vartanyan, H.S.; Gavalyan, V.B.; Nikogosyan, V.Ts.; Ayrapetyan, V.S.; Babayan, A.Z.; Matosyan, A.A.; Jamkochyan, S.V.; Dallakyan, R.K.; Danagulyan, A.S.; Bunyatov, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    A method of 99 mT c production by irradiation of molybdenum using high-intensity Bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of linear electron accelerator LUE50 of the A.I.Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (former Yerevan Physics Institute) is described. The experimental layout for 99 mT c production technology development has been designed and constructed. An upgrade of the linear electron accelerator was carried out to increase the electron beam intensity and spatial density. A system of computer-based remote control of the accelerator and experimental layout has been built up. Preliminary experimental investigations of 99 mT c production methods have been preformed and the qualitative and quantitative results of these studies are presented

  15. Analysis and evaluation of the ASTEC model basis on fission product and aerosol release phenomena from melts. 3. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agethen, K.; Koch, M.K.

    2016-04-01

    The present report is the 3 rd Technical Report within the research project ''ASMO'' founded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi 1501433) and projected at the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics (LEE) within the workgroup Reactor Simulation and Safety at the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB). The focus in this report is set on the release of fission products and the contribution to the source term, which is formed in the late phase after failure of the reactor pressure vessel during MCCI. By comparing the RUB simulation results including the fission product release rates with further simulations of GRS and VEIKI it can be indicated that the simulations have a high sensitivity in respect to the melting point temperature. It can be noted that the release rates are underestimated for most fission product species with the current model. Especially semi-volatile fission products and the lanthanum release is underestimated by several orders of magnitude. Based on the ACE experiment L2, advanced considerations are presented concerning the melt temperature, the gas temperature, the segregation and a varied melt configuration. Furthermore, the influence of the gas velocity is investigated. This variation of the gas velocity causes an underestimation of the release rates compared to the RUB base calculation. A model extension to oxidic species for lanthanum and ruthenium shows a significant improvement of the simulation results. In addition, the MEDICIS module has been enhanced to document the currently existing species, are displayed in a *.ist-file. This expansion shows inconsistencies between the melt composition and the fission product composition. Based on these results, there are still some difficulties regarding the release of fission products in the MEDICIS module and the interaction with the material data base (MOB) which needs further investigation.

  16. Attributing Crop Production in the United States Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Pan, B.

    2017-12-01

    Crop production plays key role in supporting life, economy and shaping environment. It is on one hand influenced by natural factors including precipitation, temperature, energy, and on the other hand shaped by the investment of fertilizers, pesticides and human power. Successful attributing of crop production to different factors can help optimize resources and improve productivity. Based on the meteorological records from National Center for Environmental Prediction and state-wise crop production related data provided by the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, an artificial neural network was constructed to connect crop production with precipitation and temperature anormlies, capital input, labor input, energy input, pesticide consumption and fertilizer consumption. Sensitivity analysis were carried out to attribute their specific influence on crop production for each grid. Results confirmed that the listed factors can generally determine the crop production. Different state response differently to the pertubation of predictands. Their spatial distribution is visulized and discussed.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Production Responsibility on the Basis of comparing in Situ and mean CO2 Atmosphere Concentration Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrodiev, S. Cht.; Pekevski, L.; Vachev, B.

    2008-01-01

    The method is proposed for estimation of regional CO2 and other greenhouses and pollutants production responcibility. The comparison of CO2 local emissions reduction data with world CO2 atmosphere data will permit easy to judge for overall effect in curbing not only global warming but also chemical polution.

  18. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  19. Sales of Nicotine-Containing Electronic Cigarette Products: United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy L; Gammon, Doris G; Rogers, Todd; Coats, Ellen M; Singh, Tushar; King, Brian A

    2017-05-01

    To assess the proportion of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products sold in the United States that contain nicotine according to retail scanner data. We obtained unit sales data from January 11, 2015, to December 12, 2015, from The Nielsen Company for convenience stores; supermarkets; mass merchandisers; drug, club, and dollar stores; and Department of Defense commissaries. The data did not include purchases from tobacco specialty shops, "vape shops," or online sources. Nicotine content was assessed by product type (disposables, rechargeables, and refills), region, and flavor status based on nicotine strength listed in the Universal Product Codes. For the 36.7% of entries lacking nicotine content information, we conducted Internet searches by brand, product, and flavor. In 2015, 99.0% of e-cigarette products sold contained nicotine, including 99.0% of disposables, 99.7% of rechargeables, and 98.8% of refills. Overall, 98.7% of flavored e-cigarette products and 99.4% of nonflavored e-cigarette products contained nicotine. In 2015, almost all e-cigarette products sold in US convenience stores and other assessed channels contained nicotine. Public Health Implications. Findings reinforce the importance of warning labels for nicotine-containing products, ingredient reporting, and restrictions on sales to minors.

  20. Implicit Tariffs on Imported Dairy Product Components in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tellioglu, Isin; Bailey, Kenneth W.; Blandford, David

    2007-01-01

    The majority of the dairy products imported by the United States are intermediate products used in food processing. As such, they are demanded for their components such as milk fat and protein. The implications of the U.S. tariff structure for import demand must be viewed in terms of the tariff's effects upon the relative prices of imported milk components. In this article we examine the implications of the current tariff structure and proposed changes under the Doha Round of international tr...

  1. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Safdar Muhummad; Eihab Fathelrahman; Rafi Ullah Tasbih Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emir...

  2. Quality control of baby food products on the basis of results obtained using the instrumental neutron-activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Khaydarov, A.; Pardaev, O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the instrumental neutron-activation analysis (INAA) to determine the elemental composition of some kind of imported baby food products (BFP) and to compare the results with the permissible contents. The nuclear reactor WWR-SM of INP has been used to develop INAA to study the mineral composition of some children's food products. The concentration of 26 trace elements, including Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. was found. The comparison of the results with regulation contents and the daily data on food needs have shown that the investigated group of BFP does not meet the requirements for all trace and macro elements composition. (authors)

  3. Future prospect of remote Cat-CVD on the basis of the production, transportation and detection of H atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, Hironobu; Matsumura, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The future prospect of remote Cat-CVD, in which the decomposition and the deposition chambers are separated, is discussed on the basis of the absolute density measurements of H atoms. It is now well recognized that uniform deposition is possible on a large area without plasma damages by Cat-CVD. However, we may not overlook the demerits in Cat-CVD. One of the demerits is the poisoning of the catalyzer surfaces by the material gases, both temporary and permanent. One technique to overcome this problem is remote Cat-CVD. The question is how to separate the decomposition and deposition areas. If the separation is not enough, there should be back diffusion of the material gases, which will poison the catalyzers. If the separation is too tight, radicals may not effuse out from the decomposition chamber. These problems are discussed and it is shown that SiO 2 coating to reduce the radical recombination rates on walls is promising. The possibility of the polytetrafluoroethene coating by Cat-CVD is also discussed

  4. VARIANTS OF DETERMINING THE MANUFACTURING COST OF A PRODUCT IN A PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE LIGHT OF BALANCE SHEET LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the manufacturing cost of a product is one of the most important ones from the point of view of proper valuation of the assets of a production unit, costs of its operations as well as pricing decisions. This article presents the problem of determining the manufacturing cost of a product in terms of balance sheet law. It has been shown that in order to determine this value various methods and options are allowed by this law, by means of which different values of manufacturing cost of a product are obtained. The importance of a proper selection of an allocation key in setilement of indirect production costs has been highlighted as well as the results of using, in certain cases, approved simplifications in the balance sheet law when determining the manufacturing cost of products have been demonstrated. The problem presented in this article is crucial from the point of view of an organization and management of production as well as managerial decision‐making in a company in the area of design of products and processes.

  5. Development of the design of standardized units for the production of artificial radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The production of artificial radionuclides began more than 20 years ago and has seen continuous growth at the rate over 20% a year. Technology has had to be adapted constantly to this growth in order to guarantee production and at the same time ensure the safety of personnel. The Department, which started its career in underground workings at Chatillon and then moved to the Saclay hot laboratories, is now housed in a building designed specially for the production of artificial radionuclides and equipped with standard production units. The first generation of standard units was sufficient to handle production which had begun to grow. Subsequently, thanks to the experience gained, there came into being a second generation of standardized units perfectly adapted to the new production requirements. The paper describes the evolution of design solutions between the first and the second standard, relating to contained cells, cell containment, remote control, interchangeability of cells, ventilation, waste discharge systems and repair of internal equipment. A highly positive evaluation can be made of the experience gained from the present standard. (author)

  6. Scale-up and optimization of biohydrogen production reactor from laboratory-scale to industrial-scale on the basis of computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of conducting experiments in a laboratory is to gain data that helps in designing and operating large-scale biological processes. However, the scale-up and design of industrial-scale biohydrogen production reactors is still uncertain. In this paper, an established and proven Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed to perform hydrodynamics assessments of an industrial-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) for biohydrogen production. The merits of the laboratory-scale CSTR and industrial-scale CSTR were compared and analyzed on the basis of CFD simulation. The outcomes demonstrated that there are many parameters that need to be optimized in the industrial-scale reactor, such as the velocity field and stagnation zone. According to the results of hydrodynamics evaluation, the structure of industrial-scale CSTR was optimized and the results are positive in terms of advancing the industrialization of biohydrogen production. (author)

  7. Assesment of forest products market potential as a basis for forest sector development in the Jablanica District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main tasks of marketing research is the assessment of market potential. The aim of this research was to analyze the dynamics of selling and buying of wood and nonwood forest products (NWFPs within the analyzed enterprises in the Jablanica District. The purpose of this research was to examine the possibilities for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs directed towards a sustainable use of forest products in the area of the Jablanica District. The subject of this research is: purchased and placed quantities in the analyzed enterprises, as well as the prices that were realized for the products, with special emphasis on commercially important mushrooms. The research was conducted in the territory of Jablanica and it included five enterprises engaged in the purchasing, processing and sale of NWFPs and the Forest Estate (FE “Forest” Leskovac. The purchase of raw forest fruits and herbs had a growing trend (+ 17.8% in the 2006-2013 period. The average annual growth rate (AAGR of sales was 3.4% for medicinal plants and 30.6% for mushrooms. The AAGR of NWFPs export was + 32.6%. The placement of beech wood assortments (K class recorded a purchase AAGR of app. + 12.7%. In 2013, it was found that the NWFPs with the highest market value were: blueberry, dried boletus and chanterelle. In 2013, their total gross revenue in the domestic market amounted to 82.3 million RSD, whereas the total gross revenue of the analyzed beech wood assortments was 87 million RSD. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37008: Održivo gazdovanje ukupnim potencijalima šuma u Republici Srbiji i br. TP 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  8. Vastus lateralis single motor unit EMG at the same absolute torque production at different knee angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburg, T.M.; de Haan, A.; Verdijk, P.W.; van Mechelen, W.; de Ruiter, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Single motor unit electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensors was investigated at different knee angles with subjects (n = 10) exerting the same absolute submaximal isometric torque at each angle. Measurements were made over a 20° range around the optimum angle for torque production

  9. An Alternative Method for Computing Unit Costs and Productivity Ratios. AIR 1984 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstead, Wayland H.; And Others

    An alternative measure for evaluating the performance of academic departments was studied. A comparison was made with the traditional manner for computing unit costs and productivity ratios: prorating the salary and effort of each faculty member to each course level based on the personal mix of course taught. The alternative method used averaging…

  10. 78 FR 18234 - Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1005 [Docket No. FDA-2007-N-0091; (formerly 2007N-0104)] Service of Process on Manufacturers; Manufacturers Importing Electronic Products Into the United States; Agent Designation; Change of Address AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  11. Integrating concerns about wood production and sustainable forest management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Haynes

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in the United States is strongly influenced by U.S. forest products markets and the numerous management decisions made by individual landowners and managers. These decisions are influenced by a mix of market incentives and regulatory actions reducing predictability in assessing progress towards SFM and causing...

  12. Quasi-symmetric Conjugacy of Blaschke Products on the unit Circle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde

    2007-01-01

    Let B be a Blaschke product for which the restriction to the unit circle 1 is a degree d > 1 covering. We prove that B is quasi-symmetrically conjugate to z zd on 1, if all its periodic points in 1 are repelling and if 1 does not intersect the -limit set of any recurrent critical point for B....

  13. Characterization of the southwest United States for the production of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; Folger, A.G.

    1987-03-01

    The southwest United States, an area of diverse climate, topography, terrain, soils, and vegetation, is characterized to determine the feasibility of growing terrestrial energy crops there. The emphasis in the study is on delineating general zones of relative resource and environmental suitability, which are then evaluated to estimate the potential of the region for energy crop production. 100 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  15. Using laser technological unit ALTI "Karavella" for precision components of IEP production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labin, N. A.; Chursin, A. D.; Paramonov, V. S.; Klimenko, V. I.; Paramonova, G. M.; Kolokolov, I. S.; Vinogradov, K. Y.; Betina, L. L.; Bulychev, N. A.; Dyakov, Yu. A.; Zakharyan, R. A.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Koshelev, K. K.; Kosheleva, O. K.; Grigoryants, A. G.; Shiganov, I. N.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Sachkov, V. I.; Plyaka, P. S.; Feofanov, I. N.; Chen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The paper revealed the using of industrial production equipment ALTI "Karavella-1", "Karavella-1M", "Karavella-2" and "Karavella-2M" precision components of IEP production [1-4]. The basis for the ALTI using in the IEP have become the positive results of research and development of technologies of foil (0.01-0.2 mm) and thin sheets (0.3-1 mm) materials micromachining by pulsed radiation CVL [5, 6]. To assess the micromachining quality and precision the measuring optical microscope (UHL VMM200), projection microscope (Mitutoyo PV5100) and Carl Zeiss microscope were used.

  16. Technology development and commercial production of current-carrying elements on the basis of Nb3Sn superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, A.D.; Shikov, A.K.; Davydov, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    A description of a current carrying element intended for Tokamak-15 magnetic system is presented. The element is produced from multicore wires with superconducting Nb 3 Sn cores and calculated for 8.5 kA critical current in magnetic field of 8 T. Main processing procedures of its manufacturing are shown. Extrusion conditions needed for production of composite bronze-niobium rods and multicore wire 1.5 mm in diameter with 14641 niobium cores are determined. Heat treatment used results in formation of Nb 3 Sn intermetallics and assures maximal current-carrying capacity of 910-920 A in 8 T magnetic field. 15 refs., 9 figs

  17. Weekday AOD smaller than weekend AOD in eastern China on the basis of the MODIS AOD product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Xia, Xiangao; Zhang, Xiaoling; Che, Huizheng; Li, Xiaojing

    2018-05-01

    A weekly cycle of surface particulate matter (PM) characterized by smaller values during weekends and larger values during weekdays was reported in eastern China. Whether column-integrated aerosol optical depth (AOD) showed similar weekly cycling as that of PM was debated. The weekly variation of AOD in eastern China was further studied by using the latest MODIS aerosol product (collection 6) with a fine spatial resolution (0.1°) from 2002 to 2015. We used three statistical methods to determine whether the weekly cycle of AOD was significant. AOD during weekdays (Wednesday to Friday) was lower than that during weekends. The maximum and minimum AOD was generally observed on Monday and Wednesday, respectively. This weekly pattern of AOD was in good agreement with previous results based on satellite aerosol products with a coarse spatial resolution, but it was in contrast to that of PM. Further analysis of the AOD weekly variability in 19 provincial cities suggested that AOD during weekdays was smaller than that during weekends in urban regions. Potential causes for the different weekly cycle of PM and AOD in eastern China were discussed.

  18. Sustained productivity in recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines: proteome analysis of the molecular basis for a process-related phenotype

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meleady, Paula

    2011-07-24

    Abstract Background The ability of mammalian cell lines to sustain cell specific productivity (Qp) over the full duration of bioprocess culture is a highly desirable phenotype, but the molecular basis for sustainable productivity has not been previously investigated in detail. In order to identify proteins that may be associated with a sustained productivity phenotype, we have conducted a proteomic profiling analysis of two matched pairs of monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that differ in their ability to sustain productivity over a 10 day fed-batch culture. Results Proteomic profiling of inherent differences between the two sets of comparators using 2D-DIGE (Difference Gel Electrophoresis) and LC-MS\\/MS resulted in the identification of 89 distinct differentially expressed proteins. Overlap comparisons between the two sets of cell line pairs identified 12 proteins (AKRIB8, ANXA1, ANXA4, EIF3I, G6PD, HSPA8, HSP90B1, HSPD1, NUDC, PGAM1, RUVBL1 and CNN3) that were differentially expressed in the same direction. Conclusion These proteins may have an important role in sustaining high productivity of recombinant protein over the duration of a fed-batch bioprocess culture. It is possible that many of these proteins could be useful for future approaches to successfully manipulate or engineer CHO cells in order to sustain productivity of recombinant protein.

  19. Efficient Basis Formulation for (1+1-Dimensional SU(2 Lattice Gauge Theory: Spectral Calculations with Matrix Product States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Carmen Bañuls

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose an explicit formulation of the physical subspace for a (1+1-dimensional SU(2 lattice gauge theory, where the gauge degrees of freedom are integrated out. Our formulation is completely general, and might be potentially suited for the design of future quantum simulators. Additionally, it allows for addressing the theory numerically with matrix product states. We apply this technique to explore the spectral properties of the model and the effect of truncating the gauge degrees of freedom to a small finite dimension. In particular, we determine the scaling exponents for the vector mass. Furthermore, we also compute the entanglement entropy in the ground state and study its scaling towards the continuum limit.

  20. Efficient basis formulation for 1+1 dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Spectral calculations with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-07-20

    We propose an explicit formulation of the physical subspace for a 1+1 dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory, where the gauge degrees of freedom are integrated out. Our formulation is completely general, and might be potentially suited for the design of future quantum simulators. Additionally, it allows for addressing the theory numerically with matrix product states. We apply this technique to explore the spectral properties of the model and the effect of truncating the gauge degrees of freedom to a small finite dimension. In particular, we determine the scaling exponents for the vector mass. Furthermore, we also compute the entanglement entropy in the ground state and study its scaling towards the continuum limit.

  1. Efficient basis formulation for 1+1 dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Spectral calculations with matrix product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan; Cichy, Krzysztof; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan; Jansen, Karl

    2017-01-01

    We propose an explicit formulation of the physical subspace for a 1+1 dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory, where the gauge degrees of freedom are integrated out. Our formulation is completely general, and might be potentially suited for the design of future quantum simulators. Additionally, it allows for addressing the theory numerically with matrix product states. We apply this technique to explore the spectral properties of the model and the effect of truncating the gauge degrees of freedom to a small finite dimension. In particular, we determine the scaling exponents for the vector mass. Furthermore, we also compute the entanglement entropy in the ground state and study its scaling towards the continuum limit.

  2. Efficient Basis Formulation for (1 +1 )-Dimensional SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory: Spectral Calculations with Matrix Product States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cichy, Krzysztof; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Kühn, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    We propose an explicit formulation of the physical subspace for a (1 +1 )-dimensional SU(2) lattice gauge theory, where the gauge degrees of freedom are integrated out. Our formulation is completely general, and might be potentially suited for the design of future quantum simulators. Additionally, it allows for addressing the theory numerically with matrix product states. We apply this technique to explore the spectral properties of the model and the effect of truncating the gauge degrees of freedom to a small finite dimension. In particular, we determine the scaling exponents for the vector mass. Furthermore, we also compute the entanglement entropy in the ground state and study its scaling towards the continuum limit.

  3. Production of bioactive substances by intestinal bacteria as a basis for explaining probiotic mechanisms: bacteriocins and conjugated linoleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Eileen F; Cotter, Paul D; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-16

    The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria achieve their associated health benefits can be complex and multifaceted. In this respect, the diverse microbial composition of the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) provides an almost unlimited potential source of bioactive substances (pharmabiotics) which can directly or indirectly affect human health. Bacteriocins and fatty acids are just two examples of pharmabiotic substances which may contribute to probiotic functionality within the mammalian GIT. Bacteriocin production is believed to confer producing strains with a competitive advantage within complex microbial environments as a consequence of their associated antimicrobial activity. This has the potential to enable the establishment and prevalence of producing strains as well as directly inhibiting pathogens within the GIT. Consequently, these antimicrobial peptides and the associated intestinal producing strains may be exploited to beneficially influence microbial populations. Intestinal bacteria are also known to produce a diverse array of health-promoting fatty acids. Indeed, certain strains of intestinal bifidobacteria have been shown to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid which has been associated with a variety of systemic health-promoting effects. Recently, the ability to modulate the fatty acid composition of the liver and adipose tissue of the host upon oral administration of CLA-producing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was demonstrated in a murine model. Importantly, this implies a potential therapeutic role for probiotics in the treatment of certain metabolic and immunoinflammatory disorders. Such examples serve to highlight the potential contribution of pharmabiotic production to probiotic functionality in relation to human health maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The feasibility of bio-oil production and application on the basis of the rotating cone technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansekoele, E.; Wagenaar, B.M.

    2001-07-01

    The overall objective of the project on the title subject is to scale up the novel, rotating cone technology for flash pyrolysis of biomass and examine the related bio-energy system by application of bio-oil from several feedstocks in engines and combustion chambers. The specific objectives are: (1) To identify and characterize biomass feedstocks suitable for conversion to bio-oil by means of flash pyrolysis in a rotating cone reactor; (2) To scale-up the rotating cone reactor to a commercial size (200 kg biomass per hour); (3) To optimize the process with respect to quality and yield of the bio-oil in various test runs; (4) To produce bio-oil from various feedstocks in long lasting production runs; (5) To characterize the bio-oil and test it in properly adapted diesel engines and furnaces; and (6) To estimate the market potential for bio-oil and the economic feasibility of the technology. The objectives of the partners are: (1) to establish the most cost effective pre-treatment procedures to produce proper biomass feedstock for the pyrolysis process. In addition, 25 tons of pretreated biomass feedstock was prepared (CIEMAT, Spain); (2) design of the rotating cone pyrolysis plant at a biomass throughput of 200 kg/h, optimization of the pilot plant, and carrying out long duration runs (BTG, Netherlands); (3) development and construction of the flash pyrolysis pilot plant (KARA, Netherlands); and (4) investigation of the application of bio-oil in a combustion chamber, in a gas turbine and a diesel engine with respect to performance, efficiencies and emissions ( Rostock University, Germany). This report comprises the research results of all the partners for the whole chain: from biomass pre-treatment to bio-oil production and application. The different subjects are Biomass pre-treatment, Development of the 200 kg/h pyrolysis plant, Bio-oil application, and Economics and market potential of bio-oil application. refs

  5. Systemic approach in rural administration: Study of the family production unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson R. Paz Stamberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on understanding the rationality of production management and available resources in agricultural production unit (UPA, identifying its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics in order to make a diagnosis to subsidize the rural manager in decision making.This study was part of the extension project approved in the Institutional Incentive Extension Program of the Farroupilha Federal Institute (Brazil, prioritizing as object of study a family UPA in the municipality of Santo Antônio das Missões/RS/Brazil, being conducted between October-November 2014.As methodological procedure a survey was done with qualitative and quantitative data, such as natural resources, utilized agricultural area, herd, plant, machinery and equipment, availability of labor force and yields of the various cultivation subsystems, breeding and processing. This data was organized in a spreadsheet, which identifies the adopted production system and its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics. As proposed, technical and managerial intervention in the production system, proposed strategically to enhance milk production opposed to the soybean production, considering its high contribution in relation to the value added per unit area.Key Words: Rural Administration - Production management - Systemic approach.

  6. Maximising methane production in stressed fermentation systems for swine production units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D T

    1984-01-01

    For economic reasons, digestion systems must be designed to allow the most compact plant. This forces heavy organic loading and relatively short detention times. Consequently, the digestion system is operating in the region approaching instability. An investigation into the effects on methane productivity of the method used to load anaerobic digesters has shown that when operating in regions approaching stress the method of loading plays a major role in maximising energy output. Since the digestion system is designed for steady-state loading, while the actual operating conditions are dynamic, the loading of the system actually varies greatly and is never at steady state. In loading the digestion system, two methods are available. Either Volatile Solids (VS) loading concentration will vary and loading volume remain constant or loading volume will vary and VS loading concentration remain constant. The choice of which operational method is used in a digestion system already operating under heavy loading greatly affects methane productivity. The internal energy usage of the plant also is affected. Results indicate that gross methane production is approximately 33% higher and VS reduction is increased by 28% for the fermentation plant operating with a varying detention time when compared to operating the same plant with a varying loading concentration. (Refs. 14).

  7. Trophic basis of production for a mayfly in a North Island, New Zealand, forest stream : contributions of benthic versus hyporheic habitats and implications for restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, K.J.; Wright-Stow, A.E.; Smith, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The leptophlebiid mayfly Acanthophlebia cruentata (Hudson) is restricted to the North Island and some associated offshore islands of northern New Zealand where it commonly occurs in benthic and hyporheic habitats of forested streams. We investigated: (1) life history; (2) secondary production in benthic and hyporheic habitats; and (3) major energy sources contributing to nutrition and production of this species in a pristine forest stream. Most nymphal size classes were present throughout the year, and emergence extended over several months, peaking from February to April. Despite apparently having extended emergence and recruitment periods, Acanthophlebia exhibited a predominantly univoltine life history. Annual benthic production (calculated by the size-frequency method) was 0.318 g dry mass (DM) m -2 year -1 , compared to 4.601 g DM m -2 year -1 in high-density benthic habitats at the tails of pools, and 34.476 g m -3 year -1 for colonisation baskets set at 15-45 cm deep in the substratum. On a habitat weighted basis averaged out over the entire sampling reach, it was estimated that 76% of annual production occurred in hyporheic habitats >10 cm below the streambed surface. Gut contents were dominated by fine particulate matter (FPM) ≤75 μm and larger inorganic material on all dates in individuals from both benthic and hyporheic habitats. Fungi were relatively abundant in guts of benthic animals collected on some dates, whereas spores and pollen were relatively common food items in both habitats on occasions. Analysis of the trophic basis of production, based on gut contents and assumed assimilation and net production efficiencies, indicated that benthic secondary production was supported largely by fungi (48% of production) and FPM (37%), whereas FPM supported a higher level of hyporheic production (52%) than fungi (27%). Although stable carbon isotope values suggested dependence on epilithon, the enriched δ 15 N values for this food source implicated the

  8. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  9. Economic productivity by age and sex: 2007 estimates for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D; Krueger, Kurt V; Mvundura, Mercy

    2009-07-01

    Human capital estimates of labor productivity are often used to estimate the economic impact of diseases and injuries that cause incapacitation or death. Estimates of average hourly, annual, and lifetime economic productivity, both market and household, were calculated in 2007 US dollars for 5-year age groups for men, women, and both sexes in the United States. Data from the American Time Use Survey were used to estimate hours of paid work and household services and hourly and annual earnings and household productivity. Present values of discounted lifetime earnings were calculated for each age group using the 2004 US life tables and a discount rate of 3% per year and assuming future productivity growth of 1% per year. The estimates of hours and productivity were calculated using the time diaries of 72,922 persons included in the American Time Use Survey for the years 2003 to 2007. The present value of lifetime productivity is approximately $1.2 million in 2007 dollars for children under 5 years of age. For adults in their 20s and 30s, it is approximately $1.6 million and then it declines with increasing age. Productivity estimates are higher for males than for females, more for market productivity than for total productivity. Changes in hours of paid employment and household services can affect economic productivity by age and sex. This is the first publication to include estimates of household services based on contemporary time use data for the US population.

  10. Study of the lacustrine phytoplankton productivity dependence on solar radiation, on the basis of direct high-frequency measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, Maria; Ojala, Anne; Heiskanen, Jouni; Erkkilä, Kukka-Maaria; Mammarella, Ivan; Hari, Pertti; Vesala, Timo

    2016-04-01

    One of the main components of the carbon cycle in lakes is phytoplankton. Its in situ photosynthesis and respiration are usually studied with traditional methods (dark and light bottle method, 14C labelling technique). These methods, relying on sampling and incubation, may lead to unrealistic results. They also have a poor temporal resolution, which does not allow the non-linear relationship between photosynthetically active solar radiation (PAR) and photosynthesis to be properly investigated. As a consequence, the phytoplankton net primary productivity (NPP) cannot be parameterised as a function of ambient variables. In 2008 an innovative free-water approach was proposed. It is based on non-dispersive infrared air CO2 probes that, by building an appropriate system, can be used to measure the CO2 concentration in the water at a high-frequency. At that time, the method was tested only on 3 days of data. Here, we deployed it on a boreal lake in Finland for four summers, in order to calculate the NPP and verify its dependence on PAR. The set-up was completed by an eddy-covariance system and water PAR and temperature sensors. In analogy with the procedure typically used in terrestrial ecology, we obtained the phytoplankton NPP computing the mass balance of CO2 in the mixed layer of the lake, i.e. the superficial layer where the conditions are homogeneous and most of the photosynthetic activity takes place. After calculating the NPP , we verified its dependence on PAR. The theoretical model we used was a saturating Michaelis-Menten curve, in which the variables are water temperature and PAR. The equation also contains parameters typical of the phytoplankton communities, which represent their maximum potential photosynthetic rate, their half-saturation constant and their basal respiration. These parameters allow the NPP to be parameterised as a function of T and PAR. For all the analysed year, we found a very good agreement between theory and data (R2 ranged from 0.80 to

  11. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Marketing Innovations in the Context of Interaction of Enterprises of the Production and Service Sphere on the Basis of Use of Outsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Anastasiia I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in development of a methodical approach to identification of expediency of transfer of the production enterprise equipment maintenance to outsourcing, which would consider specific features of the servicing production and degree of its influence upon basic production processes. The existing approaches to identification of expediency of transfer of functions and business processes of an enterprise to outsourcing were systemised by the classification feature of the method type, on the basis of which the approach is built and advantages and shortcomings of each of them are marked out. The article establishes that this grouping could be used as a set of alternatives on justification of introduction of outsourcing into the practice. In accordance with the goal of the study the article builds a methodical approach to identification of expediency of transfer of the production enterprise equipment maintenance, which is based on a comparative analysis of integral ratio of efficiency of own maintenance service and efficiency of maintenance service of outsourcing companies and which takes into account main parameters of functioning and degree of influence of the servicing production upon main business processes. The developed methodical approach could be used as a tool of expansion of sales markets of the service sphere enterprises by means of assessment of needs of customers and establishment of the target-oriented market segment.

