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Sample records for unit objectives student

  1. Today's Learning Objective Is to Have a Party: Playing Research with Students in a Secondary School Special Needs Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Anat

    2014-01-01

    The use of creative methods has been advocated within disability and childhood research as a means of including voices of inarticulate participants in research, as it can support and supplement the use of conventional language. This paper draws on a research project aimed at designing "the best school in the world" with five students in…

  2. Increasing Student Interactions with Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, Emily Kaye

    2017-01-01

    As educators, we recognize the importance of strong student learning objectives. We also know that students benefit by being well informed of expectations. Existing literature offers little guidance in methods and teaching strategies to apply in exposing students to their learning objectives. In this article, we discuss the use of specific…

  3. AQA A2 Chemistry Student Unit Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Cross, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Student Unit Guides are perfect for revision. Each guide is written by an examiner and explains the unit requirements, summarises the relevant unit content and includes a series of specimen questions and answers. There are three sections to each guide:. Introduction - includes advice on how to use the guide, an explanation of the skills being tested by the assessment objectives, an outline of the unit or module and, depending on the unit, suggestions for how to revise effectively and prepare for the examination questions. Content Guidance - provides an examiner's overview of the module's key t

  4. Edexcel AS Physics Student Unit Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Benn, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Student Unit Guides are perfect for revision. Each guide is written by an examiner and explains the unit requirements, summarises the relevant unit content and includes a series of specimen questions and answers. There are three sections to each guide:. Introduction - includes advice on how to use the guide, an explanation of the skills being tested by the assessment objectives, an outline of the unit or module and, depending on the unit, suggestions for how to revise effectively and prepare for the examination questions. Content Guidance - provides an examiner's overview of the module's key t

  5. Edexcel A2 Physics Student Unit Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Benn, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Student Unit Guides are perfect for revision. Each guide is written by an examiner and explains the unit requirements, summarises the relevant unit content and includes a series of specimen questions and answers. There are three sections to each guide:. Introduction - includes advice on how to use the guide, an explanation of the skills being tested by the assessment objectives, an outline of the unit or module and, depending on the unit, suggestions for how to revise effectively and prepare for the examination questions. Content Guidance - provides an examiner's overview of the module's key t

  6. Behavioral Objectives for Selected Units in Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard K., Ed.; Schmidt, B. June, Ed.

    This is a catalog of behavioral objectives organized by units. Each unit contains an outline of the content, a goal statement, and general and specific objectives. The catalog contains a total of 48 units on: business behavior and psychology; business law; business math; business principles and organization; business terminology; communication and…

  7. Quantum objects as elementary units of causality and locality

    CERN Document Server

    Diel, Hans H

    2016-01-01

    The author's attempt to construct a local causal model of quantum theory (QT) that includes quantum field theory (QFT) resulted in the identification of "quantum objects" as the elementary units of causality and locality. Quantum objects are collections of particles (including single particles) whose collective dynamics and measurement results can only be described by the laws of QT and QFT. Local causal models of quantum objects' internal dynamics are not possible if a locality is understood as a space-point locality. Within quantum objects, state transitions may occur which instantly affect the whole quantum object. The identification of quantum objects as the elementary units of causality and locality has two primary implications for a causal model of quantum objects: (1) quantum objects run autonomously with system-state update frequencies based on their local proper times and with either no or minimal dependency on external parameters. (2) The laws of physics that describe global (but relativistic) inter...

  8. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  9. Students' Accuracy of Measurement Estimation: Context, Units, and Logical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. Gail; Gardner, Grant E.; Taylor, Amy R.; Forrester, Jennifer H.; Andre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study examined students' accuracy of measurement estimation for linear distances, different units of measure, task context, and the relationship between accuracy estimation and logical thinking. Middle school students completed a series of tasks that included estimating the length of various objects in different contexts and completed a test…

  10. South Dakota Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Matt; Outka, Janeen; McCorkle, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Student growth is one of two essential components of South Dakota's Teacher and Principal Effectiveness Systems. In the state systems, student growth is defined as a positive change in student achievement between two or more points in time. "The South Dakota SLO Handbook" provides support and guidance to public schools and school…

  11. Cornerstones: Literacy Units Ready for Teachers, Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Jennifer; Donahue, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Every day, teachers face the time-consuming task of adapting materials from curricula that do not meet their students' needs or match their learning styles. This article discusses ready-made literacy units specifically designed for teachers of deaf and hard of hearing students. The units were part of the Cornerstones Project, an activity of the…

  12. Student-Led Objective Tutorial (SLOT) in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Gurusamy; Saraswathi, Simansalam; Rajasekaran, Aiyalu

    2006-12-01

    Purpose - To assess an innovative tutoring program named 'Student-Led Objective Tutorial' (SLOT) among undergraduate medical students. Method - The program was conceptualized by the Pharmacology Unit of Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Asian Institute of Medicine Science & Technology (AIMST), Malaysia and implemented in the middle of 2005. A cohort of 246 medical undergraduate students (spread across 5 consecutive batches) participated. Following a brief explanation on the purpose and nature of SLOT, each batch was divided into small groups and was given a reading assignment on 4 previously delivered lecture topics. Each group was asked to prepare 3-5 multiple choice questions (MCQs) of their own in PowerPoint format to be presented, in turns, to the whole class on the day of SLOT. The proceedings were facilitated by 2 lecturers. Student feedback on the efficacy and benefits were assessed through an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Results - About 76% (188) of the students favored SLOT. The acceptance rate of SLOT was higher among males. There was no significant difference between batches in their opinions on whether to pursue SLOT in future. The most prevalent positive comment was that SLOT enhanced learning skills, and the negative comment being, it consumed more time. Conclusions - SLOT is a novel tutorial method which can offset faculty shortage with advantages like enhanced interest among teachers and learners, uniform reach of content, opportunities for group learning, and involvement of visual aids as teaching-learning (T-L) method. SLOT unraveled the students' potential of peer tutoring both inside as well as outside the classroom. Consumer tutors (students) can be tapped as a resource for SLOT for all subjects and courses in healthcare teaching.

  13. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  14. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  15. Impact of Prior Knowledge of Behavioural Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Prior Knowledge of Behavioural Objectives on Students' Academic ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology ... significant difference in achievement between male and female students with the females ...

  16. Objective and Subjective Knowledge and HIV Testing among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2004-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on the knowledge domain specifically related to HIV testing among college students. Students (age 18-24) were recruited from a major university in the southeastern United States to participate in a Web-based survey during spring 2003 (N=440). About 21% of the students reported previous voluntary HIV tests.…

  17. Students' perceptions regarding the objective, structured, clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-18

    Apr 18, 2013 ... This questionnaire focused on the perceptions of student nurses with regard to the ... thus a multi-method strategy is proposed. ..... Bruce, J.C., Klopper, H.C. & Mellish, J.M., 2011, Teaching and learning the practice of nursing ...

  18. Flexibility for Fairness: Crafting Business Rules for Student Learning Objectives. Ask the Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potemski, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Across the United States, a wide cross-section of administrators and teachers are learning the ins and outs of setting, assessing, and scoring student learning objectives (SLOs). An SLO is a set of goals that measures an educator's progress in achieving student growth targets. SLOs are particularly helpful for teachers in nontested subjects and…

  19. Learning Social Studies via Objects in Museums: Investigation into Turkish Elementary School Students' Lived Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Kaya; Filiz, Nilufer; Yilmaz, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Based on a descriptive phenomenological research design, this study investigated Turkish elementary school students' experiences in learning social studies via objects in museums. After students visited four different museums during the teaching of three thematic units at sixth grade level, their lived experiences were elicited. Purposeful…

  20. Development of Object-understanding Among Students in the Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten

    This paper describes a on-going empirical study, inspired by phenomenography, aiming at understanding how students from the humanities learn the concepts of objects and object-orientation during a programming course.  ......This paper describes a on-going empirical study, inspired by phenomenography, aiming at understanding how students from the humanities learn the concepts of objects and object-orientation during a programming course.  ...

  1. Accelerated space object tracking via graphic processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bin; Liu, Kui; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Monte Carlo Gauss mixture Kalman filter is proposed for the continuous orbit estimation problem. Specifically, the graphic processing unit (GPU) aided Monte Carlo method is used to propagate the uncertainty of the estimation when the observation is not available and the Gauss mixture Kalman filter is used to update the estimation when the observation sequences are available. A typical space object tracking problem using the ground radar is used to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the popular cubature Kalman filter (CKF). The simulation results show that the ordinary CKF diverges in 5 observation periods. In contrast, the proposed hybrid Monte Carlo Gauss mixture Kalman filter achieves satisfactory performance in all observation periods. In addition, by using the GPU, the computational time is over 100 times less than that using the conventional central processing unit (CPU).

  2. Evaluation Primary School Students' Achievement of Objectives in English Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk

    2015-01-01

    The problem statement of this survey is "How far are the specific objectives of English courses achieved by the primary students (4-5 grades) recently in Istanbul?" "Does the first stage state primary school students' achievement level of the specific English courses differ according to students' personal characteristics? Survey…

  3. United Arab Emirates students at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the last two months, CERN played host to more than a hundred young physicists who attended the summer student programme. However, the difference in culture has been more pronounced for some than others: among this year's attendees have been five female theoretical physics and medical physics students from the United Arab Emirates.

  4. Objective evaluation of oral presentation skills using Inertial Measurement Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Zhang, Di; Cosentino, Sarah; Manawadu, Udara; Kawasaki, Motoji; Thomas, George Thuruthel; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tsumura, Ryosuke; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentation is considered as one of the most sought after skills by companies and professional organizations and program accreditation agencies. However, both learning process and evaluation of this skill are time demanding and complex tasks that need dedication and experience. Furthermore, the role of the instructor is fundamental during the presentation assessment. The instructor needs to consider several verbal and nonverbal communications cues sent in parallel and this kind of evaluation is often subjective. Even if there are oral presentation rubrics that try to standardize the evaluation, they are not an optimal solution because they do not provide the presenter a real-time feedback. In this paper, we describe a system for behavioral monitoring during presentations. We propose an ecological measurement system based on Inertial Measurement Units to evaluate objectively the presenter's posture through objective parameters. The system can be used to provide a real-time feedback to the presenters unobtrusively.

  5. Student objectives and learning experiences in a global health elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David; Zayas, Luis E; Koyfman, Alex

    2012-10-01

    International health electives offer unique experiences for medical students to develop clinical skills and cultural competencies in unique and diverse environments. Medical students have been increasingly pursuing these learning opportunities despite the challenges. However, their goals in pursuing these opportunities and the relation between their learning objectives and actual experiences have not been studied adequately. It is important to assess these programs based on student objectives and whether those objectives are met. Thirty-seven medical students from five cohorts at a US medical school completed pre-post questionnaires regarding their global health elective objectives and learning experiences. The questionnaires included mostly open-ended questions and a Likert-scale rating of their overall experience. Qualitative thematic analysis involved inductive coding and followed a content-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Quantitative program evaluation measures yielded descriptive statistics. Five general objectives and four types of learning experiences were identified. Student objectives were: (1) to observe the practice and organization of health care in another country; (2) improve medical/surgical skills; (3) improve language skills; (4) learn about another culture; and (5) deepen knowledge of infectious diseases. All of their objectives were achieved. Moreover, one learning theme, "self-reflection and personal growth," was not a student objective. Quantitative assessment showed that most students had a favorable elective experience. Program challenges were also identified. Students in a global health elective were able to fulfill self-identified learning objectives, while also gaining other unexpected yet important lessons. Students' learning objectives also should be considered in evaluating learning experiences in international health electives.

  6. Auto Body Repair. Supplementary Units. Instructor Key and Student Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Linda; Muench, James F., Ed.

    These supplementary units are designed to help students with special needs learn and apply auto body repair skills. The material specifically supplements the Auto Body Repair Curriculum Guide (University of Missouri-Columbia 1988), and is intended for instructors serving the occupational needs of various categories of disadvantaged and handicapped…

  7. Object-Oriented Approach to Modeling Units of Pneumatic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Kyurdzhiev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the relevance of the approaches to the object-oriented programming when modeling the pneumatic units (PU.Based on the analysis of the calculation schemes of aggregates pneumatic systems two basic objects, namely a cavity flow and a material point were highlighted.Basic interactions of objects are defined. Cavity-cavity interaction: ex-change of matter and energy with the flows of mass. Cavity-point interaction: force interaction, exchange of energy in the form of operation. Point-point in-teraction: force interaction, elastic interaction, inelastic interaction, and inter-vals of displacement.The authors have developed mathematical models of basic objects and interactions. Models and interaction of elements are implemented in the object-oriented programming.Mathematical models of elements of PU design scheme are implemented in derived from the base class. These classes implement the models of flow cavity, piston, diaphragm, short channel, diaphragm to be open by a given law, spring, bellows, elastic collision, inelastic collision, friction, PU stages with a limited movement, etc.A numerical integration of differential equations for the mathematical models of PU design scheme elements is based on the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth order. On request each class performs a tact of integration i.e. calcu-lation of the coefficient method.The paper presents an integration algorithm of the system of differential equations. All objects of the PU design scheme are placed in a unidirectional class list. Iterator loop cycle initiates the integration tact of all the objects in the list. One in four iteration makes a transition to the next step of integration. Calculation process stops when any object shows a shutdowns flag.The proposed approach was tested in the calculation of a number of PU designs. With regard to traditional approaches to modeling, the authors-proposed method features in easy enhancement, code reuse, high reliability

  8. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  9. International Service and Public Health Learning Objectives for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C.; Duron, Vincent; Creigh, Peter; McIntosh, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to improve the education of medical students involved in a longitudinal perinatal health improvement project in Gowa, Malawi. Design: We conducted qualitative interviews with students who participated in the project, reviewed their quantitative reports, and assessed the application of methodologies consonant with the learning…

  10. Student assessment by objective structured examination in a neurology clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesoye, Taiwo; Smith, Sandy; Blood, Angela; Brorson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the reliability and predictive ability of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 third-year medical students who took the OSCE. For each student, the OSCE consisted of 2 standardized patient encounters. The scores obtained from each encounter were compared. Faculty clinical evaluations of each student for 2 clinical inpatient rotations were also compared. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to test the ability of the averaged OSCE scores to predict standardized written examination scores and composite clinical scores. Results: Students' OSCE scores from the 2 standardized patient encounters were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.347, p neurology clerkship. PMID:22855865

  11. Elementary Functions, Student's Text, Unit 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    Unit 21 in the SMSG secondary school mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics in elementary functions: functions, polynomial functions, tangents to graphs of polynomial functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and circular functions. Appendices discuss set notation, mathematical induction, significance of…

  12. Pharmacy Student Anxiety and Success With Objective Structured Clinical Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyhore, Daniel S

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students' OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association. Results. Seventy-three students (100%) provided consent to participate in the research; 64 (87%) sufficiently completed the STAI survey. Degree of student state-anxiety or train-anxiety was not associated with any of the outcomes assessed in this study. Overall pass rate, individual station pass rates, and station analytical checklist scores were not inversely correlated with state- or trait-anxiety scores. Conclusions. Efforts to assist students in OSCE performance should focus on means other than reducing associated anxiety. Future research in this area should focus on what interventions beyond instruction could be put in place to help students be more successful during OSCEs.

  13. Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance: Developing Student Learning Objectives for Growth Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…

  14. Tracking Student Achievement in Music Performance: Developing Student Learning Objectives for Growth Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Student achievement growth data are increasingly used for assessing teacher effectiveness and tracking student achievement in the classroom. Guided by the student learning objective (SLO) framework, music teachers are now responsible for collecting, tracking, and reporting student growth data. Often, the reported data do not accurately reflect the…

  15. The Inclusion Potential of Student Production of Digital Learning Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    -secondary schools. The project explored teacher-designed frameworks that engage students’ agency as digital producers of learning objects for their peers. The findings indicate that digital production facilitates students’ learning processes and qualifies their learning outcome when executed within a teacher......This account of the inclusion potential of students’ digital production is based on the large-scale research and development project Students’ Digital Production and Students as Learning Designers (2013–2015), funded by the Danish Ministry of Education. The target groups were primary and lower......-designed framework that accommodates and empowers students’ agency. The Danish parliament passed the Law of Inclusion In 2012 with the objective that by 2015, 96% of all students would be included in normal classes. Inclusion was not part of the initial research agenda, but this changed unexpectedly during...

  16. The Inclusion Potential of Student Production of Digital Learning Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2016-01-01

    This account of the inclusion potential of students’ digital production is based on the large-scale research and development project Students’ Digital Production and Students as Learning Designers (2013–2015), funded by the Danish Ministry of Education. The target groups were primary and lower......-designed framework that accommodates and empowers students’ agency. The Danish parliament passed the Law of Inclusion In 2012 with the objective that by 2015, 96% of all students would be included in normal classes. Inclusion was not part of the initial research agenda, but this changed unexpectedly during...... the project. Specifically, students who did not participate or participated only sporadically in everyday school activities at the beginning of the project adopted new positions as participants and agents. We understand these changes as inclusive processes initiated by the combination of teacher...

  17. What Is the Unit of Visual Attention? Object for Selection, but Boolean Map for Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous theories and findings have suggested that the unit of visual attention is the object. In this study, I first clarify 2 different meanings of unit of visual attention, namely the unit of access in the sense of measurement and the unit of selection in the sense of division. In accordance with this distinction, I argue…

  18. Energy Objectives for the United States Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Service, Library of Congress Schwartz, M., Blakely, K., & O’Rourke, R ., for the Congressional Research Service (CRS) 2012 14 More capable warfighting...Report FT602T1) Crowley, T. D., Corrie, T. D., Diamond, D. B., Funk, S. D., Hansen , W. A., Stenhoff, A. D., & Swift, D. C., for Logistics Management...Memorandum] Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition 2011 28 Department of the Navy ( DON ) objectives for FY 2012 and

  19. Student-led objective tutorials in Pharmacology: An interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhlecha, Anupama; Jadav, Shilpa P; Gosai, Tushar R; Balusamy, Divakar

    2016-10-01

    Students learn in a better way if they are involved in active learning. Hence, the study was designed to introduce student-led objective tutorials (SLOTs) as an alternative to conventional tutorials (CTs) in pharmacology and to compare SLOT and CT on outcomes such as improved score in tests, active involvement of students, and faculty requirement of each. Didactic lectures taken on a topic in pharmacology were followed by a preintervention test for a batch of the 2(nd) year medical undergraduates. They were allotted either in SLOT or CT group. For a SLOT session, students of Group A (interventional group) were divided into teams and each team prepared five multiple choice questions on the given topic in PowerPoint format, which were presented to other teams and audience. The proceedings were facilitated by two lecturers. Group B undertook CT (controls). A postintervention test was then taken for both groups. Feedback was sought from students and teachers on SLOT. The total marks for the test were 20. The mean marks in Group A improved by 31% (from 5.1 to 11.2). In Group B, they improved by 11% (from 5 to 7.2). Academic performance following SLOT was better than CT. Students (63%) favored SLOT as it stimulated their interest in the topic, improved self-learning skills, and teamwork. The teachers also favored SLOT for similar reasons. SLOT leads to greater satisfaction and better performance in tests. SLOT is an effective alternative to CT to promote active learning among students through group work. It helps overcome the logistic difficulties due to faculty shortage.

  20. Evaluation of nursing students about the objective structured clinical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Naiara de Medeiros Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is considered a fundamental element to improve teaching and learning. It can be understood as a measurement tool of clinical competencies with adoption of standard procedures. A qualitative study aimed to describe the evaluation of students about the OSCE use as strategy to promote the teaching-learning process in Clinical Nursing. A focus group with 27 students was created for data collection with information extracted from three guiding questions. Data was analyzed using Content Analysis technique. Two categories emerged from the first guiding question: the use of SOP; and learning strategy. Three categories emerged from the second question: main feelings; valid experience; and assessment method. From the third question, two categories were identified: learning from errors; and similarity with practice. The OSCE constitutes an assessment strategy that positively contributed with the teaching-learning process in Clinical Nursing.

