WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit operating costs

  1. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  2. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  3. Sources of Operating Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James

    2005-01-01

    Historically, road vehicle operating costs have tended to dominate highway economic appraisals in developing countries, due to the poor road surfaces that can occur there. The operating costs of railways and ports are also substantial, and form key components of cost benefit analyses of their associated infrastructure. The definition of operating costs for Bank projects is therefore important ...

  4. Cost-Optimal Operation of Energy Storage Units: Benefits of a Problem-Specific Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Siemer, Lars; Kleinhans, David

    2015-01-01

    The integration of large shares of electricity produced by non-dispatchable Renewable Energy Sources (RES) leads to an increasingly volatile energy generation side, with temporary local overproduction. The application of energy storage units has the potential to use this excess electricity from RES efficiently and to prevent curtailment. The objective of this work is to calculate cost-optimal charging strategies for energy storage units used as buffers. For this purpose, a new mathematical optimization method is presented that is applicable to general storage-related problems. Due to a tremendous gain in efficiency of this method compared with standard solvers and proven optimality, calculations of complex problems as well as a high-resolution sensitivity analysis of multiple system combinations are feasible within a very short time. As an example technology, Power-to-Heat converters used in combination with thermal storage units are investigated in detail and optimal system configurations, including storage ...

  5. 42 CFR 447.206 - Cost limit for providers operated by units of government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are limited to reimbursement not in excess of the individual health care provider's cost of providing..., each provider must submit annually a cost report to the Medicaid agency that reflects the individual... to the filed cost report for the spending year in which interim payment rates were made. (3)...

  6. Impact of selection of cord blood units from the United States and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Thomas; Boo, Michael; Balabanova, Snejana; Fischer, Yvonne; Nicoloso, Grazia; Foeken, Lydia; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Passweg, Jakob; Tichelli, Andre; Kindler, Vincent; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Price, Thomas; Regan, Donna; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Schwabe, Rudolf

    2013-02-01

    Over the last 2 decades, cord blood (CB) has become an important source of blood stem cells. Clinical experience has shown that CB is a viable source for blood stem cells in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation. Studies of CB units (CBUs) stored and ordered from the US (National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and Swiss (Swiss Blood Stem Cells (SBSQ)) CB registries were conducted to assess whether these CBUs met the needs of transplantation patients, as evidenced by units being selected for transplantation. These data were compared to international banking and selection data (Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW), World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA)). Further analysis was conducted on whether current CB banking practices were economically viable given the units being selected from the registries for transplant. It should be mentioned that our analysis focused on usage, deliberately omitting any information about clinical outcomes of CB transplantation. A disproportionate number of units with high total nucleated cell (TNC) counts are selected, compared to the distribution of units by TNC available. Therefore, the decision to use a low threshold for banking purposes cannot be supported by economic analysis and may limit the economic viability of future public CB banking. We suggest significantly raising the TNC level used to determine a bankable unit. A level of 125 × 10(7) TNCs, maybe even 150 × 10(7) TNCs, might be a viable banking threshold. This would improve the return on inventory investments while meeting transplantation needs based on current selection criteria.

  7. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  8. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  9. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  10. Machine Learning with Operational Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Tulabandhula, Theja

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the way that statistical models are used to make decisions. In particular, we aim to merge the way estimation algorithms are designed with how they are used for a subsequent task. Our methodology considers the operational cost of carrying out a policy, based on a predictive model. The operational cost becomes a regularization term in the learning algorithm's objective function, allowing either an \\textit{optimistic} or \\textit{pessimistic} view of possible costs. Limiting the operational cost reduces the hypothesis space for the predictive model, and can thus improve generalization. We show that different types of operational problems can lead to the same type of restriction on the hypothesis space, namely the restriction to an intersection of an $\\ell_{q}$ ball with a halfspace. We bound the complexity of such hypothesis spaces by proposing a technique that involves counting integer points in polyhedrons.

  11. Asynchronous Capacity per Unit Cost

    CERN Document Server

    Chandar, Venkat; Tse, David

    2010-01-01

    The capacity per unit cost, or equivalently minimum cost to transmit one bit, is a well-studied quantity. It has been studied under the assumption of full synchrony between the transmitter and the receiver. In many applications, such as sensor networks, transmissions are very bursty, with small amounts of bits arriving infrequently at random times. In such scenarios, the cost of acquiring synchronization is significant and one is interested in the fundamental limits on communication without assuming a priori synchronization. In this paper, we show that the minimum cost to transmit B bits of information asynchronously is (B + \\bar{H})k_sync, where k_sync is the synchronous minimum cost per bit and \\bar{H} is a measure of timing uncertainty equal to the entropy for most reasonable arrival time distributions.

  12. Optimising costs in WLCG operations

    CERN Document Server

    Pradillo, Mar; Flix, Josep; Forti, Alessandra; Sciabà, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid project (WLCG) provides the computing and storage resources required by the LHC collaborations to store, process and analyse the 50 Petabytes of data annually generated by the LHC. The WLCG operations are coordinated by a distributed team of managers and experts and performed by people at all participating sites and from all the experiments. Several improvements in the WLCG infrastructure have been implemented during the first long LHC shutdown to prepare for the increasing needs of the experiments during Run2 and beyond. However, constraints in funding will affect not only the computing resources but also the available effort for operations. This paper presents the results of a detailed investigation on the allocation of the effort in the different areas of WLCG operations, identifies the most important sources of inefficiency and proposes viable strategies for optimising the operational cost, taking into account the current trends in the evolution of the computing infrastruc...

  13. Optimising costs in WLCG operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandes Pradillo, María; Dimou, Maria; Flix, Josep; Forti, Alessandra; Sciabà, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid project (WLCG) provides the computing and storage resources required by the LHC collaborations to store, process and analyse the 50 Petabytes of data annually generated by the LHC. The WLCG operations are coordinated by a distributed team of managers and experts and performed by people at all participating sites and from all the experiments. Several improvements in the WLCG infrastructure have been implemented during the first long LHC shutdown to prepare for the increasing needs of the experiments during Run2 and beyond. However, constraints in funding will affect not only the computing resources but also the available effort for operations. This paper presents the results of a detailed investigation on the allocation of the effort in the different areas of WLCG operations, identifies the most important sources of inefficiency and proposes viable strategies for optimising the operational cost, taking into account the current trends in the evolution of the computing infrastructure and the computing models of the experiments.

  14. Join Cost for Unit Selection Speech Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vepa, Jithendra

    2004-01-01

    Undoubtedly, state-of-the-art unit selection-based concatenative speech systems produce very high quality synthetic speech. this is due to a large speech database containing many instances of each speech unit, with a varied and natural distribution of prosodic and spectral characteristics. the join cost, which measures how well two units can be joined together is one of the main criteria for selecting appropriate units from this large speech database. The ideal join cost is one that measur...

  15. LIFE Cost of Electricity, Capital and Operating Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T

    2011-04-14

    Successful commercialization of fusion energy requires economic viability as well as technical and scientific feasibility. To assess economic viability, we have conducted a pre-conceptual level evaluation of LIFE economics. Unit costs are estimated from a combination of bottom-up costs estimates, working with representative vendors, and scaled results from previous studies of fission and fusion plants. An integrated process model of a LIFE power plant was developed to integrate and optimize unit costs and calculate top level metrics such as cost of electricity and power plant capital cost. The scope of this activity was the entire power plant site. Separately, a development program to deliver the required specialized equipment has been assembled. Results show that LIFE power plant cost of electricity and plant capital cost compare favorably to estimates for new-build LWR's, coal and gas - particularly if indicative costs of carbon capture and sequestration are accounted for.

  16. Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: Activity based costing (ABC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majstorović Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. Objective. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC analysis. Methods. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment. of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, “each cost object (service or unit” of the Republican Health-care Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Health-care Insurance. Results. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Conclusion. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  17. Operational cost minimization in cooling water systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an optimization model that considers thermal and hydraulic interactions is developed for a cooling water system. It is a closed loop consisting of a cooling tower unit, circulation pump, blower and heat exchanger-pipe network. Aside from process disturbances, climatic fluctuations are considered. Model constraints include relations concerning tower performance, air flowrate requirement, make-up flowrate, circulating pump performance, heat load in each cooler, pressure drop constraints and climatic conditions. The objective function is operating cost minimization. Optimization variables are air flowrate, forced water withdrawal upstream the tower, and valve adjustment in each branch. It is found that the most significant operating cost is related to electricity. However, for cooled water temperatures lower than a specific target, there must be a forced withdrawal of circulating water and further makeup to enhance the cooling tower capacity. Additionally, the system is optimized along the months. The results corroborate the fact that the most important variable on cooling tower performance is not the air temperature itself, but its humidity.

  18. Unit cost of medical services at different hospitals in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Institutional care is a growing component of health care costs in low- and middle-income countries, but local health planners in these countries have inadequate knowledge of the costs of different medical services. In India, greater utilisation of hospital services is driven both by rising incomes and by government insurance programmes that cover the cost of inpatient services; however, there is still a paucity of unit cost information from Indian hospitals. In this study, we estimated operating costs and cost per outpatient visit, cost per inpatient stay, cost per emergency room visit, and cost per surgery for five hospitals of different types across India: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed government district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital, and a 778-bed government tertiary care hospital for the financial year 2010-11. The major cost component varied among human resources, capital costs, and material costs, by hospital type. The outpatient visit cost ranged from Rs. 94 (district hospital to Rs. 2,213 (private hospital (USD 1 = INR 52. The inpatient stay cost was Rs. 345 in the private teaching hospital, Rs. 394 in the district hospital, Rs. 614 in the tertiary care hospital, Rs. 1,959 in the charitable hospital, and Rs. 6,996 in the private hospital. Our study results can help hospital administrators understand their cost structures and run their facilities more efficiently, and we identify areas where improvements in efficiency might significantly lower unit costs. The study also demonstrates that detailed costing of Indian hospital operations is both feasible and essential, given the significant variation in the country's hospital types. Because of the size and diversity of the country and variations across hospitals, a large-scale study should be undertaken to refine hospital costing for different types of hospitals so that the results can be used for policy purposes, such as revising

  19. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  20. Unit labour costs, productivity and international competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van; Stuivenwold, Edwin; Ypma, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides international comparisons of relative levels of unit labour costs (ULC) for several OECD countries relative to the United States. The estimates are based on the Total Economy Database and the 60-Industry Database of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC), and are also

  1. Petroleum Refinery Hydrogen Production Unit: Exergy and Production Cost Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Oliveira Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Some specific processes are required to obtain pure hydrogen and the most usual one is natural gas reforming, where natural gas reacts with superheated steam producing H2, CO, CO2 and H2O. This paper presents the exergy and production costs evaluation of a complete hydrogen production unit of a petroleum refinery. The hydrogen production unit analysed in this paper has to supply 550,000 Nm3 of hydrogen per day to purify diesel oil. Based on a synthesis plant of the hydrogen production unit, the exergy efficiency of each component and of the overall plant are calculated. The hydrogen production cost is determined by means of a thermoeconomic analysis in which the equality cost partition method is employed, including capital and operational costs, in order to determine the production cost of hydrogen and other products of the plant.

  2. Operation and maintenance cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingshead, T.W.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Timothy W. Hollingshead, Technical Services Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric, is about cutting costs in the Operation and Maintenance phase of geothermal energy production. The necessity of cost control, keeping workers well-trained and avoiding OSHA fines, taking advantages of new technologies, and establishing predictive maintenance programs are some of the issues discussed in this article.

  3. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  4. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better.

  5. Droop Scheme With Consideration of Operating Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    considered even though they are different for different types of DGs. This letter thus proposes an alternative droop scheme, which can better distinguish the different operating characteristics and objectives of the DGs grouped together in a weighted droop expression. The power sharing arrived in the steady...... state will meet the intended objectives, as demonstrated in the experiment with a defined objective of minimizing the total microgrid operating cost....

  6. The United States Special Operations Command Civil Military Engagement Program - A Model for Military-Interagency Low Cost / Small Footprint Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-02

    with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ) and other international and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to...infrastructure. By the end of 2012 the United Nations High Commission for Refugees ( UNHCR ) estimated the number of Syrians in Jordan at 140,000. CMSE...good governance programs at the local level; 4) The Refugee Support Program assisted refugee relocation; 5) The PSYOP Program provided support for

  7. Operating Costs Reducing in MDF Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coeve Florino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustained efforts by electric motors when subjected to cutting, trimming or finishing are directly related to the material being machined and the angle of attack of the tool. Choosing the right tool for this operation depends on an expected result. So the engines behave differently to each operation. The optimization between strength, speed, power, material and type of operation, can be found to reduce operational costs of production, besides determining the exact time to make the set-up of worn tool. The reduction in operating costs is an item of sustainability that outlines the strategic positioning on companies to become competitive in the global marketplace. With the great technological development present today, this issue goes away with the very latest products on the market for professionals who productivity will be dealt with in these modern maintenance equipment such as power quality analyzer, Imager, profile projector and microscope for research. The result of this work is the optimization of the cutting operation and energy consumption thereby demonstrating an optimum point of operation in a case study presented in this work.

  8. Analysis of operation costs of thermal power units with different denitration methods%火电机组不同脱硝方式下的运行费用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍秋宝; 田亮; 赵亮宇; 刘吉臻

    2012-01-01

    “十二五”期间,我国对火力发电机组NOx排放量提出了更高的约束性指标,目前火电厂的应对方式主要包括缴纳罚款、燃烧优化和建设脱硝设备等.依据《排污费征收标准管理办法》计算排污罚款;依据最新《火电厂大气污染物排放标准》、国内典型机组在燃烧优化花费以及脱硝设备运行费用等方面的统计数据,在机组不同运行工况导致不同NOx排放浓度情况下,计算典型600 MW机组的年烟气及NOx排放量,对比无减排措施、燃烧优化、SCR脱硝以及燃烧优化与SCR结合应用情况下的花费.计算结果表明,目前情况下火电机组实施燃烧优化是最经济的减排NOx方式.%During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China has put forward higher restriction on thermal power units about NOxemissions. At present, the main methods adopted by power plants include paying the penalty, combustion optimization and constructing denitration facilities and so on. Emission penalties are calculated according to the Management Method of Collection Standard for Emission Penalty. According to the newest Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Thermal Power Plants and statistical data including costs of combustion optimization and operation costs of denitration facilities in domestic typical units, flue gas and NOx emissions of typical 600 MW unit is calculate under different NOx emission concentrations in different operation conditions. Comparision is made among costs of no NOx removal measure, combustion optimization, denitration by SCR and combination of combustion optimization and SCR. The calculation results show that, at the moment, combustion optimization is the most economical way for thermal power units to adopt to reduct NOxemissions.

  9. Unit Operations for the Food Industry: Equilibrium Processes & Mechanical Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Unit operations are an area of engineering that is at the same time very fascinating and most essential for the industry in general and the food industry in particular. This book was prepared in a way to achieve simultaneously the academic and practical perspectives. It is organized into two parts: the unit operations based on equilibrium processes and the mechanical operations. Each topic starts with a presentation of the fundamental concepts and principles, followed by a discussion of ...

  10. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant scale that can be projected onto future Spaceport architectures...

  11. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.

    2009-01-01

    and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. A method is applied for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimisation model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative......Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and partial predictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production, the expectation is that the specific operational costs (fuel costs, start......-up costs, variable operation and maintenance costs, costs of consuming CO2 emission permits) of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing...

  12. Naval Aviation Costs: Targeting Operations and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    17 Defense AT&L: November–December 2013 Naval Aviation Costs Targeting Operations and Support Capt. Robert Farmer n Capt. Keith Nixon n Capt...ONR Maj. Gen. Murray, TECOM Brig. Gen. Jansson, DLA Aviation SES Gilpin , DASN (Air) SES Stiller, DASN (Ships) SES Zangardi, DASN (C4I) *NAE Air... Robert Brown Training/Training Supt 6.7.6 – Lorie Nace Support Equipment 6.7.7 – Bruce Wilhelm Industrial Business Ops 6.8D – Roy Harris Tech Dir

  13. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  14. Security-constrained unit commitment with flexible operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bo

    The electricity industry throughout the world, which has long been dominated by vertically integrated utilities, is facing enormous challenges. To enhance the competition in electricity industry, vertically integrated utilities are evolving into a distributed and competitive industry in which market forces drive the price of electricity and possibly reduce the net cost of supplying electrical loads through increased competition. To excel in the competition, generation companies (GENCOs) will acquire additional generating units with flexible operating capability which allows a timely response to the continuous changes in power system conditions. This dissertation considers the short-term scheduling of generating units with flexible modes of operation in security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC). Among the units considered in this study are combined cycle units, fuel switching/blending units, photovoltaic/battery system, pumped-storage units, and cascaded hydro units. The proposed security-constrained unit commitment solution will include a detailed model of transmission system which could impact the short-term scheduling of units with flexible operation modes.

  15. Multiagent-based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled DC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent based distributed control is proposed for DC microgrid to minimize the operation cost. The power of each distributed generator (DG) is dispatched in a distributed manner in a multiagent system by means of voltage scheduling. Every DG unit is taken as an agent......, and they share the load corresponding to the operation cost of all the units in the system with only communication with direct neighbors through incremental cost consensus. The power regulation according to the power reference generated by consensus is implemented through voltage scheduling in local primary...

  16. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  17. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  18. [Analysis of cost and efficiency of a medical nursing unit using time-driven activity-based costing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi

    2011-08-01

    Time-driven activity-based costing was applied to analyze the nursing activity cost and efficiency of a medical unit. Data were collected at a medical unit of a general hospital. Nursing activities were measured using a nursing activities inventory and classified as 6 domains using Easley-Storfjell Instrument. Descriptive statistics were used to identify general characteristics of the unit, nursing activities and activity time, and stochastic frontier model was adopted to estimate true activity time. The average efficiency of the medical unit using theoretical resource capacity was 77%, however the efficiency using practical resource capacity was 96%. According to these results, the portion of non-added value time was estimated 23% and 4% each. The sums of total nursing activity costs were estimated 109,860,977 won in traditional activity-based costing and 84,427,126 won in time-driven activity-based costing. The difference in the two cost calculating methods was 25,433,851 won. These results indicate that the time-driven activity-based costing provides useful and more realistic information about the efficiency of unit operation compared to traditional activity-based costing. So time-driven activity-based costing is recommended as a performance evaluation framework for nursing departments based on cost management.

  19. COSTING OF QUALITY IN BUSINESS BASE UNIT SEVERAL PRODUCTIONS, CIENFUEGOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of quality costs as a component of the System of Quality Management, is a must for Cuban business managers, to provide a technique identified as an advanced instrument of management, which will lead to improved competitiveness and serve as an informative source. Identify and calculate the costs of quality, as well as propose measured plans, to promote a decrease in operating expenses, which can be used as a tool to improve processes. The Business Unit of Several Base Productions of Cienfuegos presents the fault to give way to Business Improvement and certification of its Quality Management System, according to the norm ISO 9001:2008 and the decree law 281, so that the objective research was to estimate the costs of quality processes in the company. To achieve this level were used empirical methods and techniques such as direct observation, document review and work in groups, which allowed to calculate the costs of quality in all processes. The results obtained are applicable to companies that operate in the Cuban economy and according to the Cuban economic model implemented from the year 2011.

  20. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  1. A life cycle cost economics model for projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed for calculating the life cycle costs for a project where the operating costs increase or decrease in a linear manner with time. The life cycle cost is shown to be a function of the investment costs, initial operating costs, operating cost gradient, project life time, interest rate for capital and salvage value. The results show that the life cycle cost for a project can be grossly underestimated (or overestimated) if the operating costs increase (or decrease) uniformly over time rather than being constant as is often assumed in project economic evaluations. The following range of variables is examined: (1) project life from 2 to 30 years; (2) interest rate from 0 to 15 percent per year; and (3) operating cost gradient from 5 to 90 percent of the initial operating costs. A numerical example plus tables and graphs is given to help calculate project life cycle costs over a wide range of variables.

  2. Low-Cost Sensor Units for Measuring Urban Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M.; Stewart, G.; Hodgson, T.; McLoed, M.; Baldovi, J.; Landshoff, P.; Hayes, M.; Calleja, M.; Jones, R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of selected key air quality gases (CO, NO & NO2) have been made with a range of miniature low-cost sensors based on electrochemical gas sensing technology incorporating GPS and GPRS for position and communication respectively. Two types of simple to operate sensors units have been designed to be deployed in relatively large numbers. Mobile handheld sensor units designed for operation by members of the public have been deployed on numerous occasions including in Cambridge, London and Valencia. Static sensor units have also been designed for long-term autonomous deployment on existing street furniture. A study was recently completed in which 45 sensor units were deployed in the Cambridge area for a period of 3 months. Results from these studies indicate that air quality varies widely both spatially and temporally. The widely varying concentrations found suggest that the urban environment cannot be fully understood using limited static site (AURN) networks and that a higher resolution, more dispersed network is required to better define air quality in the urban environment. The results also suggest that higher spatial and temporal resolution measurements could improve knowledge of the levels of individual exposure in the urban environment.

  3. Fuzzy case based reasoning in sports facilities unit cost estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an example of estimating costs in the early phase of the project using fuzzy case-based reasoning. The fragment of database containing descriptions and unit cost of sports facilities was shown. The formulas used in Case Based Reasoning method were presented, too. The article presents similarity measurement using a few formulas, including fuzzy similarity. The outcome of cost calculations based on CBR method was presented as a fuzzy number of unit cost of construction work.

  4. Unpacking Referent Units in Fraction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Randolph A.; Hawthorne, Casey

    2015-01-01

    Although fraction operations are procedurally straightforward, they are complex, because they require learners to conceptualize different units and view quantities in multiple ways. Prospective secondary school teachers sometimes provide an algebraic explanation for inverting and multiplying when dividing fractions. That authors of this article…

  5. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report IX. Operating cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Operating costs are normally broken into three major categories: variable costs including raw materials, annual catalyst and chemicals, and utilities; semi-variable costs including labor and labor related cost; and fixed or capital related charges. The raw materials and utilities costs are proportional to production; however, a small component of utilities cost is independent of production. The catalyst and chemicals costs are also normally proportional to production. Semi-variable costs include direct labor, maintenance labor, labor supervision, contract maintenance, maintenance materials, payroll overheads, operation supplies, and general overhead and administration. Fixed costs include local taxes, insurance and the time value of the capital investment. The latter charge often includes the investor's anticipated return on investment. In determining operating costs for financial analysis, return on investment (ROI) and depreciation are not treated as cash operating costs. These costs are developed in the financial analysis; the annual operating cost determined here omits ROI and depreciation. Project Annual Operating Costs are summarized in Table 1. Detailed supporting information for the cost elements listed below is included in the following sections: Electrical, catalyst and chemicals, and salaries and wages.

  6. Eccentric Pumping Unit: Cost-effective and Reliable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shaobo; Gao Heping; Chen Yibao; Shi Linsong; Zhang Huiwen

    1996-01-01

    @@ The beam-type pumping unit is the most widely used ty pe of pumping unit because of its simple geometry and its reliability. However. when its stroke exceeds five meters, the structure of the unit becomes massive and its cost becomes quite high. In order to make full use of the advantages of the beam pumping unit and to enhance its stroke. a new type of pumping unit - the ECCENTRIC PUMPING UNIT - has been designed after two years of the research work.

  7. Labor Costs in the Technical Operation of Three Research Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm; Phelps, Doug

    1984-01-01

    Investigates costs and operations of back office activities of three middle-sized research libraries focusing on costs of labor and effects of automation. Measuring costs, labor compensation differences, differences in hours per volume, differences in organization, reduction of labor costs due to automation, and the quality dimension are…

  8. Economic analysis of the cost of Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazetas D.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cost of Intensive Care Units has the greatest impact on overall medical costs and the overall cost for the health of a country and an increasing number of studies from around the world presenting the quantification of these costs. Aim: Review of the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “Intensive Care Units (ICU”, “Cost”, “Cost Analysis”, “Health Care Costs”, “Health Resources”, “ICU resources”. The study was based on articles published in English from 2000 to 2011 investigating the Economic Analysis of the Cost of Intensive Care Units. Results: The cost of ICU is a significant percentage of gross domestic product in developed countries. Most cost analysis studies that relate to plans that include the study of staff costs, duration of stay in the ICU, the clinical situations of hospitalized patients, engineering support, medications and diagnostic tests costing scales and in relation to the diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: most studies conclude that the remuneration of staff, particularly nurses, in the ICU is the largest cost of ICU, while for the duration of stay in the ICU results are conflicting. The analysis on the cost-effectiveness of ICU can help to better apply these findings to the therapeutic context of ICU.

  9. 48 CFR 1845.7101-3 - Unit acquisition cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Unit acquisition cost. 1845.7101-3 Section 1845.7101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Forms Preparation 1845.7101-3 Unit acquisition cost....

  10. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the

  11. LCC-OPS: Life Cycle Cost Application in Aircraft Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwondo, E.

    2007-01-01

    Observation of current practices in aircraft operations and maintenance shows limited consideration of cost savings applied by aircraft modifications, maintenance program optimisation and aircraft selection. This is due to hidden (maintenance dependent) costs and difficulties in quantifying the util

  12. Application of the Activity-Based Costing Method for Unit-Cost Calculation in a Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Mahdi; Hadian, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Ghaffari, Shahram; Salehi, Masoud

    2015-05-17

    Choosing an appropriate accounting system for hospital has always been a challenge for hospital managers. Traditional cost system (TCS) causes cost distortions in hospital. Activity-based costing (ABC) method is a new and more effective cost system. This study aimed to compare ABC with TCS method in calculating the unit cost of medical services and to assess its applicability in Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord City, Iran.‎ This cross-sectional study was performed on accounting data of Kashani Hospital in 2013. Data on accounting reports of 2012 and other relevant sources at the end of 2012 were included. To apply ABC method, the hospital was divided into several cost centers and five cost categories were defined: wage, equipment, space, material, and overhead costs. Then activity centers were defined. ABC method was performed into two phases. First, the total costs of cost centers were assigned to activities by using related cost factors. Then the costs of activities were divided to cost objects by using cost drivers. After determining the cost of objects, the cost price of medical services was calculated and compared with those obtained from TCS.‎ The Kashani Hospital had 81 physicians, 306 nurses, and 328 beds with the mean occupancy rate of 67.4% during 2012. Unit cost of medical services, cost price of occupancy bed per day, and cost per outpatient service were calculated. The total unit costs by ABC and TCS were respectively 187.95 and 137.70 USD, showing 50.34 USD more unit cost by ABC method. ABC method represented more accurate information on the major cost components. By utilizing ABC, hospital managers have a valuable accounting system that provides a true insight into the organizational costs of their department.

  13. Optimizing power plant cycling operations while reducing generating plant damage and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Besuner, P.H.; Grimsrud, P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Bissel, A. [Electric Supply Board, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation describes a method for analyzing, quantifying, and minimizing the total cost of fossil, combined cycle, and pumped hydro power plant cycling operation. The method has been developed, refined, and applied during engineering studies at some 160 units in the United States and 8 units at the Irish Electric Supply Board (ESB) generating system. The basic premise of these studies was that utilities are underestimating the cost of cycling operation. The studies showed that the cost of cycling conventional boiler/turbine fossil power plants can range from between $2,500 and $500,000 per start-stop cycle. It was found that utilities typically estimate these costs by factors of 3 to 30 below actual costs and, thus, often significantly underestimate their true cycling costs. Knowledge of the actual, or total, cost of cycling will reduce power production costs by enabling utilities to more accurately dispatch their units to manage unit life expectancies, maintenance strategies and reliability. Utility management responses to these costs are presented and utility cost savings have been demonstrated. (orig.) 7 refs.

  14. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  15. The costs of producing a unit of blood in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Nyoni, Herbert; Nkomo, Sisodwa Z; Jacob, Jeffery S; Chikwereti, Radhi; Musekiwa, Zamile; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is lack of published data on the costs of blood and blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the unit costs of producing blood in Zimbabwe using an activity-based costing (ABC) method. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A management accounting approach, based on

  16. The costs of producing a unit of blood in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Nyoni, Herbert; Nkomo, Sisodwa Z; Jacob, Jeffery S; Chikwereti, Radhi; Musekiwa, Zamile; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is lack of published data on the costs of blood and blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the unit costs of producing blood in Zimbabwe using an activity-based costing (ABC) method. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A management accounting approach, based on t

  17. NIC atomic operation unit with caching and bandwidth mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A network interface controller atomic operation unit and a network interface control method comprising, in an atomic operation unit of a network interface controller, using a write-through cache and employing a rate-limiting functional unit.

  18. Relative value units and cost analysis, Part 3 of 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn P; Anderson, Jeffery R

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in relative value unit (RVU) cost analysis has been on the rise. Why all the excitement? RVU cost analysis places the knowledge, and therefore the power, in the hands of the administrator to negotiate revenues, analyze expenditures, and control costs. Cost analysis at the per (relative)-unit level allows for procedure profitability (or loss) analysis, setting internal fee schedules based on costs, contract negotiation based on RVU cost and utilization, equitable provider compensation packages based on productivity and overhead coverage, and tracking ancillary and referral utilization risks. In short, RVU cost accounting uses the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) instead of stopwatches and clipboards when measuring clinical costs and activity.

  19. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  20. Budgeting Facilities Operation Costs Using the Facilities Operation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    composting are included. Excludes: hazardous, biological, toxic, corrosive, reactive, flammable, radioactive wastes, and construction and demolition...debris resulting from construction contracts. Also excluded are the recycling and composting programs paid by Environmental PEs. 5. Real Property...waxes, toilet tissue, mops, brooms) Accounts for all activities associated with the management and costs for custodial (i.e. carpet cleaning, window

  1. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  2. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  3. Nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units: Cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units: Cost-effective control strategies in ... Sources: Sources of information were from Google searches and PubMed- ... Conclusion: Hand washing or hand hygiene by health-care personnel

  4. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  5. The thermodynamic cost of quantum operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedingham, D. J.; Maroney, O. J. E.

    2016-11-01

    The amount of heat generated by computers is rapidly becoming one of the main problems for developing new generations of information technology. The thermodynamics of computation sets the ultimate physical bounds on heat generation. A lower bound is set by the Landauer limit, at which computation becomes thermodynamically reversible. For classical computation there is no physical principle which prevents this limit being reached, and approaches to it are already being experimentally tested. In this paper we show that for quantum computation with a set of signal states satisfying given conditions, there is an unavoidable excess heat generation that renders it inherently thermodynamically irreversible. The Landauer limit cannot, in general, be reached by quantum computers. We show the existence of a lower bound to the heat generated by quantum computing that exceeds that given by the Landauer limit, give the special conditions where this excess cost may be avoided, and provide a protocol for achieving the limiting heat cost when these conditions are met. We also show how classical computing falls within the special conditions.

  6. Integrating cost management and work management concepts for operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanditmars, C. [BC Gas Utilities Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of B C Gas Utility Limited`s integrated work and cost management system was described, with emphasis on cost management without reliance on the financial systems, and standard costing and operational side benefits. The objectives of the system were identified as dynamic monitoring and control, and local empowerment. The concept underlying the two systems was explained in detail. In the case of the work management system the ability to manage all work in operations areas was stressed, along with its universal availability. Other benefits expected included improved resource utilization, improved productivity, better control of cost, improved revenue generation, superior customer service, a simplified financial system, and improved employee motivation through empowerment.

  7. Operations and support cost modeling using Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit

    1989-01-01

    Systems for future missions will be selected with life cycle costs (LCC) as a primary evaluation criterion. This reflects the current realization that only systems which are considered affordable will be built in the future due to the national budget constaints. Such an environment calls for innovative cost modeling techniques which address all of the phases a space system goes through during its life cycle, namely: design and development, fabrication, operations and support; and retirement. A significant portion of the LCC for reusable systems are generated during the operations and support phase (OS). Typically, OS costs can account for 60 to 80 percent of the total LCC. Clearly, OS costs are wholly determined or at least strongly influenced by decisions made during the design and development phases of the project. As a result OS costs need to be considered and estimated early in the conceptual phase. To be effective, an OS cost estimating model needs to account for actual instead of ideal processes by associating cost elements with probabilities. One approach that may be suitable for OS cost modeling is the use of the Markov Chain Process. Markov chains are an important method of probabilistic analysis for operations research analysts but they are rarely used for life cycle cost analysis. This research effort evaluates the use of Markov Chains in LCC analysis by developing OS cost model for a hypothetical reusable space transportation vehicle (HSTV) and suggests further uses of the Markov Chain process as a design-aid tool.

  8. 21 CFR 872.6640 - Dental operative unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental operative unit and accessories. 872.6640... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6640 Dental operative unit and accessories. (a) Identification. A dental operative unit and accessories is an AC-powered device that is...

  9. Costing clinical biochemistry services as part of an operational management budgeting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbit, I F

    1986-08-01

    The process of costing clinical biochemistry tests as a component of the commissioning of a unit management budgeting system based on an International Computers Limited (ICL) minicomputer system was examined. Methods of apportioning consumable and labour costs under direct and indirect cost headings and as test and request charges were investigated, and in this currently operational system it was found that 38% of consumable costs and 57% of labour costs were not a direct component of the routine analysis function. Means of assigning test costs to a given request source and the incorporation of such charges into clinical budget statements were looked at. A reduction in laboratory workload did not produce a comparable reduction in laboratory costs. For a theoretical reduction in workload of 20% only a 3.8% laboratory saving in recoverable costs could be expected.

  10. Overseas Contingency Operations: OMB and DOD Should Revise the Criteria for Determining Eligible Costs and Identify the Costs Likely to Endure Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    fuel costs , and funding to ensure that logistical support to combat operations is not degraded due to cash losses in DoD’s baseline fuel program. Would...OVERSEAS CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS OMB and DOD Should Revise the Criteria for Determining Eligible Costs and Identify the... Costs Likely to Endure Long Term Report to Congressional Requesters January 2017 GAO-17-68 United States Government Accountability

  11. Oil development-operating cost estimates, 1955-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelman, M.A.; Shahi, M.

    1989-01-01

    Few if any published oil production cost estimates can be verified as to method and basic data. Using US drilling costs and some assumptions explained in the text, this paper estimates development-operating costs in 41 oil-producing nations, from 1955 to 1985, from publicly available data on drilling. Estimation methods are described in detail so that anyone with access to better information on any item can substitute it to arrive at a better estimate.

  12. Investment and operating costs of binary cycle geothermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, B.; Brugman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Typical investment and operating costs for geothermal power plants employing binary cycle technology and utilizing the heat energy in liquid-dominated reservoirs are discussed. These costs are developed as a function of reservoir temperature. The factors involved in optimizing plant design are discussed. A relationship between the value of electrical energy and the value of the heat energy in the reservoir is suggested.

  13. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    logistics and sustainment units, any training efficiencies or cost avoidance resulting from Pacific Pathways, and non-financial costs , such as...ARMY PACIFIC PATHWAYS Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance...the costs of Pacific Pathways. The corrected section should read: “For fiscal year 2015, the three Pathway operations cost a total of $34.5 million

  14. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  15. Enhanced methods for operating refueling station tube-trailers to reduce refueling cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Reddi, Krishna

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for operating a refueling station including source tube-trailers and at least one compressor to reduce refueling cost. The refueling station includes a gaseous fuel supply source including a plurality of tanks on a tube trailer coupled to a first control unit, and high pressure buffer storage having predefined capacity coupled to a second control unit and the first tanks by a pressure control valve and the first control unit, and at least one compressor. The refueling station is operated at different modes depending on a state of the refueling station at the beginning of each operational mode. The refueling system is assessed at the end of each operational mode to identify the state of the system and select a next mode of operation. The operational modes include consolidating hydrogen, or any gaseous fuel, within the tubes mounted on the trailer.

  16. EVALUATION OF FORWARDER WOOD EXTRACTION COST OF OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Nunes dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the costs of the activity of timber extraction done by forwarders until approximately 30,000 work hours. We used 7 John Deere forwarders, model 1710D with 160 kW engine power. A database provided by a forestry company located in the state of Minas Gerais was used, containing all the information necessary for calculating the operating cost of the machines and for the subsequent sensitivity analysis. The operating cost was obtained by the sum of the fixed and variable costs. For the sensitivity analysis a variation ± 20% of the most representative elements of the total cost of the machine was performed. The result obtained for the average operating cost of the forwarder was US$ 147.80 h-1. Costs for repairs and maintenance, labor, fuel, and depreciation represented approximately 90% of the total cost of the machine. A 10% reduction in their values resulted in a savings of approximately 9% in all years evaluated.

  17. Operating Dedicated Data Centers - Is It Cost-Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, M.; Hogue, R.; Hollowell, C.; Strecker-Kellog, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2014-06-01

    The advent of cloud computing centres such as Amazon's EC2 and Google's Computing Engine has elicited comparisons with dedicated computing clusters. Discussions on appropriate usage of cloud resources (both academic and commercial) and costs have ensued. This presentation discusses a detailed analysis of the costs of operating and maintaining the RACF (RHIC and ATLAS Computing Facility) compute cluster at Brookhaven National Lab and compares them with the cost of cloud computing resources under various usage scenarios. An extrapolation of likely future cost effectiveness of dedicated computing resources is also presented.

  18. A Model to Estimate the Operating and Maintenance (O&M) Costs of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP) Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    September 28, 2010 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/mrap-var.htm Heizer , J., & Render, B. (2008). Operations Management ...Visibility & Management of Operation & Support Cost xv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The role of High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) in the United... Operating and Support Management Information System (OSMIS) and the Marine Corps’ Visibility and Management of Operating and Support Costs (VAMOSC

  19. Cost of enlarged operating zone for an existing Francis runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monette, Christine; Marmont, Hugues; Chamberland-Lauzon, Joël; Skagerstrand, Anders; Coutu, André; Carlevi, Jens

    2016-11-01

    Traditionally, hydro power plants have been operated close to best efficiency point, the more stable operating condition for which they have been designed. However, because of changes in the electricity market, many hydro power plants operators wish to operate their machines differently to fulfil those new market needs. New operating conditions can include whole range operation, many start/stops, extensive low load operation, synchronous condenser mode and power/frequency regulation. Many of these new operating conditions may impose more severe fatigue damage than the traditional base load operation close to best efficiency point. Under these conditions, the fatigue life of the runner may be significantly reduced and reparation or replacement cost might occur sooner than expected. In order to design reliable Francis runners for those new challenging operating scenarios, Andritz Hydro has developed various proprietary tools and design rules. These are used within Andritz Hydro to design mechanically robust Francis runners for the operating scenarios fulfilling customer's specifications. To estimate residual life under different operating scenarios of an existing runner designed years ago for best efficiency base load operation, Andritz Hydro's design rules and tools would necessarily lead to conservative results. While the geometry of a new runner can be modified to fulfil all conservative mechanical design rules, the predicted fatigue life of an existing runner under off-design operating conditions may appear rather short because of the conservative safety factor included in the calculations. The most precise and reliable way to calculate residual life of an existing runner under different operating scenarios is to perform a strain gauge measurement campaign on the runner. This paper presents the runner strain gage measurement campaign of a mid-head Francis turbine over all the operating conditions available during the test, the analysis of the measurement signals

  20. Multiagent based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled AC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Microgrid, as a promising technology to integrate renewable energy resources in the distribution system, is gaining increasing research interests recently. Although many previous works have been done based on the droop control in a microgrid, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power...... sharing based on the power rating. With various types of distributed generator (DG) units in the system, factors that closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost and efficiencies of the generator should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system....... In this paper, a multiagent based distributed method is proposed to minimize operation cost of the AC microgrid. Each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using proposed frequency scheduling method. Optimal power command is obtained through carefully designed consensus algorithm...