  13. Computing energy levels of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F with a direct product basis and coordinates based on the methyl subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H.; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations of ro-vibrational energies of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F were made with two different numerical approaches. Both use polyspherical coordinates. The computed energy levels agree, confirming the accuracy of the methods. In the first approach, for all the molecules, the coordinates are defined using three Radau vectors for the CH3 subsystem and a Jacobi vector between the remaining atom and the centre of mass of CH3. Euler angles specifying the orientation of a frame attached to CH3 with respect to a frame attached to the Jacobi vector are used as vibrational coordinates. A direct product potential-optimized discrete variable vibrational basis is used to build a Hamiltonian matrix. Ro-vibrational energies are computed using a re-started Arnoldi eigensolver. In the second approach, the coordinates are the spherical coordinates associated with four Radau vectors or three Radau vectors and a Jacobi vector, and the frame is an Eckart frame. Vibrational basis functions are products of contracted stretch and bend functions, and eigenvalues are computed with the Lanczos algorithm. For CH4, CHD3, and CH3D, we report the first J > 0 energy levels computed on the Wang-Carrington potential energy surface [X.-G. Wang and T. Carrington, J. Chem. Phys. 141(15), 154106 (2014)]. For CH3F, the potential energy surface of Zhao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 204302 (2016)] was used. All the results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  14. Computing energy levels of CH4, CHD3, CH3D, and CH3F with a direct product basis and coordinates based on the methyl subsystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Gatti, Fabien

    2018-02-21

    Quantum mechanical calculations of ro-vibrational energies of CH 4 , CHD 3 , CH 3 D, and CH 3 F were made with two different numerical approaches. Both use polyspherical coordinates. The computed energy levels agree, confirming the accuracy of the methods. In the first approach, for all the molecules, the coordinates are defined using three Radau vectors for the CH 3 subsystem and a Jacobi vector between the remaining atom and the centre of mass of CH 3 . Euler angles specifying the orientation of a frame attached to CH 3 with respect to a frame attached to the Jacobi vector are used as vibrational coordinates. A direct product potential-optimized discrete variable vibrational basis is used to build a Hamiltonian matrix. Ro-vibrational energies are computed using a re-started Arnoldi eigensolver. In the second approach, the coordinates are the spherical coordinates associated with four Radau vectors or three Radau vectors and a Jacobi vector, and the frame is an Eckart frame. Vibrational basis functions are products of contracted stretch and bend functions, and eigenvalues are computed with the Lanczos algorithm. For CH 4 , CHD 3 , and CH 3 D, we report the first J > 0 energy levels computed on the Wang-Carrington potential energy surface [X.-G. Wang and T. Carrington, J. Chem. Phys. 141(15), 154106 (2014)]. For CH 3 F, the potential energy surface of Zhao et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 144, 204302 (2016)] was used. All the results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  15. Tobacco-Product Use by Adults and Youths in the United States in 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Ambrose, Bridget K; Conway, Kevin P; Borek, Nicolette; Taylor, Kristie; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Cummings, K Michael; Sharma, Eva; Pearson, Jennifer L; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Travers, Mark J; Kwan, Jonathan; Tworek, Cindy; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Yang, Ling; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; van Bemmel, Dana M; Backinger, Cathy L; Compton, Wilson M; Hyland, Andrew J

    2017-01-26

    Noncigarette tobacco products are evolving rapidly, with increasing popularity in the United States. We present prevalence estimates for 12 types of tobacco products, using data from 45,971 adult and youth participants (≥12 years of age) from Wave 1 (September 2013 through December 2014) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study, a large, nationally representative, longitudinal study of tobacco use and health in the United States. Participants were asked about their use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, traditional cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars, pipe tobacco, hookah, snus pouches, other smokeless tobacco, dissolvable tobacco, bidis, and kreteks. Estimates of the prevalence of use for each product were determined according to use category (e.g., current use or use in the previous 30 days) and demographic subgroup, and the prevalence of multiple-product use was explored. More than a quarter (27.6%) of adults were current users of at least one type of tobacco product in 2013 and 2014, although the prevalence varied depending on use category. A total of 8.9% of youths had used a tobacco product in the previous 30 days; 1.6% of youths were daily users. Approximately 40% of tobacco users, adults and youths alike, used multiple tobacco products; cigarettes plus e-cigarettes was the most common combination. Young adults (18 to 24 years of age), male adults and youths, members of racial minorities, and members of sexual minorities generally had higher use of tobacco than their counterparts. During this study, 28% of U.S. adults were current users of tobacco, and 9% of youths had used tobacco in the previous 30 days. Use of multiple products was common among tobacco users. These findings will serve as baseline data to examine between-person differences and within-person changes over time in the use of tobacco products. (Funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Food and Drug Administration.).

  16. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  17. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance Across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-01-01

    This case study shows the promise of computing current season forest disturbance detection products at regional to CONUS scales. Use of the eMODIS expedited product enabled a NRT CONUS forest disturbance detection product, a requirement for an eventual, operational forest threat EWS. The 2009 classification product from this study can be used to quantify the areal extent of forest disturbance across CONUS, although a quantitative accuracy assessment still needs to be completed. However, the results would not include disturbances that occurred after July 27, such as the Station Fire. While not shown here, the project also produced maximum NDVI products for the June 10-July 27 period of each year of the 2000-2009 time frame. These products could be applied to compute forest change products on an annual basis. GIS could then be used to assess disturbance persistence. Such follow-on work could lead to attribution of year in which a disturbance occurred. These products (e.g., Figures 6 and 7) may also be useful for assessing forest change associated with climate change, such as carbon losses from bark beetle-induced forest mortality in the Western United States. Other MODIS phenological products are being assessed for aiding forest monitoring needs of the EWS, including cumulative NDVI products (Figure 10).

  18. Microfouling assessment and its control in a heavy water production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh Kumar; Subba Rao, T.

    2015-01-01

    The water treatment plant (WTP) of a heavy water production unit was extensively fouled by microorganisms. On-site investigations showed severe algal and bacterial growth in the various units of WTP and very dense microbial fouling in the vacuum degasser (VD) unit. Digital and microscopic images showed that the microfouling problem was primarily due to a slime bacterium and a fungus. Microbiological analysis showed a bacterial count of ∼10 5 cfu ml -1 in the various sections of WTP. The slime/biofilm scrapings had very high bacterial population (>10 9 cfu cm -2 ). High organic carbon values in the system (5.0 to 19.5 ppm) had supported microbial growth in WTP and augmented resin fouling. Chlorination was inadequate in controlling microfouling, consequently chlorine dioxide was tested and found to be a better biocide. A 2.0% sodium omadine solution had completely inhibited the fouling fungus. (author)

  19. State-Specific Prevalence of Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Armour, Brian S; Graffunder, Corinne M; Willis, Gordon; Hartman, Anne M; Agaku, Israel T

    2018-01-26

    Despite recent declines in cigarette smoking prevalence, the tobacco product landscape has shifted to include emerging tobacco products* (1,2). Previous research has documented adult use of smokeless tobacco and cigarettes by state (3); however, state-specific data on other tobacco products are limited. To assess tobacco product use in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC), CDC and the National Cancer Institute analyzed self-reported use of six tobacco product types: cigarettes, cigars, regular pipes, water pipes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco products among adults aged ≥18 years using data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS). Prevalence of ever-use of any tobacco product ranged from 27.0% (Utah) to 55.4% (Wyoming). Current (every day or some days) use of any tobacco product ranged from 10.2% (California) to 27.7% (Wyoming). Cigarettes were the most common currently used tobacco product in all states and DC. Among current cigarette smokers, the proportion who currently used one or more other tobacco products ranged from 11.5% (Delaware) to 32.3% (Oregon). Differences in tobacco product use across states underscore the importance of implementing proven population-level strategies to reduce tobacco use and expanding these strategies to cover all forms of tobacco marketed in the United States. Such strategies could include comprehensive smoke-free policies, tobacco product price increases, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, and barrier-free access to clinical smoking cessation resources (1,4).

  20. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhadra, Bobban [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Mark [Marketing and Sustainability, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed. (author)

  1. p-Phenylenediamine and other allergens in hair dye products in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Dathan; Yazar, Kerem; Hamann, Carsten R

    2014-01-01

    product contained six (range 0-11). p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) was found in 83 products (78%), but resorcinol (89%), m-aminophenol (75%), p-aminophenol (60%) and toluene-2,5-diamine (21%) were also frequently identified. CONCLUSIONS: Potent contact sensitizers were almost universally included in the hair...... dyes investigated in the United States. Although PPD is a common allergen, resorcinol and m-aminophenol were found more frequently. In total, 30 potent sensitizers were found. Clinicians should consider other allergens in addition to PPD when evaluating patients with suspected hair dye allergy....

  2. An integrated renewable energy park approach for algal biofuel production in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhadra, Bobban; Edwards, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Algal biomass provides viable third generation feedstock for liquid transportation fuel that does not compete with food crops for cropland. However, fossil energy inputs and intensive water usage diminishes the positive aspects of algal energy production. An integrated renewable energy park (IREP) approach is proposed for aligning renewable energy industries in resource-specific regions in United States for synergistic electricity and liquid biofuel production from algal biomass with net zero carbon emissions. The benefits, challenges and policy needs of this approach are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems in agricultural production units, Northern Huetar Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de Jesús Guzmán Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on fossil fuels urges society to seek for clean energy alternatives, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of solar energy used for water heating and electricity generation. The study was conducted at the dairy of the Technology Institute of Costa Rica, San Carlos Headquarter, from May 15 to April 2016. The data related to the amount of the electricity produced and the temperature reached by water was obtained from the installed photovoltaic and thermal systems, the data was recorded by a computerized register. The obtained information about electricity production allowed researchers to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent that was not emitted into the atmosphere, and also the acquired economic saving on consumption. The use of these systems allowed the production unit have a self- sufficient source of electrical energy percentage, actually around 30 to 40% of the total electrical consumption. According to the energy production, the solar thermal system was capable to increase water temperature between 20 to 37 °C, temperature that represents more than 70% of the energy needed in order to reach the required water temperature (70 °C for cleaning and sanitizing the milking equipment, and also an economical saving around $90 per month was achieved. The results showed that these systems allow to improve the economical and productive efficiency of agricultural production units in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.

  4. Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul; Suh, Jeong Kwan; Lee, Jae Yong; Song, Dong Soo

    2010-01-01

    The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

  5. Validation of Ulchin Units 1, 2 CONTEMPT Model Prior to the Production of EQ Envelope Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Su Hyun; Kim, Min Ki; Hong, Soon Joon; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co., SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jeong Kwan; Lee, Jae Yong; Song, Dong Soo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The Ulchin Units 1, 2 will be refurbished with RSG (Replacement of Steam Generator) and PU (Power Uprate). The current EQ (Environmental Qualification) envelope curve should be modified according to RSG and PU. The containment P/T (Pressure/Temperature) analysis in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR was done using EDF computer program PAREO6. PAREO6 uses the same assumptions as the US NRC CONTEMPT program, and the results given by both programs are in good agreement. It is utilized to determine pressure and temperature variations in a PWR containment subsequent to a reactor coolant or secondary system pipe break. But PAREO6 cannot be available to the production of EQ envelope curve, so CONTEMPT code should be used instead of PAREO6. It is essential to validate the CONTEMPT OSG (Original Steam Generator) model prior to the production of EQ envelope curve considering RSG and PU. This study has been performed to validate the CONTEMPT model of Ulchin Units 1, 2 by comparing the CONTEMPT results with the PAERO6 results in Ulchin Units 1, 2 FSAR

  6. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF FOOD SYSTEMS WITH THE PREDICTED BIOPOTENTIAL ON THE BASIS OF PRODUCTS OF PROCESSING OF DOMESTIC LOW-OLIVE RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Alekseeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. This receiving the vegetable complex food system (VCFS on the basis of the cake of germs of wheat (CGW is presented. The review of composition of vegetable oils from low-olive raw materials is given, prospects of its application for creation of food systems of the balanced structure on PNZС are analyzed. It is established that the ratio of -6 и -3 of fatty acids in oil of germs of wheat doesn't correspond to recommendations of scientific research institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. For the purpose of establishment of necessary balance of -6 и -3 in food system, the blend with oils of an amaranth and pumpkin is carried out. The review of composition of vegetable oils from low-olive raw materials is given. The optimum ratio the entered oil of an amaranth and pumpkin according to recommendations of scientific research institute of food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, by means of the developed software products written on in the Python 2.6 language and in the imperative, structured, object-oriented programming language – Delphi 7.0 is picked up. On the basis of the obtained data, the mass fraction of the components entering a compounding of vegetable food system is defined. The technological process of production of a product including the following stages is described: reception and preparation of raw materials and materials, dispensing and mixing of components, crushing and packing. Physical and chemical indicators of the received product, a chemical composition of RKPS and an organoleptic assessment of an innovative product are given. Calculation of satisfaction of daily need of an organism for feedstuffs and energy of vegetable food system is made. The composition of protein of an innovative product is analyzed: the amino-acid structure of food system, biological value, and also following indicators is counted: utility coefficient, coefficient of comparable redundancy, coefficient of

  7. 9 CFR 590.900 - Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for importation of egg products or restricted eggs into the United States. 590.900 Section 590.900 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF...

  8. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  9. 9 CFR 327.2 - Eligibility of foreign countries for importation of products into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Hungary, Iceland, Ireland (Eire), Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Northern... country, with respect to establishments preparing products in such country for export to the United States... establishments throughout the system at which products are prepared for export to the United States; (B) Ultimate...

  10. Sustainability of egg production in the United States--the policy and market context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mench, J A; Sumner, D A; Rosen-Molina, J T

    2011-01-01

    The US egg industry is being pressured from many directions to change its production practices, particularly to address concerns about hen welfare in conventional cage systems. Responding to similar pressures, in 1999, the European Union banned conventional laying cages starting in 2012. This now impending European ban has led to the development of several alternative housing systems. These include noncage systems like aviaries and modified (enriched or furnished) cages that include perches, areas in which the hens can forage and dustbathe, and nests. Understanding the European experience is valuable as the United States considers the future direction of the egg industry. In the United States, the proportion of eggs produced in alternative systems is small (less than 5% of output) but growing, in part due to market and political incentives for systems that provide hens with more behavioral freedom than conventional cages. Animal welfare, however, is only one element of a sustainable production system. Other elements include those related to public values, the environment, economics, worker health, and food safety and quality. Eggs are a primary source of animal protein globally, and the United States is the third largest producer of eggs in the world, behind China and the European Union. The national table egg flock comprises about 280 million hens housed in all regions but with approximately 60% of eggs produced in the 10 leading states. Adopting new housing systems will have substantial effects on costs and other aspects of egg production on both a regional and national scale, with some positive effects but also potential negative effects that need to be carefully considered. This paper discusses the US egg industry in the context of legislation and standards related to hen housing systems. It also addresses initiatives by retailers, nongovernmental organizations, and private certification organizations to shape production practices in the egg industry as well as

  11. Development of in situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf H; Rehn, Gustav; Grey, Carl; Nordblad, Mathias; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Woodley, John M

    2017-03-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform, it is possible to compartmentalize different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept, it was possible to continuously feed the main substrate benzylacetone (BA) and extract the main product MPPA throughout the reaction, thereby overcoming the challenges of low substrate solubility and product inhibition. The tested ISPR concept achieved a product concentration of 26.5 g MPPA  · L -1 , a purity up to 70% g MPPA  · g tot -1 and a recovery in the range of 80% mol · mol -1 of MPPA in 20 h, with the possibility to increase the concentration, purity, and recovery further. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 600-609. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Elaboration Of A Classification Of Geomorphologic Units And The Basis Of A Digital Data-Base For Establishing Geomorphologic Maps In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Gammal, E.A.; Cherif, O.H.; Abdel Aleem, E.

    2003-01-01

    A database for the classification and description of basic geomorphologic land form units has been prepared for establishing geomorphologic maps in Egyptian terrains. This database includes morpho-structural, lithological, denudational and depositional units. The database.is included in tables with proper coding to be used for establishing automatically the color, symbols and legend of the maps. Also the system includes description of various geomorphic units. The system is designed to be used with the ARC Map software. The AUTOCAD 2000 software has been used to trace the maps. The database has been applied to produce five new geomorphologic maps with a scale of I: 100 000. These are: Wadi Feiran Sheet, Wadi Kid Sheet, Gabal Katherina Sheet in South Sinai, Shelattein area (South Eastern Desert) and Baharia Oasis area (Western Desert)

  13. Impact of overactive bladder on work productivity in the United States: results from EpiLUTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Chris C; Coyne, Karin S; Vats, Vasudha; Kopp, Zoe S; Irwin, Debra E; Wagner, Todd H

    2009-03-01

    Little research has focused on the impact of overactive bladder (OAB) on work productivity. Consequently, the impact of OAB and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on work productivity was evaluated in employed men and women aged 40 to 65 in the United States. Data from a population-based, cross-sectional Internet survey were used to examine the impact of OAB symptoms on work productivity. US participants aged 40 to 65 working full- or part-time were included in the analysis. Participants were asked about the incidence of OAB and other LUTS and a series of questions about work productivity. Descriptive statistics and linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate outcome differences for men and women by the OAB groups of no/minimal symptoms, continent OAB, and incontinent OAB. The response rate was 60%, and a total of 2876 men and 2820 women were analyzed. Men and women with incontinent OAB reported the lowest levels of work productivity and highest rates of daily work interference. Storage symptoms associated with OAB were most consistently associated with work productivity outcomes; however, significant associations were also found for other storage, voiding, and postmicturition LUTS. In this large US population-based study, OAB was highly prevalent and was associated with lower levels of work productivity. These findings add to the literature documenting the burden of OAB and other LUTS, underscoring the need for increased screening and treatment.

  14. Cobalamin Deficiency Results in Increased Production of Formate Secondary to Decreased Mitochondrial Oxidation of One-Carbon Units in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Luke; Tingley, Garrett; Young, Sara K; Clow, Kathy A; Randell, Edward W; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2018-03-01

    Formate is produced in mitochondria via the catabolism of serine, glycine, dimethylglycine, and sarcosine. Formate produced by mitochondria may be incorporated into the cytosolic folate pool where it can be used for important biosynthetic reactions. Previous studies from our lab have shown that cobalamin deficiency results in increased plasma formate concentrations. Our goal was to determine the basis for elevated formate in vitamin B-12 deficiency. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to consume either a cobalamin-replete (50 μg cobalamin/kg diet) or -deficient (no added cobalamin) diet for 6 wk. Formate production was measured in vivo and in isolated liver mitochondria from a variety of one-carbon precursors. We also measured the oxidation of [3-14C]-l-serine to 14CO2 in isolated rat liver mitochondria and the expression of hepatic genes involved in one-carbon unit and formate metabolism. Cobalamin-deficient rats produce formate at a rate 55% higher than that of replete rats. Formate production from serine was increased by 60% and from dimethylglycine and sarcosine by ∼200% in liver mitochondria isolated from cobalamin-deficient rats compared with cobalamin-replete rats. There was a 26% decrease in the 14CO2 produced by mitochondria from cobalamin-deficient rats. Gene expression analysis showed that 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-cytosolic (Aldh1l1) and mitochondrial (Aldh1l2) expression were decreased by 40% and 60%, respectively, compared to control, while 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, mitochondrial, monofunctional (Mthfd1l) expression was unchanged. We propose that a bifurcation in mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism is a key control mechanism in determining the fate of one-carbon units, to formate or CO2. During cobalamin deficiency in rats the disposition of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate carbon is shifted in favor of formate production. This may represent a mechanism to generate more one-carbon units for the replenishment of the S

  15. Individual units rather than entire hospital as the basis for improvement: the example of two Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastmeier Petra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two MRSA surveillance components exist within the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system KISS: one for the whole hospital (i.e. only hospital based data and no rates for individual units and one for ICU-based data (rates for each individual ICU. The objective of this study was to analyze which surveillance system (a hospital based or a unit based leads to a greater decrease in incidence density of nosocomial MRSA Methods Two cohort studies of surveillance data were used: Data from a total of 224 hospitals and 359 ICUs in the period from 2004 to 2009. Development over time was described first for both surveillance systems. In a second step only data were analyzed from those hospitals/ICUs with continuous participation for at least four years. Incidence rate ratios (IRR with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare incidence densities between different time intervals. Results In the baseline year the mean MRSA incidence density of hospital acquired MRSA cases was 0.25 and the mean incidence density of ICU-acquired MRSA was 1.25 per 1000 patient days. No decrease in hospital-acquired MRSA rates was found in a total of 111 hospitals with continuous participation in the hospital- based system. However, in 159 ICUs with continuous participation in the unit-based system, a significant decrease of 29% in ICU-acquired MRSA was identified. Conclusions A unit-based approach of surveillance and feedback seems to be more successful in decreasing nosocomial MRSA rates, compared to a hospital-based approach. Therefore each surveillance system should provide unit-based data to stimulate activities on the unit level.

  16. The question about increasing of thermoelectrical Q and percent of the yield of the semiconductor material on the basis of chalcogenides of the bismuth and antimony under conditions of experimental-industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magerramov, A.A.; Barkhalov, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Different methods of the receiving of monocrystalline ingots of the semiconductor materials for thermo electrical inverter of energy have been considered. On the basis of the analyses of theoretical and experimental data generated series of recommendations, directed to increase thermo electrical Q receiving from thermo electrical materials and increasing percent of yield of semiconductor materials on the basis of chalcogenides of the bismuth and antimony on the basis of industrial production

  17. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  18. Direct-to-Consumer Marketing of Cigar Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ollie; Teplitskaya, Lyubov; Cantrell, Jennifer; Hair, Elizabeth C; Vallone, Donna

    2016-05-01

    Although cigar use and sales have increased in the United States over the past decade, little is known about how these products are promoted. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising is a common method used to promote tobacco products and may be a potential channel through which cigars are advertised. Comperemedia (Mintel) was used to acquire opt-in direct mail and email advertising for the top 10 cigar brands in the United States between January 2013 and July 2014. The advertisement and corresponding data on brand, advertising spend, and mail volume were downloaded and summarized. Promotions such as coupons, giveaways, and sweepstakes were also examined. A total of 92 unique advertisements met the search criteria and included two brands: Black & Mild (n = 77) and Swisher Sweets (n = 15). Expenditures on direct mail advertising during this period totaled $12 809 630. Black & Mild encompassed 80% of total direct mail volume and 78% of direct mail advertising expenditures. Almost all advertisements contained at least one promotion (88%) and included a URL to the product website (85%). The results suggest that Black & Mild and Swisher Sweets are the primary cigar brands using DTC advertising. Promotional offers were nearly ubiquitous among the advertisements, which may appeal to price-sensitive populations. Future studies should continue to examine cigar advertising via direct mail and email, in addition to other channels, such as the point-of-sale. Although cigar use and sales have increased in the United States over the past decade, there is limited data on cigar advertising. This article provides a snapshot of expenditures, volume, and promotional content of DTC cigar advertising in the United States between January 2013 and July 2014. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Who, what, and why: the products, their use, and issues about management of non-timber forest products in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Alexander

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products in the United States include floral greens, Christmas ornamentals, wild edibles, medicinals, crafts, and transplants. Non-timber forest products are important to many people for many reasons. People harvest products from forests for personal use, cultural practices, and sale. The tremendous variety of species harvested for the many markets...

  20. How can we improve biomethane production per unit of feedstock in biogas plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asam, Zaki-ul-Zaman; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Rafique, Rashad; Kiely, Ger; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Biogas production is one of the number of tools that may be used to alleviate the problems of global warming, energy security and waste management. Biogas plants can be difficult to sustain from a financial perspective. The facilities must be financially optimized through use of substrates with high biogas potential, low water content and low retention requirement. This research carried out in laboratory scale batch digesters assessed the biogas potential of energy crops (maize and grass silage) and solid manure fractions from manure separation units. The ultimate methane productivity in terms of volatile solids (VS) was determined as 330, 161, 230, 236, 361 L/kg VS from raw pig slurry, filter pressed manure fiber (FPMF), chemically precipitated manure fiber (CPMF), maize silage and grass silage respectively. Methane productivity based on mass (L/kg substrate) was significantly higher in FPMF (55 L/kg substrate), maize silage (68 L/kg substrate) and grass silage (45-124 L/kg substrate (depending on dry solids of feedstock)) as in comparison to raw pig slurry (10 L/kg substrate). The use of these materials as co-substrates with raw pig slurry will increase significantly the biomethane yield per unit feedstock in the biogas plant.

  1. The Significance of Consumer’s Awareness about Organic Food Products in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Muhummad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Awareness about negative externalities generated by conventional farming is gaining momentum with consumers around the world, opting for alternatively, namely organically, produced food products. Information about consumers’ awareness is an essential element for farmers and marketing agencies to successfully plan production that can capture a greater market share. This study discusses effective factors influencing consumers’ awareness about the benefits of organic food in the United Arab Emirates. Sample data and ordinary least square (OLS regression techniques are applied to delineate factors influencing consumers’ awareness about organic food. The results from this regression analysis highlight the importance of specific socioeconomic determinants that change awareness about organic food products in United Arab Emirates (UAE households. This study finds that awareness about organic food is influenced more effective factors such as gender, nationality, and education as well as income, occupation and age. These research findings apply to other economies and societies that have an increasing per capita spending on organic food, but also where people are highly sensitive to information provided about organic food. Therefore, these results are important to these research beneficiaries including food marketing planners, researchers, and agricultural and food policy makers.

  2. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of atmospheric emissions of a radiopharmaceutical' s production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Gessilane M.; Barreto, Alberto A.; Maletta, Paulo G.M.; Alves, Thaís A.N., E-mail: gessilane.siqueira@cdtn.br, E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: pgmm@cdtn.br, E-mail: aryadnenasc@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte - MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Cyclotrons are radiative facilities capable of synthesizing radioisotopes that will be used for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. The increasing use of these substances in diagnostic therapies and procedures in nuclear medicine implies the need to increase the production of radiopharmaceuticals. In this context, it is fundamental, from the point of view of environmental radioprotection, to characterize atmospheric emissions from this type of production, in order to make feasible studies of radiological impacts, especially with a view to human health and environmental preservation. It is premise that facilities must ensure the radiological safety of exposed individuals through the control of discharges into the environment. This work aims to characterize the atmospheric emissions behavior of a Radiopharmaceutical Research and Production Unit (RRPU). The emission data for the radionuclides C-11, F-18, and N-13, associated to the production of radiopharmaceuticals ({sup 18}F-FES, {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 18}FCOL, {sup 18}F-FLT, Na{sup 18}F) during the year 2016 were analyzed. Emissions data are collected every 10 seconds from a sensor installed in the unit's exhaust system. The pre-processing of these data was done by spreadsheets (Excel®) and exported to a statistical package (Minitab16®) to characterize the behavior of these emissions. The results of this study aim to contribute: to the study of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the region of interest; to evaluate the operational control measures of the investigated facility; and to evaluate the radiological impacts in the region neighboring the facility. This methodology has been used in atmospheric dispersion modeling studies in the RRPU and the results showed that the annual doses from the emissions are within the limits established by the radioprotection norms of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission. Additionally, it is believed that the information generated in this study

  4. Structural, compositional, and sensorial properties of United States commercial ice cream products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Maya M; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-10-01

    Commercial vanilla ice cream products from the United States (full fat, low fat, and nonfat) were analyzed for their structural, behavioral (i.e., melt rate and drip-through), compositional, and sensorial attributes. Mean size distributions of ice crystals and air cells, drip-through rates, percent partially coalesced fat, percent overrun and total fat, and density were determined. A trained panel carried out sensory analyses in order to determine correlations between ice cream microstructure attributes and sensory properties using a Spectrum(TM) descriptive analysis. Analyses included melt rate, breakdown, size of ice particulates (iciness), denseness, greasiness, and overall creaminess. To determine relationships and interactions, principle component analysis and multivariate pairwise correlation were performed within and between the instrumental and sensorial data. Greasiness and creaminess negatively correlated with drip-through rate and creaminess correlated with percent total fat and percent fat destabilization. Percent fat did not determine the melt rate on a sensorial level. However, drip-through rate at ambient temperatures was predicted by total fat content of the samples. Based on sensory analysis, high-fat products were noted to be creamier than low and nonfat products. Iciness did not correlate with mean ice crystal size and drip-through rate did not predict sensory melt rate. Furthermore, on a sensorial level, greasiness positively correlated with total percent fat destabilization and mean air cell size positively correlated with denseness. These results indicate that commercial ice cream products vary widely in composition, structure, behavior, and sensory properties. There is a wide range of commercial ice creams in the United States market, ranging from full fat to nonfat. In this research we showed that these ice creams vary greatly in their microstructures, behaviors (the melt/drip-though, collapse, and/or stand up properties of ice cream

  5. High-resolution Monthly Satellite Precipitation Product over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, H.; Fayne, J.; Knight, R. J.; Lakshmi, V.

    2017-12-01

    We present a data set that enhanced the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) monthly product 3B43 in its accuracy and spatial resolution. For this, we developed a correction function to improve the accuracy of TRMM 3B43, spatial resolution of 25 km, by estimating and removing the bias in the satellite data using a ground-based precipitation data set. We observed a strong relationship between the bias and land surface elevation; TRMM 3B43 tends to underestimate the ground-based product at elevations above 1500 m above mean sea level (m.amsl) over the conterminous United States. A relationship was developed between satellite bias and elevation. We then resampled TRMM 3B43 to the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data set at a spatial resolution of 30 arc second ( 1 km on the ground). The produced high-resolution satellite-based data set was corrected using the developed correction function based on the bias-elevation relationship. Assuming that each rain gauge represents an area of 1 km2, we verified our product against 9,200 rain gauges across the conterminous United States. The new product was compared with the gauges, which have 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% temporal coverage within the TRMM period of 1998 to 2015. Comparisons between the high-resolution corrected satellite-based data and gauges showed an excellent agreement. The new product captured more detail in the changes in precipitation over the mountainous region than the original TRMM 3B43.

  6. Some timber product market and trade implications of an invasive defoliator: the case of Asian lymantria in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Ruhong Li

    2008-01-01

    US policy and forest product industry decisionmakers need quantitative information about the magnitude of timber product market impacts from the possible introduction of an exotic and potentially dangerous defoliating forest pest. We applied the Global Forest Products Model to evaluate the effects on the United States of an invasion by the Asian gypsy (...

  7. Economic and market issues on the sustainability of egg production in the United States: analysis of alternative production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D A; Gow, H; Hayes, D; Matthews, W; Norwood, B; Rosen-Molina, J T; Thurman, W

    2011-01-01

    Conventional cage housing for laying hens evolved as a cost-effective egg production system. Complying with mandated hen housing alternatives would raise marginal production costs and require sizable capital investment. California data indicate that shifts from conventional cages to barn housing would likely cause farm-level cost increases of about 40% per dozen. The US data on production costs of such alternatives as furnished cages are not readily available and European data are not applicable to the US industry structure. Economic analysis relies on key facts about production and marketing of conventional and noncage eggs. Even if mandated by government or buyers, shifts to alternative housing would likely occur with lead times of at least 5 yr. Therefore, egg producers and input suppliers would have considerable time to plan new systems and build new facilities. Relatively few US consumers now pay the high retail premiums required for nonconventional eggs from hens housed in alternative systems. However, data from consumer experiments indicate that additional consumers would also be willing to pay some premium. Nonetheless, current data do not allow easy extrapolation to understand the willingness to pay for such eggs by the vast majority of conventional egg consumers. Egg consumption in the United States tends to be relatively unresponsive to price changes, such that sustained farm price increases of 40% would likely reduce consumption by less than 10%. This combination of facts and relationships suggests that, unless low-cost imports grew rapidly, requirements for higher cost hen housing systems would raise US egg prices considerably while reducing egg consumption marginally. Eggs are a low-cost source of animal protein and low-income consumers would be hardest hit. However, because egg expenditures are a very small share of the consumer budget, real income loss for consumers would be small in percentage terms. Finally, the high egg prices imposed by

  8. Smokers' reactions to FDA regulation of tobacco products: Findings from the 2009 ITC United States survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fix Brian V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On June 22, 2009, the US FDA was granted the authority to regulate tobacco products through the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA. The intent is to improve public health through regulations on tobacco product marketing and tobacco products themselves. This manuscript reports baseline data on smokers' attitudes and beliefs on specific issues relevant to the FSPTCA. Method Between November 2009 and January 2010, a telephone survey among a nationally representative sample of n = 678 smokers in the US was performed as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC United States Survey. Participants answered a battery of questions on their attitudes and beliefs about aspects of the FSPTCA. Results Most smokers were unaware of the new FDA tobacco regulations. Smokers indicated support for banning cigarette promotion and nearly a quarter supported requiring tobacco companies to sell cigarettes in plain packaging. Seventy two percent of smokers supported reducing nicotine levels to make cigarettes less addictive if nicotine was made easily available in non-cigarette form. Conclusion Most smokers were limited in their understanding of efforts to regulate tobacco products in general. Smokers were supportive of efforts to better inform the public about health risks, restrict advertising, and make tobacco products less addictive.