  1. Nursing students' clinical competencies: a survey on clinical education objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, C; Grugnetti, A M; Caruso, R; Gallotti, M L; Borrelli, P; Puci, M

    2017-01-01

    Developing clearly defined competencies and identifying strategies for their measurement remain unfortunately a critical aspect of nursing training. In the current international context, which continues to be characterised by deep economic crisis, universities have a fundamental role to play in redefining the educational goals to respond to the expectations of certain geographical areas of interest, as underscored in the Bologna Process (Joint Declaration of the European Ministers of Education Convened in Bologna 19 June 1999). The aim of this observational study was to examine the clinical learning context of nursing students using a tool developed by a team of teachers for the analysis of clinical learning. Redefinition of the clinical learning objectives with reference to the competencies set out in the questionnaire validated by Venturini et al. (2012) and the subsequent use of the tool created by the team of teachers for students in the first, second and third-year courses of the 2013/14 academic year, covering all the internships called for in those years. All nursing students enrolled in the first, second and third year of the nursing undergraduate degree program at the University of Pavia (no. 471) participated in this survey. A total of 1,758 clinical internships were carried out: 461 for the first year, 471 for the second year and 826 for the third year. Setting objectives, beginning with the educational offerings in the several clinical contexts, represents a strong point for this process. The results highlight a level of heterogeneity and complexity intrinsic to the University of Pavia educational system, characterized by clinical settings with different clinical levels (Research hospital and other traditional hospitals) that offering different levels of training. The use of the self-evaluation form for clinical learning made it possible to perform real-time observations of the training activities of the entire student body. An educational model

  2. Student housing unit in a floor area without corridors

    OpenAIRE

    Cekić Nikola; Vasov Miomir; Bjelić Igor

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the issues of position and urbarchitectonic-functional organization of a housing unit in a floor area without corridors in a student hostel. The authors advocate a new, more rational and functional concept in which the student room is not in direct contact with the corridor communication, but belongs to the housing unit, student apartment for 4-6 users. In a more rational organized volume, the living of the students is more comfortable and has a different character. Th...

  3. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  4. High-School Student Discovers Strange Astronomical Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    A West Virginia high-school student analyzing data from a giant radio telescope has discovered a new astronomical object -- a strange type of neutron star called a rotating radio transient. Lucas Bolyard, a sophomore at South Harrison High School in Clarksburg, WV, made the discovery while participating in a project in which students are trained to scrutinize data from the National Science Foundation's giant Robert C. Byrd Green The project, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University (WVU), funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Bolyard made the discovery in March, after he already had studied more than 2,000 data plots from the GBT and found nothing. "I was home on a weekend and had nothing to do, so I decided to look at some more plots from the GBT," he said. "I saw a plot with a pulse, but there was a lot of radio interference, too. The pulse almost got dismissed as interference," he added. Nonetheless, he reported it, and it went on a list of candidates for West Virginia University astronomers Maura McLaughlin and Duncan Lorimer to re-examine, scheduling new observations of the region of sky from which the pulse came. Disappointingly, the follow-up observations showed nothing, indicating that the object was not a normal pulsar. However, the astronomers explained to Bolyard that his pulse still might have come from a rotating radio transient. Confirmation didn't come until July. Bolyard was at the NRAO's Green Bank Observatory with fellow PSC students. The night before, the group had been observing with the GBT in the wee hours, and all were very tired. Then Lorimer showed Bolyard a new plot of his pulse, reprocessed from raw data, indicating that it is real, not interference, and that Bolyard is likely the discoverer of one of only about 30 rotating radio transients known. Suddenly, Bolyard said, he wasn't tired anymore. "That news made me full

  5. Occupational therapy students' attitudes towards inclusion education in Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Keli; Brown, Ted; Peyton, Claudia G; Rodger, Sylvia; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Chin-Yu; Watson, Callie; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Hong, Chia Swee

    2010-03-01

    This international, cross-cultural study investigated the attitudes of occupational therapy students from Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. The possible impact of professional education on students' attitudes was also explored. A total of 485 students from 11 entry-level occupational therapy education programmes from Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Taiwan participated in the study. Among them, 264 were freshmen (first-year students) and 221 were seniors (final-year students). Data collected from a custom-designed questionnaire were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, the occupational therapy students reported having positive attitudes towards inclusion. Considerable differences, however, existed among the student groups from the four countries. Professional education appeared to have a significant impact on students' attitudes towards inclusion from first year to senior year. Although students were in favour of inclusion, they also cautioned that their support for inclusive practices depended on various factors such as adequate preparation, support and assistance to students with disabilities. Limitations of the study included the small, convenience sample and different degree structures of the participating programmes. Future research studies need to compare occupational therapy students' attitudes with students from other health care professions. A longitudinal study on the impact of the professional education programme on students' attitudes towards inclusive education is warranted.

  6. Challenges Facing Chinese International Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Yuerong; Renes, Susan L.; McMurrow, Samantha; Simpson, Joni; Strange, Anthony T.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese international students often find it challenging to adjust to attending college in the United States (US). There is limited research addressing Chinese international college students' adjustment in the US. Drawing on what literature exists combined with research addressing Chinese immigrants' transition and international students'…

  7. Developing Student's Notion of Measurement Unit for Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuberta, Kurnia Rahmi; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf; van Galen, Frans

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understanding area measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why the formula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement.…

  8. International Students' Psychological and Sociocultural Adaptation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Seda

    2009-01-01

    International students constitute an important cohort in the United States (U.S.) colleges and universities. In order for the U.S. colleges and universities to better accommodate the significant number of international students and to recruit them in the future, it is critical to identify factors that influence these students' acculturation and…

  9. CCEA as physics student unit guide unit 1 : forces, energy and electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Cosgrove, Ferguson

    2014-01-01

    Perfect for revision, these guides explain the unit requirements, summarise the content and include specimen questions with graded answers. Each full-colour New Edition Student Unit Guide provides ideal preparation for your unit exam:. - Feel confident you understand the unit: each guide comprehensively covers the unit content and includes topic summaries, knowledge check questions and a reference index. - Get to grips with the exam requirements: the specific skills on which you will be tested are explored and explained. - Analyse exam-style questions: graded student responses will help you fo

  10. CCEA AS unit 2 physics student guide

    CERN Document Server

    Cosgrove, Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Reinforce students' understanding throughout their course; clear topic summaries with sample questions and answers will improve exam technique to achieve higher grades. Written by examiners and teachers, Student Guides:· Help students identify what they need to know with a concise summary of the topics examined in the AS and A-level specification· Consolidate understanding with exam tips and knowledge check questions· Provide opportunities to improve exam technique with sample graded answers to exam-style questions· Develop independent learning and research skills · Provi

  11. Assessment of pharmacy students' communication competence using the Roter Interaction Analysis System during objective structured clinical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yoshie; Yano, Yoshitaka; Seki, Susumu; Takada, Kaori; Sakuma, Mio; Morimoto, Takeshi; Akaike, Akinori; Hiraide, Atsushi

    2011-04-11

    To determine the value of using the Roter Interaction Analysis System during objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to assess pharmacy students' communication competence. As pharmacy students completed a clinical OSCE involving an interview with a simulated patient, 3 experts used a global rating scale to assess students' overall performance in the interview, and both the student's and patient's languages were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). The coders recorded the number of utterances (ie, units of spoken language) in each RIAS category. Correlations between the raters' scores and the number and types of utterances were examined. There was a significant correlation between students' global rating scores on the OSCE and the number of utterances in the RIAS socio-emotional category but not the RIAS business category. The RIAS proved to be a useful tool for assessing the socio-emotional aspect of students' interview skills.

  12. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  13. Gender Issues Embedded in the Experience of Student Teaching: Being Treated Like a Sex Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith Harmon

    1997-01-01

    Women from three teacher education programs discussed their experiences as student teachers in high schools. Their stories highlighted frequent harassment of female student teachers by male students, and the fact that viewing women as sex objects was commonplace. Recommends incorporation of ideas from Carol Gilligan and others in student teaching…

  14. Studying the incommensurability that unites us: persuasion across discourse communities, persuasion via boundary objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.)

    2003-01-01

    In the science studies literature the theoretical construct of boundary objects has been developed to explain how diverse communities clustered around a scientific subject area cooperate to advance that area. Boundary objects are 'scientific objects that inhabit several intersecting social worlds . . . and satisfy the informational requirements of each of them' (Star and Griesemer 393). Star and Griesemer's foundational article showed that these objects can be shared by communities ranging from academic researchers to amateur enthiasts, adminsitrators, philanthropists, and technicians. While each community understands the object differently, there is enough commonality in the understanding of the object to unite these distinct social worlds and facilitate cooperation among them.

  15. Business Students' Perception of Sales Careers: Differences between Students in Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Fahri; Quigley, Charles; Bingham, Frank; Hari, Juerg; Nasir, Aslihan

    2014-01-01

    This research measures perceptual differences between sales and sales careers among business students studying in the United States, Switzerland, and Turkey. Earlier studies indicate that selling and a sales career are not viewed favorably by students in the United States and several other countries. This study expands on prior studies by…

  16. Mathematics Education: Student Terminal Goals, Program Goals, and Behavioral Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    Behavioral objectives are listed for the primary, intermediate and junior high mathematics curriculum in the Mesa Public Schools (Arizona). Lists of specific objectives are given by level for sets, symbol recognition, number operations, mathematical structures, measurement and problem solving skills. (JP)

  17. Managing Highway Maintenance: Maintenance Management--by Objectives, Unit 10, Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit deals with management by objectives--its definition, how it works, and necessary steps for application. It is designed for maintenance supervisors who are familiar with maintenance management systems. The format is a programed, self-instructional approach in which questions are…

  18. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schalkx; P. Iedema; B. Reissland; B. van Velzen

    2011-01-01

    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  19. Effectiveness of student-led objective tutorials in pharmacology teaching to medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kriti; Hashilkar, Nayana Kamalnayan

    2016-10-01

    Current teaching in pharmacology is passive with less emphasis on clinical application. There is a need to incorporate newer instructional designs into pharmacology. Student-led objective tutorial (SLOT) is one of the novel designs to enhance interest among learners, provide opportunities for group learning, and facilitate self-directed learning. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of SLOTs over conventional tutorials (CTs) in pharmacology and to obtain feedback from the students regarding their perceptions about it. The regular batch of MBBS 2(nd) professional in pharmacology was randomly divided into two groups. Five topics from central nervous system (CNS) were selected. One group received SLOT as the instructional strategy, whereas the other group went through CTs. At the end of the module, a written test was conducted to assess the effectiveness of both strategies. The students provided feedback regarding their experience using a prevalidated questionnaire. The mean scores of both the groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test. There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the end of the module test. However, the overall passing percentage was significantly higher in the intervention group (P = 0.043). A total of 45.71% students favored it as a future tutorial method and expressed that SLOT enhanced their ability to learn independently. SLOT is an effective teaching-learning method to teach pharmacology to medical undergraduates. It enhances interest among learners and increases the ability to learn independently.

  20. Using State Student Unit Record Data to Increase Community College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Peter; Jenkins, Davis

    2008-01-01

    This chapter examines lessons learned by states that are using student unit record (SUR) data to improve outcomes for community college students and recommends steps states can take to strengthen their use of SUR databases to benefit students and communities. (Contains 1 exhibit.)

  1. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  2. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  3. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    .,. 2008. 243 opportunity of enrolling for schooling and studying in a given ..... Gender. 2931.86. 1. 2931.86. 32.72. 0.00 *. 2-way Interaction. Objectives Vs Gender. 321.10. 2 .... and retention in social studies in Akwa Ibom State of. Nigeria.

  4. "Object Lesson": Using Family Heirlooms to Engage Students in Art History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Marice

    2012-01-01

    This first written assignment of the semester for the author's undergraduate introductory art history class--an essay where students describe and reflect upon the significance of a family heirloom--is instrumental in meeting class objectives. The author's objectives in this class are for students: (1) to broaden their conception of what art is…

  5. Instructional Learning Objects in the Digital Classroom: Effectively Measuring Impact on Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contrino, Jacline L.

    2016-01-01

    Demonstrating library impact on student success is critical for all academic libraries today. This article discusses how the library of a large online university serving non-traditional students evaluated how customized point-of-need learning objects (LOs) embedded in the learning management system impacted student learning. Using a comprehensive…

  6. Chemical Equilibrium, Unit 2: Le Chatelier's Principle. A Computer-Enriched Module for Introductory Chemistry. Student's Guide and Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, A. Keith

    Presented are the teacher's guide and student materials for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this unit on Le Chatelier's principle includes objectives, prerequisites, pretest, instructions for executing the computer program, and…

  7. Solutions, Unit 2: Molarity, Molality, Concentration Conversions. A Computer-Enriched Module for Introductory Chemistry. Student's Guide and Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Morris

    Presented are the teacher's guide and student manual for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student module for this solution concentration unit includes objectives, prerequisites, pretest, discussion, and 20 problem sets. Included in the teacher's guide…

  8. Teacher Education and Black Male Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Richard Milner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teacher education programs in the United States (U.S. struggle to prepare teachers to meet the complex needs of elementary and secondary students in public schools - especially those of color, those living in poverty, and those whose first language is not English. In this article, we argue for focused attention on preparing educators to teach African American male students as these students face particular institutional challenges in successfully navigating the U.S. public school system. Drawing from the significant body of research on teacher education and teacher learning for equity and social justice, four Black teacher educators discuss challenges they have faced in classes designed to prepare teachers to teach Black male students. Through an analysis of commonalities in their experiences, they propose means for teacher educators to foster greater understandings of the heterogeneity found among Black male students so that teachers can craft more responsive and responsible educational experiences for Black males.

  9. Introduction to Matrix Algebra, Student's Text, Unit 23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    Unit 23 in the SMSG secondary school mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics in matrix algebra: matrix operations, the algebra of 2 X 2 matrices, matrices and linear systems, representation of column matrices as geometric vectors, and transformations of the plane. Listed in the appendix are four research exercises in…

  10. Intermediate Mathematics, Student's Text, Part I, Unit 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    Unit 17 in the SMSG secondary school mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics: number systems, coordinate geometry in the plane, the function concept and the linear function, quadratic functions and equations, complex number systems, equations of the first and second degree in two variables, systems of equations in two…

  11. First Course in Algebra, Student's Text, Part I, Unit 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    Unit 9 in the SMSG's secondary school mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics in Algebra I: sets and the number line, numerals and variables, sentences and properties of operations, open sentences and English sentences, the real numbers, properties of addition, properties of multiplication, properties of order, and…

  12. Chinese International Students' Academic Stressors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2009-01-01

    No empirical research has focused on understanding the academic stress of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the most stressful aspects of their academic lives in the U.S., how they characterize their academic stress, and what conditions they believe tend to account for their academic stress.…

  13. Student Perceptions of Inclusion in Unit/Course Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Elizabeth; Hicks, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Good teaching should be inclusive of all students. There are very strong arguments for making courses/units/modules as inclusive as possible, based on issues of equity and access. Inclusive teaching has been a catch cry in recent times and most universities have policies related to this issue. However, research into the effectiveness of measures…

  14. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Frith, James; Cowardin, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UIST infrared spectrograph cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near the geosynchronous (GEO) regime. Thirteen of the objects are spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and four are cataloged as debris pieces. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give excellent indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include more materials, noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and from the two distinct data sets. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft, rocket bodies, or debris.

  15. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UKIRT 1-5 micron Imager Spectrometer (UIST) cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Two of the objects are controlled spacecraft, twelve are non-controlled spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and three are cataloged as debris. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft, both the controlled and non-controlled, show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels whereas the rocket bodies do not. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give well-correlated indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and different times. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft

  16. Enhanced student experience: an analysis of subjective evaluation and objective learning success after the transformation of a pharmaceutical physiology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Martina; Eckert, Gunter P

    2010-03-01

    In the present article, the reorientation of a fourth-semester physiology course for pharmacy students is described. The motivation for the introduction of changes was to prepare the students to not only assimilate facts but to learn and understand how to integrate and apply them. The article considers how this reorganization was received by the students in both subjective and objective terms. Specifically, we investigate whether our changes resulted in both an enhanced learning experience and improved learning success. The following changes were introduced to the course: first, we integrated either experimental, computer-based teaching modules or case studies in five of the eight course units to give the students the opportunity to gain more hands-on experience; second, we organized regular meetings to enhance communication among the course tutors; and finally, we increased the pass mark for the entrance exam to the course from 50% to 60%. Student opinion was evaluated by means of a questionnaire that was distributed at the end of each course semester throughout the three-semester evaluation period (summer 2008, winter 2008/2009, and summer 2009). The students gave convincing positive feedback concerning the efficacy of the changes in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Moreover, their learning success improved significantly in objective terms as evidenced by enhanced final and State exam performance.

  17. Observational Iinearization and tracking objective excitation control strategy based on phasor measurement unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Xiaoyan; LI Xingyuan; WANG Xiaoyan

    2007-01-01

    To improve the transient stability ofmultimachine power systems,observational linearization and tracking objective excitation control laws were derived from the phasor measurement unit (PMU),observational linearization,and tracking objective control theory based on synchronized coordinates and reference generator coordinates.The control strategies utilized real-time state variables obtained by PMU to linearize the state equations of the system,and then the linear optimal control strategy was used to design excitation controllers.The inaccuracy of the local linearization method and the complexity of the system models designed in the exact linearization method for nonlinear systems were avoided.Therefore,the control strategies were applied in real time.Simulation results show that the proposed method can improve the transient stability of power systems more efficiently than nonlinear optimal excitation control.

  18. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel

    2016-12-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of students' knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students' gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task.

  19. Two-level, two-objective evolutionary algorithms for solving unit commitment problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulou, Chariklia A.; Giannakoglou, Kyriakos C. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Thermal Turbomachines, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, P.O. Box 64069, Athens 157 10 (Greece)

    2009-07-15

    A two-level, two-objective optimization scheme based on evolutionary algorithms (EAs) is proposed for solving power generating Unit Commitment (UC) problems by considering stochastic power demand variations. Apart from the total operating cost to cover a known power demand distribution over the scheduling horizon, which is the first objective, the risk of not fulfilling possible demand variations forms the second objective to be minimized. For this kind of problems with a high number of decision variables, conventional EAs become inefficient optimization tools, since they require a high number of evaluations before reaching the optimal solution(s). To considerably reduce the computational burden, a two-level algorithm is proposed. At the low level, a coarsened UC problem is defined and solved using EAs to locate promising solutions at low cost: a strategy for coarsening the UC problem is proposed. Promising solutions migrate upwards to be injected into the high level EA population for further refinement. In addition, at the high level, the scheduling horizon is partitioned in a small number of subperiods of time which are optimized iteratively using EAs, based on objective function(s) penalized to ensure smooth transition from/to the adjacent subperiods. Handling shorter chromosomes due to partitioning increases method's efficiency despite the need for iterating. The proposed two-level method and conventional EAs are compared on representative test problems. (author)

  20. Fast food perceptions: a pilot study of college students in Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rachel; Dundes, Lauren

    2008-09-01

    Comparing survey data of college students from Spain and the United States provides insight into how perceptions about fast food are culture and gender-specific. More American college males (61%) considered value (amount of food for the money) to be a priority than did other respondents (35%) and relatively few American college males (29%) cited nutritional status as important (versus 60% of other college respondents). Convenience of fast food is more important to Americans (69%) than Spaniards (48%) while more Spanish college students (49%) than Americans (18%) objected to the proliferation of fast food establishments in their own countries.

  1. Finding the Right Mix: Teaching Methods as Predictors for Student Progress on Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Jacob I.

    2012-01-01

    This study extends existing student ratings research by exploring how teaching methods, individually and collectively, influence a minimum standard of student achievement on learning objectives and how class size impacts this influence. Twenty teaching methods were used to predict substantial or exceptional progress on each of 12 learning…

  2. Writing Reviews of Family Literature: Guiding Students Using Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Mark J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Developed model, based on Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, for guiding students in writing reviews of family literature. Findings from survey of advisors addressing skills of their graduate students in writing literature reviews support hierarchical nature of taxonomy and demonstrate similarities across scientific disciplines.…

  3. Impact of a hybrid TGfU-Sport Education unit on student motivation in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Arias, Alexander; Harvey, Stephen; Cárceles, Adrián; Práxedes, Alba; Del Villar, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) and Sport Education (SE) pedagogical models share several objectives and pedagogical processes. Despite this seemingly uncanny relationship, few studies have examined the efficacy of a hybrid TGfU/SE pedagogical model, particularly how a teacher's utilization of such a model impacts on student motivation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect a hybrid TGfU/SE unit, in comparison to direct instruction, on students' perceptions of various aspects of their motivation to engage in physical education (autonomous motivation, basic psychological needs, enjoyment and intention to be physically active). A crossover design was utilized, using the technique of counterbalancing. One group experienced a hybrid SE/TGfU unit first, followed by a unit of direct instruction. A second group experienced the units in the opposite order. Participants were 55 students. The intervention was conducted over a total of 16 lessons. The hybrid unit was designed according to the characteristics of SE by using seasons, roles, persistent teams, etc. Learning tasks set by the teacher during individual lessons, however, were designed according to the pedagogical principles of TGfU. Student motivation data was generated using validated questionnaires. Results showed that regardless of the order of intervention, the two groups showed significant improvements in autonomy, competence and enjoyment when they were taught using the hybrid model. Instead, in the variables autonomous motivation, relatedness and intention to be physically active there were no significant improvements in one group. These results demonstrate that it is possible to design varied learning situations in which affiliation, leadership and trust are fostered, while tasks are adapted to the characteristics of the students. All this can cause greater autonomous motivation, and consequently, perceived competence in the student, a positive image of the sport to

  4. Multi-Objective Optimization Design for Cooling Unit of Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, J. W.; Yu, C. G.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Wang, Y. P.; Yuan, X. H.