  1. U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, RL

    2003-09-18

    The ''U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries'' (NUREG/CR-6577, Supp. 2) report has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants during 2000-2001. Costs incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, which represent fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications, which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operations summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from operating reports submitted by the licensees, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) database for enforcement actions, and outage reports.

  2. Operating cost budgeting methods: quantitative methods to improve the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Olegário Rodrigues da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Operating cost forecasts are used in economic feasibility studies of projects and in budgeting process. Studies have pointed out that some companies are not satisfied with the budgeting process and chief executive officers want updates more frequently. In these cases, the main problem lies in the costs versus benefits. Companies seek simple and cheap forecasting methods without, at the same time, conceding in terms of quality of the resulting information. This study aims to compare operating cost forecasting models to identify the ones that are relatively easy to implement and turn out less deviation. For this purpose, we applied ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average and distributed dynamic lag models to data from a Brazilian petroleum company. The results suggest that the models have potential application, and that multivariate models fitted better and showed itself a better way to forecast costs than univariate models.

  3. Association Between Surgeon Scorecard Use and Operating Room Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Valencia, Victoria; Moriates, Christopher; Boscardin, Christy K; Catschegn, Sereina; Rajkomar, Alvin; Bozic, Kevin J; Soo Hoo, Kent; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pitts, Lawrence; Lawton, Michael T; Dudley, R Adams; Gonzales, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Despite the significant contribution of surgical spending to health care costs, most surgeons are unaware of their operating room costs. To examine the association between providing surgeons with individualized cost feedback and surgical supply costs in the operating room. The OR Surgical Cost Reduction (OR SCORE) project was a single-health system, multihospital, multidepartmental prospective controlled study in an urban academic setting. Intervention participants were attending surgeons in orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, and neurological surgery (n = 63). Control participants were attending surgeons in cardiothoracic surgery, general surgery, vascular surgery, pediatric surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, ophthalmology, and urology (n = 186). From January 1 to December 31, 2015, each surgeon in the intervention group received standardized monthly scorecards showing the median surgical supply direct cost for each procedure type performed in the prior month compared with the surgeon's baseline (July 1, 2012, to November 30, 2014) and compared with all surgeons at the institution performing the same procedure at baseline. All surgical departments were eligible for a financial incentive if they met a 5% cost reduction goal. The primary outcome was each group's median surgical supply cost per case. Secondary outcome measures included total departmental surgical supply costs, case mix index-adjusted median surgical supply costs, patient outcomes (30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, and discharge status), and surgeon responses to a postintervention study-specific health care value survey. The median surgical supply direct costs per case decreased 6.54% in the intervention group, from $1398 (interquartile range [IQR], $316-$5181) (10 637 cases) in 2014 to $1307 (IQR, $319-$5037) (11 820 cases) in 2015. In contrast, the median surgical supply direct cost increased 7.42% in the control group, from $712 (IQR, $202-$1602) (16 441 cases

  4. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  5. Operative Cost Comparison: Plating Versus Intramedullary Fixation for Clavicle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, Andrew E; Murphy, Timothy R; Bal, George K; McDonough, E Barry

    2016-09-01

    Although clavicle fractures often heal well with nonoperative management, current literature has shown improved outcomes with operative intervention for specific fracture patterns in specific patient types. The 2 most common methods of midshaft clavicle fracture fixation are intramedullary and plate devices. Through retrospective analysis, this study performed a direct cost comparison of these 2 types of fixation at a single institution over a 5-year period. Outcome measures included operative costs for initial surgery and any hardware removal surgeries. This study reviewed 154 patients (157 fractures), and of these, 99 had intramedullary fixation and 58 had plate fixation. A total of 80% (79 of 99) of intramedullary devices and 3% (2 of 58) of plates were removed. Average cost for initial intramedullary placement was $2955 (US dollars) less than that for initial plate placement (Pcost for removal was $1874 less than that for plate removal surgery (P=.2). Average total cost for all intramedullary surgeries was $1392 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries (Pcost for all intramedullary surgeries requiring plate placement and removal was $653 less than the average cost for all plating surgeries that involved only placement (P=.04). Intramedullary fixation of clavicle fractures resulted in a statistically significant cost reduction compared with plate fixation, despite the incidence of more frequent removal surgeries. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e877-e882.].

  6. Estimating the cost of operating cancer registries: Experience in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Esther; Pardo, Constanza; Arias, Nelson; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Navarro, Edgar; Uribe, Claudia; Yepez, María Clara; Jurado, Daniel; Garci, Luz Stella; Piñeros, Marion; Edwards, Patrick; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Tangka, Florence; Subramanian, Sujha

    2016-12-01

    Maintaining population-based registries requires adequate and sustained resources; however, to date there has been no systematic evaluation to identify the resource needs for cancer registration in most countries, including Colombia. A systematic assessment of the costs can quantify the funding required and identify processes to improve efficiency of cancer registries. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) International Registry Costing Tool (IntRegCosting Tool) was tailored specifically for the Colombian registries and was used to collect resource use data from five regional population-based cancer registries: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Cali, Manizales, and Pasto. The registries provided cost data for the year 2013 and cancer cases corresponding to the year 2010. We identified an almost threefold variation in the average cost per case (77,932 to 214,082 Colombian pesos or US $41 to US $113 in 2013) across the registries, but there were also substantial differences in data collection approaches, types of data collected, and activities performed. Cost per inhabitant varied between 95 and 415 Colombian pesos (US $0.05 to US $0.22). Between 20% and 45% of the total cost was due to fixed cost activities. The detailed economic information presented in this study constitutes a valuable source of activity-based cost data that registries can use to compare operations, assess key factors that lead to differences in cost per case, and identify potential approaches to improve efficiencies. Furthermore, the knowledge gained from studying the Colombian registries can help inform the planning and operations of other registries in the region. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality.

  8. Accelerating the Fourier split operator method via graphics processing units

    CERN Document Server

    Bauke, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    Current generations of graphics processing units have turned into highly parallel devices with general computing capabilities. Thus, graphics processing units may be utilized, for example, to solve time dependent partial differential equations by the Fourier split operator method. In this contribution, we demonstrate that graphics processing units are capable to calculate fast Fourier transforms much more efficiently than traditional central processing units. Thus, graphics processing units render efficient implementations of the Fourier split operator method possible. Performance gains of more than an order of magnitude as compared to implementations for traditional central processing units are reached in the solution of the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and the time dependent Dirac equation.

  9. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES IN AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    and Nathan Rickard ,”Operation Serval: French Intervention in Mali,” Air Operations Division, Defence Science & Technology Organisation, http...www.cfr.org/nigeria/boko-haram/p25739. 56 James J. F. Forest, Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria, Joint Special Operations University...Best Practices.” Joint Forces Quarterly, Issue 50, 3d Quarter 2008. 30 Forest, James J. F. Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in

  10. A time study of physicians' work in a German university eye hospital to estimate unit costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wolff

    Full Text Available Technical efficiency of hospital services is debated since performance has been heterogeneous. Staff time represents the main resource in patient care and its inappropriate allocation has been identified as a key factor of inefficiency. The aim of this study was to analyse the utilisation of physicians' work time stratified by staff groups, tasks and places of work. A further aim was to use these data to estimate resource use per unit of output.A self-reporting work-sampling study was carried during 14-days at a University Eye Hospital. Staff costs of physicians per unit of output were calculated at the wards, the operating rooms and the outpatient unit.Forty per cent of total work time was spent in contact with the patient. Thirty per cent was spent with documentation tasks. Time spent with documentation tasks declined monotonically with increasing seniority of staff. Unit costs were 56 € per patient day at the wards, 77 € and 20 € per intervention at the operating rooms for inpatients and outpatients, respectively, and 33 € per contact at the outpatient unit. Substantial differences in resources directly dedicated to the patient were found between these locations.The presented data provide unprecedented units costs in inpatient Ophthalmology. Future research should focus on analysing factors that influence differences in time allocation, such as types of patients, organisation of care processes and composition of staff.

  11. Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the data on operation reliability indices and relevant analyses toward China's conventional power generating units in 2009. The units brought into the statistical analysis include 100-MW or above thermal generating units, 40-MW or above hydro generating units, and all nuclear generating units. The reliability indices embodied include utilization hours, times and hours of scheduled outages, times and hours of unscheduled outages, equivalent forced outage rate and equivalent availability factor.

  12. 19 CFR 10.814 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.814 Section 10.814 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... administrative salaries, casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salesmen's salaries, commissions,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct costs of processing operations. 10.774 Section 10.774 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... administrative salaries, casualty and liability insurance, advertising, and salesmen's salaries, commissions,...

  14. Operative costs, reasons for operative waste, and vendor credit replacement in spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E; Roberts, Rita; Collins, John

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Epstein et al. documented that educating spinal surgeons reduced the cost of operative waste (explanted devices: placed but removed prior to closure) occurring during anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion from 20% to 5.8%.[5] This prompted the development of a two-pronged spine surgeon-education program (2012-2014) aimed at decreasing operative costs for waste, and reducing the nine reasons for operative waste. The spine surgeon-education program involved posting the data for operative costs of waste and the nine reasons for operative waste over the neurosurgery/orthopedic scrub sinks every quarter. These data were compared for 2012 (latter 10 months), 2013 (12 months), and 2014 (first 9 months) (e.g. data were normalized). Savings from a 2013 Vendor Credit Replacement program were also calculated. From 2012 to 2013 and 2014, spinal operative costs for waste were, respectively reduced by 64.7% and 61% for orthopedics, and 49.4% and 45.2% for neurosurgery. Although reduced by the program, the major reason for operative waste for all 3 years remained surgeon-related factors (e.g. 159.6, to 67, and 96, respectively). Alternatively, the eight other reasons for operative waste were reduced from 68.4 (2012) to 12 (2013) and finally to zero by 2014. Additionally, the Vendor Replacement program for 2013 netted $78,564. The spine surgeon-education program reduced the costs/reasons for operative waste for 2012 to lower levels by 2013 and 2014. Although the major cost/reasons for operative waste were attributed to surgeon-related factors, these declined while the other eight reasons for operative waste were reduced to zero by 2014.

  15. Operative costs, reasons for operative waste, and vendor credit replacement in spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2012, Epstein et al. documented that educating spinal surgeons reduced the cost of operative waste (explanted devices: placed but removed prior to closure occurring during anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion from 20% to 5.8%. [5] This prompted the development of a two-pronged spine surgeon-education program (2012-2014 aimed at decreasing operative costs for waste, and reducing the nine reasons for operative waste. Methods: The spine surgeon-education program involved posting the data for operative costs of waste and the nine reasons for operative waste over the neurosurgery/orthopedic scrub sinks every quarter. These data were compared for 2012 (latter 10 months, 2013 (12 months, and 2014 (first 9 months (e.g. data were normalized. Savings from a 2013 Vendor Credit Replacement program were also calculated. Results: From 2012 to 2013 and 2014, spinal operative costs for waste were, respectively reduced by 64.7% and 61% for orthopedics, and 49.4% and 45.2% for neurosurgery. Although reduced by the program, the major reason for operative waste for all 3 years remained surgeon-related factors (e.g. 159.6, to 67, and 96, respectively. Alternatively, the eight other reasons for operative waste were reduced from 68.4 (2012 to 12 (2013 and finally to zero by 2014. Additionally, the Vendor Replacement program for 2013 netted $78,564. Conclusions: The spine surgeon-education program reduced the costs/reasons for operative waste for 2012 to lower levels by 2013 and 2014. Although the major cost/reasons for operative waste were attributed to surgeon-related factors, these declined while the other eight reasons for operative waste were reduced to zero by 2014.

  16. Unit Cost Analysis of PET-CT at an Apex Public Sector Health Care Institute in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajuryal, SH; Daga, A; Siddharth, V; Bal, CS; Satpathy, S

    2017-01-01

    Context: PET/CT scan service is one of the capital intensive and revenue-generating centres of a tertiary care hospital. The cost associated with the provisioning of PET services is dependent upon the unit costs of the resources consumed. Aims: The study aims to determine the cost of providing PET/CT Scan services in a hospital. Methods and Material: This descriptive and observational study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at a tertiary apex teaching hospital in New Delhi, India in the year 2014-15. Traditional costing methodology was used for calculating the unit cost of PET/CT scan service. The cost was calculated under two heads that is capital and operating cost. Annualized cost of capital assets was calculated using methodology prescribed by WHO and operating costs was taken on an actual basis. Results: Average number of PET/CT scan performed in a day is 30. The annual cost of providing PET/CT scan services was calculated to be 65,311,719 Indian Rupees (INR) (US$ 1,020,496), while the unit cost of PET scan was calculated to be 9625.92 INR (US$ 150). 3/4th cost was spent on machinery and equipment (75.3%) followed by healthcare personnel (11.37%), electricity (5%), consumables and supplies (4%) engineering maintenance (3.24%), building, furniture and HVAC capital cost (0.76%), and manifold cost (0.05%). Of the total cost, 76% was capital cost while the remaining was operating cost. Conclusions: Total cost for establishing PET/CT scan facility with cyclotron and chemistry module and PET/CT scan without cyclotron and chemistry module was calculated to be INR 610,873,517 (US$9944899) and 226,745,158 (US$3542893), respectively. (US$ 1=INR 64) PMID:28242974

  17. Unit Cost Analysis of PET-CT at an Apex Public Sector Health Care Institute in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajuryal, S H; Daga, A; Siddharth, V; Bal, C S; Satpathy, S

    2017-01-01

    PET/CT scan service is one of the capital intensive and revenue-generating centres of a tertiary care hospital. The cost associated with the provisioning of PET services is dependent upon the unit costs of the resources consumed. The study aims to determine the cost of providing PET/CT Scan services in a hospital. This descriptive and observational study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at a tertiary apex teaching hospital in New Delhi, India in the year 2014-15. Traditional costing methodology was used for calculating the unit cost of PET/CT scan service. The cost was calculated under two heads that is capital and operating cost. Annualized cost of capital assets was calculated using methodology prescribed by WHO and operating costs was taken on an actual basis. Average number of PET/CT scan performed in a day is 30. The annual cost of providing PET/CT scan services was calculated to be 65,311,719 Indian Rupees (INR) (US$ 1,020,496), while the unit cost of PET scan was calculated to be 9625.92 INR (US$ 150). 3/4th cost was spent on machinery and equipment (75.3%) followed by healthcare personnel (11.37%), electricity (5%), consumables and supplies (4%) engineering maintenance (3.24%), building, furniture and HVAC capital cost (0.76%), and manifold cost (0.05%). Of the total cost, 76% was capital cost while the remaining was operating cost. Total cost for establishing PET/CT scan facility with cyclotron and chemistry module and PET/CT scan without cyclotron and chemistry module was calculated to be INR 610,873,517 (US$9944899) and 226,745,158 (US$3542893), respectively. (US$ 1=INR 64).

  18. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  19. Statistical analysis of regional capital and operating costs for electric power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, L.R.; Myers, M.G.; Herrman, J.A.; Provanizano, A.J.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the results of a three and one-half-month study conducted for Brookhaven National Lab. to develop capital and operating cost relationships for seven electric power generating technologies: oil-, coal-, gas-, and nuclear-fired steam-electric plants, hydroelectric plants, and gas-turbine plants. The methodology is based primarily on statistical analysis of Federal Power Commission data for plant construction and annual operating costs. The development of cost-output relationships for electric power generation is emphasized, considering the effects of scale, technology, and location on each of the generating processes investigated. The regional effects on cost are measured at the Census Region level to be consistent with the Brookhaven Multi-Regional Energy and Interindustry Regional Model of the United States. Preliminary cost relationships for system-wide costs - transmission, distribution, and general expenses - were also derived. These preliminary results cover the demand for transmission and distribution capacity and operating and maintenance costs in terms of system-service characteristics. 15 references, 6 figures, 23 tables.

  20. Levelised unit electricity cost comparison of alternate technologies for baseload generation in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, M.; McRae, M.; Stogran, M.

    2004-08-15

    This report provides a comparison of the lifetime cost of constructing, operating and decommissioning new generation suitable for supplying baseload power by early in the next decade. New baseload generation options in Ontario are nuclear, coal-fired steam turbines or combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT). Nuclear and coal-fired units are characterised by high capital costs and low operating costs. As such, they are candidates for baseload operation only. Gas-fired generation is characterised by lower capital costs and higher operating costs and thus may meet the requirements for operation as peaking and/or baseload generation. The comparison of baseload generating technologies is made by reference to the estimated levelised unit electricity cost (LUEC). The LUEC can be thought of as a 'supply cost', where the unit cost is the price needed to recover all costs over the period. It is determined by finding the price that sets the sum of all future discounted cash flows (net present value, or NPV) to zero. It can also be thought of as representing the constant real wholesale price of electricity that meets the financing cost, debt repayment, income tax and cash flow constraints associated with the construction operation and decommissioning of a generating plant. Levelised unit cost comparisons are usually made with different sets of financing assumptions. This report considers two base cases, which we describe as 'merchant' and 'public' financing. The term 'merchant plant' is used to refer to ones that are built and operated by private investors. These investors pay for their capital through debt and by raising equity, and thus pay return on equity and interest on debt throughout their lifetime. These projects include income taxes, both provincial and federal. Publicly financed projects typically are not subject to income taxes or to the same constraints on raising finance through issuing debt and equity. However, they are

  1. Reducing operating costs while protecting safety and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, R. [Transocean Drilling ASA, (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with the change process by reducing the operating costs in the petroleum industry while protecting safety and the environment. The author`s intention is to examine some of these cost reduction initiatives and see if they have affected the HSE (Health, Safety and Environment) parameters and subsequently how HSE has been managed during the change process. The examination will be from a contractor`s point of view. Topics are: organisational change; safety, environment and change; reduction of profit margins; changing contract strategy; restructuring of the drilling industry; technological development; environment

  2. Military Implications of United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    maintenance of law and order, protecting the delivery of humanitarian assistance, the denial of an air space and the guarantee of rights of passage . In...involve the coordinated presence of warships and combat aircraft in the disputed region. Operations to guarantee rights of passage may be mounted to ensure

  3. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated March 10, 2011, 76 FR 13168. May 29, 2012, the cost figures...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... forecasting the representative average unit costs of five residential energy sources for the year...

  4. A Low-Cost Easy-Operation Hexapod Walking Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carbone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical design of an hybrid hexapod walking machine that has been designed and built at LARM: Laboratory of Robotics and Mechatronics in Cassino. Basic characteristics are investigated in order to design a leg system with suitable low-cost modular components. Moreover, special care has been addressed in proposing an architecture that can be easily operated by a PLC with on-off logic. Experimental tests are reported in order to show feasibility and operational capability of proposed design.

  5. Model for Determining Fixed Costs for the Winter Service Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Glad

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available From the season 2005!06 a new dynamic model for the operationof the Winter Service in the Republic of Croatia will beused. The old model was based on three levels of readiness, andthe roads were categorised primarily according to their administrativedistribution. The new dynamic model has three levelsof readiness, while the first level is further divided into two servicelevels. The road is classified to a certain readiness and servicelevel according to the traffic, climate and economic conditions.The new model splits the cost structure into fixed and variablecosts. The investor wants to keep the fixed costs at a minimal/eve~ which will guarantee proper readiness for quick intervention.The investor wants to ensure a technological infrastructurefor quality cleaning of roads is created. The capitalcompanies want larger fixed costs to ensure certain profit, anddefined fixed costs enable them to asses the profitability of theWinter Service operation. Such structure fonils the followingrelationship: in mild winters the capital companies "profit" andthe investor "loses", and vice versa for cold winters. Mathematically,such relationship should be treated as a finite strategictwo-player game.This paper will show the model needed to forecast fixedcosts in the new dynamic model for operation of Winter Ser·vice, through consideration of connection of linear programmingand the matrix game theory, to study the problem in parallel,from the standpoint of both players.

  6. Study on safety operation for large hydroelectric generator unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z. G.; Cui, T.; Zhou, L. J.; Zhi, F. L.; Wang, Z. W.

    2012-11-01

    Hydroelectric generator unit is a complex mechanical system which is composed of hydraulic turbine and electric generator. Rotary system is supported by the bearing bracket and the reinforced concrete structures, and vibration problem can't be avoided in the process of operating. Many large-scale hydroelectric units have been damaged because of the vibration problem in recent years. As the increase of the hydraulic turbine unit capacity and water head, the safe operation of hydraulic turbine has become a focus research in many countries. The operating characteristics of the hydraulic turbine have obvious differences at different working conditions. Based on the combination of field measurement and theoretical calculation, this paper shows a deep research on the safe operation of a large-scale Francis turbine unit. Firstly, the measurements of vibration, swing, pressure fluctuation and noise were carried out at 4 different heads. And also the relationships between vibrations and pressure fluctuations at different heads and working conditions were analysed deeply. Then the scientific prediction of safe operation for the unit at high head were done based on the CFD numerical calculation. Finally, this paper shows the division of the operating zone for the hydroelectric unit. According to the experimental results (vibrations, swings, pressure fluctuations and noise) as well as the theoretical results, the operating zone of the unit has been divided into three sections: prohibited operating zone, transition operating zone and safe operating zone. After this research was applied in the hydropower station, the security and economic efficiency of unit increased greatly, and enormous economic benefits and social benefits have been obtained.

  7. Modeling Optimal Scheduling for Pumping System to Minimize Operation Cost and Enhance Operation Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional pump scheduling models neglect the operation reliability which directly relates with the unscheduled maintenance cost and the wear cost during the operation. Just for this, based on the assumption that the vibration directly relates with the operation reliability and the degree of wear, it could express the operation reliability as the normalization of the vibration level. The characteristic of the vibration with the operation point was studied, it could be concluded that idealized flow versus vibration plot should be a distinct bathtub shape. There is a narrow sweet spot (80 to 100 percent BEP to obtain low vibration levels in this shape, and the vibration also follows similar law with the square of the rotation speed without resonance phenomena. Then, the operation reliability could be modeled as the function of the capacity and rotation speed of the pump and add this function to the traditional model to form the new. And contrast with the tradition method, the result shown that the new model could fix the result produced by the traditional, make the pump operate in low vibration, then the operation reliability could increase and the maintenance cost could decrease.

  8. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  9. Predicting performance and situation awareness of robot operators in complex situations by unit task tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mioch, T.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-in-the-loop field tests of human-robot operations in high-demand situations provide serious constraints with respect to costs and control. A set of relatively simple unit tasks might be used to do part of the testing and to establish a benchmark for human-robot performance and situation awaren

  10. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sungki Kim; Wonil Ko; Sungsig Bang

    2015-01-01

    ...) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method...

  11. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  12. Crushed Stone Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  13. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  14. Achieving cost reductions in EOSDIS operations through technology evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Penny; Moe, Karen; Harberts, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The earth observing system (EOS) data information system (EOSDIS) mission includes the cost-effective management and distribution of large amounts of data to the earth science community. The effect of the introduction of new information system technologies on the evolution of EOSDIS is considered. One of the steps taken by NASA to enable the introduction of new information system technologies into the EOSDIS is the funding of technology development through prototyping. Recent and ongoing prototyping efforts and their potential impact on the performance and cost-effectiveness of the EOSDIS are discussed. The technology evolution process as it related to the effective operation of EOSDIS is described, and methods are identified for the support of the transfer of relevant technology to EOSDIS components.

  15. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This feasibility study examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred alternative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965--1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area, groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228, and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9{times}10{sup {minus}5}.

  16. 42 CFR 412.71 - Determination of base-year inpatient operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Costs § 412.71 Determination of base-year inpatient operating costs. (a) Base-year costs. (1) For each...) Modifications to base-year costs. Prior to determining the hospital-specific rate, the intermediary will adjust the hospital's estimated base-year inpatient operating costs, as necessary, to include...

  17. Cost-control issues within the hospital environment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R

    1993-01-01

    Health care in the United Kingdom is dominated by the National Health Service, which operates under a system in which care is delivered free at the point of need and is funded by taxation. Experimentation with a number of different models has occurred since 1980 and has culminated in recent National Health Service reforms characterized by the separation of purchaser and provider functions. An inescapable result of this is the formal definition of the relationship between need and service provision (contracts or performance arrangements), and the equally unavoidable costing of "patient episodes" or equivalent as a tool for estimating both supply and demand. This change has completely altered the way in which individual capital and revenue costs are viewed in the National Health Service. With regard to drugs, costs can now be seen as part of a patient's consumption of resources as opposed to a hospital budget heading. The new system acknowledges that higher drug costs can be incurred if the overall patient-episode cost is reduced as a result. Such a reduction in average patient costs might then lead to more contract work and a higher revenue for the hospital. Quality of care specifications by purchasers may also affect drug costs.

  18. Minimization of the energy costs for operating magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Ilyas A. H.; Gale, E.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2015-03-01

    Increasing prospects of utilizing the STT-MRAM calls for the re-assessment of the overall energy (power) cost of operating magnetic tunnel junctions and related elements. This motivates our design, nanofabrication and characterization of simple tri-layer magnetic tunnel junctions which show measurable decrease in the operating energy cost. The MTJs we report about rely on nanoengineering interfaces between the insulating and magnetic layers in such a way that the area of the hysteresis loops can be controlled in one or both magnetic layers. Our TMR coefficient ranges from 45% to 130%, depending on the MTJ layer materials, and can be anticipated to be further increased. We also report the study of the TMR dependence on the RA product, as an important interface parameter. Lastly, we present an analysis of MTJ parameters affected by our approach and a perspective on further improvements, focusing on the device design parameters relevant for the integration of this type of MTJs. This work is supported by the SRC-ATIC Grant 2012-VJ-2335. A part of this work is being performed at Cornell University CNF, a member of NNIN. We thank CNF staff for the support.

  19. Correlational and Differential Influence of Historical Cost and Current Cost Profits on the Operating Capabilities of the Firm

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Effiong; J. O. Udoayang; A. I. Asuquo

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the correlation and differential influence of historical cost and current cost profits on the operating capabilities of the firm. The financial statements of thirty-one Nigerian Companies were surveyed and adjusted for effects of price changes using the Consumers¡¯ Price Index (CPI). Correlation influence between the historical cost profits on the operating ability of the firm was measured and established on one hand and that of current cost profit on the other hand. Di...

  20. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-10-27

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  1. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-11-02

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  2. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-10-27

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  3. What can the postanesthesia care unit manager do to decrease costs in the postanesthesia care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, A; Glenn, D; Dexter, F

    1999-10-01

    The economic structure of the PACU dictates whether a cost-reducing intervention (e.g., reducing the length of time patients stay in the PACU) is likely to decrease hospital costs. Cost-reducing interventions, such as changes in medical practice patterns (e.g., to reduce PACU length of stay), only impact variable costs. How PACU nurses are paid (e.g., salaried v hourly) affects which strategies to decrease PACU staffing costs will actually save money. For example, decreases in PACU labor costs resulting from increases in the number of patients that bypass the PACU vary depending on how the staff is compensated. The choice of anesthetic drugs and the elimination of low morbidity side effects of anesthesia, such as postoperative nausea, are likely to have little effect on the peak numbers of patients in a PACU and PACU staffing costs. Because the major determinant of labor productivity in the PACU is hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability in the timing of admissions from the operating room, a more even inflow of patients into the PACU could be attained by appropriate sequencing of cases in the operating room suite (e.g., have long cases scheduled at the beginning of the day). However, this mathematically proven solution may not be desirable. Surgeons, for example, may not want to lose control over the order of their cases. Guidelines for analysis of past daily peak numbers of patients are provided that will provide data to predict the minimum adequate number of nurses needed. Though many managers already do this manually on an ad hoc basis statistical methods summarized in this article may increase the accuracy.

  4. Influence of sulfur physical properties in Claus unit operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of la Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H{sub 2}S from acid gas streams and it has been widely practiced in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulfur recovery and high stream factor from the Claus units in order to minimize sulfur-containing effluents. As has been widely reported Claus unit's damages mainly occur during start up and shutdown. These operations involve scheduled warm-up and cool-down of the unit, usually burning refinery fuel-gas, which if not properly made can produce severe pipe and equipment plugging as well as catalyst deactivation. Sulfur products remaining in the unit during a shutdown period can produce dramatic unit corrosion episodes diminishing sulfur recovery unit stream factor. In the present paper some guidelines are given based on sulfur physical properties singularities which help to improve start-up/shut-down procedures. (orig.)

  5. Cost and usage patterns of antibiotics in a tertiary care neurosurgical unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Singh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The routine use of prophylactic antibiotics in neurosurgery has been shown to significantly reduce surgical site infection rates. The documentation of non-surgical site, nosocomial infections in neurosurgical patients remains limited, despite this being a stimulus for prolific antibiotic usage. The actual quantum of antibiotic use in neurosurgery and its role in infection control remain both undocumented and controversial. The authors address this issue with a cost-effectiveness study using historical controls. Materials and Methods: Bacteriologically positive body fluid samples were used to quantify infection rates in the year 2006 and compared with those in the year 1997. Itemized drug lists obtained from dedicated neurosurgical intensive care units and wards were used to quantify antibiotic usage and calculate their costs. Results were compared using both historical and internal controls. The monetary conversion factor used was INR 40=US$1. Results: A total of 3114 consecutive elective and emergency neurosurgical procedures were performed during the study period. 329 patients (10.6% were recorded to have bacteriologically positive body fluid samples, and 100,250 units of antibiotics were consumed costing Rs. 14,378,227.5 ($359,455.7. On an average, an operated patient received 32.2 units of antibiotics valued at Rs. 4,617 ($115.4. The crude infection rates were recorded to have reduced significantly in comparison to 1997, but did not differ between mirror intra-departmental units with significantly different antibiotic usage. Conclusions: Antibiotics accounted for 31% of the per capita cost of consumables for performing a craniotomy in the year 2006. This estimate should be factored into projecting future package costs.

  6. Analysis on Isolation Condenser Operation by Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chungang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident resulted in the core damage in three reactors and the release of considerable amount of radioactive material to the environment, not to mention significant social impact and anti-nuclear atmosphere all around the world. This paper provides a review of the findings related to shift operators' operation of the isolation condenser in Unit 1 to examine shift operators' response to the situation. Based on the review of the findings, a situation assessment model was developed to analyze shift operators' understanding on whether core cooling was successfully performed in Unit 1 through the operation of isolation condenser. It was found that lack of information could be one of the main causes for the failure in core cooling by the IC in Unit 1. It is also recommended that the differences in the mathematical model for the situation assessment and that of the real operator need to be further investigated.

  7. Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Alastair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

  8. Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Xiaowen; Chu Xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ The weighted average equivalent availability factor of thermal power units in 2005 was 92.34%, an increase of 0.64 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The average equivalent availability factor in 2005 was 92.22%, a decrease of 0.95 percentage points as compared to that in 2004. The nationwide operation reliability of generating units in 2005 was analyzed completely in this paper.

  9. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozernova Natalja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  10. A Formula for the Units to Satisfy an Operation's Desired Rate of Return in CVP Analysis--A Conceptual Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Johann A.; Leese, Wallace R.

    2016-01-01

    A common formula presented in many managerial- and cost-accounting textbooks makes possible the determination of the quantity of units which must be produced and sold to generate a desired dollar-amount of operating income. This article addresses the question "What formula can be used to determine the quantity of units needed to yield a…

  11. Reducing The Operating Costs Of An Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takács Ján

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Circulation pumps are mechanical devices, which are used to create the overpressure required for the transportation of a heat-transfer medium in heating technology as well as in other related technologies. In a circulation pump the mechanical energy generated by the drive machine – an electric motor is transformed to hydraulic energy, which consists of kinetic and static energy. In the pipeline of a heating system circulation pumps represent a source of hydraulic energy (positive differential pressure, which is consumed to transport the heat-transfer medium. During the flow, the heat-transfer medium puts up resistance to the so-called passive resistors, which consist of pressure losses from friction in the pipes and pressure losses due to local resistance. In this article the authors analyze the effect of a circulation pump on the operating costs in an apartment building. Different types of circulating pumps, ranging from the most unfavorable to the optimal, were selected.

  12. Reducing The Operating Costs Of An Apartment Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2015-09-01

    Circulation pumps are mechanical devices, which are used to create the overpressure required for the transportation of a heat-transfer medium in heating technology as well as in other related technologies. In a circulation pump the mechanical energy generated by the drive machine - an electric motor is transformed to hydraulic energy, which consists of kinetic and static energy. In the pipeline of a heating system circulation pumps represent a source of hydraulic energy (positive differential pressure), which is consumed to transport the heat-transfer medium. During the flow, the heat-transfer medium puts up resistance to the so-called passive resistors, which consist of pressure losses from friction in the pipes and pressure losses due to local resistance. In this article the authors analyze the effect of a circulation pump on the operating costs in an apartment building. Different types of circulating pumps, ranging from the most unfavorable to the optimal, were selected.

  13. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. A control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions is discussed. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption was accomplished by using the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. It is found that the measured throughput differential for the total system is higher.

  14. Control and operation cost optimization of the HISS cryogenic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J.; Bieser, F.; Anderson, D.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. A previous paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration and gas management. This paper discusses a control strategy which has allowed full time unattended operation, along with significant nitrogen and power cost reductions. Reduction of liquid nitrogen consumption has been accomplished by making use of the sensible heat available in the cold exhaust gas. Measured nitrogen throughput agrees with calculations for sensible heat utilization of zero to 70%. Calculated consumption saving over this range is 40 liters per hour for conductive losses to the supports only. The measured throughput differential for the total system is higher.

  15. Full-cost determination of different levels of care in the intensive care unit. An activity-based costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, J J; Casciano, J P; Arikian, S R; Mauskopf, J; Paul, J E

    1996-10-01

    We applied an activity-based costing methodology to determine the full cost of intensive care service at a community hospital, a university hospital and a health maintenance organisation (HMO)-affiliated hospital. A total of 5 patient care units were analysed: the intensive care unit (ICU) and surgical ICU (SICU) at the university setting, the ICU at the community setting, and the SICU and cardiac care unit at the HMO setting. The selection of the different ICU types was based on the types of critical care units that were found in each setting (e.g. the HMO did not have an ICU). Institution-specific cost data and clinical management parameters were collected through surveys and site visits from the 3 respective organisation types. The analysis revealed a marked increase in patient-minute cost associated with mechanical ventilation. Higher costs associated with prolonged neuromuscular blockade have important economic implications with respect to selection of an appropriate neuromuscular blocking agent.

  16. Eurodish-Continuous Operation, System Improvement and Reference Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, T.; Schiel, W.; Heller, P.; Reinalter, W.; Gineste, J. M.; Ferriere, A.; Flamant, G.

    2006-07-01

    The 10 kWel Dish/Stirling system EuroDish was enhanced. Newly developed and improved components like the ceramic cavity insulation and the control system are described as well as a novel assembly method for the concentrator and a number of improvements and new features of the control software. Country Reference Units were built in Spain, France and Germany and are continuously operated. Operation experiences and performance data are presented. (Author)

  17. 77 FR 62247 - Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...] Dynamic Positioning Operations Guidance for Vessels Other Than Mobile Offshore Drilling Units Operating on... voluntary guidance titled ``Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Dynamic Positioning Guidance''. The notice recommended owners and operators of Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) follow Marine Technology...

  18. Process-Costing, Job-Order-Costing, Operation Costing (også kaldet Batch Costing og Functional Costing - Når Systemtankegangen ligger til grund for økonomistyringen og dens beslutninger)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    De tre begreber process-costing, job-order-costing, operation-costing samt functional-based costing er faktisk historiske begreber som stammer langt tilbage i økonomistyringslitteraturen, faktisk tilbage til Scientific Management bevægelsen fra 20'erne og 30'erne. Man kan derfor ikke sige, at disse...

  19. Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungki Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium/TRU (TRansUranium metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process.

  20. 25 CFR 39.101 - Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? 39... SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula § 39.101 Does ISEF assess the actual cost of school operations? No. ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations...

  1. 25 CFR 39.201 - Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations... Does ISEF reflect the actual cost of school operations? ISEF does not attempt to assess the actual cost of school operations either at the local school level or in the aggregate nationally. ISEF is...

  2. The impact of unit cost reductions on gross profit: Increasing or decreasing returns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Dahan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that marketers actively participate in reducing unit costs during new product development, consistent with the theme of integrated marketing and manufacturing. Most marketing managers misjudge the impact on gross profit of reducing variable unit manufacturing costs, mistakenly believing that such cost reductions yield decreasing or linear returns while they actually generate increasing returns.

  3. Refining United States Policy on Offensive Cyber Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    address state- sponsored cyber threats with a very different set of tools ranging from diplomacy to kinetic strikes. Categorizing attacks by actor will...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY REFINING UNITED STATES POLICY ON OFFENSIVE CYBER OPERATIONS by Max...to offensive cyber warfare, specifically cyber exploitation and cyber attack. Current domestic and international policies lack mechanisms to

  4. Semiconductor Chemical Reactor Engineering and Photovoltaic Unit Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, T. W. F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the nature of semiconductor chemical reactor engineering, illustrating the application of this engineering with research in physical vapor deposition of cadmium sulfide at both the laboratory and unit operations scale and chemical vapor deposition of amorphous silicon at the laboratory scale. (JN)

  5. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  6. Biomass publications of the forest operations research unit: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Renee Ayala; [Compilers

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Operations Unit of the Southern Research Station has been studying biomass-related topics since 1977. This CD aids the reader by organizing these publications in one easy-to-use CD. This CD is comprised of an executive summary, two bibliographies, individual publications (in PDF format), and a keyword listing. The types of publications included on this CD...