  9. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  10. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W. H.; Tan, D.; Faloona, I. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Campos, T. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  11. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit...... operations are highlighted through a case study investigating the asymmetric synthesis of 1-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine (MPPA) using ω-transaminase, an enzyme in the sub-family of amino transferases (ATAs). An on-line HPLC system was applied to avoid manual sample handling and to semi...

  12. Notice to exporters on products prohibited from export (nuclear material, equipment and large nuclear units)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In order to ensure that the policy to avoid the proliferation of nuclear weapons is complied with, the French Administration applies stricter controls over the export of certain sensitive products, materials and equipment. To this effect, lists of such products, materials and equipment are published in the form of Notices to exporters and periodically revised. This Notice repeals and replaces the previous Notice published in the Official Gazette of 21 January 1986. Annex I contains the list of materials whose export is subject to nuclear non-proliferation controls. Annex II lists the equipment whose export is subject to the same controls. Annex III includes the list of large nuclear units for which an application for prior approval of export must be submitted to the Administrations concerned. (NEA) [fr

  13. Functional unit and product functionality—addressing increase in consumption and demand for functionality in sustainability assessment with LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Seung Jin; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    behaviour and demonstrates the vicious circle of improving product efficiency that leads to further consumption and environmental impact. To address this problem, a new framework of dynamic functional unit definition is put forward for performing comparative LCA to manage the development of product life...... consumption of products in provided services as well as in growing volumes. This article aims to present a new framework in defining a dynamic functional unit of product technologies that caters for changes in consumer behaviour and growing market. Methods: A new approach to defining the functional unit...... is demonstrated on a case study in which the analysis of historical data for two TV product technologies—CRT and LCD—is used to show how the total environmental impact is increasing due to the increased functionality which triggers an increase in the volume of the market. Despite the efforts of improving product...

  14. Elaboration of the international transfer mechanism of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions on the basis of the Russian federal law About agreements of products sharing'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toivonen, N.R.; Koulikovskaya, L.

    2001-01-01

    Suggestions for a comprehensive legal framework for the implementation in Russia of the flexibility mechanisms established under the Kyoto Protocol (i.e. joint implementation; clean development mechanism; international emissions trading) are proposed. It is suggested that the legal framework be established using the principles embodied in the existing Russian federal law, 'About agreements of product sharing' adopted in 1995. As a basic requirement, it is suggested that the new federal law must include the fundamental elements required to create possibilities for the Russian Federation to participate in the process of certified emission reductions (CER) transfer, emissions reduction unit (ERU) negotiation, and adjusted amount units (AAU) trading within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol implementation. The new law must also embody the basic procedures required to enter into agreements at the international, inter-regional and inter-sectoral levels. Failure to develop the legislative support and the legal framework to facilitate valid Russian participation in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol will prevent many valuable initiatives and projects from being realized

  15. Energy intensity ratios as net energy measures of United States energy production and expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C W

    2010-01-01

    In this letter I compare two measures of energy quality, energy return on energy invested (EROI) and energy intensity ratio (EIR) for the fossil fuel consumption and production of the United States. All other characteristics being equal, a fuel or energy system with a higher EROI or EIR is of better quality because more energy is provided to society. I define and calculate the EIR for oil, natural gas, coal, and electricity as measures of the energy intensity (units of energy divided by money) of the energy resource relative to the energy intensity of the overall economy. EIR measures based upon various unit prices for energy (e.g. $/Btu of a barrel of oil) as well as total expenditures on energy supplies (e.g. total dollars spent on petroleum) indicate net energy at different points in the supply chain of the overall energy system. The results indicate that EIR is an easily calculated and effective proxy for EROI for US oil, gas, coal, and electricity. The EIR correlates well with previous EROI calculations, but adds additional information on energy resource quality within the supply chain. Furthermore, the EIR and EROI of oil and gas as well as coal were all in decline for two time periods within the last 40 years, and both time periods preceded economic recessions.

  16. The trade in sharks and their products in the United Arab Emirates

    KAUST Repository

    Jabado, Rima W.; Al Ghais, Saif M Al; Hamza, Waleed; Henderson, Aaron C.; Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Shivji, Mahmood S.; Hanner, Robert Harland

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth in the demand for shark products, particularly fins, has led to the worldwide overexploitation of many elasmobranch species. Although there are growing concerns about this largely unregulated and unmonitored trade, little information still exists about its dynamics, the species involved and the impact of this pressure on stocks in various regions. Our study provides the first attempt at characterizing the trade in shark products from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the fourth largest exporter in the world of raw dried shark fins to Hong Kong. A review of trade records and informal interviews with local traders confirmed that the UAE is being used as hub in the broader North Indian Ocean region for the trade in shark products with the Emirati fishery minimally contributing to this trade. Results based on morphological identification of sharks (n= 12,069) and DNA barcoding of tissue samples (n= 655) indicated that the trade was made up of at least 37 species. The most abundant families represented at the Dubai study site were the Sphyrnidae (9.3%), Lamnidae (9%) and Alopiidae (5.9%). While information was mostly limited to shark products originating from the UAE and Oman, results indicated that 45.3% of species traded were considered to be at high risk of global extinction based on the IUCN Red List Global Assessments. Since many of the species found during this survey are likely part of stocks shared with other countries, regional cooperation and management will be crucial to ensure their long term survival.

  17. High-Resolution Water Footprints of Production of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Landon; Ao, Yufei; Konar, Megan; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-03-01

    The United States is the largest producer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, spatially detailed database of water use by sector would provide insight into U.S. utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the United States. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the U.S. economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking. In fact, we find that 94% of U.S. industries could reduce their total water footprint more by sourcing from more water-efficient suppliers in their supply chain than they could by converting their own operations to be more water-efficient.

  18. Gender Differences in Publication Productivity Among Academic Urologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Erik N; Lenherr, Sara M; Hanson, Heidi A; Jessop, Terry C; Lowrance, William T

    2017-05-01

    To describe the publication productivity of academic urologists in the United States by gender. Gender inequality is prevalent in most surgical subspecialties, including urology. Despite small numbers of women in academic positions, differences in scholarly impact by gender are relatively unknown. We assembled a list of 1922 academic urologists (1686 men (87.7%), 236 women (12.3%)) at 124 academic institutions throughout the United States as of February 2016. Scopus and Google Scholar were queried for bibliometric data on each individual, including h-index and m-quotient. We analyzed these metrics for both genders by educational background, subspecialty, National Institutes of Health funding, and academic rank. Men had higher median h-indices than women overall (P productivity by successive rank after controlling for career duration (m-quotient). Women were more likely to choose a practice that specialized in pediatric urology or female urology/pelvic reconstructive surgery than their male counterparts (P advancement such as lack of mentorship or discriminatory policies may help pioneering female urologists as they progress in their careers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Pediatric Exposure to E-Cigarettes, Nicotine, and Tobacco Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Alisha; Spiller, Henry A; Casavant, Marcel J; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiologic characteristics and outcomes of exposures to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), nicotine, and tobacco products among young children in the United States. A retrospective analysis of exposures associated with nicotine and tobacco products among children younger than 6 years old was conducted by using National Poison Data System data. From January 2012 through April 2015, the National Poison Data System received 29 141 calls for nicotine and tobacco product exposures among children younger than 6 years, averaging 729 child exposures per month. Cigarettes accounted for 60.1% of exposures, followed by other tobacco products (16.4%) and e-cigarettes (14.2%). The monthly number of exposures associated with e-cigarettes increased by 1492.9% during the study period. Children e-cigarettes had 5.2 times higher odds of a health care facility admission and 2.6 times higher odds of having a severe outcome than children exposed to cigarettes. One death occurred in association with a nicotine liquid exposure. The frequency of exposures to e-cigarettes and nicotine liquid among young children is increasing rapidly and severe outcomes are being reported. Swift government action is needed to regulate these products to help prevent child poisoning. Prevention strategies include public education; appropriate product storage and use away from children; warning labels; and modifications of e-cigarette devices, e-liquid, and e-liquid containers and packaging to make them less appealing and less accessible to children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Small Ruminant Production System Efficiency under Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Arid Land Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eihab Fathelrahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat production systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE operate under scarce natural resource constraints. A cross-sectional survey that covered 661 mixed farms, including major sheep and goat production, was conducted in the three regions of Abu Dhabi Emirate (Al-Ain, Western Region and Abu Dhabi city during 2012. A Cobb-Douglas, double-logarithmic stochastic frontier production function and maximum likelihood estimation were applied to estimate important economic derivatives and the associated risk of small ruminant production in this arid area. The highest impact of an input on the output level was found to be labor for raising sheep and alfalfa grass for raising goats. Both labor and alfalfa variables were found to be overutilized for sheep and goat production, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that average technical efficiency is 0.62 for raising sheep and only 0.34 for raising goats in the study area. Technical efficiency analysis included measuring the frequency of farms at each level of estimated technical efficiency in the range between zero and one. Zero for the technical efficiency coefficient indicates a lack of technical efficiency in resource use. The results of this study indicated that only 1% of the sheep farms show a technical efficiency coefficient of 0.25 or less; the same can be said for 41% of goat producers. However, these technical efficiencies were found to be more than 0.75 for 12% and 5% of the sheep and goat farms, respectively. Overall, goat farming in the UAE was found to be less efficient than sheep production. The results also indicated that flock size and type of breed were the most influential factors relative to other factors, and both show a positive relationship with technical efficiency. Other than flock size, factors, such as owners’ years of experience and management practices, were found to be more influential on goat farming system efficiency relative to sheep farming.

  1. Timber product implications of a program of mechanical fuel treatments applied on public timberland in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour R. James.; Xiaoping Zhou; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the results from a 5 year simulation of forest thinning intended to reduce fire hazard on publicly managed lands in the western United States. A state simulation model of interrelated timber markets was used to evaluate the timber product outputs. Approximately 84 million acres (34 million hectares), or 66% of total timberland in the western United...

  2. 78 FR 24199 - Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 13--04] Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc...,'' against UTi, United States, Inc. (``UTi''), hereinafter ``Respondent.'' Complainant states that it is a... therefore, has violated 46 U.S.C. 41104(2). Complainant also alleges that ``UTi engaged in an unfair or...

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun, E-mail: qichun.yang@pnnl.gov [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Tian, Hanqin, E-mail: tianhan@auburn.edu [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Li, Xia [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Ren, Wei [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Department of Plant & Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Zhang, Bowen [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Zhang, Xuesong [Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wolf, Julie [Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Lab, College Park, MD 20740 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.{sup −1} (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr.{sup −1} (1 Tg = 10{sup 12} g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.89 ± 0.64 Tg N yr. −1 (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg P yr. −1 (1 Tg = 10 12 g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930–1969 and 1987–2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of

  5. A prospective longitudinal study of postnatal dentoalveolar and palatal growth: The anatomical basis for CAD/CAM-assisted production of cleft-lip-palate feeding plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz X; Güll, Florian D; Roth, Maximilian; Ritschl, Lucas M; Rau, Andrea; Gau, Dominik; Gruber, Maximilian; Eblenkamp, Markus; Hilmer, Bettina; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2017-10-01

    This study describes the dentoalveolar and palatal growth during the first months of life. Knowledge concerning this development is essential to avoid unwanted events such as mucosal ulcerations or restriction of growth when cleft-lip and palate (CLP) patients are treated. The results involve the generation of CAD/CAM CLP-feeding plates. Intraoral impressions from 32 healthy newborns were taken monthly for 5 months, supplemented by measurements of body weight, length, and occipital-frontal head circumference. The casts were digitalized, and two observers manually selected defined anatomical landmarks on virtual 3-D models. The distances between these landmarks were evaluted. Statistical analysis included an inter-rater agreement analysis and the determination of growth. In total, 213 casts were analyzed, with 65 models excluded because of inaccuracies in impression-taking or cast production. Overall longitudinal growth was 20.3%, whereas transversal growth reached a maximum of 21.1%. Vertical growth was 32.4% at the tuberal level. On the basis of these results, a semiautomated series of feeding plates allowing for monthly expansion could be generated. The acquired data serve as a useful reference for other pediatric and orthofacial investigations and treatments. One such application is the automated, fully virtual manufacture of CLP-feeding plates based on only one impression-taking. Our data reveal when caution is needed to prevent ulceration. The series of plates generated can minimize the time-consuming impression-taking and the production of further plaster models. The method of measurement is suitable for documentary purposes. Clin. Anat. 30:846-854, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  7. Plan 2010. Costs starting in 2012 for the radioactive residual products from nuclear power. Basis for fees and guarantees during the period 2012-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-12-01

    According to the current regulatory framework, it is the responsibility of the holder of a licence to own or operate a nuclear power reactor to prepare a calculation of the costs for all measures that are needed for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel that has been used in the reactors and other radioactive waste products and to decommission and dismantle the reactor plants. The regulatory framework comprises the Act (2006:647) and the Ordinance (2008:715) on Financial Measures for the Management of Residual Products from Nuclear Activities (hereinafter referred to as the Financing Act and the Financing Ordinance, respectively). This cost calculation shall be submitted periodically to the Government or the authority designated by the Government. SKB's owners have assigned SKB the task of preparing such a cost calculation jointly for the licensees of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report, which is the twenty-eighth annual plan report, gives an updated compilation of these costs. As in previous years' reports, the costs are shown for two cases. The first case concerns the system as a whole, including management and disposal of radioactive operational waste plus certain waste deriving from other facilities than those belonging to SKB's owners. This case has been based on a scenario concerning reactor operation that is based on the nuclear power plant owners' current planning. The second case concerns the system with the restrictions that follow from the regulatory framework, which stipulates the time for operation of the reactors that is supposed to serve as a basis for fees. The report is divided into three parts: Chapter 1 provides background information regarding the Financing Act and SKB's calculation model. Chapter 2 provides information on the underlying calculation, which is based on current plans for reactor operation and SKB's activities. Chapter 3 presents the cost estimates required by the Financing Act that are the primary

  8. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  9. A Comparative-Interdisciplinary Study of the Production and Publication of Works of Fiction by Simin Daneshvar and Belgheis Soleimani on the Basis of the Theory of Paratextuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rostami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary studies confirm the fact that different branches of the humanities are closely connected with each other and increase each others’ efficiency. Since comparative interdisciplinary studies also include fields that are not purely literary, such as printing and publishing industries, the present study aims to analyze how cultural products achieve a better marketing through designing processes. Paratextuality, from Genette’s point of view, is the theoretical basis of this study, and peritexts and epitexts in the novels of Daneshvar and Soleimani are analyzed here. First, we define “comparative interdisciplinary study” and then discuss the peritexts and the epitexts in their novels. This is a library-based research; however, data is also collected through interviews with the publishers of their novels, Kharazmi, Ghoghnoos and Cheshmeh publications. It is a descriptive-analytical study and its findings show that there are some features in the appearance of books that motivate the customers to buy them. During years, because of cultural structures, advertising strategies and critical reviews, these features have changed. However, this study shows that the scope of the changes in the novels of Soleimani is vaster; in other words, by changing such features, publishers have been able to create a better marketing for Soleimani, even though he is less known than Daneshvar.

  10. Plan 2008. Costs starting in 2010 for the radioactive residual products from nuclear power. Basis for fees and guarantees in 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    calculations. The quantity of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste to be disposed of is l inked to the operating time of the reactors, and this fee-determining operating time is stipulated in the regulatory framework. The fee calculation is then based on the electricity production that is expected during the same time. The fee-determining operating time should be 40 years for the reactors that are currently in operation. A minimum limit is stipulated entailing that a remaining operating time of at least six years shall be applied unless there is reason to assume that operation may cease before then. Aside from the payment of fees, a reactor owner must pledge two kinds of guarantees. One guarantee must cover the fees that have not yet been paid and that relate to the remaining fee-determining operating time. This guarantee declines gradually as the reactor's operating time approaches 34 years but then levels out at a minimum time of six years as described above. The basis for this guarantee is called the financing amount. The calculation is done in principle as for the fee basis, but the costs are limited to management and disposal of the waste products that exist when the calculation starts (31 December 2009). The second guarantee pertains to the case where it can be assumed that the assets in the Nuclear Waste Fund will not suffice due to unplanned events, at the same time as the option of increasing the fee payments and adjusting the aforementioned guarantee is for some reason not available. The basis for this guarantee is called the supplementary amount.

  11. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States.

  12. Use estimates of in-feed antimicrobials in swine production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apley, Michael D; Bush, Eric J; Morrison, Robert B; Singer, Randall S; Snelson, Harry

    2012-03-01

    When considering the development of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, comparing gross use estimates of different antimicrobials is of little value due to differences in potencies, duration of activity, relative effect on target and commensal bacteria, and mechanisms of resistance. However, it may be valuable to understand quantities of different antimicrobials used in different ages of swine and for what applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to construct an estimate of antimicrobial use through the feed in swine production in the United States. Estimates were based on data from the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Swine 2006 Study and from a 2009 survey of swine-exclusive practitioners. Inputs consisted of number of pigs in a production phase, feed intake per day, dose of the antimicrobial in the feed, and duration of administration. Calculations were performed for a total of 102 combinations of antimicrobials (n=17), production phases (n=2), and reasons for use (n=3). Calculations were first conducted on farm-level data, and then extrapolated to the U.S. swine population. Among the nursery phase estimates, chlortetracycline had the largest estimate of use, followed by oxytetracycline and tilmicosin. In the grower/finisher phase, chlortetracycline also had the largest use estimate, followed by tylosin and oxytetracycline. As an annual industry estimate for all phases, chlortetracycline had the highest estimated use at 533,973 kg. The second and third highest estimates were tylosin and oxytetracycline with estimated annual uses of 165,803 kg and 154,956 kg, respectively. The estimates presented here were constructed to accurately reflect available data related to production practices, and to provide an example of a scientific approach to estimating use of compounds in production animals.

  13. Bioenergy production and forest landscape change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer K.; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime A.

    2016-01-01

    Production of woody biomass for bioenergy, whether wood pellets or liquid biofuels, has the potential to cause substantial landscape change and concomitant effects on forest ecosystems, but the landscape effects of alternative production scenarios have not been fully assessed. We simulated landscape change from 2010 to 2050 under five scenarios of woody biomass production for wood pellets and liquid biofuels in North Carolina, in the southeastern United States, a region that is a substantial producer of wood biomass for bioenergy and contains high biodiversity. Modeled scenarios varied biomass feedstocks, incorporating harvest of ‘conventional’ forests, which include naturally regenerating as well as planted forests that exist on the landscape even without bioenergy production, as well as purpose-grown woody crops grown on marginal lands. Results reveal trade-offs among scenarios in terms of overall forest area and the characteristics of the remaining forest in 2050. Meeting demand for biomass from conventional forests resulted in more total forest land compared with a baseline, business-as-usual scenario. However, the remaining forest was composed of more intensively managed forest and less of the bottomland hardwood and longleaf pine habitats that support biodiversity. Converting marginal forest to purpose-grown crops reduced forest area, but the remaining forest contained more of the critical habitats for biodiversity. Conversion of marginal agricultural lands to purpose-grown crops resulted in smaller differences from the baseline scenario in terms of forest area and the characteristics of remaining forest habitats. Each scenario affected the dominant type of land-use change in some regions, especially in the coastal plain that harbors high levels of biodiversity. Our results demonstrate the complex landscape effects of alternative bioenergy scenarios, highlight that the regions most likely to be affected by bioenergy production are also critical for

  14. Enhancing Conservation with High Resolution Productivity Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathaniel Paul

    Human driven alteration of the earth's terrestrial surface is accelerating through land use changes, intensification of human activity, climate change, and other anthropogenic pressures. These changes occur at broad spatio-temporal scales, challenging our ability to effectively monitor and assess the impacts and subsequent conservation strategies. While satellite remote sensing (SRS) products enable monitoring of the earth's terrestrial surface continuously across space and time, the practical applications for conservation and management of these products are limited. Often the processes driving ecological change occur at fine spatial resolutions and are undetectable given the resolution of available datasets. Additionally, the links between SRS data and ecologically meaningful metrics are weak. Recent advances in cloud computing technology along with the growing record of high resolution SRS data enable the development of SRS products that quantify ecologically meaningful variables at relevant scales applicable for conservation and management. The focus of my dissertation is to improve the applicability of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity (GPP/NPP) datasets for the conterminous United States (CONUS). In chapter one, I develop a framework for creating high resolution datasets of vegetation dynamics. I use the entire archive of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflectance data and a novel gap filling approach to create spatially continuous 30 m, 16-day composites of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1986 to 2016. In chapter two, I integrate this with other high resolution datasets and the MOD17 algorithm to create the first high resolution GPP and NPP datasets for CONUS. I demonstrate the applicability of these products for conservation and management, showing the improvements beyond currently available products. In chapter three, I utilize this dataset to evaluate the relationships between land ownership and terrestrial production

  15. The segment as the minimal planning unit in speech production: evidence based on absolute response latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Alan H; Liu, Qiang; Lee, Ria J; Grebe, Patricia R

    2014-01-01

    A minimal amount of information about a word must be phonologically and phonetically encoded before a person can begin to utter that word. Most researchers assume that the minimum is the complete word or possibly the initial syllable. However, there is some evidence that the initial segment is sufficient based on longer durations when the initial segment is primed. In two experiments in which the initial segment of a monosyllabic word is primed or not primed, we present additional evidence based on very short absolute response times determined on the basis of acoustic and articulatory onset relative to presentation of the complete target. We argue that the previous failures to find very short absolute response times when the initial segment is primed are due in part to the exclusive use of acoustic onset as a measure of response latency, the exclusion of responses with very short acoustic latencies, the manner of articulation of the initial segment (i.e., plosive vs. nonplosive), and individual differences. Theoretical implications of the segment as the minimal planning unit are considered.

  16. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  17. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with food animals: a United States perspective of livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Alan G; Cissell, Robin; Liamthong, S

    2007-01-01

    The use of antimicrobial compounds in food animal production provides demonstrated benefits, including improved animal health, higher production and, in some cases, reduction in foodborne pathogens. However, use of antibiotics for agricultural purposes, particularly for growth enhancement, has come under much scrutiny, as it has been shown to contribute to the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human significance. The transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and selection for resistant bacteria can occur through a variety of mechanisms, which may not always be linked to specific antibiotic use. Prevalence data may provide some perspective on occurrence and changes in resistance over time; however, the reasons are diverse and complex. Much consideration has been given this issue on both domestic and international fronts, and various countries have enacted or are considering tighter restrictions or bans on some types of antibiotic use in food animal production. In some cases, banning the use of growth-promoting antibiotics appears to have resulted in decreases in prevalence of some drug resistant bacteria; however, subsequent increases in animal morbidity and mortality, particularly in young animals, have sometimes resulted in higher use of therapeutic antibiotics, which often come from drug families of greater relevance to human medicine. While it is clear that use of antibiotics can over time result in significant pools of resistance genes among bacteria, including human pathogens, the risk posed to humans by resistant organisms from farms and livestock has not been clearly defined. As livestock producers, animal health experts, the medical community, and government agencies consider effective strategies for control, it is critical that science-based information provide the basis for such considerations, and that the risks, benefits, and feasibility of such strategies are fully considered, so that human and animal health can be maintained while

  18. Proper context: Comparison studies demonstrate that United States food-animal production antimicrobial uses have minimal impact on antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States (US) it is estimated that food-animal production agriculture accounts for >70% of antimicrobial (AM) use leading to concerns that agricultural uses "substantially drive" antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Many studies report AMR in food-animal production settings without comparison...

  19. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... make the following certification: All workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular... Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended Certification Pursuant to Section 221 of the Trade Act of 1974...

  20. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of integrating lignocellulosic bioethanol production in a Danish combined heat and power unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lythcke-Jørgensen, Christoffer Ernst; Haglind, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    bioethanol production in the Danish CHP unit Avedøreværket 1. Numerical models of the plants were developed, and feasible integration solutions were identified and optimised using exergy analysis. Hour-wise production simulations were run over a reference year, and market prices and economic parameters from...

  1. 75 FR 52378 - International Product Change-United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant Multi-Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... POSTAL SERVICE International Product Change--United States Postal Service Inbound Market-Dominant... Inbound Market-Dominant Multi- Service Agreements to the Market-Dominant Products List pursuant to 39 U.S... the Postal Regulatory Commission to Add Market-Dominant Multi-Service Agreements with Foreign Postal...

  2. Strategy of formation and training for the basic units of cooperative production. Actions for their implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriadna Marín de León

    2014-06-01

    The implementation of the strategy of Formation and Training had great importance since applying the same one, they could get rich our cooperatives, of elements that contribute to the obtaining of a bigger level of efficiency and effectiveness of the human resources, given by the knowledge that they can acquire the same ones.   The article approaches the topics of Administration of human resources, formation and training theoretically, the elements of the functional strategy, and lastly a journey for the Cooperative Sector leaving of its emergence until specifying the characteristics of the Basic Units of Cooperative Production as part of the same one.   He is also carried out a valuation of the current situation as for Formation and Training of the human resources in the UBPC of the County of Pinar del Ro. This is made going to different diagnosis techniques. Later on they intend the actions that allow the implementation of this strategy.

  3. Recovery of vanadium (V) from used catalysts in sulfuric acid production units by oxalic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulbaki, M.; Shino, O.

    2009-07-01

    Vanadium penta oxide (V 2 O 5 ), is used, in large quantities as a catalyst for the oxidation of SO 2 to SO 3 in sulfuric acid production units, during the oxidation process the level of the oxidation declines with the time because of catalyst poisoning. So the spent catalyst is usually through out in a specified special places by General Fertilizer Company which causes a pollution of the land. The present paper, studies the recovery of vanadium from the spent catalyst by using the oxalic acid. The optimal conditions of spent catalyst leaching have been studied. It has been shown that 2%(w/w) of oxalic acid is the most suitable for leaching process at 70 degree centigrade. The precipitation of vanadium using some alkaline media NH 4 OH has been also studied, it has been shown that ammonium hydroxide was the best at 50 degree centigrade. (author)

  4. Program THEK energy production units of average power and using thermal conversion of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    General studies undertaken by the C.N.R.S. in the field of solar power plants have generated the problem of building energy production units in the medium range of electrical power, in the order of 100 kW. Among the possible solutions, the principle of the use of distributed heliothermal converters has been selected as being, with the current status of things, the most advantageous solution. This principle consists of obtaining the conversion of concentrated radiation into heat by using a series of heliothermal conversion modules scattered over the ground; the produced heat is collected by a heat-carrying fluid circulating inside a thermal loop leading to a device for both regulation and storage.

  5. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  6. An innovative design of small low head hydropower units for low cost decentralized production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, E.; Dennehy, T.

    1991-01-01

    Design allowing turbine operation at heads as low as 1m and operating at a rotational speed of 500 RPM at a flow of 2.6m 3 /s and a runner diameter of 700 mm. This eliminates the need for a gear box and helps in achieving efficiency of 60% in the case of a 21 kW installation at a 1m head site and 85% with a 69 kW 3.2m head site. Present turbine designs for such low head sites are very expensive to produce and have a low efficiency. The design uses an all plastic waterway, guide vane assembly and reinforced plastic runner blades. There will be a short pay-back period, for example 4.5 years in the case of a 21 kW unit and 2.0 years in case of the 69 kW unit. These payback periods assume a cost per kW of 0.00 ECU. Design is attractive for decentralized production. 3 figs

  7. The serial order of response units in word production: The case of typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaltritti, Michele; Longcamp, Marieke; Alario, F-Xavier

    2018-05-01

    The selection and ordering of response units (phonemes, letters, keystrokes) represents a transversal issue across different modalities of language production. Here, the issue of serial order was investigated with respect to typewriting. Following seminal investigations in the spoken modality, we conducted an experiment where participants typed as many times as possible a pair of words during a fixed time-window. The 2 words shared either their first 2 keystrokes, the last 2 ones, all the keystrokes, or were unrelated. Fine-grained performance measures were recorded at the level of individual keystrokes. In contrast with previous results from the spoken modality, we observed an overall facilitation for words sharing the initial keystrokes. In addition, the initial overlap briefly delayed the execution of the following keystroke. The results are discussed with reference to different theoretical perspectives on serial order, with a particular attention to the competing accounts offered by position coding models and chaining models. Our findings point to potential major differences between the speaking and typing modalities in terms of interactive activation between lexical and response units processing levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The critical role of extreme heat for maize production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.; Hammer, Graeme L.; McLean, Greg; Messina, Carlos; Roberts, Michael J.; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2013-05-01

    Statistical studies of rainfed maize yields in the United States and elsewhere have indicated two clear features: a strong negative yield response to accumulation of temperatures above 30°C (or extreme degree days (EDD)), and a relatively weak response to seasonal rainfall. Here we show that the process-based Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) is able to reproduce both of these relationships in the Midwestern United States and provide insight into underlying mechanisms. The predominant effects of EDD in APSIM are associated with increased vapour pressure deficit, which contributes to water stress in two ways: by increasing demand for soil water to sustain a given rate of carbon assimilation, and by reducing future supply of soil water by raising transpiration rates. APSIM computes daily water stress as the ratio of water supply to demand, and during the critical month of July this ratio is three times more responsive to 2°C warming than to a 20% precipitation reduction. The results suggest a relatively minor role for direct heat stress on reproductive organs at present temperatures in this region. Effects of elevated CO2 on transpiration efficiency should reduce yield sensitivity to EDD in the coming decades, but at most by 25%.

  9. The segment as the minimal planning unit in speech production and reading aloud: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Alan H; Liu, Qiang; Kello, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Speech production and reading aloud studies have much in common, especially the last stages involved in producing a response. We focus on the minimal planning unit (MPU) in articulation. Although most researchers now assume that the MPU is the syllable, we argue that it is at least as small as the segment based on negative response latencies (i.e., response initiation before presentation of the complete target) and longer initial segment durations in a reading aloud task where the initial segment is primed. We also discuss why such evidence was not found in earlier studies. Next, we rebut arguments that the segment cannot be the MPU by appealing to flexible planning scope whereby planning units of different sizes can be used due to individual differences, as well as stimulus and experimental design differences. We also discuss why negative response latencies do not arise in some situations and why anticipatory coarticulation does not preclude the segment MPU. Finally, we argue that the segment MPU is also important because it provides an alternative explanation of results implicated in the serial vs. parallel processing debate.

  10. Model development of production management unit to enhance entrepreneurship attitude of vocational school students from fashion department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaryani, Sri

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a model of production management unit to enhance entrepreneurship attitude of vocational school students from fashion department. This study concerns in developing students' entrepreneurship attitude in management which includes planning, organizing, applying and evaluation. The study uses Research and Development (R & D) approach with three main steps; preliminary study, development step, and product validation. Research subject was vocational school teachers from fashion department in Semarang, Salatiga and Demak. This study yields a development model of production management unit that could enhance vocational school students' entrepreneurship attitude in fashion department. The result shows that research subjects have understood about of production management unit in Vocational School (SMK).

  11. Plan 2010. Costs starting in 2012 for the radioactive residual products from nuclear power. Basis for fees and guarantees during the period 2012-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    According to the current regulatory framework, it is the responsibility of the holder of a licence to own or operate a nuclear power reactor to prepare a calculation of the costs for all measures that are needed for the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel that has been used in the reactors and other radioactive waste products and to decommission and dismantle the reactor plants. The regulatory framework comprises the Act (2006:647) and the Ordinance (2008:715) on Financial Measures for the Management of Residual Products from Nuclear Activities (hereinafter referred to as the Financing Act and the Financing Ordinance, respectively). This cost calculation shall be submitted periodically to the Government or the authority designated by the Government. SKB's owners have assigned SKB the task of preparing such a cost calculation jointly for the licensees of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report, which is the twenty-eighth annual plan report, gives an updated compilation of these costs. As in previous years' reports, the costs are shown for two cases. The first case concerns the system as a whole, including management and disposal of radioactive operational waste plus certain waste deriving from other facilities than those belonging to SKB's owners. This case has been based on a scenario concerning reactor operation that is based on the nuclear power plant owners' current planning. The second case concerns the system with the restrictions that follow from the regulatory framework, which stipulates the time for operation of the reactors that is supposed to serve as a basis for fees. The report is divided into three parts: Chapter 1 provides background information regarding the Financing Act and SKB's calculation model. Chapter 2 provides information on the underlying calculation, which is based on current plans for reactor operation and SKB's activities. Chapter 3 presents the cost estimates required by the Financing

  12. Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Jacomino, V.M.F.; Sordi, G.-M.A.A.