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve the performance of cooling units for automotive thermoelectric generators, a study is carried out to optimize the cold side and the fin distributions arranged on its inner faces. Based on the experimental measurements and numerical simulations, a response surface model of different internal structures is built to analyze the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of fluid flow in the cooling unit. For the fin distributions, five independent variables including height, length, thickness, space and distance from walls are considered. An experimental study design incorporating the central composite design method is used to assess the influence of fin distributions on the temperature field and the pressure drop in the cooling units. The archive-based micro genetic algorithm (AMGA) is used for multi-objective optimization to analyze the sensitivity of the design variables and to build a database from which to construct the surrogate model. Finally, improvement measures are proposed for optimization of the cooling system and guidelines are provided for future research.

  5. Cutting Edge Controversy: The Politics of Animal Dissection and Responses to Student Objection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Jan

    2011-12-01

    This mixed methods study investigated the experiences and perspectives of former Ontario high school students and current Ontario science and biology teachers toward animal dissection, objection to dissection, and choice policies that grant students the right to opt out of dissection and use an alternative instead. Data was collected via a student questionnaire (n=311), a teacher questionnaire (n=153), and interviews with eight students and nine teachers. Quantitative and qualitative data analyses and reporting techniques were employed within a humane education and critical pedagogy framework to explore the experiences and perspectives of both groups.

  6. The Development, Field Testing and Evaluation of Three Hierarchies of Behaviorally Stated Objectives for the Chemistry Content of a Course of Instruction in Physical Science for Pre-Service Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Robert Alden

    The purpose of this research was to develop hierarchies of behavioral objectives for the chemistry content of a one-semester course in physical science for preservice associate degree nursing students. Each of three content objectives was expressed by a series of behaviorally stated objectives which included a terminal objective for a unit of…

  7. Pharmacology education for nurse prescribing students – a lesson in reusable learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bath-Hextall Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The shift away from a biological science to a social science model of nursing care has resulted in a reduction in pharmacology knowledge and understanding in pre-registration nursing students. This has a significant impact on nurse prescribing training where pharmacology is a critical component of the course from a patient safety perspective. Methods Reusable learning objects (RLOs are electronic resources based on a single learning objective which use high quality graphics and audio to help engagement with the material and to facilitate learning. This study used questionnaire data from three successive cohorts of nurse prescribing students (n = 84 to evaluate the use of RLOs focussed around pharmacology concepts to promote the understanding of these concepts in students. A small number of students (n = 10 were followed up by telephone interview one year after qualification to gain further insight into students' perceptions of the value of RLOs as an educational tool. Results Students' perceptions of their own understanding of pharmacology concepts increased substantially following the introduction of RLOs to supplement the pharmacology component of the course. Student evaluation of the RLOs themselves was extremely positive with a number of students continuing to access these tools post-qualification. Conclusion The use of RLOs to support the pharmacology component of nurse prescribing courses successfully resulted in a perceived increase in pharmacology understanding, with some students directly implicating these educational tools in developing confidence in their own prescribing abilities.

  8. Legal Teaching Methods to Diverse Student Cohorts: A Comparison between the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This article makes a comparison across the unique educational settings of law and business schools in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand to highlight differences in teaching methods necessary for culturally and ethnically mixed student cohorts derived from high migration, student mobility, higher education rankings…

  9. Achievement of Educational Objectives by Senior Dental Students at the Department of Periodontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Torkzaban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Periodical evaluation of educational curriculum is of great importance to know the strength and weakness, and thus success in education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the accomplishment of educational objective and related factors in senior students of the periodontolgy department of dental school of Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in the year 2011-12. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 28 senior students attending the periodontology department participated in the study and their theoretical and practical knowledge were evaluated based on a prepared checklist and questionnaire. Data were collected and analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. Results: According to the results, the educational objectives accomplished by senior students of the periodontology ward were desirable by %3.6, almost desirable by %60.7 and not desirable by %35.7. Achievement of educational objectives showed a correlation between sex and admission allotment (P<0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that the educational objective achievement by senior students of the periodontology department adding up desirable and almost desirable values was good by %64.3. Knowing the strength and weakness of the educational curriculum could be very useful to achieve educational goals. Keywords: Educational assessment, Dental student, Curriculum, Dental education.

  10. Developing Canadian oncology education goals and objectives for medical students: a national modified Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent C.; Ingledew, Paris-Ann; Berry, Scott; Verma, Sunil; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that there is a deficiency in focused oncology teaching during medical school in Canada. This study aimed to develop oncology education goals and objectives for medical students through consensus of oncology educators from across Canada. Methods: In 2014 we created a comprehensive list of oncology education objectives using existing resources. Experts in oncology education and undergraduate medical education from all 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in a 3-round modified Delphi process. In round 1, the participants scored the objectives on a 9-point Likert scale according to the degree to which they agreed an objective should be taught to medical students. Objectives with a mean score of 7.0 or greater were retained, those with a mean score of 1.0-3.9 were excluded, and those with a mean score of 4.0-6.9 were discussed at a round 2 Web meeting. In round 3, the participants voted on inclusion and exclusion of the round 2 objectives. Results: Thirty-four (92%) of the 37 invited oncology educators, representing 14 medical schools, participated in the study. They included oncologists, family physicians, members of undergraduate medical education curriculum committees and a psychologist. Of the 214 objectives reviewed in round 1, 146 received a mean score of 7.0 or greater, and 68 were scored 4.0-6.9; no objective received a mean score below 4.0. Nine new objectives were suggested. The main themes of participants' comments were to minimize the number of objectives and to aim objectives at the knowledge level required for family physicians. In round 2, the participants were able to combine 28 of the objectives with other existing objectives. In round 3, 7 of the 49 objectives received consensus of at least 75% for inclusion. The final Canadian Oncology Goals and Objectives for Medical Students contained 10 goals and 153 objectives. Interpretation: Through a systematic process, we created a comprehensive, consensus

  11. Oral Health Disparities as Determined by Selected Healthy People 2020 Oral Health Objectives for the United States, ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Oral Health Disparities as Determined by Selected Healthy People 2020 Oral Health Objectives for the United States, 2009–2010 Recommend ...

  12. Digital learning objects in nursing consultation: technology assessment by undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, DeniseTolfo; Catalan, Vanessa Menezes; Neutzling, Agnes Ludwig; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado

    2010-01-01

    This study followed the teaching-learning process about the nursing consultation, based on digital learning objects developed through the active Problem Based Learning method. The goals were to evaluate the digital learning objects about nursing consultation, develop cognitive skills on the subject using problem based learning and identify the students' opinions on the use of technology. This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 71 students in the sixth period of the nursing program at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. The data was collected through a questionnaire to evaluate the learning objects. The results showed positive agreement (58%) on the content, usability and didactics of the proposed computer-mediated activity regarding the nursing consultation. The application of materials to the students is considered positive.

  13. Working Memory Units Are All in Your Head: Factors That Influence Whether Features or Objects Are the Favored Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Cowan, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    We compared two contrasting hypotheses of how multifeatured objects are stored in visual working memory (vWM); as integrated objects or as independent features. A new procedure was devised to examine vWM representations of several concurrently held objects and their features and our main measure was reaction time (RT), allowing an examination of…

  14. DEVELOPING VALUES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH THE STUDY OF ART OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliza Dulamă

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with some issues related to aesthetics, aesthetic education, art and axiological education. The empirical research has the general assumption that secondary school students and youth have difficulties in selecting values. The objective of the research was three fold: to design, to organize and to carry learning activities from which students shall acquire educational values through the study of art objects. The exploratory research was conducted on a sample of 50 students (25 in experimental group and 25 in control group. The content sample included fairy-tales and short stories (Beauty and the Beast; The money earned by Alexandru Mitru and artistic topics on several well-known art objects (The Endless Column, Table of Silence, The Gate of Kiss, Peleş castle, Voroneţ monastery, and St. Michael’s Cathedral from Cluj-Napoca. The tested hypothesis stated that if secondary school students are involved in learning contexts where they perceive, analyze and explain artistic objects then they develop aesthetic and ethic values. The learning context students were exposed to represents the independent variable and the outputs – the educational values themselves – represent the dependent variable. In order to test for the hypothesis we planned a formative didactic experiment. In order to test the hypothesis the pre-test/post-test design was used.

  15. Sport Education and Direct Instruction Units: Comparison of Student Knowledge Development in Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, José; Araújo, Rui; Farias, Cláudio; Bessa, Cristiana; Mesquita, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted a comparative analysis of students’ knowledge development on athletics in Sport Education and in a Direct Instruction unit taking into account sex and initial skill level. The participants were an experienced Physical Education teacher and two sixth-grade classes totaling 47 students (25 boys and 22 girls). Each class was randomly placed in either Sport Education or Direct Instruction classes and participated in 20, 45-minutes lessons focused on shot put, hurdles and triple jump. Knowledge on athletics was assessed through a 25-items written and video-based test. The inter-group differences and improvements across time in the knowledge test were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, respectively. There were significant knowledge improvements in both instructional approaches irrespective of students’ gender and skill level. In Direct Instruction, the type of task organization, the high rates of repetition of movement patterns and feedback by the teacher were beneficial to student learning. In Sport Education, the autonomy granted to students in the control of the pace of task transitions by making on-going judgments on achievement of performance criteria, implicated students affectively and cognitively with the learning content. It was further supported that several models and teaching strategies should be taken into consideration when teaching Physical Education. Different approaches should be perceived as alternatives and teachers should retain the best in each according with the moment in the unit, student developmental stage, and the specific learning objectives in the task. Key points The results in this study showed that regardless of students’ sex, both DI and SE were efficient in the promotion of improvements in students’ content knowledge of athletics. Both boys and girls improved from the pre-test to the post-test in SE and DI. SE was particularly beneficial to lower skill-level. On the contrary, in the DI unit

  16. Assessing preregistration nursing students' clinical competence: a systematic review of objective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Robyn; McKenna, Lisa; Cooper, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Nursing students are required to develop clinical knowledge, skills and attitudes for professional practice. However, objectivity and parity of students' clinical assessments has been questioned. In the last decade, more objective techniques have been developed, with increased use of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. We reviewed objective clinical assessment measures used in preregistration nursing courses to determine utilization and the validity and reliability of assessment techniques. A systematic search was made of quantitative research publications between 2000 and May 2011, identifying 16 studies that were subsequently reviewed. The validity and reliability of studies varied, with six studies judged as high quality, using various methodologies. This paper describes methods of instrument development and reports on their application in preregistration nursing programs.

  17. Planning for people? An evaluation of objectives for managing visitors at wildlife refuges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Brooks; Robert Massengale

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the quality of planning objectives for visitor services as written in Comprehensive Conservation Plans for the National Wildlife Refuge System of the United States. Planners in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are predominantly writing public use objectives that address wildlife recreation and education. Results indicate that planners are writing...

  18. Space Object Collision Probability via Monte Carlo on the Graphics Processing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittaldev, Vivek; Russell, Ryan P.

    2017-09-01

    Fast and accurate collision probability computations are essential for protecting space assets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is the most accurate but computationally intensive method. A Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is used to parallelize the computation and reduce the overall runtime. Using MC techniques to compute the collision probability is common in literature as the benchmark. An optimized implementation on the GPU, however, is a challenging problem and is the main focus of the current work. The MC simulation takes samples from the uncertainty distributions of the Resident Space Objects (RSOs) at any time during a time window of interest and outputs the separations at closest approach. Therefore, any uncertainty propagation method may be used and the collision probability is automatically computed as a function of RSO collision radii. Integration using a fixed time step and a quartic interpolation after every Runge Kutta step ensures that no close approaches are missed. Two orders of magnitude speedups over a serial CPU implementation are shown, and speedups improve moderately with higher fidelity dynamics. The tool makes the MC approach tractable on a single workstation, and can be used as a final product, or for verifying surrogate and analytical collision probability methods.

  19. Electromagnetic Radiation: A Curriculum Unit for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovsky, N.; Hawkins, I.; Malina, R. F.

    1994-05-01

    The main goal of the new satellite operations class offered by UC Berkeley in collaboration with San Francisco State University is to provide teachers with detailed information about the goals, phases, and results of NASA's Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite mission. One of the outcomes of this class is to create new lesson plans, curricula for elective courses, and non-traditional teaching techniques and methods, all of which may be incorporated in schools in order to develop students' cognitive interest in science. The information about this unique NASA satellite mission may be presented to high school students in many different ways: class discussions, extra-curricular research assignments, expositions for school museums of science, computer animations, science conferences, educational games, etc. Another approach is to infuse the material related to this project directly into the existing science curricula. The unit ``Electromagnetic Radiation'' presents us with a variety of opportunities to include scientific information related to the EUVE mission in the most natural way. The following issues related to modern astrophysics may be introduced and discussed in this unit: the position that EUV radiation occupies on the electromagnetic spectrum, the sources that emit this type of radiation, the properties and characteristics of this radiation in comparison with other types of electromagnetic waves, and the methods used to detect and analyze EUV and other types of radiation during NASA missions. We will present an overview and a specific detailed example related to this curriculum unit. This work has been supported by NASA contract NAS5-29298. Class support has been provided by a NASA supplemental grant for education. Travel made possible by Research Corporation.

  20. Subjective and Objective Evaluation of PBL Outcomes in Preclinical Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Marya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem based learning curriculum is widely recognized as a progressive, learner-centered, active learning approach and is currently used in the entire medical curriculum in over 10% of medical schools worldwide. But, is there real evidence that PBL is more effective than traditional approaches? In this report, outcomes of a PBL tutorial in 55 second year MBBS students have been evaluated by the facilitators (subjective evaluation and by asking the students a set of questions based on the intended outcome of the PBL ( objective evaluation soon after the completion of PBL tutorial. In the subjective assessment by the facilitators, all the students scored over 80% marks. In the objective assessment, out of 55 students, only three students scored over 50% marks. Perusal of answers to individual questions revealed appalling lack of knowledge of the subject. To conclude, before introduction of PBL-based curriculum in medical schools, usefulness of PBLs in preclinical medical education needs to be thoroughly investigated by objective evaluation of intended outcomes.

  1. Managing Highway Maintenance: Instructor's Manual for Management by Objectives Review, Unit 11, All Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Highway Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Offices of Research and Development.

    Part of the series "Managing Highway Maintenance," the unit is designed for the training group leader and contains selected highlights and suggested discussion questions from six units of training: maintenance activities, work units, and classifying work; maintenance feature inventories; how to conduct a maintenance feature inventory;…

  2. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  3. Design and Development of an Objective, Structured Management Examinations (OSMEs) on Management Skills among Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design, develop, and administer an Objective, Structured Management Exam (OSME) on management skills for pharmacy students. Pharmacy preceptors for the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy participated in focus groups that identified business, management, and human resource skills needed by pharmacy graduates.…

  4. Student Fatigue as a Variable Affecting Performance in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, Paul J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    In August and September of 1989, 76 fourth year students at the University of Arizona College of Medicine took the objective structured clinical examinations. Analyses were conducted looking at the relationship of sequence to see whether scores showed a decrease in the afternoon. No significant effect of examinee fatigue was seen. (MLW)

  5. The Influences of Student and Standardized Patient Genders on Scoring an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, Paul J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study investigating possible sex bias, concerning both student and standardized-patient genders, in an objective structured clinical examination found that neither men nor women were afforded an advantage by patient or test location. However, women's scores on tests administered by females were higher than corresponding men's scores. (MSE)

  6. Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

  7. Developing Values for Secondary School Students through the Study of Art Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulama, Maria Eliza; Iovu, Mihai-Bogdan; Ursu, Alexandru Marius Bodochi

    2011-01-01

    The paper begins with some issues related to aesthetics, aesthetic education, art and axiological education. The empirical research has the general assumption that secondary school students and youth have difficulties in selecting values. The objective of the research was three fold: to design, to organize and to carry learning activities from…

  8. Analyzing the Quality of Students Interaction in a Distance Learning Object-Oriented Programming Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Elizabeth Simão

    2015-01-01

    Teaching object-oriented programming to students in an in-classroom environment demands well-thought didactic and pedagogical strategies in order to guarantee a good level of apprenticeship. To teach it on a completely distance learning environment (e-learning) imposes possibly other strategies, besides those that the e-learning model of Open…

  9. Analyzing the Quality of Students Interaction in a Distance Learning Object-Oriented Programming Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Elizabeth Simão

    2015-01-01

    Teaching object-oriented programming to students in an in-classroom environment demands well-thought didactic and pedagogical strategies in order to guarantee a good level of apprenticeship. To teach it on a completely distance learning environment (e-learning) imposes possibly other strategies, besides those that the e-learning model of Open…

  10. The opinion of post graduate students on objective structured clinical examination in Anaesthesiology: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Jindal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The scenario in medical education is changing with objective structured clinical examination (OSCE being introduced as an assessment tool. Its successful implementation in anaesthesiology postgraduate evaluation process is still limited. We decided to to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE and compare it to conventional examinations as formative assessment tools in anaesthesiology. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study in defined population of anaesthesiology postgraduate students to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE as compared to conventional examination as formative assessment tool in anaesthesiology. Thirty-five students appeared for the conventional examination on the 1st day and viva voce on the 2nd day and OSCE on the last day. At the conclusion of the assessment, all the students were asked to respond to the perception evaluation questionnaire. We analysed the perception of OSCE among the students. Results: Results showed a positive perception of the objective structured physical examination (OSCE as well as structured 9 (25.7%, fair 19 (54.2% and unbiased 13 (37.1% with more standardised scoring 9 (25.7%. The students perceived OSCE to be less stressful than other examination. Thirty-one (88.5% students agreed that OSCE is easier to pass than conventional method and 29 (82.5% commented that the degree of emotional stress is less in OSCE than traditional methods. Conclusion: OSCE is better evaluation tool when compared to conventional examination.

  11. Examining the Adjustment Problems of Kenyan International Students Attending Colleges and Universities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokua, Rodgers Nyandieka

    2012-01-01

    The literature on international students from Africa, and particularly Kenya, is very limited despite the significant number of Kenyan international students attending colleges and universities in the United States. Therefore, the intent of this study was to examine the adjustment problems of Kenyan international students in the United States. The…

  12. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  13. A Study of the Life and Culture of Young Korean Students Studying in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo Hyoo

    2010-01-01

    The number of young Korean students studying abroad--many moving to English-speaking countries--has increased. This article describes the lives of young Korean students studying in the United States. For data collection, unstructured interviews were conducted with young Korean students studying in the Northwestern states of the United States.…

  14. An Objective Structured Clinical Exam to Assess Semiology Skills of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vitor Hugo; Morgado, Pedro; Gonçalves, Mónica; Costa, Liliana; Sousa, Nuno; Cerqueira, João José

    2016-12-30

    Mastery of history taking and physical exam skills is a key competence of medical students. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are the gold standard to assess these competencies, but their implementation in Portugal is poorly documented. We describe the implementation and our seven years experience with a high-stakes Objective Structured Clinical Examination to assess these skills in the School of Medicine, University of Minho. Our Objective Structured Clinical Examination is in place since 2010 and has been subject to continuous improvements, including the adoption of a standard setting procedure and an increase in the number of stations. Grades in our exam are well distributed and discriminate among students. History taking grades are lower and have remained stable throughout the years while physical examination scores have risen. The exam is reliable, with internal consistency above 0.45 and a G-coefficient of 0.74. It is also feasible, with a total testing time of approximately 20 hours for 140 students, and the involvement of 18 standardized patients and 18 faculty assessors. More importantly, it was able to engage the students, who recognize its importance. The most important validity criterion of our, and any Objective Structured Clinical Examination, would be predictive validity,the ability to predict the performance of students in the clinical context. Our approach to a high-stakes Objective Structured Clinical Examination shows that it is feasible, reliable, valid and fair and can be implemented with success in the Portuguese setting.