  7. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  8. An innovative multivariate tool for fuel consumption and costs estimation of agricultural operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Guerrieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of operating costs of agricultural and forestry machineries is a key factor in both planning agricultural policies and farm management. Few works have tried to estimate operating costs and the produced models are normally based on deterministic approaches. Conversely, in the statistical model randomness is present and variable states are not described by unique values, but rather by probability distributions. In this study, for the first time, a multivariate statistical model based on Partial Least Squares (PLS was adopted to predict the fuel consumption and costs of six agricultural operations such as: ploughing, harrowing, fertilization, sowing, weed control and shredding. The prediction was conducted on two steps: first of all few initial selected parameters (time per surface-area unit, maximum engine power, purchase price of the tractor and purchase price of the operating machinery were used to estimate the fuel consumption; then the predicted fuel consumption together with the initial parameters were used to estimate the operational costs. Since the obtained models were based on an input dataset very heterogeneous, these resulted to be extremely efficient and so generalizable and robust. In details the results show prediction values in the test with r always ≥ 0.91. Thus, the approach may results extremely useful for both farmers (in terms of economic advantages and at institutional level (representing an innovative and efficient tool for planning future Rural Development Programmes and the Common Agricultural Policy. In light of these advantages the proposed approach may as well be implemented on a web platform and made available to all the stakeholders.

  9. Sensitivity study of Space Station Freedom operations cost and selected user resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne; Fincannon, H. J.; Williams, Gregory J.; Meier, R. Timothy

    1990-01-01

    The results of sensitivity studies performed to estimate probable ranges for four key Space Station parameters using the Space Station Freedom's Model for Estimating Space Station Operations Cost (MESSOC) are discussed. The variables examined are grouped into five main categories: logistics, crew, design, space transportation system, and training. The modification of these variables implies programmatic decisions in areas such as orbital replacement unit (ORU) design, investment in repair capabilities, and crew operations policies. The model utilizes a wide range of algorithms and an extensive trial logistics data base to represent Space Station operations. The trial logistics data base consists largely of a collection of the ORUs that comprise the mature station, and their characteristics based on current engineering understanding of the Space Station. A nondimensional approach is used to examine the relative importance of variables on parameters.

  10. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  11. Operational Cost Analysis of Dental Emergencies for Deployed U.S. Army Personnel During Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Dollar Cost) DE Operational Costs, also called Total Dollar Cost ( TDC ), is defined as all measureable dollar ~osts, both fixed and variable, that are...hourly rates of a typical deployed soldier were $42.28 and $43.26, respectively. The following formula was used to calculate TDC of DEs for this...study: TDC = Fixed Dollar Cost (Treatment) + Variable Dollar Cost (Time). RESULTS We determined that 11,642 soldiers were seen for DEs between July 1

  12. Quality and Growth Implications of Incremental Costing Models for Distance Education Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, C. B.; Gould, Lawrence V.; King, Dennis; Parker, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore quality and growth implications emergent from various incremental costing models applied to distance education units. Prior research relative to costing models and three competing costing models useful in the current distance education environment are discussed. Specifically, the simple costing model, unit…

  13. Business Process Re-engineering: A Panacea for Reducing Operational Cost in Service Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Joseph Sungau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Organizations in today’s business environment struggle on how to reduce operation cost in order to set prices that can be afforded by many customers while obtaining reasonable profit.  In order to reduce Operational Cost, service organizations have been working hard to identify techniques that facilitate business processes improvement for reduced Operational Cost. In so doing, the global literature indicates that service organizations adopt Business Process Re-engineering technique as a panacea of reducing Operational Cost. Despite a documented potentiality of Business Process Re-engineering technique, there are mixed empirical results, findings and conclusions regarding the effect of Business Process Re-engineering on Operational Cost. Therefore, this paper aimed at assessing and explaining effects of BPR on Operational Cost.   The study used cross-sectional survey design to investigate the effect of BPR on Operational Cost. Intensive literature review enabled the construction of structural measurement model, formulation of testable hypotheses and operationalization of constructs. In order to test the model and hypotheses, data were collected from ninety five (95 service organizations in Tanzania. Results of the study reveal that BPR and delivering speed have no direct effects on Operational Cost; they indirectly affect Operational Cost through the mediations of service quality. Therefore, BPR influences first both service quality and delivery speed in affecting Operational Cost of service organizations. It is now recommended that service organizations should use Business Process Re-engineering as panacea of reducing Operational Cost.    

  14. Measures of coherence-generating power for quantum unital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Styliaris, Georgios; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2017-05-01

    Given an orthonormal basis B in a d -dimensional Hilbert space and a unital quantum operation E acting on it, one can define a nonlinear mapping that associates with E a d ×d real-valued matrix that we call the coherence matrix of E with respect to B . This is the Gram matrix of the coherent part of the basis projections of B under E . We show that one can use this coherence matrix to define vast families of measures of the coherence-generating power (CGP) of the operation. These measures have a natural geometrical interpretation as separation of E from the set of incoherent unital operations. The probabilistic approach to CGP discussed in P. Zanardi et al. [Phys. Rev. A 95, 052306 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.052306] can be reformulated and generalized, introducing, alongside the coherence matrix, another d ×d real-valued matrix, the simplex correlation matrix. This matrix describes the relevant statistical correlations in the input ensemble of incoherent states. Contracting these two matrices, one finds CGP measures associated with the process of preparing the given incoherent ensemble and processing it with the chosen unital operation. Finally, in the unitary case, we discuss how these concepts can be made compatible with an underlying tensor product structure by defining families of CGP measures that are additive.

  15. Forecasting the Unit Cost of a Product with Some Linear Fuzzy Collaborative Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toly Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the unit cost of every product type in a factory is an important task. However, it is not easy to deal with the uncertainty of the unit cost. Fuzzy collaborative forecasting is a very effective treatment of the uncertainty in the distributed environment. This paper presents some linear fuzzy collaborative forecasting models to predict the unit cost of a product. In these models, the experts’ forecasts differ and therefore need to be aggregated through collaboration. According to the experimental results, the effectiveness of forecasting the unit cost was considerably improved through collaboration.

  16. Allocation of Operations and Support Cost Targets Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Logistics Technology Dept P.O. Box 225907, Dallas TX 75265 Sa. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING ORGANIZATION AF Business Research Mgt Center AFBRMC/RDCB Sb...REPORT (Yr., Mo.. Day) 84 Apr 5 15. PAGE COUNT 42 COSAT1 CODES FIELD 05 GROUP 01 SUB. GR. 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if...necessary and identify by block number) Allocation of 0&S Cost Targets, Guarantees Life Cycle Cost, Costs, Cost Targets 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse

  17. Reduction in energy consumption and operating cost in a dried corn warehouse using logistics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Y. Tippayawong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the major economic crops in Thailand. Corn postharvest operation involves various practices that consume a large amount of energy. Different energy conservation measures have been implemented but logistics consideration is not normally employed. In this work, attempt has been made to demonstrate that logistics techniques can offer a significant reduction in energy and cost. The main objective of this work is to identify and demonstrate possible approaches to improving energy efficiency and reducing operating cost for a dried corn warehouse operator. Three main problems are identified: (i relatively high fuel consumption for internal transfer process, (ii low quality of dried corn, and (iii excess expenditure on outbound transportation. Solutions are proposed and implemented using logistics operations. Improvement is achieved using plant layout and shortest path techniques, resulting in a reduction of almost 50% in energy consumption for the internal transfer process. Installation of an air distributor in the grain storage unit results in a decrease in loss due to poor-quality dried corn from 17% to 10%. Excess expenditure on dried corn distribution is reduced by 6% with application of a global positioning system.

  18. Costs of occupational injuries in construction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Dong, Xiuwen S; Miller, Ted; Haile, Elizabeth; Men, Yurong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries for the construction industry using 2002 national incidence data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and a comprehensive cost model that includes direct medical costs, indirect losses in wage and household productivity, as well as an estimate of the quality of life costs due to injury. Costs are presented at the three-digit industry level, by worker characteristics, and by detailed source and event of injury. The total costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries in the construction industry were estimated at $11.5 billion in 2002, 15% of the costs for all private industry. The average cost per case of fatal or nonfatal injury is $27,000 in construction, almost double the per-case cost of $15,000 for all industry in 2002. Five industries accounted for over half the industry's total fatal and nonfatal injury costs. They were miscellaneous special trade contractors (SIC 179), followed by plumbing, heating and air-conditioning (SIC 171), electrical work (SIC 173), heavy construction except highway (SIC 162), and residential building construction (SIC 152), each with over $1 billion in costs.

  19. The Fully Burdened Cost of Waste in Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Markets • On-Site Reuse /Composting • On-Site Incineration (all types) and/or Containerized Burn (solid) • On-Site Landfills (with liners) • Off-Site Local...Blackwater:Yes Greywater : No Disposal: Local River 6 Cost Components Cost Component Cost Drivers Infrastructure Facility type (e.g., waste separation

  20. ORCED: A model to simulate the operations and costs of bulk-power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1998-06-01

    Dramatic changes in the structure and operation of US bulk-power markets require new analytical tools. The authors developed the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to analyze a variety of public-policy issues related to the many changes underway in the US electricity industry. Such issues include: policy and technology options to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production; the effects of electricity trading between high- and low-cost regions on consumers and producers in both regions; the ability of the owners of certain generating units to exercise market power as functions of the transmission link between two regions and the characteristics of the generating units and loads in each region; and the market penetration of new energy-production and energy-use technologies and the effects of their adoption on fuel use, electricity use and costs, and carbon emissions. ORCED treats two electrical systems connected by a single transmission link ORCED uses two load-duration curves to represent the time-varying electricity consumption in each region. The two curves represent peak and offpeak seasons. User specification of demand elasticities permits ORCED to estimate the effects of changes in electricity price, both overall and hour by hour, on overall electricity use and load shapes. ORCED represents the electricity supply in each region with 26 generating units. The two regions are connected by a single transmission link. This link is characterized by its capacity (MW), cost ({cents}/kWh), and losses (%). This report explains the inputs to, outputs from, and operation of ORCED. It also presents four examples showing applications of the model to various public-policy issues related to restructuring of the US electricity industry.

  1. Unit cost analysis in a university hospital: an example from Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanasapt, V; Kosuwon, W; Pengsaa, P

    1993-12-01

    This is the first analytic study to identify the unit cost in the University Hospital using the standard method of analysis in health economics. The unit costs in the report can be used to calculate the cost of each service for any disease. The costs of the hospital administration cost center and the supportive cost center were both allocated to the patient care service center by the simultaneous allocation method. The cost of teaching personnel was excluded from the analysis because it is quite difficult to estimate and differentiate the ratio of teaching costs to service costs. The hotel cost of the inpatient ward varied from 77.81 baht to 604.7 baht per day. The unit cost per service per day is different from the charge which is presently used at Srinagarind Hospital. Some services, such as in-house transportation are not included in the charge. This study was conducted to identify the unit cost of each service. The decision to establish charges can depend partly on this data and partly on the administrator's judgement. Other factors, such as patient poverty can dictate the final decision. In any case, the hospital and health service center should identify their own unit costs to be able to plan for effective budget management.

  2. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  3. Post-operative telephone review is cost-effective and acceptable to patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gray, R T

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients undergoing selective minor emergency and elective procedures are followed up by a nurse-led structured telephone review six weeks post-operatively in our hospital. Our study objectives were to review patients\\' satisfaction, assess cost-effectiveness and compare our practice with other surgical units in Northern Ireland (NI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Completed telephone follow-up forms were reviewed retrospectively for a three-year period and cost savings calculated. Fifty patients were contacted prospectively by telephone using a questionnaire to assess satisfaction of this follow-up. A postal questionnaire was sent to 68 general and vascular surgeons in NI, assessing individual preferences for patient follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 1378 patients received a telephone review from September 2005 to September 2008. One thousand one hundred and seventy-seven (85.4%) were successfully contacted, while 201 (14.6%) did not respond despite multiple attempts. One hundred and forty-seven respondents (10.7%) required further outpatient follow-up, thereby saving 1231 outpatient reviews, equivalent to pound41,509 per annum. Thirty-nine (78%) patients expected post-operative follow-up, with 29 (58%) expecting this in the outpatient department. However, all patients were satisfied with the nurse-led telephone review. Fifty-three (78%) consultants responded. Those who always, or occasionally, review patients post-operatively varies according to the operation performed, ranging from 2.2% appendicectomy patients to 40.0% for varicose vein surgery. CONCLUSION: Current practice in NI varies, but a significant proportion of patients are not routinely reviewed. This study confirmed that patients expect post-operative follow-up. A nurse-led telephone review service is acceptable to patients, cost-effective and reduces the number of unnecessary outpatient reviews.

  4. Cost based reactive power participation for voltage control in multi units based isolated hybrid power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Saxena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi units of wind and diesel based generators in isolated hybrid power system have technical and operational advantages over single units system. They require dynamic reactive power compensation for fast recovery of voltage under load and input changes. In developing countries like India, investors’ prime concern is to provide continuous electricity at low rate while quality degradation can be permitted within pre defined acceptable range. The use of static compensator along with dynamic compensator may give cost effective reactive power participation for system. This paper presented pricing of reactive power compensation under steady state and transient conditions of system with fixed capacitor and STATCOM. The main contributions of the paper are; (i evaluating reactive power balance equation for generalized multi units of wind and diesel based isolated hybrid power system, (ii reactive power compensation using fixed capacitor and STATCOM in presence of composite load model, (ii fast recovery of voltage response using genetic algorithm based tuning of STATCOM controller, (iii evaluation of reactive power compensation cost for steady and dynamic conditions due to probabilistic change in load and/or input demand and (iv comparison of results with existing reference compensation method.

  5. Stability Analysis for Operation of DG Units in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Shaker, Hamid Reza; Mehrasa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multifunction control strategy for the stable operation of Distributed Generation (DG) units during grid integration. The proposed control model is based on Direct Lyapunov Control (DLC) theory and provides a stable region for the appropriate operation of DG units during grid...... integration. Using DLC technique in DG technology can provide the continuous injection of maximum active power in fundamental frequency from the DG source to the grid, compensating all reactive power and harmonic current components of grid-connected loads through the integration of DG link into the grid....... Application of this concept can guarantee to reduce the stress on the grid during the energy demand peak. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the proficiency and performance of the proposed DLC technique in DG technology....

  6. Development and operation of 1 MW wind power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, I.; Lavrov, V. [Machine-building Design Bureau, (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    Development of wind power units (WPUs), which operate on renewable wind power, as well as combined power sources including WPUs, have an important national economic significance in the Russian Federation, particularly in the areas of construction and operation of nuclear power plants, hydro-electric stations and other traditional power plants. Development of WPUs of high power level is a complicated task, and the solution requires investigations in the areas of experimental design, technology, and the organization of industrial production. Initially, the problem of the development of large diameter propellers, power electric equipment, reducers and drive mechanisms, automatic control devices, and control and diagnostic system need to be solved. This report covers the basic results and directions of the work of the Machine-building Design Bureau `Raduga` in the field of wind power engineering as well as the basic performance of the units. (author). 7 figs.

  7. COST 296 scientific results designed for operational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pezzopane

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the COST 296 Action «Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems» is the establishment/

    improvement of ionospheric services by coordinating the development of specific algorithms, models,

    and tools capable of operating in a near-real-time mode.

    Key elements of these activities are contributions related to monitoring, modelling, and imaging of customer-relevant

    ionospheric quantities. COST stimulates, coordinates, and supports Europe’s goals of development and

    global cooperation by providing high quality information and knowledge of ionospheric and plasmaspheric conditions

    enabling high quality and reliable operation of radio systems.

    It also provides a platform for sharing such tools as algorithms or models, and for the joint development of advanced

    technologies. It takes advantage of many national and European service initiatives, for example DIAS

    (http://dias.space.noa.gr, SWACI (http://w3swaci.dlr.de, ESWUA (http://www.eswua.ingv.it/ingv, RWC-Warsaw

    (http://www.cbk.waw.pl/rwc, the COST Prompt Ionospheric Database http://www.wdc.rl.ac.uk/cgibin/

    digisondes/cost_database.pl, http://www.izmiran.ru/services, and others.

  8. A Cost Analysis of Direct Cash Compensation In Lieu of Operating Military Commissary Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    provides groceries at cost ( cost consists of the purchase price , a 1 percent markup on select grocery items to cover the cost of inventory loss...during normal operations, and the cost of transportation to the store, not including overseas transportation) plus a 5 percent surcharge to military...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT The Defense Commissary Agency (DeCA) provides groceries at cost ( cost consists of the purchase price

  9. [Operational units for health risk management (patient safety)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Hernández, A; Claveria Fontán, A; García Urbaneja, M; López Barba, J

    2008-12-01

    In 1995 INSALUD began to develop performance measures in the field of risk management, and following transfer of powers to the regions, these led to the development of operational units in individual healthcare centres. These units, which consist of a group of health professionals, including managers, aim to identify, evaluate, analyse and deal with health risks, to enhance patient safety. Their organisational structure can vary in accordance with the needs, resources and philosophy of each individual organisation. This paper presents the experience of the risk management units developed in four Spanish regions: Madrid, the Basque Country, Galicia and INGESA (Ceuta and Melilla). It also includes reflections on assessment of their impact and on their future role in improving safety in healthcare services.

  10. Economic Dispatch for Operating Cost Minimization under Real Time Pricing in Droop Controlled DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Federico, de Bosio; Chen, Fang;

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an economic dispatch problem for total operation cost minimization in DC microgrids is formulated. An operating cost is associated with each generator in the microgrid, including the utility grid, combining the cost-efficiency of the system with demand response requirements of the ...

  11. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  12. Regional energy markets and the cost of natural flow dam operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, F.T.; Preckel, P.V.; Gotham, D.J. [Purdue University, Energy Center at Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Bowen, B.H. [American University in Kosovo, Pristina (RS); Yu, Z. [EmberClear, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-11-15

    With the proliferation of electricity markets for the purchase and sale of firm and non-firm power and capacity, the possibility exists for using trade in these commodities to minimize the cost impact of operating dams to restore downstream flows to pre-dam patterns - so called Run of River (ROR) dam operation. We examine the impact of such markets on the incremental costs of ROR operation relative to least cost operation via a stochastic, dynamic optimization model. We identify features of the dam structure and of the economic environment that are critical to achieving ROR operation at modest incremental cost. (orig.)

  13. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final state 2 report. Cost benefit analysis, operating costs and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    A grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) with a coal-burning power plant located on the University of Minnesota campus is planned. The cost benefit analysis performed for this ICES, the cost accounting methods used, and a computer simulation of the operation of the power plant are described. (LCL)

  14. Consideration concerning the costs of the 300 kW wind units developed in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulai, F.; Bej, A. [Technical Univ. of Timisoara (Romania). Wind Energy Research Center

    1995-12-31

    A demonstrative wind farm with four research units, 300 kW each, is in developing stage in Romania. The article shows economic analysis of these experimental wind units and their cost structure focusing in component costs, performance, manufacturing technology and installing work. (author)

  15. Hospital markup and operation outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Faiz; Ejaz, Aslam; Makary, Martin A; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2016-07-01

    Although the price hospitals charge for operations has broad financial implications, hospital pricing is not subject to regulation. We sought to characterize national variation in hospital price markup for major cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal operations and to evaluate perioperative outcomes of hospitals relative to hospital price markup. All hospitals in which a patient underwent a cardiothoracic or gastrointestinal procedure were identified using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2012. Markup ratios (ratio of charges to costs) for the total cost of hospitalization were compared across hospitals. Risk-adjusted morbidity, failure-to-rescue, and mortality were calculated using multivariable, hierarchical logistic regression. Among the 3,498 hospitals identified, markup ratios ranged from 0.5-12.2, with a median markup ratio of 2.8 (interquartile range 2.7-3.9). For the 888 hospitals with extreme markup (greatest markup ratio quartile: markup ratio >3.9), the median markup ratio was 4.9 (interquartile range 4.3-6.0), with 10% of these hospitals billing more than 7 times the Medicare-allowable costs (markup ratio ≥7.25). Extreme markup hospitals were more often large (46.3% vs 33.8%, P markup ratio compared with 19.3% (n = 452) and 6.8% (n = 35) of nonprofit and government hospitals, respectively. Perioperative morbidity (32.7% vs 26.4%, P markup hospitals. There is wide variation in hospital markup for cardiothoracic and gastrointestinal procedures, with approximately a quarter of hospital charges being 4 times greater than the actual cost of hospitalization. Hospitals with an extreme markup had greater perioperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. COSTS AND PROFITABILITY IN FOOD PROCESSING: PASTRY TYPE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRANA MIHAELA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For each company, profitability, products quality and customer satisfaction are the most importanttargets. To attaint these targets, managers need to know all about costs that are used in decision making. Whatkind of costs? How these costs are calculated for a specific sector such as food processing? These are only a fewquestions with answers in our paper. We consider that a case study for this sector may be relevant for all peoplethat are interested to increase the profitability of this specific activity sector.

  17. Total elbow arthroplasty in the United States: evaluation of cost, patient demographics, and complication rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA is utilized in the treatment of rheumatoid and post-traumatic elbow arthritis. TEA is a relatively low volume surgery in comparison to other types of arthroplasty and therefore little is known about current surgical utilization, patient demographics and complication rates in the United States. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the current practice trends and associated inpatient complications of TEA at academic centers in the United States. We queried the University Health Systems Consortium administrative database from 2007 to 2011 for patients who underwent an elective TEA. A descriptive analysis of demographics was performed which included patient age, sex, race, and insurance status. We also evaluated the following patient clinical benchmarks: hospital length of stay (LOS, hospital direct cost, inhospital mortality, complications, and 30-day readmission rates. Our cohort consisted of 3146 adult patients (36.5% male and 63.5% female with an average age of 58 years who underwent a total elbow arthroplasty (159 academic medical centers in the United States. The racial demographics included 2334 (74% Caucasian, 285 (9% black, 236 (7.5% Hispanic, 16 (0.5% Asian, and 283 (9% other patients. The mean LOS was 4.2±5 days and the mean total direct cost for the hospital was 16,300±4000 US Dollars per case. The overall inpatient complication rate was 3.1% and included mortality <1%, DVT (0.8%, re-operation (0.5%, and infection (0.4%. The 30-day readmission rate was 4.4%. TEA is a relatively uncommon surgery in comparison to other forms of arthroplasty but is associated with low in-patient and 30-day perioperative complication rate. Additionally, the 30-day readmission rate and overall hospital costs are comparable to the traditional total hip and knee arthroplasty surgeries.

  18. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  19. Theoretical and experimental researches on the operating costs of a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaitescu, M.; Panaitescu, F.-V.; Anton, I.-A.

    2015-11-01

    Purpose of the work: The total cost of a sewage plants is often determined by the present value method. All of the annual operating costs for each process are converted to the value of today's correspondence and added to the costs of investment for each process, which leads to getting the current net value. The operating costs of the sewage plants are subdivided, in general, in the premises of the investment and operating costs. The latter can be stable (normal operation and maintenance, the establishment of power) or variables (chemical and power sludge treatment and disposal, of effluent charges). For the purpose of evaluating the preliminary costs so that an installation can choose between different alternatives in an incipient phase of a project, can be used cost functions. In this paper will be calculated the operational cost to make several scenarios in order to optimize its. Total operational cost (fixed and variable) is dependent global parameters of wastewater treatment plant. Research and methodology: The wastewater treatment plant costs are subdivided in investment and operating costs. We can use different cost functions to estimate fixed and variable operating costs. In this study we have used the statistical formulas for cost functions. The method which was applied to study the impact of the influent characteristics on the costs is economic analysis. Optimization of plant design consist in firstly, to assess the ability of the smallest design to treat the maximum loading rates to a given effluent quality and, secondly, to compare the cost of the two alternatives for average and maximum loading rates. Results: In this paper we obtained the statistical values for the investment cost functions, operational fixed costs and operational variable costs for wastewater treatment plant and its graphical representations. All costs were compared to the net values. Finally we observe that it is more economical to build a larger plant, especially if maximum loading

  20. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer therebetween. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  1. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  2. Cost unit accounting based on a clinical pathway: a practical tool for DRG implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyrer, R; Rösch, J; Weyand, M; Kunzmann, U

    2005-10-01

    Setting up a reliable cost unit accounting system in a hospital is a fundamental necessity for economic survival, given the current general conditions in the healthcare system. Definition of a suitable cost unit is a crucial factor for success. We present here the development and use of a clinical pathway as a cost unit as an alternative to the DRG. Elective coronary artery bypass grafting was selected as an example. Development of the clinical pathway was conducted according to a modular concept that mirrored all the treatment processes across various levels and modules. Using service records and analyses the process algorithms of the clinical pathway were developed and visualized with CorelTM iGrafix Process 2003. A detailed process cost record constituted the basis of the pathway costing, in which financial evaluation of the treatment processes was performed. The result of this study was a structured clinical pathway for coronary artery bypass grafting together with a cost calculation in the form of cost unit accounting. The use of a clinical pathway as a cost unit offers considerable advantages compared to the DRG or clinical case. The variance in the diagnoses and procedures within a pathway is minimal, so the consumption of resources is homogeneous. This leads to a considerable improvement in the value of cost unit accounting as a strategic control instrument in hospitals.

  3. Adaptation of activity-based-costing (ABC to calculate unit costs in Mental Health Care in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Moreno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, numerous cost-of-illness studies have been using methodologies that don't provide trustworthy results for decision making in mental health care. Objectives: The aims of this paper are design and implement a cost methodology by process of patient's care to calculate unit costs in mental health in Spain in 2005 and compare the results with the reached ones by traditional methods. Methods: We adapted Activity-Based-Costing to this field analyzing the organizational and management structure of Mental Health's public services in a region of Spain, Navarre, describing the processes of care to patient in each resource and calculating their cost. Results: We implemented this methodology in all resources and obtained unit cost per service. There are great differences between our results and the ones calculated by traditional systems. We display one example of these disparities contrasting our cost with the reached one by the methodology of Diagnostic Related Group (DRG. Conclusions: This cost methodology offers more advantages for management than traditional methods provide.

  4. Refrigerator Optimal Scheduling to Minimise the Cost of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Roland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cost optimal scheduling of a household refrigerator is presented in this work. The fundamental approach is the model predictive control methodology applied to the piecewise affine model of the refrigerator.

  5. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  6. Economics of immunization information systems in the United States: assessing costs and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquhart Gary A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the United States' national health objectives for 2010 is that 95% of children aged Methods Data were collected from a national sampling frame of the 56 states/cities that received federal immunization grants under U.S. Public Health Service Act 317b and completed the federal 1999 Immunization Registry Annual Report. The sampling frame was stratified by IIS functional status, children's enrollment in the IIS, and whether the IIS had been developed as an independent system or was integrated into a larger system. These sites self-reported IIS developmental and operational program costs for calendar years 1998–2002 using a standardized data collection tool and underwent on-site interviews to verify reported data with information from the state/city financial management system and other financial records. A parametric cost-per-patient-record (CPR model was estimated. The model assessed the impact of labor and non-labor resources used in development and operations tasks, as well as the impact of information technology, local providers' participation and compliance with federal IIS performance standards (e.g., ensuring the confidentiality and security of information, ensure timely vaccination data at the time of patient encounter, and produce official immunization records. Given the number of records minimizing CPR, the additional amount of resources needed to meet national health goals for the year 2010 was also calculated. Results Estimated CPR was as high as $10.30 and as low as $0.09 in operating IIS. About 20% of IIS had between 2.9 to 3.2 million records and showed CPR estimates of $0.09. Overall, CPR was highly sensitive to local providers' participation. To achieve the 2010 goals, additional aggregated costs were estimated to be $75.6 million nationwide. Conclusion Efficiently increasing the number of records in IIS would require additional resources and careful consideration of various strategies to minimize CPR

  7. Operating costs of pneumatic waste collection; Consideraciones acerca de los costes operativos de la recogida neumatica de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A. J.

    2004-07-01

    How much does pneumatic waste collection cost and what is it worth?. This article compares the operating cost of the two conventional systems for urban solid waste collection with new pneumatic collection applications. It is a fact that at first pneumatic waste collection implies a slightly greater initial cost than conventional collection. Nevertheless, in time, and due to evolving cost concepts and the actual nature of pneumatic waste collection, it can be considered a cheaper alternative than the conventional one, as it is more respectful of the environment and more convenient for the city dweller. (Author)

  8. 24 CFR Appendix to Part 971 - Methodology of Comparing Cost of Public Housing With Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... occupied unit basis. The costs shall be expressed in current dollar terms for the period for which the most... the current per-unit operating cost of the development, then the plan should detail how the... operating costs are lower than current operating costs, the current per-unit operating costs of...

  9. Using efficiency analysis and targeted intervention to improve operational performance and achieve cost savings in the endoscopy center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Neal K; Chang, Kenneth; Lee, John G; Muthusamy, V Raman

    2014-04-01

    With an increasing demand for endoscopy services, there is a greater need for efficiency within the endoscopy center. A validated methodology is important for evaluating efficiency in the endoscopy unit. To use the principles of operations management to establish a validated methodology for evaluating and enhancing operational performance in the endoscopy center. Biphasic prospective study with pre-intervention and post-intervention efficiency data and analysis. Tertiary-care referral teaching hospital. Scheduled outpatients undergoing endoscopy. Determination of the rate-limiting step, or bottleneck, of the endoscopy unit and reducing inefficiencies. Staffing costs and a novel performance metric, True Completion Time (TCT). Data were prospectively recorded for 2248 patients undergoing a total of 2713 procedures (phase I: 255 EGD, 305 colonoscopy, 91 EGD/colonoscopy, 375 EUS, 44 ERCP, 75 EUS/ERCP; phase II: 243 EGD, 328 colonoscopy, 99 EGD/colonoscopy, 335 EUS, 38 ERCP, 109 EUS/ERCP). The bottleneck of the operation was identified as the 10-bed communal pre-procedure/recovery room. On-time procedure starts increased by 51% (P costs were reduced by 30%, whereas full-time employee staff was reduced by 0.85. Annual cost savings were calculated as $312,618 or 11.02% of total operating expenses. This study is not directly tied to quality outcomes, and inpatient procedures transported to the endoscopy unit were not directly studied. Room turnover time and room-to-endoscopist ratio are not necessarily the driving parameters behind endoscopy unit efficiency. A focus on developing a methodology for identifying factors constraining operational efficiency can improve performance and reduce costs in the endoscopy center. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  11. Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Jean Holdren

    2007-05-29

    The Subsurface Disposal Area is a radioactive waste landfill located within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in southeastern Idaho. This Feasibility Study for Operable Unit 7-13/14 analyzes options for mitigating risks to human health and the environment associated with the landfill. Analysis is conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, using nine evaluation criteria to develop detailed and comparative analysis of five assembled alternatives. Assembled alternatives are composed of discrete modules. Ultimately, decision-makers will select, recombine, and sum various modules into an optimized preferred alternative and final remedial decision.

  12. CTS (Hermes): United States experiments and operations summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoughe, P. L.; Hunczak, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    The Communications Technology Satellite, launched in January 1976 and embodying the highest power transmitter in a communications satellite, was considered. As a joint program between the U.S. and Canada, close coordination of the two countries was necessitated since the management and control of experiments were done in real time. Criteria used by NASA for acceptance of the United States experiments are noted and acceptance procedures are discussed. The category for each accepted experiment is given. The modus operandi employed for the U.S. experiments in the areas of management, coordination, liaison, and real time operation are described. Some of the highlights associated with satellite utilization are given.

  13. Reducing costs by clustering maintenance activities for multiple critical units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram; Klingenberg, Warse; Teunter, Ruud; Tinga, Tiedo

    Advances in sensor technology have enabled companies to make significant progress towards achieving condition-based maintenance (CBM). CBM provides the opportunity to perform maintenance actions more effectively. However, scheduling maintenance at the unit level may imply a high maintenance

  14. Operating costs and plant options analysis for the Shamokin fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, M.G.; Dowdy, T.E.; Litman, R.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examined the operating costs and options to improve the Shamokin Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant located near Shamokin, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to perform an operating cost analysis and compare the results with projected operating costs. An analysis was also made to identify possible cost savings options. Two base case scenarios were developed for this study: the first scenario assumed that the plant operated in a manner similar to operations during the extended test program; and the second scenario was concerned with two options. One option assumed upgrading the plant to achieve continuous full load operation, restarting, and used revised costs and revenues. The second assumed reconfiguring the plant for cogeneration.

  15. Activity-based costing in radiology. Application in a pediatric radiological unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, J; Suramo, I; Brommels, M; Tolppanen, E M; Koivukangas, P; Lanning, P; Standertskjöld-Nordenstam, G

    2000-03-01

    To get an informative and detailed picture of the resource utilization in a radiology department in order to support its pricing and management. A system based mainly on the theoretical foundations of activity-based costing (ABC) was designed, tested and compared with conventional costing. The study was performed at the Pediatric Unit of the Department of Radiology, Oulu University Hospital. The material consisted of all the 7,452 radiological procedures done in the unit during the first half of 1994, when both methods of costing where in use. Detailed cost data were obtained from the hospital financial and personnel systems and then related to activity data captured in the radiology information system. The allocation of overhead costs was greatly reduced by the introduction of ABC compared to conventional costing. The overhead cost as a percentage of total costs dropped to one-fourth of total costs, from 57% to 16%. The change of unit costs of radiological procedures varied from -42% to +82%. Costing is much more detailed and precise, and the percentage of unspecified allocated overhead costs diminishes drastically when ABC is used. The new information enhances effective departmental management, as the whole process of radiological procedures is identifiable by single activities, amenable to corrective actions and process improvement.

  16. Low cost & fast turnaround: reconfigurable Graph-Based execution units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Stekelenburg, M.; Klaassen, C.E.; Smit, G.; Havinga, P.; Mullender, S.

    1998-01-01

    New devices with the efficiency of full-custom designs and the programmability of FPGAs will ease many aspects of the design of complex systems, without the high cost of mask production. The possibility of in-circuit programming and even dynamic reconfiguration offers great advantages over the tradi

  17. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  18. Impact of Continuous Competition on Operations and Support Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    private firms, not the government. Aircraft Net Cost Growth B737-400 0.76 B757-200ER 0.80 A310-300 0.98 A320 0.92 A330-300 0.86 DC10-30 0.83 MD...Analysis. (1989). Results of Navy Competition. Nolte, P., Quackenbush, et al. (2008). Sustainment key performance parameter and the RAM-C manual ...of Defense. (2009). Department of Defense reliability, availability, maintainability, and cost rationale report manual . Washington, DC: Department of

  19. Smart Grid Cost-Emission Unit Commitment via Co-Evolutionary Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the uncertainty of wind, solar and load; smart charging and discharging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs to and from various energy sources; and the coordination of wind, solar power, PHEVs and cost-emission are considered in the smart grid unit commitment (UC. First, a multi-scenario simulation is used in which a set of valid scenarios is considered for the uncertainties of wind and solar energy sources and load. Then the UC problem for the set of scenarios is decomposed into the optimization of interactive agents by multi-agent technology. Agents’ action is represented by a genetic algorithm with adaptive crossover and mutation operators. The adaptive co-evolution of agents is reached by adaptive cooperative multipliers. Finally, simulation is implemented on an example of a power system containing thermal units, a wind farm, solar power plants and PHEVs. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Thermal units, wind, solar power and PHEVs are mutually complementarily by the adaptive cooperative mechanism. The adaptive multipliers’ updating strategy can save more computational time and further improve the efficiency.

  20. Recovery of cost of hospital and medical care and treatment furnished by the United States; delegation of authority. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    This rule amends Department of Justice regulations to increase the settlement and waiver authority delegated to heads of departments and agencies of the United States responsible for the furnishing of hospital, medical, surgical, or dental care. This change responds to the increase in medical costs since 1992, when the current level of delegated settlement and waiver authority was established, and will further the efficient operation of the government.

  1. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Jason S. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Grace, Robert C. [Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC, Framington, MA (United States); Rickerson, Wilson H. [Meister Consultants Group, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  2. An Examination of Operational Availability in Life Cycle Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Systems. Kenneth E. Marks, H. Garrison Massey, and Brent D. Bradley. Rand No. R-2287-AF. Santa Monica CA: The Rand Corporation, October 1978. AD...AFB OH, September 1982. AD A123045. Bryan, Noreen S.; Jacqueline J. Rosen; and Nancey T. Marland. "A New Life Cycle Cost Model: Flexible, Interactive

  3. Toward a warfighter's associate: eliminating the operator control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Hobart R.; Pacis, Estrellina B.; Kogut, Greg; Farrington, Nathan M.; Khurana, S.

    2004-12-01

    In addition to the challenges of equipping a mobile robot with the appropriate sensors, actuators, and processing electronics necessary to perform some useful function, there coexists the equally important challenge of effectively controlling the system"s desired actions. This need is particularly critical if the intent is to operate in conjunction with human forces in a military application, as any low-level distractions can seriously reduce a warfighter"s chances of survival in hostile environments. Historically there can be seen a definitive trend towards making the robot smarter in order to reduce the control burden on the operator, and while much progress has been made in laboratory prototypes, all equipment deployed in theatre to date has been strictly teleoperated. There exists a definite tradeoff between the value added by the robot, in terms of how it contributes to the performance of the mission, and the loss of effectiveness associated with the operator control unit. From a command-and-control perspective, the ultimate goal would be to eliminate the need for a separate robot controller altogether, since it represents an unwanted burden and potential liability from the operator"s perspective. This paper introduces the long-term concept of a supervised autonomous Warfighter"s Associate, which employs a natural-language interface for communication with (and oversight by) its human counterpart. More realistic near-term solutions to achieve intermediate success are then presented, along with actual results to date. The primary application discussed is military, but the concept also applies to law enforcement, space exploration, and search-and-rescue scenarios.

  4. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND... § 305.5 Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

  5. Operational cost minimization of heat pump for milk pasteurization in dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söylemez, Mehmet Sait

    2005-11-01

    A thermo economic optimization analysis is presented yielding simple algebraic formula for estimating the optimum operating conditions of interconnected heat pump assisted milk pasteurizing systems. The overall operational cost method including the cost of auxiliary heater is used in the present study, together with the thermal analyses of all system components, for thermo economic analysis of the system.

  6. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  7. A life cycle cost economics model for automation projects with uniformly varying operating costs. [applied to Deep Space Network and Air Force Systems Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The described mathematical model calculates life-cycle costs for projects with operating costs increasing or decreasing linearly with time. The cost factors involved in the life-cycle cost are considered, and the errors resulting from the assumption of constant rather than uniformly varying operating costs are examined. Parameters in the study range from 2 to 30 years, for project life; 0 to 15% per year, for interest rate; and 5 to 90% of the initial operating cost, for the operating cost gradient. A numerical example is presented.

  8. An EPQ Model with Unit Production Cost and Set-Up Cost as Functions of Production Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been devoted to economic production quantity (EPQ problem. However, no attention has been paid to problems where unit production and set-up costs must be considered as functions of production rate. In this paper, we address the problem of determining the optimal production quantity and rate of production in which unit production and set-up costs are assumed to be continuous functions of production rate. Based on the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ formula, the cost function associated with this model is proved to be nonconvex and a procedure is proposed to solve this problem. Finally, utility of the model is presented using some numerical examples and the results are analyzed.