    1990-05-01

    In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 10 9 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 10 12 of I-131. (author) [pt

  13. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  14. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ''Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,'' the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base

  15. Characterization of edible marijuana product exposures reported to United States poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dazhe; Srisuma, Sahaphume; Bronstein, Alvin C; Hoyte, Christopher O

    2016-11-01

    Edible marijuana products are sold as brownies, cookies, and candies, which may be indistinguishable from counterparts without marijuana and are palatable to children and adults. The consumption of an entire product containing multiple dose-units may result in overdose. To characterize edible marijuana exposures reported to US poison centers with subgroup analysis by age. We analyzed single substance, human exposure calls coded to marijuana brownies, candies, cookies, beverages, or other foods reported to the National Poison Data System from January 2013 to December 2015. Calls were analyzed by state, age, gender, exposure route, clinical effect, therapies, and level of healthcare facility utilization. Four-hundred and thirty calls were reported: Colorado (N = 166, 1.05/100,000 population/year) and Washington (96, 0.46) yielded the highest number of exposures. Three hundred and eighty-one (91%) calls occurred in states with decriminalized medical/recreational marijuana. The number of calls increased every year of the study. The most common age groups were: ≤5 years (N = 109, 0.15/100,000 population/year) and 13-19 (78, 0.09). The most frequent clinical effects were drowsiness/lethargy (N = 118, percentage = 43%), tachycardia (84, 31%), agitated/irritable (37, 14%), and confusion (37, 14%). Children ≤5 years have more drowsiness/lethargy, ataxia, and red eye/conjunctivitis. No deaths were reported. The most common therapies administered were intravenous fluids (85, 20%), dilute/irrigate/wash (48, 11 %), and benzodiazepines (47, 11%). Three patients (ages 4, 10, and 57 years) received intubation. 97 (23%), 217 (50%), and 12 (3%) calls were managed at home, treated/released, admitted to a critical care unit, respectively. Although most clinical effects are minor, ventilatory support may be necessary for children and adults. We speculate the increasing exposures may be related to a combination of delayed absorption kinetics of Δ9

  16. Transformation products and human metabolites of triclocarban and tricllosan in sewage sludge across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pycke, Benny F.G.; Roll, Isaac B.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Kinney, Chad A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2014-01-01

    Removal of triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) from wastewater is a function of adsorption, abiotic degradation, and microbial mineralization or transformation, reactions that are not currently controlled or optimized in the pollution control infrastructure of standard wastewater treatment. Here, we report on the levels of eight transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in raw and treated sewage sludge. Two sample sets were studied: samples collected once from 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing nine states, and multiple samples collected from one WWTP monitored for 12 months. Time-course analysis of significant mass fluxes (α = 0.01) indicate that transformation of TCC (dechlorination) and TCS (methylation) occurred during sewage conveyance and treatment. Strong linear correlations were found between TCC and the human metabolite 2′-hydroxy-TCC (r = 0.84), and between the TCC-dechlorination products dichlorocarbanilide (DCC) and monochlorocarbanilide (r = 0.99). Mass ratios of DCC-to-TCC and of methyl-triclosan (MeTCS)-to-TCS, serving as indicators of transformation activity, revealed that transformation was widespread under different treatment regimes across the WWTPs sampled, though the degree of transformation varied significantly among study sites (α = 0.01). The analysis of sludge sampled before and after different unit operation steps (i.e., anaerobic digestion, sludge heat treatment, and sludge drying) yielded insights into the extent and location of TCC and TCS transformation. Results showed anaerobic digestion to be important for MeTCS transformation (37–74%), whereas its contribution to partial TCC dechlorination was limited (0.4–2.1%). This longitudinal and nationwide survey is the first to report the occurrence of transformation products, human metabolites, and manufacturing byproducts of TCC and TCS in sewage sludge.

  17. FAMILY UNIT PRODUCTION AS ALTERNATIVE TO IMPROVE THE ETHNIC YAQUI FOOD SECURITY IN VICAM, SONORA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillermo Ramírez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The family production unit is a strategy that has Ethnicity Yaqui population for food production at low cost and thus achieve the food sovereignty. This work was carried out in Vicam, where 41 surveys were applied to household which were selected through cooperation of their occupants. The main results indicate that food sovereignty concept is unknow from daily life population in the region; partly, because food production in the region is reduced; besides weather, market and social factors that prevent it. In addition, the family production unit is not a common element among families. However, there are some homes with some spaces, although small ones, for food production and families obtain, in certain seasons, some grains and some vegetables.

  18. Consumer Preferences for Public and Private Sector Certifications for Beef Products in the United States and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Bryan J.; Bailey, DeeVon; Hunnicutt, Lynn; Ward, Ruby A.

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups and street surveys are used in the US and the UK to determine consumer perceptions of the ability of different agencies, associations, and groups to certify beef products for quality, food safety, animal welfare, social responsibility, and environmental responsibility. US consumers see the role of the federal government primarily as assuring food safety but desire the private sector to make other types of certifications. UK consumers prefer the private sector to assure food safet...

  19. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  20. Product unit neural network models for predicting the growth limits of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, A; Hervás, C; García-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G

    2007-08-01

    A new approach to predict the growth/no growth interface of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of storage temperature, pH, citric acid (CA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is presented. A linear logistic regression procedure was performed and a non-linear model was obtained by adding new variables by means of a Neural Network model based on Product Units (PUNN). The classification efficiency of the training data set and the generalization data of the new Logistic Regression PUNN model (LRPU) were compared with Linear Logistic Regression (LLR) and Polynomial Logistic Regression (PLR) models. 92% of the total cases from the LRPU model were correctly classified, an improvement on the percentage obtained using the PLR model (90%) and significantly higher than the results obtained with the LLR model, 80%. On the other hand predictions of LRPU were closer to data observed which permits to design proper formulations in minimally processed foods. This novel methodology can be applied to predictive microbiology for describing growth/no growth interface of food-borne microorganisms such as L. monocytogenes. The optimal balance is trying to find models with an acceptable interpretation capacity and with good ability to fit the data on the boundaries of variable range. The results obtained conclude that these kinds of models might well be very a valuable tool for mathematical modeling.

  1. Potential impacts of biomass production in the United States on biological diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Beyea, J.; Keeler, K.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that biomass could be a renewable source of energy and chemicals that would not add CO 2 to the atmosphere. It will become economically competitive as its cost decreases relative to energy costs, and biotechnology is expected to accelerate this trend by increasing biomass productivity. Pressure to slow global warming may also make biomass more attractive. Substantial dependence on biomass would entail massive changes in land use, risking serious reductions in biodiversity through destruction of habitat for native species. Forests could be managed and harvested more intensively, and virtually all arable land unsuitable for high-value agriculture or silviculture might be used to grow energy crops. The authors estimate that it would require an area equal to that farmed in 1988, about 130 million hectares, just to supply the United States with transportation fuel. Planning at micro to macro scales will be crucial to minimize the ecological impacts of producing biomass. Cropping and harvesting systems will need to provide the spatial and temporal diversity characteristics of natural ecosystems and successional sequences. To maximize habitat value for interior-dependent species, it will be essential to maintain the connectivity of the habitat network, both within biomass farms and to surrounding undisturbed areas

  2. Current and potential sustainable corn stover feedstock for biofuel production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Bliss, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Increased demand for corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol raises concerns about agricultural sustainability. Excessive corn stover harvesting could have long-term impacts on soil quality. We estimated current and future stover production and evaluated the potential harvestable stover amount (HSA) that could be used for biofuel feedstock in the United States by defining the minimum stover requirement (MSR) associated with the current soil organic carbon (SOC) content, tillage practices, and crop rotation systems. Here we show that the magnitude of the current HSA is limited (31 Tg y−1, dry matter) due to the high MSR for maintaining the current SOC content levels of soils that have a high carbon content. An alternative definition of MSR for soils with a moderate level of SOC content could significantly elevate the annual HSA to 68.7 Tg, or even to 132.2 Tg if the amount of currently applied manure is counted to partially offset the MSR. In the future, a greater potential for stover feedstock could come from an increase in stover yield, areal harvest index, and/or the total planted area. These results suggest that further field experiments on MSR should be designed to identify differences in MSR magnitude between maintaining SOC content and preventing soil erosion, and to understand the role of current SOC content level in determining MSR from soils with a wide range of carbon contents and climatic conditions.

  3. Radiation exchange factors between specular inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure such as transplant production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Kozai, Toyoki

    2006-01-01

    General mathematical relations are presented for the specular exchange factors, F S , of diffuse radiation exchange between the inner surfaces of a rectangular enclosure. Three of these surfaces are specular reflectors, diffuse emitters and the fourth surface is a diffuse reflector, diffuse emitter. This enclosure can be used as a transplant production unit with artificial lighting for electric energy saving purposes. An image system and the crossed string method are used to derive these relations. The resulting expressions are conceptually simple and similar to the commonly known expressions of the exchange factors between diffuse surfaces, F. The accuracy of the presented F S relations was examined for different numbers of multiple reflections, N, on the specular surfaces and for different aspect ratios (ratio of the width, w to the height, h). The results proved that the relations are accurate and strongly satisfy the well-known relation of the radiation exchange between enclosure surfaces and satisfy the reciprocity relation. For any aspect ratio, considering N of 150 between highly reflective surfaces (ρ = 0.99) is sufficient to estimate the F S factors without any possible error. Using specular reflecting surfaces in such cases significantly reduces the electric energy consumption used for lighting

  4. Estimates of hydraulic fracturing (Frac) sand production, consumption, and reserves in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of fracturing reservoir rock in the United States as a method to increase the flow of oil and gas from wells has a relatively long history and can be traced back to 1858 in Fredonia, New York, when a gas well situated in shale of the Marcellus Formation was successfully fractured using black powder as a blasting agent. Nearly all domestic hydraulic fracturing, often referred to as hydrofracking or fracking, is a process where fluids are injected under high pressure through perforations in the horizontal portion of a well casing in order to generate fractures in reservoir rock with low permeability (“tight”). Because the fractures are in contact with the well bore they can serve as pathways for the recovery of gas and oil. To prevent the fractures generated by the fracking process from closing or becoming obstructed with debris, material termed “proppant,” most commonly high-silica sand, is injected along with water-rich fluids to maintain or “prop” open the fractures. The first commercial application of fracking in the oil and gas industry took place in Oklahoma and Texas during the 1940s. In 1949, over 300 wells, mostly vertical, were fracked (ALL Consulting, LLC, 2012; McGee, 2012; Veil, 2012) and used silica sand as a proppant (Fracline, 2011). The resulting increase in well productivity demonstrated the significant potential that fracking might have for the oil and gas industry.

  5. Regional Differences in Demand for Coal as A Basis for Development of A Product Distribution Model for Mining Companies in the Individual Customers Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Roman; Bogacz, Paweł; Franik, Tadeusz; Celej, Maciej; Migza, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    The article presents a proposal of methodology based on the process of relationship marketing, serving to determine the level of demand for coal in the individual customer segment, as well as fuel distribution model for this customer group in Poland developed on the basis of this methodology. It also includes selected results of tests carried out using the proposed methods. These proposals have been defined on the basis of market capacity indicators, which can be determined for the district level based on data from the Polish Central Statistical Office. The study also included the use of linear programming, based on the cost of coal logistics, data concerning railway, road and storage infrastructure present on the Polish market and taking into account the legal aspects. The presented results may provide a basis for mining companies to develop a system of coal distribution management in the locations with the highest demand values.

  6. Spatiotemporal patterns of livestock manure nutrient production in the conterminous United States from 1930 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qichun; Tian, Hanqin; Li, Xia; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xuesong; Wolf, Julie

    2016-01-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from livestock husbandry are important components of terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Assessment of the impacts of livestock manure on terrestrial biogeochemistry requires a compilation and analysis of spatial and temporal patterns of manure nutrients. In this study, we reconstructed county-level manure nutrient data of the conterminous United States (U.S.) in 4- to 5-year increments from 1930 to 2012. Manure N and P were 5.8 9 ± 0.64 Tg N yr.(-1) (Mean ± Standard Deviation) and 1.73 ± 0.29 Tg Pyr.(-1) (1 Tg = 10(12)g), and increased by 46% and 92% from 1930 to 2012, respectively. Prior to 1970, manure provided more N to the U.S. lands than chemical fertilizer use. Since 1970, however, increasing chemical N fertilizer use has exceeded manure N production. Manure was the primary P source in the U.S. during 1930-1969 and 1987-2012, but was lower than P fertilizer use in 1974, 1978, and 1982. High-nutrient-production regions shifted towards eastern and western areas of the U.S. Decreasing small farms and increasing Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) induced concentrated spatial patterns in manure nutrient loads. Counties with cattle or poultry as the primary manure nutrient contributors expanded significantly from 1930 to 2012, whereas regions with sheep and hog as the primary contributors decreased. We identified regions facing environmental threats associated with livestock farming. Effective management of manure should consider the impacts of CAFOs in manure production, and changes in livestock population structure. The long-term county-level manure nutrient dataset provides improved spatial and temporal information on manure nutrients in the U.S. This dataset is expected to help advance research on nutrient cycling, ammonia volatilization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock husbandry, recovery and reuse of manure nutrients, and impacts of livestock feeding on human health in the context of global

  7. Improving the productivity of smallholder dairy cattle in peri-urban Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkya, R.; Aboud, A.A.; Kessy, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The work reported was conduced in two Phases. In Phase I, a sample survey was conducted in the peri-urban areas of Morogoro, Tanzania, to gather information on smallholder farming activities. Fifty-two smallholder farmers provided information on the existing livestock production systems and related family activities, including constraints to dairy production in the area. During Phase II, 24 smallholder farmers keeping a total of 65 cows participated in a field trial aimed at investigating the suitability of a farm formulated concentrate (FC) as a dry season supplement. Phase I survey results showed that 49% of smallholder farmers practised zero grazing (ZG), while 34.5% of farmers practised partial grazing (PG). Zero grazed cows received an estimated 28.2 ± 7.6 kg cut grass per cow/d, while PG cows received 8.1 ± 1.1 kg cut grass per cow/d, in addition to 6-9 h grazing. The average herd size per farm unit was 4.8 and 5.3 cows for W and PG farms, respectively. 27.3% of farms maintained mature bulls. All cows received around 2.4 ± 1.3 kg/cow/d of a supplement, based mainly on maize bran, during milking in two equal amounts. In addition to natural pastures, feed resources included crop by-products, green fodder, crop residues, minerals and other non-conventional feeds such as brewer's waste. Thus, it appeared that farmers rarely supplemented their animals with good protein concentrates and as a result animals often experienced protein deficiency during the dry season. Supplementation with 0.8 kg of FC comprising of maize bran (70%), cottonseed cake (28%) and minerals (2%), per litre of milk produced, during the dry season in Phase II, improved milk yield (34%), and maintained body condition (2.8-3.1). In relation to reproductive performance post-partum anoestrus period was reduced from 86.3 ± 6.6 to 71.2 ± 5.3 days and calving to conception from 102.4 ± 5.1 to 80.4 ± 4.7 days. Feeding 0.8 kg FC per litre of milk was cost effective if there was an increase in

  8. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  9. Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Virchow Infections Linked to a Powdered Meal Replacement Product - United States, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino-Shirley, Kelly J; Tesfai, Adiam; Schwensohn, Colin A; Burnett, Cindy; Smith, Lori; Wagner, Jennifer M; Eikmeier, Dana; Smith, Kirk; Stone, Jolianne P; Updike, Dawn; Hines, Jonas; Shade, Lauren N; Tolar, Beth; Fu, Tong-Jen; Viazis, Stelios; Seelman, Sharon L; Blackshear, Kathryn; Wise, Matthew E; Neil, Karen P

    2018-03-07

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Meal replacement products containing raw and 'superfood' ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers in recent years. In January 2016, we investigated a multistate outbreak of infections with a novel strain of Salmonella Virchow. Cases were defined using molecular subtyping procedures. Commonly reported exposures were compared with responses from healthy people interviewed in the 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey. Firm inspections and product traceback and testing were performed. Thirty-five cases from 24 states were identified; 6 hospitalizations and no deaths were reported. Thirty-one (94%) of 33 ill people interviewed reported consuming a powdered supplement in the week before illness; of these, 30 (97%) reported consuming Product A, a raw organic powdered shake product consumed as a meal replacement. Laboratory testing isolated the outbreak strain of Salmonella Virchow from: leftover Product A collected from ill people's homes, organic moringa leaf powder (an ingredient in Product A), and finished product retained by the firm. Firm inspections at three facilities linked to Product A production did not reveal contamination at the facilities. Traceback identified that the contaminated moringa leaf powder was imported from South Africa. This investigation identified a novel outbreak vehicle and highlighted the potential risk with similar products not intended to be cooked by consumers before consuming. The company issued a voluntary recall of all implicated products. As this product has a long shelf-life, the recall likely prevented additional illnesses.

  10. DESIGN OF OYSTER (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS PRODUCTION UNIT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ITS AGROTECHNIC OF GROWIGN AND QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ITS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Golian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to influence of population increasing followed by agricultural soils decreasing there is noticed a necessity of individual food commodities production intensification. There is also needed to think about some new unconventional and alternative sort of food-stuff. An edible mushroom growing is one of the relatively new agricultural branches, whereby on a large scale there are grown species which belong to saprophytic group. The aim of task was the building – technological and equipment – technological proposal of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, Jacq. P. Kumm production unit with taking account to its specific agro technical requirements and valid legislative. In the next part of task there were evaluated and compared qualitative and quantitative parameters of sporocarps from two variants which were collected in the first growth wave and accuracy of the proposed oyster production unit. In case of variant A there were used sacks with substrates, which have been exposed to cold shock by 6°C temperature for 4 days and in variant B were used substrates without cold shock. According to reached results the cold shock had almost neither influence on production quantity. There was found out an important fact that crop height from first growth wave wasn´t identical with well-known literature sources. The low crop is connected with high CO2 content in oyster production unit room, according to our opinion. Other equipment aimed to air humidity regulation, air temperature regulation and room lights was designed correctly.

  11. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J; Carriquiry, Miguel; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F; Dong, Fengxia; Du Xiaodong; Martin, Pamela A; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-01-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO 2 -equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  12. Forest resources, government policy, and investment location decisions of the forest products industry in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changyou Sun; Daowei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of an initial attempt to estimate the effects of state attributes on plant location and investment expenditure were presented for the forest products industry in the southern United States. A conditional logit model was used to analyze new plant births, and a time-series cross-section model to assess the total capital expenditure....

  13. Effects of the "great recession" on the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; William G. Luppold; Peter J. Ince; Ronald J. Piva; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the United States has demonstrated a notable decline in terms of employment, number of mills, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000--a downturn exacerbated by the "Great Recession" of 2007-2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary product (e.g.,...

  14. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  15. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  16. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region, 1906-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  17. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  18. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Intermountain Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  19. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  20. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  1. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Eastern Region, 1911-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  2. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Alaska Region, 1910-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Keith Stockmann; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison; Jesse Young

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  3. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service Southwestern Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Butler; Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  4. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  5. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  6. First Author Research Productivity of United States Radiation Oncology Residents: 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Peter B.; Sopka, Dennis M.; Kathpal, Madeera; Haynes, Jeffrey C.; Lally, Brian E.; Li, Linna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Participation in investigative research is a required element of radiation oncology residency in the United States. Our purpose was to quantify the first author research productivity of recent U.S. radiation oncology residents during their residency training. Methods and Materials: We performed a computer-based search of PubMed and a manual review of the proceedings of the annual meetings of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology to identify all publications and presented abstracts with a radiation oncology resident as the first author between 2002 and 2007. Results: Of 1,098 residents trained at 81 programs, 50% published ≥1 article (range, 0-9), and 53% presented ≥1 abstract (range, 0-3) at an American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meeting. The national average was 1.01 articles published and 1.09 abstracts presented per resident during 4 years of training. Of 678 articles published, 82% represented original research and 18% were review articles. Residents contributed 15% of all abstracts at American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology annual meetings, and the resident contribution to orally presented abstracts increased from 12% to 21% during the study period. Individuals training at programs with >6 residents produced roughly twice as many articles and abstracts. Holman Research Pathway residents produced double the national average of articles and abstracts. Conclusion: Although variability exists among individuals and among training programs, U.S. radiation oncology residents routinely participate in investigative research suitable for publication or presentation at a scientific meeting. These data provide national research benchmarks that can assist current and future radiation oncology residents and training programs in their self-assessment and research planning.

  7. Nitrogen use efficiency and crop production: Patterns of regional variation in the United States, 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Dennis P; Howarth, Robert W; Hong, Bongghi

    2018-04-17

    National-level summaries of crop production and nutrient use efficiency, important for international comparisons, only partially elucidate agricultural dynamics within a country. Agricultural production and associated environmental impacts in large countries vary significantly because of regional differences in crops, climate, resource use and production practices. Here, we review patterns of regional crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and major inputs of nitrogen to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS). Across the US, NUE generally decreased over time over the period studied, mainly due to increased use in mineral N fertilizer above crop N requirements. The Heartland region dominates production of major crops and thus tends to drive national patterns, showing linear response of crop production to nitrogen inputs broadly consistent with an earlier analysis of global patterns of country-scale data by Lassaletta et al. (2014). Most other regions show similar responses, but the Eastern Uplands region shows a negative response to nitrogen inputs, and the Southern Seaboard shows no significant relationship. The regional differences appear as two branches in the response of aggregate production to N inputs on a cropland area basis, but not on a total area basis, suggesting that the type of scaling used is critical under changing cropland area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is positively associated with fertilizer as a percentage of N inputs in four regions, and all regions considered together. NUE is positively associated with crop N fixation in all regions except Northern Great Plains. It is negatively associated with manure (livestock excretion); in the US, manure is still treated largely as a waste to be managed rather than a nutrient resource. This significant regional variation in patterns of crop production and NUE vs N inputs, has implications for environmental quality and

  8. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of I-joist Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the environmental performance of building products is becoming increasingly common. Creating environmental product declarations (EPDs) based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data is one approach to provide scientific documentation of the products’ environmental performance. Many U.S. structural wood products have LCA-based “eco-labels” developed under the ISO...

  9. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  10. Corn Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit designed to develop the effective ability of farmers to produce, harvest, store, and market corn profitably is structured in 11 lessons. The unit was developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer or adult farmer classes. The specific topic areas include varieties of corn, principles of…

  11. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da J.J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being

  12. Impact of the Gulf of California SST on simulating precipitation and crop productivity in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, J.; Prasad, A. K.; Stack, D. H.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-12-01

    Like other ecosystems, agricultural productivity is substantially affected by climate factors. Therefore, accurate climatic data (i.e. precipitation, temperature, and radiation) is crucial to simulating crop yields. In order to understand and anticipate climate change and its impacts on agricultural productivity in the Southwestern United States, the WRF regional climate model (RCM) and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) were employed for simulating crop production. 19 years of WRF RCM output show that there is a strong dry bias during the warm season, especially in Arizona. Consequently, the APSIM crop model indicates very low crop yields in this region. We suspect that the coarse resolution of reanalysis data could not resolve the relatively warm Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the Gulf of California (GC), causing the SST to be up to 10 degrees lower than the climatology. In the Southwestern United States, a significant amount of precipitation is associated with North American Monsoon (NAM). During the monsoon season, the low-level moisture is advected to the Southwestern United States via the GC, which is known to be the dominant moisture source. Thus, high-resolution SST data in the GC is required for RCM simulations to accurately represent a reasonable amount of precipitation in the region, allowing reliable evaluation of the impacts on regional ecosystems.and evaluate impacts on regional ecosystems. To evaluate the influence of SST on agriculture in the Southwestern U.S., two sets of numerical simulations were constructed: a control, using unresolved SST of GC, and daily updated SST data from the MODIS satellite sensor. The meteorological drivers from each of the 6 year RCM runs were provided as input to the APSIM model to determine the crop yield. Analyses of the simulated crop production, and the interannual variation of the meteorological drivers, demonstrate the influence of SST on crop yields in the Southwestern United States.

  13. Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis of Laminated Veneer Lumber Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2015-01-01

    Documenting the environmental performance of building products is becoming increasingly common. Developing environmental product declarations (EPDs) based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) data is one way to provide scientific documentation. Many U.S. structural wood products have LCA-based “eco-labels” using the ISO standard. However, the standard requires underlying...

  14. Sectoral productivity in the United States : Recent developments and the role of IT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corrado, Carol; Lengermann, Paul; Bartelsman, Eric J.; Beaulieu, J. Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As the step-up in U.S. productivity growth in the mid-1990s became evident, research on productivity surged. Initially, the new work concentrated on estimating the contribution of information technology (IT) to the productivity pickup, with similar results obtained using industry-level or broad

  15. Assessing soil quality: practicable standards for sustainable forest productivity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; Allan E. Tiarks; James R. Boyle

    1998-01-01

    Productive soils form the foundation for productive forests. But unfortunately, the significance of soil seems lost to modem society. Most of us are too far removed from the natural factors of production to appreciate the multiple roles of soil. Nor is its worth recognized well by many forest managers who too often see soil only in its capacity for logging roads and...

  16. Impact of the great recession on the forest products industry in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Collin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Jean M. Daniels; Steven W. Hayes

    2012-01-01

    Wood product prices and production fell dramatically in 2009 as a severe recession and massive decline in U.S. housing led to a global financial crisis. In 2009 and 2010, virtually every major western mill suffered curtailments and 30 large mills closed permanently. Sales value of wood and paper products in the West dropped from $49 billion in 2005 to $34 billion in...

  17. Creation of the technology and man's gen-engineering insulin extraction (GEIE) on the basis of high productive strain - GEIE producent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinov, A.; Kotelnikova, O.

    1996-01-01

    Main problems which should be solved: - To create the new highly productive recombinant GENI stain-producer - To select the medium and cultivation's conditions for stain-producer. - To elaborate the separation and purification GENI technology. In order to create the new GENI stain-producer we need significantly change the separation and purification's technology which was elaborated according to traditional method before. The separation and purification GENI's technology demand the industrial methods utilization, such as: ultrafiltration, high-and-low pressures chromatography. Besides, the utilization of recombinant micro-organisms, required for to obtain the medicinal preparations, places a constraint on the quality controls ready made product which should be in conformity with following conditions: high trustworthiness, reproducibility and sensitivity. In this connection, we need to perform a series of the work concerning with analytic controls methods of production and substance preparations technology. To create the separation and purification GENt technology on the highly productive recombinant GENI Stain-producers base. To put in an application in order to patient this new stain. The results of these works will be base for to prepare the normative-technical documents concerning with GENI substances production. Also, we will make the initial data and plan required for to project the GENI substances production. This work will be performed without foreign partner's participation

  18. A socio-technical approach for the design of a production control system : towards controllable production units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Ruël, Gwenny C.

    2000-01-01

    In the design of a production control system much attention is usually paid to technicalaspects, whereas the elaboration upon social aspects remain underexposed. SociotechnicalSystems Theory (SST) emphasizes the importance of finding a joint optimization between the technical and the social systems

  19. Preliminary estimates of the quantities of rare-earth elements contained in selected products and in imports of semimanufactured products to the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.; Gambogi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Rare-earth elements (REEs) are contained in a wide range of products of economic and strategic importance to the Nation. The REEs may or may not represent a significant component of that product by mass, value, or volume; however, in many cases, the embedded REEs are critical for the device’s function. Domestic sources of primary supply and the manufacturing facilities to produce products are inadequate to meet U.S. requirements; therefore, a significant percentage of the supply of REEs and the products that contain them are imported to the United States. In 2011, mines in China produced roughly 97 percent of the world’s supply of REEs, and the country’s production of these elements will likely dominate global supply until at least 2020. Preliminary estimates of the types and amount of rare-earth elements, reported as oxides, in semimanufactured form and the amounts used for electric vehicle batteries, catalytic converters, computers, and other applications were developed to provide a perspective on the Nation’s use of these elements. The amount of rare-earth metals recovered from recycling, remanufacturing, and reuse is negligible when the tonnage of products that contain REEs deposited in landfills and retained in storage is considered. Under favorable market conditions, the recovery of REEs from obsolete products could potentially displace a portion of the supply from primary sources.

  20. The evaluation of effective criteria on site selection for energy production units from cellulosic biomass in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Both Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR techniques were used successfully to evaluate the effective criteria on site selection for energy production unit development from cellulosic biomass in Iran. The results showed that the benefits criteria was at the first level while the initial cellulosic raw materials and opportunities with the aim of the local economy had the second position as the most important indices on site selection. In addition, third criterion has been introduced for the costs criteria (transportation cost and social barriers by the experts. However, risks criteria which referred to instability of providing cellulosic raw materials is one of the less important effective indices on site selection to make energy production unit. The results illustrated that the economy and politics as two environmental effective factors affected on the site selection process generally.

  1. Crystal structure of CobK reveals strand-swapping between Rossmann-fold domains and molecular basis of the reduced precorrin product trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Sushko, Oleksandr; Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J; Pickersgill, Richard W

    2015-11-30

    CobK catalyzes the essential reduction of the precorrin ring in the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structure of CobK reveals that the enzyme, despite not having the signature sequence, comprises two Rossmann fold domains which bind coenzyme and substrate respectively. The two parallel β-sheets have swapped their last β-strands giving a novel sheet topology which is an interesting variation on the Rossmann-fold. The trapped ternary complex with coenzyme and product reveals five conserved basic residues that bind the carboxylates of the tetrapyrrole tightly anchoring the product. A loop, disordered in both the apoenzyme and holoenzyme structures, closes around the product further tightening binding. The structure is consistent with a mechanism involving protonation of C18 and pro-R hydride transfer from NADPH to C19 of precorrin-6A and reveals the interactions responsible for the specificity of CobK. The almost complete burial of the reduced precorrin product suggests a remarkable form of metabolite channeling where the next enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway triggers product release.

  2. A Revenue Equivalence Result in a Duopolistic Electricity Market where one of the suppliers has two production units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Alonso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will model the electricity market auction as a two-person game with incomplete information under the assumption that bid-ders are asymmetric in units production, risk neutral and with unknownvalues.We characterize the strictly monotone bayesian Nash equilibrium andwe rank a family of auction models which contains the classic models Uniform, Discriminatory and Vickrey auction models.

  3. Changing Economic Leadership: A New Benchmark of Sector Productivity in the United States and Western Europe, ca. 1910

    OpenAIRE

    Frankema, Ewout; Woltjer, Pieter; Smits, Jan-Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The debate concerning the exact timing and causes of changes in economic leadership constitutes one of the central themes in economic history. This study aims to improve the measurement of economic performance in the United States and Western Europe (Britain, France and the Netherlands) during the long nineteenth century by constructing a new benchmark of sector productivity and new estimates of comparative gdp per capita and per worker. Our main finding is that the Anglo-Dutch and Anglo-Amer...