  15. How to maintain equity and objectivity in assessing the communication skills in a large group of student nurses during a long examination session, using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Torre, Giancarlo; Timmins, Fiona; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-03-01

    While development, testing, and innovation of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) are common in the international literature, studies from the United States of America (USA), Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) predominate. There is little known about OSCE use in European countries, such as Italy, where other than cost analysis, there is little reporting of OSCE use or validation. This paper reports on one Italian initiative, which evaluated the equity and objectivity of the OSCE method of assessing communication skills. An OSCE method was used to assess the communication skills of first-year students of the Degree Course in Nursing. A method of simulation was implemented through role-playing with standardized patients. An observational method was used to collect data. Four hundred and twenty-one first-year undergraduate nursing students at one university site in Italy took part. Ten examination sessions were carried out. The students' performances were assessed by two examiners who used a structured observation grid and conducted their assessment separately. A situation simulated by four nurses with experience as actors was used as the topic for the students' examination. Calculation of the daily rate of students who passed the examination revealed a random distribution over time. The nonparametric correlation indexes referring to the assessments and to the scores assigned by the two examiners proved statistically significant (P≤0.001). The study confirmed the validity of the OSCE method in ensuring equity and objectivity of communication skills assessment in a large population of nursing students for the purpose of certification throughout the duration of the examination. This has important implications for nurse education and practice as the extent to which OSCE approaches, while deemed objective, are culturally sensitive or valid and reliable across cultures is not clear. This is something that requires further research and examination in

  16. Student's perspectives on objective structured practical examination (OSPE) in Forensic Medicine - a report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod Kumar, G N; Sentitoshi; Nath, Dhritiman; Menezes, Ritesh G; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to know the perceptions of students regarding objective structured practical examination (OSPE) as a tool for assessment in Forensic Medicine. The present study was conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute (MGMCRI), Pondicherry, India. Undergraduate medical students of the 4th semester were enrolled in the study to know their perceptions regarding OSPE. The students were briefed regarding OSPE with a PowerPoint presentation and interaction. An examination was conducted using OSPE with10 stations and a total of 74 students participated in the study. The feedback was collected using a preformed proforma consisting of 12 items and analyzed. Most of the participants (82.4%) agreed that OSPE is a better method of examination than the conventional/traditional practical examination. The majority of the participants (77.0%) said that the OSPE covered wide range of knowledge than the conventional practical examination. A large number of students (63.5%) were of the opinion that the OSPE may be exhausting and stressful if number of stations are increased. Overall a larger proportion of the participants preferred OSPE over the conventional practical examination considering the various attributes examined in the study.

  17. [Self-assessment of nutritinal status in medical students and objective measures of estimating somatic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarczyńska-Jończyk, Halina; Malara, Beata; Woźniak, Joanna; Steplewski, Zygmunt; Jaskólecki, Henryk; Tyrpień, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    Problem of "obesity epidemic" is still very common, but the knowledge about this is limited and it develops very slowly. Probably it even concerns medical students who are in touch with health problems every day and who will watch over society's health in the future. Available literature estimating people's health is mainly connected with negative measures of human health condition. Positive measures are rarely used, although they are simply in use and accessible (including financial accessibility). This kind of measures should be used in widest range to epidemiological investigation of obesity. The aim of the study was to estimate the level of medical student's obesity and to compare declared self-assessment expressed by BMI. In the research 416 III-VI year students of Medical University of Silesia were involved. We used a number of anonymous questionnaires to receive required information. We analyzed objective value of BMI, fat tissue capacity, student's self-assessment and student's satisfaction of their state of nutrition. Statistic analyzes were done using Epi Info v.5.01b program. Distribution of abnormal body weight among students under research was following: underweight--10.3% of the students, overweight--12% and II degree obesity--1.9% of investigated population. Among people with confirmed obesity only 100% of women realized this fact and 44.2% of men found their overweight as normal. Student's satisfaction of state of nutrition independently if it was proper or not, was significantly higher among men. It is necessary to teach students how to properly estimate the state of nutrition.

  18. Acculturation Experiences of Taiwanese Students during Exchanges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie (Ya-Ping); Bei, Lienti; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the acculturation experience of Taiwanese students who attended universities in the United States as exchange students. Hofstede's four dimensions of culture provided a framework for developing questions. Eight exchange students were interviewed. Taiwanese students realized there was a lower power distance…

  19. Acculturation Experiences of Taiwanese Students during Exchanges in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie (Ya-Ping); Bei, Lienti; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2007-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the acculturation experience of Taiwanese students who attended universities in the United States as exchange students. Hofstede's four dimensions of culture provided a framework for developing questions. Eight exchange students were interviewed. Taiwanese students realized there was a lower power distance…

  20. A National Benchmarking Survey of Student Counselling Centres/Units in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, C. D.; Pretorius, K.; van der Westhuizen, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    Students experience various challenges during their studies, such as personal problems, academic difficulties and mental health problems. Therefore, student counselling centres/units play a valuable role in providing support systems for students in need. The most frequent problems South African students experience are relationship problems and…

  1. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  2. Student Destination Choices in Higher Education: Exploring Attitudes of Brazilian Students to Study in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border education provides evidence about international student destination choice including the push and pull model of international student choice. The research upon which this article is based, into Brazilian students' decisions to study at universities in the United Kingdom, reveals some particular barriers such as cost, negative past…

  3. Chemical Equilibrium, Unit 4: Equilibria in Acid-Base Systems. A Computer-Enriched Module for Introductory Chemistry. Student's Guide and Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A., Jr.

    Presented are the teacher's guide and student materials for one of a series of self-instructional, computer-based learning modules for an introductory, undergraduate chemistry course. The student manual for this acid-base equilibria unit includes objectives, prerequisites, pretest, a discussion of equilibrium constants, and 20 problem sets.…

  4. Evaluation of digital object identifier concepts in students of a post graduation course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Shitsuka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: More than a million graduate annually in Brazil and many go on to Post Graduation Lato sensu courses. These are important for professional and academic market. These courses is interesting to learn the notions of DOI (Digital Object Identifier, ownership and copyright. Objective: Present assessment of DOI and information management concepts on students. Methodology: We carried out an exploratory research, a qualitative case study of the phenomenon of notions on DOI and related concepts. We interviewed students who were completing their Lato sensu Post Graduation course in a traditional private institution located in the Southeast Brazil. Results: The vast majority on students of this case did not know the DOI and other related information management. Participation in the survey makes them interested in the subject. Conclusion: Few students in this study showed to know on DOI and information management. We associated this phenomenon to the low Brazilian participation into the world scientific production. The completion of work proved to be supportive for the emergence of motivation to change this situation and this type of study shows interesting to uncover ways to enhance national scientific production in the global production.

  5. Analyzing the Quality of Students Interaction in a Distance Learning Object-Oriented Programming Discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Simão Carvalho

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching object-oriented programming to students in an in-classroom environment demands well-thought didactic and pedagogical strategies in order to guarantee a good level of apprenticeship. To teach it on a completely distance learning environment (e-learning imposes possibly other strategies, besides those that the e-learning model of Open University of Portugal dictates. This article analyses the behavior of the students of the 1st cycle in Computer Science while interacting with the object-oriented programming (OOP discipline available to them on the Moodle platform. Through the evaluation of the level of interaction achieved in a group of relevant selected actions by the students, it is possible to identify their relevancy to the success of the programming learning process. Data was extracted from Moodle, numerically analyzed, and, with the use of some charts, behavior patterns of students were identified. This paper points out potential new approaches to be considered in e-learning in order to enhance programming learning results, besides confirming a high level of drop-out and a low level of interaction, thus finding no clear correlation between students’ success and the number of online actions (especially in forums, which reveals a possible failure of the main pillar on which the e-learning model relies.

  6. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students’ motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants’ test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. Results A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants’ test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants’ test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p OSCE (r = -0.21, p OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs. PMID:28035056

  7. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2016-12-29

    To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants' test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants' test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants' test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs.

  8. MEGARA optical design: the new integral field unit and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10m telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Sánchez-Blanco, Ernesto; Carrasco, Esperanza; Gil de Paz, Armando; Páez, Gonzalo; Pérez, Ana; Gallego, Jesús; Sánchez, Francisco; Vílchez, José M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe the optical design of MEGARA, the future optical Integral Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) for the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). MEGARA is being built by a Consortium of public research institutions led by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM, Spain) that also includes INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and UPM (Spain).

  9. Responses of infrared-sensitive tectal units of the pit viper Crotalus atrox to moving objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldenbach, Felix; Bleckmann, Horst; Kohl, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Rattlesnakes perceive IR radiation with their pit organs. This enables them to detect and strike towards warm-blooded prey even in the dark. In addition, the IR sense allows rattlesnakes to find places for thermoregulation. Animate objects (e.g., prey) tend to move and thus cause moving IR images across the pit membrane. Even when an object is stationary, scanning head movements of rattlesnakes will result in moving IR images across the pit membrane. We recorded the neuronal activity of IR-sensitive tectal neurons of the rattlesnake Crotalus atrox while stimulating the snakes with an IR source that moved horizontally at various velocities. As long as object velocity was low (angular velocity of ~5°/s) IR-sensitive tectal neurons hardly showed any responses. With increasing object velocity though, neuronal activity reached a maximum at ~50°/s. A further increase in object velocity up to ~120°/s resulted in a slight decrease of neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate the importance of moving stimuli for the snake's IR detection abilities: in contrast to fast moving objects, stationary or slowly moving objects will not be detected when the snake is motionless, but might be detected by scanning head movements.

  10. Aggressiveness and characteristics of object-relations in students at risk of migrainous headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research, carried out in a sample of Slovene students, was to determine how subjects with migraine differ from subjects with migrainous disorder, subjects with non-migrainous headaches and subjects without recurrent headaches. The existence of migraine was assessed by UCSD migraine questionnaire, aggressiveness by Buss-Durkee hostility inventory and characteristics of object-relations by Bell object relations and reality testing inventory - form O. Subjects with migraine express significantly more negativism, indirect aggressiveness, irritability, hostility, suspicion and feelings of guilt than subject without recurrent headaches, while there are no differences in physical and verbal aggressiveness. There are less significant differences among subjects with different types of headache (migraine, migrainous disorder, non-migrainous headaches. Subjects with migraine and subjects without recurrent headaches differ significantly in characteristics of object-relations, subjects with migraine having more disturbed object-relations. Subject with different types of headaches do not differ in characteristics of object-relations. It is concluded that subjects with migraine have a raised level of aggressiveness, especially of indirect forms, which can indicate non-neutralized aggressiveness, and their object-relations are more disturbed.

  11. A Study of the Development of Students' Visualizations of Program State during an Elementary Object-Oriented Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajaniemi, Jorma; Kuittinen, Marja; Tikansalo, Taina

    2008-01-01

    Students' understanding of object-oriented (OO) program execution was studied by asking students to draw a picture of a program state at a specific moment. Students were given minimal instructions on what to include in their drawings in order to see what they considered to be central concepts and relationships in program execution. Three drawing…

  12. The United Nations University: The Concept, History, Structure, Financing, Objectives, Centres and Programmes. Guest Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The United Nations University (UNU) is an international academic organization which brings together leading international scholars to tackle world problems. This article describes for South African scholars, institutions, governments, and their agencies the importance of the work being undertaken by the UNU and encourages their participation. (EV)

  13. Chinese International Students in the United States: Demographic Trends, Motivations, Acculturation Features and Adjustment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    To date, few studies have focused solely upon understanding the unique characteristics of Chinese international students in the United States. This inquiry examines what Chinese international students' demographic trends are over decades, what their motivations are for studying in the United States, what the unique features of their group…

  14. The Global Energy Situation on Earth, Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide are: (1) Introduction to the unit; (2) The "EARTH" program; (3) Exercises; and (4) Sources of information on the energy crisis. This guide supplements a simulation which allows students to analyze different aspects of…

  15. Social Identity and the Shift of Student Affairs Staff to the Academic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of student affairs professionals working at Arizona State University who shifted from a student affairs unit to perform similar work in an academic unit. The conceptual framework for this exploration was social identity theory (Tajfel, 1974), which asserts that individuals develop a self-concept or image that…

  16. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2010-01-01

    This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

  17. Facilitating Students' Conceptual Change and Scientific Reasoning Involving the Unit of Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Quen; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2010-01-01

    This article reports research from a 3 year digital learning project to unite conceptual change and scientific reasoning in the learning unit of combustion. One group of students had completed the course combining conceptual change and scientific reasoning. The other group of students received conventional instruction. In addition to the…

  18. Faculty and Students’ Perceptions of Student Experiences in a Medical School Undergoing Curricular Transition in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed I Shehnaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In 2008, the Gulf Medical College in the United Arab Emirates underwent a curricular change from a discipline-based to an organ-system-based integrated curriculum. In this context, this study aimed to compare the faculty and students’ perceptions of the student experiences with the new curriculum. Methods: Data were collected from faculty and second-year students in the integrated curriculum using the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM. Data collected were transferred to Predictive Analytics Software, Version 18. Global and domain scores were assessed with the Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test. Percentage agreement, disagreement and uncertainty were assessed by the z-test for proportion. Results: There were no significant differences between the total DREEM scores of faculty (139/200 and students (135/200. The faculty perceived that the students were experiencing significantly more positive learning as indicated by the domain score of “Students' Perceptions of Learning”. Proportions of agreement between faculty and students showed that more faculty members than students perceived the need for increased feedback to students and a greater emphasis on long term learning. Conclusion: The study showed that the faculty and students had similar perceptions about the student experiences in the integrated curriculum. Areas necessitating remedial measures were the need for faculty to learn constructive feedback techniques and an emphasis on long term learning in the new curriculum.

  19. Malaysian pharmacy students' assessment of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Abd Rahman, Norny Syafinaz; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Bux Rahman Bux, Siti Halimah; Mohamed Nazar, Nor Ilyani

    2010-03-10

    To implement and determine the effectiveness of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess fourth-year pharmacy students' skills in a clinical pharmacy course. A 13-station OSCE was designed and implemented in the 2007-2008 academic year as part of the assessment methods for a clinical pharmacy course. The broad competencies tested in the OSCE included: patient counseling and communication, clinical pharmacokinetics (CPK), identification and resolution of drug-related problems (DRPs), and literature evaluation/drug information provision. Immediately after all students completed the OSCE, a questionnaire containing items on the clarity of written instructions, difficulty of the tasks, perceived degree of learning gained and needed, and the suitability of the references or literature resources provided was administered. More than 70% of the students felt that a higher degree of learning was needed to accomplish the tasks at the 2 DRP stations and 2 CPK stations and the majority felt the written instructions provided at the phenytoin CPK station were difficult to understand. Although about 60% of the students rated OSCE as a difficult form of assessment, 75% said it should be used more and 81% perceived they learned a lot from it. Although most students felt that the OSCE accurately assessed their skills, a majority felt the tasks required in some stations required a higher degree of learning than they had achieved. This may indicate deficiencies in the students' learning abilities, the course curriculum, or the OSCE station design. Future efforts should include providing clearer instructions at OSCE stations and balancing the complexity of the competencies assessed.

  20. Evaluating medical students' non-verbal communication during the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hirono; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kinoshita, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Shimizu, Teruo; Yano, Eiji

    2006-12-01

    Non-verbal communication (NVC) in medical encounters is an important method of exchanging information on emotional status and contextualising the meaning of verbal communication. This study aimed to assess the impact of medical students' NVC on interview evaluations by standardised patients (SPs). A total of 89 medical interviews in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for post-clerkship medical students were analysed. All interviews were videotaped and evaluated on 10 non-verbal behaviour items. In addition, the quality of the interview content was rated by medical faculty on 5 items and the interview was rated by SPs on 5 items. The relationships between student NVC and SP evaluation were examined by multivariate regression analyses controlling for the quality of the interview content. Standardised patients were likely to give higher ratings when students faced them directly, used facilitative nodding when listening to their talk, looked at them equally when talking and listening, and spoke at a similar speed and voice volume to them. These effects of NVC remained significant after controlling for the quality of the interview content. This study provided evidence of specific non-verbal behaviours of doctors that may have additional impacts on the patient's perception of his or her visit, independently of the interview content. Education in basic NVC should be incorporated into medical education alongside verbal communication.

  1. ATTITUDES OF STUDENTS TOWARDS LEARNING OBJECTS IN WEB-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BASAL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Language education is important in the rapidly changing world. Every year much effort has spent on preparing teaching materials for language education. Since positive attitudes of learners towards a teaching material enhance the effectiveness of that material, it is important to determine the attitudes of learners towards the material used. Learning objects (LOs are a new type of material on which many studies have been conducted in recent years. The aim of this study is to determine the attitudes of students towards LOs in web-based language learning. To this end, the study was conducted in English I Course at the Department of Computer Programming in Kırıkkale University in 2010-2011 Fall Semester. Seventy LOs appropriate for six-week long lecture program were integrated into the Learning Management System (LMS of Kırıkkale University. The study group consisted of 38 students. After the six weeks long implementation period of the study, an attitude scale was administered to the students. The findings indicated that students in web based language education have positive attitudes towards LOs.

  2. Objective measurement of positive emotions in students as part of safety assessment of educational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Berezina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new procedure for objective measurement of positive emotion in students in various situations of educational environment. We introduce the concept of “true emotions” – those causing changes in body functional state and affecting its smell. We argue that emotionally safe learning environment should provide a genuine emergence of positive emotions and reduce the likelihood of genuine negative emotions. We provide data of experimental research of genuine positive emotions in three main situations of student life: training classes (lecture, imaginary situations of joy (trainings, student life activities, real-life situations outside the school. It is shown that in the 0.4–0.5% of imaginary situations and real-life situations, students’ functional state changes, thus giving rise to alcohol-like substances exhaling. We describe these situations (food enjoying, meeting with someone you love, pain control, art perception, etc.. We point out that in the control series of measurements, when the students were in a neutral functional state (on a lecture, no alcohol-like substance in the breath were observed.

  3. Qualitative content analysis experiences with objective structured clinical examination among Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Korean nursing students with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessment regarding the 12 cranial nerves using qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the subjective experiences of nursing baccalaureate students after taking the OSCE. Convenience sampling was used to select 64 4th year nursing students who were interested in taking the OSCE. The participants learned content about the 12 cranial nerve assessment by lectures, demonstrations, and videos before the OSCE. The OSCE consisted of examinations in each of three stations for 2 days. The participants wrote information about their experiences on sheets of paper immediately after the OSCE anonymously in an adjacent room. The submitted materials were analyzed via qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified into two themes and seven categories. One theme was "awareness of inner capabilities", which included three categories: "inner motivation", "inner confidence", and "creativity". The other theme was "barriers to nursing performance", which included four categories: "deficiency of knowledge", "deficiency of communication skill", "deficiency of attitude toward comfort", and "deficiency of repetitive practice". This study revealed that the participants simultaneously experienced the potential and deficiency of their nursing competency after an OSCE session on cranial nerves. OSCE also provided the opportunity for nursing students to realize nursing care in a holistic manner unlike concern that OSCE undermines holism. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  4. Preparing for the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Guide for students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Mohammed M S

    2013-04-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has become an accepted method for evaluating clinical competence. Limited references are available for students and residents to help them prepare adequately for such examinations. In this review an outline on how to prepare, approach, and behave during the OSCE is presented. Students should prepare by repeated practice keeping in mind that the exam is usually divided into history and physical examination stations. Candidates should pay close attention to all given instructions and rules of the exam. During the encounter, proper interaction, and good communication with the patient and family are critical for a successful exam. At the end of the OSCE, candidates should avoid rushing the patient or asking for their mark. To conclude, careful preparation for the OSCE is needed to improve the likelihood of a successful outcome.

  5. Assessing nurse practitioner students using a modified objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, A D; Rawlings, B

    2001-10-01

    Limitations of applying the traditional final medical examination for the assessment of clinical competence of nurse practitioners are a matter of concern. This paper discusses a modified Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess physical examination skills of student nurse practitioners at Bournemouth University. This assessment was developed to standardize the evaluation of examining skills by using healthy volunteers from the student body as patients. This modified OSCE can be used as an assessment tool for formative and summative assessment, as a resource for learning, as a basis for abbreviated versions of physical examination assessments and to identify gaps and weaknesses in clinical skills. The emphasis, therefore, is not only on the product but also the process. The Bournemouth experience may be of interest to other organizations that are developing OSCEs for formative and summative purposes in nurse practitioner education.

  6. Land development in the United Kingdom: private property rights and public policy objectives

    OpenAIRE

    J Corkindale

    1999-01-01

    The system of land-use planning in the United Kingdom has remained essentially unchanged since the introduction of the 1947 Town and Country Planning Acts. There has been rather little progress since then in the economic evaluation of this system or in the development of more market-based approaches to land-use planning. The author discusses some of the reasons for the lack of economic evaluation, develops decision criteria for conducting such economic evaluation, and goes on to indicate the ...

  7. Cigarette smoking among Korean international college students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F; Lohrmann, David K

    2013-01-01

    This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States An online survey was completed by 1,201 students at 52 4-year US universities (34% response rate). The overall smoking prevalence was 43.5%. The smoking rate (29.0%) of female students was higher than that (4%) of female college students in South Korea. Sex, living place, living situation, length of stay as a student in the United States, home smoking rules, campus-wide tobacco-free policies, and levels of acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression were significantly associated with an increase in smoking (p students on US college campuses, targeted prevention efforts for these students may be warranted.