  9. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  10. Downstream process synthesis for biochemical production of butanol, ethanol, and acetone from grains: generation of optimal and near-optimal flowsheets with conventional operating units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiahong; Fan, L T; Seib, Paul; Friedler, Ferenc; Bertok, Botond

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing butanol, ethanol, and acetone through grain fermentation has been attracting increasing research interest. In the production of these chemicals from fermentation, the cost of product recovery constitutes the major portion of the total production cost. Developing cost-effective flowsheets for the downstream processing is, therefore, crucial to enhancing the economic viability of this manufacturing method. The present work is concerned with the synthesis of such a process that minimizes the cost of the downstream processing. At the outset, a wide variety of processing equipment and unit operations, i.e., operating units, is selected for possible inclusion in the process. Subsequently, the exactly defined superstructure with minimal complexity, termed maximal structure, is constructed from these operating units with the rigorous and highly efficient graph-theoretic method for process synthesis based on process graphs (P-graphs). Finally, the optimal and near-optimal flowsheets in terms of cost are identified.

  11. Improving productivity and reducing operating costs with fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoying, T. [Cellex Power Products Inc., Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This short corporate white paper addresses the advantages to fleet lift truck operators of converting to fuel cells from conventional electric battery technology. Conventional batteries are heavy for the energy they store. In addition, large operations require special equipment to change batteries, something that occurs at frequent intervals (4-8 hours). Some of the disadvantages of batteries include requirements such as an eye wash safety program, floor drainage for battery acid containment, and ventilation. The paper asserts that the larger the operation, the greater the problem of overall battery management. It cites the higher energy density of fuel cells as their prime advantage; fueling time is shorter than the time needed to change a battery, and times between refueling/changing is one and a half to two time greater for the fuel cell. In addition to the economic benefits of fuel cells, they do not produce harmful emissions.

  12. Day-Ahead Coordination of Vehicle-to-Grid Operation and Wind Power in Security Constraints Unit Commitment (SCUC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Abdollahi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper security constraints unit commitment (SCUC in the presence of wind power resources and electrical vehicles to grid is presented. SCUC operation prepare an optimal time table for generation unit commitment in order to maximize security, minimize operation cost and satisfy the constraints of networks and units in a period of time, as one of the most important research interest in power systems. Today, the relationship between power network and energy storage systems is interested for many researchers and network operators. Using Electrical Vehicles (PEVs and wind power for energy production is one of the newest proposed methods for replacing fossil fuels.One of the effective strategies for analyzing of the effects of Vehicle 2 Grid (V2G and wind power in optimal operation of generation is running of SCUC for power systems that are equipped with V2G and wind power resources. In this paper, game theory method is employed for deterministic solution of day-ahead unit commitment with considering security constraints in the simultaneous presence of V2G and wind power units. This problem for two scenarios of grid-controlled mode and consumer-controlled mode in three different days with light, medium and heavy load profiles is analyzed. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the presence of V2G and wind power for decreasing of generation cost and improving operation indices of power systems.

  13. Operations Guide for Civilian Manpower Costing. Part 2. Detailed Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    ISTANCE b. Develop dollar, Mary Walker Devorah Katzovitz srmavear, and high aCA-N Lisa Jacquet grade manyear savings (For O actions) (not cost...May. For example, the start position for the FY 86 ’budget is the FY 86-90 POM, DAPEMBA DACA-OMP USAMSSA which was delivered in May I I TART POPIN ...d. DCSPER Su- mary Reports (RYSF324Y, RX5F325Y) 3. The Fiscal Year Range is FY 84-89. Title of reports should read "FY 85 President’s Budget Position

  14. Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Ensuring Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force A Monograph by Maj Stephen P. Joca United...States Air Force School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2017 Approved...Operational Readiness: Private Military Contractor Support for the United States Air Force Approved by: __________________________________, Monograph

  15. Is the system really the solution? Operating costs in hospital systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton Robert; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Wholey, Douglas R; Kruse, Gregory; Kralovec, Peter; Muller, Ralph

    2015-06-01

    Hospital system formation has recently accelerated. Executives emphasize scale economies that lower operating costs, a claim unsupported in academic research. Do systems achieve lower costs than freestanding facilities, and, if so, which system types? We test hypotheses about the relationship of cost with membership in systems, larger systems, and centralized and local hub-and-spoke systems. We also test whether these relationships have changed over time. Examining 4,000 U.S. hospitals during 1998 to 2010, we find no evidence that system members exhibit lower costs. However, members of smaller systems are lower cost than larger systems, and hospitals in centralized systems are lower cost than everyone else. There is no evidence that the system's spatial configuration is associated with cost, although national system hospitals exhibit higher costs. Finally, these results hold over time. We conclude that while systems in general may not be the solution to lower costs, some types of systems are.

  16. 45 CFR 1309.34 - Costs of installation of modular unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START FACILITIES PURCHASE, MAJOR RENOVATION AND CONSTRUCTION Modular... in 45 CFR part 74 and 45 CFR part 92, all reasonable costs necessary to the installation of a modular... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs of installation of modular unit....

  17. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S R

    1991-08-01

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Particle Emissions from District Heating Units Operating on Solid Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology

    2005-06-01

    With the increasing interest in the use of biofuels for heat and energy generation there is a growing concern about emissions from their combustion. It has been shown that biofuel furnaces emit relatively high quantities of particulate matter in comparison to natural gas and light fuel oil furnaces. Majority of the emitted particulates are smaller than 10 {mu}m with high contribution of fine (<2.5 {mu}m) and submicron (<1 {mu}m) particles. These fine particles tend to be the most troublesome: in ambient air they have been associated with adverse health effects. Submicron particles are difficult to capture in the available particle removal technologies. The aim of this study was to characterise particle emissions from district heating units operating on three commonly used biofuels, namely sawdust. pellets and forest residues. Boilers were of moving grate type. with the maximum thermal output between 1 and 1.5 MW. The measurements were done after multi cyclones, the only particle removal devices installed, therefore the direct emissions to ambient air were characterised. Influence of type of the fuel and operation load on particle emissions was investigated. Furthermore, collection efficiencies of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and flue gas condenser, used particle separation devices in 6 MW unit, were investigated. It has been shown that in all cases large amounts of fuel particles containing heavy metals are being emitted to the atmosphere, even though the studied district heating units meet the current mass concentration emission limit requirements. Total number concentration of emitted particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 5 {mu}m ranged from 3 to 8x10{sup 7} particles/cm{sub n}{sup 3} with the slightly higher values from combustion of forest residues. Both mass and total number concentrations were dominated by submicron particles contribution. Elements determined by Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) analysis (Z>12) contributed to 21-34 % of

  19. Reduction of operations and maintenance costs at geothermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruton, C.J.; Stevens, C.G.; Rard, J.A.; Kasameyer, P.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    To reduce chemical costs at geothermal power plants, we are investigating: (a) improved chemical processes associated with H{sub 2}S abatement techniques, and (b) the use of cross dispersive infrared spectrometry to monitor accurately, reliably, and continuously H{sub 2}S emissions from cooling towers. The latter is a new type of infrared optical technology developed by LLNL for non-proliferation verification. Initial work is focused at The Geysers in cooperation with Pacific Gas and Electric. Methods for deploying the spectrometer on-site at The Geysers are being developed. Chemical analysis of solutions involved in H{sub 2}S abatement technologies is continuing to isolate the chemical forms of sulfur produced.

  20. Cost optimization for series-parallel execution of a collection of intersecting operation sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgui, Alexandre; Levin, Genrikh; Rozin, Boris; Kasabutski, Igor

    2016-05-01

    A collection of intersecting sets of operations is considered. These sets of operations are performed successively. The operations of each set are activated simultaneously. Operation durations can be modified. The cost of each operation decreases with the increase in operation duration. In contrast, the additional expenses for each set of operations are proportional to its time. The problem of selecting the durations of all operations that minimize the total cost under constraint on completion time for the whole collection of operation sets is studied. The mathematical model and method to solve this problem are presented. The proposed method is based on a combination of Lagrangian relaxation and dynamic programming. The results of numerical experiments that illustrate the performance of the proposed method are presented. This approach was used for optimization multi-spindle machines and machining lines, but the problem is common in engineering optimization and thus the techniques developed could be useful for other applications.

  1. The Calculation Model for Operation Cost of Coal Resources Development Based on ANN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海滨

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of analysis and selection of factors influencing operation cost of coal resources development, fuzzy set method and artificial neural network (ANN) were adopted to set up the classification analysis model of coal resources. The collected samples were classified by using this model. Meanwhile, the pattern recognition model for classifying of the coal resources was built according to the factors influencing operation cost. Based on the results achieved above, in the light of the theory of information diffusion, the calculation model for operation cost of coal resources development has been presented and applied in practice, showing that these models are reasonable.

  2. Logistics: An integral part of cost efficient space operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann D.

    1996-01-01

    The logistics of space programs and its history within NASA are discussed, with emphasis on manned space flight and the Space Shuttle program. The lessons learned and the experience gained during these programs are reported on. Key elements of logistics are highlighted, and the problems and issues that can be expected to arise in relation to the support of long-term space operations and future space programs, are discussed. Such missions include the International Space Station program and the reusable launch vehicle. Possible solutions to the problems identified are outlined.

  3. Logistics measurement and performance for United States-Mexican operations under NAFTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S.E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Smith, S.R. [Brigham Young Univ., Laie, HI (United States)

    1995-12-01

    An empirical study utilizing a survey methodology was undertaken to explore the issues surrounding logistics performance under the recently enacted North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The study surveyed 524 senior level managers directly responsible for their strategic business units` operations involving Mexican production sharing. The study focused on what role Mexican production facilities take in the production process, relative technology level, planning activities, final destination of products, and what level of logistics performance was required to successfully operate. Some of the findings suggest a need to reevaluate current strategies to incorporate logistics support systems. Many benefits of true integration may have been overlooked since logistics was given a secondary position when strategies were formulated. Excessive tranportation and distribution costs may be lowered if logistics is given a higher emphasis in corporate decision making.

  4. Solving the negative impact of congestion in the postanesthesia care unit: a cost of opportunity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Patiño, Alejandro; Acosta-Ospina, Laura Elena; Rueda, Juan-David

    2017-04-01

    Congestion in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) leads to the formation of waiting queues for patients being transferred after surgery, negatively affecting hospital resources. As patients recover in the operating room, incoming surgeries are delayed. The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of this phenomenon in multiple settings. An operational mathematical study based on the queuing theory was performed. Average queue length, average queue waiting time, and daily queue waiting time were evaluated. Calculations were based on the mean patient daily flow, PACU length of stay, occupation, and current number of beds. Data was prospectively collected during a period of 2 months, and the entry and exit time was recorded for each patient taken to the PACU. Data was imputed in a computational model made with MS Excel. To account for data uncertainty, deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses for all dependent variables were performed. With a mean patient daily flow of 40.3 and an average PACU length of stay of 4 hours, average total lost surgical opportunity time was estimated at 2.36 hours (95% CI: 0.36-4.74 hours). Cost of opportunity was calculated at $1592 per lost hour. Sensitivity analysis showed that an increase of two beds is required to solve the queue formation. When congestion has a negative impact on cost of opportunity in the surgical setting, queuing analysis grants definitive actions to solve the problem, improving quality of service and resource utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Low Cost MQL Setup for Turning Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Sumaiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of MQL application on the tool wear, surface roughness and chip formation in turning Aluminum alloy 6061 is investigated. Experiments were carried out by plain turning of an Aluminum bar with varying depth of cut, cutting speeds (spindle speed and cutting environments (Dry, Wet and MQL. A newly designed, cost efficient and portable MQL setup was developed for this study. For each experimental trial, five passes were carried out in order to promote the formation of tool wear. After each pass, the tool surface was examined under a microscope and the surface roughness was measured using a stylus based surface tester. The extent of tool wear from each pass is measured by using ImageJ software. Chips were collected after the five passes and were physically examined. The newly designed MQL delivery system was successful in delivering a fine mist of lubricant at the cutting point. MQL lubrication provided lower surface roughness and tool wear values compared to wet and dry conditions due to effective temperature reduction and improved lubrication penetration of cutting zones, as well as better chip flushing. Chip formed under MQL conditions had reduced chip thickness due to reduced temperatures. MQL was found to have the greatest positive impact on tool wear and surface roughness parameters based on ANOVA results.

  6. Development of low cost composite plates for humanitarian demining operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabet, L.; Scheppers, J.; Verpoest, I.; Pirlot, M.; Desmet, B.; Gilson, L.; Pirard, P.

    2006-08-01

    Composite plates using flax fabrics and maleic anhydride modified polypropylene were fabricated on laboratory scale. The aim of the current research was to develop a low cost composite plate or a hybrid structure based on those plates and steel sheet, for making humanitarian demining clothes protecting against secondary fragmentation caused by anti-personnel blast mines. Ballistic impact tests according to STANAG 2920 were carried out for determining the v{50}-limit. So called field tests were performed by means of simulated anti-personnel mines using M112 explosive; the repeatability and the spatial distribution of the projected fragments were checked before fixing the final experimental setup. The performance of the bare composite plate was compared with the hybrid structures in terms of v{50} and in terms of damage mechanisms. All tested configurations performed amazingly well during the field tests, which was not the case for the ballistic impact tests. This led to the conclusion that v{50} might not be the best criterion to characterize protective clothing. This conclusion is sustained by energetic considerations and by field tests on plates with half the thickness of the initial plates.

  7. The direct healthcare costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis patients attending a UK secondary care rheumatology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, R M; Packham, J C; Haywood, K L

    2008-01-01

    To explore the direct healthcare resources associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in the UK. A secondary objective was to establish if resources, and thus healthcare costs, vary by disease severity. Medical records of 147 sequential AS patients attending a UK secondary care rheumatology unit were examined to assess the direct healthcare resources used over the previous 12 months. Starting with a detailed inventory and measurement of resources consumed, unit cost multipliers were applied to the quantity of each type of resource consumed. The mean cost per patient was estimated using the total cost divided by the number of patients included. The mean (median) annual cost per patient was 1852 pounds sterling (892 pounds sterling). The distribution of cost data was skewed, with 11% of patients incurring 50% of the total costs. The three most relevant cost domains were physiotherapy, hospitalization and medication costs at 32, 21 and 20% of the total costs, respectively. Twenty percent of the patients received physiotherapy, 13% received inpatient care and almost all incurred medication costs. Thirty-four percent of patients were prescribed disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and 85% non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Over 50% of patients had at least one comorbidity. Direct costs accelerate steeply with disease activity (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index >6.0) and increasing loss of function (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index >6.0) in patients with AS. The most severely affected patients incur 50% of the total costs, and physiotherapy accounts for 32% of the total healthcare costs in the UK.

  8. Cost differences in VHA acute and subacute rehabilitation units: implications for VHA resource planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, W Bruce; Barnett, Tracey E; Reker, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the top tier of postacute rehabilitation care is provided in acute rehabilitation bedservice units (ARBUs). The next level of care is provided in subacute rehabilitation bedservice units (SRBUs). We fitted reduced-form and structural models to explain VHA cost differences between ARBUs and SRBUs across time and for the individual cost components. We included sociodemographic variables, time since stroke onset, care facility, and the Functional Independence Measure at admission as explanatory variables. The multivariable results indicate that total index stay costs are lower in ARBUs by almost $6,000 (or approximately 25%) compared with SRBUs. Moreover, the lower costs observed in ARBUs in this study combined with the higher rates of guideline compliance and improved outcomes in ARBUs found in previous work suggest that stroke rehabilitation in an ARBU may be more cost-effective than stroke rehabilitation in an SRBU.

  9. Quantification of intestinal bacteria, operating cost and performance of fingerlings Nile tilapia subjected to probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Garcia-Marengoni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microorganisms of the genus Bacillus in aquaculture is a nutritional management practice that is rapidly expanding in regions with intensive fish farming. This study aimed to quantify the total bacteria and total coliforms from the intestinal microbiota and estimate the partial operating costs and growth performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus of the GIFT strain. A total of 1,200 post-larvae (24.7 ± 0.50 mg were distributed into 24 aquaria (0.03-m³ capacity within a completely randomized design in 2 x 3 factorial (phase x bacteria, with four replications. Each aquarium, containing 50 post-larvae (sex reversal phase or 30 fish (fingerlings phase, it was considered to be an experimental unit, consisting of three treatments (diet+Bacillus subtilis C-3102, diet+Bacillus cereus var. toyoi and diet without probiotic addition. The quantification of the total bacteria and total coliforms of the intestinal microbiota of tilapia were influenced (P 0.05 by adding probiotics in the diets and no effect of the interaction between phase and bacteria was observed. The weight gain, average daily weight gain, specific growth rate and apparent feed conversion were not affected (P > 0.05 by inclusion of probiotics as part of the diets. The inclusion of B. subtilis and B. cereus as part of diets for Nile tilapia promotes intestinal colonization and improves the survival rate without negatively influencing the feed intake, total biomass, gross revenue and partial operating costs and net revenue. Therefore it recommends the use of these probiotics to growth of tilapia fingerlings Nile, GIFT strain.

  10. Evaluation of the operational cost savings potential from a D-CHP system based on a monthly power-to-heat ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Knizley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a combined heat and power (CHP system utilizing two power generation units operating simultaneously under differing operational strategies (D-CHP on the basis of operational cost savings. A cost optimization metric, based on the facility monthly power-to-heat ratio (PHR, is presented in this paper. The PHR is defined as the ratio between the facility electric load and thermal load. Previous work in this field has suggested that D-CHP system performance may be improved by limiting operation of the system to months in which the PHR is relatively low. The focus of this paper is to illustrate how the facility PHR parameter could be used to establish the potential of a D-CHP system to reduce operational cost with respect to traditional CHP systems and conventional systems with separate heating and power. This paper analyzes the relationship between the PHR and the operational cost savings of eight different benchmark buildings. Achieving operational cost savings through optimal operation based on monthly PHR for these building types can enhance the implementation potential of D-CHP and CHP systems. Results indicate that the PHR parameter can be used to predict the potential for a D-CHP system to reduce the operational cost.

  11. An Optimal Operating Strategy for Battery Life Cycle Costs in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghua Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact on petroleum based vehicles on the environment, cost, and availability of fuel has led to an increased interest in electric vehicle as a means of transportation. Battery is a major component in an electric vehicle. Economic viability of these vehicles depends on the availability of cost-effective batteries. This paper presents a generalized formulation for determining the optimal operating strategy and cost optimization for battery. Assume that the deterioration of the battery is stochastic. Under the assumptions, the proposed operating strategy for battery is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem considering reliability and failure number. And an explicit expression of the average cost rate is derived for battery lifetime. Results show that the proposed operating strategy enhances the availability and reliability at a low cost.

  12. Operating and Support Cost Estimating Guide. Sample Analysis Navy Ship at DSARC II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    of fuel and consumption . . . . Figure 2 depicts the po- tential POL costs for various consumption rates and unit costs .. 12 -I $9.81am $9. om $8.6 1...1.0604 - $214K/ship/yr D - no. of on DD963 fr r) 21 (12) /ship/year Other Expendable Store FY79 costs x escala = FY80 costsA Base e e ge - V/STOL des oyer...ctronic re reakout v e DI nURRING JW LN .. - f Organizat I Exch eS I FY79 co*." x escala , YB0 costs DD 963 costs - V/STOL destroyer costs $P .0604" K/ship

  13. Capital and operating costs for industrial boilers. Final report Apr-Jun 79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, L.L.; AbrahaM, J.P.; Noe, N.D.; Forste, D.S.; Kimball, H.T.

    1979-06-01

    The report provides estimates of capital and operating costs for industrial boilers. Costs are related to the type of fuel fired, firing design and rated capacity. Both package and field-erected boilers are evaluated. Fuels considered include coal, residual oil, distillate oil and natural gas. Firing designs for coal include underfeed-stoker, spreader-stoker and pulverized. Rated capacities range from 15(10 to the 6th)Btu/hr for oil and gas to 700(10 to the 6th)Btu/hr for coal. Costs are developed on a study estimate basis. Individual boiler cost estimates were plotted and cost equations developed for total equipment, installation (direct and indirect) and operating costs (variable and fixed).

  14. Fatality trends in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, 1948-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, B; Burnham, G M

    2000-08-02

    The rising number of deaths among United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces after the Cold War has made some troop-contributing countries hesitant to participate in peacekeeping operations. While the number and scale of missions have increased, no data have demonstrated a parallel increase in risks to peacekeepers. To determine the association of characteristics of UN peacekeeping operations with risks and mortality rates among UN peacekeeping forces in both the Cold War and post-Cold War periods. Descriptive analysis of 1559 personnel deaths during 49 UN peacekeeping missions from 1948-1998 based on the casualty database maintained by Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Headquarters. Number and percentage of deaths by circumstance, total crude death rate, and crude death rate and relative risk of death by circumstance (hostile acts, unintentional violence, and illness or other causes) and time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War), geographic region, and nature of peacekeeping response; and regression analysis of mission variables (strength, duration, and humanitarian mandate) associated with total number of deaths. More deaths have occurred among UN peacekeeping forces in the past decade alone than in the previous 40 years of UN peacekeeping (807 vs 752), but crude death rates did not differ significantly by time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War, 21.8 vs 21. 2 deaths per 10,000 person-years; P =.58), level of peacekeeping response, or for geographic regions other than East Europe and Central America, where rates were lower (PCold War (relative risk [RR] 1. 51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.88), while rates for deaths caused by unintentional violence decreased (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0. 94) but remain high, particularly in the Middle East and Asia (RR, 1. 39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69). Regression analysis showed a significant association between number of deaths and the strength (PCold War rather than increased RR of death. Post-Cold War peacekeeping personnel

  15. Operations research in intensive care unit management: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Fügener, Andreas; Schoenfelder, Jan; Brunner, Jens O

    2016-08-12

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a crucial and expensive resource largely affected by uncertainty and variability. Insufficient ICU capacity causes many negative effects not only in the ICU itself, but also in other connected departments along the patient care path. Operations research/management science (OR/MS) plays an important role in identifying ways to manage ICU capacities efficiently and in ensuring desired levels of service quality. As a consequence, numerous papers on the topic exist. The goal of this paper is to provide the first structured literature review on how OR/MS may support ICU management. We start our review by illustrating the important role the ICU plays in the hospital patient flow. Then we focus on the ICU management problem (single department management problem) and classify the literature from multiple angles, including decision horizons, problem settings, and modeling and solution techniques. Based on the classification logic, research gaps and opportunities are highlighted, e.g., combining bed capacity planning and personnel scheduling, modeling uncertainty with non-homogenous distribution functions, and exploring more efficient solution approaches.

  16. Carnot's cycle for small systems: Irreversibility and cost of operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Ken; Takagi, Fumiko; Hondou, Tsuyoshi

    2000-12-01

    In the thermodynamic limit, the existence of a maximal efficiency of energy conversion attainable by a Carnot cycle consisting of quasistatic isothermal and adiabatic processes precludes the existence of a perpetual machine of the second kind, whose cycles yield positive work in an isothermal environment. We employ the recently developed framework of the energetics of stochastic processes (called ``stochastic energetics'') to reanalyze the Carnot cycle in detail, taking account of fluctuations, without taking the thermodynamic limit. We find that in this nonmacroscopic situation both processes of connection to and disconnection from heat baths and adiabatic processes that cause distortion of the energy distribution are sources of inevitable irreversibility within the cycle. Also, the so-called null-recurrence property of the cumulative efficiency of energy conversion over many cycles and the irreversible property of isolated, purely mechanical processes under external ``macroscopic'' operations are discussed in relation to the impossibility of a perpetual machine, or Maxwell's demon. This analysis may serve as the basis for the design and analysis of mesoscopic energy converters in the near future.

  17. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, J. R., Jr.; Zaremski, D. R., Jr.; Albert, E. M.; Hawkins, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays are studied. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays are investigated: maintenance; cleaning; panel replacement; gasket repair/replacement; wiring repair/replacement; and termination repair/replacement. The effects of the mounting types (rack mount, stand off mount, direct mount and integral mount) and the installation/replacement type (sequential, partial interruption and independent) are identified and described. Methods of reducing maintenance costs are suggested.

  18. A cost benefit operator for efficient multi level genetic algorithm searches

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, George G.; McMullin, Barry; Decraene, James

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel cost benefit operator that assists multi level genetic algorithm searches. Through the use of the cost benefit operator, it is possible to dynamically constrain the search of the base level genetic algorithm, to suit the user’s requirements. Initially we review meta-evolutionary (multi-level genetic algorithm) approaches. We note that the current literature has abundant studies on meta-evolutionary GAs. However these approaches have not identified an effici...

  19. Modelling the Cost Performance of a Given Logistics Network Operating Under Regular and Irregular Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an analytical model for the assessment of the cost performance of a given logistics network operating under regular and irregular (disruptive) conditions. In addition, the paper aims to carry out a sensitivity analysis of this cost with respect to changes of the most influencing

  20. Operating cost analysis of an annexed ethanol distillery in a rural, landlocked African country

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Amigun, B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the high cost of crude oil, uncertainties regarding future reserves as well as the phenomenon of global warming, alternative fuels such as bioethanol need to be developed and deployed. This work presents an economic analysis (operating cost...

  1. Modelling the Cost Performance of a Given Logistics Network Operating Under Regular and Irregular Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an analytical model for the assessment of the cost performance of a given logistics network operating under regular and irregular (disruptive) conditions. In addition, the paper aims to carry out a sensitivity analysis of this cost with respect to changes of the most influencing

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of different air change rates in an operating room environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Thomas; Markel, Troy A; Jones, Howard; Greeley, Damon; Ostojic, John; Clarke, James H; Abkowitz, Mark; Wagner, Jennifer

    2017-09-08

    Hospitals face growing pressure to meet the dual but often competing goals of providing a safe environment while controlling operating costs. Evidence-based data are needed to provide insight for facility management practices to support these goals. The quality of the air in 3 operating rooms was measured at different ventilation rates. The energy cost to provide the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to the rooms was estimated to provide a cost-benefit comparison of the effectiveness of different ventilation rates currently used in the health care industry. Simply increasing air change rates in the operating rooms tested did not necessarily provide an overall cleaner environment, but did substantially increase energy consumption and costs. Additionally, and unexpectedly, significant differences in microbial load and air velocity were detected between the sterile fields and back instrument tables. Increasing the ventilation rates in operating rooms in an effort to improve clinical outcomes and potentially reduce surgical site infections does not necessarily provide cleaner air, but does typically increase operating costs. Efficient distribution or management of the air can improve quality indicators and potentially reduce the number of air changes required. Measurable environmental quality indicators could be used in lieu of or in addition to air change rate requirements to optimize cost and quality for an operating room and other critical environments. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing operating costs for struvite formation with a carbon dioxide stripper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, K P; Sabrina, N; Mavinic, D S; Koch, F A

    2008-01-01

    One of the major operational costs of phosphorus recovery as struvite is the cost of caustic chemical that is added to maintain a desired level of operative pH. A study was conducted at the Lulu Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (LIWWTP), Richmond, BC, using a struvite crystallizer and a cascade stripper designed at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The stripper was tested under different operating conditions to determine the effectiveness of CO(2) stripping in increasing the pH of the water matrix and thereby reducing caustic chemical use. This reduction is expected to reduce the operational costs of struvite production. Throughout the project, a high percentage (90%) of phosphorus removal was achieved under each condition. The cascade stripper was very effective in saving caustic usage, ranging from 35% to 86%, depending on the operating conditions. However, the stripper showed relatively poor performance regarding ammonia stripping.

  4. VARIANTS OF DETERMINING THE MANUFACTURING COST OF A PRODUCT IN A PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE LIGHT OF BALANCE SHEET LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the manufacturing cost of a product is one of the most important ones from the point of view of proper valuation of the assets of a production unit, costs of its operations as well as pricing decisions. This article presents the problem of determining the manufacturing cost of a product in terms of balance sheet law. It has been shown that in order to determine this value various methods and options are allowed by this law, by means of which different values of manufacturing cost of a product are obtained. The importance of a proper selection of an allocation key in setilement of indirect production costs has been highlighted as well as the results of using, in certain cases, approved simplifications in the balance sheet law when determining the manufacturing cost of products have been demonstrated. The problem presented in this article is crucial from the point of view of an organization and management of production as well as managerial decision‐making in a company in the area of design of products and processes.

  5. Developing a United States Marine Corps Organizational and Intermediate Level Maintenance Performance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Marine Corps Integrated Maintenance Management System MIPR Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request MLG Marine Corps Logistics Unit MOSIS ...D. (1997). An examination of the Marine Operating and Support Information System ( MOSIS ) as a mechanism for linking resources to readiness for

  6. FOCU:S--future operator control unit: soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry J.; Karan, Cem; Young, Stuart H.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Computational and Information Sciences Directorate (CISD) has long been involved in autonomous asset control, specifically as it relates to small robots. Over the past year, CISD has been making strides in the implementation of three areas of small robot autonomy, namely platform autonomy, Soldier-robot interface, and tactical behaviors. It is CISD's belief that these three areas must be considered as a whole in order to provide Soldiers with useful capabilities. In addressing the Soldier-robot interface aspect, CISD has begun development on a unique dismounted controller called the Future Operator Control Unit: Soldier (FOCU:S) that is based on an Apple iPod Touch. The iPod Touch's small form factor, unique touch-screen input device, and the presence of general purpose computing applications such as a web browser combine to give this device the potential to be a disruptive technology. Setting CISD's implementation apart from other similar iPod or iPhone-based devices is the ARL software that allows multiple robotic platforms to be controlled from a single OCU. The FOCU:S uses the same Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI) that all other assets in the ARL robotic control system use, enabling automated asset discovery on any type of network. Further, a custom ad hoc routing implementation allows the FOCU:S to communicate with the ARL ad hoc communications system and enables it to extend the range of the network. This paper will briefly describe the current robotic control architecture employed by ARL and provide short descriptions of existing capabilities. Further, the paper will discuss FOCU:S specific software developed for the iPod Touch, including unique capabilities enabled by the device's unique hardware.

  7. Productivity and Cost of Integrated Harvesting of Wood Chips and Sawlogs in Stand Conversion Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Harrill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the operational performance and cost of an integrated harvesting system that harvested sawlogs and biomass (i.e., energy wood chips in stand conversion clearcut operations. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees were processed into sawlogs while whole trees of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus, and sub-merchantable materials (small-diameter trees, tops and limbs were fed directly into a chipper to produce biomass for energy production. A standard time study method was used to determine productivity and costs. Over 26 working days, the integrated system produced 1,316 bone-dry metric tonnes (BDTs of sawlogs, and 5,415.89 BDT of chips, with an average moisture content of 43.2%. Using the joint products allocation costing method, the costs of the integrated system were $29.87/BDT for biomass and $4.26/BDT for sawlogs. Chipping utilization was as low as 41%, directly affecting production and cost of chipping operation. Single-lane, dirt, spur roads were the most costly road type to transport whole trees to a centralized processing site: transportation costs for biomass and sawlogs were increased by $0.08/BDT and $0.02/BDT, respectively, for every 50 meter increase in traveling distance. Diesel fuel price could raise total system cost for each product by $0.78/BDT and $0.08/BDT for each $0.10/liter increase.

  8. Analysis of Operating Costs of Subsidies in the Field of Agriculture of EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mics, University of South Bohemia, České Budějo vice, Czech RepublicJ. Svoboda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with comparison of agricultural subsidies in the member states of the EU in the period 2004-2012 based on the database Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. During the monitored period we found a slight increase of operational subsidies with the fact that variability shows a decreasing trend. In the structure of subsidies we can see a clear transition to payments separated from production with significant differences between original member states and new member states (NMS. With the help of cluster analysis the member states were divided into groups according to their operational subsidies, total production and costs. With the use of correlation analysis we assessed the relationships between production, costs and operational subsidies re-counted per ha of utilised agricultural area. The increase of subsidies will not occur in higher cost productivity and only very slightly will it occur in the higher share of subsidized costs.

  9. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  10. Is fumigation enough for air conditioning units in operation theatres and Intensive care units?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasua Deb

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strict asepsis is necessary in operating theatres (OT and intensive care units (ICU as the patients undergo invasive procedures. The filters of contaminated air conditioning (AC units provide a niche for proliferation of fungi and production of fungal spores. Methods: The routine procedure for maintenance of sterile atmosphere in our hospital, i.e. fumigation and mopping walls with disinfectants often fail to address these fungal spores of the AC filters. We therefore carried out a surveillance of the ACs in ICUs and OTs to find the level of contamination with fungal spores and also to improvise on intervention strategies to tackle the problem. Over 3 months period, 34 ACs from 7 OTs and 2 ICUs were screened by taking 2 swabs from each AC which were then tested for the presence of fungal spores as per standard methods. Results: The contamination rate was 88.2% before fumigation and 76.9% after fumigation. The fungal spore contamination rate was reduced to 20% (1 out of 5 ACs after servicing of the ACs was done. Aspergillus spp. was the most common fungal isolate. Conclusion: Based on the observations, we recommend regular servicing of the ACs as well as wet mopping of the ducts with sporicidal solution at regular intervals. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1583-1589

  11. Process-Costing, Job-Order-Costing, Operation Costing (også kaldet Batch Costing og Functional Costing - Når Systemtankegangen ligger til grund for økonomistyringen og dens beslutninger)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2005-01-01

    De tre begreber process-costing, job-order-costing, operation-costing samt functional-based costing er faktisk historiske begreber som stammer langt tilbage i økonomistyringslitteraturen, faktisk tilbage til Scientific Management bevægelsen fra 20'erne og 30'erne. Man kan derfor ikke sige, at disse...... Aktivitets-Baseret Cost Management systemerne. Det er derfor vigtigt dels at kende sin historie på området, dels at gøre sig klart, om de under visse antagelser stadig har deres berettigelse. De samme begreber har også deres pendant til de danske begreber, afdelings- eller funktionsregnskabet samt...... ordreregnskabet, f.eks. som dette er analyseret hos Palle Hansen og Vagn Madsen. Begrebet operational costing anvendes også, men dette dækker i realiteten over, hvordan og hvilke elementer der indgår i hele virksomhedens regnskabs-information-system. Dvs. at dette mere er et spørgsmål om, hvordan systemerne er...

  12. The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Nancy; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Kilmer, Beau; Lundberg, Russell; Chiesa, James

    2009-01-01

    This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Given the uncertainty in estimating the costs of meth use, this book provides a lower-bound estimate of $16.2 billion and an upper-bound estimate of $48.3 billion. The analysis considers a wide range of…

  13. Cost-effectiveness of climate change policies for the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rudd, Anne Elizabeth Sally

    2012-01-01

    This research project applies a hybrid energy-economy model to compare the cost-effectiveness of different climate change mitigation policies for the United States. Five policies are compared: (1) a technology regulation phasing out coal and natural gas generation, (2) Clean Electricity Standard, (3) Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard, (4) Vehicles Emissions Standard, (5) economy-wide GHG tax. The cost of these policies is estimated using three different methodologies. The first methodol...

  14. Light weight portable operator control unit using an Android-enabled mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    There have been large gains in the field of robotics, both in hardware sophistication and technical capabilities. However, as more capable robots have been developed and introduced to battlefield environments, the problem of interfacing with human controllers has proven to be challenging. Particularly in the field of military applications, controller requirements can be stringent and can range from size and power consumption, to durability and cost. Traditional operator control units (OCUs) tend to resemble laptop personal computers (PCs), as these devices are mobile and have ample computing power. However, laptop PCs are bulky and have greater power requirements. To approach this problem, a light weight, inexpensive controller was created based on a mobile phone running the Android operating system. It was designed to control an iRobot Packbot through the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) in-house Agile Computing Infrastructure (ACI). The hardware capabilities of the mobile phone, such as Wi- Fi communications, touch screen interface, and the flexibility of the Android operating system, made it a compelling platform. The Android based OCU offers a more portable package and can be easily carried by a soldier along with normal gear requirements. In addition, the one hand operation of the Android OCU allows for the Soldier to keep an unoccupied hand for greater flexibility. To validate the Android OCU as a capable controller, experimental data was collected evaluating use of the controller and a traditional, tablet PC based OCU. Initial analysis suggests that the Android OCU performed positively in qualitative data collected from participants.

  15. Tracheotomy in Pediatric Patients: In Operating Room or Intensive Care Unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Kaygusuz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The morbidity and mortality rates of tracheotomy are higher in the pediatric population because the incision is small and the trachea is more prone to surgical trauma. Tracheotomy procedure is mostly performed in operating room in most institutions. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of tracheotomy procedures between intensive care unit (ICU and operating room (OR in terms of pitfalls, complications and family preferences. Materials and Methods: In between June 2012 and July 2013, at a single institution, 39 patients were prospectively analyzed for age, gender, primary pathology, tracheotomy indications, location of operation, the duration of family consent, perioperative complications and presence of decanulation. Results: Male/female ratio was 20/19. Mean age was 49.9±52.5 (4-204 months. Tracheotomy procedure was performed in OR in 19 patients (45% and in ICU in 20 (54.5% patients. There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of complications (OR-48.7%, ICU-51.3%. The time of informed consent was significantly shorter in ICU patients. Conclusions: There is no significant difference in terms of safety for tracheotomy procedure in ICU or OR. Parents give approval to a bedside invasive procedure faster. The words ‘Surgery’ and ‘Operating room’ can easily confuse the parents, extend the duration for endolaryngeal intubation, and increase the cost and labour loss.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING QUALITY COST IN A SEMIMECANIZED LOGGING OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Antônio Gonçalves Jacovine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The etudy made a description and use of a methodology for evaluating quality cost in a semimechanized    logging   operation   was   developed. For  description  this  goal the logging sub-operations were detailed. The effects of the non conformity of one sub-operation on the succeeding ones were listed and analysed. Those consequences on which a money value could be atributed were specified. The methodology was applied to a case study. Quality cost were divided in three categories: evaluation cost, prevention cost, and faillure cost. It was concluded that the firm is not investing enough in evaluation and prevention causing a faillure cost of R$1.541,11/ha, which is considered too high. The percent composition of this cost was: log spliting 40,96%; error in wood volume determination in the stocking yeard 37,12%; wood waste in the stand 9,52%; non separation of thin logs 8,46%; logs left in the fire control line 1,49%; miscalculation of splited wood volume 1,53%; wood volume remaining in the coppices 0,51%; presence of branches in the fire control line 0,41%. The logs spliting operation must be worked out in order to diminish its cost. Firm profit may be increased throught investiment and research in reducing evaluation and prevention costs. Every waste cost must be avoided because is not only the firm itself, but the whole society who ends up paying the bill.