  4. Novelly formed products of the interaction of fuel with construction materials of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoj, A.A.; Galkin, B.Ya.; Drapchinskij, L.V.; Krinitsyn, A.P.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Petrov, B.F.; Pleskachevskij, L.A.; Checherov, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation environment and position of fuel-containing masses in the bubbler pond of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP are described. Classification of the products of fuel interaction with structural materials is given. Amounts of fuel on the 1st and 2nd floor of the bubbler pond are estimated. Postaccident pictures of the premises of the bubbler pond are presented for the first time

  5. The Relationship between the Introvert and Extravert Dichotomy and Small Unit Recruiting Volume Production within the Watertown Recruiting Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-22

    RECRUITING COMPANY A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the...including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and...Unit Recruiting Volume Production Within The Watertown Recruiting Company 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  6. [Assessment of production of eggs of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) on the basis of long-term ichthyoplankton data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, E M

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from long-term data on the numbers of eggs of cod in ichthyoplankton, the total annual production of cod eggs at four main spawning grounds of the Baltic Sea was calculated. It was shown that the long-term fluctuations of cod egg production were positively related to the dynamics of the volume of waters coming to the Baltic Sea in years of the North Sea advections. It is suggested that this dependence was determined by a set of adaptations providing the extension of cod reproduction upon the improvement of the environment.

  7. Good Manufacturing Practice-Compliant Production and Lot-Release of Ex Vivo Expanded Regulatory T Cells As Basis for Treatment of Patients with Autoimmune and Inflammatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Wiesinger

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the exploration of regulatory T cell (Treg-based cellular therapy has become an attractive strategy to ameliorate inflammation and autoimmunity in various clinical settings. The main obstacle to the clinical application of Treg in human is their low number circulating in peripheral blood. Therefore, ex vivo expansion is inevitable. Moreover, isolation of Treg bears the risk of concurrent isolation of unwanted effector cells, which may trigger or deteriorate inflammation upon adoptive Treg transfer. Here, we present a protocol for the GMP-compliant production, lot-release and validation of ex vivo expanded Tregs for treatment of patients with autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. In the presented production protocol, large numbers of Treg, previously enriched from a leukapheresis product by using the CliniMACS® system, are ex vivo expanded in the presence of anti-CD3/anti-CD28 expander beads, exogenous IL-2 and rapamycin during 21 days. The expanded Treg drug product passed predefined lot-release criteria. These criteria include (i sterility testing, (ii assessment of Treg phenotype, (iii assessment of non-Treg cellular impurities, (iv confirmation of successful anti-CD3/anti-CD28 expander bead removal after expansion, and (v confirmation of the biological function of the Treg product. Furthermore, the Treg drug product was shown to retain its stability and suppressive function for at least 1 year after freezing and thawing. Also, dilution of the Treg drug product in 0.9% physiological saline did not affect Treg phenotype and Treg function for up to 90 min. These data indicate that these cells are ready to use in a clinical setting in which a cell infusion time of up to 90 min can be expected. The presented production process has recently undergone on site GMP-conform evaluation and received GMP certification from the Bavarian authorities in Germany. This protocol can now be used for Treg-based therapy of various

  8. Analysis of the overall energy intensity of alumina refinery process using unit process energy intensity and product ratio method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,The University of Melbourne, Vic. 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-07-15

    Alumina refinery is an energy intensive industry. Traditional energy saving methods employed have been single-equipment-orientated. Based on two concepts of 'energy carrier' and 'system', this paper presents a method that analyzes the effects of unit process energy intensity (e) and product ratio (p) on overall energy intensity of alumina. The important conclusion drawn from this method is that it is necessary to decrease both the unit process energy intensity and the product ratios in order to decrease the overall energy intensity of alumina, which may be taken as a future policy for energy saving. As a case study, the overall energy intensity of the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant with Bayer-sinter combined method between 1995 and 2000 was analyzed. The result shows that the overall energy intensity of alumina in this plant decreased by 7.36 GJ/t-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over this period, 49% of total energy saving is due to direct energy saving, and 51% is due to indirect energy saving. The emphasis in this paper is on decreasing product ratios of high-energy consumption unit processes, such as evaporation, slurry sintering, aluminium trihydrate calcining and desilication. Energy savings can be made (1) by increasing the proportion of Bayer and indirect digestion, (2) by increasing the grade of ore by ore dressing or importing some rich gibbsite and (3) by promoting the advancement in technology. (author)

  9. The Staffing Policies of Swedish Companies at their Chinese Production Units

    OpenAIRE

    Dolinska, Nina; Hrlovic, Dzenita; Swane, Katarina

    2006-01-01

    Increasing production costs and high pressure from the consumers are leading Swedish companies towards an expansion to China. Since more and more companies are moving their production, we found it interesting to study the problems they might encounter while employing personnel. The purpose of this dissertation is to analyse what staffing policies companies choose and variables that influence the decision at Swedish production plants in China. Ethnocentric, polycentric and geocentric polic...

  10. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  11. Optimization of Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E for the production of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz P, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    This work is about an Edwards vacuum coating unit model E12E, it shows the principle of vacuum thermal evaporation, some observations in the operation of vacuum diffusion pumps, mechanical pumps, vacuum gauge, Penning and Pirani, and some equations of leak vacuum, after the modifications and additions of Edwards vacuum coating unit for optimization, the last part contains a concise introduction about thin films and one specific application, it also contains the recommendations and requirements to keep the system in good conditions. (Author)

  12. United Nuclear Industries, Inc. reactor and fuel production facilities 1975 environmental release report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiara, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    During calendar year 1975, an estimated total of 3,000,000 pounds of waste materials and approximately 150 curies of radionuclides were discharged to the environs in liquid effluent streams emanating from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. During the same period, approximately 1,700,000 pounds of reported waste materials, including 34,000 curies of reported radionuclides, were discharged to the atmosphere from United Nuclear Industries, Inc., operated facilities. Superscript numbers reference explanatory notes contained at the end of the report

  13. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  14. Employment Opportunities and Training Needs in Agribusiness. Competencies for Cotton Production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, John W.; And Others

    The competencies necessary for entry and advancement in cotton production were determined by surveying people in the cotton production industry from nine of the ten leading cotton producing states. A preliminary listing of competencies was developed from a review of the literature and from a survey of specialized personnel in soil and crop…

  15. Dairy production systems in the United States: Nutrient budgets and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across the diversity of US dairy production systems, nutrient management priorities range widely, from feeding regimes to manure handling, storage and application to crop systems. To assess nutrient management and environmental impacts of dairy production systems in the US, we evaluated nutrient bud...

  16. PRODUCTIVITY AND EFFICIENCY OF AGRICULTURAL AND NON AGRICULTURAL BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES: DEA APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Weeratilake

    1998-01-01

    Efficient operation of agricultural credit markets is very important both for the producer as well as for the policy makers. DEA approach is used to calculate productivity analysis which allows decomposition of sources of productivity changes into efficiency and technical change. Measured efficiencies are comparable to most recent parametric studies.

  17. Applying unit process life cycle inventor (UPLCI) methodology in product/packaging combinatons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Luttikhuis, Ellen; Toxopeus, Marten E.; Overcash, M.; Nee, Andrew Y.C.; Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the UPLCI approach can be used for determining the inventory of the manufacturing phases of product/packaging combinations. The UPLCI approach can make the inventory of the manufacturing process of the product that is investigated more accurate. The life cycle of

  18. Perspectives on site productivity of loblolly pine plantations in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Vance; Felipe G. Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    Pine plantations in the U.S. South include some of the most intensively managed and productive forests in the world. Studies have been established in recent decades to answer questions about whether the productivity of these plantations is sustainable. While intensive management practices greatly enhance tree growth, their effects on factors controlling growth...

  19. Communication between United States-Based Firms and Mexican Production Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Lila

    A study examined the types of communication technologies being used by United States-based corporations with operations in Mexico to determine the challenges these companies face when communicating across the border. A total of 703 U.S. corporations doing business with Mexico (culled from lists in two professional directories) were chosen for the…

  20. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  1. 75 FR 27614 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization (``WTO Agreement'') regarding a provision of... of the World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org . Comments will be placed in the docket and open... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Docket No. USTR-2010-0013] WTO Dispute...

  2. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... security of goods in the care and custody of the licensee. The personnel conducting the examinations will..., Warehouse Operations Program Manager, FSA, United States Department of Agriculture, Mail Stop 0553, 1400... continuing compliance with the standards of approval and operation. FSA will conduct examinations of licensed...

  3. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical issues: Ms. De Carlo Ciccel, Behavioral Research Division, NTI-131... submitted by RepCo Marketing, Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina. The dry gas units \\1\\ include: \\1\\ The naming... 34 X 10. RepCo Marketing, Inc., Raleigh, NC AS-1 X Model 3402C X Model 3402C-2K X 3402C-Tandem X...

  4. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  5. 75 FR 50033 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Measures Affecting the Production and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Docket No. USTR-2010-0013] WTO Dispute... Organization (``WTO Agreement'') regarding a provision of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Pub. L. 111-31). That request may be found at http://www.wto.org in a document designated as WT/DS406...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  7. Evaluating the Potential of Marginal Land for Cellulosic Feedstock Production and Carbon Sequestration in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Isaac; Mueller, Steffen; Qin, Zhangcai; Dunn, Jennifer B

    2017-01-03

    Land availability for growing feedstocks at scale is a crucial concern for the bioenergy industry. Feedstock production on land not well-suited to growing conventional crops, or marginal land, is often promoted as ideal, although there is a poor understanding of the qualities, quantity, and distribution of marginal lands in the United States. We examine the spatial distribution of land complying with several key marginal land definitions at the United States county, agro-ecological zone, and national scales, and compare the ability of both marginal land and land cover data sets to identify regions for feedstock production. We conclude that very few land parcels comply with multiple definitions of marginal land. Furthermore, to examine possible carbon-flow implications of feedstock production on land that could be considered marginal per multiple definitions, we model soil carbon changes upon transitions from marginal cropland, grassland, and cropland-pastureland to switchgrass production for three marginal land-rich counties. Our findings suggest that total soil organic carbon changes per county are small, and generally positive, and can influence life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of switchgrass ethanol.

  8. Relevance of various nitrogen fixing microorganisms in ecology and plant productivity as a basis for evaluating their damage by environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagnow, G

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate detrimental side-effects of environmental chemicals on the biological N/sub 2/-fixation the relative importance of the N/sub 2/-fixation of legume and non-legume root nodules, of symbiotic and free living blue-green algae, of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic rhizosphere bacteria and of anaerobic bacteria is discussed on the basis of their fixation rate and their contribution to the conservation of ecosystems. From an agricultural and ecological point of view the symbiotic N/sub 2/-fixation of legumes and non-legumes takes the first place, being followed by that of blue-green algae and rhizosphere bacteria. Compared with these, the strictly anaerobic N/sub 2/-fixation has only a minor importance. Variable side-effects of herbicides on N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria are cited to stress the necessity of testing representatives of various ecological groups. Suitable test systems are proposed with soybeans, white clover, Rhizobium cultures, N/sub 2/-fixing blue-green algae and with Azospirillum species.

  9. STUDIES AND RESEARCH ON THE CREATION OF A THEORETICAL BASIS FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVING A PRODUCT/PROCESS THROUGH THE KAIZEN METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SPIRIDON Cosmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaizen is a Japanese word which is today used as an international mark for quality management. Composed by two words, “kai” which means “change” and “zen” which means “good”, kaizen translates into “continuous improvement” which describes a simple philosophy on how to improve the quality of a product or a process, by taking small steps each day to obtain the desired improvements.

  10. FORMATION OF THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS OF META-DATA ASSOCIATED WITH ESTIMATES OF «ONCO-» RISKS LINKED TO MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Vostrikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is devoted to formation of the integrated scientific foundation based on the data of different statistical publications (meta data that are linked to «onko-« risks associated with meat products. In October 2015, World Health Organization (WHO published a report, in which red meat was classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In addition, the WHO experts made a conclusion about carcinogenicity of processed meat (meat that has been processed by smoking, salting, fermentation or other processes to extend storage. However, globally, there is no standardized method for reviewing the vast amount of studies on the mechanisms, by which lifestyle factors can cause cancer. At present, the work was begun on the development and testing of new methodology for performing systematic reviews of mechanistic investigations associated with a diet, nutrition, physical activity, and the development and progression of different types of cancer.A topical analysis of research in this direction will allow formation of basic meta data associated with «onko-» risks, linked to meat products, detection of basic and accompanying factors influencing «onko-» risks. The obtained information will enable the creation of a scientific reserve for further work on studying an effect of components entering into or developing in meat products associated with «onko-» risks.

  11. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  12. Investigating the ionosphere response to exhaust products of “Progress” cargo spacecraft engines on the basis of Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpynev B.G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The FSUE Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash, Rocket and Space Corporation “Energia”, and Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISTP SB RAS jointly conducted the active space experiment “Radar-Progress” in 2007–2015. During this experiment, the Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar was used to study space-time characteristics of ionospheric disturbances generated by exhaust products of Progress cargo spacecraft engines. As the basic effect during exhaust product injection we consider the formation of new centers for recombination of ambient ionospheric ions O+ on molecules of water and carbon dioxide. This produces an ionization “hole” in the region of injection. In nighttime conditions when the ma-jority of experiments were performed, this hole was filled with hydrogen ions from the plasmasphere, thus changing the ion composition in the vicinity of the hole and incoherent scatter spectra. For successful observation of the ioni-zation hole dynamics, the critical factors are the degree of filling of the antenna pattern with exhaust products and the velocity of the thermospheric neutral wind, which makes exhaust gases move from the antenna pattern. These two factors lead to poor repeatability of successful experiments. Successful experiments recorded a decrease in electron density up to 35 % in the hole that existed for 30 min. The lifetime of the region with high concentration of H+ ions can be as long as one hour.

  13. An Optimal Balancing of Multiple Assembly Line For a Batch Production Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohan Prasad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher Productivity in organizations leads to national prosperity and better standard of living for the whole community. This has motivated several workers on productivity improvement at different levels of XXXX India Pvt Ltd, Chennai. The main objective of this project is to increase the production by changing the layout of the assembly line in making of Transmit Mixer. At present 12 machines are being manufactured in a total of 2 shifts per day. Time study is carried out to identify and avoid the idle time to increase the production rate to 24 machines per day. The organization facing the problems like production time, online inventory, delay and idle time. Here our objective is to reduce the idle time, identifying the cycle time and optimal method of production. The COMSOAL (Computer Method for Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines and RPW (Ranked Positional Weight algorithms have been used to get the optimal solution. This algorithm provides the better solution, thereby reducing unnecessary movements of the worker within the station. The overall cycle time got reduced when compared with the existing cycle time in order to meet the customer demand. Thus we are proposing this scientific approach to get the optimal solution for increased rate of production of the company without affecting the quality and cost.

  14. Nursery Product-Related Injuries Treated in United States Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology of injuries associated with nursery products among young children treated in US emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were retrospectively analyzed for patients aged nursery product from 1991 through 2011. An estimated 1 391 844 (95% confidence interval, 1 169 489-1 614 199) nursery product-related injuries among children aged Nursery product-related injuries were most commonly associated with baby carriers (19.5%), cribs/mattresses (18.6%), strollers/carriages (16.5%), or baby walkers/jumpers/exercisers (16.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was a self-precipitated fall (80.0%), and the most frequently injured body region was the head or neck (47.1%). Although successful injury prevention efforts with baby walkers led to a decline in nursery product-related injuries from 1991 to 2003, the number and rate of these injuries have been increasing since 2003. Greater efforts are warranted to prevent injuries associated with other nursery products, especially baby carriers, cribs, and strollers. Prevention of falls and concussions/closed head injuries associated with nursery products also deserves special attention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  16. Trends, Productivity Losses, and Associated Medical Conditions Among Toxoplasmosis Deaths in the United States, 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L.; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000–2010. A matched case–control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. PMID:25200264

  17. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to

  18. A Study of the Relative Value Unit as a Practice Management Tool for Provider Productivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St

    2003-01-01

    .... This productivity measure is included in the Defense Health Program s (DHP) performance plan between the Deputy Secretary of Defense and the Assistant Secretary of Defense, Health Affairs (ASD(HA...

  19. Promoting Extended Product Responsibility in the United States; A Nonregulatory Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cash, Raheem

    1997-01-01

    ... waste generation, disposal costs, and contributions to diminishing landfill space. Product takeback, the most prominent category of EPR, is being aggressively implemented by European and Asian nations. Consequently, U.S...

  20. AN EXPERIENCE OF HANDLING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF PRODUCT WATER AT A HAEMODIALYSIS UNIT IN NORTH KARNATAKA OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Aravindrao Dambal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dialysis units need regular prophylactic disinfection of the dialysis water production and distribution circuit without which there can be chronic inflammation among patients using the facility. The aim of the study is to present here our experience in containing an episode of microbial contamination of dialysis water. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our haemodialysis unit had a single pass reverse osmosis plant with facility for pretreatment of raw water and a distribution loop of medical grade PVC (polyvinyl chloride feeding haemodialysis machines, bicarbonate preparation and dialyser reprocessing areas. After installation, the Reverse Osmosis (RO membranes and distribution loop were disinfected every fortnight using formalin. Cultures of product water were sent from various sites in the product water loop every month. RESULTS From January to April 2011, 15 water samples out of 52 water samples grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a colony count over 200 Colony-Forming Units (CFU. The average monthly number of haemodialysis was reduced from 84.75 to 65. Two patients had intradialytic pyrexia and two others had mild lower respiratory infection. So, the reverse osmosis plant and product water distribution system were repeatedly disinfected using 2% formalin and 1% bleach ensuring contact time and thorough rinsing to address persistent cultures. When these measures could not eradicate microbial growth, the system was sanitised with Gramicid (48% w/w H2O2 + 500 ppm Ag and all traces of the disinfectant were rinsed away before resuming haemodialysis. CONCLUSION The microbial contamination of dialysis water was eradicated by Gramicid and not by bleach or formalin without any adverse effects after thorough rinsing.

  1. Disaggregating reserve-to-production ratios: An algorithm for United States oil and gas reserve development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles William

    Reserve-to-production ratios for oil and gas development are utilized by oil and gas producing states to monitor oil and gas reserve and production dynamics. These ratios are used to determine production levels for the manipulation of oil and gas prices while maintaining adequate reserves for future development. These aggregate reserve-to-production ratios do not provide information concerning development cost and the best time necessary to develop newly discovered reserves. Oil and gas reserves are a semi-finished inventory because development of the reserves must take place in order to implement production. These reserves are considered semi-finished in that they are not counted unless it is economically profitable to produce them. The development of these reserves is encouraged by profit maximization economic variables which must consider the legal, political, and geological aspects of a project. This development is comprised of a myriad of incremental operational decisions, each of which influences profit maximization. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a model for characterizing a single product multi-period inventory/production optimization problem from an unconstrained quantity of raw material which was produced and stored as inventory reserve. This optimization was determined by evaluating dynamic changes in new additions to reserves and the subsequent depletion of these reserves with the maximization of production. A secondary purpose was to determine an equation for exponential depletion of proved reserves which presented a more comprehensive representation of reserve-to-production ratio values than an inadequate and frequently used aggregate historical method. The final purpose of this study was to determine the most accurate delay time for a proved reserve to achieve maximum production. This calculated time provided a measure of the discounted cost and calculation of net present value for developing new reserves. This study concluded that

  2. Tobacco Product Use Among Military Veterans - United States, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odani, Satomi; Agaku, Israel T; Graffunder, Corinne M; Tynan, Michael A; Armour, Brian S

    2018-01-12

    In 2015, an estimated 18.8 million U.S. adults were military veterans (1). Although the prevalence of tobacco-attributable conditions is high among veterans (2), there is a paucity of data on use of tobacco products, other than cigarettes, in this population. To monitor tobacco product use among veterans, CDC analyzed self-reported current (i.e., past 30-day) use of five tobacco product types (cigarettes, cigars [big cigars, cigarillos, or little cigars], roll-your-own tobacco, pipes, and smokeless tobacco [chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, or snus]) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Overall, 29.2% of veterans reported current use of any of the assessed tobacco products. Cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product (21.6%), followed by cigars (6.2%), smokeless tobacco (5.2%), roll-your-own tobacco (3.0%), and pipes (1.5%); 7.0% of veterans currently used two or more tobacco products. Within subgroups of veterans, current use of any of the assessed tobacco products was higher among persons aged 18-25 years (56.8%), Hispanics (34.0%), persons with less than a high school diploma (37.9%), those with annual family income <$20,000 (44.3%), living in poverty (53.7%), reporting serious psychological distress (48.2%), and with no health insurance (60.1%). By age and sex subgroups, use of any of the assessed tobacco products was significantly higher among all veteran groups than their nonveteran counterparts, except males aged ≥50 years. Expanding the reach of evidence-based tobacco control interventions among veterans could reduce tobacco use prevalence in this population.

  3. A critical assessment of the scientific basis, and implementation, of regulations for the safety assessment and marketing of innovative tobacco-related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our scientific, logistical, ethical and animal welfare-related concerns about the latest US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for existing and so-called 'new' tobacco products, aimed at reducing harmful exposures, are explained. Such claims for sales in the USA now have to be based on a wide range of information, a key part of which will increasingly be data on safety and risk. One of the pathways to achieve marketing authorisation is to demonstrate substantial equivalence (SE) with benchmark products, called predicates. However, the regulations are insufficiently transparent with regard to: a) a rationale for the cut-off date for 'old' and 'new' products, and for exempting the former from regulation; b) the scientific validity and operation of SE; c) options for product labelling to circumvent SE; d) the experimental data required to support, and criteria to judge, a claim; and e) a strategy for risk assessment/management. Scientific problems related to the traditional animal methods used in respiratory disease and inhalation toxicology, and the use of quantitative comparators of toxicity, such as the No Observed Adverse Effect Level, are discussed. We review the advantages of relevant in vitro, mechanism-based, target tissue-oriented technologies, which an advisory report of the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academy of Sciences largely overlooked. These benefits include: a) the availability, for every major site in the respiratory tract, of organotypic human cell-based tissue culture systems, many of which are already being used by the industry; b) the accurate determination of concentrations of test materials received by target cells; c) methods for exposure to particulate and vapour phases of smoke, separately or combined; d) the ability to study tissue-specific biotransformation; and e) the use of modern, human-focused methodologies, unaffected by species differences. How data extrapolation, for risk assessment, from tissue culture to

  4. Primary productivity and the prospects for biofuels in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, G. J.; Callaghan, T. V.

    1983-09-01

    Estimates of land use and plant productivity are combined to predict total annual primary production in the UK as 252 million tonnes dry matter (10.5 t ha-1yr-1). Annual above ground production is predicted to be 165 Mt (6.9 t ha-1yr-1). Within these totals, intensive agriculture contributes 60%, productive woodland 8%, natural vegetation 26% and urban vegetation 5%. However, only 25% of total plant production is cropped by man and animals, and most of this is subsequently discarded as wastes and residues. 2112 PJ of organic material is available for fuel without reducing food or fibre production, but since much of this could not be economically collected, 859 PJ is calculated as a more realistic biofuel contribution by the year 2000. After deducting 50% conversion losses, this could save P1 billion (1979 prices) in oil imports. Short rotation energy plantations, forest residues, coppice woodlands, animal and crop wastes, industrial and domestic wastes, catch crops, natural vegetation and urban vegetation all have immediate or short term potential as biofuel sources. Sensitive planning is required to reduce environmental impact, but in some cases more diverse wildlife habitats may be created.

  5. Process control and product evaluation in micro molding using a screwless/two-plunger injection unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Dormann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed μ-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on μ-injection......A newly developed μ-injection molding machine equipped with a screwless/two-plunger injection unit has been employed to mould miniaturized dog-bone shaped specimens on polyoxymethylene and its process capability and robustness have been analyzed. The influence of process parameters on μ......-injection molding was investigated using the Design of Experiments technique. Injection pressure and piston stroke speed as well as part weight and dimensions were considered as quality factors over a wide range of process parameters. Experimental results obtained under different processing conditions were...

  6. Potential for production of ‘mini-mussels’ in Great Belt (Denmark) evaluated on basis of actual and modeled growth of young mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Lundgreen, Kim; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a first step towards evaluation of the potential for line-mussel production in the Great Belt region between the Kattegat and Baltic Sea, Denmark. We present experimental results for actual growth rates of juvenile/adult mussels Mytilus edulis in suspended net bags in terms......) as a function of dry weight of soft parts (W, g) by a previously developed simple bioenergetic growth model μ = aW −0.34. Results were generally in good agreement with the model which assumes the prevailing average chlorophyll a concentration at field sites to essentially account for the nutrition. Our studies...

  7. Academic Productivity of Neurosurgeons Working in the United Kingdom: Insights from the H-Index and Its Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Aimun A B; Wiggins, A N; Loan, J J M; Emelifeoneu, J; Fouyas, I P; Brennan, P M

    2016-02-01

    Academic metrics can be used to compare the productivity of researchers. We aimed to use a variety of bibliometric parameters to assess the productivity of neurosurgeons working in the United Kingdom. Neurosurgical consultants working in the United Kingdom were identified using the Society of British Neurosurgeons' Audit Programme website. Baseline data collected included year of entry to specialist register, academic position and award of higher degree. Google Scholar was used to compute a range of academic metrics for each consultant including the h-index, hi-norm, e-index and g-index. Non-parametric tests were used to compare median results. Median metrics for the whole cohort were: h-index (5), hi-norm (3), g-index (10.4) and e-index (9). The top 3 units based on h-index were Addenbrookes (13), Great Ormond Street (12.5) and Queen's Square (11.5). The h-index correlated with academic position [Prof (17.5), Senior Lecturer (10.5) and non-academic (5); P 10 year (7), neurosurgeons through the analysis of a number of citation metrics. It provides a benchmark bibliometric profile and we advocate future comparative assessments as a means to assess impact of and guide academic policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Production and postharvest quality maintenance of single unit and bunching broccoli in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Jett, Lewis W.

    1990-01-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has become an increasingly popular vegetable with American consumers. Much of the attractiveness of fresh broccoli is derived from this vegetable's high nutrition and excellent organoleptic properties. In a consumer response survey, Virginia Master Gardeners indicated a preference for broccoli that has less stalk and more florets by weight. The objectives of this research were to produce single unit broccoli, and to examine vac...

  9. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  10. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  11. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  12. Primary phonological planning units in spoken word production are language-specific: Evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Wang, Suiping; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2017-07-19

    It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded. Each two consecutive pictures implicitly formed a pair of prime and target, whose names shared the same word-initial atonal syllable or the same word-initial segments, or were unrelated in the control conditions. Only syllable repetition induced significant effects on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) after target onset: a widely distributed positivity in the 200- to 400-ms interval and an anterior positivity in the 400- to 600-ms interval. We interpret these to reflect syllable-size representations at the phonological encoding and phonetic encoding stages. Our results provide the first electrophysiological evidence for the distinct role of syllables in producing Mandarin spoken words, supporting a language specificity hypothesis about the primary phonological units in spoken word production.

  13. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.

  14. Effect of subsidies to fossil fuel companies on United States crude oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Down, Adrian; Lazarus, Michael; Koplow, Doug

    2017-11-01

    Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out `inefficient' fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits.

  15. Accurate costs of blood transfusion: a microcosting of administering blood products in the United Kingdom National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Elizabeth A; Wordsworth, Sarah; Staves, Julie; Mundy, Nicola; Skelly, Jane; Radford, Kelly; Stanworth, Simon J

    2018-04-01

    In an environment of limited health care resources, it is crucial for health care systems which provide blood transfusion to have accurate and comprehensive information on the costs of transfusion, incorporating not only the costs of blood products, but also their administration. Unfortunately, in many countries accurate costs for administering blood are not available. Our study aimed to generate comprehensive estimates of the costs of administering transfusions for the UK National Health Service. A detailed microcosting study was used to cost two key inputs into transfusion: transfusion laboratory and nursing inputs. For each input, data collection forms were developed to capture staff time, equipment, and consumables associated with each step in the transfusion process. Costing results were combined with costs of blood product wastage to calculate the cost per unit transfused, separately for different blood products. Data were collected in 2014/15 British pounds and converted to US dollars. A total of 438 data collection forms were completed by 74 staff. The cost of administering blood was $71 (£49) per unit for red blood cells, $84 (£58) for platelets, $55 (£38) for fresh-frozen plasma, and $72 (£49) for cryoprecipitate. Blood administration costs add substantially to the costs of the blood products themselves. These are frequently incurred costs; applying estimates to the blood components supplied to UK hospitals in 2015, the annual cost of blood administration, excluding blood products, exceeds $175 (£120) million. These results provide more accurate estimates of the total costs of transfusion than those previously available. © 2018 AABB.

  16. The United States (U.S. Steel import crisis and the global production overcapacity till 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. H. Popescu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to examine and evaluate the swift growth in surplus steel production capacity and international supply chain integration, the effects of steel manufacturing on U.S. employment, raising imports of unfairly traded steel and steel goods, and the global steel sector’s structural overcapacity. This paper contributes to the literature by providing evidence on the mechanisms forming the foundation of the first-rate productivity growth in the U.S. steel industry, models of growth in the international steel supply chains, and the advantages of adequate trade remedy implementation for the U.S. steel sector.