  8. Foreign Students in the United States: Is the Welcome Mat Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Margot Sanders

    Problems facing foreign students in American colleges and universities are examined. With the number of foreign students studying in the United States increasing each year (over 203,000 in 1976-77), services for foreign students need to be expanded with more emphasis on improving orientation programs. Preadmission screening and counseling are…

  9. The Higher Education Academic Readiness of Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Ronald; McChesney, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the state of United States student academic readiness for higher education from a global perspective utilizing data from the Organization of Economic and Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), which tests over a half a million 15 year old student's skills and knowledge.…

  10. Identity Development of Chinese Graduate Students in the United States: A Phenomenological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigated the lived experiences of identity development of Chinese graduate students in the United States. Through in-depth interviews with 15 participants at a Midwestern research university, the study found that the majority of Chinese graduate students came with a strong student identity that conflated with…

  11. School Hopscotch: A Comprehensive Review of K-12 Student Mobility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an integrative review of the extant literature on K-12 student mobility in the United States. Student mobility is a widespread phenomenon with significant policy implications. Changing schools is most prevalent among minority and low-income students in urban school districts. There is an ongoing debate about whether student…

  12. Beyond "Push" and "Pull" Explanations, Asian-Indian Graduate Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sarath; Carspecken, Phil

    The findings of a qualitative study of migrant graduate students from India who now reside in the United State is presented. Through a series of interviews with students attending three U.S. universities, a model of the migratory process was developed. Much recent work on migratory theory has focused on the lack of opportunities in the students'…

  13. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  14. Edexcel A2 physics student unit 5 : physics from creation to collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Benn, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Perfect for revision, these guides explain the unit requirements, summarise the content and include specimen questions with graded answers. Each full-colour New Edition Student Unit Guide provides ideal preparation for your unit exam:.; Feel confident you understand the unit: each guide comprehensively covers the unit content and includes topic summaries, knowledge check questions and a reference index.; Get to grips with the exam requirements: the specific skills on which you will be tested are explored and explained.; Analyse exam-style questions: graded student responses will help you focus

  15. Optimal placement of distributed generation units in distribution systems via an enhanced multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan CHENG; Min-you CHEN; Rong-jong WAI; Fang-zong WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal placement of distributed generation (DG) units in distribution systems via an enhanced multi-objective particle swarm optimization (EMOPSO) algorithm. To pursue a better simulation of the reality and provide the designer with diverse alternative options, a multi-objective optimization model with technical and operational con-straints is constructed to minimize the total power loss and the voltage fluctuation of the power system simultaneously. To enhance the convergence of MOPSO, special techniques including a dynamic inertia weight and acceleration coefficients have been inte-grated as well as a mutation operator. Besides, to promote the diversity of Pareto-optimal solutions, an improved non-dominated crowding distance sorting technique has been introduced and applied to the selection of particles for the next iteration. After verifying its effectiveness and competitiveness with a set of well-known benchmark functions, the EMOPSO algorithm is em-ployed to achieve the optimal placement of DG units in the IEEE 33-bus system. Simulation results indicate that the EMOPSO algorithm enables the identification of a set of Pareto-optimal solutions with good tradeoff between power loss and voltage sta-bility. Compared with other representative methods, the present results reveal the advantages of optimizing capacities and loca-tions of DG units simultaneously, and exemplify the validity of the EMOPSO algorithm applied for optimally placing DG units.

  16. Dubious Causes of No Interest to Students? The Development of National Union of Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In February 1992, the National Union of Students of the United Kingdom celebrated its 70th anniversary, however there were those within government that were determined that NUS would not see another decade. This article examines the ideological roots of this hostility to student organisations and examines NUS' response to it and the consequent…

  17. Becoming Scientific: Objectivity, Identity, and Relevance as Experienced by Graduate Students in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Yen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of a rigorous experimentalism in the discipline of psychology has imposed tight constraints on what can be asked in psychological research and what sorts of answers given. Over the course of psychology's history the interpretive agent has receded into the background to make way for a more concrete observation language and a mechanistic, functionalist description of mind and behavior. In this context of disciplinary loss and gain, how do psychology's fledgling practitioners—its graduate students—understand the significance of their own research efforts? In this paper, we present thematic and discursive analyses of interviews with a sample of psychology graduate students at a large, public, research university in North America. We explore the manner in which the imperatives of "objectivity," as applied to psychological research, serve paradoxically to enhance the validity of what students feel their research permits them to claim while reducing its personal and social significance. We look at how, in this compromise, students struggle to define their identities as scientists so as to allay doubts about the significance of their work. Their comments provide insight into how psychological knowledge is critically evaluated inside and outside the discipline, and how these two perspectives are dialectically related. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102260

  18. Publishing Time-Frame Evaluation for Doctoral Students in United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of the study was to compute the time to completion and publication of original scientific publications for medical doctoral students in the UK. A second objective was to evaluate if PhD theses format (monograph or publication-based can influence the time to completion and publication of original scientific publications. We assessed a small sample of free full text medical doctoral theses from universities in the United Kingdom (mostly from the University of Manchester, which have produced at least 2 original scientific publications by the end of the doctoral studies. The time elapsed between 2 consecutive publications from the same thesis was considered an approximation of the time to completion and publication of the second publication. In the case of prospective theses, the median time to completion and publication of original scientific publications from medical doctoral theses was 10.17 months. We found that there was a statistically significant difference between the time (to completion and publication medians of the publications from traditional theses format and of the publications from publication-based theses format. Time to completion and publication of original scientific publications for medical doctoral students needs to be further evaluated on a larger scale, based on more theses from several medical faculties in the UK.

  19. Clinical teaching of student nurses by unit managers of selected hospitals in Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Murathi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive nature of nurse training needs the involvement of almost all health team personnel, including unit managers to gain practical experience and learn to correlate theory and practice. The overall aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of unit managers regarding teaching of student nurses in the clinical area and to develop recommendations that will enhance clinical teaching, for the production of competent future nurse practitioners who will render quality care to patients. A qualitative design, which is explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature, was employed, utilizing a phenomenological approach to capture the experiences of unit managers regarding teaching of student nurses at selected hospitals, where students are allocated for their clinical exposure. Ethical measures as well as measures to ensure trustworthiness were adhered to. In-depth phenomenological interviews were conducted with unit managers who shared their experiences regarding clinical teaching of student nurses. Data analysis was done according to Tesch’s (1990 open coding method. One major theme emerged, namely that unit managers experienced problems when doing clinical teaching of student nurses. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made: Colleges should open a two-way communication with unit managers, involvement of unit managers in the activities that take place at the college like courses, seminars and workshops on clinical teaching, learning contracts should be developed for the students and issues of clinical learning should be addressed and unit managers should be included in both summative and formative evaluations.

  20. Moral development of first-year pharmacy students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Becket, Gordon; Wilson, Sarah Ellen

    2014-03-12

    To investigate the moral development of pharmacy students over their first academic year of study at a university in the United Kingdom. Pharmacy students completed Defining Issues Test (DIT) at the start of their first year (phase 1) and again at the end of their first year (phase 2) of the program. Pharmacy students (N=116) had significantly higher moral reasoning at the beginning of their first year than by the end of it. Scores differed by students' gender and age; however, these findings differed between phase 1 and phase 2. First-year pharmacy students in the United Kingdom scored lower on moral reasoning than did pharmacy students in the United States and Canada.

  1. Optimization of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for Auxiliary Power Unit Based on Multi-Objective Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongpeng Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary power units (APUs are widely used for electric power generation in various types of electric vehicles, improvements in fuel economy and emissions of these vehicles directly depend on the operating point of the APUs. In order to balance the conflicting goals of fuel consumption and emissions reduction in the process of operating point choice, the APU operating point optimization problem is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem (CMOP firstly. The four competing objectives of this CMOP are fuel-electricity conversion cost, hydrocarbon (HC emissions, carbon monoxide (CO emissions and nitric oxide (NO x emissions. Then, the multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO algorithm and weighted metric decision making method are employed to solve the APU operating point multi-objective optimization model. Finally, bench experiments under New European driving cycle (NEDC, Federal test procedure (FTP and high way fuel economy test (HWFET driving cycles show that, compared with the results of the traditional fuel consumption single-objective optimization approach, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach shows significant improvements in emissions performance, at the expense of a slight drop in fuel efficiency.

  2. Effective Teaching Factors and Student Reading Strategies as Predictors of Student Achievement in PISA 2009: The Case of China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingqi; Muñoz, Marco; King Hess, Kristin; Liu, Shujie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated effective teaching factors and student reading strategies as predictors of student reading achievement in the United States and China. Participants were 10,348 students in the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) study, 5115 from China and 5233 from the United States. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)…

  3. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.

  4. An Automatic and Dynamic Approach for Personalized Recommendation of Learning Objects Considering Students Learning Styles: An Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano A. DORÇA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Content personalization in educational systems is an increasing research area. Studies show that students tend to have better performances when the content is customized according to his/her preferences. One important aspect of students particularities is how they prefer to learn. In this context, students learning styles should be considered, due to the importance of this feature to the adaptivity process in such systems. Thus, this work presents an efficient approach for personalization of the teaching process based on learning styles. Our approach is based on an expert system that implements a set of rules which classifies learning objects according to their teaching style, and then automatically filters learning objects according to students' learning styles. The best adapted learning objects are ranked and recommended to the student. Preliminary experiments suggest promising results.

  5. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troskie, R; Guwa, S N; Booyens, S W

    1998-12-01

    The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practica. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practica in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients' treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students' training programme.

  6. The Mental Health of University Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaskill, Ann

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing concerns globally about the mental health of students. In the UK, the actual incidence of mental disturbance is unknown, although university counselling services report increased referrals. This study assesses the levels of mental illness in undergraduate students to examine whether widening participation in education has…

  7. Students' Engagement with Facebook in a University Undergraduate Policing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Zoe; Lauchs, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Web 2.0 technologies are increasingly being used to support teaching in higher education courses. However, preliminary research has shown that students are using such technologies primarily for social purposes, rather than as a means of further engaging with academic content. This study examines a cohort of tertiary students' use of a Facebook…

  8. Fourth Grade Students' Drawing Interpretations of a Sport Education Soccer Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowling, Claire M.; Brock, Sheri J.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined fourth grade students' representations of sport education through drawings in order to determine what students perceived as most important throughout their soccer season. The first objective was to determine whether student representations would follow the components of sport education (e.g., season, team affiliation, formal…

  9. Mechanical objects and the engineering learner: An experimental study of how the presence of objects affects students' performance on engineering related tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact that practicing engineers work with mechanical objects as they design, test and improve devices. It is possible that mechanical objects can facilitate learning by providing opportunities to authenticate the teaching and learning experience. More importantly, mechanical objects can serve as an instrument in transferring the knowledge of abstract concepts to practical applications. What remains unclear is how individual differences in interests and aptitudes are related to these interactions in engineering students. This study investigated how individual differences related to thing orientation and mechanical aptitude affect interaction with mechanical objects in engineering education instruction. The study introduces a task designed to replicate a real-world engineering application and uses this task to examine the effect of these aptitudes, interests, and direct manipulation of mechanical objects on performance.

  10. Humanizing the impostor: object relations and illness equations in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landzelius, Kyra Marie

    2003-03-01

    In this paper I explore a seemingly mundane and inconsequential act--that of placing dolls and stuffed animals into newborns' incubator machines, in what I dub a kind of "teddy bear diplomacy," whereby mothers ornament their babies' high tech life-support prostheses with commonplace toys and trinkets. Using hospital ethnography and maternal interviews, I probe the psychodynamic significations of these ornamenting acts, which aspire to domesticate, animate and even humanize the incubator, itself a cyborg womb that displaces maternal purpose and problematizes bonding. The stress triggered by a high-risk infant and the double bind imposed by the therapeutic protocol lead me to here examine the intersubjectivity of illness in mothers' comorbidity and satellite syndromes. I argue that teddy bears and like artifacts serve as countertransitional objects to materially symbolize and perform the imagined mother-child dyad. Moreover, as autopoetic devices in the metamorphosis of maternal identity, they may empower a mother's vicarious participation in her child's healing, and thereby work towards closure of her own intersubjective afflictions.

  11. Student Perspectives on Oncology Curricula at United States Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Brandon C; Golden, Daniel W; Brower, Jeffrey V; Braunstein, Steve E; Hirsch, Ariel E; Mattes, Malcolm D

    2017-08-07

    Delivering a cohesive oncology curriculum to medical students is challenging due to oncology's multidisciplinary nature, predominantly outpatient clinical setting, and lack of data describing effective approaches to teaching it. We sought to better characterize approaches to oncology education at US medical schools by surveying third and fourth year medical students who serve on their institution's curriculum committee. We received responses from students at 19 schools (15.2% response rate). Key findings included the following: (1) an under-emphasis of cancer in the curriculum relative to other common diseases; (2) imbalanced involvement of different clinical subspecialists as educators; (3) infrequent requirements for students to rotate through non-surgical oncologic clerkships; and (4) students are less confident in their knowledge of cancer treatment compared to basic science/natural history or workup/diagnosis. Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations to achieve robust multidisciplinary curriculum design and implementation that better balances the clinical and classroom aspects of oncology education.

  12. Student Nurses' Learning Needs & Expectations in the Clinical Learning Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chabeli

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and explores the clinical learning needs and expectations of student nurses. An exploratory, descriptive and qualitative design, which is contextual in nature, was used where a focus group interview was conducted with the final year basic students undergoing a four year comprehensive diploma course leading to registration as a professional nurse. Tecsh’s (in Cresswell, 1994:155 method of data analysis was employed. Eight categories were identified as follows: communication; role modelling; up-to-date knowledge and experience; continuous supervision; assessment and evaluation; scientific process; management; professional practice and student status. A recommendation deduced from the conclusions made on the identified clinical learning needs and expectations of the students should enable teachers to address the long standing problem of how students should learn.

  13. A Unit on Deterministic Chaos for Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrou, D.; Assimopoulos, S.; Skordoulis, C.

    2013-01-01

    A unit aiming to introduce pre-service teachers of primary education to the limited predictability of deterministic chaotic systems is presented. The unit is based on a commercial chaotic pendulum system connected with a data acquisition interface. The capabilities and difficulties in understanding the notion of limited predictability of 18…

  14. Students' Expectations from Technology in Mathematical Tasks: Mathematical Relationships between Objects, Instrumental Genesis and Emergent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laina, Vasiliki; Monaghan, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on two students' work on geometry tasks in a dynamic geometry system. It augments prior work on students' instrumental geneses via a consideration of emergent goals that arise in students' work. It offers a way to interpret students' (working with new software) awareness of what software can and cannot do and students'…

  15. Guiding Age 10-11 Students to Notice the Salient Features of Physical Change Models in Chemistry Digital Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Brenda; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on one Grade 5 class (9 females; 9 males) who worked in student-pairs to view five digital learning object (DLO) lessons created by the authors and meant to introduce students to the nature of models, the particle nature of matter, and physical change. Specifically, the paper focuses on whether DLO design elements could assist…

  16. Assessment of first-year veterinary students' clinical skills using objective structured clinical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Kent; Read, Emma K; Vallevand, Andrea; Krebs, Gord; Donszelmann, Darlene; Muelling, Christoph K W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    The DVM program at the University of Calgary offers a Clinical Skills course each year for the first three years. The course is designed to teach students the procedural skills required for entry-level general veterinary practice. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess students' performance on these procedural skills. A series of three OSCEs were developed for the first year. Content was determined by an exam blueprint, exam scoring sheets were created, rater training was provided, a mock OSCE was performed with faculty and staff, and the criterion-referencing Ebel method was used to set cut scores for each station using two content experts. Each station and the overall exam were graded as pass or fail. Thirty first-year DVM students were assessed. Content validity was ensured by the exam blueprint and expert review. Reliability (coefficient α) of the stations from the three OSCE exams ranged from 0.0 to 0.71. The three exam reliabilities (Generalizability Theory) were, for OSCE 1, G=0.56; OSCE 2, G=0.37; and OSCE 3, G=0.32. Preliminary analysis has suggested that the OSCEs demonstrate face and content validity, and certain stations demonstrated adequate reliability. Overall exam reliability was low, which reflects issues with first-time exam delivery. Because this year was the first that this course was taught and this exam format was used, work continues in the program on the teaching of the procedural skills and the development and revision of OSCE stations and scoring checklists.

  17. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus......, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....

  18. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Troskie

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practice. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practice in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients’ treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students’ training programme.

  19. High Rates of Tuberculosis and Opportunities for Prevention among International Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jeffrey M; Reves, Randall R; Belknap, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    Foreign-born persons traveling on a student visa are not currently screened for tuberculosis on entry into the United States, despite residing in the United States for up to several years. To characterize the risk of tuberculosis in international students entering the United States and to identify strategies for early diagnosis and prevention in this population. Data were collected in 18 tuberculosis control jurisdictions in the United States. A cohort of 1,268 foreign-born patients of known visa status, diagnosed with active tuberculosis between 2004 and 2007, was used for analysis. Incidence rates were estimated on the basis of immigration data from study jurisdictions. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in 46 student residents, providing an annual estimate of 308 cases nationally. The estimated tuberculosis case rate in student residents was 48.1 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval, 35.6-64.8), more than twice that of the general foreign-born population. Students identified by tuberculosis screening programs were more likely to be diagnosed within 6 months of U.S. arrival (75 vs. 6%; P students, 71% were diagnosed more than 1 year after U.S. arrival and only 6% were previously treated for latent tuberculosis infection. The tuberculosis case rate in foreign-born students is significantly higher than in other foreign-born individuals. Screening this group after arrival to the United States is an effective strategy for earlier diagnosis of active tuberculosis.

  20. [NIC as a tool for assessing competences of nursing students in clinical placement at surgical units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celma Vicente, Matilde; Ajuria-Imaz, Eloisa; Lopez-Morales, Manuel; Fernandez-Marín, Pilar; Menor-Castro, Alicia; Cano-Caballero Galvez, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows the utility of a NIC standardized language to assess the extent of nursing student skills at Practicum in surgical units To identify the nursing interventions classification (NIC) that students can learn to perform in surgical units. To determine the level of difficulty in learning interventions, depending on which week of rotation in clinical placement the student is. Qualitative study using Delphi consensus technique, involving nurses with teaching experience who work in hospital surgical units, where students undertake the Practicum. The results were triangulated through a questionnaire to tutors about the degree of conformity. A consensus was reached about the interventions that students can achieve in surgical units and the frequency in which they can be performed. The level of difficulty of each intervention, and the amount of weeks of practice that students need to reach the expected level of competence was also determined. The results should enable us to design better rotations matched to student needs. Knowing the frequency of each intervention that is performed in each unit determines the chances of learning it, as well as the indicators for its assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Common input to motor units of intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles during two-digit object hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winges, Sara A; Kornatz, Kurt W; Santello, Marco

    2008-03-01

    Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles. Much less is known, however, about the distribution of common input to motor units belonging to different intrinsic muscles and to intrinsic-extrinsic muscle pairs. To address this void in the literature, we quantified the incidence and strength of near-simultaneous discharges of motor units residing in either the same or different intrinsic hand muscles (m. first dorsal, FDI, and m. first palmar interosseus, FPI) during two-digit object hold. To extend the characterization of common input to pairs of extrinsic muscles (previous work) and pairs of intrinsic muscles (present work), we also recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from an extrinsic thumb muscle (m. flexor pollicis longus, FPL). Motor-unit synchrony across FDI and FPI was weak (common input strength, CIS, mean +/- SE: 0.17 +/- 0.02). Similarly, motor units from extrinsic-intrinsic muscle pairs were characterized by weak synchrony (FPL-FDI: 0.25 +/- 0.02; FPL-FPI: 0.29 +/- 0.03) although stronger than FDI-FPI. Last, CIS from within FDI and FPI was more than three times stronger (0.70 +/- 0.06 and 0.66 +/- 0.06, respectively) than across these muscles. We discuss present and previous findings within the framework of muscle-pair specific distribution of common input to hand muscles based on their functional role in grasping.

  2. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  3. Why Inquiry? Primary Teachers' Objectives in Choosing Inquiry- and Context-Based Instructional Strategies to Stimulate Students' Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.