  17. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  18. A cost-effective methodology for the design of massively-parallel VLSI functional units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, N.; Sriram, G.; Desouza, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we propose a generalized methodology for the design of cost-effective massively-parallel VLSI Functional Units. This methodology is based on a technique of generating and reducing a massive bit-array on the mask-programmable PAcube VLSI array. This methodology unifies (maintains identical data flow and control) the execution of complex arithmetic functions on PAcube arrays. It is highly regular, expandable and uniform with respect to problem-size and wordlength, thereby reducing the communication complexity. The memory-functional unit interface is regular and expandable. Using this technique functional units of dedicated processors can be mask-programmed on the naked PAcube arrays, reducing the turn-around time. The production cost of such dedicated processors can be drastically reduced since the naked PAcube arrays can be mass-produced. Analysis of the the performance of functional units designed by our method yields promising results.

  19. The Future of Information Operations in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    as Marketing Marketing tools and concepts could generate support for coalition military operations just as an advertiser promoting a commercial...military, the advanced application of marketing tools to leverage humanitarian assistance and public affairs within an Information Operations plan

  20. Influencing Tomorrow: A Study of Emerging Influence Techniques and Their Relevance to United States Information Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    groups and governmental institutions; the possibility of economic loss directed at entrepreneurs; or the prospect of United States undue influence or... INFLUENCING TOMORROW: A STUDY OF EMERGING INFLUENCE TECHNIQUES AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO UNITED STATES INFORMATION OPERATIONS A...

  1. Hospital Utilization and Cost Trends in Canada and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ronald; Hull, John T.

    1969-01-01

    Differences in hospital costs and utilization between the United States and Canada are analyzed and an attempt made to measure the significance of various demographic, economic, and other factors thought to be related to the differences. Increases in utilization are traced to population increases and to actual increased use per person; and cost increases tied to general inflationary trends are separated from those attributable to specific hospital price increases. Differences in the financing and reimbursement mechanisms in the two countries are shown to have had little effect on relative cost increases, which in the period under consideration were parallelled by similar or greater increases in other industrialized nations. PMID:4981616

  2. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  3. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  4. Operational air quality forecast guidance for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Ivanka; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel; Pan, Li; McQueen, Jeff; Huang, Jinaping; Djalalova, Irina; Wilczak, James; Huang, Ho-Chun; Wang, Jun; Stein, Ariel; Upadhayay, Sikchya

    2016-04-01

    NOAA provides operational air quality predictions for ozone and wildfire smoke over the United States (U.S.) and predictions of airborne dust over the contiguous 48 states at http://airquality.weather.gov. These predictions are produced using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Model for Air Quality (CMAQ) and NOAA's HYSPLIT model (Stein et al., 2015) with meteorological inputs from the North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM). The current efforts focus on improving test predictions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from CMAQ. Emission inputs for ozone and PM2.5 predictions include inventory information from the U.S. EPA and recently added contributions of particulate matter from intermittent wildfires and windblown dust that rely on near real-time information. Current testing includes refinement of the vertical grid structure in CMAQ and inclusion of contributions of dust transport from global sources into the U.S. domain using the NEMS Global Aerosol Capability (NGAC). The addition of wildfire smoke and dust contributions in CMAQ reduced model underestimation of PM2.5 in summertime. Wintertime overestimation of PM2.5 was reduced by suppressing emissions of soil particles when the terrain is covered by snow or ice. Nevertheless, seasonal biases and biases in the diurnal cycle of PM2.5 are still substantial. Therefore, a new bias correction procedure based on an analog ensemble approach was introduced (Djalalova et al., 2015). It virtually eliminates biases in monthly means or in the diurnal cycle, but it also reduces day-to-day variability in PM2.5 predictions. Refinements to the bias correction procedure are being developed. Upgrades for the representation of wildfire smoke emissions within the domain and from global sources are in testing. Another area of active development includes approaches to scale emission inventories for nitrogen oxides in order to reproduce recent changes observed by the AirNow surface monitoring network and by

  5. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairey, Philip [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Parker, Danny [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  6. Estimating the employment and earnings costs of mental illness: recent developments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, D E; Wilcox-Gök, V

    2001-07-01

    Substantial attention has recently been focused on both the prevalence and consequences of mental illness. Generally, public interest in the costs of mental illness has been limited to the direct costs of treating the mentally ill. In this paper, we consider the magnitude and importance of a major component of the indirect costs of mental illness: employment and earnings losses. We first describe the technical difficulties involved in estimating these costs. We then describe new data and recent advances in the United States that have improved our ability to make such estimates. Our conclusions from the recent research are that each year in the United States 5-6 million workers between the ages of 16 and 54 lose, fail to seek, or cannot find employment as a consequence of mental illness. Among those who do work, we estimate that mental illness decreases annual income by an amount between $3,500 and $6,000. We then discuss an emerging challenge to the traditional method for arriving at such estimates: the friction cost approach. We describe both the conceptual and technical differences between the friction cost method and the traditional human capital approach. We conclude that while economic context has much to do with whether one relies on human capital or friction cost estimates, each can offer useful information about labor market losses due to mental illness.

  7. Toeplitz Operators on Dirichlet-Type Space of Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a function u in L2Bn, dV which is unbounded on any neighborhood of each boundary point of Bn such that Toeplitz operator Tu is a Schatten p-class 0operator on Dirichlet-type space DBn, dV. Then, we discuss some algebraic properties of Toeplitz operators with radial symbols on the Dirichlet-type space DBn, dV. We determine when the product of two Toeplitz operators with radial symbols is a Toeplitz operator. We investigate the zero-product problem for several Toeplitz operators with radial symbols. Furthermore, the corresponding commuting problem of Toeplitz operators whose symbols are of the form ξku is studied, where k ∈ Zn, ξ ∈ ∂Bn, and u is a radial function.

  8. Thermo-physical performance prediction of the KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, J. H.; Notardonato, W. U.; Karng, S. W.; Oh, I.

    2015-12-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) researchers have been working on enhanced and modernized cryogenic liquid propellant handling techniques to reduce life cycle costs of propellant management system for the unique KSC application. The KSC Ground Operation Demonstration Unit (GODU) for liquid hydrogen (LH2) plans to demonstrate integrated refrigeration, zero-loss flexible term storage of LH2, and densified hydrogen handling techniques. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) has partnered with the KSC researchers to develop thermal performance prediction model of the GODU for LH2. The model includes integrated refrigeration cooling performance, thermal losses in the tank and distribution lines, transient system characteristics during chilling and loading, and long term steady-state propellant storage. This paper will discuss recent experimental data of the GODU for LH2 system and modeling results.

  9. DUCKS: Low cost thermal monitoring units for near-vent deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Pilger, E.; Ramm, H.; Hoblitt, R.; Thornber, C.; Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Poggi, P.

    2005-01-01

    During 1999 we designed and tested a thermal monitoring system to provide a cheap, robust, modular, real-time system capable of surviving the hostile conditions encountered proximal to active volcanic vents. In November 2000 the first system was deployed at Pu'u 'O'o (Kilauea, Hawai'i) to target persistently active vents. Aside from some minor problems, such as sensor damage due to tampering, this system remained operational until January 2004. The success of the prototype system led us to use the blueprint for a second installation at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy). This was deployed, dug into a bomb-proof bunker, during May 2002 and survived the April 2003 paroxysmal eruption despite being located just 250 m from the vent. In both cases, careful waterproofing of connectors and selection of suitable protection has prevented water damage and corrosion in the harsh atmosphere encountered at the crater rim. The Pu'u 'O'o system cost ???US$10,000 and comprises four modules: sensors, transmission and power hub, repeater station and reception site. The sensor component consists of three thermal infrared thermometers housed in Pelican??? cases fitted with Germanium-Arsenide-Selenium windows. Two 1?? field of view (FOV) sensors allow specific vents to be targeted and a 60?? FOV sensor provides a crater floor overview. A hard wire connection links to a Pelican???-case-housed microprocessor, modem and power module. From here data are transmitted, via a repeater site, to a dedicated PC at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Here data are displayed with a delay of ???3 s between acquisition and display. The modular design allows for great flexibility. At Stromboli, 1?? and 15?? FOV sensor modules can be switched depending changes in activity style and crater geometry. In addition a direct line of site to the Stromboli reception center negates the repeater site requirement, reducing the cost to US$5500 for a single sensor system. We have also constructed self-contained units

  10. Toeplitz Operators with Quasihomogeneous Symbols on the Bergman Space of the Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    symbols on the Bergman space of the unit ball equals a Toeplitz operator with quasihomogeneous symbols. We also characterize finite-rank semicommutators or commutators of two Toeplitz operators with quasihomogeneous symbols.

  11. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-11-25

    Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of Total Knee Arthroplasty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Kessler, Courtenay L.; Emrani, Parastu S.; Reichmann, William M.; Wright, Elizabeth A.; Holt, Holly L.; Solomon, Daniel H.; Yelin, Edward; Paltiel, A. David; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    Background Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) relieves pain and improves quality of life for persons with advanced knee osteoarthritis. However, to our knowledge, the cost-effectiveness of TKA and the influences of hospital volume and patient risk on TKA cost-effectiveness have not been investigated in the United States. Methods We developed a Markov, state-transition, computer simulation model and populated it with Medicare claims data and cost and outcomes data from national and multinational sources. We projected lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) for different risk populations and varied TKA intervention and hospital volume. Cost-effectiveness of TKA was estimated across all patient risk and hospital volume permutations. Finally, we conducted sensitivity analyses to determine various parameters’ influences on cost-effectiveness. Results Overall, TKA increased QALE from 6.822 to 7.957 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Lifetime costs rose from $37 100 (no TKA) to $57 900 after TKA, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $18 300 per QALY. For high-risk patients, TKA increased QALE from 5.713 to 6.594 QALY, yielding a cost-effectiveness ratio of $28 100 per QALY. At all risk levels, TKA was more costly and less effective in low-volume centers than in high-volume centers. Results were insensitive to variations of key input parameters within policy-relevant, clinically plausible ranges. The greatest variations were seen for the quality of life gain after TKA and the cost of TKA. Conclusions Total knee arthroplasty appears to be cost-effective in the US Medicare-aged population, as currently practiced across all risk groups. Policy decisions should be made on the basis of available local options for TKA. However, when a high-volume hospital is available, TKAs performed in a high-volume hospital confer even greater value per dollar spent than TKAs performed in low-volume centers. PMID:19546411

  13. Understanding cost growth during operations of planetary missions: An explanation of changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, J. F.; Chapman, E. L.; Sklar, M. E.

    In the development of project cost estimates for interplanetary missions, considerable focus is generally given to the development of cost estimates for the development of ground, flight, and launch systems, i.e., Phases B, C, and D. Depending on the project team, efforts expended to develop cost estimates for operations (Phase E) may be relatively less rigorous than that devoted to estimates for ground and flight systems development. Furthermore, the project team may be challenged to develop a solid estimate of operations cost in the early stages of mission development, e.g., Concept Study Report or Systems Requirement Review (CSR/SRR), Preliminary Design Review (PDR), as mission specific peculiarities that impact cost may not be well understood. In addition, a methodology generally used to develop Phase E cost is engineering build-up, also known as “ grass roots” . Phase E can include cost and schedule risks that are not anticipated at the time of the major milestone reviews prior to launch. If not incorporated into the engineering build-up cost method for Phase E, this may translate into an estimation of the complexity of operations and overall cost estimates that are not mature and at worse, insufficient. As a result, projects may find themselves with thin reserves during cruise and on-orbit operations or project overruns prior to the end of mission. This paper examines a set of interplanetary missions in an effort to better understand the reasons for cost and staffing growth in Phase E. The method used in the study is discussed as well as the major findings summarized as the Phase E Explanation of Change (EoC). Research for the study entailed the review of project materials, including Estimates at Completion (EAC) for Phase E and staffing profiles, major project milestone reviews, e.g., CSR, PDR, Critical Design Review (CDR), the interviewing of select project and mission management, and review of Phase E replan materials. From this work, a detai- ed

  14. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: An analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  15. 16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative Average Unit Energy Costs K... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  16. The Cost-Effectiveness of Supported Employment for Adults with Autism in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…

  17. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  18. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  19. State-Level Lifetime Medical and Work-Loss Costs of Fatal Injuries - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Feijun; Florence, Curtis

    2017-01-13

    Injury-associated deaths have substantial economic consequences in the United States. The total estimated lifetime medical and work-loss costs associated with fatal injuries in 2013 were $214 billion (1). In 2014, unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide (the fourth, tenth, and seventeenth leading causes of death, respectively) accounted for 194,635 deaths in the United States (2). In 2014, a total of 199,756 fatal injuries occurred in the United States, and the associated lifetime medical and work-loss costs were $227 billion (3). This report examines the state-level economic burdens of fatal injuries by extending a previous national-level study (1). Numbers and rates of fatal injuries, lifetime costs, and lifetime costs per capita were calculated for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for four injury intent categories (all intents, unintentional, suicide, and homicide). During 2014, injury mortality rates and economic burdens varied widely among the states and DC. Among fatal injuries of all intents, the mortality rate and lifetime costs per capita ranged from 101.9 per 100,000 and $1,233, respectively (New Mexico) to 40.2 per 100,000 and $491 (New York). States can engage more effectively and efficiently in injury prevention if they are aware of the economic burden of injuries, identify areas for immediate improvement, and devote necessary resources to those areas.

  20. Operations Assessment of Launch Vehicle Architectures using Activity Based Cost Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Torres, Alex J.; McCleskey, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The growing emphasis on affordability for space transportation systems requires the assessment of new space vehicles for all life cycle activities, from design and development, through manufacturing and operations. This paper addresses the operational assessment of launch vehicles, focusing on modeling the ground support requirements of a vehicle architecture, and estimating the resulting costs and flight rate. This paper proposes the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC) modeling for this assessment. The model uses expert knowledge to determine the activities, the activity times and the activity costs based on vehicle design characteristics. The approach provides several advantages to current approaches to vehicle architecture assessment including easier validation and allowing vehicle designers to understand the cost and cycle time drivers.

  1. Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    goal programming model , and we used Excel/ VBA to create an auto- matic, user-friendly interface with the decision maker for model input and analysis of...ARL-TR-7229•MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and...Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations by Nathaniel Bastian

  2. Phase I remedial investigation report for the 300-FF-5 operable unit, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The focus of this remedial investigation (RI) is the 300-FF-5 operable unit, one of five operable units associated with the 300 Area aggregate of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site. The 300-FF-5 operable unit is a groundwater operable unit beneath the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 source operable units. This operable unit was designated to include all contamination detected in the groundwater and sediments below the water table that emanates from the 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-3 operable units (DOE-RL 1990a). In November 1989, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the 300 Area on the National Priorities List (NPL) contained within Appendix B of the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP, 53 FR 51391 et seq.). The EPA took this action pursuant to their authority under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA, 42 USC 9601 et seq.). The DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), the EPA and Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) issued the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), in May 1989 (Ecology et al. 1992, Rev. 2). This agreement, among other matters, governs all CERCLA efforts at the Hanford Site. In June 1990, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) workplan for the 300-FF-5 operable unit was issued pursuant to the Tri-Party Agreement.

  3. Comparison of United States and Canadian Glaucoma Medication Costs and Price Change from 2006 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Schlenker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Compare glaucoma medication costs between the United States (USA and Canada. Methods. We modelled glaucoma brand name and generic medication annual costs in the USA and Canada based on October 2013 Costco prices and previously reported bottle overfill rates, drops per mL, and wastage adjustment. We also calculated real wholesale price changes from 2006 to 2013 based on the Average Wholesale Price (USA and the Ontario Drug Benefit Price (Canada. Results. US brand name medication costs were on average 4x more than Canadian medication costs (range: 1.9x–6.9x, averaging a cost difference of $859 annually. US generic costs were on average the same as Canadian costs, though variation exists. US brand name wholesale prices increased from 2006 to 2013 more than Canadian prices (US range: 29%–349%; Canadian range: 9%–16%. US generic wholesale prices increased modestly (US range: −23%–58%, and Canadian wholesale prices decreased (Canadian range: −38%–0%. Conclusions. US brand name glaucoma medications are more expensive than Canadian medications, though generic costs are similar (with some variation. The real prices of brand name medications increased more in the USA than in Canada. Generic price changes were more modest, with real prices actually decreasing in Canada.

  4. Energy- and cost-efficient lattice-QCD computations using graphics processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Quarks and gluons are the building blocks of all hadronic matter, like protons and neutrons. Their interaction is described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), a theory under test by large scale experiments like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and in the future at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. However, perturbative methods can only be applied to QCD for high energies. Studies from first principles are possible via a discretization onto an Euclidean space-time grid. This discretization of QCD is called Lattice QCD (LQCD) and is the only ab-initio option outside of the high-energy regime. LQCD is extremely compute and memory intensive. In particular, it is by definition always bandwidth limited. Thus - despite the complexity of LQCD applications - it led to the development of several specialized compute platforms and influenced the development of others. However, in recent years General-Purpose computation on Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU) came up as a new means for parallel computing. Contrary to machines traditionally used for LQCD, graphics processing units (GPUs) are a massmarket product. This promises advantages in both the pace at which higher-performing hardware becomes available and its price. CL2QCD is an OpenCL based implementation of LQCD using Wilson fermions that was developed within this thesis. It operates on GPUs by all major vendors as well as on central processing units (CPUs). On the AMD Radeon HD 7970 it provides the fastest double-precision D kernel for a single GPU, achieving 120GFLOPS. D - the most compute intensive kernel in LQCD simulations - is commonly used to compare LQCD platforms. This performance is enabled by an in-depth analysis of optimization techniques for bandwidth-limited codes on GPUs. Further, analysis of the communication between GPU and CPU, as well as between multiple GPUs, enables high-performance Krylov space solvers and linear scaling to multiple GPUs within a single system. LQCD

  5. Critical care medicine beds, use, occupancy and costs in the United States: a methodological review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Neil A; Pastores, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    This article is a methodological review to help the intensivist gain insights into the classic and sometimes arcane maze of national databases and methodologies used to determine and analyze the intensive care unit (ICU) bed supply, occupancy rates, and costs in the United States (US). Data for total ICU beds, use and occupancy can be derived from two large national healthcare databases: the Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS) maintained by the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the proprietary Hospital Statistics of the American Hospital Association (AHA). Two costing methodologies can be used to calculate ICU costs: the Russell equation and national projections. Both methods are based on cost and use data from the national hospital datasets or from defined groups of hospitals or patients. At the national level, an understanding of US ICU beds, use and cost helps provide clarity to the width and scope of the critical care medicine (CCM) enterprise within the US healthcare system. This review will also help the intensivist better understand published studies on administrative topics related to CCM and be better prepared to participate in their own local hospital organizations or regional CCM programs. PMID:26308432

  6. Short-term costs of preeclampsia to the United States health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Warren; Shih, Tiffany; Incerti, Devin; Ton, Thanh G N; Lee, Henry C; Peneva, Desi; Macones, George A; Sibai, Baha M; Jena, Anupam B

    2017-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and adverse neonatal outcomes. Little is known about the extent of the health and cost burden of preeclampsia in the United States. This study sought to quantify the annual epidemiological and health care cost burden of preeclampsia to both mothers and infants in the United States in 2012. We used epidemiological and econometric methods to assess the annual cost of preeclampsia in the United States using a combination of population-based and administrative data sets: the National Center for Health Statistics Vital Statistics on Births, the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative Databases, the US Health Care Cost and Utilization Project database, and a commercial claims data set. Preeclampsia increased the probability of an adverse event from 4.6% to 10.1% for mothers and from 7.8% to 15.4% for infants while lowering gestational age by 1.7 weeks (P preeclampsia during the first 12 months after birth was $1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants. The cost burden per infant is dependent on gestational age, ranging from $150,000 at 26 weeks gestational age to $1311 at 36 weeks gestational age. In 2012, the cost of preeclampsia within the first 12 months of delivery was $2.18 billion in the United States ($1.03 billion for mothers and $1.15 billion for infants), and was disproportionately borne by births of low gestational age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  8. Determining Capital Cost in Wastewater Treatment Installations Operating Under Inflow Characteristics Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, D. F.; Pollalis, Y. A.

    2007-12-01

    This work deals with the determination of capital cost in wastewater treatment installations operating under inflow characteristics uncertainty. For this purpose, a methodological framework, under the form of an algorithmic procedure, has been designed/developed and successfully implemented in two cases of biological processing under steady state conditions. The results obtained are in satisfactory approximation with industrial data. Moreover, mathematical formulae have been derived for determining capital cost when processing takes place under unsteady state conditions; in this case, numerical approximation is necessary, since the expressions obtained have not analytic solution. Last, the influence of certain technical parameters on minimum capital cost is discussed.

  9. Procedure for estimating nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options.

  10. Operation and maintenance cost data for residential photovoltaic modules/panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Burt Hill Kosar Rittelmann Associates has conducted a study to identify and estimate costs associated with the operation and maintenance of residential photovoltaic modules and arrays. Six basic topics related to operation and maintenance to photovoltaic arrays were investigated - General (Normal) Maintenance, Cleaning, Panel Replacement, Gasket Repair/Replacement, Wiring Repair/Replacement, and Termination Repair/Replacement. The effects of the mounting types - Rack Mount, Stand-Off Mount, Direct Mount, and Integral Mount - and the installation/replacement type - Sequential, Partial Interruption, and Independent - have been identified and described. Recommendation on methods of reducing maintenance costs are made.

  11. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Environmental and Operational Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.; Li, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on environmental and operational costs. A linear climate model was first used to convert climate effects of carbon dioxide emissions and aircraft contrails to changes in Absolute Global Temperature Potential, a metric that measures the mean surface temperature change due to aircraft emissions and persistent contrail formations. The concept of social cost of carbon and the carbon auction price from recent California's cap-and-trade system were then used to relate the carbon dioxide emissions and contrail formations to an environmental cost index. The strategy for contrail reduction is based on minimizing contrail formations by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. The strategy uses a user-defined factor to trade off between contrail reduction and additional fuel burn and carbon dioxide emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction but also more fuel burn and carbon emissions. The strategy is considered favorable when the net environmental cost benefit exceeds the operational cost. The results show how the net environmental benefit varies with different decision-making time-horizon and different carbon cost. The cost models provide a guidance to select the trade-off factor that will result in the most net environmental benefit.

  12. Perceptions of mobile network operators regarding the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musenga F. Mpwanya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study seeks to understand the perceptions of mobile network operators (MNOs regarding the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry from a supply chain (SC perspective. It also seeks to explore the possible cost interrelationships in the South African mobile phone SC.Research design and methodology: A qualitative case study, involving six willing managers of MNOs, and by using semi-structured interviews, observation and documents, was conducted.Findings: This study suggests that network infrastructure and network maintenance, handsets, logistics, technology, marketing and sales, training and consulting are the cost drivers in the South African mobile phone SC. These cost drivers are interrelated; and they influence one another in the mobile phone SC.Implications: The findings of this study should assist MNOs in their monitoring of cost drivers and in the identification of cost reduction opportunities, in order to remain effective and efficient in the industry. This study’s findings should help regulating authorities (such as the Department of Communications and the Independent Communication Authority of South Africa [ICASA] to gain insights into the cost drivers of the South African mobile phone industry from the perspective of a network operator, and thus to develop appropriate mobile phone policies.

  13. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located in...

  14. Analysis Methods and Models for Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    methods are called for. TNO report I TNO-DV 2006 A228 9 /22 Efect Figure I Effect Based Operations framework. In practice, Figure 1 is useful when trying to...11, 111, IV, V Re-establishing communications Transport support (drivers, vehicles) Support to crowd and Riot Control (CRC) operations Support to... communicate opponent opponent intel gewonnen Verkennings- Reconnaissance Waarnemen terrein Observe terrain Inlichtingen over Gathered intel on patrouille

  15. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great

  16. Optimising network flow for cost- and value- efficient operation of the supplier-to-foundry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Smoliński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Skillful control of a network flow, which creates a real bridge between the supplier and user, is one of the most important conditions for cost-efficient operation of an enterprise, foundry shop included. This paper describes modern principles of the network optimising for better distribution of the moulding sand, using modern methods of operational research and commonly available Excel calculation sheet equipped with an optimising tool called Solver.

  17. Short-radius horizontal well re-entry learning curve: prize, cost and operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boote, K. [Ocelot Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); MacDonald, R. [Lauron Engineering Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Six mature vertical wells in Alberta belonging to Ocelot Energy Inc., were reentered and drilled horizontally. Experiences gained, the modifications made to the drilling program and the rewards in the form of incremental oil, were discussed. Details of pre- and post-performance, operational experiences with exiting the casing, building the curve, overbalance versus underbalanced drilling, motors, directional equipment, setting liners, remedial workovers and the cost of the operation were part of the discussion.

  18. EOS MLS Lessons Learned: Design Ideas for Safer and Lower Cost Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dominick

    2012-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a complex instrument with a front end computer and 32 subsystem computers. MLS is one of four instruments on NASA's EOS Aura spacecraft With almost 8 years in orbit, MLS has a few lessons learned which can be applied during the design phase of future instruments to effect better longevity, more robust operations and a significant cost benefit during operations phase.

  19. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  20. Sizing Combined Heat and Power Units and Domestic Building Energy Cost Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many combined heat and power (CHP units have been installed in domestic buildings to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy costs. However, inappropriate sizing of a CHP may actually increase energy costs and reduce energy efficiency. Moreover, the high manufacturing cost of batteries makes batteries less affordable. Therefore, this paper will attempt to size the capacity of CHP and optimise daily energy costs for a domestic building with only CHP installed. In this paper, electricity and heat loads are firstly used as sizing criteria in finding the best capacities of different types of CHP with the help of the maximum rectangle (MR method. Subsequently, the genetic algorithm (GA will be used to optimise the daily energy costs of the different cases. Then, heat and electricity loads are jointly considered for sizing different types of CHP and for optimising the daily energy costs through the GA method. The optimisation results show that the GA sizing method gives a higher average daily energy cost saving, which is 13% reduction compared to a building without installing CHP. However, to achieve this, there will be about 3% energy efficiency reduction and 7% input power to rated power ratio reduction compared to using the MR method and heat demand in sizing CHP.

  1. An Innovative Method for Dynamic Characterization of Fan FilterUnit Operation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-12-21

    Fan filter units (FFU) are widely used to deliver re-circulated air while providing filtration control of particle concentration in controlled environments such as cleanrooms, minienvironments, and operating rooms in hospitals. The objective of this paper is to document an innovative method for characterizing operation and control of an individual fan filter unit within its operable conditions. Built upon the draft laboratory method previously published [1] , this paper presents an updated method including a testing procedure to characterize dynamic operation of fan filter units, i.e., steady-state operation conditions determined by varied control schemes, airflow rates, and pressure differential across the units. The parameters for dynamic characterization include total electric power demand, total pressure efficiency, airflow rate, pressure differential across fan filter units, and airflow uniformity.

  2. Microchannel apparatus comprising plural microchannels and methods of conducting unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2009-03-10

    Microchannel apparatus comprising a header and plural flow microchannels is described in which orifices connect the header and the flow microchannels. The orifices constrict flow. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of each of the orifices to the cross-sectional area of the flow microchannels connected to the orifices is between 0.0005 and 0.1. Also described is microchannel apparatus for conducting unit operations in which a device comprises two arrays of microchannels, and a unit operation is conducted on a fluid as it passes through the first set of microchannels and into a header where a second unit operation is performed, and then the fluid stream passes into the second array of microchannels where the first unit operation is again performed. Methods of conducting unit operations in the apparatuses are also described.

  3. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Jensen, Christian Munk

    2017-01-01

    This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings...... contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost...... of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark...

  4. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  5. The Effect of Infrastructure Sharing in Estimating Operations Cost of Future Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi

    2005-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace industry are extremely serious about reducing the cost and improving the performance of launch vehicles both manned or unmanned. In the aerospace industry, sharing infrastructure for manufacturing more than one type spacecraft is becoming a trend to achieve economy of scale. An example is the Boeing Decatur facility where both Delta II and Delta IV launch vehicles are made. The author is not sure how Boeing estimates the costs of each spacecraft made in the same facility. Regardless of how a contractor estimates the cost, NASA in its popular cost estimating tool, NASA Air force Cost Modeling (NAFCOM) has to have a method built in to account for the effect of infrastructure sharing. Since there is no provision in the most recent version of NAFCOM2002 to take care of this, it has been found by the Engineering Cost Community at MSFC that the tool overestimates the manufacturing cost by as much as 30%. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a methodology to assess the impact of infrastructure sharing so that better operations cost estimates may be made.

  6. ROBucket: A low cost operant chamber based on the Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Kavya; Nguyen, Katrina P; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2016-06-01

    The operant conditioning chamber is a cornerstone of animal behavioral research. Operant boxes are used to assess learning and motivational behavior in animals, particularly for food and drug reinforcers. However, commercial operant chambers cost several thousands of dollars. We have constructed the Rodent Operant Bucket (ROBucket), an inexpensive and easily assembled open-source operant chamber based on the Arduino microcontroller platform, which can be used to train mice to respond for sucrose solution or other liquid reinforcers. The apparatus contains two nose pokes, a drinking well, and a solenoid-controlled liquid delivery system. ROBucket can run fixed ratio and progressive ratio training schedules, and can be programmed to run more complicated behavioral paradigms. Additional features such as motion sensing and video tracking can be added to the operant chamber through the array of widely available Arduino-compatible sensors. The design files and programming code are open source and available online for others to use.

  7. Unit cost of healthcare services at 200-bed public hospitals in Myanmar: what plays an important role of hospital budgeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-19

    Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the

  8. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Ayala, C; Medina Lara, A

    2002-06-01

    A study of unit costs and cost components of two malaria-control strategies (house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides) was undertaken in 11 malaria-endemic states (departamentos) of Colombia, using data provided by control staff on self-administered questionnaires. The accuracy of the data was verified by personal visits, telephone conversations and complementary information from 10 other states. Allthe financial-cost components of the malaria-control operations carried out in the previous 6 months and the results of the control operations themselves (including the numbers of houses sprayed and numbers of bednets impregnated/day) were recorded. The information was stratified according to whether the target communities were 'near' or 'far away' from an operational base, the far-away communities being those that needed overnight stays by the control staff. The main variables analysed were unit costs/house treated, and annual cost/person protected. The results show that house spraying was generally more expensive for the health services than bednet impregnation. This is particularly the case in 'nearby' communities, where most of those at-risk live. In such communities, spraying one house was 7.2 times more expensive than impregnating one bednet. Even if only those sleeping under an impregnated net were assumed to be protected, the unit costs/person protected in a 'nearby' community were twice as high for house spraying than for bednet impregnation. In 'nearby' communities, where technicians could return to the operational base each evening, insecticides made up 80% of the total spraying costs and 42% of the costs of bednet impregnation. In 'far-away' communities, however, salaries and 'per diems' were the most important cost components, representing, respectively, 23% and 22% of the costs of spraying, and 34% plus 27% of the costs of impregnation. Insecticide wastage and non-use of discounts on insecticide prices (available through the

  9. Simulation of operational processes in hospital emergency units as lean healthcare tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Macedo Gomes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Lean philosophy is gaining importance due to a competitive environment, which increases the need to reduce costs. Lean practices and tools have been applied to manufacturing, services, supply chain, startups and, the next frontier is healthcare. Most lean techniques can be easily adapted to health organizations. Therefore, this paper intends to summarize Lean practices and tools that are already being applied in health organizations. Among the numerous techniques and lean tools used, this research highlights the Simulation. Therefore, in order to understand the use of Simulation as a Lean Healthcare tool, this research aims to analyze, through the simulation technique, the operational dynamics of the service process of a fictitious hospital emergency unit. Initially a systematic review of the literature on the practices and tools of Lean Healthcare was carried out, in order to identify the main techniques practiced. The research highlighted Simulation as the sixth most cited tool in the literature. Subsequently, a simulation of a service model of an emergency unit was performed through the Arena software. As a main result, it can be highlighted that the attendants of the built model presented a degree of idleness, thus, they are able to atend a greater demand. As a last conclusion, it was verified that the emergency room is the process with longer service time and greater overload.

  10. 42 CFR 413.139 - Depreciation: Optional allowance for depreciation based on a percentage of operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is determined. (c) Application. If a provider has inadequate historical cost records for pre-1966... either has no historical cost records or has incomplete records, the determination of historical cost may... based on a percentage of operating costs. 413.139 Section 413.139 Public Health CENTERS FOR...

  11. Harvest operations for density management: planning requirements, production, costs, stand damage, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loren D. Kellogg; Stephen J. Pilkerton

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, several studies have been undertaken to determine the planning requirements, productivity, costs, and residual stand damage of harvest operations in thinning treatments designed to promote development of complex forest structure in order to enhance ecological functioning and biological diversity. Th ese studies include the Oregon State...

  12. Optimization of costs of Port Operations in Nigeria: A Scenario For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... This study attempts to optimize the cost of port operations in Nigeria. The quantitative estimates ... its customers at a lower price and also be able to make profits. .... Based On Averages Of Different Kinds Of Cargo. SHIP/PORT ...

  13. Activity-based costing in the operating room at Valley View Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J J; Boyd, G F

    1997-01-01

    This article presents an example of how one hospital reports the results of activity-based costing (ABC). It examines the composition and supporting assumptions of an ABC report for a particular procedure in the operating room (OR). It describes management uses of the information generated. It comments upon how the continuous quality improvement (CQI) is synchronized with the ABC reporting.

  14. Integrated emission management strategy for cost-optimal engine-aftertreatment operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloudt, R.P.M.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2011-01-01

    A new cost-based control strategy is presented that optimizes engine-aftertreatment performance under all operating conditions. This Integrated Emission Management strategy minimizes fuel consumption within the set emission limits by on-line adjustment of air management based on the actual state of

  15. Estimation of the laser cutting operating cost by support vector regression methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jović, Srđan; Radović, Aleksandar; Šarkoćević, Živče; Petković, Dalibor; Alizamir, Meysam

    2016-09-01

    Laser cutting is a popular manufacturing process utilized to cut various types of materials economically. The operating cost is affected by laser power, cutting speed, assist gas pressure, nozzle diameter and focus point position as well as the workpiece material. In this article, the process factors investigated were: laser power, cutting speed, air pressure and focal point position. The aim of this work is to relate the operating cost to the process parameters mentioned above. CO2 laser cutting of stainless steel of medical grade AISI316L has been investigated. The main goal was to analyze the operating cost through the laser power, cutting speed, air pressure, focal point position and material thickness. Since the laser operating cost is a complex, non-linear task, soft computing optimization algorithms can be used. Intelligent soft computing scheme support vector regression (SVR) was implemented. The performance of the proposed estimator was confirmed with the simulation results. The SVR results are then compared with artificial neural network and genetic programing. According to the results, a greater improvement in estimation accuracy can be achieved through the SVR compared to other soft computing methodologies. The new optimization methods benefit from the soft computing capabilities of global optimization and multiobjective optimization rather than choosing a starting point by trial and error and combining multiple criteria into a single criterion.

  16. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR...

  17. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    Fallon, Battle Motutain, Francis Peak, and Cedar City. Other COR non-participating ertities to be linked to COR Central to promote cooperation in...qualities worth retain’ng: friendliness, and toleration of privacy. "So it is a valid fear that some of thebe valued traditions will be lost with the...by sheep during the winter months from November 1 to April 30. (;razing units In the Battle Mountain Grazing district of the BL, in the northern part

  18. United States Air Force Role in Mass Atrocity Response Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    through the lens of their own perspective. They cannot view the world objectively because of their own preconceptions : history, prejudices, ideology...initial stages of the genocide. Similarly, the RC-135’s ability to detect and locate those stations would provide the perfect target for strikes having...all levels. Air Force unit exercises would integrate air power, focusing on those specific tasks required in a MARO. These training exercises , in

  19. On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Captain Matthew Paul and Sergeant Jose Adorno , Task Force 2-7 IN mortar platoon, walked down the road the unit had used earlier to enter the airport...than 10 seconds later, the ground rumbled with the sound of approaching armor once again, and Captain Paul and Sergeant Adorno turned to move out of...road; Sergeant Adorno sprinted off to the right. Winding through the trees and bushes screening Four Corners, he was back with the mortar platoon in

  20. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled AC Microgrids Using Multiagent-Based Distributed Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microgrids are attracting increasing research interest as promising technologies to integrate renewable energy resources into the distribution system. Although many works have been done on droop control applied to microgrids, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power sharing based...... on the power rating of the power converters. With various primary source for the distributed generator (DG), factors that are closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost of the generators and losses should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system. In this paper......, a multiagent-based distributed method is proposed to minimize the operation cost in AC microgrids. In the microgrid, each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using a novel power regulation method based on frequency scheduling. An optimal power command is obtained through carefully...

  1. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitina, Aisma [Ea Energy Analyses, Copenhagen (Denmark); Luers, Silke [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin [Deutsche WindGuard, Varel (Germany); Berkhout, Volker [Fraunhofer IWES (Germany); Duffy, Aidan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Cleary, Brendan [Dublin Inst. of Technology and Dublin Energy Lab (Ireland); Husabo, Leif I. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Weir, David E. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo (Norway); Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto [European Commission, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Hand, M. Maureen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Belyeu, Kathy [Belyeu Consulting, Tacoma Park, MD (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  2. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Daniel J.; Compton, Jana E.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Singh, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of damage costs attributable to source at management-relevant scales could inform decisions in areas where anthropogenic N leakage causes harm. We used recently compiled data describing N inputs in the conterminous United States (US) to assess potential damage costs associated with anthropogenic N. We estimated fates of N leaked to the environment (air/deposition, surface freshwater, groundwater, and coastal zones) in the early 2000s by multiplying watershed-level N inputs (8-digit US Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Codes; HUC8s) with published coefficients describing nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching losses, and gaseous emissions. We scaled these N leakage estimates with mitigation, remediation, direct damage, and substitution costs associated with human health, agriculture, ecosystems, and climate (per kg of N) to calculate annual damage cost (US dollars in 2008 or as reported) of anthropogenic N per HUC8. Estimates of N leakage by HUC8 ranged from effects of atmospheric N pollution were important across HUC8s. However, significant data gaps remain in our ability to fully assess N damages, such as damage costs from harmful algal blooms and drinking water contamination. Nationally, potential health and environmental damages of anthropogenic N in the early 2000s totaled 210 billion yr-1 USD (range: 81-441 billion yr-1). While a number of gaps and uncertainties remain in these estimates, overall this work represents a starting point to inform decisions and engage stakeholders on the costs of N pollution.