  17. Automation drying unit molybdenum-zirconium gel radioisotope production technetium-99M for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrova, Y.; Khromushin, I.; Medvedeva, Z.; Fettsov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Since 2001 the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan has began production of radiopharmaceutical based on technetium-99m from irradiated reactor WWR-K of natural molybdenum, which allows to obtain a solution of technetium-99m of the required quality and high volume activity. In 2013 an automated system is started, which is unique and urgent task is to develop algorithms and software in Python, as well as the manufacture of certain elements of technological systems for automated production

  18. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU) production for the Cassini mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is a [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fueled heat source designed to provide one thermal watt in each of various locations on a spacecraft. The heat sources are required to maintain the temperature of specific components within normal operating ranges. The heat source consists of a hot- pressed [sup 238]PuO[sub 2] fuel pellet, a Pt-3ORh vented capsule, a pyrolytic graphite insulator, and a woven graphite aeroshell assembly. Los Alamos National Laboratory has fabricated 180 heat sources, 157 of which will be used on the Cassini mission

  19. Plan 2008. Costs starting in 2010 for the radioactive residual products from nuclear power. Basis for fees and guarantees in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    reference calculation and the figures on which it is based are presented in the report as background information. The reference scenario includes the following facilities and systems in operation: - Transportation system for radioactive waste products. - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, Clab. - Final repository for short-lived low- and intermediate-level operational waste, SFR. - Laboratories for development of encapsulation and final disposal technology. The reference scenario also includes the following additional facilities: - canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, - final repository for spent nuclear fuel, SFK, - interim storage facility for core components, BFA, - final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL, and - final repository for decommissioning waste (extension of SFR). The costs according to the reference scenario also include costs for research, development and demonstration (RDandD), as well as SKB's central functions. The latter include general functions such as corporate management, business support, EIA, overall safety matters, etc. Other costs include costs for decommissioning and dismantling of reactor plants as well as at-plant facilities for interim storage or final disposal of low- and intermediate-level waste. The Financing Act, along with the Ordinance, stipulates a number of conditions that have an effect on the scope of the reference scenario as well as on the calculation model used by SKB. Such conditions include the reactor operating time on which the estimate of the quantity of waste products is based, as well as the fact that uncertainties with regard to future developments in different areas have to be taken into account. In addition, the calculation should only include waste products, which, according to the Financing Act's definition of residual products, excludes the management of operational waste. Among other things, the existing facility at SFR is

  20. Approach of fuzzy logic in the preliminary risk analysis of the upstream and downstream lines of an offshore petroleum production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Claudio B. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinho, Edson [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Maia Neto, Luiz

    2009-07-01

    This work consists of the application of a model of qualitative risk assessment based in fuzzy logic for the judgment of criticality of the scenarios of accident identified through the technique of preliminary hazard analysis in the upstream and downstream of an offshore oil production unit already in operation. The model based on fuzzy logic acts as substitute to the traditional Risks Matrix that uses subjective concepts for the categories of expected severity and frequency of the accidents. The structure of the employed model consists of 7 input variables, an internal variable and an output variable, all linked in accordance with the modules of analysis for each type of accident. The developed base of knowledge, that complete the expert system consists of membership functions developed for each one of the variables and a set of 219 distributed inference rules in the 7 different modules. The developed knowledge base, which incorporates the mechanisms of logical reasoning of specialists, assists and guides, with efficiency, the teams that carry through the preliminary hazard analyses with the use of a computer program having previously inserted routines. The employed model incorporates in the knowledge base of the program the existing concepts in the categories of frequency and severity, under the form of membership functions of the linguistic variable and the set of rules. With this, scales subdivided in ranges, defined on the basis of the existing direction present in the risks matrices are used to define the actions to be taken for the analyzed accident scenarios. (author)

  1. Basis for the development of a scenario for ground water risk assessment of plant protection products to banana crop in the frame work of regulation 1107/2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Prados, Elena; Fernández-Getino, Ana Patricia; Alonso-Prados, Jose Luis

    2014-05-01

    The risk assessment to ground water of pesticides and their main metabolites is a data requirement under regulation 1107/2009, concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market. Predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) are calculated according to the recommendations of Forum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and Their Use (FOCUS). The FOCUS groundwater working group developed scenarios for the main crops in European Union. However there are several crops which grow under specific agro-environmental conditions not covered by these scenarios and it is frequent to use the defined scenarios as surrogates. This practice adds an uncertainty factor in the risk assessment. One example is represented by banana crop which in Europe is limited to sub-tropical environmental conditions and with specific agronomic practices. The Canary Islands concentrates the higher production of banana in the European Union characterized by volcanic soils. Banana is located at low altitudes where soils have been eroded or degraded, and it is a common practice to transport soil materials from the high-mid altitudes to the low lands for cultivation. These cultivation plots are locally named "sorribas". These volcanic soils, classified as Andosols according to the FAO classification, have special physico-chemical properties due to noncrystalline materials and layer silicates. The good stability of these soils and their high permeability to water make them relatively resistant to water erosion. Physical properties of volcanic clayey soils are strongly affected by allophone and Fe and Al oxyhidroxides. The rapid weathering of porous volcanic material results in accumulation of stable organo-mineral complexes and short-range-order mineral such as allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. These components induce strong aggregation that partly favors properties such as: reduced swelling, increased aggregate stability of clay minerals, high soil water retention capacity

  2. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  3. Estimating climate change effects on net primary production of rangelands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew C. Reeves; Adam L. Moreno; Karen E. Bagne; Steven W. Running

    2014-01-01

    The potential effects of climate change on net primary productivity (NPP) of U.S. rangelands were evaluated using estimated climate regimes from the A1B, A2 and B2 global change scenarios imposed on the biogeochemical cycling model, Biome-BGC from 2001 to 2100. Temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, day length, solar radiation, CO2 enrichment and nitrogen...

  4. Effects of Educational Productivity on Career Aspiration among United States High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Ma, Xin

    2001-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling and data on 10th-grade students from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, a model was developed to show the relationship to career aspiration of eight indicators of "educational productivity": mathematics achievement; motivation; instructional quantity and quality; home, class, and peer environment; and mass…

  5. An Empirical Analysis of United States Consumers' Concerns about Eight Food Production and Processing Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Yun Jae; Roe, Brian E.; Teisl, Mario F.

    2005-01-01

    For a representative sample of U.S. consumers, we rank, correlate and explain ratings of concern toward eight food production and processing technologies (antibiotics, pesticides, artificial growth hormones, genetic modification, irradiation, artificial colors/flavors, pasteurization, and preservatives). Concern is highest for pesticides and hormones, followed by concern toward antibiotics, genetic modification and irradiation. We document standard relationships between many demographic, econ...

  6. Production rates and costs of cable yarding wood residue from clearcut units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1984-01-01

    Wood residue is a little used source of fiber, chips, and fuel because harvest costs are largely unknown. This study calculates incremental production rates and costs for yarding and loading logging residue in clearcut old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests. Harvest operations were observed for two timber sales in western Oregon. Three different cable yarding...

  7. The average unit production cost of blood in Zimbabwe from a provider's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Nyoni, H.; Chikwereti, R.; Khoza, S.; Mvere, D.A.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: Blood utilization and blood transfusion costs are generally perceived to be increasing at a time when healthcare budgets continue being constricted. There is a paucity of published data on the production costs of blood and the costs of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan

  8. An overview of the forest products sector downturn in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; P.J. Ince; K.E. Skog; F.X. Aguilar; C.E. Keegan; C.B. Sorenson; D.G. Hodges; W.B. Smith

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the forest products industry of the U.S. experienced a downturn in output to levels not seen in decades and employment losses in the hundreds of thousands-- for instance, a number far greater than witnessed in the Nation's automotive industry. The extent of the forest industry downturn varies by sector, impacted by structural changes in the...

  9. Radon decay product removal unit as adpated for use with a lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.; Rudnick, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    A radon decay product remover is described for use in a walled living enclosure having an airspace with radon decay products therein, comprising: (a) a threaded male adapter for insertion into a light bulb socket so as to connect the radon decay product remover to an A.C. electrical power supply; (b) an ion generator in the remover and coupled through the adapter to the A.C. power supply, the ion generator having an A.C. to D.C. converter, including a rectifier for rectifying the A.C. power to produce high voltage D.C. power which is coupled to an electrode for creating ions that are distributed in the airspace, resulting in an electric field gradient such that the electrical potential decreases from its maximum voltage at the electrode to essentially zero voltage at the room surfaces causing migration of ions and charged airborne radon decay products toward the boundaries of the airspace of the living enclosure where they deposit on surfaces and are thereby removed from the airspace, (c) a female socket for insertion of a light bulb, the female socket being electrically coupled to the A.C. power supply through the adapator

  10. Foreign-Born Women Faculty Work Roles and Productivity at Research Universities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) survey, the study examined foreign-born women faculty members' work roles and productivity in the areas of teaching, research, and service in comparison with their US-born counterparts at research universities in the US. The findings provided some evidence to suggest…

  11. Production rates for United States Forest Service brush disposal planning in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Stu Hoyt; Nathaniel Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Timber harvesting operations generate brush and other vegetative debris, which often has no marketable value. In many western U.S. forests, these materials represent a fire hazard and a potential threat to forest health and must be removed or burned for disposal. Currently, there is no established, consistent method to estimate brush disposal production rates in the U....

  12. United States of America [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The USA uses more energy than any other country in the world. Energy consumption exceeds domestic supply, which continuously declines. Currently, 27% of the energy needs are imported, a share which will rise to 31% by 2020. In 2007, the USA consumed in total 2337 Mtoe of primary energy. An estimate of the energy use in 2008 is given. The country's largest source representing 39% of the energy demand is crude oil, of which 60% must be imported. About 66% of the oil is consumed in the transportation sector and 24% in the industrial sector, while the remainder is used for residential and commercial heating. The USA is also the largest consumer of natural gas, with 27% of the world's annual production. Natural gas is increasingly used for electricity production (almost doubled to 21% in 2007 compared to 1990) and will remain in the nearer term the fuel of choice for new electric power plants. About 16% of the natural gas consumed is imported, partly in the form of LNG. Regasification of LNG is a growing industry. Coal is the most abundantly available energy resource in the USA. About 50% of the electricity production is from coal, which is responsible for a relatively high level of pollutant emissions. The USA will need approximately 400 GW of new power generation capacity by 2020. In 2007, nuclear energy accounted for 837 TW-h or 19% of the total electricity production from the operation of 104 nuclear reactors with a capacity of 101.2 GW(e). To maintain this nuclear share, the equivalent of 30 1000 MW nuclear reactors will have to be built. Renewables are basically used for electricity production with a share of 9% (with 6% from hydro and 3% from other renewables).

  13. Introduction of 'Physicochemical and manufacturing basis for uranium concentrates production from wastes of hydrometallurgical plants and technical waters (Second edition, revised)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    The uranium deposits of Tajikistan played an immensely significant role in the practical solution of a radioactive raw materials problem which appeared during the post-World War II years in the USSR. The pioneer in this field became complex №6 (currently known as 'Vostokredmet'). The first soviet uranium was produced from the ores extracted from the republic's deposits. For 50 years (1945-1995 y.) , uranium bearing raw materials from all over the former USSR were delivered to Tajikistan, and uranium oxide was produced, which was later delivered back to Russia for further production of enriched uranium. The total volume of uranium produced in Tajikistan plants was approximately 100 thousands tons. In Soghd region, during that period, more than 55 million tons of uranium waste was accumulated. The total activity of the waste, according to different calculations, is approximately 240-285 TBq. The total amount of waste in dumps and tailings piles is estimated to be more than 170 million tons, most of which are located in the neighborhoods of hydrometallurgical plants and heap leaching locations. Uranium industry wastes in Northern Tajikistan have become attractive for different investors and commercial companies, from secondary reprocessing of mines and tailings' point of view, since the uranium price is increasing. In this regard, research on developing uranium extraction methods from wastes is broadening. The study of the possibility and economic reasonability of reprocessing former year's dumps requires comprehensive examination, and relates not only to uranium extraction but to safe extraction of dumps from tailings as well.

  14. Production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units in mice irradiated with moderate doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, T.; Gonzalez, J.; Tejero, C.; Maganto, G.; Bueren, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) has been studied in irradiated mice using an in vivo diffusion chamber assay. The experiments show that a significant release of factors that stimulate CFU-S takes place in the first few days after irradiation with moderate doses of 1.5 or 5 Gy. In contrast, the release of significant amounts of these humoral factors was not seen in animals irradiated with either low (0.75 Gy) or high (10 Gy) doses of X rays. The correlation observed between the production of factors that stimulate the CFU-S and the hemopoietic regeneration kinetics of the irradiated mice suggests that these factors represent part of the physiological regulators controlling the proliferation of CFU-S

  15. Recovery of valuable products in liquid effluents from uranium and thorium pilot units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, E.A.; Abrao, A.

    1988-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP has being very active in refining yellowcake to pure ammonium diuranate which is converted to uranium trioxide, uranium dioxide, uranium tetra- and hexafluoride in a sequential way. The technology of the thorium purification and its conversion to nuclear grade products has been a practice since several years as well. For both elements the major waste to be worked is the refinate from the solvent extraction column where uranium and thorium are purified via TBP-varsol in pulsed columns. In this paper the actual processing technology is reviewed with special emphasis on the recovery of valuable products, mainly nitric acid and ammonium nitrate. Distilled nitric acid and the final sulfuric acid as residue are recycle. Ammonium nitrate from the precipitation of uranium diuranate is of good quality, being radioactivity and uranium-free, and recommended to be applied as fertilizer. In conclusion the main effort is to maximise the recycle and reuse of the abovementioned chemicals. (author) [pt

  16. A Critical Review of the Marketing Claims of Infant Formula Products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belamarich, Peter F; Bochner, Risa E; Racine, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    A highly competitive infant formula market has resulted in direct-to-consumer marketing intended to promote the sale of modified formulas that claim to ameliorate common infant feeding problems. The claims associated with these marketing campaigns are not evaluated with reference to clinical evidence by the Food and Drug Administration. We aimed to describe the language of claims made on formula labels and compare it with the evidence in systematic reviews. Of the 22 product labels we identified, 13 product labels included claims about colic and gastrointestinal symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that removing or reducing lactose, using hydrolyzed or soy protein or adding pre-/probiotics to formula benefits infants with fussiness, gas, or colic yet claims like "soy for fussiness and gas" encourage parents who perceive their infants to be fussy to purchase modified formula. Increased regulation of infant formula claims is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Association Between Breast Cancer Disease Progression and Workplace Productivity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wesley; Horblyuk, Ruslan; Perkins, Julia Jane; Sison, Steve; Smith, Greg; Snider, Julia Thornton; Wu, Yanyu; Philipson, Tomas J

    2017-02-01

    Determine workplace productivity losses attributable to breast cancer progression. Longitudinal analysis linking 2005 to 2012 medical and pharmacy claims and workplace absence data in the US patients were commercially insured women aged 18 to 64 diagnosed with breast cancer. Productivity was measured as employment status and total quarterly workplace hours missed, and valued using average US wages. Six thousand four hundred and nine women were included. Breast cancer progression was associated with a lower probability of employment (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, P work was $24,166 for non-metastatic and $30,666 for metastatic patients. Thus, progression to metastatic disease is associated with an additional $6500 in lost work time (P < 0.05), or 14% of average US wages. Breast cancer progression leads to diminished likelihood of employment, increased workplace hours missed, and increased cost burden.

  18. THE DEMAND FOR MEAT PRODUCTS IN THE UNITED STATES: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Olowolayemo, Surajudeen O.; Martin, Neil R., Jr.; Raymond, Jennie E.

    1993-01-01

    Given the importance of meat consumption, and the proportion of consumers' income spent on meat, this study estimates the demand for eight meat categories using two different functional forms. An inverse almost ideal demand system (IAIDS), and linear double-log price dependent demand models are specified. In most cases, flexibilities obtained from both methods are comparable and show that the demand for meat products is price inflexible. In addition, there are regional as well as seasonal var...

  19. Safety Basis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-01

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities

  20. Safety Basis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2002-01-14

    As part of the internal Integrated Safety Management Assessment verification process, it was determined that there was a lack of documentation that summarizes the safety basis of the current Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site characterization activities. It was noted that a safety basis would make it possible to establish a technically justifiable graded approach to the implementation of the requirements identified in the Standards/Requirements Identification Document. The Standards/Requirements Identification Documents commit a facility to compliance with specific requirements and, together with the hazard baseline documentation, provide a technical basis for ensuring that the public and workers are protected. This Safety Basis Report has been developed to establish and document the safety basis of the current site characterization activities, establish and document the hazard baseline, and provide the technical basis for identifying structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that perform functions necessary to protect the public, the worker, and the environment from hazards unique to the YMP site characterization activities. This technical basis for identifying SSCs serves as a grading process for the implementation of programs such as Conduct of Operations (DOE Order 5480.19) and the Suspect/Counterfeit Items Program. In addition, this report provides a consolidated summary of the hazards analyses processes developed to support the design, construction, and operation of the YMP site characterization facilities and, therefore, provides a tool for evaluating the safety impacts of changes to the design and operation of the YMP site characterization activities.

  1. The effect of cover geometry on the productivity of a modified solar still desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Desalination methods based on renewable energy offer a promising solution to both water shortage and environmental degradation problems that continue to grow globally. The solar still is one such method that uses a sustainable energy source to produce potable water albeit at a relatively low productivity rate. A new modification has been introduced to the conventional solar still to enhance its productivity. The modification consists of a light weight, black finished, slowly-rotating drum, which leads to a sustainable, cost-effective, and low-tech amendment that preserves the key features of the still while considerably increasing its yield compared to a control still that does not include the drum. In this paper, three different cover geometries of the modified still are studied and the effect of cover design on the performance of the still in terms of measured temperatures and productivity is considered. The three cover designs are as follows: double-sloped or triangular, single-sloped and curved cover. In addition, a conventional double-sloped still without the rotating drum is operated in parallel as a control and the findings of this study are reported and discussed. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Awang; Zulkifli Mohamad Hashim; Yusof Azuddin Ali

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99 m TC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K 2 99 Mo0 4 ) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 , s ranges from 1.75 mCi 99 Mo/g MoO 3 to 6.25 mCi 99 Mo/g MoO 3 . However, the specific activity of 99 Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99m TC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using γ-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

  3. Green Hydrogen Production from Raw Biogas: A Techno-Economic Investigation of Conventional Processes Using Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioele Di Marcoberardino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from biogas with conventional systems. The work is part of the European project BIONICO, whose purpose is to develop and test a membrane reactor (MR for hydrogen production from biogas. Within the BIONICO project, steam reforming (SR and autothermal reforming (ATR, have been identified as well-known technologies for hydrogen production from biogas. Two biogases were examined: one produced by landfill and the other one by anaerobic digester. The purification unit required in the conventional plants has been studied and modeled in detail, using Aspen Adsorption. A pressure swing adsorption system (PSA with two and four beds and a vacuum PSA (VPSA made of four beds are compared. VPSA operates at sub-atmospheric pressure, thus increasing the recovery: results of the simulations show that the performances strongly depend on the design choices and on the gas feeding the purification unit. The best purity and recovery values were obtained with the VPSA system, which achieves a recovery between 50% and 60% at a vacuum pressure of 0.1 bar and a hydrogen purity of 99.999%. The SR and ATR plants were designed in Aspen Plus, integrating the studied VPSA model, and analyzing the behavior of the systems at the variation of the pressure and the type of input biogas. The SR system achieves a maximum efficiency, calculated on the LHV, of 52% at 12 bar, while the ATR of 28% at 18 bar. The economic analysis determined a hydrogen production cost of around 5 €/kg of hydrogen for the SR case.

  4. Moving from a Predominantly Teaching Oriented Culture to a Research Productivity Mission: The Case of Mexico and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Gregorutti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study qualitatively analyzes the culture conflicts professors in the United States and Mexico are experiencing with the increasing pressures to produce more research about higher education. The first dataset was collected from 36 faculty members from 12 small and medium sized private, doctorate-granting universities. These universities are located in 11 states across the United States. The remaining data came from 44 faculty members employed at four small and medium sized private, doctoral granting universities in four states across Mexico. Results showed that universities in the US are transitioning from a predominantly teaching college culture to a more research orientation. Although the sampled universities continue to offer established graduate programs, faculty members continue to struggle with their teaching requirements and conflicts research productivity pressures place on their teaching and mentoring time with students. Participating faculty members employed in the US were not evenly interested in research opportunities due to the diverse mission objectives promoted by their respective institutions. On the other hand, faculty members employed in Mexico were generally more concerned with their research productivity and subsequent factors, which negatively impact their research productivity. Mexican faculty members rarely cited conflicts between their institutional missions and teaching objectives. This study is highly relevant to policy makers, higher education administrators, and scholars interested in comparative and international higher education. Administrators can benefit from the findings in this study, which provides faculty members’ perceptions and describes departmental structures and organizational dynamics employed to advance greater research and development opportunities. This study concludes with a discussion on how administrators and faculty members should handle the pressures for research productivity and

  5. Community syndicalism for the United States: preliminary observations on law and globalization in democratic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth M. Casebeer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession resulting from the globalization of Finance Capitalism created two structural labor crises for developed economies: 1 The channeling of substantial investment into non-productive, paper commodities, reducing growth of production for use and therefore reducing available aggregate job creation; and 2 The continued exportation of industrial jobs to other lower cost jurisdictions, and outsourcing, automation, just-in-time production, and speed-ups associated with global supply chains. As a result, local communities and regional populations have destabilized and even collapsed with attendant social problems. One possible response is Community Syndicalism – local community finance and operating credit for industrial production combined with democratic worker ownership and control of production. The result would increase investment directly for production, retain jobs in existing population centers, promote job skilling, and retain tax bases for local services and income supporting local businesses, at the same time increasing support for authentic political democracy by rendering the exploitive ideology of the Public/Private distinction superfluous. Slowing job exportation may reduce the global race to the bottom of labor standards and differential wage rates reducing the return to producers of value and increasing the skew of income distribution undermining social wages and welfare worldwide. Community Syndicalism can serve as moral goal in an alternative production model focusing incentives on long term stability of jobs and community economic base. La Gran Recesión que ha traído la globalización del capitalismo financiero ha dado lugar a dos crisis laborales estructurales en las economías desarrolladas: 1 El destino principal de la inversión hacia bienes no productivos, reduciendo la producción de bienes de consumo, y reduciendo también las posibilidades de creación de puestos de trabajo, y 2 el traslado de puestos de

  6. TYPOLOGY OF FAMILY PRODUCTION UNITS OF TRADICIONAL AGROFORESTY SYSTEM OF COFFEE-BANANA-CITRUS IN THE COUNTRY TLAPACOYAN, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cruz A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee production is one of the most important activities in the town of Tlapacoyan, Veracruz unfortunately, prices and technologies focused on the monoculture production system have reduced the activity. The study of family production units (FPU, with the construction of a typology and an agronomic characterization of producers, carried out in the traditional agroforestry system of coffee-banana-citrus contributes to further analysis in public policies. This study was conducted in six communities through field work, coffee producers records and open interviews with authorities. A census of 33 individuals was built and questionnaires were applied as a part of the survey, which used multivariate analysis to establish categories of UPF. Each category was described in agronomic terms based on incomes and costs. Three categories were determined according to surface size, labor work and technological level, including diversification of costs of incomes. As a conclusion, this study has contributed to rethink about new supporting strategies for coffee producers, and government policies and supporting programs which will mean a better family income that will take into account differences such as the size varying from 5 to 27 ha. Labor work available varies among categories and technification defines the type and number of vehicles, because it refers to an activity that generates beneficial incomes to producers. We conclude that this heads of the UPF have traditional management of the 3 components, integrating productive practical and the system is dependent on labor.

  7. Mitigating an increase of specific power consumption in a cryogenic air separation unit at reduced oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rohit; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    Specific power consumed in a Linde double column air separation unit (ASU) increases as the quantity of oxygen produced at a given purity is decreased due to the changes of system requirement or market demand. As the plant operates in part load condition, the specific power consumption (SPC) increases as the total power consumption remains the same. In order to mitigate the increase of SPC at lower oxygen production, the operating pressure of high pressure column (HPC) can be lowered by extending the low pressure column (LPC) by a few trays and adding a second reboiler. As the duty of second reboiler in LPC is increased, the recovery of oxygen decreases with a lowering of the HPC pressure. This results in mitigation of the increase of SPC of the plant. A Medium pressure ASU with dual reboiler that produces pressurised gaseous and liquid products of oxygen and nitrogen is simulated in Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a commercial process simulator to determine SPC at varying oxygen production. The effects of reduced pressure of air feed into the cold box on the size of heat exchangers (HX) are analysed. Operation strategy to obtain various oxygen production rates at varying demand is also proposed.

  8. Impact of Subspecialty Fellowship Training on Research Productivity Among Academic Plastic Surgery Faculty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aditya; Therattil, Paul J; Chung, Stella; Lee, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    The impact of subspecialty fellowship training on research productivity among academic plastic surgeons is unknown. The authors' aim of this study was to (1) describe the current fellowship representation in academic plastic surgery and (2) evaluate the relationship between h-index and subspecialty fellowship training by experience and type. Academic plastic surgery faculty (N = 590) were identified through an Internet-based search of all ACGME-accredited integrated and combined residency programs. Research output was measured by h-index from the Scopus database as well as a number of peer-reviewed publications. The Kruskal-Wallis test, with a subsequent Mann-Whitney U test, was used for statistical analysis to determine correlations. In the United States, 72% (n = 426) of academic plastic surgeons had trained in 1 or more subspecialty fellowship program. Within this cohort, the largest group had completed multiple fellowships (28%), followed by hand (23%), craniofacial (22%), microsurgery (15%), research (8%), cosmetic (3%), burn (2%), and wound healing (0.5%). Higher h-indices correlated with a research fellowship (12.5; P productivity compared with their colleagues. Craniofacial-trained physicians also demonstrated a higher marker for academic productivity than multiple other specialties. In this study, we show that the type and number of fellowships influence the h-index and further identification of such variables may help improve academic mentorship and productivity within academic plastic surgery.

  9. The management of human resources in the Basic Units of Cooperative Production in Cuba: An essential challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysi Alfonso Porraspita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic structure of Cuba has undergone a stage of profound transformation, with various factors that have intervened in this process, where different forms of business structures have converged, one of which has been represented by the cooperative sector, fundamentally developed in agriculture from the country. In this scenario the issue of the effectiveness of these entities has been subject to dissimilar analyzes and debates from different sides, where what is related to the human factor has played an essential role, this implies a detailed observation of the adequate management of human resources in the integral management of these organizations. In this line, the fundamental challenge will be to manage human resources in a way that contributes to the continuous improvement of the Cooperative Production Units as one of the representative structures of the agrarian cooperative sector in Cuba. Carrying out an analysis highlighting the importance of the management of human resources as a contribution to affectivity of the Basic Units of Cooperative production constituted the objective of the work. Through analysis, synthesis and use of the logical historical in the system analysis, the work addressed the theoretical pillars and methodological aspects that support the management of human resources in the cooperative entities analyzed as a tribute to the effectiveness of their results.

  10. Unfinished business in the regulation of shale gas production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; O'Connell, Laura Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    With increased drilling for natural gas, toxic chemicals used to fracture wells have been introduced into the environment accompanied by allegations of injuries. This article evaluates laws and regulations governing shale gas production to disclose ideas for offering further protection to people and the environment. The aim of the study is to offer state governments ideas for addressing contractual obligations of drilling operators, discerning health risks, disclosing toxic chemicals, and reporting sufficient information to detect problems and enforce regulations. The discussion suggests opportunities for state regulators to become more supportive of public health through greater oversight of shale gas extraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of municipal solid waste for energy production in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, B.J.; Texeira, R.H.

    1990-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) represents both a significant problem and an abundant resource for the production of energy. The residential, institutional, and industrial sectors of this country generate about 250 million tons of MSW each year. In this report, the authors have compiled data on the status of MSW in the 13-state western region, including economic and environmental issues. The report is designed to assist the members of the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program Ad Hoc Resource Committee in determining the potential for using MSW to produce energy in the region. 51 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

  12. Research productivity of doctor of physical therapy faculty promoted in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Marissa A; Sonne, James W; Smith, Gerald V

    2017-01-01

    Little information exists on the research productivity of successfully promoted tenure-track Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) faculty. To determine the research productivity that typically results in successful promotion. We collected publicly available curriculum vitae (CVs) from faculty currently in accredited DPT programs and who had been successfully promoted from an institution in the southeastern USA from 2000 through 2016. Total publication count, journal impact factor, funding, citations, and other metrics were analysed from 45 subjects of 22 of the 64 CAPTE-accredited DPT programs in the southeast. None of the studied metrics were normally distributed with time to promotion as determined by a Shapiro-Wilk test. These faculty exhibited a median publication count of 4, range 0 to 43; median of average citation count of 12.4, range 0 to 87.25; median of average journal impact factor of 2.866, range 0 to 6.280; median external funding received of $9910, range $0.00 to $19 543 198; and median author h-index of 3, range 0 to 17. The median number of years before promotion was 6, ranging from 3 to 13 years. Linear regression analysis indicates a poor fit with no significant correlation between years before promotion and any of the studied metrics. No correlation between journal impact factor and number of citations was observed (m = -0.22, p = 0.728, R 2  = 0.0003). Prior to promotion 31% (14 of 45) did not receive external funding and 24% (11 of 45) had a 0 h-index. The Carnegie Classification of the institution did not significantly correlate with research productivity metrics in this dataset (p = 0.213). While faculty unsuccessful in promotion were not identifiable using this method, this research can be used by faculty and committees to evaluate research productivity against regional data and promote competitive standards with peer institutions. CAPTE: Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapist Education; DPT: Doctor of Physical Therapy.

  13. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  14. Identification of specific organic contaminants in different units of a chemical production site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, L; Botalova, O; al Sandouk-Lincke, N A; Schwarzbauer, J

    2014-07-01

    Due to the very limited number of studies dealing with the chemical composition of industrial wastewaters, many industrial organic contaminants still escape our view and consequently also our control. We present here the chemical characterization of wastewaters from different units of a chemical complex, thereby contributing to the characterization of industrial pollution sources. The chemicals produced in the investigated complex are widely and intensively used and the synthesis processes are common and applied worldwide. The chemical composition of untreated and treated wastewaters from the chemical complex was investigated by applying a non-target screening which allowed for the identification of 39 organic contaminants. According to their application most of them belonged to four groups: (i) unspecific educts or intermediates of industrial syntheses, (ii) chemicals for the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, (iii) educts for the synthesis of polymers and resins, and (iv) compounds known as typical constituents of municipal sewage. A number of halogenated compounds with unknown toxicity and with very high molecular diversity belonged to the second group. Although these compounds were completely removed or degraded during wastewater treatment, they could be useful as "alarm indicators" for industrial accidents in pharmaceutical manufacturing units or for malfunctions of wastewater treatment plants. Three potential branch-specific indicators for polymer manufacturing were found in the outflow of the complex. Among all compounds, bisphenol A, which was present in the leachate water of the on-site waste deposit, occurred in the highest concentrations of up to 20 000 μg L(-1). The comparison of contaminant loads in the inflow and outflow of the on-site wastewater treatment facility showed that most contaminants were completely or at least significantly removed or degraded during the treatment, except two alkylthiols, which were enriched during the treatment process

  15. Relationships between work unit climate and labour productivity in the financial sector: A longitudinal test of the mediating role of work satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, F.C. van de; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to test the mediating role of work satisfaction in the relationship between work unit climate and labour productivity. Two work unit climate facets are examined: goals and service orientation. Longitudinal data obtained from more than 14,000 employees in 171 branches of a

  16. Relationships between work unit climate and labour productivity in the financial sector : A longitudinal test of the mediating role of work satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Voorde, F.C.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Paauwe, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to test the mediating role of work satisfaction in the relationship between work unit climate and labour productivity. Two work unit climate facets are examined: goals and service orientation. Longitudinal data obtained from more than 14,000 employees in 171 branches of a

  17. Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Tashevski, Done

    1998-01-01

    The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

  18. Parallel Algorithms for Groebner-Basis Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-25

    22209 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) * PARALLEL ALGORITHMS FOR GROEBNER -BASIS REDUCTION 12. PERSONAL...All other editions are obsolete. Productivity Engineering in the UNIXt Environment p Parallel Algorithms for Groebner -Basis Reduction Technical Report

  19. Hydropower Impacts on Electrical System Production Costs in the Southwest United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique M. Bain

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River is an important natural resource for the Southwestern United States. Predicted climate change impacts include increased temperature, decreased rainfall and increased probability of drought in this region. Given the large amount of hydropower on the Colorado River and its importance to the bulk electricity system, this purpose of this study was to quantify the value hydropower in operating the electrical system, and examined changes in hydropower value and electricity costs under different possible future drought conditions and regional generation scenarios. The goal was to better understand how these scenarios affect operating costs of the bulk electrical system, as well as the value of the hydropower produced, and proposed a method for doing so. The calculated value of the hydroelectric power was nearly double the mean locational marginal price in the study area, about $73 to $75 for most scenarios, demonstrating a high value of the hydropower. In general, it was found that reduced water availability increased operating costs, and increased the value of the hydropower. A calculated value factor showed that when less hydroelectric power is available, the hydropower is more valuable. Furthermore, the value factor showed that the value of hydro increases with the addition of solar or the retirement of thermal generating resources.