  4. Coordinating Numeric and Linear Units: Elementary Students' Strategies for Locating Whole Numbers on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Geoffrey B.; Shaughnessy, Meghan M.; Gearhart, Maryl; Haldar, Lina Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Two investigations of fifth graders' strategies for locating whole numbers on number lines revealed patterns in students' coordination of numeric and linear units. In Study 1, we investigated the effects of context on students' placements of three numbers on an open number line. For one group ("n"?=?24), the line was presented in a…

  5. Graduate Study in Chemistry in the United States: A Guide for Non-U.S. Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Judy Diane; Fernando, Quintus

    A guide to help students from other countries pursue graduate education in chemistry in the United States is presented. The process of gaining admission to U.S. universities is emphasized, and the nature of graduate education is briefly explained. It is noted that students majoring in chemistry are expected to have a sound background in…

  6. School Climate and the Experience of LGBT Students: A Comparison of the United States and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren; Kosciw, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the school experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in the United States and Israel. Through comparison of the sociocultural and edu-cational contexts, the authors assess whether school experience of LGBT students differs or operates similarly across countries. The authors use data from the…

  7. Coordinating Numeric and Linear Units: Elementary Students' Strategies for Locating Whole Numbers on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Geoffrey B.; Shaughnessy, Meghan M.; Gearhart, Maryl; Haldar, Lina Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Two investigations of fifth graders' strategies for locating whole numbers on number lines revealed patterns in students' coordination of numeric and linear units. In Study 1, we investigated the effects of context on students' placements of three numbers on an open number line. For one group ("n"?=?24), the line was presented in a…

  8. La Comunicacion (Communication). Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series. Curriculum Unit [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Gene T.

    This 10-lesson curriculum unit provides teachers with some basic tools to help Latino students improve their communication skills. Primary goals are to help students analyze how a person's belief system affects the communication process, and to develop and improve decision-making and communication skills. The following key components are included…

  9. Famous Georgians and Their Homes: A Social Studies Unit for Upper Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Susan B.

    This upper-elementary level social studies curriculum guide is designed to: (1) teach students to understand and appreciate the built (man made) environment; (2) instruct students about Georgia's history and heritage; and (3) introduce the basic concepts of historic preservation. The unit highlights 10 architectural styles of the homes of famous…

  10. The Factors That Influence Dietary Habits among International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakaam, Amir A.; Castellanos, Diana C.; Bodzio, Jessica; Harrison, Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the dietary intake changes and factors related to dietary acculturation in international students attending an urban university in the United States. The researchers administered seven focus groups of college-age international students (n = 32) between June and August 2012. The participants were enrolled in Northeastern and…

  11. A Survey of Postsecondary Education Programs for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigal, Meg; Hart, Debra; Weir, Cate

    2012-01-01

    The authors present findings from a 2009 survey of postsecondary education (PSE) programs for students with an intellectual disability (ID) conducted in the United States. The survey was designed to collect descriptive information on characteristics and practices of existing PSE programs for students with an ID. The survey consisted of 63 items…

  12. The United States History = Lich Su Hoa Ky. [34 Self-Learning Packets for Vietnamese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi, Do Dien; And Others

    Designed primarily for Indochinese students in grades 9-12, 34 United States history self-learning packets are presented in eight sections. The publication could be used by mainstream teachers who have a number of limited English proficient (LEP) Vietnamese students in their classes or by parents to tutor their children. The packets were adapted…

  13. School Climate and the Experience of LGBT Students: A Comparison of the United States and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizmony-Levy, Oren; Kosciw, Joseph G.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the school experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students in the United States and Israel. Through comparison of the sociocultural and edu-cational contexts, the authors assess whether school experience of LGBT students differs or operates similarly across countries. The authors use data from the…

  14. Famous Georgians and Their Homes: A Social Studies Unit for Upper Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Susan B.

    This upper-elementary level social studies curriculum guide is designed to: (1) teach students to understand and appreciate the built (man made) environment; (2) instruct students about Georgia's history and heritage; and (3) introduce the basic concepts of historic preservation. The unit highlights 10 architectural styles of the homes of famous…

  15. The Efficacy of a Three-Week Stress Management Unit for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Glenn E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study used psychometric information to determine the efficacy of a stress management unit in a high school health class. Students who took the unit showed improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and the ability to relax, as demonstrated on tests of heart rate and muscular tension. (PP)

  16. In Search of Our Past: Units in Women's History. World History Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Suzanne, Ed.; And Others

    This junior high school level student manual contains three units on the role of women in world history. The units, designed to supplement what is customarily taught in world history courses at this level, are entitled Women Under Feudalism: Western Europe and China, Women in the Industrial Revolution, and Women in Change: 20th Century Women in…

  17. Engine Tune-Up Service. Unit 5: Fuel and Carburetion Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Ludy

    This student guide is for Unit 5, Fuel and Carburetion Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting and servicing the fuel and carburetion systems. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 218-219. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  18. Teaching English to Immigrant Students in the United States: A Brief Summary of Programs and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ramos Calvo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Nearly ten per cent of the students currently attending public schools in the United States are classified as English Language Learners (ELL; that is to say, students who are learning English. The most important challenge this population brings to the educational authorities of their school districts and the schools they attend, is to find the most effective ways to teach them both English and the academic content pertaining to their grade. Since the methods traditionally used did not teach them either the vocabulary or the content needed for subjects such as Math or Science, they fell behind their English-speaking peers. It was necessary, then, to evolve toward a better integration of the language and the lesson content. The present article summarizes the objectives of the traditional methods, details the changes that have taken place in the last decades to improve the simultaneous teaching of English and academic content, and concludes with an explanation of the techniques most used today.

  19. PBL triggers in relation to students' generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students' inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students' generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Mean similarities score of students' generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers' skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development.

  20. A Multi-Objective Unit Commitment Model for Setting Carbon Tax to Reduce CO2 Emission: Thailand's Electricity Generation Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchjarin Intalar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon tax policy is a cost-effective instrument for emission reduction. However, setting the carbon tax is one of the challenging task for policy makers as it will lead to higher price of emission-intensive sources especially the utility price. In a large-scale power generation system, minimizing the operational cost and the environmental impact are conflicting objectives and it is difficult to find the compromise solution. This paper proposes a methodology of finding a feasible carbon tax rate on strategic level using the operational unit commitment model. We present a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model to solve the unit commitment problem and consider the environmental impacts. The methodology of analyzing of the effect of carbon tax rates on the power generation, operating cost, and CO2 emission is also provided. The trade-off relationship between total operating cost and total CO2 emission is presented in the Pareto-optimal curve to analyze the feasible carbon tax rate that is influencing on electricity operating cost. The significant outcome of this paper is a modeling framework for the policy makers to determine the possible carbon tax that can be imposed on the electricity generation.

  1. An assessment of traditional and objective structured practical evaluation methods on satisfaction of nursing students in Zahedan Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery: A comparing

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    Z Pishkar Mofrad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective evaluation of clinical and professional competency is one of the most important aspects in medical students' clinical education. Objective structural clinical exam (OSCE evaluates a large spectrum of technical and basic skills in an experimental setting. The present study was carried out in order to comparing two methods of evaluation, traditional evaluation (TE and objective structured practical evaluation (OSPE on the satisfaction of nursing students in Zahedan Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery. Method: This study is a quasi-experimental research. Thirty five nursing students who selected relevant units in the first trimester of 2011-12 academic year, participated in this study. TE and OSPE methods were both administered. Data were gathered via a 21 items researcher-made questionnaire after determination of its validity and reliability. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 15. Chi square, independent and paired t-tests were used. Results: The average age was 19.7 ± 2.5. %80 of students satisfied or very satisfied with the OSPE evaluation and only % 2.9 were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with this evaluation method. These rates were changed to %81.5 and %3.7 after announcement of grades respectively. %79.4 of students satisfied or very satisfied with the TE evaluation and %11.8 were dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with this evaluation method. These rates were changed to %63 and %11.1 after announcement of grades, respectively. After announcement of grades, the mean score of OSPE satisfaction was higher than TE satisfaction and this differences was statistically significant (P = 0.02. Conclusion: Nursing students were satisfied with OSPE method in this study, it seems necessary to promote this evaluation method in nursing faculties.

  2. Professionalism among multicultural medical students in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Alsalehi, Shahd; Husain, Zahra S M; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick Robert

    2017-01-01

    Moral competencies and ethical practices of medical professionals are among the desired outcomes of academic training. Unfortunately, academic dishonesty and misconduct are reported from medical colleges across the world. This study investigates the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. The aim of this study is to investigate the level of academic dishonesty/misconduct among multicultural medical students. Validated and customized version of Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory-1 detailing lapses of professionalism in undergraduate health professions education was used to determine the perceived prevalence and self-reported lapses of academic integrity in this study. This study shows that the majority (458/554, 83%) of medical students have admitted to acts of academic dishonesty mentioned in the questionnaire. Approximately 42% (231/554) of the students have given proxy for attendance and 71% of them considered this as an offense. Similarly, 12% (66/554) have copied from the record books of others, and 86% (477/554) have considered it unethical. In addition, 5% (28/554) of the students revealed forging a teacher's signature in their record or logbooks, with 16% (91/554) of them reporting that they have seen others forge signatures. This is the first multi-center, multi-cultural and multi-ethnic study involving a large number of participants that addresses academic professionalism among medical students in the Middle East. Certainly, the paucity of data limits definitive conclusions about the best approach to prevent academic misconduct in the UAE medical schools. Yet, the results of our study are anticipated not only to benefit the UAE but also to find application in the Arab world, with similar medical school programs, values, culture and tradition.

  3. Hierarchical Object-Based Mapping of Riverscape Units and in-Stream Mesohabitats Using LiDAR and VHR Imagery

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    Luca Demarchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new, semi-automated methodology for mapping hydromorphological indicators of rivers at a regional scale using multisource remote sensing (RS data. This novel approach is based on the integration of spectral and topographic information within a multilevel, geographic, object-based image analysis (GEOBIA. Different segmentation levels were generated based on the two sources of Remote Sensing (RS data, namely very-high spatial resolution, near-infrared imagery (VHR and high-resolution LiDAR topography. At each level, different input object features were tested with Machine Learning classifiers for mapping riverscape units and in-stream mesohabitats. The GEOBIA approach proved to be a powerful tool for analyzing the river system at different levels of detail and for coupling spectral and topographic datasets, allowing for the delineation of the natural fluvial corridor with its primary riverscape units (e.g., water channel, unvegetated sediment bars, riparian densely-vegetated units, etc. and in-stream mesohabitats with a high level of accuracy, respectively of K = 0.91 and K = 0.83. This method is flexible and can be adapted to different sources of data, with the potential to be implemented at regional scales in the future. The analyzed dataset, composed of VHR imagery and LiDAR data, is nowadays increasingly available at larger scales, notably through European Member States. At the same time, this methodology provides a tool for monitoring and characterizing the hydromorphological status of river systems continuously along the entire channel network and coherently through time, opening novel and significant perspectives to river science and management, notably for planning and targeting actions.

  4. Understanding Teacher-Student Relationships, Student-Student Relationships, and Conduct Problems in China and the United States

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    Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Glutting, Joseph; Huang, Xishan; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies have found that Chinese students perceive teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships more favorably than American students. In this study we examined if the same holds true with respect to teachers' perceptions. Also examined were both students' and teachers' perceptions of conduct problems. The sample…

  5. Analytic Geometry. Student's Text, Unit No. 64. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, H. Glenn; And Others

    This text provides a one-semester study of analytic geometry for secondary school students. It is designed for use at the 12th grade level. A deliberate effort was made to tie this text to previous SMSG texts; the usual language of sets, ordered pairs, number properties, etc. are included. This flavor is what distinguishes this book from others in…

  6. Australian Students' Perceptions of Racial Attitudes in the United States.

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    Evans, Anna M.; Evans, Virden; Evans, Adeline L.

    1998-01-01

    This survey of the perceptions of Australian high school students toward racism in America indicates that a majority knew little about cultural diversity; had various cultural backgrounds; were influenced more by television than other forms of media; and believed African Americans do not have equal access to education, equal opportunity to…

  7. Challenges Faced by Korean Transnational Students in the United States

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    Jung, Adrian; Nam, Sang; Han, Shini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help parents, educators, and policymakers understand how to help transnational children adjust to their psychological challenges at school in the United States. A total of 109 Korean transnational adolescents aged 11 to 19 participated in this study. They had been staying in the country alone or with one of their…

  8. A Unit on Hitler and Nazism for Advanced Students.

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    Williams, Elinor C.

    1993-01-01

    This unit on Hitler, the Third Reich, and its echoes in Germany today is based on original source material, such as "Mein Kampf," as well as more recent reports by those directly affected, such as Sichrovsky's "Schuldig Geboren." Teachers of advanced high school or college classes are introduced to some appropriate materials…

  9. A Unit on Hitler and Nazism for Advanced Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elinor C.

    1993-01-01

    This unit on Hitler, the Third Reich, and its echoes in Germany today is based on original source material, such as "Mein Kampf," as well as more recent reports by those directly affected, such as Sichrovsky's "Schuldig Geboren." Teachers of advanced high school or college classes are introduced to some appropriate materials and offered…

  10. FACULTY AND STUDENT PERCEPTIONS ON THE INTRODUCTION OF OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION IN AN UNDERGRADUATE PHYSIOTHERAPY COURSE: A PILOT STUDY

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    Mullai Dhinakaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical education methods in undergraduate physiotherapy training are well integrated but the methodology of the clinical skill assessment still remains subjective. Due to lack of objective clinical assessment, competency in clinical skills becomes compromised. Aim and Objectives: To introduce Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Physiotherapy faculty, students and determine the perception of Physiotherapy faculty and students about OSCE method of clinical assessment. Methodology: OSCE was conducted to undergraduate physiotherapy 4th year students (n – 20 by OSCE trained staff members (n -8 of College of Physiotherapy. CMC &H, Ludhiana. By the end of exam, self-administered questionnaires were distributed and piloted to both faculty and students. They answered each item on 5- point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree to 5 (strongly agree. Results: The piloted data was analysed with descriptive statistics. The entire faculty perceived that OSCE helping to enhance the evaluation method of clinical assessment. More than 80% of the students felt that OSCE should be an effective clinical assessment tool. Both faculty and students felt that OSCE method of clinical assessment is less stressful but more exhausting and lengthy. Both groups were satisfied except more preparatory period for the exam as they expressed in open comments. Conclusions: This pilot study provided valuable feedback from faculty and students when OSCE assessment was introduced into undergraduate physiotherapy course. It helps for standardization of Physiotherapy clinical assessment.

  11. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity.

  12. Parental Involvement with College Students in Germany, Hong Kong, Korea, and the United States

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    Fingerman, Karen L.; Cheng, Yen-Pi; Kim, Kyungmin; Fung, Helene H.; Han, Gyounghae; Lang, Frieder R.; Lee, Wonkyung; Wagner, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Rates of college attendance have increased throughout the world. This study asked whether students across nations experience high involvement with parents (frequent contact and support) and how satisfied they are with parental involvement. College students from four major Western and Asian economies participated: Germany (n = 458), Hong Kong (n = 276), Korea (n = 257), and the United States (n = 310). Consistent with solidarity theory, students across nations reported frequent contact with parents and receiving several forms of social support (e.g., practical, emotional, and advice) every month. Multilevel models revealed Asian students received more frequent parental support than German or US students, but were less satisfied with that support. Students in Hong Kong resided with parents more often and gave more support to parents than students in other cultures. Discussion focuses on cultural (i.e., filial obligation) and structural (i.e., coresidence) factors explaining parental involvement. PMID:27594722

  13. Planning, Development, and Change in Bristol Bay: A High School Curriculum. Teacher Guide and Student Text. Unit V: Oil and Gas Development. Unit VI: Minerals and Mining. Unit VII: State Land Disposal. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipka, Jerry; Willer, Cristy

    Written with the broad goal of involving high school students in Bristol Bay, Alaska, in the planning and design of their region's future, this combined teacher guide and student text contains the final three units of a seven-unit curriculum. Unit V looks at oil development in the Bering Sea, covering topics such as Alaska's dependence on oil,…

  14. Tools to reduce first year nursing students' anxiety levels prior to undergoing objective structured clinical assessment (OSCA) and how this impacts on the student's experience of their first clinical placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunden, Annette; Halcomb, Elizabeth; Jefferies, Diana

    2015-09-01

    One form of assessment that tests students' theoretical skills and confidence in their clinical practice is known as the Objective Structured Clinical Assessment (OSCA). Traditionally it was first launched from medical education, and is now being incorporated by other disciplines, such as nursing. This review seeks to present the best available evidence into strategies that help reduce first year nursing students' anxiety levels prior to undergoing OSCA and clinical placement. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL. This review considered any English language original research published between 2005 and 2013. A literature search located 117 articles. Eight articles were identified as meeting the inclusion in criteria. Majority of studies reported simulation session prior to the OSCA increased students confidence and reduced their anxiety levels. This resulted in students' reporting that they valued the OSCA as a worthwhile assessment. However there were four major themes: that students were anxious about attending the OSCA; that adequate preparation was seen as a coping strategy; that simulation was a further cause for anxiety; and that the simulation experience could also be used as an OSCA tool. Students who have been exposed to simulation scenarios before the OSCA are able to cope much better during the OSCA. Therefore, it is highly recommended to incorporate simulation scenarios into the nursing curricula for first year nursing students' clinical units to help reduce their anxiety levels prior to OCSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The interrater reliability of an objective structured practical examination in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students.

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    Rose, Kevin A; Babajanian, Jesika

    2016-10-01

    The objective structured practical examination (OSPE) is a case-based assessment that can be used to assess the clinical reasoning ability of students. The reliability of using an OSPE for this purpose has not been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the interrater reliability of the OSPE in measuring the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students. Two examiners tested each student simultaneously when enough were available as a check for interrater reliability. The scores for students over 4 exam administrations were compiled, and we calculated an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) using 1-way random single measures. Paired scores were available for 133 students. The ICC was .685, showing a fair-to-good level of agreement for faculty in assessing the clinical reasoning ability of chiropractic students using an OSPE. The OSPE can be a valuable tool for testing clinical reasoning abilities because it can simulate the decision-making process that needs to be implemented in clinical practice. Faculty members at our chiropractic college were able to achieve an acceptable level of reliability in measuring the clinical reasoning abilities of students using an OSPE. Other health professional programs may consider using this tool for assessing the clinical reasoning skills of their students.

  16. Position Paper. Safety for K-12 students: United States policy concerning LGBT student safety must provide inclusion

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    April Sanders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT are at risk for harassment due to their sexual orientation or gender identification with over 85% of LGBT students in the United States (US reporting such harassment. These statistics demonstrate one aspect of the significance of this issue, but the cost of human life in some instances has revealed another layer of importance related to a need for safety policies for LGBT students. Even though a need exists for such policies, the practice of heteronormativity found in US policymaking regarding bullying does not protect victims or curb the violence. This essay highlights several recent developments in anti-bullying policy in US schools that shows the existence of heteronormativity, which is not helping to pro-tect LGBT students. By understanding the discrimination encouraged by current policy, future policy can be better shaped to protect LGBT students.

  17. Graduate Students Unite! Building an Outreach Program From Scratch

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    Reif, C.; Labonte, A.

    2005-12-01

    In the spring of 2000, a group of graduate students at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) gathered and declared the need to facilitate participation in science education outreach. The result was the formation of the Scripps Community Outreach Program for Education (SCOPE, http://sioscope.ucsd.edu). SCOPE has been connecting SIO graduate students, faculty, and staff with existing outreach programs in the San Diego area ever since. While many scientists would like to commit some time to helping the general public understand the world around them, they often do not know where to begin. To make this connection, SCOPE holds meetings and operates an email listserv to announce upcoming outreach opportunities and sign up volunteers. Over the years, SCOPE has developed relationships with local science outreach groups, outreach events, schools, and teachers. There are usually at least two volunteer opportunities a month, some of which take place on the SIO campus itself. These opportunities include speaking to senior citizens, participating in a school career day, mentoring National Ocean Science Bowl teams, providing tours of SIO to minority middle and high school students, and just about anything else one can imagine. The opportunities are coordinated by one or two graduate students who graciously volunteer their time to make sure that community's and the scientist's needs are met. To keep such an organization running requires not only networking with the community but also networking within the university as well. It is necessary to keep in contact with other outreach groups on campus as well as the communication and development offices. In addition we have worked closely with the Birch Aquarium at Scripps and have played an important part of the California Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE, http://www.cacosee.net). We believe that SCOPE has been very successful and would like to share the lessons we have learned with interested members of the

  18. Using Student e-Portfolios to Facilitate Learning Objective Achievements in an Outcome-Based University

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    Tubaishat, Abdallah; Lansari, Azzedine

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers define e-portfolios as a digital collection of students' work accomplished throughout their time of studies in an academic program (Buzzetto-More, 2006; Love, McKean and Gathercoal, 2004; Paulson, Paulson, & Meyer, 1991; Siemens, 2004). E-portfolios can be a rich resource for students and faculty. Students learn to identify…

  19. Addressing the Mental Health Problems of Chinese International College Students in the United States

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    Meirong Liu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies unique mental health problems experienced by Chinese international students in the United States. The uniqueness of these problems suggests the need to address them independently from other Chinese and international student communities. First, an overview of the common sources of mental health problems and specific stressors these students face is provided. This article then develops culturally sensitive programming recommendations to improve collaborative efforts between health providers, mental health social workers, faculty, and academic staff within universities to serve these students more effectively.