  3. Mobile dental units: leasing or buying? A dollar-cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, Oscar; Saman, Daniel M; Bonaime, Alice; Skelton, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The decision to acquire a mobile dental unit is based on a standard capital budgeting analysis. The next step is to determine whether to obtain the use of the mobile dental unit by borrowing and purchasing or by leasing. As a financing mechanism, leases are simply another way of borrowing money to pay for the asset. To compare lease vs. debt as financial vehicles to acquiring a mobile dental unit. An estimate for a new mobile unit was obtained. Lease and loan proposals from financial lenders were collected. A cost of capital rate was chosen for comparison. Cash flows associated with borrowing and leasing vs. buying were determined fortwo different scenarios: for profit (FP) vs. not-for-profit (NFP), at 5 years. A dollar-cost analysis was utilized to determine the option with the lowest capitalized value. There was a net advantage to buying vs. leasing for both for FP and NFP organizations. Due to tax advantages, owning and leasing were substantially less expensive for FP than for NFP. Slight decreases in the monthly lease payments would make leasing competitive to the buying approach. Exploring alternative financing vehicles may allow dental programs to expand their services through the acquisition of a mobile unit. Though programs generally own assets, it is the use of the asset which is important rather than the ownership. Dental programs can find leasing an attractive alternative by offering access to capital with cash-flow advantages.

  4. Thermal analysis of Malaysian double storey housing - low/medium cost unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normah, M. G.; Lau, K. Y.; Yusoff, S. Mohd.

    2012-06-01

    Almost half of the total energy used today is consumed in buildings. In the tropical climate, air-conditioning a housing unit takes much of the energy bill. Malaysia is no exception. Malaysian double storey terrace housing is popular among developers and buyers. Surveys have shown that housing occupants are much dissatisfied with the thermal comfort and artificial cooling is often sought. The objective of this study is to assess the thermal comfort of the low and medium-cost double storey housing in the area surrounding Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. A simulation program using the Weighting Factor Method calculates the heat transfer interaction, temperature distribution, and PMV level in three types of housing units in relation to the size. Fanger's PMV model based on ISO Standard 7730 is used here because it accounts for all parameters that affect the thermal sensation of a human within its equation. Results showed that both the low and medium-cost housing units studied are out of the comfortable range described by ASHRAE Standard 55 with the units all complied with the local bylaws. In view of the uncertainties in energy supply, future housing units should consider natural ventilation as part of the passive energy management.

  5. Costs Attributable to Overweight and Obesity in Working Asthma Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chongwon; Lee, Seung Mi; Choi, Byoung Whui; Song, Jong Hwa; Song, Hee; Jung, Sujin; Bai, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Haedong; Jeung, Seungwon; Suh, Dong Churl

    2017-01-01

    To estimate annual health care and productivity loss costs attributable to overweight or obesity in working asthmatic patients. This study was conducted using the 2003-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) in the United States. Patients aged 18 to 64 years with asthma were identified via self-reported diagnosis, a Clinical Classification Code of 128, or a ICD-9-CM code of 493.xx. All-cause health care costs were estimated using a generalized linear model with a log function and a gamma distribution. Productivity loss costs were estimated in relation to hourly wages and missed work days, and a two-part model was used to adjust for patients with zero costs. To estimate the costs attributable to overweight or obesity in asthma patients, costs were estimated by the recycled prediction method. Among 11670 working patients with a diagnosis of asthma, 4428 (35.2%) were obese and 3761 (33.0%) were overweight. The health care costs attributable to obesity and overweight in working asthma patients were estimated to be $878 [95% confidence interval (CI): $861-$895] and $257 (95% CI: $251-$262) per person per year, respectively, from 2003 to 2013. The productivity loss costs attributable to obesity and overweight among working asthma patients were $256 (95% CI: $253-$260) and $26 (95% CI: $26-$27) per person per year, respectively. Health care and productivity loss costs attributable to overweight and obesity in asthma patients are substantial. This study's results highlight the importance of effective public health and educational initiatives targeted at reducing overweight and obesity among patients with asthma, which may help lower the economic burden of asthma.

  6. Clinical burden and incremental cost of fractures in postmenopausal women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lia; Roskell, Neil; Castellsague, Jordi; Beard, Steve; Rycroft, Catherine; Abeysinghe, Shaun; Shannon, Paul; Gitlin, Matthew; Robbins, Sean

    2012-09-01

    This cohort study of postmenopausal women in the United Kingdom aged ≥50years determined the incremental cost of health care and clinical outcomes in the 12months following incident, selected fractures (non-vertebral non-hip [NVNHF], vertebral [VF] and multiple [MF]). Incremental costs and outcomes of the fracture cohorts were compared with those of cohorts comprised of women without fractures who were individually matched on age and comorbidity. Cohorts were identified from The Health Improvement Network database, a primary health care database, from 2001 to 2005. We estimated 1-year incremental costs (hospitalizations; general practice, accident/emergency, and referral visits; and prescription medications) associated with each fracture type. Descriptive analyses examined occurrence of subsequent fractures and death. No long-term health care costs or outcomes were assessed. Overall, 14,030 women had NVNHF, 1471 had VF, and 193 had MF. The risk of death was greater for women with fractures than for women in the non-fracture cohorts. Mean incremental cost for fractures compared with no fractures was £1152 for VF; £690 for NVNHF, and £2581 for MF. Of the total incremental cost, hospitalizations represented 54%-90% and medications represented 7%-29%. In all fracture cohorts, most of the total annual costs were concentrated in the 6months after the date of fracture. Fractures among postmenopausal women represent an important burden to the health system due to the increase in health resource utilization and related costs. In this study, hospitalizations were the main driver of the overall incremental cost during the 12months following the fracture. Mortality in women in the selected fracture cohorts was higher than in women in the non-fracture cohorts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parallel Operation Characteristics Analysis of Sewage Source Heat Pump Units in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄兆意; 张承虎; 王海燕; 孙德兴

    2010-01-01

    Sewage source heat pump unit operates under partial load most of the time, and study on the law of coefficient of performance (COP) of the unit varying with load ratio can provide basis for the heat pump units running in high efficiency. A mathematical model determining COP, evaporation temperature and condensation temperature of a single unit was proposed. Under the condition of uniform load distribution, the model was established according to different ways of bearing partial load with the same type multi...

  8. Operating costs and energy demand of wastewater treatment plants in Austria: benchmarking results of the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, J; Lindtner, S; Krampe, J

    2016-12-01

    This work presents operating costs and energy consumption of Austrian municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (≥10,000 PE-design capacity) that have been classified into different size groups. Different processes as well as cost elements are investigated and processes with high relevance regarding operating costs and energy consumption are identified. Furthermore, the work shows the cost-relevance of six investigated cost elements. The analysis demonstrates the size-dependency of operating costs and energy consumption. For the examination of the energy consumption the investigated WWTPs were further classified into WWTPs with aerobic sludge stabilisation and WWTPs with mesophilic sludge digestion. The work proves that energy consumption depends mainly on the type of sludge stabilisation. The results of the investigation can help to determine reduction potential in operating costs and energy consumption of WWTPs and form a basis for more detailed analysis which helps to identify cost and energy saving potential.

  9. Evaluation of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf autopilot systems for SUAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Calvin Thomas

    With this increase in unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations, there is a need for a structured process to evaluate different commercially available systems, particularly autopilots. The Remotely Operated Aircraft Management, Interpretation, and Navigation from Ground or ROAMING scale was developed to meet this need. This scale is a modification of the widely accepted Handling Qualities Rating scale developed by George Cooper and Robert Harper Jr. The Cooper-Harper scale allows pilots to rate a vehicle's performance in completing some task. Similarly, the ROAMING scale allows UAS operators to evaluate the management and observability of UAS in completing some task. The standardized evaluative process consists of cost, size, weight, and power (SWAP) analysis, ease of implementation through procedural description of setup, ROAMING scale rating, a slightly modified NASA TLX rating, and comparison of manual operation to autonomous operation of the task. This standard for evaluation of autopilots and their software will lead to better understanding of the workload placed on UAS operators and indicate where improvements to design and operational procedures can be made. An assortment of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) autopilots were selected for use in the development of the evaluation and results of these tests demonstrate the commonalities and differences in these systems.

  10. United Nations Operations: Who Should be in Charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Cold War; Panama, Iraq, and the New World Order, in RIGHT V. MIGHT, supra note 16, at 109, 128; and HANS KELSON, THE LAW OF THE UNITED NATIONS 928...interpretation would also appear to resolve Kelsen’s dilemma (see KELSEN , supra note 35, at 935) with respect to the Korean conflict. Kelsen argues the Security...and Scheffer, supra note 35, at 131. 45. See D. J. HARRIS, CASES AND MATERIAL ON INTERNATIONAL LAW 681 (4th ed. 1991); KELSEN , supra note 35, at 756

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  12. Selecting Foreign Languages for United States Army Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-16

    Portugal 170,000,000 7 RUSSIAN [RUS] Russia 170,000,000 8 JAPANESE [JPN] Japan 125,000,000 9 GERMAN, STANDARD [GER] Germany 98,000,000 10 CHINESE, WU...took place (Birtle 2004, Ch 2). Operations in Mexico, Cuba, Russia , and the Philippines are examples of US expeditionary forces deployed to areas...Department of the Army civilians, and retirees. The programs available are free of charge and are for either beginners or people seeking to increase or

  13. Operational Encirclements: Can the United States Military Decisively Follow Through?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    friction that trickles down onto the battlefield. The European theatre during World War II was no different. The failure of American, and British...American and their Allied partners would continue to experience the ill-effects of it right up until the end of the war in the European theatre ...on Friday 27 March 2009 about Operation Anaconda. I used some information from our conversation. The following is verbatim from my monograph, "A

  14. The United States Army Operating Concept, 2016-2028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    retrograde operations. f. Theater armies may also include a medical command for deployment support that provides health services to Army and other...tenets of jus in bello ,120 discrimination (between combatants and noncombatants), and proportionality in the use of force,121 measured against the...Barracks, PA, 19. (Used with permission.) 119 Biddle, 9. 120 Jus in bello , translated as justice in war, are agreements defining limits on acceptable

  15. Tactical Unit Data and Decision Requirements for Urban Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    decision requirements useful in urban operations. DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or...Building Function Verify mosque and identify possi- ble schools or meeting places Identify types of cinema (stage/theatre) or other similar nearby...Determine mosque and residen- tial floor plans Interior layout of cinema and high-rises Layout of power control facilities Improved Dismounted & Mounted

  16. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Department of Defense xviii The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005 DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental...so we turn to the NSDUH. Each year, the NSDUH reports the number of people meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV...Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 60, No. 3, 1981, pp. 253–259. Eriksson, M., and R. Zetterström, “Amphetamine Addiction During

  18. Methodological advances in unit cost calculation of psychiatric residential care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Karen; Sanchez, Eduardo; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2008-06-01

    The care of the severe mentally ill who need intensive support for their daily living (dependent persons), accounts for an increasingly large proportion of public expenditure in many European countries. The main aim of this study was the design and implementation of solid methodology to calculate unit costs of different types of care. To date, methodologies used in Spain have produced inaccurate figures, suggesting few variations in patient consumption of the same service. An adaptation of the Activity-Based-Costing methodology was applied in Navarre, a region in the North of Spain, as a pilot project for the public mental health services. A unit cost per care process was obtained for all levels of care considered in each service during 2005. The European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS) codes were used to classify the services for later comparisons. Finally, in order to avoid problems of asymmetric cost distribution, a simple Bayesian model was used. As an illustration, we report the results obtained for long-term residential care and note that there are important variations between unit costs when considering different levels of care. Considering three levels of care (Level 1-low, Level 2-medium and Level 3-intensive), the cost per bed in Level 3 was 10% higher than that of Level 2. The results obtained using the cost methodology described provide more useful information than those using conventional methods, although its implementation requires much time to compile the necessary information during the initial stages and the collaboration of staff and managers working in the services. However, in some services, if no important variations exist in patient care, another method would be advisable, although our system provides very useful information about patterns of care from a clinical point of view. Detailed work is required at the beginning of the implementation in order to avoid the calculation of distorted figures and to improve the levels of decision making

  19. Attributable cost of a nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Binila; Thomas, Kurien; David, Thambu; Paul, Hema; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Peter, John Victor

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the impact of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) on cost and outcome from intensive care units (ICU) in India. METHODS Adult patients (> 18 years) admitted over 1-year, to a 24-bed medical critical care unit in India, were enrolled prospectively. Treatment cost and outcome data were collected. This cost data was merged with HAI data collected prospectively by the Hospital Infection Control Committee. Only infections occurring during ICU stay were included. The impact of HAI on treatment cost and mortality was assessed. RESULTS The mean (± SD) age of the cohort (n = 499) was 42.3 ± 16.5 years. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score was 13.9 (95%CI: 13.3-14.5); 86% were ventilated. ICU and hospital length of stay were 7.8 ± 5.5 and 13.9 ± 10 d respectively. Hospital mortality was 27.9%. During ICU stay, 76 (15.3%) patients developed an infection (ventilator-associated pneumonia 50; bloodstream infection 35; urinary tract infections 3), translating to 19.7 infections/1000 ICU days. When compared with those who did not develop an infection, an infection occurring during ICU stay was associated with significantly higher treatment cost [median (inter-quartile range, IQR) INR 92893 (USD 1523) (IQR 57168-140286) vs INR 180469 (USD 2958) (IQR 140030-237525); P < 0.001 and longer duration of ICU (6.7 ± 4.5 d vs 13.4 ± 7.0 d; P < 0.01) and hospital stay (12.4 ± 8.2 d vs 21.8 ± 13.9 d; P < 0.001)]. However ICU acquired infections did not impact hospital mortality (31.6% vs 27.2%; P = 0.49). CONCLUSION An infection acquired during ICU stay was associated with doubling of treatment cost and prolonged hospitalization but did not significantly increase mortality. PMID:28224111

  20. A Prediction on the Unit Cost Estimation for Decommissioning Activities Using the Experienced Data from DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Kook; Park, Hee Seong; Choi, Yoon Dong; Song, Chan Ho; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed the DECOMMIS (Decommissioning Information Management System) and have been applied for the decommissioning project of the KRR (Korea Research Reactor)-1 and 2 and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), as the meaning of the first decommissioning project in Korea. All information and data which are from the decommissioning activities are input, saved, output and managed in the DECOMMIS. This system was consists of the web server and the database server. The users could be access through a web page, depending on the input, processing and output, and be modified the permissions to do such activities can after the decommissioning activities have created the initial system-wide data is stored. When it could be used the experienced data from DECOMMIS, the cost estimation on the new facilities for the decommissioning planning will be established with the basic frame of the WBS structures and its codes. In this paper, the prediction on the cost estimation through using the experienced data which were store in DECOMMIS was studied. For the new decommissioning project on the nuclear facilities in the future, through this paper, the cost estimation for the decommissioning using the experienced data which were WBS codes, unit-work productivity factors and annual governmental unit labor cost is proposed. These data were from the KRR and UCP decommissioning project. The differences on the WBS code sectors and facility characterization between new objected components and experienced dismantled components was reduces as scaling factors. The study on the establishment the scaling factors and cost prediction for the cost estimation is developing with the algorithms from the productivity data, now.

  1. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled AC Microgrids Using Multiagent-Based Distributed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chendan Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, microgrids are attracting increasing research interest as promising technologies to integrate renewable energy resources into the distribution system. Although many works have been done on droop control applied to microgrids, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power sharing based on the power rating of the power converters. With various primary source for the distributed generator (DG, factors that are closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost of the generators and losses should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system. In this paper, a multiagent-based distributed method is proposed to minimize the operation cost in AC microgrids. In the microgrid, each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using a novel power regulation method based on frequency scheduling. An optimal power command is obtained through carefully designed consensus algorithm by using sparse communication links only among neighbouring agents. Experimental results for different cases verified that the proposed control strategy can effectively reduce the operation cost.

  2. Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B.; Saur, G.; Hand, M.; van de Pieterman, R.; Obdam, T.

    2013-07-01

    Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

  3. Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van de Pietermen, R. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Obdam, T. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

  4. Estimating truck operating costs for domestic trips – case studies from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoukopoulos Eleftherios

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector represents a vital component of national economies and has significant impacts on productivity and social welfare. In 2012, the transport sector in Europe was estimated to account for 3.7% of the European Gross Domestic Product (GDP and 5.1% for employment. Road transport proves to be the predominant mode for moving goods within Europe holding a share of approximately 45.8% in 2012 (in ton-kms. In Greece, the share of road freight transport is significantly higher (98% indicating the importance of this sector for the Greek economy. To this end and considering the existing needs of road freight transport operators in Greece, the objective of this research is to establish an analytical and documented basis for estimating the operating cost of a truck on specific urban or national freight transport routes. To achieve this goal, an extended literature review has been conducted resulting in the identification of the main components comprising the total truck operating cost, which were then updated and validated through a series of personal interviews with selected road freight transport professionals. An excel-based application tool was also developed in order to facilitate operating cost estimates for different cases, through selection of the proper values of the relevant parameters. The resulting tool was used to analyse four test cases, which demonstrate the tool’s usability and applicability. Results from this analysis have been also validated by industry experts and they reflect real-world transport scenarios.

  5. International evidence of nexus between positive operating cash activities and cost of debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harit Satt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the affiliation between the ending cash balance of the operating section in the cash flow statement and the bonds ratings. Our sample includes 600 companies from 26 countries. The study was conducted over a period of 18 years. An Ordered Probit regression analysis had been applied to identify how the positive cash balance of the operating section in the cash flow statement shapes the probability of escalating the bonds ratings. We find burly proof that the positive operating cash balance considerably affects the bonds ratings. In other words, when a company is able to generate enough cash from its main operating activities, the likelihood of having higher bonds ratings raises;  this entails a low cost of debt since higher bond ratings have been proven to lessen the company’s cost for raising funds (in the form of bonds. The results add more confirmation to the creditors’ rights shields and how it affects the cost of debt.

  6. Cost of pain medication to treat adult patients with nonmalignant chronic pain in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasu, Rafia S; Vouthy, Kiengkham; Crowl, Ashley N; Stegeman, Anne E; Fikru, Bithia; Bawa, Walter Agbor; Knell, Maureen E

    2014-09-01

    Nonmalignant chronic pain (NMCP) is a public health concern. Among primary care appointments, 22% focus on pain management. The American Academy of Pain Medicine guidelines for NMCP recommend combination medication therapy (including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants) as a key component to effective treatment for many chronic pain diagnoses. However, there has been little evidence outlining the costs of pain medications in adult patients with NMCP in the United States, an area that necessitates further consideration as the nation moves toward value-based benefit design. To estimate the cost of pain medication attributable to treating adult patients with NMCP in the United States and to analyze the trend of outpatient pain visits. This cross-sectional study used the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) data from 2000-2007. The Division of Health Care Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted the survey. The study included patients aged ≥18 years with chronic pain diagnoses (identified by the ICD-9-CM codes: primary, secondary, and tertiary). Patients prescribed at least 1 pain medication were included in the cost analysis. Pain-related prescription medications prescribed during ambulatory care visits were retrieved by using NAMCS drug codes/National Drug Code numbers. National pain prescription frequencies (weighted) were obtained from NAMCS data, using the statistical software STATA. We created pain therapy categories (drug classes) for cost analysis based on national pain guidelines. Drug classes used in this analysis were opioids/opioid-like agents, analgesics/NSAIDs, tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, antirheumatics/immunologics, muscle relaxants, topical products, and corticosteroids. We calculated average prices based on the 3 lowest average wholesale prices reported in the

  7. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degrees C using low-cost CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmer, Jens; Ackermann, Joerg; Uffmann, Dirk; Aderhold, Jochen

    1996-09-01

    There is an increasing demand from automotive, aircraft and space industry for reliable high temperature resistant electronics. Circuits with reliable functionality up to temperatures of 250 degree(s)C would be sufficient for most of these applications. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers are the basic building blocks of these circuits. Commercially available digital standard cell libraries and operational amplifiers are normally specified for operation up to a maximum temperature of 125 degree(s)C. Hence, the purpose of this work was the design and characterization of digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degree(s)C using a low-cost 1.0 micrometers epi-CMOS process. Several design measures were applied to the cells in order to further improve latch-up resistivity and to limit leakage currents, respectively. The transfer curves of all digital cells for all input signal combinations have been recorded in the temperature range from 30 to 250 degree(s)C. Significant results are very low temperature shifts of the noise margins and of the switching point, respectively. Furthermore, the low (0 V) and high (5 V) levels are reached exactly over the entire temperature range. Outstanding characteristics of the operational amplifier comprise low open-loop gain temperature drift as well as low offset and offset temperature drift, respectively. The open-loop gain was greater than 83 dB at room temperature with a drift of less than 0.02 dB/ degree(s)C. The offset voltage amounted to -1 mV at room temperature and 1 mV at 250 degree(s)C, respectively. The long-term behavior of these cells is currently under investigation.

  8. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  9. LeanERP® Mobile Platform Solution for Planning, Visualization and Execution of Business Operations in MSME Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr . Jayakumar Karuppusamy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and development of a solution framework for a LeanERP® interactive application for use with mobile handheld devices, which enables profile based activity logging, planning and execution of tasks, information sharing, collaboration and decision support aligned with the enterprise operations. The design leverages intelligence with the use of cognitive approaches, classifier systems and a data driven approach for adaptive profiling and configuration of software behavior. The solution is well suited for MSME units as the architecture is designed on the basis of a SOA for rapid adaptation and deployment for a given cluster and presents an engaging role centric GUI with multiple widgets and tabs for dynamic visualization of information relating to enterprise operations with trails and traceability of process flows, events, activities, analysis and cost estimates. The solution integrates mechanisms, data structures, algorithms and associated computational models that enable presentation of performance characteristics, predictions and appropriate options for decisions relating to various operations

  10. Analysis of Fukushima unit 2 accident considering the operating conditions of RCIC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il, E-mail: sikim@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon; Cho, Song-Won; Song, JinHo

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR 1.8.6. • RCIC operating conditions were assumed and best case was selected. • Effect of RCIC operating condition on accident scenario was found. - Abstract: A severe accident in Fukushima occurred on March 11, 2011 and units 1, 2 and 3 were damaged severely. A tsunami following an earthquake made the supply of electricity power stop, and the safety systems, which use AC or DC power in plants could not operate properly. It is supposed that the degree of core degradation of unit 2 is less serious than in the other plants, and it was estimated that the operation of reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system at the initial stage of the accident minimized the core damage through decay heat removal. Although the operating conditions of the RCIC system are not known clearly, it can be important to analyze the accident scenario of unit 2. In this study, best case of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was presented considering the operating conditions of the RCIC system. The effects of operating condition on core degradation and fission product release rate to environment were also examined. In addition, importance of torus room flooding level in the accident analysis was discussed. MELCOR 1.8.6 was used in this research, and the geometries of plant and operating conditions of safety system were obtained from TEPCO through OECD/NEA BSAF Project.

  11. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  12. Routine Operation of the Envirodish Unit at the Engineering School of the University of Seville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Perez, M. A.; Ruiz Hernandez, V.; Garcia Granados, F. J.; Lillo Bravo, I.

    2006-07-01

    A 10 kWe Parabolic Dish Stirling engine system was installed at the Seville Engineering School in early 2004. This system is one of the Country Reference Units of the EnviroDish project, consisting in the installation and operation of several such units, based on the EuroDish system, in different countries aimed to gathering reliable O and M data that help to improve and fine-tune the technology. The Seville Country Reference Unit is connected to the grid under the Special Regime for power generation, which establishes credits to power generation based on renewable energy sources. The Seville Country Reference Unit has been in operation since March 2004, accumulating 1671 operation hours and 7.8 MWh of electricity production until August 2005. This paper summarizes the results of 18 months operation, with emphasis on O and M aspects and lessons learned during this period. (Author)

  13. Tanker Airlift Control Elements (TALCEs) and Contingency Response Units (CRUs): Does Air Force Operational Doctrine Need to Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    VERSUS STRUCTURE................................................................................................................. 6 TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS...this paper. Transaction Cost Economics When new units are created, it is assumed that there was a good reason, although sometimes that reason is...AMC TALCE units, people wonder why the CRG was created with embedded MAF support capabilities. One concept of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE

  14. Reducing IT costs and ensuring safe operation with application of the portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Alice Mozsar Kovacsne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large companies need to give focus on their cost components related to their information technology. Business growths is supported by their IT and hundreds or thousands of applications worldwide. Top level management needs to focus more on their information strategy and the applications they need to manage. A structured and transparent application landscape supports not only the current business but it also enables faster business growth for the future as well. Structuring and organizing the applications related to the various risks supports secure business and information operations within a company. Capturing the applications gives the companies an overview of their information costs and provides the possibility of measurement and control of their IT costs elements. Application portfolio management and information security management are important elements of the corporate strategies.

  15. Solid Waste Operations Complex W-113, Detail Design Report (Title II). Volume 4: Project cost estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Solid Waste Retrieval Facility--Phase 1 (Project W113) will provide the infrastructure and the facility required to retrieve from Trench 04, Burial ground 4C, contact handled (CH) drums and boxes at a rate that supports all retrieved TRU waste batching, treatment, storage, and disposal plans. This includes (1) operations related equipment and facilities, viz., a weather enclosure for the trench, retrieval equipment, weighing, venting, obtaining gas samples, overpacking, NDE, NDA, shipment of waste and (2) operations support related facilities, viz., a general office building, a retrieval staff change facility, and infrastructure upgrades such as supply and routing of water, sewer, electrical power, fire protection, roads, and telecommunication. Title I design for the operations related equipment and facilities was performed by Raytheon/BNFL, and that for the operations support related facilities including infrastructure upgrade was performed by KEH. These two scopes were combined into an integrated W113 Title II scope that was performed by Raytheon/BNFL. This volume represents the total estimated costs for the W113 facility. Operating Contractor Management costs have been incorporated as received from WHC. The W113 Facility TEC is $19.7 million. This includes an overall project contingency of 14.4% and escalation of 17.4%. A January 2001 construction contract procurement start date is assumed.

  16. A cost prediction model for machine operation in multi-field production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sopegno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Capacity planning in agricultural field operations needs to give consideration to the operational system design which involves the selection and dimensioning of production components, such as machinery and equipment. Capacity planning models currently onstream are generally based on average norm data and not on specific farm data which may vary from year to year. In this paper a model is presented for predicting the cost of in-field and transport operations for multiple-field and multiple-crop production systems. A case study from a real production system is presented in order to demonstrate the model’s functionalities and its sensitivity to parameters known to be somewhat imprecise. It was shown that the proposed model can provide operation cost predictions for complex cropping systems where labor and machinery are shared between the various operations which can be individually formulated for each individual crop. By so doing, the model can be used as a decision support system at the strategic level of management of agricultural production systems and specifically for the mid-term design process of systems in terms of labor/machinery and crop selection conforming to the criterion of profitability.

  17. Human Resource Accounting: Operationalization and Effects of Human Resource Replacement Cost System in Naval Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-20

    the project, and also in providing Insights about naval .’. . --°. . . . . iv operations which are relevant to the personnel implications of the study...returned to the main menu. 5. Examples of the output from this operation are given on the next page. [- IV IvC ’.. ClQ DEVELOPMENT COSTS RELATED TO: GS-T...of time that each of * the principal actors spends on each activity. separati on Costo lor Volvm sty swelvw s7 Salary Averag ~ t use bteivieSSS~ to

  18. PELATIHAN UNIT COST SEBAGAI DASAR PENETPAN TARIF BAGI BIDAN PRAKTEK SWASTA DI WILAYAH KELURAHAN PENATIH,DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDARSA WIDARSA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Midwifery as paramedic in a village plays an important role in primary health care in order to pursue Indonesia Sehat 2010. Midwifery should provide good services with adequate tariff for society. As one indicator of service, the use of unit cost method has become an important part in tariff calculation. It was found that knowledge of the local Midwifery about unit cost was quite low. The activity of community services was carried out at IKK-IKP department Faculty of Medicine, on 01st September 2007. This activity aimed to improve knowledge and ability of midwifery of how to use Unit Cost in tariff calculation. The method was practicing on calculate several health care services cost. The result of this activity was midwifery can create adequate tariff base on unit cost.

  19. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  20. Technology used to operate the 300-MW power unit topped with a GTE-110 gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezinets, P. A.; Doverman, G. I.

    2010-09-01

    Results obtained from mathematical simulation of operations for starting the 300-MW power unit topped with a GTE-110 gas turbine installed at the GRES-24 district power station of OAO OGK-6 wholesale power-generating company are described. It is shown that operations on speeding up the steam turbine from a cold state to its idle running mode can be carried out solely by using the heat of exhaust gases from the gas turbine unit without supplying fuel to the boiler.

  1. Modification of Elementary Operational Linear Chains in Compositional Control Unit with Code Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander, A.; Larysa, A.; Aleksander, N.

    2009-01-01

    The new design method for compositional microprogram control units with code sharing and elementarization of operational linear chains is proposed. The method targets on reduction in the number of LUT-elements in the combinational part of control unit. Some additional control microinstructions containing codes of the classes of pseudoequivalent chains are used for operational linear chains modification. Proposed method is illustrated by an example. Most desirable GSA characteristics for using...

  2. Comparison of Military and Commercial Design-To-Cost Aircraft Procurement and Operational Support Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    establishment of a moderate-to-high-rate produccion line involves an extremely large amount of planning and investment for facilities, tooling, fabrication... planning to operations and support. For certain specific findings, recommendations are made which could contribute materially Lo 1nwir costs for militnrv...AMST Program Management 44 B. INITIAL PLANNING 45 1. DC-9 47 2. C-9A 48 3. AWACS 49 C. DESIGN ENGINEERING 51 1. Military Specification Application 51

  3. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-11-20

    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  4. Case studies of energy information systems and related technology: Operational practices, costs, and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Kinney, Satkartar; Dewey, Jim

    2003-09-02

    Energy Information Systems (EIS), which can monitor and analyze building energy consumption and related data throughout the Internet, have been increasing in use over the last decade. Though EIS developers describe the capabilities, costs, and benefits of EIS, many of these descriptions are idealized and often insufficient for potential users to evaluate cost, benefit and operational usefulness. LBNL has conducted a series of case studies of existing EIS and related technology installations. This study explored the following questions: (1) How is the EIS used in day-to-day operation? (2) What are the costs and benefits of an EIS? (3) Where do the energy savings come from? This paper reviews the process of these technologies from installation through energy management practice. The study is based on interviews with operators and energy managers who use EIS. Analysis of energy data trended by EIS and utility bills was also conducted to measure the benefit. This paper explores common uses and findings to identify energy savings attributable to EIS, and discusses non-energy benefits as well. This paper also addresses technologies related to EIS that have been demonstrated and evaluated by LBNL.

  5. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-07-19

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities fro the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003.

  6. 2005 Annual Operations Report for INTEC Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-07-19

    This annual operations report describes the requirements followed and activities conducted to inspect, monitor, and maintain the items installed during performance of the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This report describes inspection and monitoring activities fro the surface-sealed areas within the tank farm, concrete-lined ditches and culverts in and around the tank farm, the lift station, and the lined evaporation pond. These activities are intended to assure that the interim action is functioning adequately to meet the objectives stated in the Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision for the Group 1, Tank Farm Interim Action, (DOE/ID-10660) and as amended by the agreement to resolve dispute, which was effective in February 2003.

  7. 76 FR 66051 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2010 United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2010 United States Special Operations Command... 2330a of Title 10 United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal..., Defense Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to...

  8. 77 FR 38274 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2011 United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) Inventory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2011 United States Special Operations Command... 2330a of Title 10, United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal... Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to the public the first...

  9. United States Special Operations Command Strategic Issues for the Long War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    for USSOCOM’s campaign plan. UNITED STATES SPECIAL OPERATIONS COMMAND STRATEGIC ISSUES FOR THE LONG WAR World order is more fundamental and primordial ... Soup to Nuts: Understanding the Elements of the Strategy The United States is a big, lumbering, pluralistic, affluent, liberal, democratic

  10. CNSS plant concept, capital cost, and multi-unit station economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-07-01

    United Engineers and Constructors (UE and C) and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) have performed several studies over the last eight years related to small integral pressurized water reactors. These reactors include the 365 MWt (100 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) and the 1200 MWt Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS). The studies, mostly performed under contract to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have led to a 1250 MWt (400 MWe) Consolidated Nuclear Steam System (CNSS) plant concept, with unique design and cost features. This report contains an update of earlier studies of the CNSS reactor and balance-of-plant concept design, capital costs, and multi-unit plant economics incorporating recent design developments, improvements, and post-TMI-2 upgrades. The economic evaluation compares the total system economic impact of a phased, three stage 400 MWe CNSS implementation program, i.e., a three-unit station, to the installation of a single 1200 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) into a typical USA utility system.

  11. Out-of-pocket costs and insurance coverage for abortion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Gould, Heather; Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Foster, Diana Greene

    2014-01-01

    Since 1976, federal Medicaid has excluded abortion care except in a small number of circumstances; 17 states provide this coverage using state Medicaid dollars. Since 2010, federal and state restrictions on insurance coverage for abortion have increased. This paper describes payment for abortion care before new restrictions among a sample of women receiving first and second trimester abortions. Data are from the Turnaway Study, a study of women seeking abortion care at 30 facilities across the United States. Two thirds received financial assistance, with those with pregnancies at later gestations more likely to receive assistance. Seven percent received funding from private insurance, 34% state Medicaid, and 29% other organizations. Median out-of-pocket costs when private insurance or Medicaid paid were $18 and $0. Median out-of-pocket cost for women for whom insurance or Medicaid did not pay was $575. For more than half, out-of-pocket costs were equivalent to more than one-third of monthly personal income; this was closer to two thirds among those receiving later abortions. One quarter who had private insurance had their abortion covered through insurance. Among women possibly eligible for Medicaid based on income and residence, more than one third received Medicaid coverage for the abortion. More than half reported cost as a reason for delay in obtaining an abortion. In a multivariate analysis, living in a state where Medicaid for abortion was available, having Medicaid or private insurance, being at a lower gestational age, and higher income were associated with lower odds of reporting cost as a reason for delay. Out-of-pocket costs for abortion care are substantial for many women, especially at later gestations. There are significant gaps in public and private insurance coverage for abortion. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alternatives for operational cost reduction in oil pipelines; Alternativas para reducao de custos energeticos operacionais em oleodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Philipe Barroso; Carneiro, Leonardo Motta; Pires, Luis Fernando Goncalves [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (SIMDUT/DEM/ PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecancia. Nucleo de Simulacao Termo-Hidraulica de Dutos

    2012-07-01

    This paper intends to give a brief overview of some cost reduction alternatives in oil pipelines, to optimize the pipeline operation. Four different alternatives are presented, based on previous studies made on existing pipelines, to demonstrate the response obtained with these solutions. Pipeline operation, especially on mature ones, tends to have a high operational cost, be by tradition, the aging of the installation, change of operational characteristics - such as nominal flow, product, or even flow direction - for which the pipeline wasn't originally designed. The alternatives showed allow for an increase survival time of the pipeline, without resorting to major changes, such as replacement of pipes or adding pumping stations to the system. The alternative studied varies from no implementation cost to high installation cost or operational cost increase, depending on the system and the alternative chosen. From changing the pump arrays during operation or changing the products viscosity with different blends, that represent virtually no cost to the pipeline operation, to the use of VFDs, with a high installation cost or DRA, which increase the operational cost. (author)

  13. 42 CFR 412.75 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate for inpatient operating costs based on a Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inpatient operating costs based on a Federal fiscal year 1987 base period. 412.75 Section 412.75 Public... hospital-specific rate for inpatient operating costs based on a Federal fiscal year 1987 base period. (a) Base-period costs—(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, for...

  14. Operation Cost Minimization of Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids Based on Real-Time Pricing and Optimal Power Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; de Bosio, Federico; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an optimal power flow problem is formulated in order to minimize the total operation cost by considering real-time pricing in DC microgrids. Each generation resource in the system, including the utility grid, is modeled in terms of operation cost, which combines the cost...... problem is solved in a heuristic way by using genetic algorithms. In order to test the proposed algorithm, a six-bus droop-controlled DC microgrid is used as a case-study. The obtained simulation results show that under variable renewable generation, load, and electricity prices, the proposed method can...... successfully dispatch the resources in the microgrid with lower total operation costs....

  15. ALTERNATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY STUDY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT AT 200-PO-1 OPERABLE UNIT AT HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DADO MA

    2008-07-31

    This study focuses on the remediation methods and technologies applicable for use at 200-PO-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. The 200-PO-I Groundwater au requires groundwater remediation because of the existence of contaminants of potential concern (COPC). A screening was conducted on alternative technologies and methods of remediation to determine which show the most potential for remediation of groundwater contaminants. The possible technologies were screened to determine which would be suggested for further study and which were not applicable for groundwater remediation. COPCs determined by the Hanford Site groundwater monitoring were grouped into categories based on properties linking them by remediation methods applicable to each COPC group. The screening considered the following criteria. (1) Determine if the suggested method or technology can be used for the specific contaminants found in groundwater and if the technology can be applied at the 200-PO-I Groundwater au, based on physical characteristics such as geology and depth to groundwater. (2) Evaluate screened technologies based on testing and development stages, effectiveness, implementability, cost, and time. This report documents the results of an intern research project conducted by Mathew Dado for Central Plateau Remediation in the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project. The study was conducted under the technical supervision of Gloria Cummins and management supervision of Theresa Bergman and Becky Austin.

  16. Admission clinicopathological data, length of stay, cost and mortality in an equine neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Saulez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary internists need to prognosticate patients quickly and accurately in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This may depend on laboratory data collected on admission, the cost of hospitalisation, length of stay (LOS and mortality rate experienced in the NICU. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study of 62 equine neonates admitted to a NICU of a private equine referral hospital to determine the prognostic value of venous clinicopathological data collected on admission before therapy, the cost of hospitalisation, LOS and mortality rate. The WBC count, total CO2 (TCO2 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were significantly higher (P < 0.05 and anion gap lower in survivors compared with nonsurvivors. A logistic regression model that included WBC count, hematocrit, albumin / globulin ratio, ALP, TCO2, potassium, sodium and lactate, was able to correctly predict mortality in 84 % of cases. Only anion gap proved to be an independent predictor of neonatal mortality in this study. In the study population, the overall mortality rate was 34 % with greatest mortality rates reported in the first 48 hours and again on day 6 of hospitalisation. Amongst the various clinical diagnoses, mortality was highest in foals after forced extraction during correction of dystocia. Median cost per day was higher for nonsurvivors while total cost was higher in survivors.

  17. Modification and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Electro-Mechanically Operated Creep Testing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. MOMOH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing mechanically operated tensile and creep testing machine was modified to a low cost, electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine capable of determining the creep properties of aluminum, lead and thermoplastic materials as a function of applied stress, time and temperature. The modification of the testing machine was necessitated by having an electro-mechanically operated creep testing machine as a demonstration model ideal for use and laboratory demonstrations, which will provide an economical means of performing standard creep experiments. The experimental result is a more comprehensive understanding of the laboratory experience, as the technology behind the creep testing machine, the test methodology and the response of materials loaded during experiment are explored. The machine provides a low cost solution for Mechanics of Materials laboratories interested in creep testing experiment and demonstration but not capable of funding the acquisition of commercially available creep testing machines. Creep curves of strain versus time on a thermoplastic material were plotted at a stress level of 1.95MPa, 3.25MPa and 4.55MPa and temperature of 20oC, 40oC and 60oC respectively. The machine is satisfactory since it is always ready for operation at any given time.