  20. Constructing a Spatially Resolved Methane Emission Inventory of Natural Gas Production and Distribution over Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Omara, M.; Adams, P. J.; Presto, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is the second most powerful greenhouse gas after Carbon Dioxide. The natural gas production and distribution accounts for 23% of the total anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States. The boost of natural gas production in U.S. in recent years poses a potential concern of increased methane emissions from natural gas production and distribution. The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (Edgar) v4.2 and the EPA Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) are currently the most commonly used methane emission inventories. However, recent studies suggested that both Edgar v4.2 and the EPA GHGI largely underestimated the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution in U.S. constrained by both ground and satellite measurements. In this work, we built a gridded (0.1° Latitude ×0.1° Longitude) methane emission inventory of natural gas production and distribution over the contiguous U.S. using emission factors measured by our mobile lab in the Marcellus Shale, the Denver-Julesburg Basin, and the Uintah Basin, and emission factors reported from other recent field studies for other natural gas production regions. The activity data (well location and count) are mostly obtained from the Drillinginfo, the EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP) and the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Results show that the methane emission from natural gas production and distribution estimated by our inventory is about 20% higher than the EPA GHGI, and in some major natural gas production regions, methane emissions estimated by the EPA GHGI are significantly lower than our inventory. For example, in the Marcellus Shale, our estimated annual methane emission in 2015 is 600 Gg higher than the EPA GHGI. We also ran the GEOS-Chem methane simulation to estimate the methane concentration in the atmosphere with our built inventory, the EPA GHGI and the Edgar v4.2 over the nested North American Domain. These simulation results showed differences in

  1. Cytokine production and visualized effects in the feto-maternal unit. Quantitative and topographic data on cytokines during intrauterine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmach, T; Hebisch, G; Joller-Jemelka, H I; Orban, P; Schwaller, J; Engelmann, M

    1995-09-01

    A large array of cytokines show high activity in amniotic fluid. Attempts have been made to quantify the concentrations or to track rising levels for diagnostic purposes when examining disturbances of the feto-maternal unit. However, the kinetics of cytokine production in the amniotic fluid are not well understood, and there is lack of knowledge about concomitant levels in fetal and maternal blood. The presence of cytokines in fetal and placental cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry using mAb. Cytokines were quantified by enzymimmunoassay in amniotic fluid and fetal and maternal blood. This was done with regard to two disease states that quite frequently complicate the course of pregnancy, namely chorioamnionitis and intrauterine growth retardation. The cytokines examined were G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8. In chorioamnionitis, all cytokines, except GM-CSF, were elevated about 100 times in the amniotic fluid. An accompanying increase in maternal and fetal blood was only found for IL-6 and G-CSF; IL-8 was elevated in fetal blood only. Intrauterine growth retardation was characterized by elevated levels of TNF-alpha in the amniotic fluid, whereas G-CSF, GM-CSF, and IL-1 beta were significantly reduced. Immunohistochemistry showed that under normal conditions the cytokines are to be found in a characteristic distribution in certain cell types in the fetus, the placenta, and the placental bed. With rising concentrations, more cells seemed to be recruited for cytokine production, especially macrophages and decidual cells. In chorioamnionitis, fetal extramedullary granulopoiesis was augmented, and in intrauterine growth retardation, erythropoiesis as well as granulopoiesis were depressed. Not only inflammatory disease but also intrauterine growth retardation is characterized by a changing cytokine pattern. Alterations in fetal hematopoiesis observed at postmortem examination of perinatal deaths can be correlated to changes in cytokine

  2. Assessment of radiological problems due to natural radionuclides, in units of exploration and production of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, Luiz E.S.C.; Godoy, Jose M.O.; Reis, Maria C.D.; Pinto, Renato S.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the occurrence of technologically enhanced natural radioactive material in petroleum offshore platforms of Campos Basin. The material found in drums that came from the platforms and scales from production tubes were analyzed for characterization and determination of its specific activity. There were made measurement of the dose rate in several platforms and radon concentration in onshore and offshore facilities. The results were compared with limits of the Brazilian legislation and international recommendations and actions were proposed to be implemented to assure the workers and environment protection. The results show that with the adequate actions the workers will not receive exposures above the public limits according international recommendations. (author)

  3. An analysis of publication productivity for 1225 academic neurosurgeons and 99 departments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nickalus R; Thompson, Clinton J; Taylor, Douglas R; Venable, Garrett T; Wham, R Matthew; Michael, L Madison; Klimo, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Bibliometrics is defined as the study of statistical and mathematical methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. The application of bibliometrics in neurosurgery is in its infancy. The authors calculate a number of publication productivity measures for almost all academic neurosurgeons and departments within the US. The h-index, g-index, m-quotient, and contemporary h-index (hc-index) were calculated for 1225 academic neurosurgeons in 99 (of 101) programs listed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in January 2013. Three currently available citation databases were used: Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. Bibliometric profiles were created for each surgeon. Comparisons based on academic rank (that is, chairperson, professor, associate, assistant, and instructor), sex, and subspecialties were performed. Departments were ranked based on the summation of individual faculty h-indices. Calculations were carried out from January to February 2013. The median h-index, g-index, hc-index, and m-quotient were 11, 20, 8, and 0.62, respectively. All indices demonstrated a positive relationship with increasing academic rank (p calculated Scopus h-indices of all individuals within a department, the top 5 programs for publication productivity are University of California, San Francisco; Barrow Neurological Institute; Johns Hopkins University; University of Pittsburgh; and University of California, Los Angeles. This study represents the most detailed publication analysis of academic neurosurgeons and their programs to date. The results for the metrics presented should be viewed as benchmarks for comparison purposes. It is our hope that organized neurosurgery will adopt and continue to refine bibliometric profiling of individuals and departments.

  4. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  5. Evaluating United States and world consumption of neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium in final products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Matthew

    This paper develops scenarios of future rare-earth-magnet metal (neodymium, dysprosium, terbium, and praseodymium) consumption in the permanent magnets used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles. The scenarios start with naive base-case scenarios for growth in wind-turbine and hybrid-electric-vehicle sales over the period 2011 to 2020, using historical data for each good. These naive scenarios assume that future growth follows time trends in historical data and does not depend on any exogenous variable. Specifically, growth of each technological market follows historical time trends, and the amount of rare earths used per unit of technology remains fixed. The chosen reference year is 2010. Implied consumptions of the rare earth magnet metals are calculated from these scenarios. Assumptions are made for the material composition of permanent magnets, the market share of permanent-magnet wind turbines and vehicles, and magnet weight per unit of technology. Different scenarios estimate how changes in factors like the material composition of magnets, growth of the economy, and the price of a substitute could affect future consumption. Each scenario presents a different method for reducing rare earth consumption and could be interpreted as potential policy choices. In 2010, the consumption (metric tons, rare-earth-oxide equivalent) of each rare-earth-magnet metal was as follows. Total neodymium consumption in the world for both technologies was 995 tons; dysprosium consumption was 133 tons; terbium consumption was 50 tons; praseodymium consumption was zero tons. The base scenario for wind turbines shows there could be strong, exponential growth in the global wind turbine market. New U.S. sales of hybrid vehicles would decline (in line with the current economic recession) while non-U.S. sales increase through 2020. There would be an overall increase in the total amount of magnetic rare earths consumed in the world. Total consumption of each rare earth in the short

  6. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  7. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish: results of a national pilot study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Alejandro J; Brain, Richard A; Usenko, Sascha; Mottaleb, Mohammad A; O'Donnell, John G; Stahl, Leanne L; Wathen, John B; Snyder, Blaine D; Pitt, Jennifer L; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Dobbins, Laura L; Brooks, Bryan W; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are being increasingly reported in a variety of biological matrices, including fish tissue; however, screening studies have presently not encompassed broad geographical areas. A national pilot study was initiated in the United States to assess the accumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish sampled from five effluent-dominated rivers that receive direct discharge from wastewater treatment facilities in Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Orlando, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; and West Chester, Pennsylvania, USA. Fish were also collected from the Gila River, New Mexico, USA, as a reference condition expected to be minimally impacted by anthropogenic influence. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of pharmaceuticals revealed the presence of norfluoxetine, sertraline, diphenhydramine, diltiazem, and carbamazepine at nanogram-per-gram concentrations in fillet composites from effluent-dominated sampling locations; the additional presence of fluoxetine and gemfibrozil was confirmed in liver tissue. Sertraline was detected at concentrations as high as 19 and 545 ng/g in fillet and liver tissue, respectively. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of personal care products in fillet composites revealed the presence of galaxolide and tonalide at maximum concentrations of 2,100 and 290 ng/g, respectively, and trace levels of triclosan. In general, more pharmaceuticals were detected at higher concentrations and with greater frequency in liver than in fillet tissues. Higher lipid content in liver tissue could not account for this discrepancy as no significant positive correlations were found between accumulated pharmaceutical concentrations and lipid content for either tissue type from any sampling site. In contrast, accumulation of the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide was significantly related to lipid content. Results suggest that the detection of

  8. United role of radon decay products and nano-aerosols in radon dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerajec, M.; Vaupotič, J.

    2012-04-01

    The major part of human exposure to natural radiation originates from inhalation of radon (Rn) and radon short-lived decay products (RnDP: 218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po). RnDP are formed as a result of α-transformation of radon. In the beginning they are positive ions which neutralize and form clusters with air molecules, and later partly attach to background aerosol particles in indoor air. Eventually, they appear as radioactive nano-aerosols with a bimodal size distribution in ranges of 1-10 nm (unattached RnDP) and of 200-800 nm (attached RnDP). When inhaled, they are deposited in the respiratory tract. Deposition is more efficient for smaller particles. Therefore, the fraction (fun) of the unattached RnDP, which appears to be influenced by the number concentration and size distribution of general (background) aerosols in the ambient air, has a crucial role in radon dosimetry. Radon, radon decay products and general aerosols have been monitored simultaneously in the kitchen of a typical rural house under real living conditions, also comprising four human activities generating particular matter: cooking and baking, as two typical activities in kitchen, and cigarette smoking and candle burning. In periods without any human activity, the total number concentration of general aerosol ranged from 1000 to 3000 cm-3,with the geometric mean of particle diameter in the range of 60-68 nm and with 0.1-1 % of particles smaller than 10 nm. Preparation of coffee changed the concentration to 193,000 cm-3, the geometric mean of diameter to 20 nm and fraction of particles smaller than 10 nm to 11 %. The respective changes were for baking cake: 503,000 cm-3, 17 nm and 19 %, for smoking:423,000 cm-3, 83 nm and 0.4 %, and forcandle burning: 945,000 cm-3, 8 nm and 85 %. While, as expected, a reduction of fun was observed during cooking, baking and smoking, when larger particles were emitted, fun did not increase during candle burning with mostly particles smaller than 10 nm

  9. The value of atorvastatin over the product life cycle in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabner, Michael; Johnson, Wallace; Abdulhalim, Abdulla M; Kuznik, Andreas; Mullins, C Daniel

    2011-10-01

    US health care reform mandates the reduction of wasteful health care spending while maintaining quality of care. Introducing new drugs into crowded therapeutic classes may be viewed as offering "me-too" (new drugs with a similar mechanism of action compared to existing drugs) drugs without incremental benefit. This article presents an analysis of the incremental costs and benefits of atorvastatin, a lipid-lowering agent. This analysis models the cost-effectiveness of atorvastatin over the product life cycle. The yearly cost-effectiveness of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin was modeled from 1997 to 2030 from the point of view of a US third-party payer. Estimates for incremental costs (in US $) and effects (in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events were taken from previously published literature and adjusted for changes in drug prices over time. Estimates of total statin use were derived using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine variations in study parameters, including drug prices, indications, and discount rates. Assuming increasing statin use over time (with a mean of 1.07 million new users per year) and a 3% discount rate, the cumulative incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of atorvastatin versus simvastatin ranged from cost-savings at release to a maximum of $45,066/QALY after 6 years of generic simvastatin use in 2012. Over the full modeled life cycle (1997-2030), the cumulative ICER of atorvastatin was $20,331/QALY. The incremental value of atorvastatin to US payers (after subtracting costs) was estimated at $44.57 to $194.78 billion, depending on willingness to pay. Findings from the sensitivity analyses were similar. A hypothetical situation in which atorvastatin did not exist was associated with a reduction in total expenditures but also a loss of QALYs gained. The cumulative ICER of atorvastatin varied across the

  10. Production of 1-carbon units from glycine is extensive in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Yvonne; Williamson, Jerry; Theriaque, Douglas W; Shuster, Jonathan J; Gilbert, Lesa R; Keeling, Christine; Stacpoole, Peter W; Gregory, Jesse F

    2009-04-01

    Glycine undergoes decarboxylation in the glycine cleavage system (GCS) to yield CO(2), NH(3), and a 1-carbon unit. CO(2) also can be generated from the 2-carbon of glycine by 10-formyltetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase and, after glycine-to-serine conversion by serine hydroxymethyltransferase, from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To evaluate the relative fates of glycine carbons in CO(2) generation in healthy volunteers (3 male, 3 female, aged 21-26 y), primed, constant infusions were conducted using 9.26 micromol x h(-1) x kg(-1) of [1,2-(13)C]glycine and 1.87 micromol x h(-1) x kg(-1) of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]leucine, followed by an infusion protocol using [1-(13)C]glycine as the glycine tracer. The time period between the infusion protocols was >6 mo. In vivo rates of whole-body glycine and leucine flux were nearly identical in protocols with [1,2-(13)C]glycine and [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]leucine and with [1-(13)C]glycine and [5,5,5-(2)H(3)]leucine tracers, which showed high reproducibility between the tracer protocols. Using the [1-(13)C]glycine tracer, breath CO(2) data showed a total rate of glycine decarboxylation of 96 +/- 8 micromol x h(-1) x kg(-1), which was 22 +/- 3% of whole-body glycine flux. In contrast, infusion of [1,2-(13)C]glycine yielded a glycine-to-CO(2) flux of 146 +/- 37 micromol x h(-1) x kg(-1) (P = 0.026). By difference, this implies a rate of CO(2) formation from the glycine 2-carbon of 51 +/- 40 micromol x h(-1) x kg(-1), which accounts for approximately 35% of the total CO(2) generated in glycine catabolism. These findings also indicate that approximately 65% of the CO(2) generation from glycine occurs by decarboxylation, primarily from the GCS. Further, these results suggest that the GCS is responsible for the entry of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate into 1-carbon metabolism at a very high rate ( approximately 96 micromol x h(-1) x kg(-1)), which is approximately 20 times the demand for methyl groups for homocysteine remethylation.

  11. Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Karion, A.; Peischl, J.; Petron, G.; Schnell, R. C.; Tsai, T.; Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Hardesty, R. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

  12. Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Ryerson, Thomas; Peischl, Jeff; Trainer, Michael; Rella, Chris; Hardesty, Michael; Crosson, Eric; Montzka, Stephen; Tans, Pieter; Shepson, Paul; Kort, Eric

    2014-05-01

    New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches in combination with isotopes and light alkanes to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

  13. Evaluation of three cultivars of sweet sorghum as feedstocks for ethanol production in the Southeast United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Ekefre

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum has become a promising alternative feedstock for biofuel production because it can be grown under reduced inputs, responds to stress more efficiently than traditional crops, and has large biomass production potential. A three-year field study was conducted to evaluate three cultivars of sweet sorghum as bioenergy crops in the Southeast United States (Fort Valley, Georgia: Dale, M81 E and Theis. Parameters evaluated were: plant density, stalk height, and diameter, number of nodes, biomass yield, juice yield, °Bx, sugar production, and theoretical ethanol yields. Yields were measured at 85, 99, and 113 days after planting. Plant fresh weight was the highest for Theis (1096 g and the lowest for Dale (896 g. M81 E reported the highest stalk dry weight (27 Mg ha−1 and Theis reported the lowest (21 Mg ha−1. Theis ranked the highest °Bx (14.9, whereas M81 E was the lowest (13.2. Juice yield was the greatest for M81 E (10915 L ha−1 and the lowest for Dale (6724 L ha−1. Theoretical conservative sugar yield was the greatest for Theis (13 Mg ha−1 and the lowest for Dale (9 Mg ha−1. Theoretical ethanol yield was the greatest for Theis (7619 L ha−1 and the lowest for Dale (5077 L ha−1.

  14. [Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending.

  15. Annual Medical Expenditure and Productivity Loss Among Colorectal, Female Breast, and Prostate Cancer Survivors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiyuan; Yabroff, K Robin; Guy, Gery P; Han, Xuesong; Li, Chunyu; Banegas, Matthew P; Ekwueme, Donatus U; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-05-01

    There are limited nationally representative estimates of the annual economic burden among survivors of the three most prevalent cancers (colorectal, female breast, and prostate) in both nonelderly and elderly populations in the United States. The 2008 to 2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data were used to identify colorectal (n = 540), female breast (n = 1568), and prostate (n = 1170) cancer survivors and individuals without a cancer history (n = 109 423). Excess economic burden attributable to cancer included per-person excess annual medical expenditures and productivity losses (employment disability, missed work days, and days stayed in bed). All analyses were stratified by cancer site and age (nonelderly: 18-64 years vs elderly: ≥ 65 years). Multivariable analyses controlled for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, number of comorbidities, and geographic region. All statistical tests were two-sided. Compared with individuals without a cancer history, cancer survivors experienced annual excess medical expenditures (for the nonelderly population, colorectal: $8647, 95% confidence interval [CI] = $4932 to $13 974, P productivity loss at work (7.2 days, P productivity losses as those without a cancer history. Colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer survivors experienced statistically significantly higher economic burden compared with individuals without a cancer history; however, excess economic burden varies by cancer site and age. Targeted efforts will be important in reducing the economic burden of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Determining stocks and flows of structural wood products in single family homes in the United States between 1950 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sianchuk, Robert A.; McFarlane, Paul N.; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    The stocks and flows of six major structural wood products (SWPs)-lumber, plywood, oriented strand board [OSB], glue laminated timber, I-joists, and laminated veneer lumber (LVL)-in US single family homes were modeled from 1950 to 2010. The consumption of these products in US single family homes...... and their emissions as construction and demolition wastes were estimated. The net consumption of SWPs decreased from 119 kg/m2 constructed in 1986 to 82 kg/m2 in 2010. Softwood lumber was consistently the predominant SWP, but its usage intensity decreased from 95 kg/m2 in 1986 to 52 kg/ m2 in 2010. Since the 1980s......, modern SWPs, such as I-joists, LVL, and OSB, have replaced lumber and plywood products. The needs of the US single family housing industry have been met by a smaller mass of SWPs per unit area constructed. The mass of SWP present in construction wastes was influenced strongly by building cycles...

  17. Trends, productivity losses, and associated medical conditions among toxoplasmosis deaths in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Javanbakht, Marjan; Sorvillo, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have quantified toxoplasmosis mortality, associated medical conditions, and productivity losses in the United States. We examined national multiple cause of death data and estimated productivity losses caused by toxoplasmosis during 2000-2010. A matched case-control analysis examined associations between comorbid medical conditions and toxoplasmosis deaths. In total, 789 toxoplasmosis deaths were identified during the 11-year study period. Blacks and Hispanics had the highest toxoplasmosis mortality compared with whites. Several medical conditions were associated with toxoplasmosis deaths, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lymphoma, leukemia, and connective tissue disorders. The number of toxoplasmosis deaths with an HIV codiagnosis declined from 2000 to 2010; the numbers without such a codiagnosis remained static. Cumulative disease-related productivity losses for the 11-year period were nearly $815 million. Although toxoplasmosis mortality has declined in the last decade, the infection remains costly and is an important cause of preventable death among non-HIV subgroups. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Constancy tests and quality assurance of the activimeters used in a radiopharmaceutical production unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo M.G.; Mamede, Marcelo; Ferreira, Andréa V.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C.; Costa, Flávia M.; Silva, Juliana B.

    2017-01-01

    Activimeters (or dose calibrators) are essential instruments to verify activity of radiopharmaceutical after production and also before the dose administration in humans or animals for molecular imaging. The efficiency and safety measurements depend on, beside other factors, constancy tests and quality assurance. Thereby, the aim of this work was to perform constancy tests and quality assurance in the activimeters of the UPPR/CDTN, based on the CNEN-NN 3.05 Brazilian standard and the manufacturer's manual. Physical inspection, auto zero, background check, camera voltage, data check and constancy test were done. In addition, accuracy and precision tests were performed using a set of standard certified radioactive sources ( 57 Co, 133 Ba and 137 Cs), according to the CNEN NN 3.05 Brazilian standard. Linearity test was also performed to evaluate the response of the equipment in over the entire range of activities used in routine. The equipment are periodically submitted to the quality control tests and the results were compared. After performing the proposed tests it is possible to conclude that activimeters are in accordance with the requirements of the CNEN standard and manufacturer's manual. A quality control checklist was prepared to guide users and to record the results of quality assurance testing to monitor the equipment performance. This initiative is part of the quality assurance program implemented at UPPR. (author)

  19. Constancy tests and quality assurance of the activimeters used in a radiopharmaceutical production unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo M.G.; Mamede, Marcelo [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, Andréa V.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.C.; Costa, Flávia M.; Silva, Juliana B., E-mail: rodrigo.gontijo@cdtn.br, E-mail: mamede.mm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (IMA/FM/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem

    2017-07-01

    Activimeters (or dose calibrators) are essential instruments to verify activity of radiopharmaceutical after production and also before the dose administration in humans or animals for molecular imaging. The efficiency and safety measurements depend on, beside other factors, constancy tests and quality assurance. Thereby, the aim of this work was to perform constancy tests and quality assurance in the activimeters of the UPPR/CDTN, based on the CNEN-NN 3.05 Brazilian standard and the manufacturer's manual. Physical inspection, auto zero, background check, camera voltage, data check and constancy test were done. In addition, accuracy and precision tests were performed using a set of standard certified radioactive sources ({sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs), according to the CNEN NN 3.05 Brazilian standard. Linearity test was also performed to evaluate the response of the equipment in over the entire range of activities used in routine. The equipment are periodically submitted to the quality control tests and the results were compared. After performing the proposed tests it is possible to conclude that activimeters are in accordance with the requirements of the CNEN standard and manufacturer's manual. A quality control checklist was prepared to guide users and to record the results of quality assurance testing to monitor the equipment performance. This initiative is part of the quality assurance program implemented at UPPR. (author)

  20. Power unit with GT-MHR reactor plant for electricity production and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiryushin, A.L.; Kodochigov, N.G.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Golovko, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Modular helium reactor with the gas turbine (GT-MHR) is a perspective power reactor plant for the next century. The project reactor is based on experience of operation more than 50 gas-cooled reactors on carbon dioxide and helium, and also on subsequent achievements in the field of realization direct gas turbine Brayton cycle. To the beginning of 90 years, achievements in technology of gas turbines, highly effective recuperators and magnetic bearings made it possible to start development of the reactor plant project combining a safe modular gas cooled reactor and a power conversion system, realizing the highly effective Brayton cycle. The conceptual project of the commercial GT-MHR reactor plant fulfilled in 1997 by joint efforts of international firms, combines a safe modular reactor with an annular active core of prismatic fuel blocks and a power conversion system with direct gas turbine cycle. The efficiency of GT-MHR gas turbine cycle at level of about 48% makes it competitive in the electricity production market in comparison with any fossil or nuclear power stations

  1. Determination of transcriptional units and gene products from the ftsA region of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkenhaus, J F; Wu, H C

    1980-01-01

    Lambda transducing phage gamma 16-2 carries the genes envA, ftsZ, ftsA, ddl, and murC and directs the synthesis of six unique proteins in ultraviolet-irradiated cells. Various derivatives of gamma 16-2 carrying smaller segments of the bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid have also been analyzed for their capacity to direct protein synthesis in ultraviolet-irradiated cells. These results, in combination with genetic results, have allowed the gene product of each of these genes to be assigned. In addition, an unidentified gene was located counterclockwise to murC between murC and murF. Analysis of the direction of transcription indicates that murC, ddl, ftsA, and ftsZ are transcribed clockwise on the Escherichia coli genetic map, and envA is transcribed counterclockwise. In addition, it is shown that each of the genes envA, ftsZ, and ftsA can be expressed independently. Images PMID:6447690

  2. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: broiler production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of expected edible carcass weight in the 3 main broiler production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) standard indoor, 2) free range, and 3) organic, and to identify the main components of these burdens. The LCA method evaluates production systems logically to account for all inputs and outputs that cross a specified system boundary, and it relates these to the useful outputs. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the UK broiler industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and major nutrient flows. Simplified baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK broiler industry were used. Typical UK figures for performance and mortality of birds and farm energy and material use were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs. The length of the production cycle was longer for free-range and organic systems compared with that of the standard indoor system, and as a result, the feed consumption and manure production per bird were higher in the free-range and organic systems. These differences had a major effect on the differences in environmental burdens between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport resulted in greater overall environmental impacts than any other components of broiler production; for example, 65 to 81% of the primary energy use and 71 to 72% of the global warming potential of the system were due to these burdens. Farm gas and oil use had the second highest impact in primary energy use (12-25%) followed by farm electricity use. The direct use of gas, oil, and electricity were generally lower in free-range and organic systems compared with their use in the standard indoor system. Manure was the main component of acidification potential and also had a relatively high eutrophication

  3. Predicting the environmental impacts of chicken systems in the United Kingdom through a life cycle assessment: egg production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Wiseman, J; Guy, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a life cycle assessment (LCA) method, from cradle to gate, to quantify the environmental burdens per 1,000 kg of eggs produced in the 4 major hen-egg production systems in the United Kingdom: 1) cage, 2) barn, 3) free range, and 4) organic. The analysis was based on an approach that applied a structural model for the industry and mechanistic submodels for animal performance, crop production, and nutrient flows. Baseline feeds representative of those used by the UK egg production industry were used. Typical figures from the UK egg production industry, feed intake, mortality of birds, farm energy, and material use in different systems were applied. Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainties in the outputs and allow for comparisons between the systems. The number of birds required to produce 1,000 kg of eggs was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system; similarly, the amount of feed consumed per bird was highest in the organic and lowest in the cage system. These general differences in productivity largely affected the differences in the environmental impacts between the systems. Feed production, processing, and transport caused greater impacts compared with those from any other component of production; that is, 54 to 75% of the primary energy use and 64 to 72% of the global warming potential of the systems. Electricity (used mainly for ventilation, automatic feeding, and lighting) had the second greatest impact in primary energy use (16-38%). Gas and oil (used mainly for heating in pullet rearing and incineration of dead layer birds) used 7 to 14% of the total primary energy. Manure had the greatest impact on the acidification and eutrophication potentials of the systems because of ammonia emissions that contributed to both of these potentials and nitrate leaching that only affected eutrophication potential. The LCA method allows for comparisons between systems and for the identification of hotspots

  4. Occupational health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from the coke production unit of a steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Fateme; Omidi, Fariborz; Heravizadeh, Omidreza; Barati Chamgordani, Saied; Gharibi, Vahid; Sotoudeh Manesh, Akbar

    2018-03-27

    In this study, cancer and non-cancer risks of exposure to volatile organic compounds in the coke production unit of a steel plant were evaluated. To determine individual exposure to benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene, personal samples were taken from the breathing zone of workers according to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 1501. Cancer and non-cancer risk assessment was performed, using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) methods. Samples analysis showed that the concentration of benzene in the energy and biochemistry and the benzol refinement sections was higher than occupational exposure limits. The cancer risk for benzene in all sections was significantly higher than allowable limit; the non-cancer risk for benzene in all sections and toluene in the benzol refinement section was also higher than 1.0. In conclusion, the current control measures are not sufficient and should be improved for efficient control of occupational exposures.

  5. Product related adult genitourinary injuries treated at emergency departments in the United States from 2002 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagga, Herman S; Tasian, Gregory E; Fisher, Patrick B; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2013-04-01

    We describe the epidemiological features of adult genitourinary injuries related to consumer products and determined the patient cohorts, products and situations associated with increased genitourinary injury risk. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a data set validated to provide a probability sample of injury related emergency department presentations in the United States, was analyzed to characterize genitourinary injuries from 2002 to 2010. We analyzed 3,545 observations to derive national estimates. An estimated 142,144 adults (95% CI 115,324-168,964) presented to American emergency departments with genitourinary injuries from 2002 to 2010. Of the injuries 69% occurred in men. A large majority of injuries involved the external genitalia. The most common categories of products involved were sporting items in 30.2% of cases, clothing articles in 9.4% and furniture in 9.2%. The highest prevalence of injury was at ages 18 to 28 years (37.5%), which was most often related to sports equipment, such as bicycles. Older cohorts (age greater than 65 years) more commonly sustained injuries during falls and often in the bathroom during use of a shower or tub. Of all patients 88% were evaluated and treated in the emergency department without inpatient admission, although the admission rate increased with increasing patient age. Acute genitourinary injury is often associated with common consumer items and with identifiable high risk cohorts, products and situations. Consumers, practitioners and safety champions can use our epidemiological data to prioritize and develop strategies aimed at the prevention, limitation and informed treatment of such injuries. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethos of independence across regions in the United States: the production-adoption model of cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C

    2010-09-01

    Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries, breed strong values of independence, which in turn guide the production of new practices that encourage self-promotion and focused, competitive work. Faced with few significant threats to survival, residents in traditional areas are likely to seek social prestige by adopting existing practices of other, higher status groups. Because of both the massive economic success of the frontier and the official endorsement of the frontier by the federal government, eastern residents of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries may have actively adopted the frontier practices of independence, thus incorporating the frontier ethos of independence to form the contemporary U.S. national culture. Available evidence is reviewed, and implications for further research on cultural change are suggested. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, A.L. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Andres, R.J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Fung, I. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Matthews, E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    1997-03-01

    Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

  8. From BASIS to MIRACLES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; E. Lechner, Ruep

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count...... are pivotal to the conceptual design of the next generation backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES at the European Spallation Source....

  9. A compilation of life cycle studies for six household detergent product categories in Europe: the basis for product-specific A.I.S.E. Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golsteijn, Laura; Menkveld, Rimousky; King, Henry; Schneider, Christine; Schowanek, Diederik; Nissen, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    A.I.S.E., the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products, launched the 'A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning' in Europe in 2005 to promote sustainability in the cleaning and maintenance products industry. This Charter is a proactive programme for translating the concept of sustainable innovation into reality and actions. Per product category, life cycle assessments (LCA) are used to set sustainability criteria that are ambitious, but also achievable by all market players. This paper presents and discusses LCAs of six household detergent product categories conducted for the Charter, i.e.: manual dishwashing detergents, powder and tablet laundry detergents, window glass trigger spray cleaners, bathroom trigger spray cleaners, acid toilet cleaners, and bleach toilet cleaners. Relevant impact categories are identified, as well as the life cycle stages with the largest contribution to the environmental impact. It was concluded that the variables that mainly drive the results (i.e. the environmental hotspots) for manual dishwashing detergents and laundry detergents were the water temperature, water consumption (for manual dishwashing detergents), product dosage (for laundry detergents), and the choice and amount of surfactant. By contrast, for bathroom trigger sprays, acid and bleach toilet cleaners, the driving factors were plastic packaging, transportation to retailer, and specific ingredients. Additionally, the type of surfactant was important for bleach toilet cleaners. For window glass trigger sprays, the driving factors were the plastic packaging and the type of surfactant, and the other ingredients were of less importance. A.I.S.E. used the results of the studies to establish sustainability criteria, the so-called 'Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles', which led to improvements in the marketplace.