  20. Undocumented College Students in the United States: In-State Tuition Not Enough to Ensure Four-Year Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan; Chellman, Colin C.

    2013-01-01

    Using restricted-access data from one of the largest urban public university systems in the United States--where many undocumented students are eligible for in-state tuition--we review the literature on undocumented college students in the United States and provide a comparison of the performance of undocumented students to that of U.S. citizens…

  1. Labour Movement and Labour Law: Development of Two Introductory Units for Secondary Students. ERIBC Reports. Report No. 79:1.

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    Labour Advisory Committee, Terrace (British Columbia).

    Introductory teaching units for secondary students on the history of the Canadian labor movement and labor law are presented in this report. Five units are outlined, addressing the following questions: (1) How do students perceive organized labor, its position in today's society, and its historical development?; (2) What knowledge do students have…

  2. An Interactive Multimedia Tutorial Teaching Unit and Its Effects on Student Perception and Understanding of Chemical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtacnik, M.; Sajovec, M.; Dolnicar, D.; Pucko-Razdevsek, C.; Glazar, A.; Brouwer, N. Zupancic

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of teaching with an interactive tutorial multimedia unit on students' understanding of concepts presented in the unit and their perceptions of the learning environment. Discusses the results and concludes that the multimedia unit shows promising effects on students' acquisition of knowledge. (CMK)

  3. Student Satisfaction and Student Perceptions of Quality at International Branch Campuses in the United Arab Emirates

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    Wilkins, Stephen; Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens; Huisman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The international branch campus has emerged as a popular form of transnational higher education but to date little research has been undertaken on student perceptions and experiences, other than the student feedback evaluations conducted by institutions. This research employed a survey questionnaire to investigate student perceptions of study at…

  4. Opinions on conscientious objection to induced abortion among Finnish medical and nursing students and professionals.

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    Nieminen, Petteri; Lappalainen, Saara; Ristimäki, Pauliina; Myllykangas, Markku; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2015-03-25

    Conscientious objection (CO) to participating in induced abortion is not present in the Finnish health care system or legislation unlike in many other European countries. We conducted a questionnaire survey with the 1(st)- and the last-year medical and nursing students and professionals (548 respondents; response rate 66-100%) including several aspects of the abortion process and their relation to CO in 2013. The male medical respondents chose later time points of pregnancy than the nursing respondents when considering when the embryo/fetus "becomes a person". Of all respondents, 3.5-14.1% expressed a personal wish to CO. The medical professionals supported the right to CO more often (34.2%) than the nursing professionals (21.4%), while ≥62.4% could work with someone expressing CO. Yet ≥57.9% of the respondents anticipated social problems at work communities caused by CO. Most respondents considered self-reported religious/ethical conviction to be adequate for CO but, at the same time, 30.1-50.7% considered that no conviction would be sufficient. The respondents most commonly included the medical doctor conducting surgical or medical abortion to be eligible to CO. The nursing respondents considered that vacuum suction would be a better justification for CO than medical abortion. The indications most commonly included to potential CO were second-trimester abortions and social reasons. Among the medical respondents, the men were more willing to grant CO also in case of a life-threatening emergency of the pregnant woman. While the respondents mostly seemed to consider the continuation of adequate services important if CO is introduced, the viewpoint was often focused on the staff and surgical abortion procedure instead of the patients. The issue proved to be complex, which should be taken into consideration for legislation.

  5. Healthcare reform and the next generation: United States medical student attitudes toward the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

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    Kristin M Huntoon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over one year after passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA, legislators, healthcare experts, physicians, and the general public continue to debate the implications of the law and its repeal. The PPACA will have a significant impact on future physicians, yet medical student perspectives on the legislation have not been well documented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate medical students' understanding of and attitudes toward healthcare reform and the PPACA including issues of quality, access and cost. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An anonymous electronic survey was sent to medical students at 10 medical schools (total of 6982 students between October-December 2010, with 1232 students responding and a response rate of 18%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Medical students' views and attitudes regarding the PPACA and related topics, measured with Likert scale and open response items. RESULTS: Of medical students surveyed, 94.8% agreed that the existing United States healthcare system needs to be reformed, 31.4% believed the PPACA will improve healthcare quality, while 20.9% disagreed and almost half (47.7% were unsure if quality will be improved. Two thirds (67.6% believed that the PPACA will increase access, 6.5% disagreed and the remaining 25.9% were unsure. With regard to containing healthcare costs, 45.4% of participants indicated that they are unsure if the provisions of the PPACA will do so. Overall, 80.1% of respondents indicated that they support the PPACA, and 78.3% also indicated that they did not feel that reform efforts had gone far enough. A majority of respondents (58.8% opposed repeal of the PPACA, while 15.0% supported repeal, and 26.1% were undecided. CONCLUSION: The overwhelming majority of medical students recognized healthcare reform is needed and expressed support for the PPACA but echoed concerns about whether it will address issues of quality or cost containment.

  6. Teaching English to Immigrant Students in the United States: A Brief Summary of Programs and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Nearly ten per cent of the students currently attending public schools in the United States are classified as English Language Learners (ELL); that is to say, students who are learning English. The most important challenge this population brings to the educational authorities of their school districts and the schools they attend, is to find the most effective ways to teach them both English and the academic content pertaining to their grade. Since the methods traditionally used did not ...

  7. Cross-cultural Study of Understanding of Scale and Measurement: Does the everyday use of US customary units disadvantage US students?

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    Delgado, Cesar

    2013-06-01

    Following a sociocultural perspective, this study investigates how students who have grown up using the SI (Système International d'Unités) (metric) or US customary (USC) systems of units for everyday use differ in their knowledge of scale and measurement. Student groups were similar in terms of socioeconomic status, curriculum, native language transparency of number word structure, type of school, and makeup by gender and grade level, while varying by native system of measurement. Their performance on several tasks was compared using binary logistic regression, ordinal logistic regression, and analysis of variance, with gender and grade level as covariates. Participants included 17 USC-native and 89 SI-native students in a school in Mexico, and 31 USC-native students in a school in the Midwestern USA. SI-native students performed at a significantly higher level estimating the length of a metre and a conceptual task (coordinating relative size and absolute size). No statistically significant differences were found on tasks involving factual knowledge about objects or units, scale construction, or estimation of other units. USC-native students in the US school performed at a higher level on smallest known object. These findings suggest that the more transparent SI system better supports conceptual thinking about scale and measurement than the idiosyncratic USC system. Greater emphasis on the SI system and more complete adoption of the SI system for everyday life may improve understanding among US students. Advancing sociocultural theory, systems of units were found to mediate learner's understanding of scale and measurement, much as number words mediate counting and problem solving.

  8. Formative Assessment of Procedural Skills: Students' Responses to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination and the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Debra; Kneebone, Roger; Nolan, Carmel; Akhtar, Kash; Darzi, Ara

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of clinical skills is a critical element of undergraduate medical education. We compare a traditional approach to procedural skills assessment--the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) with the Integrated Performance Procedural Instrument (IPPI). In both approaches, students work through "stations" or…

  9. Brief Analysis of Application of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Graduation Exams of Clinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yihua; Yu, Ke; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Tingting

    2011-01-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and analyzes developmental progress of OSCE at both home and abroad and standardized patients' application in OSCE. Also, this article expounds application of OSCE in graduation exam of clinical medical students. Finally, this article summarizes…

  10. Using IEP Goals and Objectives to Teach Paragraph Writing to High School Students with Physical and Cognitive Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Moira; Trela, Katherine; Test, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Current research and legislation show a need for special education instruction to be more closely aligned with general education curriculum and develop strategies that support the development of self determination skills in students with disabilities. The present study embeds self-determination skills of writing annual goals and objectives in the…

  11. Theoretical Value Belief, Cognitive Ability, and Personality as Predictors of Student Performance in Object-Oriented Programming Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dianne J.; Cegielski, Casey G.; Wade, James N.

    2006-01-01

    The research described in this article reports the results of a study designed to evaluate the relationship among object-oriented (OO) computer programming task performance and a student's (1) theoretical value belief, (2) cognitive ability, and (3) personality. The results of this study do not support the assertion that cognitive ability is a…

  12. The development of a brief and objective method for evaluating moral sensitivity and reasoning in medical students

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    Nishimura Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical schools in Japan have incorporated mandatory courses on medical ethics. To this date, however, there is no established means of evaluating medical ethics education in Japan. This study looks 1 To develop a brief, objective method of evaluation for moral sensitivity and reasoning; 2 To conduct a test battery for the PIT and the DIT on medical students who are either currently in school or who have recently graduated (residents; 3 To investigate changes in moral sensitivity and reasoning between school years among medical students and residents. Methods Questionnaire survey: Two questionnaires were employed, the Problem Identification Test (PIT for evaluation of moral sensitivity and a portion of the Defining Issues Test (DIT for moral reasoning. Subjects consisted of 559 medical school students and 272 residents who recently graduated from the same medical school located in an urban area of Japan. Results PIT results showed an increase in moral sensitivity in 4th and 5th year students followed by a decrease in 6th year students and in residents. No change in moral development stage was observed. However, DIT results described a gradual rising shift in moral decision-making concerning euthanasia between school years. No valid correlation was observed between PIT and DIT questionnaires. Conclusion This study's questionnaire survey, which incorporates both PIT and DIT, could be used as a brief and objective means of evaluating medical students' moral sensitivity and reasoning in Japan.

  13. How well do second-year students learn physical diagnosis? Observational study of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

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    Simon Steven R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE in physical diagnosis courses. The purpose of this study was to describe student performance on an OSCE in a physical diagnosis course. Methods Cross-sectional study at Harvard Medical School, 1997–1999, for 489 second-year students. Results Average total OSCE score was 57% (range 39–75%. Among clinical skills, students scored highest on patient interaction (72%, followed by examination technique (65%, abnormality identification (62%, history-taking (60%, patient presentation (60%, physical examination knowledge (47%, and differential diagnosis (40% (p Conclusions Students scored higher on interpersonal and technical skills than on interpretive or integrative skills. Station scores identified specific content that needs improved teaching.

  14. Experiences by student nurses during clinical placement in psychiatric units in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J.C. Van Rhyn

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study was conducted with the aim of discovering and describing experiences of psychiatric nursing students during clinical placement in a psychiatric unit. For the purpose of the study an unstructured interview was conducted with each participant during their first placement in a psychiatric unit to identify the factors experienced as stressful. The results indicated that all eight participants experienced average to high stress. Sources of stress identified included, among others, ineffective teaching and learning programmes, poor managerial governance of the service, detachment of professional nurses from their teaching role, poor relationships among staff, overreliance on the medical model of care and patient neglect. Psychiatric nursing students sampled indicated universal support for in-service education and training for professional nurses, attitude change of professional nurses towards students, support for student initiatives, student involvement in patient care and adequate allocation of resources for patient care and nurse training. The exploration and description of experiences of the psychiatric nursing students will help nurse educators plan clinical learning opportunities in such a way that they are less stressful, thus ensuring that psychiatric nursing students are equipped to utilise themselves as therapeutic instruments.

  15. The Electronic Health Record Objective Structured Clinical Examination: Assessing Student Competency in Patient Interactions While Using the Electronic Health Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioli, Frances E.; Elliot, Diane L.; Palmer, Ryan T.; Graichen, Carla C.; Rdesinski, Rebecca E.; Kumar, Kaparaboyna Ashok; Galper, Ari B.; Tysinger, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Because many medical students do not have access to electronic health records (EHRs) in the clinical environment, simulated EHR training is necessary. Explicitly training medical students to use EHRs appropriately during patient encounters equips them to engage patients while also attending to the accuracy of the record and contributing to a culture of information safety. Approach Faculty developed and successfully implemented an EHR objective structured clinical examination (EHR-OSCE) for clerkship students at two institutions. The EHR-OSCE objectives include assessing EHR-related communication and data management skills. Outcomes The authors collected performance data for students (n = 71) at the first institution during academic years 2011–2013 and for students (n = 211) at the second institution during academic year 2013–2014. EHR-OSCE assessment checklist scores showed that students performed well in EHR-related communication tasks, such as maintaining eye contact and stopping all computer work when the patient expresses worry. Findings indicated student EHR skill deficiencies in the areas of EHR data management including medical history review, medication reconciliation, and allergy reconciliation. Most students’ EHR skills failed to improve as the year progressed, suggesting that they did not gain the EHR training and experience they need in clinics and hospitals. Next Steps Cross-institutional data comparisons will help determine whether differences in curricula affect students’ EHR skills. National and institutional policies and faculty development are needed to ensure that students receive adequate EHR education, including hands-on experience in the clinic as well as simulated EHR practice. PMID:27332870

  16. An Extended Objective Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model for Weather Support to the United States Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Paul; Manobianco, John

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the Applied Meteorology Unit's objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 29-km eta model during separate warm and cool season periods from May 1996 through January 1998. The verification of surface and upper-air point forecasts was performed at three selected stations important for 45th Weather Squadron, Spaceflight Meteorology Group, and National Weather Service, Melbourne operational weather concerns. The statistical evaluation identified model biases that may result from inadequate parameterization of physical processes. Since model biases are relatively small compared to the random error component, most of the total model error results from day-to-day variability in the forecasts and/or observations. To some extent, these nonsystematic errors reflect the variability in point observations that sample spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric phenomena that cannot be resolved by the model. On average, Meso-Eta point forecasts provide useful guidance for predicting the evolution of the larger scale environment. A more substantial challenge facing model users in real time is the discrimination of nonsystematic errors that tend to inflate the total forecast error. It is important that model users maintain awareness of ongoing model changes. Such changes are likely to modify the basic error characteristics, particularly near the surface.

  17. Tobacco Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tushar; Arrazola, René A; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Homa, David M; King, Brian A

    2016-04-15

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States; if current smoking rates continue, 5.6 million Americans aged students. In 2015, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (5.3%) and high (16.0%) school students. During 2011-2015, significant increases in current use of e-cigarettes and hookahs occurred among middle and high school students, whereas current use of conventional tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars decreased, resulting in no change in overall tobacco product use. During 2014-2015, current use of e-cigarettes increased among middle school students, whereas current use of hookahs decreased among high school students; in contrast, no change was observed in use of hookahs among middle school students, use of e-cigarettes among high school students, or use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, pipe tobacco, or bidis among middle and high school students. In 2015, an estimated 4.7 million middle and high school students were current tobacco product users, and, therefore, continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical period for brain development, can cause addiction, might harm brain development, and could lead to sustained tobacco product use among youths. Comprehensive and sustained strategies are warranted to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among U.S. youths.

  18. Student Transfer Policies and Practices in the United States and Europe: Mobility without Loss of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Megan M.

    2010-01-01

    As student mobility continues to rise, the United States is challenged to increase transferability between institutions of higher education. Creating courses that are recognizable across institutions can increase the number of degrees and aid the knowledge-based economy. Europe addressed this issue a decade ago when they initiated the Bologna…

  19. The Moral Reasoning of Sports Management Students in the United States and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Almerinda

    2013-01-01

    The researcher analyzed the moral reasoning ability of Sports Management students in the United States and Italy. The researcher statistically analyzed data collected through a survey questionnaire designed to measure moral reasoning. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) developed by James Rest using Kohlberg's six stages of moral judgment was used in…

  20. Students' Beliefs about Mobile Devices vs. Desktop Computers in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Eunmo; Mayer, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    College students in the United States and in South Korea completed a 28-item multidimensional scaling (MDS) questionnaire in which they rated the similarity of 28 pairs of multimedia learning materials on a 10-point scale (e.g., narrated animation on a mobile device Vs. movie clip on a desktop computer) and a 56-item semantic differential…

  1. The challenges of multiple disabilities - A look at a Specialized Unit for students with multiple disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefânia Barroso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of Specialized Units for students with multiple disabilities and congenital deafness-blindness in schools has been one of the implemented measures during the last past years to promote inclusive education. To understand the problem of multiple disabilities and inclusive education for students with multiple disabilities which must ascertain the views of Regular Education teachers who have students with multiple disabilities included in their classes and Special Education teachers about the presence of a Supporting Unit in grouping multiple disabilities they are teaching. To achieve this goal the methodology that seemed most appropriate was the case study and the instruments that have been used to collect data were participant observation and questionnaire. During the investigation it was observed how the Special Unit for Students with Multiple Disabilities was working and it was analyzed the opinions of 24 teachers participating in the samples selected for this study. The results obtained in the empirical component of this study support the conclusion that the teachers surveyed for the Special Unit are the best educational response for children with multiple disabilities to perform both learning and their socialization. We conclude that Special Education teachers feel more prepared to work with this type of audience than teachers from Regular Teaching; and opinions on these issues do not differ substantially between teachers of Special Education and Regular Education teachers .

  2. Distance Higher Education Experiences of Arab Gulf Students in the United States: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Aisha S.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenological research study that was undertaken to provide cultural understanding about the nature of distance education experiences of Arab graduate students pursuing degree programs in the United States. As a theoretical framework, Hofstede's international difference dimensions and Hall's concept of low and high…

  3. The Moral Reasoning of Sports Management Students in the United States and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Almerinda

    2013-01-01

    The researcher analyzed the moral reasoning ability of Sports Management students in the United States and Italy. The researcher statistically analyzed data collected through a survey questionnaire designed to measure moral reasoning. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) developed by James Rest using Kohlberg's six stages of moral judgment was used in…

  4. Generalizability of Diagnostic-Prescriptive Teaching Strategies across Student Locus of Control and Multiple Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jean S.; Yeany, Russell H.

    Reported is a study that explores the effect on student achievement of diagnostic-prescriptive instructional strategies on preservice elementary education majors (N=43) enrolled in an introductory biology course. Factors of pre-treatment achievement and locus of control were analyzed as well. Units on Mendelian genetics, modern genetics, and…

  5. Introducing Blended Learning: An Experience of Uncertainty for Students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Linzi J.

    2013-01-01

    The cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance is analysed in this study of an introduction to blended learning for international students. Content analysis was conducted on the survey narratives collected from three cohorts of management undergraduates in the United Arab Emirates. Interpretation of certainty with blended learning was found in:…

  6. Acculturative Stress, Perfectionism, Years in the United States, and Depression among Chinese International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Heppner, P. Paul; Mallen, Michael J.; Ku, Tsun-Yao; Liao, Kelly Yu-Hsin; Wu, Tsui-Feng

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined whether maladaptive perfectionism (i.e., discrepancy between expectations and performance) and length of time in the United States moderated the association between acculturative stress and depression. Data were collected through online surveys from 189 Chinese international students from China and Taiwan attending a…

  7. Students' Beliefs about Mobile Devices vs. Desktop Computers in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Eunmo; Mayer, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    College students in the United States and in South Korea completed a 28-item multidimensional scaling (MDS) questionnaire in which they rated the similarity of 28 pairs of multimedia learning materials on a 10-point scale (e.g., narrated animation on a mobile device Vs. movie clip on a desktop computer) and a 56-item semantic differential…

  8. Paranormal Beliefs and Their Implications in University Students from Finland and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J.; Pirttila-Backman, Anna-Maija

    1992-01-01

    Compares 117 Finnish and 351 southern U.S. college students for the following: (1) paranormal beliefs; (2) personality adjustment constructs (anomie, death concerns, alienation, and death threat); and (3) relationships between the beliefs and constructs. The secularization process, further advanced in Finland than the United States, moderates…

  9. Investigating Knowledge Acquisition and Developing Misconceptions of High School Students Enrolled in an Invasion Games Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded within constructivist theory, the purpose of this investigation was to investigate knowledge acquisition and developing conceptions of high school-aged students during a unit of instruction in badminton. Six different qualitative methods were utilized: (a) observations, (b) formal interviews, (c) informal interviews, (d) think aloud…

  10. Paranormal Beliefs and Their Implications in University Students from Finland and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome J.; Pirttila-Backman, Anna-Maija

    1992-01-01

    Compares 117 Finnish and 351 southern U.S. college students for the following: (1) paranormal beliefs; (2) personality adjustment constructs (anomie, death concerns, alienation, and death threat); and (3) relationships between the beliefs and constructs. The secularization process, further advanced in Finland than the United States, moderates…

  11. The Senegal Project: A Cultural Foods Unit for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Senegal Project is the culminating project in a unit on cultural foods in an 8th grade family and consumer sciences (FCS) course. Initially, students take a quick world tour by studying and cooking foods from Mexico, Italy, China, and India followed by a "more depth and less breadth" study of Senegal, a country with a culture vastly…

  12. Initial Adjustment of Taiwanese Students to the United States: The Impact of Postarrival Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Liese, Lawrence H.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the adjustment of 172 Taiwanese students during their first months in the United States. A multidimensional model is used that accounts for 39% of the variance of adjustment. Mediating factors of the model include demographics, personality, number and severity of problems experienced, prearrival preparation, social support, language…

  13. Promoting Students' Conceptual Understanding of Plant Defense Responses Using the Fighting Plant Learning Unit (FPLU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2012-01-01

    Most students think animals are more interesting than plants as a study topic believing that plants are inferior to animals because they are passive and unable to respond to external challenges, particularly biological invaders such as microorganisms and insect herbivores. The purpose of this study was to develop an inquiry-based learning unit,…

  14. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  15. Schooling and the Construction of Identity among Minority Students in Spain and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Beth; Arnaiz, Pilar; Klingner, Janette; Sturges, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Based on a study of the special education placement process in a large city in the United States and two studies in different regions of Spain, the authors offer a comparative analysis of the relationship between professional beliefs and practices and the achievement of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students. The data focus on…

  16. The Moral Reasoning of Sports Management Students in the United States and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Almerinda

    2013-01-01

    The researcher analyzed the moral reasoning ability of Sports Management students in the United States and Italy. The researcher statistically analyzed data collected through a survey questionnaire designed to measure moral reasoning. The Defining Issues Test (DIT) developed by James Rest using Kohlberg's six stages of moral judgment was used…

  17. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume 2, Student's Text, Part I. Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This fifth unit in the SMSG junior high mathematics series is a student text covering the following topics: rational numbers and coordinates; equations; scientific notation, decimals, and the metric system; constructions, congruent triangles, and the Pythagorean property; relative error; and real numbers. (DT)

  18. Enhanced teaching and student learning through a simulator-based course in chemical unit operations design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Nayef

    2016-07-01

    This paper illustrates a teaching technique used in computer applications in chemical engineering employed for designing various unit operation processes, where the students learn about unit operations by designing them. The aim of the course is not to teach design, but rather to teach the fundamentals and the function of unit operation processes through simulators. A case study presenting the teaching method was evaluated using student surveys and faculty assessments, which were designed to measure the quality and effectiveness of the teaching method. The results of the questionnaire conclusively demonstrate that this method is an extremely efficient way of teaching a simulator-based course. In addition to that, this teaching method can easily be generalised and used in other courses. A student's final mark is determined by a combination of in-class assessments conducted based on cooperative and peer learning, progress tests and a final exam. Results revealed that peer learning can improve the overall quality of student learning and enhance student understanding.