  18. Effect of RCIC Operating Conditions on the Accident Scenario in Fukushima Unit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Il; Park, Jong Hwa; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted by using MELCOR 1.8.6. Fukushima unit 2 accident was analyzed using MELCOR in this study, and best estimate scenario with considering RCIC operating conditions was presented. Researches on the boiling water reactor (BWR) plant with reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system have been conducted. Research on the RCIC operation in Fukushima unit 2 was also conducted by Sandia National Laboratory. MELCOR analysis of the Fukushima unit 2 accident was conducted in the report and energy balance in wetwell was described by considering RCIC operation. However, the effect of RCIC operation condition on the accident scenario has not been studied. The operating conditions of RCIC system affect the pressures in wetwell and drywell, and the high pressure can make leakage path of fission product from PCV to reactor building. Thus it can be directly related with the amount of fission product which released to environment. In this study, severe accident on Fukushima unit 2 was analyzed considering the operating condition of RCIC system, and best estimated scenario was presented. In addition, the effect of RCIC turbine efficiency on the accident progression was examined. Energy balance in suppression chamber was also considered with discussion on the effect of torus room flooding level. It was found that the operating condition of RCIC turbine not only affects the variation of drywell pressure but also the amount of released fission products to environment. It was also confirmed that the RCIC turbine efficiency in the accident would be less than normal operating condition.

  19. Efficiency-optimized low-cost TDPAC spectrometer using a versatile routing/coincidence unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, M., E-mail: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Bibiloni, A. G.; Darriba, G. N.; Errico, L. A.; Munoz, E. L.; Richard, D.; Runco, J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    A highly efficient, reliable, and low-cost {gamma}-{gamma} TDPAC spectrometer, PACAr, optimized for {sup 181}Hf-implanted low-activity samples, is presented. A versatile EPROM-based routing/coincidence unit was developed and implemented to be use with the memory-card-based multichannel analyzer hosted in a personal computer. The excellent energy resolution and very good overall resolution and efficiency of PACAr are analyzed and compare with advanced and already tested fast-fast and slow-fast PAC spectrometers.

  20. Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for Inbuilding Radio over Fiber Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Ngah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric FabryPerot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

  1. Feasibility study report for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study (FS) examines a range of alternatives and provides recommendations for selecting a preferred altemative for remediating contamination at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 operable unit is located in the center of the Hanford Site along the northern boundary of the 200 East Area. The 241-BY Tank Farm is located immediately to the south of the operable unit. 200-BP-1 is a source operable unit with contaminated soils associated primarily with nine inactive cribs (known as the 216-B cribs). These cribs were used for disposal of low-level radioactive liquid waste from U Plant uranium recovery operations, and waste storage tank condensate from the adjacent 241-BY Tank Farm. The cribs used for disposal of U Plant waste were in operation from 1955--1965, and the cribs used for disposal of tank condensate were in operation from 1965-1975. In addition to the cribs, four unplanned releases of radioactive materials have occurred within the operable unit. Contaminated surface soils associated with the unplanned releases have been consolidated over the cribs and covered with clean soil to reduce contaminant migration and exposure. Discharge of wastes to the cribs has resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. The groundwater is being addressed as part of the 200 East Aggregate Area groundwater operable unit. Contaminated soils at the site can be categorized by the types of contaminants, their distribution in the soil column, and the risk posed by the various potential exposure pathways. Below the clean soil cover, the near surface soils contain low-:levels of contamination with cesium-137, radium-226, strontium-90, thorium-228 and uranium. The lifetime incremental cancer risk associated with these soils if they were exposed at the surface is 9 {times} 10{sup 5}.

  2. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 5: Costs to Construct and Operate the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents a management summary of the cost estimate to complete the design, and to license, construct, operate, monitor, close, and decommission a Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This volume summarizes the scope, estimating methodologies, and assumptions used in development of the Monitored Geologic Repository-VA cost estimate. It identifies the key features necessary to understand the summary costs presented herein. This cost summary derives from a larger body of documented cost analysis. Volume 5 is organized to reflect this structured approach to cost estimation and contains the following sections: Section 1, Cost Elements. This section briefly defines the components of each major repository cost element. Section 2, Project Phases. This section presents the definition, as used in the estimate, of five project phases (Licensing, Pre-emplacement Construction, Emplacement Operations, Monitoring, and Closure and Decommissioning) and the schedule dates for each phase. It also contains major milestone dates and a bar chart schedule. Section 3, Major Assumptions. This section identifies key high-level assumptions for the cost estimate basis. Additional detailed assumptions are included in the appendices. Section 4, Integrated Cost Summary. This section presents a high-level roll-up of the VA costs resulting from the estimating work. The tables and figures contained in this section were compiled from the more detailed cost estimates in the appendices. Section 5, References. This section identifies the references that support this cost volume. Appendices. For each major repository cost element, Appendices B-F [B, C, D, E, F] presents additional information on the scope of cost elements, identifies methodologies used to develop the cost estimates, lists underlying cost assumptions, and tabulates summary results. Appendix A contains a glossary to assist the reader in understanding the terminology in Volume 5. Appendix G presents costs

  3. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  4. Development and Use of a Web Site with Multimedia Contents as a Complement to Traditional Unit Operations Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Cristian; Muller, Mauricio; Sapag-Hagar, Jaime; Valenzuela, Fernando; Basualto, Carlos; Abugoch, Lilian

    2005-01-01

    The Unit Operations Laboratory offers 2 courses in unit operations. One is a 2-semester course for chemistry and food engineering students that is more demanding because it considers more unit operations and places more emphasis on solving exercises. The other is a 1-semester course for chemistry and pharmacy students that considers fewer unit…

  5. Results of toxicity tests and chemical analyses conducted on sediments collected from the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit, July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-11

    In order to provide unit specific toxicity data that will be used to address critical uncertainty in the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the TNX Outfall Delta Operable Unit (TNXOD OU), sediments were collected from eight locations in the Inner Swamp portion of the operable unit and two unit specific background locations. These samples were analyzed for total mercury, total uranium, and sediment toxicity.

  6. United States Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, completion report Operation KLAXON, Fiscal Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Completion Report provides a summary of activities conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) between October 1, 1992, and September 30, 1993, associated with Operation KLAXON. (In the past, each annual Completion Report dealt with a series of underground nuclear detonations; however, because no nuclear tests were conducted during FY 1993, this Report summarizes continuing nonnuclear and nuclear test readiness activities at the NTS sponsored by DOE/NV.) The report serves as a reference for those involved with the planning and execution of Operation KLAXON and also serves as a planning guide for future operations. Information in the report covers the logistics and management of activities. Scientific information and data associated with NTS activities are presented in technical documents published by participating agencies. In September 1992, Congress legislated a nine-month moratorium on the testing of nuclear weapons. The bill also provided for a resumption of testing (with no more than five tests per year, or a total of 15 during the next three years) in July 1993, and mandated an end to nuclear testing, entirely, by 1996. President Bush signed the bill into law in October 1992.

  7. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  8. Cost effectiveness of duloxetine in the treatment of fibromyalgia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, S M; Roskell, N; Le, T K; Zhao, Y; Coleman, A; Ang, D; Lawson, K

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of duloxetine when considered as an alternative treatment for patients in the United States (US) being treated for fibromyalgia pain. A Markov model was used to evaluate the economic and clinical advantages of duloxetine in controlling fibromyalgia pain symptoms over a 2-year time horizon. A base-case treatment sequence was adopted from clinical guidelines, based on tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, anticonvulsants, and opioids. Treatment response was modeled using changes from baseline in pain severity, and response thresholds: full response (at least a 50% change), response (30-49% change), and no response (less than a 30% change). Clinical efficacy and discontinuation data were taken from placebo- and active-controlled trials identified in a systematic literature review and mixed-treatment comparison. Utility data were based on EQ-5D data. Additional symptom-control months (SCMs), defined as the amount of time at a response level of 30% or less, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over a 2-year time horizon. For every 1000 patients, first-line duloxetine resulted in an additional 665 SCMs and 12.3 QALYs, at a cost of $582,911 (equivalent to incremental cost-effectiveness ratios [ICERs] of $877 per SCM and $47,560 per QALY). Second-line duloxetine resulted in an additional 460 SCMs and 8.7 QALYs, at a cost of $143,752 (equivalent to ICERs of $312 per SMC and $16,565 per QALY). Response data for TCAs are limited to 30% improvement levels, reported trials are small, and have low placebo response rates. The model necessarily assumes that response rates are independent of placement in the treatment sequence. The results suggest that the introduction of duloxetine into the standard treatment sequence for fibromyalgia not only provides additional patient benefits, reflected by time spent in pain control, but also is cost effective when compared with commonly adopted thresholds.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis of a delirium prevention strategy in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Jinhyun

    2014-10-29

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a delirium prevention strategy. A high prevalence has been reported for delirium after liver transplantation surgery in the intensive care unit (ICU). Delirium increases treatment costs because of treatment delays, prolonged hospital stays and other associated complications. Despite all those problems associated with delirium, a systemic prevention strategy does not exist yet. This study used an economic evaluation design by reviewing relevant medical records. Study objects were 130 patients who were admitted to the ICU after liver transplantation surgery. After looking at the medical records of these patients, we divided them into two groups according to the application of the prevention strategy. This study analysed the costs and benefits of the prevention strategy between the groups. The prevalence rate of delirium was 35·3% in the prevention-care group and 51·6% in the usual-care group. A sum of $38·4 was invested for the prevention strategy in opposite to the expected total costs of $5578 for a probable treatment. Thus, the net benefit was $5539·6 with a benefit ratio of 145·3 CONCLUSIONS: A strategy is necessary for the delirium prevention of patients in the ICU to decrease the economic burden. This study demonstrated that a prevention strategy was cost-effective because of its low input costs. With low additional investment, it is expected that this prevention strategy will be more available to other patients in the future. © 2014 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  10. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  11. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Juan C; Hernández, Jorge A; Valdés, Carlos F; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., >22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers.

  12. Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

  13. A preliminary design and BOP cost analysis of M-C Power`s MCFC commerical unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P. [Bechtel Corp, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    M-C Power Corporation plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit.

  14. Does a single specialty intensive care unit make better business sense than a multi-specialty intensive care unit? A costing study in a trauma center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Parmeshwar; Jithesh, Vishwanathan; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Though intensive care units (ICUs) only account for 10% of hospital beds, they consume nearly 22% of hospital resources. Few definitive costing studies have been conducted in Indian settings that would help determine appropriate resource allocation. To evaluate and compare the cost of intensive care delivery between multi-specialty and neurosurgery ICU in an apex trauma care facility in India. The study was conducted in a polytrauma and neurosurgery ICU at a 203 bedded level IV trauma care facility in New Delhi, India from May, 2012 to June 2012. The study was cross-sectional, retrospective, and record-based. Traditional costing was used to arrive at the cost for both direct and indirect cost estimates. The cost centers included in study were building cost, equipment cost, human resources, materials and supplies, clinical and nonclinical support services, engineering maintenance cost, and biomedical waste management. Fisher's two-tailed t-test. Total cost/bed/day for the multi-specialty ICU was Rs. 14,976.9/- and for the neurosurgery ICU was Rs. 14,306.7/-, manpower constituting nearly half of the expenditure in both ICUs. The cost center wise and overall difference in the cost among the ICUs were statistically significant. Quantification of expenditure in running an ICU in a trauma center would assist healthcare decision makers in better allocation of resources. Although multi-specialty ICUs are more expensive, other factors will also play a role in defining the kind of ICU that need to be designed.

  15. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  16. Development of underground-mine cost-estimating equations. [Dependence of initial capital cost, deferred capital cost and annual operating cost on region, annual mine output and seam depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    Table 3.3 summarizes the initial capital, deferred capital, and operating costs (in millions of 1980 dollars) for the four regionally-based underground model mines. The initial capital is divided into two components, fixed and variable. The fixed component is just the investment cost for surface facilities, which is assumed to be independent of mine size. The rest of the initial capital cost is associated with production (primarily face-related) and is assumed to vary linearly with mine size (i.e., annual output). There exists a concern that deferred capital costs will change due to entry mode. However, the installations concerned primarily with this point are depreciated off over the mine life and are not targeted for replacement. Therefore, deferred capital costs will not change significantly with entry mode changes or seam depth. In conclusion, it is our feeling that, within the resources of this project, development of cost adjustment factors relating productivity to various supply regions and seam heights is not practical. Assuming that productivity and, therefore, cost is independent of seam height will introduce errors into the system; however, their extent should be minimized by the incorporation of multiple model mines into the RAMC. Lastly, the relationship presented in this memorandum for depth of cover should be used in the RAMC.

  17. Identification of calibration and operating limits of a low-cost embedded system with MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emilia, G.; Di Gasbarro, D.; Gaspari, A.; Natale, E.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper some aspects concerning the calibration uncertainty of three-axis low-cost accelerometers for possible use in diagnostics of civil buildings are considered, using a linear slide and a laser vibrometer as the reference. In order to analyse the principal and cross sensitivity and the offset of the sensor in dynamic conditions, the sensitivity matrix method has been used. Some considerations about the operating limits of a low-cost embedded system with MEMS accelerometer have been discussed, with reference to the calibration procedure. In particular, the effects of the non-constant sampling and of the achievable sampling rate, are studied with reference to the calibration uncertainty and to the capability of the calibration procedure to assess the best metrological performances of the system under test.

  18. Locating operations in high labor cost countries – Evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Diaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The location of operations in high labor cost countries is increasingly discussed in the media, in part for recent declarations and actions from the president of USA, Donald Trump. While this particular instance can be labeled as populist or protectionist, the factors underlying the debate are extremely important: advances in systematic increases in productivity, low population growth, and the transfer of jobs to countries with lower labor costs are creating unemployment and underemployment in developed countries that could eventually result in protectionism and restrictions to free trade. This phenomenon has enormous social and economic implications, and has attracted considerable interest from researchers. In particular, this study provides empirical evidence of the location of manufacturing and services in the context of a European country (Spain, exploring the drivers, social implications and organizational theories that can explain it.

  19. Low-cost USB interface for operant research using Arduino and Visual Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rogelio; Pérez-Herrera, Carlos A

    2015-03-01

    This note describes the design of a low-cost interface using Arduino microcontroller boards and Visual Basic programming for operant conditioning research. The board executes one program in Arduino programming language that polls the state of the inputs and generates outputs in an operant chamber. This program communicates through a USB port with another program written in Visual Basic 2010 Express Edition running on a laptop, desktop, netbook computer, or even a tablet equipped with Windows operating system. The Visual Basic program controls schedules of reinforcement and records real-time data. A single Arduino board can be used to control a total of 52 inputs/output lines, and multiple Arduino boards can be used to control multiple operant chambers. An external power supply and a series of micro relays are required to control 28-V DC devices commonly used in operant chambers. Instructions for downloading and using the programs to generate simple and concurrent schedules of reinforcement are provided. Testing suggests that the interface is reliable, accurate, and could serve as an inexpensive alternative to commercial equipment. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Antibiotic prescription and cost patterns in a general intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivoy N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic prescription habits, cost pattern, and the prospective intervention in an Intensive Care Unit were analyzed. Methods: Data on antibiotic utilization and costs were collected prospectively from individual electronic charts from August 2003 to January 2004, and retrospectively from August to December 2002. Results: A total of 180 and 107 patients were surveyed in 2002 and 2003. In 2002, Piperacillin-Tazobactam (13.8% and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.2% were the most prescribed medications; while, in 2003, Vancomycin (12.6% and Imipenem/Cilastin (11.3% were prescribed, respectively. Total defined daily dose (DDD and Drug Utilization 90% (DU90% index for 2002 and 2003 were 2031.15 and 2325.90 DDDs (p>0.1 and 1777.57 and 2079.61 DU90%, respectively (p>0.1. The Median Total Cost /100 admission days (CI 95% were NIS13,310 (11,110;18,420 and NIS13,860 (6,710;18,020 (p=0.66, respectively. Conclusions: Interventional programs should focus on promoting infectious control with rational antibiotic prescription aimed at minimizing the future emergence of bacterial resistance and futile expenses.

  1. Cost-income analysis of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Fallahzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated. The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

  2. The cost-effectiveness of a modestly effective HIV vaccine in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elisa F; Owens, Douglas K

    2011-08-18

    The recent RV144 clinical trial showed that an ALVAC/AIDSVAX prime-boost HIV vaccine regimen may confer partial immunity in recipients and reduce transmission by 31%. Trial data suggest that efficacy may initially exceed 70% but decline over the following 3.5 years. Estimating the potential health benefits associated with a one-time vaccination campaign, as well as the projected benefits of repeat booster vaccination, may inform future HIV vaccine research and licensing decisions. We developed a mathematical model to project the future course of the HIV epidemic in the United States under varying HIV vaccine scenarios. The model accounts for disease progression, infection transmission, antiretroviral therapy, and HIV-related morbidity and mortality. We projected HIV prevalence and incidence over time in multiple risk groups, and we estimated quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs over a 10-year time horizon. We assumed an exponentially declining efficacy curve fit to trial data, and that subsequent vaccine boosters confer similar immunity. Variations in vaccine parameters were examined in sensitivity analysis. Under existing HIV prevention and treatment efforts, an estimated 590,000 HIV infections occur over 10 years. One-time vaccination achieving 60% coverage of adults could prevent 9.8% of projected new infections over 10 years (and prevent 34% of new infections in the first year) and cost approximately $91,000/QALY gained relative to the status quo, assuming $500 per vaccination series. Targeted vaccination strategies result in net cost savings for vaccines costing less than $750. One-time vaccination of 60% of all adults coupled with three-year boosters only for men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs could prevent 21% of infections for $81,000/QALY gained relative to vaccination of higher risk sub-populations only. A program attaining 90% vaccination coverage prevents 15% of new HIV cases over 10 years (and approximately 50% of infections

  3. Pre-operative laboratory testing: A prospective study on comparison and cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh H Keshavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims : Pre-operative investigations are performed before any surgical intervention under anaesthesia. Many are considered as routine. However, there are no clear guidelines regarding these in India. We aim to look at the relevance of the laboratory investigations ordered routinely and their cost implications compared with the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines. Methods: This prospective study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 163 patients scheduled for elective surgical procedures were included in this study. Neither the surgeons nor anaesthesiologists involved in the case were aware of the study. The laboratory investigations of the patients who underwent surgery were noted. All values were categorised as normal or abnormal and they were assessed as indicated or unindicated based on NICE guidelines. Results: One hundred and sixty-three patients were subjected to a total of 984 tests. Forty three patients (26% were subjected to tests as per NICE guidelines. Of the 984 tests, 515 tests were unindicated (52%. Out of the 515 unindicated tests, 7 (1.3% were abnormal. None of these seven tests required any intervention or change of anaesthetic plan. The most common unindicated tests done were cardiac echocardiography and chest X-ray (92.5% and 93% respectively. The additional cost incurred towards unindicated tests was 63% of the total cost for the tests. Conclusion: Pre-operative laboratory investigations add to cost significantly. Patient premorbid conditions and surgical grade should guide the clinician to request for the relevant laboratory tests.

  4. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  5. Cost of Liver Transplantation A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing the United States With Other OECD Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hilst, Christian S.; IJtsma, Alexander J. C.; Slooff, Maarten J. H.; TenVergert, Elisabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Large cost variations of liver transplantation are reported. The aim of this study was to assess cost differences of liver transplantation and clinical follow-up between the United States and other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Eight electronic databases wer

  6. A Model of An Integration System for Operations and Cost Data Designed to Control Logistics Processes in Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Wajszczuk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model of an integration system for operations and cost data designed for the needs of process controlling in agricultural enterprises, with special emphasis on logistics processes. The proposed model constituted the basis for the development of an IT tool to be used in the identification and analysis of logistics costs in agricultural enterprises in terms of the process based approach. As a result of research and programming efforts a model was developed, which made it possible in agricultural enterprises to determine the type-based relationship of cost dynamics and structure with realized actions, operating processes (including logistics processes and products, as well as the relationship of these costs with used resources, maintained stocks, applied materials and work methods. Moreover, this model facilitates cost allocation to products and processes as well as cost centers and points, and makes it possible to determine multidimensional dependencies of the result (divided into individual products on incurred costs.

  7. A Study to Compare the Cost of Operation and Maintenance in Green Building Index (GBI and Non-Green Building Index (Non-GBI Rated Building in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lee Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urges for sustainable development had pushed the government and professional bodies to respond and react by implementing regulations where possible to direct development in that manner. However, the outcome in most financial conferences and dialogues on sustainable buildings flagged on high construction and maintenance cost. Thus, this study is conducted to collect and analyze actual building operation and maintenance cost between GBI and Non-GBI rated buildings in Malaysia which are more than 2 years fully operated buildings. There are two categories of selected buildings which are residential and non-residential type of building. Each category of the building consists of similar building’s characteristic such as geographic location, mode of operation, building heights, total numbers of floors and units. The scope of building’s maintenance for this study is mainly on wear and tear of the wall painting, electrical light fittings, ceiling panels, roofing system and mechanical services like water pump system are recorded for their replacement frequency of service and the cost involved within a consistent period of 12 months operation at cost percentage saving of 78.9% and 40.4% for residential and non-residential buildings respectively compare against Non-GBI rated buildings. Electricity consumption for GBI rated buildings are lower than Non-GBI rated buildings which recorded at the cost variance of 23.8% and 6.3% and water consumption at 35.9% and 44.0% for the above mentioned two main categories of selected case study buildings. Results from this study conclude major savings on residential buildings category in term of maintenance cost and electricity consumption for GBI rated buildings. Whereby, non-residential category of buildings, GBI rated building had been proven to obtain significant savings in terms of maintenance cost and water consumption.

  8. Designing Green Networks and Network Operations Saving Run-the-Engine Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the confluence of socio-political trends toward environmental responsibility and the pressing need to reduce Run-the-Engine (RTE) costs has given birth to a nascent discipline of Green IT. A clear and concise introduction to green networks and green network operations, this book examines analytical measures and discusses virtualization, network computing, and web services as approaches for green data centers and networks. It identifies some strategies for green appliance and end devices and examines the methodical steps that can be taken over time to achieve a seamless migratio

  9. A Conceptual Model to Optimize Operating Cost of Passenger Ships in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-long Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate more convenient travel as the economy of Macau expands, the government of Macau has allowed shipping companies to add passenger ships and shipping lines. This paper demonstrates how shipping companies can reduce costs by optimizing passenger ships and crew size. It analyzes operating conditions for each shipping depot, including transit time, ships, and volume of passengers. A series of integer programming models is proposed. After a practical demonstration using Excel to solve the LP model, we show that the reduction in the number of passenger ships and crew size could reach 22.6% and 29.4%, respectively.

  10. The Role of Logistics in Practical Levelized Cost of Energy Reduction Implementation and Government Sponsored Cost Reduction Studies: Day and Night in Offshore Wind Operations and Maintenance Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Poulsen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals that logistics make up at least 17% of annual operational expenditure costs for offshore wind farms. Annual operational expenditure is found to vary by a factor of 9.5, making its share of levelized cost of energy for offshore wind range from 13% to 57%. These are key findings of a 20-month research project targeting cost reduction initiatives for offshore wind systems. The findings reveal that cost-out measures are difficult to implement due to cultural differences. Implementation efforts are rendered by personnel located offshore in a harsh sea environment which is in stark contrast to the shore-based office personnel who develop studies directing cost reduction efforts. This paper details the company motivation to join industry-wide cost reduction initiatives. A business case for offshore wind operations and maintenance logistics yielding 1% savings in levelized cost of energy is included on how to expand working hours from daytime to also work at night.

  11. Man-hour Estimation Model based on Standard Operation Unit for Flexible Manufacturing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhenggeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In flexible manufacturing system, the estimation of man-hour is a difficult problem because of its production-diversity. To explore a more effective method, this paper tried to estimate man-hour from the perspective of operation`s character by establishing standard operation unit (SOU in this paper. A method of parameterizing the SOU is proposed, and a new man-hour estimation model is established on the basis of SOU. At last, this paper verified the effectiveness of this method by the operation of large-scale welding parts.

  12. Cost effectiveness of universal umbilical cord blood gas and lactate analysis in a tertiary level maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Christopher R H; Doherty, Dorota A; Cannon, Jeffrey W; Kohan, Rolland; Newnham, John P; Pennell, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing body of literature supporting universal umbilical cord blood gas analysis (UCBGA) into all maternity units. A significant impediment to UCBGA's introduction is the perceived expense of the introduction and associated ongoing costs. Consequently, this study set out to conduct the first cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing universal UCBGA. Analysis was based on 42,100 consecutive deliveries ≥23 weeks of gestation at a single tertiary obstetric unit. Within 4 years of UCBGA's introduction there was a 45% reduction in term special care nursery (SCN) admissions >2499 g. Incurred costs included initial and ongoing costs associated with universal UCBGA. Averted costs were based on local diagnosis-related grouping costs for reduction in term SCN admissions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and sensitivity analysis results were reported. Under the base-case scenario, the adoption of universal UCBGA was less costly and more effective than selective UCBGA over 4 years and resulted in saving of AU$641,532 while adverting 376 SCN admissions. Sensitivity analysis showed that UCBGA was cost-effective in 51.8%, 83.3%, 99.6% and 100% of simulations in years 1, 2, 3 and 4. These conclusions were not sensitive to wide, clinically possible variations in parameter values for neonatal intensive care unit and SCN admissions, magnitude of averted SCN admissions, cumulative delivery numbers, and SCN admission costs. Universal UCBGA is associated with significant initial and ongoing costs; however, potential averted costs (due to reduced SCN admissions) exceed incurred costs in most scenarios.

  13. Economic impacts of oil spills: Spill unit costs for tankers, pipelines, refineries, and offshore facilities. [Task 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    The impacts of oil spills -- ranging from the large, widely publicized Exxon Valdez tanker incident to smaller pipeline and refinery spills -- have been costly to both the oil industry and the public. For example, the estimated costs to Exxon of the Valdez tanker spill are on the order of $4 billion, including $2.8 billion (in 1993 dollars) for direct cleanup costs and $1.125 billion (in 1992 dollars) for settlement of damages claims caused by the spill. Application of contingent valuation costs and civil lawsuits pending in the State of Alaska could raise these costs appreciably. Even the costs of the much smaller 1991 oil spill at Texaco`s refinery near Anacortes, Washington led to costs of $8 to 9 million. As a result, inexpensive waming, response and remediation technologies could lower oil spin costs, helping both the oil industry, the associated marine industries, and the environment. One means for reducing the impact and costs of oil spills is to undertake research and development on key aspects of the oil spill prevention, warming, and response and remediation systems. To target these funds to their best use, it is important to have sound data on the nature and size of spills, their likely occurrence and their unit costs. This information could then allow scarce R&D dollars to be spent on areas and activities having the largest impact. This report is intended to provide the ``unit cost`` portion of this crucial information. The report examines the three key components of the US oil supply system, namely, tankers and barges; pipelines and refineries; and offshore production facilities. The specific purpose of the study was to establish the unit costs of oil spills. By manipulating this key information into a larger matrix that includes the size and frequency of occurrence of oil spills, it will be possible` to estimate the likely future impacts, costs, and sources of oil spills.

  14. Utility-Scale Solar 2015: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2016-08-17

    The utility-scale solar sector—defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar power (“CSP”) project that is larger than 5 MWAC in capacity—has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. It is expected to maintain its market-leading position for at least another five years, driven in part by December 2015’s three-year extension of the 30% federal investment tax credit (“ITC”) through 2019 (coupled with a favorable switch to a “start construction” rather than a “placed in service” eligibility requirement, and a gradual phase down of the credit to 10% by 2022). In fact, in 2016 alone, the utility-scale sector is projected to install more than twice as much new capacity as it ever has previously in a single year. This unprecedented boom makes it difficult, yet more important than ever, to stay abreast of the latest utility-scale market developments and trends. This report—the fourth edition in an ongoing annual series—is intended to help meet this need, by providing in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. Drawing on empirical project-level data from a wide range of sources, this report analyzes not just installed project costs or prices—i.e., the traditional realm of most solar economic analyses—but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are also presented where appropriate.

  15. Feasibility and Costs of Natural Gas as a Bridge to Deep Decarbonization in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; McJeon, H. C.; Muratori, M.; Shi, W.

    2015-12-01

    Achieving emissions reductions consistent with a 2 degree Celsius global warming target requires nearly complete replacement of traditional fossil fuel combustion with near-zero carbon energy technologies in the United States by 2050. There are multiple technological change pathways consistent with this deep decarbonization, including strategies that rely on renewable energy, nuclear, and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. The replacement of coal-fired power plants with natural gas-fired power plants has also been suggested as a bridge strategy to achieve near-term emissions reduction targets. These gas plants, however, would need to be replaced by near-zero energy technologies or retrofitted with CCS by 2050 in order to achieve longer-term targets. Here we examine the costs and feasibility of a natural gas bridge strategy. Using the Global Change Assessment (GCAM) model, we develop multiple scenarios that each meet the recent US Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to reduce GHG emissions by 26%-28% below its 2005 levels in 2025, as well as a deep decarbonization target of 80% emissions reductions below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that the gas bridge strategy requires that gas plants be retired on average 20 years earlier than their designed lifetime of 45 years, a potentially challenging outcome to achieve from a policy perspective. Using a more idealized model, we examine the net energy system costs of this gas bridge strategy compared to one in which near-zero energy technologies are deployed in the near tem. We explore the sensitivity of these cost results to four factors: the discount rate applied to future costs, the length (or start year) of the gas bridge, the relative capital cost of natural gas vs. near-zero energy technology, and the fuel price of natural gas. The discount rate and cost factors are found to be more important than the length of the bridge. However, we find an important interaction as well. At low discount rates

  16. Development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis applying scaled-down unit operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Börner, Tim; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    An experimental platform based on scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner enables easy and highly flexible testing of advanced biocatalytic process options such as in-situ product removal (ISPR) process strategies. In such a platform it is possible to compartmentalize...... different process steps while operating it as a combined system, giving the possibility to test and characterize the performance of novel process concepts and biocatalysts with minimal influence of inhibitory products. Here the capabilities of performing process development by applying scaled-down unit......-automatically characterize ω-transaminases in a scaled-down packed-bed reactor (PBR) module, showing MPPA as a strong inhibitor. To overcome the inhibition, a two-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) ISPR concept was tested using scaled-down unit operations combined in a plug-and-play manner. Through the tested ISPR concept...

  17. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  18. Manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational cost simulation and optimization from the perspective of inter-firm network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics cost control can better reflect the relationship of factors in the system. And the case firm can optimize the logistics costs by implement joint distribution. Research limitations/implications: This study still lacks comprehensive consideration about the variables quantities and quantitative of the control factors. In the future, we should strengthen the collection of data and information about the engineering manufacturing firms and improve the logistics operational cost model. Practical implications: This study puts forward some optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. And it is of great significance for enterprise’s supply chain management optimization and logistics cost control. Originality/value: Differing from the existing literatures, this paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics.

  19. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and

  20. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case series Objective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events. Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series. Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis. Conclusions and

  1. Accomplishing Shipyard Work for the United States Navy: Institutions, Systems and Operations. Volume 3. Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    operations research, advanced energy sources and propulsion technologies, nuclear physics, marine biology , maritime law, and ship financing. The...ductivity and reducing its production costs. 17 ()Determine whether -the industry c~ i achieve by FY 17 alevel of productivity that will allow reduction

  2. A case study using the United Republic of Tanzania: costing nationwide HPV vaccine delivery using the WHO Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Costing Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutubessy Raymond

    2012-11-01

    financial cost of US$5.77 per FIG, excluding the vaccine cost. The most important costs of service delivery are social mobilization/IEC and service delivery operational costs. Conclusions When countries expand their immunization schedules with new vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, they face initial costs to fund critical pre-introduction activities, as well as incremental system costs to deliver the vaccines on an ongoing basis. In anticipation, governments need to plan ahead for non-vaccine costs so they will be financed adequately. Existing human resources need to be re-allocated or new staff need to be recruited for the program to be implemented successfully in a sustainable and long-term manner. Reaching a target group not routinely served by national immunization programs previously with three doses of vaccine requires new delivery strategies, more transport of vaccines and health workers and more intensive IEC activities leading to new delivery costs for the immunization program that are greater than the costs incurred when a new infant vaccine is added to the existing infant immunization schedule. The WHO C4P tool is intended to help LMICs to plan ahead and estimate the programmatic and operational costs of HPV vaccination.

  3. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase I) Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Davison

    2007-07-31

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase I sites at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The 10 sites addressed in this report were defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for these 10 sites have been accomplished and are hereafter considered No Action or No Further Action sites.

  4. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggerstaff, R.L.

    1994-06-30

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment (QRA) for the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The extent of the groundwater beneath the 100 K Area is defined in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a). The QRA is an evaluation or risk using a limited amount of data and a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for a baseline risk assessment.

  5. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  6. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  7. Phase 1 remedial investigation report for 200-BP-1 operable unit. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, in Washington State is organized into numerically designated operational areas including the 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 1100 Areas. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in November 1989 included the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site on the National Priority List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Inclusion on the NPL initiated the remedial investigation (RD process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. These efforts are being addressed through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1989) which was negotiated and approved by the DOE, the EPA, and the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) in May 1989. This agreement, known as the Tri-Party Agreement, governs all CERCLA efforts at Hanford. In March of 1990, the Department of Energy, Richland Operations (DOE-RL) issued a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) work plan (DOE-RL 1990a) for the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The work plan initiated the first phase of site characterization activities associated with the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The purpose of the 200-BP-1 operable unit RI is to gather and develop the necessary information to adequately understand the risks to human health and the environment posed by the site and to support the development and analysis of remedial alternatives during the FS. The RI analysis will, in turn, be used by Tri-Party Agreement signatories to make a risk-management-based selection of remedies for the releases of hazardous substances that have occurred from the 200-BP-1 operable unit.

  8. Structural characterization and condition for measurement statistics preservation of a unital quantum operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Yan; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the necessary and sufficient condition for a convex cone of positive semidefinite operators to be fixed by a unital quantum operation ϕ acting on finite-dimensional quantum states. By reducing this problem to the problem of simultaneous diagonalization of the Kraus operators associated with ϕ, we can completely characterize the kinds of quantum states that are fixed by ϕ. Our work has several applications. It gives a simple proof of the structural characterization of a unital quantum operation that acts on finite-dimensional quantum states—a result not explicitly mentioned in earlier studies. It also provides a necessary and sufficient condition for determining what kind of measurement statistics is preserved by a unital quantum operation. Finally, our result clarifies and extends the work of Størmer by giving a proof of a reduction theorem on the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities, coherent information, and minimal output Renyi entropy of a unital channel acting on a finite-dimensional quantum state.

  9. Phase 1 and 2 feasibility study report for the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) feasibility study (FS) presented in this document completes the FS process only through the first two study phases: Phase I, Remedial Alternatives Development, and Phase II, Remedial Alternatives Screening in accordance with CERCIA guidance for performing Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies (RI/FS) (EPA 1988a). This Phase I/II study provides a generalized view of workable remedial technologies as applied to the site contamination problems as a whole. Phase III, Detailed Analysis of Alternatives, will be performed at a later date to further evaluate screened alternatives based on the nine criteria in the CERCLA RI/FS guidance. The purpose of this Phase I/II FS is to develop and screen a range of alternatives for remediation of contamination present in the vadose zone of the 300-FF-1 OU. The scope of work for this Phase I/II FS includes five primary tasks: 1. Review existing documents and their associated data from relevant investigations and studies; 2. Establish remedial action objectives (RAO) and general response actions (GRA); 3. Identify applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARS) pertinent to all general response actions (including waste disposal); 4. Develop remedial alternatives (Phase I) applicable to the 300-FF-1 OU including identification and screening of technologies and process options, and assembly of remedial alternatives from representative technology types; 5. Screen alternatives (Phase II) developed in Phase I for implementability, effectiveness, and cost to identify those alternatives which warrant advancement to the detailed analysis phase (Phase III) of the FS.

  10. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1983-02-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to estimate compositions of materials in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in a remotely operated nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH provides estimates of the steady-state composition of materials residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimations, the results are determined for the cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent materials collected in applicable vessels - including consideration for materials previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple performance models to estimate material holdup and distribution within unit operations. In simulated run-testing, NUMATH typically produced estimates within 5% of the measured inventories for uranium and within 8% of the measured inventories for thorium during steady-state process operation.

  11. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    The primary focus of this Process Development Unit operating program was to prepare for a confident move to the next scale of operation with a simplified and optimized process. The main purpose of these runs was the evaluation of the alternate commercial catalyst (F21/0E75-43) that had been identified in the laboratory under a different subtask of the program. If the catalyst proved superior to the previous catalyst, then the evaluation run would be continued into a 120-day life run. Also, minor changes were made to the Process Development Unit system to improve operations and reliability. The damaged reactor demister from a previous run was replaced, and a new demister was installed in the intermediate V/L separator. The internal heat exchanger was equipped with an expansion loop to relieve thermal stresses so operation at higher catalyst loadings and gas velocities would be possible. These aggressive conditions are important for improving process economics. (VC)

  12. Measuring the Costs of Production Based on Sizes of Farm Operation: A Study on Rice Farmers in Jessore District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh M. Rahman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of rice production has increased regardless of the land operation size in recent years, but small and medium farmers still have a serious problem especially regarding the increasing cost involved in the production. As rice is the main crop, the condition of production, cost incurred in different inputs, purchasing nature of inputs and the source of production elements influence the cost of production, which directly effects rural subsistence. The study included three categories of rice farmers: small (30, medium (23 and large (11 in the district of Jessore in the south-western part of Bangladesh. The objectives of this study are to measure the differences in the cost of production of boro rice farmers on the basis of land held to determine further steps for their well being. The study found that although there were no significant differences in the quantity of inputs used for all categories of farmers, the unit cost of some inputs significantly varied between small - large and medium - large, thus affecting the cost of production. The reasons for the raised cost of production were that most of the small and medium farmers purchased inputs on credit, spending comparatively more than cash and they paid higher interest on borrowed money.

  13. The opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States: new estimates from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Amalavoyal V; Engberg, John; Ray, Kristin N; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2015-06-01

    To provide nationally representative estimates of the opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States. Data from the 2011 and 2012 American Time Use Survey. Wage is used as the measure of an individual's value of time (opportunity cost), with wages being imputed for nonworking individuals using a selection-corrected regression methodology. The total opportunity costs of informal elder-care amount to $522 billion annually, while the costs of replacing this care by unskilled and skilled paid care are $221 billion and $642 billion, respectively. Informal caregiving remains a significant phenomenon in the United States with a high opportunity cost, although it remains more economical (in the aggregate) than skilled paid care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Toeplitz Operators on the Weighted Bergman Space over the Two-Dimensional Unit Ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the known results on commutative Banach algebras generated by Toeplitz operators with radial quasi-homogeneous symbols on the two-dimensional unit ball. Spherical coordinates previously used hid a possibility to detect an essentially wider class of symbols that can generate commutative Banach Toeplitz operator algebras. We characterize these new algebras describing their properties and, under a certain extra condition, construct the corresponding Gelfand theory.