  10. Impacts of different regulatory regimes in the unitization of production; Impactos dos diferentes regimes regulatorios na individualizacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Vinicius Farias; Moreira, Robson Prates [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The unitization process is required in most regulatory models around the world when it identifies that a reservoir straddles to out of the contracted area. This procedure aims to ensure a greater exploitation of petroleum. In Brazil is no different; however there are still many ambiguities in this process. The introduction of new tax regimes in the country broadened the doubts, as we may have a reservoir straddling between concession, production sharing, assignment of rights areas and areas not yet contracted. The objective of the present paper is to explore the uncertainties that must be addressed by the oil and gas sector in order to ensure low legal, regulatory and fiscal risks in the oil industry. The main topics discussed are the rules for production allocation, reserves and expenditures, the ANP and PPSA roles' conflicts, restriction of parties' rights, adjustment of contractual rules and also mitigate or eliminate economic, financial and fiscal uncertainties. This article does not propose solutions to all lacks raised. (author)

  11. Bioenergy Crop Production in the United States. Potential Quantities, Land Use Changes, and Economic Impacts on the Agricultural Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Marie E.; Torre Ugarte, D.G. de la; Shapouri, H.; Slinsky, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy jointly analyzed the economic potential for, and impacts of, large-scale bioenergy crop production in the United States. An agricultural sector model (POLYSYS) was modified to include three potential bioenergy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, and willow). At farmgate prices of US $2.44/GJ, an estimated 17 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 171 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes high productivity management practices are permitted on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 9 to 14 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $6.0 billion above baseline. At farmgate prices of US $1.83/GJ, an estimated 7.9 million hectares of bioenergy crops, annually yielding 55 million dry Mg of biomass, could potentially be produced at a profit greater than existing agricultural uses for the land. The estimate assumes management practices intended to achieve high environmental benefits on Conservation Reserve Program lands. Traditional crops prices are estimated to increase 4 to 9 percent above baseline prices and farm income increases annually by US $2.8 billion above baseline

  12. A synthesis of terrestrial mercury in the western United States: Spatial distribution defined by land cover and plant productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrist, Daniel; Pearson, Christopher; Webster, Jackson; Kane, Tyler J.; Lin, Che-Jen; Aiken, George R.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of published vegetation mercury (Hg) data across 11 contiguous states in the western United States showed that aboveground biomass concentrations followed the order: leaves (26 μg kg− 1) ~ branches (26 μg kg− 1) > bark (16 μg kg− 1) > bole wood (1 μg kg− 1). No spatial trends of Hg in aboveground biomass distribution were detected, which likely is due to very sparse data coverage and different sampling protocols. Vegetation data are largely lacking for important functional vegetation types such as shrubs, herbaceous species, and grasses.Soil concentrations collected from the published literature were high in the western United States, with 12% of observations exceeding 100 μg kg− 1, reflecting a bias toward investigations in Hg-enriched sites. In contrast, soil Hg concentrations from a randomly distributed data set (1911 sampling points; Smith et al., 2013a) averaged 24 μg kg− 1 (A-horizon) and 22 μg kg− 1 (C-horizon), and only 2.6% of data exceeded 100 μg kg− 1. Soil Hg concentrations significantly differed among land covers, following the order: forested upland > planted/cultivated > herbaceous upland/shrubland > barren soils. Concentrations in forests were on average 2.5 times higher than in barren locations. Principal component analyses showed that soil Hg concentrations were not or weakly related to modeled dry and wet Hg deposition and proximity to mining, geothermal areas, and coal-fired power plants. Soil Hg distribution also was not closely related to other trace metals, but strongly associated with organic carbon, precipitation, canopy greenness, and foliar Hg pools of overlying vegetation. These patterns indicate that soil Hg concentrations are related to atmospheric deposition and reflect an overwhelming influence of plant productivity — driven by water availability — with productive landscapes showing high soil Hg accumulation and unproductive barren soils and shrublands

  13. Impact of cough and common cold on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life in the United States: ACHOO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Eccles, Ron; Blaiss, Michael S; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Although the common cold is among the most frequent ailments encountered in clinical practice, little is known about its impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. The United States Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to inform healthcare providers on patients' experience of cough/cold. This analysis focuses on the impact of cough/cold on daily activity, productivity, and absenteeism; other results are reported elsewhere. ACHOO was a 36-question online survey. US adult Internet/mobile device users (N = 3333) were recruited in October 2012. Response quotas modeled on 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample; 75% of completed surveys were randomized as the primary analysis pool. Demographics and impact of cough/cold were reported using means, frequencies, and percentages. Weighted least squares regression or weighted paired t-test were used to identify factors associated with greater impact. The analysis pool (N = 2505) included 1342 (53.6%) women and 1163 (46.4%) men (mean ages, 46.7 and 45.9 years). A majority (84.7%) had ≥1 cold in the past year. Fifty-two percent said cough/cold impacted daily life a fair amount to a lot. Productivity decreased by a mean 26.4%, and 44.5% of respondents reported work/school absenteeism (usually 1-2 days) during a cold. Overall, 93% of survey participants reported sleep difficulty (slight to extreme) during a cough/cold. Among all respondents, 57% reported cough or nasal congestion as the symptoms making sleep difficult. Higher frequency of colds, more cold symptoms, difficulty sleeping, and worse overall health status correlated with greater impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. Study limitations include the potential for recall bias given the retrospective nature of the self-reports. Furthermore, no attempt was made to distinguish treatment effects, if any, from those of the underlying cough/cold. To our knowledge, this is

  14. Dynamical basis set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, M.; Heller, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A new Cartesian basis set is defined that is suitable for the representation of molecular vibration-rotation bound states. The Cartesian basis functions are superpositions of semiclassical states generated through the use of classical trajectories that conform to the intrinsic dynamics of the molecule. Although semiclassical input is employed, the method becomes ab initio through the standard matrix diagonalization variational method. Special attention is given to classical-quantum correspondences for angular momentum. In particular, it is shown that the use of semiclassical information preferentially leads to angular momentum eigenstates with magnetic quantum number Vertical BarMVertical Bar equal to the total angular momentum J. The present method offers a reliable technique for representing highly excited vibrational-rotational states where perturbation techniques are no longer applicable

  15. Design basis 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-09-01

    Design Basis Program 2 (DBP2) is comprehensive fully coupled code which has the capability to operate in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The code was developed during the period 1991-93 and succeed Design Basis 1, which is a one-blade model presuming stiff tower, transmission system and hub. The package is designed for use on a personal computer and offers a user-friendly environment based on menu-driven editing and control facilities, and with graphics used extensively for the data presentation. Moreover in-data as well as results are dumped on files in Ascii-format. The input data is organized in a in-data base with a structure that easily allows for arbitrary combinations of defined structural components and load cases. (au)

  16. An assessment of the government liquid hydrogen requirements for the 1995-2005 time frame including addendum, liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Addison

    1990-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen will continue to be an integral element in virtually every major space program, and it has also become a significant merchant product for certain commercial markets. Liquid hydrogen is not a universally available commodity, and the number of supply sources historically have been limited to regions having concentrated consumption patterns. With the increased space program activity it becomes necessary to assess all future programs on a collective and unified basis. An initial attempt to identify projected requirements on a long range basis is presented.

  17. Comparison of the dimensions of electrical resistance units, supported on the basis of the Hall quantum effect, in the all-Russia research institute of metrological service and the Czech metrological institute

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semenchinsky, S. G.; Chrobok, P.; Svoboda, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 12 (2008), s. 1351-1356 ISSN 0543-1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : resistance unit * quantum Hall effect * comparison * standards Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.151, year: 2008

  18. Increase of propylene production and recovery in a PETROBRAS FCC units; Aumento da producao e recuperacao de propeno em uma Unidade de FCC da PETROBRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penna, Elisangela Melo; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende; Wolff, Marcelo Straubel [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Propylene is one of the major petrochemical raw materials and its demand has been growing rapidly in recent years. Projections for future years indicate that the growth in propylene production via pyrolysis tends to be lower than the growth in the demand for ethylene, creating a supply deficit of this product. The FCC units are in a unique position to meet this increase in propylene demand due to its operational flexibility. Although their primary function in recent decades has been the gasoline production, FCC units are often operated for maximizing other products, such as LPG or distillates. At the FCC conversion section, the increase of propylene yield requires some increase in reaction severity, which can be obtained by increasing reactor riser temperature, and the use of catalyst additives based on ZSM-5. However, besides maximizing the propylene production in the reactor, a second objective should be pursued: the propylene recovery increase in the gas recovery section. In this section, the yield is affected by the gas compressor performance, the equipment design and process scheme. Eventually, new equipment may be installed, such as chillers, aimed at improving the absorption system. Predicting a real increase in propylene demand in the Brazilian market, this study aims to evaluate the adequacy of the gas recovery section of a PETROBRAS FCC unit, analyzing the impacts that a new products yields profile, which bend the propylene production compared to a conventional operation, would cause on this unit. In this paper, the main limitations and modifications that would be needed for an operation were identified, aiming at maximizing the propylene production, as well as proposed changes in the hardware of the unit. (author)

  19. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  20. Analysis of Gamma Dose Rate Caused by Corrosion Products inside the Containment Building of Yonngwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 During Shutdown Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Wi Ho; Kim, Jae Cheon; Kim, Soon Young; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Occupational radiation exposure(ORE) of nuclear power plant(NPP) workers mainly occurs during the shutdown period. Major radioactive sources are the corrosion products released from the reactor coolant system(RCS). The corrosion products consist of circulating crud and deposited crud. Major radioactive corrosion products, {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co, are known to contribute approximately more than 70% of the total ORE. In this study, the corrosion products regarding cobalt were evaluated during the shutdown period, and gamma dose rates caused by them were calculated at the main working area inside the containment building of the Yonggwang NPP Unit 3.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  2. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species in butter from United Kingdom production, retail, and catering premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, H C; Little, C L; Elson, R; Greenwood, M; Grant, K A; McLauchlin, J

    2006-07-01

    Two recent listeriosis outbreaks involving butter prompted this first cross-sectional study on the prevalence, levels, and types of Listeria species in 3229 samples of butter from production, retail, and catering premises in the United Kingdom during May and June 2004. When the criteria of the Microbiological Guidelines were used, 99.4% of samples were found to be of satisfactory microbiological quality, 0.5% were of acceptable quality, and 0.1% were of unsatisfactory quality as a result of high levels (>100 CFU/g) of Listeria spp. The butter samples with Listeria spp. present at more than 100 CFU/g were negative for L. monocytogenes. L. monocytogenes was detected in 0.4% (n=13) of samples, all at levels of less than 10 CFU/g, and were therefore of acceptable quality. Butter was contaminated more frequently with Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, when packed in plastic tubs, when in pack sizes of 500 g or less, when stored or displayed above 8 degrees C, when a hazard analysis system was not in place, and when the manager had received no food hygiene training. This study demonstrates that although butter is regarded as a low-risk product, it may provide an environment for the persistence and growth of Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes. The control of L. monocytogenes in food processing and supply systems is critical in order to minimize the potential for this bacterium to be present in foods at the point of consumption at levels hazardous to health.

  3. 27 CFR 26.201a - Production in the Virgin Islands for tax-free shipment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Industrial spirits produced or manufactured in the Virgin Islands and shipped to the United States free of... containing denatured spirits are to be shipped to the United States free of tax. [T.D. 6402, 24 FR 6090, July...

  4. Myelography conducted on an outpatient basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kausch, W

    1981-03-01

    The introduction of the non-ionogenic product metrizamide made lumbosacral myelography a low-risk, invasive diagnostic procedure. Examination carried out on an outpatient basis does not involve greater risks or side effects than examination on a inpatient basis. However, it is essential that - apart from informing the patient properly - the patient shows discipline and remains available for the examining physician during a period of 36 hours.

  5. Meats Units for Agricultural Science I and Advanced Livestock Production and Marketing Courses. Instructor's Guide. Volume 18, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; McCaskey, Michael J.

    These two units are designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. The first unit, on meat identification, is to be taught as part of the first year of instruction in agricultural science, while the second unit, advanced meats, was prepared for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students in…

  6. Ventilation and air conditioning systems in maritime productions units; Panorama dos sistemas de VAC em unidades maritimas de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, Fernando Pedrosa; Sztajnbok, Ernani Luis [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padua, Carlos Eduardo Dantas de; Passos, Alfredo Silveira [DUOVAC Engenharia Ltda. (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In an Offshore Stationary Production Unit (SPU), the adequate project of the Ventilation and Air Conditioning (VAC) System is not only a thermal comfort requirement but part of the essential safety services of the installation and complement for area classification requirements associated with electrical equipment. The VAC installations are sometimes the object of complaints by onboard team. Problems such as unsatisfactory system performance, high noise levels in the accommodation quarters, offices and other areas and the discomfort caused by unbalanced ventilation and air conditioning systems, are some of the most frequent complaints. Air Conditioning systems are classified as Direct and Indirect Expansion. Decentralized systems with Indirect Expansion has been adopted in PETROBRAS projects. This conception is not used in VAC Systems for platforms installed in North Sea, where the use of Centralized Systems with Direct Expansion are more common. The objective of this work is to compare the VAC conception projects, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages . The evaluation of VAC System in PETROBRAS project, and their steps in SPU development, is also scope of this paper. (author)

  7. Effective dose per unit kerma-area product conversion factors in adults undergoing modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Bonilha, Heather; Wilmskoetter, Janina; Tipnis, Sameer V.; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Huda, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of adult effective dose (E) per unit Kerma-Area Product (KAP) in Modified Barium Swallow Study (MBSS) examinations. PC program for X-ray Monte Carlo (version 2.0.1) was used to calculate patient organ doses during MBSS examinations, which used combined to generate effective dose. Normalized patient doses were obtained by dividing the effective dose (mSv) by the incident KAP (Gy.cm 2 ). Five standard projections were studied and the importance of X-ray beam size and in patient size (body mass index) were investigated. Lateral projections had an average E/ KAP conversion factor of 0.19 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 . The average E/KAP was highest for upper gastrointestinal (GI) anterior- posterior projections (0.27 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 ) and lowest for upper GI posterior-anterior projections (0.09 ± 0.03 mSv/ Gy.cm 2 ). E/KAP always increased with increasing filtration and/or X-ray tube voltage. Reducing the X-ray beam cross-sectional area increased the E/KAP conversion factors. Small patients have the E/KAP conversion factors that are twice those of a standard adult. Conversion factors for effective dose of adult patients undergoing MBSS examinations must account for X-ray beam projection, beam quality (kV and filtration), image size and patient size. (authors)

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jugend

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of integration in product development is widely debated in the literature, there are few studies that address the participation by subsidiaries of multinational and R & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and R&D centers in product development projects in a multinational high tech company. For this purpose, was conducted an exploratory and qualitative researched operationalized by case study. Among the main results, it was noted collaboration between locals marketing and engineering with the R & D centers, important role of senior management in the Brazilian unit to communicate outcomes of the strategic planning of products and technologies established by the headquarters to the subsidiary, the adoption of technological and information mechanisms and the application of methods such as technology roadmap.

  9. Zernike Basis to Cartesian Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathar, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    The radial polynomials of the 2D (circular) and 3D (spherical) Zernike functions are tabulated as powers of the radial distance. The reciprocal tabulation of powers of the radial distance in series of radial polynomials is also given, based on projections that take advantage of the orthogonality of the polynomials over the unit interval. They play a role in the expansion of products of the polynomials into sums, which is demonstrated by some examples. Multiplication of the polynomials by the angular bases (azimuth, polar angle) defines the Zernike functions, for which we derive transformations to and from the Cartesian coordinate system centered at the middle of the circle or sphere.

  10. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  11. Implementation of the project for the construction and operation of a nuclear heat and power plant on the basis of a floating power unit with KLT-40C reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polushkin, A K; Kuzin, E A [JSC Malaya Energetika, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vorobiov, V M [JSC Atomenergo, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Klykov, D M [JSC Iceberg, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Panov, J K [OKBM, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2000-09-01

    This paper presents the results of research and development on floating nuclear power plant (FNPP) for electricity and heat production for remote locations and small island or coastal communities. Evaluations of construction period, social and economic factors as well as safety and operational issues of the non-self-propelled barge-mounted NPP is given. (author)

  12. Implementation of the project for the construction and operation of a nuclear heat and power plant on the basis of a floating power unit with KLT-40C reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polushkin, A.K.; Kuzin, E.A.; Vorobiov, V.M.; Klykov, D.M.; Panov, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research and development on floating nuclear power plant (FNPP) for electricity and heat production for remote locations and small island or coastal communities. Evaluations of construction period, social and economic factors as well as safety and operational issues of the non-self-propelled barge-mounted NPP is given. (author)

  13. ITER technical basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties.

  14. ITER technical basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following on from the Final Report of the EDA(DS/21), and the summary of the ITER Final Design report(DS/22), the technical basis gives further details of the design of ITER. It is in two parts. The first, the Plant Design specification, summarises the main constraints on the plant design and operation from the viewpoint of engineering and physics assumptions, compliance with safety regulations, and siting requirements and assumptions. The second, the Plant Description Document, describes the physics performance and engineering characteristics of the plant design, illustrates the potential operational consequences foe the locality of a generic site, gives the construction, commissioning, exploitation and decommissioning schedule, and reports the estimated lifetime costing based on data from the industry of the EDA parties

  15. The impact of hydraulic flow unit & reservoir quality index on pressure profile and productivity index in multi-segments reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Al-Rbeawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is studying the impact of the hydraulic flow unit and reservoir quality index (RQI on pressure profile and productivity index of horizontal wells acting in finite reservoirs. Several mathematical models have been developed to investigate this impact. These models have been built based on the pressure distribution in porous media, depleted by a horizontal well, consist of multi hydraulic flow units and different reservoir quality index. The porous media are assumed to be finite rectangular reservoirs having different configurations and the wellbores may have different lengths. Several analytical models describing flow regimes have been derived wherein hydraulic flow units and reservoir quality index have been included in addition to rock and fluid properties. The impact of these two parameters on reservoir performance has also been studied using steady state productivity index.It has been found that both pressure responses and flow regimes are highly affected by the existence of multiple hydraulic flow units in the porous media and the change in reservoir quality index for these units. Positive change in the RQI could lead to positive change in both pressure drop required for reservoir fluids to move towards the wellbore and hence the productivity index.

  16. Wood products used in constructing conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States, 1962 and 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. H. Reid; D. B. McKeever

    Estimates of the amounts of wood products used in constructing civil conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States are presented for the years 1962 and 1978. Amounts of lumber, laminated lumber, poles and piling, and plywood used in construction are stratified by five construction categories, and three types of uses. Estimates of...

  17. Forest products research and development organizations in a worldwide setting: A review of structure, governance, and measures of performance of organizations outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Michael A. Kilgore; Kenneth E. Skog; Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2007-01-01

    Located in 23 countries, 40 forest-products research and development organizations outside the United States were reviewed in 2004 and 2005. The intent was to obtain a better understanding of how such organizations are structured and administered and their performance judged. Investing over $600 million annually, the 40 organizations employed 7,000 to 7,500 scientists...

  18. 7 CFR 1.216 - Appearance as a witness or production of documents on behalf of a party other than the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Witnesses in Judicial or Administrative Proceedings § 1.216 Appearance as a witness or production of... employee of USDA served with a valid summons, subpoena, or other compulsory process demanding his or her... States in a judicial or administrative proceeding in which the United States is a party, shall promptly...

  19. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service's Sierra Nevada Bio-Regional Assessment Area of the Pacific Southwest Region, 1909-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Stockmann; Nathaniel Anderson; Jesse Young; Ken Skog; Sean Healey; Dan Loeffler; Edward Butler; J. Greg Jones; James Morrison

    2014-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of carbon through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  20. Regional and forest-level estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Anderson; J. Young; K. Stockmann; K. Skog; S. Healey; D. Loeffler; J.G. Jones; J. Morrison

    2013-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  1. The Text of Tile Master Agreement between the Agency and the United States of America Governing Sales of Source, By- Product and Special Nuclear Materials for research Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Master Agreement Governing Sales of Source, Bye Product and Special Nuclear Materials for Research Purposes, which has been concluded between the Agency and the Government of the United States of America, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members,

  2. "They're Pretty Much Made for Blunts": Product Features That Facilitate Marijuana Use Among Young Adult Cigarillo Users in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Miller Lo, Erin J; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-11-01

    Cigarillo use is prevalent among young adults in the United States. Many young people use cigarillos as "blunts," a term for a cigar emptied of its tobacco and replaced with marijuana. Because cigars in the United States are not subject to the same regulations as cigarettes, they offer a diverse selection of flavors and packaging styles. It is unclear how these and other product attributes facilitate blunt use. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 40 young adult cigar or cigarillo users in the United States to assess patterns of use and perceptions about product features. Quotations from interview transcripts were coded for major themes and summarized across participants. Regardless of their preferred brand, participants felt that the brand Black & Mild is primarily smoked for the tobacco. There was a strong perception, however, that other popular cigarillo brands are almost always used to make blunts. Participants believed that cigarillo companies design their products to simplify blunt-making, with features such as perforated lines or wrappings that unroll easily. Resealable foil pouches, a popular packaging style, are often used to hold unused marijuana and mask its smell. Blunt use is pervasive among young adult cigarillo users in the United States, and certain cigar companies have developed products that facilitate blunt-making. Future surveillance measures should capture the extent to which cigarillo users are using these products as blunts. Continued surveillance of cigarillo sales and popular product attributes are needed. Cigarillo use is prevalent among young adults in the United States, many of whom are using the products as blunts. This study found that product features such as brand, flavor, packaging, and price influence the selection of cigarillos used for this purpose. There is also a strong perception among young adult cigarillo users that cigarillo companies design their products and packaging to make the blunt

  3. Assessment of Collective Production of Biomethane from Livestock Waste for Urban Transportation Mobility in Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Camile Pasqual

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water, energy, and food are essential elements for human life, but face constant pressure resulting from economic development, climate change, and other global processes. Predictions of rapid economic growth, increasing population, and urbanization in the coming decades point to rapidly increasing demand for all three. In this context, improved management of the interactions among water, energy, and food requires an integrated “nexus” approach. This paper focuses on a specific nexus case: biogas generated from organic waste, a renewable source of energy created in livestock production, which can have water-quality impacts if waste enters water bodies. An innovative model is presented to make biogas and biomethane systems feasible, termed “biogas condominiums” (based on collective action given that small- and medium-scale farms on their own cannot afford the necessary investments. Based on the “farm to fuel” concept, animal waste and manure are converted into electrical and thermal energy, biofuel for transportation, and high-quality biofertilizer. This nexus approach provides multiple economic, environmental, and social benefits in both rural and urban areas, including reduction of ground and surface water pollution, decrease of fossil fuels dependence, and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions, among others. The research finds that biogas condominiums create benefits for the whole biogas supply chain, which includes farmers, agroindustry, input providers, and local communities. The study estimated that biomethane potential in Brazil could substitute the country’s entire diesel and gasoline imports as well as 44% of the total diesel demand. In the United States, biomethane potential can meet 16% of diesel demand and significantly diversify the energy matrix.

  4. Implementation of a system of social accounting in the cooperative of agricultural production “Camilo Cienfuegos” and in the basic unit of cooperative production “Julian Alemán". Main results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamira Mirabal González

    2014-12-01

    • To determine the results of the implementation of the System of Social Accounting in the Cooperative of Agricultural Production “Camilo Cienfuegos” and in the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “Julián Alemán”.    The main results of the investigation are centered in: Characterization of the administration of the Cooperative of Agricultural Production “Camilo Cienfuegos” and of the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “Julián Alemán”, evaluation of the level of execution of a group of premises that you/they allow the implementation of the system and the results of the implementation of the System of Social Accounting in both cooperatives.

  5. Analysis of group and financial evaluation of productive units of bulb onion (Allium cepa L. in the District of Irrigation of Alto Chicamocha (Boyacá-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Cristina Sanabria Neira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia the cultivation of bulb onion (Allium cepa L is a major generator of incomes and handwork for small growers in the departments of Boyacá, Nariño and Cundinamarca. Its production is 320,000 t year-1, of which 185,000 t (58 % are produced by the department of Boyacá, becoming the first producer at national level. The Irrigation District of the Alto Chicamocha (Drach produces between 35,000 to 40,000 t, i.e. 12.5 % of the national volume and 21.62 % of the departmental one, this productive line is most relevant in the influence area of the district and it is the main source of income and employment both direct and indirect. It was used the methodology of group analysis to develop the general objective of this research to determine the profitability in the different units; information was collected on primary sources such as: social relations, cost structures, aspects of technical and administrative management, as well as the productivity gained. It was found three groups of profitability of the different units: head, medium and tail. It was concluded that the production costs of the onion bulb are classified in explicit (handwork,inputs, services, and others and implicit (family work, lease, depreciation and capital income. It is proposed to the owners of the production units of the cola group, the optimization of irrigation, the appropriate use of agrochemicals and the implementation of appropriate cultural practices.

  6. HTGR fuel performance basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600 0 C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660 0 C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents. The slow release of fission products over hundreds of hours allows for decay of short-lived isotopes. The slow and limited release of fission products under HTGR accident conditions results in very low off-site doses. The slow nature of the accident provides more time for operator action to mitigate the accident and for local and state authorities to respond. These features can be used to take advantage of close-in siting for process applications, flexibility in site selection, and emergency planning

  7. Multiple tobacco product use among adults in the United States: cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn O; Hebert, Christine J; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E

    2014-05-01

    Noncigarette tobacco products are increasingly popular. Researchers need to understand multiple tobacco product use to assess the effects of these products on population health. We estimate national prevalence and examine risk factors for multiple product use. We calculated prevalence estimates of current use patterns involving cigarettes, cigars, electronic cigarettes, hookah, smokeless tobacco, and snus using data from the 2012 RTI National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=3627), a random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 and over. Associations between use patterns (exclusive single product and multiple products) and demographic characteristics were examined using Pearson chi-square tests and logistic regression. 32.1% of adults currently use 1 or more tobacco products; 14.9% use cigarettes exclusively, and 6.6% use one noncigarette product exclusively, 6.9% use cigarettes with another product (dual use), 1.3% use two noncigarette products, and 2.4% use three or more products (polytobacco use). Smokers who are young adult, male, never married, reside in the West, and made prior quit attempts were at risk for multiple product use. Over 10% of U.S. adults use multiple tobacco products. A better understanding of multiple product use involving combustible products, like cigars and hookah, is needed. Multiple product use may be associated with past quit attempts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by each...

  9. Novelly formed products of the interaction of fuel with construction materials of the 4th unit of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovoj, A.A.; Galkin, B.Ya.; Krinitsyn, A.P.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Kheruvimov, A.N.; Chechcherov, K.P.; Anderson, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation environment and map of sampling route in the steam distributing collector of the 4th unit of the Chernobyl NPP are described. The results of gamma- and alpha radiometric analyses as well as chemical analysis are presented. Samples of core materials taken from the depth of fuel-containing masses by drilling through reactor vault wall of the damaged power unit are described

  10. Sense Training as Basis for Aesthetic Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl

    2016-01-01

    . It is a special problem for design engineers, who must guarantee the aesthetic, ethical and utilitarian qualities of products in a product development process. It does not matter whether they or other designers have conceived the product idea. It has been found that sense training can open up to aesthetic...... and train their specification of the basis for aesthetic experiences. The context for the study is a course and a project in interaction design about designing rehabilitation products, where undergraduate students must develop a project program with focus on theoretical scientific research and experiment...

  11. The multi-task barge: a floating deep-sea production, storage and unloading unit, with surface production heads and drilling installations; La barge multifonctions: une unite flottante de production, de stockage et dechargement en eau profonde, avec tetes de production en surface et installations de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenchon, C; Rossig, J H [Bouygues Offshore (France); Pouget, G [Sedco-Forex (France); Biolley, F [Institut Francais du Petrole, 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1998-05-01

    The multi-task barge is devoted to the exploitation of deep-sea fields in rather good conditions. It has been designed to bring together within a single installation, a production, storage and unloading unit and the necessary means for the drilling, the connecting and the work-over of wells. Thus submarine well-heads and well-head platforms are no longer needed. When the field configuration or the use of oriented drillings allows to group several wells together, the multi-task platform allows to use more economical surface production heads installed on steel rigid risers. This concept requires less investments thanks to less expensive drilling operations and restricted submarine installations, and to easier well operations and lower exploitation costs. Crude oil storage is ensured to up to about 2 millions of barrels. This paper presents the design aspects and the dynamical analysis of risers with the methods used. The tensioning and mooring system is examined and the advantages of the cylindrical float system is underlined and compared to the classical hydro-pneumatic systems. (J.S.) 11 refs.

  12. Semi-quantitative analysis of solid waste flows from nano-enabled consumer products in Europe, Denmark and the United Kingdom - Abundance, distribution and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    ) plastic from used product containers is the largest waste fraction also comprising a large variety of ENMs, though possibly in very small masses. Also, we showed that the local waste management system can influence the distribution of ENMs. It is recommended that future research focus on recycling......, and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and potential effects at the end-of-life stage of the products is scarce. To gain a better understanding of the end-of-life waste treatment of nano-enabled consumer product, we provide an overview of the ENMs flowing into and throughout waste systems in Europe......, Denmark and the United Kingdom. Using a nanoproduct inventory (nanodb.dk), we performed a four-step analysis to estimate the most abundant ENMs and in which waste fractions they are present. We found that in terms of number of products: (i) nano silver is the most used ENM in consumer products, and (ii...

  13. Measurement of basis weight by radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchnea, A.

    1981-01-01

    For accurate measurement of the basis weight (mass per unit area) of a material such as paper between a radioactive source and an ionization chamber the apparatus is calibrated by using a plurality of standards of known basis weight to provide a relationship between basis weight and the output current of the chamber which includes at least terms of the second order and preferably terms of higher orders. The major portion of the radiation path is enclosed in airtight chambers which are sufficiently rigid that the density therein is independent of ambient temperature and pressure variations. The accuracy is increased by measuring ambient temperature and pressure fluctuations, and linearly compensating for resultant density variations in the air gap through which the paper web passes. A wheel holding the standards is induced by a motor and a perforated encoding disc. (author)

  14. The biological basis of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.; Adams, G.E.; Horwich, A.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this book is the biological basis of radiotherapy. The papers presented include: Temporal stages of radiation action:free radical processes; The molecular basis of radiosensitivity; and Radiation damage to early-reacting normal tissue

  15. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    uplift and erosion, causing gas leakage and a marked reduction in fluid pressure. Most future natural-gas production in the Clinton/Medina sandstones is anticipated to come from the basin-center accumulation. The Tuscarora Sandstone has additional gas resources but typically low reservoir porosity and permeability, and the likelihood of low-energy (in British thermal units) gas reduce the incentive to explore for it.

  16. Advanced Test Reactor Safety Basis Upgrade Lessons Learned Relative to Design Basis Verification and Safety Basis Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. L. Sharp; R. T. McCracken

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The reactor also provides other irradiation services such as radioisotope production. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An audit conducted by the Department of Energy's Office of Independent Oversight and Performance Assurance (DOE OA) raised concerns that design conditions at the ATR were not adequately analyzed in the safety analysis and that legacy design basis management practices had the potential to further impact safe operation of the facility.1 The concerns identified by the audit team, and issues raised during additional reviews performed by ATR safety analysts, were evaluated through the unreviewed safety question process resulting in shutdown of the ATR for more than three months while these concerns were resolved. Past management of the ATR safety basis, relative to facility design basis management and change control, led to concerns that discrepancies in the safety basis may have developed. Although not required by DOE orders or regulations, not performing design basis verification in conjunction with development of the 10 CFR 830 Subpart B upgraded safety basis allowed these potential weaknesses to be carried forward. Configuration management and a clear definition of the existing facility design basis have a direct relation to developing and maintaining a high quality safety basis which properly identifies and mitigates all hazards and postulated accident conditions. These relations and the impact of past safety basis management practices have been reviewed in order to identify lessons learned from the safety basis upgrade process and appropriate actions to resolve possible concerns with respect to the current ATR safety

  17. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600 0 C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660 0 C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents

  18. 77 FR 70724 - Eligibility of the Republic of Korea To Export Poultry Products to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs... and 6 on Chemical Residue Testing Programs and Microbiological Testing Programs, the FSIS auditors... within the equivalence components of: (2) Statutory Authority and Food Safety Regulations, (5) Chemical...

  19. Impact of Brexit on the forest products industry of the United Kingdom and the rest of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. T. Johnston; Joseph Buongiorno

    2016-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model was applied to forecast the effect of Brexit on the global forest products industry to2003 under two scenarios; an optimistic and pessimistic future storyline regarding the potential economic effect of Brexit. The forecasts integrated a range of gross domestic product growth rates using an average of the optimistic and...

  20. The National Shipbuilding Research Program, 1997 Ship Production Symposium, Paper No. 21: A Parametric Approach to Machinery Unitization in Shipbuilding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaquith, Peter E; Burns, Richard M; Duneclift, Lee A; Gaskari, Massood; Green, Thomas; Silveira, John L; Walsh, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    During the past ten years, both U.S. and foreign shipyards have developed advanced unitization concepts that include multi-level assemblies representing large vertical segments of ship machinery spaces...