  15. Analysis of United States Marine Corps Operations in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    unit (MEU), Bangladesh Cyclone Sidr, Operation Sea Angel II, Haiti earthquake 2010, Operation Unified Response, Great East Japan earthquake and...with respect to the conduct of HA/DR missions. We have collected data for the 2007 cyclone on the southwest coast of Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti ...responded to the 2007 cyclone in Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the 2011 Japanese earthquake and subsequent tsunami, respectively. These

  16. Mortality on grower/finisher-only swine operations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For 53 grower/finisher-only swine operations that participated in the United States National Animal Health Monitoring System 1995 National Swine Study, mortality among finisher pigs ranged from 0 to 12.0% over a 6-month period. Twenty-six (49.1% had 2% mortality. Nine (17.0% operations experienced >4% mortality. Fisher's exact test revealed that operations with all-in all-out management were significantly more likely to have 1 grower/finisher pig came from another source. Larger operations (where >900 pigs entered the grower/finisher phase practiced all-in, all-out management more frequently than smaller operations, and had a lower mean percent mortality than smaller operations. Diagnosis of Salmonella in finisher pigs performed at a laboratory or by a veterinarian in the 12 months prior to interview was associated with both increased percent mortality and increased percent mortality per day.

  17. Association Between Intensive Care Unit Utilization During Hospitalization and Costs, Use of Invasive Procedures, and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong W; Shapiro, Martin F

    2016-10-01

    Maximizing the value of critical care services requires understanding the relationship between intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, clinical outcomes, and costs. To examine whether hospitals had consistent patterns of ICU utilization across 4 common medical conditions and the association between higher use of the ICU and hospital costs, use of invasive procedures, and mortality. Retrospective cohort study of 156 842 hospitalizations in 94 acute-care nonfederal hospitals for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), pulmonary embolism (PE), upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), and congestive heart failure (CHF) in Washington state and Maryland from 2010 to 2012. Hospitalizations for DKA, PE, UGIB, and CHF were identified from the presence of compatible International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to determine the predicted hospital-level ICU utilization during hospitalizations for the 4 study conditions. For each condition, hospitals were ranked based on the predicted ICU utilization rate to examine the variability in ICU utilization across institutions. The primary outcomes were associations between hospital-level ICU utilization rates and risk-adjusted hospital mortality, use of invasive procedures, and hospital costs. The 94 hospitals and 156 842 hospitalizations included in the study represented 4.7% of total hospitalizations in this study. ICU admission rates ranged from 16.3% to 81.2% for DKA, 5.0% to 44.2% for PE, 11.5% to 51.2% for UGIB, and 3.9% to 48.8% for CHF. Spearman rank coefficients between DKA, PE, UGIB, and CHF showed significant correlations in ICU utilization for these 4 medical conditions among hospitals (ρ ≥ 0.90 for all comparisons; P utilization rate was not associated with hospital mortality. Use of invasive procedures and costs of hospitalization were greater in institutions with higher ICU utilization for all 4 conditions. For medical

  18. Evaluation of the Endomysial Antibody for Celiac Disease: Operating Properties and Associated Cost Implications in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Atkinson

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the operating properties of endomysial antibodies (EMAs in the diagnosis of celiac disease and to examine, using a cost minimization model, different strategies used in the diagnosis of celiac disease.

  19. Design of optimal operating conditions of simulated moving bed adsorptive separation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storti, G. (Univ. degli Studi di Padova (Italy)); Baciocchi, R.; Mazzotti, M.; Morbidelli, M. (Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Fisica Applicata)

    1995-01-01

    The design of the optimal operating conditions for simulated moving bed (SMB) adsorptive separation units is considered. A procedure for the a priori selection of the operating conditions to achieve an assigned separation requirement is developed in the frame of equilibrium theory for the equivalent four section countercurrent unit, using a model where the adsorption equilibria are described through the constant selectivity stoichiometric model, while both mass transfer resistance and axial dispersion are neglected. The space of the operating parameters, i.e. the mass flow rate ratios m[sub j], is divided in regions with different separation regimes. Curves at constant outlets purity and recovery are drawn in the (m[sub 2],m[sub 3]) plane. The introduction of three performance parameters, desorbent requirement, adsorbent requirement, and productivity, allows the development of a procedure for the design of optimal operating conditions. This procedure is completed, accounting for the effect of the switching time on the separation performances, with a detailed model of the SMB unit, considering both axial dispersion and mass transfer resistance. This result constitutes a useful tool for determining the range of operating conditions to achieve an assigned separation requirement and then for selecting the optimal operating condition within this range.

  20. The net national costs of illegal immigration into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, D L

    1995-04-01

    "This article examines the major economic pros and cons of illegal immigration and answers the question: what, if any, are the public and private costs of illegal immigration in the United States? In brief, the article finds that between four and 5.4 million illegal immigrants reside here.... The article also finds that illegal immigrants and their own citizen children cost taxpayers an additional $12 to $16.2 billion annually for education, public services, and incarceration after deducting all local, state, and federal taxes paid in by them. In the private sector, illegal aliens are found to save their employers and owners of capital about $1.5 billion more than U.S. workers lose due to wage depression. The article also considers what legal and enforcement reforms would be necessary to dramatically slow the current flow of 300,000 illegals yearly and concludes that, although improvements in the system are now being proposed, the actual reforms will be insufficient to more than stem the currently rising tide of illegals due to economic instability in Mexico and the Third World."

  1. 40 CFR 62.15145 - What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15145 Section 62.15145 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Good Combustion Practices: Operating Requirements § 62.15145 What are the operating practice requirements for my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) You...

  2. The Perceived Effect of Hidden Costs on the Operational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing is a business trend aimed at reducing costs and enabling companies to concentrate on their core competencies. This qualitative multiple case design research study explored the effects of hidden costs on the operational management of IT outsourcing. The study involved analyzing IT outsourcing agreements as…

  3. The Perceived Effect of Hidden Costs on the Operational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information technology (IT) outsourcing is a business trend aimed at reducing costs and enabling companies to concentrate on their core competencies. This qualitative multiple case design research study explored the effects of hidden costs on the operational management of IT outsourcing. The study involved analyzing IT outsourcing agreements as…

  4. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  5. The hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance per antibiotic prescribed in the United States: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelidis, Constantinos I; Fine, Michael J; Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Linder, Jeffrey A; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Shields, Ryan K; Zimmerman, Richard K; Smith, Kenneth J

    2016-11-08

    Ambulatory antibiotic prescribing contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance and increases societal costs. Here, we estimate the hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance per antibiotic prescribed in the United States. In an exploratory analysis, we used published data to develop point and range estimates for the hidden societal cost of antibiotic resistance (SCAR) attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription in the United States. We developed four estimation methods that focused on the antibiotic-resistance attributable costs of hospitalization, second-line inpatient antibiotic use, second-line outpatient antibiotic use, and antibiotic stewardship, then summed the estimates across all methods. The total SCAR attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription was estimated to be $13 (range: $3-$95). The greatest contributor to the total SCAR was the cost of hospitalization ($9; 69 % of the total SCAR). The costs of second-line inpatient antibiotic use ($1; 8 % of the total SCAR), second-line outpatient antibiotic use ($2; 15 % of the total SCAR) and antibiotic stewardship ($1; 8 %). This apperars to be an error.; of the total SCAR) were modest contributors to the total SCAR. Assuming an average antibiotic cost of $20, the total SCAR attributable to each ambulatory antibiotic prescription would increase antibiotic costs by 65 % (range: 15-475 %) if incorporated into antibiotic costs paid by patients or payers. Each ambulatory antibiotic prescription is associated with a hidden SCAR that substantially increases the cost of an antibiotic prescription in the United States. This finding raises concerns regarding the magnitude of misalignment between individual and societal antibiotic costs.

  6. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-09-30

    To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times

  7. Orchard Business Management. Unit II. Management and Analysis of the Orchard Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit is devoted to management and analysis of an orchard…

  8. Hydrologic resources management program and underground test area operable unit fy 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. F., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    This report present the results of FY 1997 technical studies conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) and Underground Test Area Operable Unit (UGTA). The HRMP is sponsored by the US Department of Energy to assess the environmental (radiochemical and hydrologic) consequences of underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site.

  9. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  10. Liquid phase methanol LaPorte process development unit: Modification, operation, and support studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-02

    This report consists of Detailed Data Acquisition Sheets for Runs E-6 and E-7 for Task 2.2 of the Modification, Operation, and Support Studies of the Liquid Phase Methanol Laporte Process Development Unit. (Task 2.2: Alternate Catalyst Run E-6 and Catalyst Activity Maintenance Run E-7).

  11. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  12. Orchard Business Management. Unit II. Management and Analysis of the Orchard Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinix, Shauna K.

    This guide is intended for use in providing in-depth formal classroom and on-site instruction in the principles of business and financial management as they apply to operating and managing orchards. Designed to be used with an accompanying Orchard Business Management Record Book, this unit is devoted to management and analysis of an orchard…

  13. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  14. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 groundwater operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Golder Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-22

    This report provides the qualitative risk assessment for the 100-HR-3 operable unit on the Hanford Reservation. 100-HR-3 is a ground water unit. The purpose of the QRA at the 100-HR-3 operable unit is to focus on a predefined set of human and environmental exposure scenarios in order to provides sufficient information that will assist the Tri-Party signatories (Washington State Department of Ecology, EPA and US DOE) in making defensible decisions on the necessity of Interim Remedial Measures. Frequent- and occasional-use exposure scenarios are evaluated in the human health risk assessment to provide bounding estimates of risk. The ecological risk assessment consists of an evaluation of the risks to riparian and aquatic receptors which live in or near the Columbia River.

  15. Hospital costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections and cost-effectiveness of closed vs. open infusion containers. The case of Intensive Care Units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim was to evaluate direct health care costs of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of closed fully collapsible plastic intravenous infusion containers vs. open (glass infusion containers. Methods A two-year, prospective case-control study was undertaken in four intensive care units in an Italian teaching hospital. Patients with CLABSI (cases and patients without CLABSI (controls were matched for admission departments, gender, age, and average severity of illness score. Costs were estimated according to micro-costing approach. In the cost effectiveness analysis, the cost component was assessed as the difference between production costs while effectiveness was measured by CLABSI rate (number of CLABSI per 1000 central line days associated with the two infusion containers. Results A total of 43 cases of CLABSI were compared with 97 matched controls. The mean age of cases and controls was 62.1 and 66.6 years, respectively (p = 0.143; 56% of the cases and 57% of the controls were females (p = 0.922. The mean length of stay of cases and controls was 17.41 and 8.55 days, respectively (p Conclusions CLABSI results in considerable and significant increase in utilization of hospital resources. Use of innovative technologies such as closed infusion containers can significantly reduce the incidence of healthcare acquired infection without posing additional burden on hospital budgets.

  16. Annual Summary Report Calendar Year 2000 for the 100-HR-3, 100-KR-4, and 100-NR-2 Operable Units and Pump-and-Treat Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. B. Mitchem

    2001-08-22

    This annual progress and performance evaluation report discusses the groundwater remedial actions in the 100 Area, including the interim actions at the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 Operable Units, and also discusses the expedited response action in the 100-NR-2 operable unit.

  17. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses.

  18. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector.

  19. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-10-08

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The {open_quotes}Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,{close_quotes} Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the {open_quotes}300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,{close_quotes} (DOE-RL 1993).

  20. Does a single specialty intensive care unit make better business sense than a multi-specialty intensive care unit? A costing study in a trauma center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmeshwar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Though intensive care units (ICUs only account for 10% of hospital beds, they consume nearly 22% of hospital resources. Few definitive costing studies have been conducted in Indian settings that would help determine appropriate resource allocation. Aim: To evaluate and compare the cost of intensive care delivery between multi-specialty and neurosurgery ICU in an apex trauma care facility in India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a polytrauma and neurosurgery ICU at a 203 bedded level IV trauma care facility in New Delhi, India from May, 2012 to June 2012. The study was cross-sectional, retrospective, and record-based. Traditional costing was used to arrive at the cost for both direct and indirect cost estimates. The cost centers included in study were building cost, equipment cost, human resources, materials and supplies, clinical and nonclinical support services, engineering maintenance cost, and biomedical waste management. Statistical Analysis: Fisher′s two-tailed t-test. Results: Total cost/bed/day for the multi-specialty ICU was Rs. 14,976.9/- and for the neurosurgery ICU was Rs. 14,306.7/-, manpower constituting nearly half of the expenditure in both ICUs. The cost center wise and overall difference in the cost among the ICUs were statistically significant. Conclusions: Quantification of expenditure in running an ICU in a trauma center would assist healthcare decision makers in better allocation of resources. Although multi-specialty ICUs are more expensive, other factors will also play a role in defining the kind of ICU that need to be designed.

  1. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham [Purdue University; Jiang, Zheyu [Purdue University; Tawarmalani, Mohit [Purdue University; Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue University

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  2. Remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan for the 100-KR-4 operable unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    Four areas of the Hanford Site (the 100, 200, 300, and 1100 Areas) have been included on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) National Priorities List (NPL) under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). This work plan and the attached supporting project plans establish the operable unit setting and the objectives, procedures, tasks, and schedule for conducting the CERCLA remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the 100-KR-4 operable unit. The 100-K Area consists of the 100-KR-4 groundwater operable unit and three source operable units. The 100-KR-4 operable unit includes all contamination found in the aquifer soils and water beneath the 100-K Area. Source operable units include facilities and unplanned release sites that are potential sources of contamination.

  3. Expert system decision support for low-cost launch vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, G. P.; Levin, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in assessing the feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with AI expert systems applied to low cost expendable launch vehicle systems is described. Part one identified potential application areas in vehicle operations and on-board functions, assessed measures of cost benefit, and identified key technologies to aid in the implementation of decision support systems in this environment. Part two of the program began the development of prototypes to demonstrate real-time vehicle checkout with controller and diagnostic/analysis intelligent systems and to gather true measures of cost savings vs. conventional software, verification and validation requirements, and maintainability improvement. The main objective of the expert advanced development projects was to provide a robust intelligent system for control/analysis that must be performed within a specified real-time window in order to meet the demands of the given application. The efforts to develop the two prototypes are described. Prime emphasis was on a controller expert system to show real-time performance in a cryogenic propellant loading application and safety validation implementation of this system experimentally, using commercial-off-the-shelf software tools and object oriented programming techniques. This smart ground support equipment prototype is based in C with imbedded expert system rules written in the CLIPS protocol. The relational database, ORACLE, provides non-real-time data support. The second demonstration develops the vehicle/ground intelligent automation concept, from phase one, to show cooperation between multiple expert systems. This automated test conductor (ATC) prototype utilizes a knowledge-bus approach for intelligent information processing by use of virtual sensors and blackboards to solve complex problems. It incorporates distributed processing of real-time data and object-oriented techniques for command, configuration control, and auto-code generation.

  4. Assessment of energy-saving strategies and operational costs in full-scale membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, S; Ferrero, G; Dalmau, M; Comas, J; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2014-02-15

    The energy-saving strategies and operational costs of stand-alone, hybrid, and dual stream full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with capacities ranging from 1100 to 35,000 m(3) day(-1) have been assessed for seven municipal facilities located in Northeast Spain. Although hydraulic load was found to be the main determinant factor for the energy consumption rates, several optimisation strategies have shown to be effective in terms of energy reduction as well as fouling phenomenon minimization or preservation. Specifically, modifications of the biological process (installation of control systems for biological aeration) and of the filtration process (reduction of the flux or mixed liquor suspended solids concentration and installation of control systems for membrane air scouring) were applied in two stand-alone MBRs. After implementing these strategies, the yearly specific energy demand (SED) in flat-sheet (FS) and hollow-fibre (HF) stand-alone MBRs was reduced from 1.12 to 0.71 and from 1.54 to 1.12 kW h(-1) m(-3), respectively, regardless of their similar yearly averaged hydraulic loads. The strategies applied in the hybrid MBR, namely, buffering the influent flow and optimisation of both biological aeration and membrane air-scouring, reduced the SED values by 14%. These results illustrate that it is possible to apply energy-saving strategies to significantly reduce MBR operational costs, highlighting the need to optimise MBR facilities to reconsider them as an energy-competitive option.

  5. Two-Stage Coordinated Operational Strategy for Distributed Energy Resources Considering Wind Power Curtailment Penalty Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual power plant (VPP has been proposed to facilitate the integration of distributed renewable energy. VPP behaves similar to a single entity that aggregates a collection of distributed energy resources (DERs such as distributed generators, storage devices, flexible loads, etc., so that the aggregated power outputs can be flexibly dispatched and traded in electricity markets. This paper presents an optimal scheduling model for VPP participating in day-ahead (DA and real-time (RT markets. In the DA market, VPP aims to maximize the expected profit and reduce the risk in relation to uncertainties. The risk is measured by a risk factor based on the mean-variance Markowitz theory. In the RT market, VPP aims to minimize the imbalance cost and wind power curtailment by adjusting the scheduling of DERs in its portfolio. In case studies, the benefits (e.g., surplus profit and reduced wind power curtailment of aggregated VPP operation are assessed. Moreover, we have investigated how these benefits are affected by different risk-aversion levels and uncertainty levels. According to the simulation results, the aggregated VPP scheduling approach can effectively help the integration of wind power, mitigate the impact of uncertainties, and reduce the cost of risk-aversion.

  6. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  7. Evaluation and application of data sources for assessing operating costs for mechanical drive gas turbines in pipeline service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.J.; Mauney, D.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Ash, D.I. [Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of regression analysis of public domain data provided by interstate pipeline companies to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), combined with individual company equipment lists to generate information on cost of operations, maintenance, fuel gas used and the cost of fuel and power, is demonstrated. Methods of analysis and limitations are identified, and results of such regression analysis as average and variance of cost and fuel usage for industrial gas turbines and aeroderivative gas turbines are discussed. Comparison between gas turbine prime movers, reciprocating engine prime movers and electric motor drives are made, and annual costs per installed horsepower as a function of turbine size are calculated. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  8. Performance study of a heat recovery tower with synthetic (polyurethane) flow channels to operate in a solar desalination unit

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Pinheiro Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Because of the lack of drinkable water in various semi-arid regions and the necessary use of renewable energies, the present work presents a performance study of a heat recovery tower to operate in a solar desalination unit for decentralized water production. The solar desalination unit has two parts: a heating unit and a desalination unit.This work presents the field results with a desalination tower with synthetic (polyurethane) flow channels. The tower operation consists of the heating ...

  9. Crash costs by body part injured, fracture involvement, and threat-to-life severity. United States, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted; Romano, Eduardo; Spicer, Rebecca

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents costs per US motor vehicle crash victim differentiated into many more diagnostic categories than prior estimates. These unit costs, which include the first keyed to the 1990 edition of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) threat-to-life severity scores, are reported by body part, whether a fracture/dislocation was involved, and the maximum AIS score among the victim's injuries. This level of detail allows for a more accurate estimation of the social costs of motor vehicle crashes. It also allows for reliable analyses of interventions targeting narrow ranges of injuries. The paper updates the medical care data underlying the US crash costs from 1979 to 1986 to the mid 1990s and improves on prior productivity cost estimates. In addition to presenting the latest generation of crash victim costs, this paper analyzes the effects of applying injury costs classified by AIS code from the 1985 edition to injury incidence data coded with the 1990 edition of AIS. This long-standing practice results in inaccurate cost-benefit analyses that typically overestimate benefits. This problem is more acute when old published costs adjusted for inflation are used rather than the recent costs.

  10. Cost Analysis and Effectiveness of Using the Indoor Simulated Marksmanship Trainer (ISMT) for United States Marine Corps (USMC) Marksmanship Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    MARKSMANSHIP TRAINING Khary A. Bates Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., Middle Tennessee State University , 1997 Submitted in partial...progenitors of the current Infantería de Marina Corp (“ Historia ,” n.d.). Many people would argue that the one hallmark of the Marine Corps is that every...will be evaluated on the principles of net present value (NPV). The Defense Acquisition University defines Life Cycle Cost as the total cost to the

  11. 20 CFR 662.270 - How are the costs of providing services through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating costs of the system to be funded? 662.270 Section... and the operating costs of the system to be funded? The MOU must describe the particular funding arrangements for services and operating costs of the One-Stop delivery system. Each partner must contribute...

  12. Planning intensive care unit design using computer simulation modeling: optimizing integration of clinical, operational, and architectural requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼHara, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have increasingly been regarded as critical members of the planning team as architects recognize their knowledge and value. But the nurses' role as knowledge experts can be expanded to leading efforts to integrate the clinical, operational, and architectural expertise through simulation modeling. Simulation modeling allows for the optimal merge of multifactorial data to understand the current state of the intensive care unit and predict future states. Nurses can champion the simulation modeling process and reap the benefits of a cost-effective way to test new designs, processes, staffing models, and future programming trends prior to implementation. Simulation modeling is an evidence-based planning approach, a standard, for integrating the sciences with real client data, to offer solutions for improving patient care.

  13. Cost-effective research results for gas turbine operators; Kosteneffiziente Forschungsergebnisse fuer Gasturbinenbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, N. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnheim (Netherlands)

    1996-06-01

    The Netherlands electricity supply industry has restructured its research and development programme on the basis of a scenario-related though process as well as on cost utilization and portfolio analyses. 14 target projects have been formulated, in which the gas turbine project figures with priority. This paper provides examples form the field of research and development, which have alredy been successfully translated into gas turbine power station operation, such as one-line temperature measurement of blade surfaces, integrated thermodynamic minotiring of operating conditions, guidelines on the ageing of lubricating oil and new developments, for example a rotating air inlet filter. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die niederlaendische Stromindustrie hat ihr Forschungs- und Entwicklungsprogramm auf der Basis einer szenariobezogenen Denkweise sowie einer Kosten-Nutzen- und Portfolio-Analyse neu strukturiert. Es wurden vierzehn Zielprojekte formuliert, wobei das Gasturbinenprojekt an vorrangiger Stelle steht. Es werden Beispiele aus dem Bereich Forschung und Entwicklung aufgezeigt, die bereits erfolgreich in Gasturbinen-Kraftwerken umgesetzt wurden, wie On-line-Temperaturmessungen der Schaufeloberflaeche, integrierte thermodynamische Ueberwachung der Betriebsbedingungen, Alterungsrichtlinien von Schmieroel und neue Entwicklungen, z.B. ein rotierender Lufteinlassfilter. (orig.)

  14. An Automatic Uav Mapping System for Supporting un (united Nations) Field Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K.; Cheon, J. W.; Kim, H. Y.; Lee, I.

    2016-06-01

    The United Nations (UN) has performed field operations worldwide such as peacekeeping or rescue missions. When such an operation is needed, the UN dispatches an operation team usually with a GIS (Geographic Information System) customized to a specific operation. The base maps for the GIS are generated mostly with satellite images which may not retain a high resolution and the current situation. To build an up-to-date high resolution map, we propose a UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) based automatic mapping system, which can operate in a fully automatic way from the data acquisition of sensory data to the data processing for the generation of the geospatial products such as a mosaicked orthoimage of a target area. In this study, we analyse the requirements for UN field operations, suggest a UAV mapping system with an operation scenario, and investigate the applicability of the system. With the proposed system, we can construct a tailored GIS with up-to-date and high resolution base maps for a specific operation efficiently.

  15. Metrics to Compare Aircraft Operating and Support Costs in the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    search costs associated with the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370. World Maritime News (2014), for instance, quotes Pentagon spokesman Army Col...commercial airline industry uses the metric cost per available seat mile, i.e., the cost to fly one seat one mile. This is a simple cost metric that

  16. An analysis of post-traumatic stress symptoms in United States Air Force drone operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Wayne; Goodman, Tanya; Reardon, Laura; Thompson, William

    2014-06-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), commonly referred to as "drones," have emerged over the past decade as an innovative warfighting tool. Given there is a paucity of empirical research assessing drone operators, the purpose of this study was to assess for the prevalence of PTSD symptoms among this cohort. Of the 1084 United States Air Force (USAF) drone operators that participated, a total of 4.3% endorsed a pattern of symptoms of moderate to extreme level of severity meeting criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition. The incidence of PTSD among USAF drone operators in this study was lower than rates of PTSD (10-18%) among military personnel returning from deployment but higher than incidence rates (less than 1%) of USAF drone operators reported in electronic medical records. Although low PTSD rates may be promising, limitations to this study are discussed.

  17. Automated processing of whole blood units: operational value and in vitro quality of final blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Marisa; Algora, Manuel; Garcia-Sanchez, Félix; Vico, Santiago; Rodriguez, Eva; Perez, Sonia; Barbolla, Luz

    2012-01-01

    Background The Community Transfusion Centre in Madrid currently processes whole blood using a conventional procedure (Compomat, Fresenius) followed by automated processing of buffy coats with the OrbiSac system (CaridianBCT). The Atreus 3C system (CaridianBCT) automates the production of red blood cells, plasma and an interim platelet unit from a whole blood unit. Interim platelet unit are pooled to produce a transfusable platelet unit. In this study the Atreus 3C system was evaluated and compared to the routine method with regards to product quality and operational value. Materials and methods Over a 5-week period 810 whole blood units were processed using the Atreus 3C system. The attributes of the automated process were compared to those of the routine method by assessing productivity, space, equipment and staffing requirements. The data obtained were evaluated in order to estimate the impact of implementing the Atreus 3C system in the routine setting of the blood centre. Yield and in vitro quality of the final blood components processed with the two systems were evaluated and compared. Results The Atreus 3C system enabled higher throughput while requiring less space and employee time by decreasing the amount of equipment and processing time per unit of whole blood processed. Whole blood units processed on the Atreus 3C system gave a higher platelet yield, a similar amount of red blood cells and a smaller volume of plasma. Discussion These results support the conclusion that the Atreus 3C system produces blood components meeting quality requirements while providing a high operational efficiency. Implementation of the Atreus 3C system could result in a large organisational improvement. PMID:22044958

  18. Cost Quality Management Assessment for the Idaho Operations Office. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Office of Engineering and Cost Management (EM-24) conducted a Cost Quality Management Assessment of EM-30 and EM-40 activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on Feb. 3--19, 1992 (Round I). The CQMA team assessed the cost and cost-related management activities at INEL. The Round II CQMA, conducted at INEL Sept. 19--29, 1994, reviewed EM-30, EM-40, EM-50, and EM-60 cost and cost-related management practices against performance objectives and criteria. Round II did not address indirect cost analysis. INEL has made measurable progress since Round I.

  19. Costs borne by families of children hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Bossuat, Christine; Perrin, Eliane; Cotting, Jacques

    2006-12-23

    Hospitalisation of a child in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) involves major stress for parents. They wish to stay at their child's bedside while at the same time giving the usual attention to their other children. The resultant out-of-pocket expenses have rarely been studied. Over a 6-month period all the families of children hospitalised in our PICU for more than 4 days, speaking French and insured by our social security system, were eligible for inclusion. Participation was proposed only after diagnosis, treatment and prognosis had been determined. Costs were retrieved from a diary list of customised items and computed as the amount in excess of usual expenses until the end of the hospital stay. 117 children were hospitalised in our PICU for a total of 131 stays. The families of 16 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One dropped out after a week at the parents' request. The children's age was 2.9 +/- 3.8 years and 67% were male. The majority had malformations (53%) or infections (33%). The total length of stay was 49 +/- 51 days, of which 24 +/- 41 were spent in the PICU. On average, parents spent CHF 86 +/- 31 every day, mainly on travel and meals. Over the entire hospital stay their expenses amounted to CHF 4,078 +/- 4,552. Direct out-of-pocket expenses for parents of children hospitalised in the PICU are considerable. Improvement in the social security system may be necessary to address this issue.

  20. Healthcare costs of acute and chronic tonsillar conditions in the pediatric population in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Victor M; McGrath, Caitlin L; Shapiro, Nina L; Bhattacharrya, Neil

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and healthcare costs associated with the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic tonsillar conditions (ACT) in children. Cross-sectional analysis of the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Pediatric patients (age children with and without a diagnosis of ACT and acute versus chronic tonsillitis, with multivariate adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, region, insurance coverage and comorbid conditions (e.g., asthma and otitis media). A total of 74.3 million children (mean age 8.55 years, 51% male) were sampled (raw N = 28,873). Of these, 804,229 children (1.1 ± 0.1%) were diagnosed with ACT annually (mean age 7.24 years, 49.1% male); 64.6 ± 2.0% had acute tonsillitis diagnoses and 35.4 ± 2.0% suffered from chronic tonsillitis. Children with ACT incurred an additional 2.3 office visits and 2.1 prescription fills (both p Children with acute tonsillar diagnoses carried total healthcare expenditures of $1303 ± 390 annually versus $2401 ± 618 for those with chronic tonsillitis (p = 0.193). ACT was associated with an incremental increase in total healthcare expense of $1685 per child, annually (p children, parents and the healthcare system. With its prevalence in the United States, pediatric tonsillitis accounts for approximately $1.355 billion in incremental healthcare expense and is a significant healthcare utilization concern. 2C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unit cost analysis of training and deploying paid community health workers in three rural districts of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kassimu; Exavery, Amon; Baynes, Colin D; Pemba, Senga; Hingora, Ahmed; Manzi, Fatuma; Phillips, James F; Kanté, Almamy Malick

    2016-07-08

    Tanzania, like other African countries, faces significant health workforce shortages. With advisory and partnership from Columbia University, the Ifakara Health Institute and the Tanzanian Training Centre for International Health (TTCIH) developed and implemented the Connect Project as a randomized cluster experimental trial of the childhood survival impact of recruiting, training, and deploying of a new cadre of paid community health workers (CHW), named "Wawazesha wa afya ya Jamii" (WAJA). This paper presents an estimation of the cost of training and deploying WAJA in three rural districts of Tanzania. Costing data were collected by tracking project activity expenditure records and conducting in-depth interviews of TTCIH staff who have led the training and deployment of WAJA, as well as their counterparts at Public Clinical Training Centres who have responsibility for scaling up the WAJA training program. The trial is registered with the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Register number ( ISRCTN96819844 ). The Connect training cost was US$ 2,489.3 per WAJA, of which 40.1 % was for meals, 20.2 % for accommodation 10.2 % for tuition fees and the remaining 29.5 % for other costs including instruction and training facilities and field allowance. A comparable training program estimated unit cost for scaling-up this training via regional/district clinical training centres would be US$ 833.5 per WAJA. Of this unit cost, 50.3 % would involve the cost of meals, 27.4 % training fees, 13.7 % for field allowances, 9 % for accommodation and medical insurance. The annual running cost of WAJA in a village will cost US$ 1.16 per capita. Costs estimated by this study are likely to be sustainable on a large scale, particularly if existing regional/district institutions are utilized for this program.

  2. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Reactor Technology Complex Operable Unit 2-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Wells

    2007-03-23

    This Groundwater Monitoring Plan describes the objectives, activities, and assessments that will be performed to support the on-going groundwater monitoring requirements at the Reactor Technology Complex, formerly the Test Reactor Area (TRA). The requirements for groundwater monitoring were stipulated in the Final Record of Decision for Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, signed in December 1997. The monitoring requirements were modified by the First Five-Year Review Report for the Test Reactor Area, Operable Unit 2-13, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to focus on those contaminants of concern that warrant continued surveillance, including chromium, tritium, strontium-90, and cobalt-60. Based upon recommendations provided in the Annual Groundwater Monitoring Status Report for 2006, the groundwater monitoring frequency was reduced to annually from twice a year.

  3. Secondary-care costs associated with lung cancer diagnosed at emergency hospitalisation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martyn P T; Hall, Peter S; Callister, Matthew E J

    2017-01-30

    Lung cancer diagnosis during emergency hospital admission has been associated with higher early secondary-care costs and lower longer-term costs than outpatient diagnoses. This retrospective cohort study analyses the secondary-care costs of 3274 consecutive patients with lung cancer. Patients diagnosed during emergency admissions incurred greater costs during the first month and had a worse prognosis compared with outpatient diagnoses. In patients who remained alive, costs after the first month were comparable between diagnostic routes. In addition to improving patient experience and outcome, strategies to increase earlier diagnosis may reduce the additional healthcare costs associated with this route to diagnosis.

  4. Utility-Scale Solar 2016: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2017-09-19

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze not just installed project prices, but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement ("PPA") prices from a large sample of utility-scale PV and CSP projects throughout the United States. Highlights from this year's edition include the following: Installation Trends: The use of solar tracking devices dominated 2016 installations, at nearly 80% of all new capacity. In a reflection of the ongoing geographic expansion of the market beyond California and the Southwest, the median long-term average insolation level at newly built project sites declined again in 2016. While new fixed-tilt projects are now seen predominantly in less-sunny regions, tracking projects are increasingly pushing into these same regions. The median inverter loading ratio has stabilized in 2016 at 1.3 for both tracking and fixed-tilt projects. Installed Prices: Median installed PV project prices within a sizable sample have fallen by two-thirds since the 2007-2009 period, to $2.2/WAC (or $1.7/WDC) for projects completed in 2016. The lowest 20th percentile of projects within our 2016 sample were priced at or below $2.0/WAC, with the lowest-priced projects around $1.5/WAC. Overall price dispersion across the entire sample and across geographic regions decreased significantly in 2016. Operation and Maintenance (“O&M”) Costs: What limited empirical O&M cost data are publicly available suggest that PV O&M costs were in the neighborhood of $18/kWAC-year, or $8/MWh, in 2016. These

  5. The reliability analysis of a separated, dual fail operational redundant strapdown IMU. [inertial measurement unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motyka, P.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology for quantitatively analyzing the reliability of redundant avionics systems, in general, and the dual, separated Redundant Strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit (RSDIMU), in particular, is presented. The RSDIMU is described and a candidate failure detection and isolation system presented. A Markov reliability model is employed. The operational states of the system are defined and the single-step state transition diagrams discussed. Graphical results, showing the impact of major system parameters on the reliability of the RSDIMU system, are presented and discussed.

  6. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations` suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  7. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of [sup 60]Co, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 137]Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area.

  8. EXTENDED CES(A)RO OPERATORS ON THE BLOCH SPACE IN THE UNIT BALL OF Cn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡璋剑

    2003-01-01

    The paper defines an extended Cesàro operator Tg with holomorphic symbolg in the unit ball B of Cn asWhere g(z)= ∑j=1∑n zj g/ zj is the radial derivative of g. In this paper, the author characterizes g for which Tg is bounded (or compact) on the Bloch spaceB and the little Blochspace B0.

  9. Contaminant Attenuation and Transport Characterization of 200-DV-1 Operable Unit Sediment Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gartman, Brandy N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhong, Lirong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nims, Megan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saunders, Danielle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, Benjamin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Horner, Jacob A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Christiansen, Beren B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McElroy, Erin M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Appriou, Delphine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tyrrell, Kimberly J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Striluk, Miranda L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify contaminant attenuation processes and associated contaminant transport parameters that are needed to evaluate transport of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater. The laboratory study information, in conjunction with transport analyses, can be used as input to evaluate the feasibility of Monitored Natural Attenuation and other remedies for the 200-DV-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site.

  10. Discrete Sampling Test Plan for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Mark D.

    2010-02-04

    The Discrete Groundwater Sampling Project is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on behalf of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company. The project is focused on delivering groundwater samples from proscribed horizons within select groundwater wells residing in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit (200-BP-5 OU) on the Hanford Site. This document provides the scope, schedule, methodology, and other details of the PNNL discrete sampling effort.

  11. Data validation report for the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit, fifth round groundwater samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelich, S.E. [Kearney (A.T.), Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1994-01-20

    The data from the chemical analysis of 68 samples from the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit Third Quarter 1993 Groundwater Sampling Investigation and their related quality assurance samples were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at the site. Sample analysis included inorganics and general chemical parameters. Fifty three samples were validated for radiochemical parameters.

  12. Baseline groundwater model update for p-area groundwater operable unit, NBN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Amidon, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the development of a numerical groundwater flow and transport model of the hydrogeologic system of the P-Area Reactor Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS) (Figure 1-1). The P-Area model provides a tool to aid in understanding the hydrologic and geochemical processes that control the development and migration of the current tritium, tetrachloroethene (PCE), and trichloroethene (TCE) plumes in this region.

  13. The economic burden of incident venous thromboembolism in the United States: A review of estimated attributable healthcare costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Nelson, Richard E.; Nyarko, Kwame A.; Richardson, Lisa C.; Raskob, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity. In this study, we summarize estimates of per-patient and aggregate medical costs or expenditures attributable to incident VTE in the United States. Per-patient estimates of incremental costs can be calculated as the difference in costs between patients with and without an event after controlling for differences in underlying health status. We identified estimates of the incremental per-patient costs of acute VTEs and VTE-related complications, including recurrent VTE, post-thrombotic syndrome, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and anticoagulation-related adverse drug events. Based on the studies identified, treatment of an acute VTE on average appears to be associated with incremental direct medical costs of $12,000 to $15,000 (2014 US dollars) among first-year survivors, controlling for risk factors. Subsequent complications are conservatively estimated to increase cumulative costs to $18,000–23,000 per incident case. Annual incident VTE events conservatively cost the US healthcare system $7–10 billion each year for 375,000 to 425,000 newly diagnosed, medically treated incident VTE cases. Future studies should track long-term costs for cohorts of people with incident VTE, control for comorbid conditions that have been shown to be associated with VTE, and estimate incremental medical costs for people with VTE who do not survive. The costs associated with treating VTE can be used to assess the potential economic benefit and cost-savings from prevention efforts, although costs will vary among different patient groups. PMID:26654719

  14. Selective decontamination of the digestive tract and selective oropharyngeal decontamination in intensive care unit patients : a cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Wit, G. A.; Bakker, Marina; de Smet, Anne-Marie; Bonten, M. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine costs and effects of selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) as compared with standard care (ie, no SDD/SOD (SC)) from a healthcare perspective in Dutch Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Design: A post hoc analysis of a pre

  15. Cost Analysis of Utilizing Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic Solar Energy in the United States Marine Corps Commercial Vehicle Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this MBA project is to examine the upfront cost associated with purchasing electric vehicles and installing photovoltaic (PV) solar...analysis for implementing Low Speed Vehicle (LSV), Pure Electric Vehicles (PEV), and PV solar electric energy in the United States Marine Corps commercial vehicle fleet at Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow.

  16. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  17. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  18. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  19. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.