  19. Reflections of physiotherapy students in the United Arab Emirates during their clinical placements: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shamlan Amal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Western models of education are being used to establish health professional programs in non-Western countries, little is known about how students in these countries perceive their learning experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the reflections of physiotherapy students from a Middle East culture during their clinical placements and to compare them to reflections of physiotherapy students from a Western culture. Methods Subjects were six senior students (3 females, 3 males, mean age 22.6 years and 15 junior, female students (mean age 20.1 years in the baccalaureate physiotherapy program at a university in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. They wrote weekly entries in a journal while in their clinical placements. They described an event, their reaction to it, and how it might affect their future behavior. Two evaluators independently read and coded the content of all the journals, and then worked together to categorize the data and develop themes. A third evaluator, an UAE national, independently read the journals to validate the content analysis. A feedback session with students was used to further validate the data interpretation. The themes were compared to those derived from a similar study of Canadian physiotherapy students. Results The content of the students' reflections were grouped into 4 themes: professional behavior, awareness of learning, self-development and shift to a patient orientation, and identification and analysis of ethical issues. Although the events were different, students from the UAE considered many of the same issues reflected on by Canadian students. Conclusion Physiotherapy students from a Middle East culture consider many of the same issues as students from a Western culture when asked to reflect on their clinical experience. They reflect on their personal growth, on how they learn in a clinical setting, and on the ethical and professional behaviors of themselves

  20. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    objectives may direct students’ learning (Duchastel and Merrill, 1973; Kapfer , 1970; Kibler et al., 1974), since such objectives may provide...matter learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1): 67-70 (1971). Kapfer , P. G. Behavioral objectives and the curriculum processor. Educational

  1. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, pparents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity, immigration pattern, parenting, and achievement.

  2. Participation in Online and Face-to-Face Discussions: Perceptions of Female Saudi Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazy, Manal M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Saudi government started a new scholarship program that sent many female and male students to some Western countries including the United States of America. When Saudi female students enroll in universities in the United States and register for mixed-gender (face-to-face and online) classes, they have to participate in the classroom.…

  3. 1.1 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2003. Issue Brief. NCES 2004-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princiotta, Daniel; Bielick, Stacey; Chapman, Chris

    2004-01-01

    This brief uses data from the 2003 National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) to estimate the number of homeschooled students in the United States in 2003 and to discuss the reasons parents decide to homeschool their children. Overall, from 1999 to 2003, the number of homeschooled students in the United States increased, as did the…

  4. 1.5 Million Homeschooled Students in the United States in 2007. Issue Brief. NCES 2009-030

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This Issue Brief provides estimates of the number and percentage of homeschooled students in the United States in 2007 and compares these estimates to those from 1999 and 2003. From 1999 to 2007, the number of homeschooled students in the United States increased, as did the homeschooling rate. In 2007, parents homeschooled their children for a…

  5. International students in United States' medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Jashodeep; Miller, Bonnie M

    2012-01-01

    Matriculation of international students to United States' (US) medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. While these students' numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools - both public and private - to support international students' education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to healthcare disparity eradication, minority health issues, and service in

  6. Computer availability and students' science achievement in Taiwan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Meichun Lydia

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differences associated with nationality, computer availability at school, and computer availability at home on eighth-grade students' science achievement. Achievement scores were obtained from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study---Repeat dataset for Taiwan and the United States (U.S.) students. One hundred thirty-seven schools in Taiwan and 152 schools in the U.S. were selected with 5270 Taiwanese students and 6236 American students. A three-way analysis of variance was conducted using house weight to weight the selected sample. The dependent variable was TIMSS 1999 science overall score, and the independent variables were nationality, four levels of number of students per computer, and two levels of computer availability at home. An Omega Squared (o2) was calculated for each of the significant main effects. Follow-up analyses were included for statistically significant interactions. Descriptive statistics revealed that the average class size in Taiwan was significantly larger than the class size in the U.S. The statistical analysis found a difference in mean science achievement score between Taiwan and the United States, among the four levels of number of students per computer, and between the two levels of computer availability at home. Taiwanese students performed significantly better than American students (o2 = 5.8%). Students in the group with the least number of students per computer performed significantly better than rest of the three groups (o 2 = 0.3%). The statistically significant difference among the levels of computer availability at school might be due to large sample size rather than true differences among groups because of the small amount of variance accounted. Furthermore, students who had a computer at home had significantly higher achievement in science than those without a computer at home (o 2 = 4.8%). Statistically significant interactions were found between (1) nationality and

  7. The Effect of Varied Visual Cueing Strategies in Facilitating Student Achievement on Different Educational Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Thomas; Dwyer, Francis M.

    The effectiveness of elaborate visual cueing and reduced step size (i.e., increasing the number of visual cues) in facilitating student achievement on different instructional tasks was examined. The hypothesis proposed that instructional treatments utilizing reduced step size and elaborate visual cueing alone and in combination would be superior…

  8. Teaching Fluid Mechanics to the Beginning Graduate Student--An Objective-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Henry

    A premature embarkation in specialized areas of fluid mechanics by the beginning graduate student, without having first thoroughly learned the basics, leads to learning difficulties and destroys zeal for learning. To avoid these problems, many schools in the U.S. offer beginning graduate courses in fluid mechanics (BGCFM). Because the success or…

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination in the Evaluation of Clinical Skills of Midwifery Students (Kashan, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Nasiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the validity and reliability of OSCE in evaluating the clinical skills of midwifery students at Kashan University of Medical Sciences in 2014. This descriptive-correlational study was carried out on 23 senior midwifery students. The OSCE scores were calculated according to the structured objective checklists. Content and criterion validity and reliability were also assessed. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS-16 using ANOVA and Spearman correlation coefficients. There was a significant relationship between the clinical scores and the OSCE score (P=0.03. The reliability results of the evaluation of stations by two observers showed that the lowest and highest correlation coefficients between observers were 0.58 and 1.00, respectively. Owing to good reliability and validity of this test in the first period of its implementation in Kashan, it can be recommended for subsequent periods as part of the final exam for midwifery students.

  10. Psychological Health of First-Year Health Professional Students in a Medical University in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadayam G Gomathi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the psychological health of first-year health professional students and to study sources of student stress. Methods: All first-year students (N = 125 of the Gulf Medical University (GMU in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE, were invited to participate in a voluntary, anonymous, self-administered, questionnaire-based survey in January 2011. Psychological health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire, with items related to academic, psychosocial and health domains was used to identify sources of stress. Pearson’s chi-squared test and the Mann-Whitney U-test were used for testing the association between psychological morbidity and sources of stress. Results: A total of 112 students (89.6% completed the survey and the overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was found to be 33.6%. The main academic-related sources of stress were ‘frequency of exams’, ‘academic workload’, and ‘time management’. Major psychosocial stressors were ‘worries regarding future’, ‘high parental expectations’, ‘anxiety’, and ‘dealing with members of the opposite sex’. Health-related issues were ‘irregular eating habits’, ‘lack of exercise’, and ‘sleep-related problems’. Psychological morbidity was not significantly associated with any of the demographic factors studied. However, total stress scores and academics-related domain scores were significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological morbidity was seen in one in three first-year students attending GMU. While worries regarding the future and parental expectations were sources of stress for many students, psychological morbidity was found to be significantly associated with only the total stress and the academic-related domain scores.

  11. Assessing Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, HIV/AIDS among University Students in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroun, Dalia; El Saleh, Ola; Wood, Lesley; Mechli, Rola; Al Marzouqi, Nada; Anouti, Samir

    2016-01-01

    Background The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is among the top two regions in the world with the fastest growing HIV epidemic. In this context, risks and vulnerability are high as the epidemic is on the rise with evidence indicating significantly increasing HIV prevalence, new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Objective The aim of the survey was to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS among a wide group of university students in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods In a cross-sectional survey, a total sample of 2,294 students (406 male; 1,888 female) from four universities in three different Emirates in the UAE were approached to take part in the study. Students self-completed a questionnaire that was designed to measure their knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS. Results The overall average knowledge score of HIV.AIDS was 61%. Non-Emirati and postgraduates demonstrated higher levels of knowledge compared to Emirati and undergraduate students respectively. No significant differences between males and females; and marital status were found. Eighty-five percent of students expressed negative attitudes towards people living with HIV, with Emirati and single students significantly holding more negative attitudes compared to non-Emiratis and those that are married respectively. Conclusions The findings provide strong evidence that there is a need to advocate for appropriate National HIV/AIDS awareness raising campaigns in universities to reduce the gaps in knowledge and decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26913902

  12. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D.; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  13. Grades, Student Satisfaction and Retention in Online and Face-to-Face Introductory Psychology Units: A Test of Equivalency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt-Reed, David; Roberts, Lynne D; Heritage, Brody

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses (Halonen et al., 2013). Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory (Simonson, 1999; Simonson et al., 1999) posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Using quasi-experimental methods, academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit developed to provide equivalent learning experiences produced comparable outcomes to the 'traditional' unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting students with an equivalent learning experience, we

  14. Assessing musculoskeletal examination skills and diagnostic reasoning of 4th year medical students using a novel objective structured clinical exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, R Brent; Diponio, Lisa; Craig, Cliff; Zeller, John; Chadd, Edmund; Miller, Joshua; Monrad, Seetha

    2016-10-14

    Medical students have difficulty performing and interpreting musculoskeletal physical examinations and interpreting the findings. Research has focused on students' knowledge deficits, but there are few direct assessments of students' ability to perform a hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE). We developed a novel musculoskeletal Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) focusing on HDPE skills for disorders of the shoulder, back and knee, and used it to explore medical student diagnostic reasoning. A multidisciplinary group of musculoskeletal specialists developed and gathered validity evidence for a three station OSCE focusing on the HDPE of the shoulder, back and knee, emphasizing the ability to anticipate (identify pre-encounter) expected physical exam findings, and subsequently perform discriminatory physical examination maneuvers. The OSCE was administered to 45 final year medical students. Trained faculty observed and scored students' ability to anticipate exam findings and perform diagnostic examination maneuvers on simulated patients. Encounters were digitally recorded and scored again by another trained faculty member. Inter-rater reliability for each maneuver was estimated using type-2 intra-class correlations (ICC). Percentages of perfect scores for anticipation and performance were calculated. Pearson's correlation between anticipation and performance scores was computed for each maneuver and their relationship to diagnostic accuracy was tested with logistic regression. Inter-rater reliability was good (ICC between .69 and .87) for six exam maneuvers. Maneuver performance was overall poor, with no discriminatory maneuver performed correctly by more than two thirds of students, and one maneuver only performed correctly by 4 % of students. For the shoulder and knee stations, students were able to anticipate necessary discriminatory exam findings better than they could actually perform relevant exam maneuvers. The ability to anticipate a

  15. Educational awareness of biotechnology issues among undergraduate students at the United Arab Emirates University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuQamar, Synan; Alshannag, Qasim; Sartawi, Abdelaziz; Iratni, Rabah

    2015-01-01

    Due to its valuable benefits and potential risks, there is a progressing debate among opponents and proponents of biotechnology in recent decades. Previous studies have shown that lack of knowledge about biotechnology remains the concern about genetically modified organisms/food (GMO/GMF). This study assessed levels of educational awareness perceptions and attitudes of United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) students towards biotechnology. An electronic survey including literacy, environmental, social, and economic domains associated with biotechnology was administered to obtain data from undergraduate students in different colleges of the university. Responses from students (n = 1,104) were gathered and statistically analyzed. Results indicated that educational awareness in biotechnology literacy and environmental domains were significantly different according to the enrolled college and the academic achievement of the student. In general, a poor overall performance of our students' understanding was concluded. Aware groups most likely accepted accurate biotechnology information delivered by reliable sources from internet or lectures; they grasped their knowledge from surrounding people as a secondary source. Since UAEU students have several concept misunderstandings of biotechnology and its ethics, our results suggest that awareness plays a crucial role in forming a "clear-cut" opinion about this technology. Because education can shape public attitudes toward biotechnology, priorities on university curricula and teaching strategies should be extensively given, and therefore, improve in respect to this topic. Ultimately, this promotes the students' perception in understanding the new technology. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Computer use and vision-related problems among university students in ajman, United arab emirate.

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    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P visual problems reported among computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm - OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.065-3.368). High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness among students and corrective measures need to be implemented to reduce the impact of computer related vision problems.

  17. Classroom Communication and National Crises: Student Information Needs in the Aftermath of the 2001 Terrorist Attacks on the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Robert R.; Hemphill, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about students' reactions to their university's attempt to manage their informational and emotional needs during a time of national crisis. A survey of students immediately following the 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States found that students wanted the university to stay open and function as a place for sense making…

  18. Universal Beliefs and Specific Practices: Students' Math Self-Efficacy and Related Factors in the United States and China

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    Wu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to compare and contrast student and school factors that are associated with students' mathematics self-efficacy in the United States and China. Using hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data, this study compares math self-efficacy, achievement, and variables…

  19. The Classification of the Probability Unit Ability Levels of the Eleventh Grade Turkish Students by Cluster Analysis

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    Ozyurt, Ozcan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the probability unit ability levels of the eleventh grade Turkish students were classified through cluster analysis. The study was carried out in a high school located in Trabzon, Turkey during the fall semester of the 2011-2012 academic years. A total of 84 eleventh grade students participated. Students were taught about…

  20. Method of formation of individual graphic style among students, studying projection objects of graphic design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Sinitsyna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Projection of design objects is the main type of professional activity of designers, the creative almost un-predictable process. The skills of a designer are demanded by the society, when a certain designer at any time and without effort in a short period of time can develop a design object, which can easily be imple-mented in production, which will be in demand by a consumer for a long time and almost without special modifications. Each teacher of design thinks about the ways and methods of teaching the design stages. The author offers a way to get the skills of design based on the simultaneous execution of two tasks with different goals, objectives and method of images.

  1. Influence of Clerkship on Attitudes of Medical Students toward Psychiatry across Cultures: United States and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgut, F. Tuna; Polan, H. Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assure adequate treatment for patients with mental illness worldwide, medical schools must impart positive attitudes toward psychiatry. The authors examined the effect of culture on changes in attitudes toward psychiatry among medical students receiving the same psychiatry clerkship curriculum in two different countries. Methods: A…

  2. Multi-Agent Many-Objective Robust Decision Making: Supporting Cooperative Regional Water Portfolio Planning in the Eastern United States

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    Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    In the Eastern United States, water infrastructure and institutional frameworks have evolved in a historically water-rich environment. However, large regional droughts over the past decade combined with continuing population growth have marked a transition to a state of water scarcity, for which current planning paradigms are ill-suited. Significant opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of water infrastructure via regional coordination, namely, regional 'portfolios' of water-related assets such as reservoirs, conveyance, conservation measures, and transfer agreements. Regional coordination offers the potential to improve reliability, cost, and environmental impact in the expected future state of the world, and, with informed planning, to improve robustness to future uncertainty. In support of this challenge, this study advances a multi-agent many-objective robust decision making (multi-agent MORDM) framework that blends novel computational search and uncertainty analysis tools to discover flexible, robust regional portfolios. Our multi-agent MORDM framework is demonstrated for four water utilities in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina, USA. The utilities supply nearly two million customers and have the ability to interact with one another via transfer agreements and shared infrastructure. We show that strategies for this region which are Pareto-optimal in the expected future state of the world remain vulnerable to performance degradation under alternative scenarios of deeply uncertain hydrologic and economic factors. We then apply the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) to identify which of these uncertain factors drives the individual and collective vulnerabilities for the four cooperating utilities. Our results indicate that clear multi-agent tradeoffs emerge for attaining robustness across the utilities. Furthermore, the key factor identified for improving the robustness of the region's water supply is cooperative demand reduction. This type

  3. Biomedical Ph.D. students enrolled in two elite universities in the United kingdom and the United States report adopting multiple learning relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Kemp

    Full Text Available The ability to form multiple learning relationships is a key element of the doctoral learning environment in the biomedical sciences. Of these relationships, that between student and supervisor has long been viewed as key. There are, however, limited data to describe the student perspective on what makes this relationship valuable. In the present study, we discuss the findings of semi-structured interviews with biomedical Ph.D. students from the United Kingdom and the United States to: i determine if the learning relationships identified in an Australian biomedical Ph.D. cohort are also important in a larger international student cohort; and ii improve our understanding of student perceptions of value in their supervisory relationships.32 students from two research intensive universities, one in the United Kingdom (n = 17, and one in the United States (n = 15 were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcripts were transcribed, validated and analysed using a Miles and Huberman method for thematic analysis.Students reported that relationships with other Ph.D. students, post-doctoral scientists and supervisors were all essential to their learning. Effective supervisory relationships were perceived as the primary source of high-level project guidance, intellectual support and confidence. Relationships with fellow students were viewed as essential for the provision of empathetic emotional support. Technical learning was facilitated, almost exclusively, by relationships with postdoctoral staff.These data make two important contributions to the scholarship of doctoral education in the biomedical sciences. Firstly, they provide further evidence for the importance of multiple learning relationships in the biomedical doctorate. Secondly, they clarify the form of a 'valued' supervisory relationship from a student perspective. We conclude that biomedical doctoral programs should be designed to contain a minimum level

  4. The status of bedside teaching in the United Kingdom: the student perspective

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    Jones P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Jones, Bhavan Prasad Rai Department of Surgery, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK Purpose: Bedside teaching holds a strong tradition as a key-learning platform for clinical examination in the basic medical clerkship. There is a growing body of literature expressing concern for its witnessed decline in medical school curricula. However, the views of students toward this patient-centered cornerstone in surgical education remain under-reported. The purpose of this study was to gain a nationwide perspective on bedside teaching according to medical students in the United Kingdom. Materials and methods: An adapted Delphi method was employed to formulate the question series as part of a multi-step process including a pilot study, which was used to construct this survey. The target population was medical undergraduates in the United Kingdom and participants were recruited via social media. Outcomes assessed included exposure to bedside teaching, perceived benefits of clinical simulation, and junior doctors as clinical teachers. Barriers to clinical examination were also evaluated. Results: Overall, 368 completed surveys were received (completion rate 98.9%. Final year students were significantly more likely to report receiving insufficient bedside teaching (P<0.01. Seventy-eight percent of the study group agreed that clinical simulation is a good learning tool for clinical examination. Seventy percent of students felt junior doctors were as able as senior doctors to teach. Lack of confidence was identified as the commonest barrier to overcome when examining patients and two-thirds of students felt they burdened patients during bedside teaching. Conclusion: This prospective study confirms the exposure deficit, which medical students experience in bedside teaching. The junior doctor represents a dynamic clinical teacher in the face of working time directives. Peer learning is a novel solution to such pressures. Work is needed to re-establish the

  5. Men's body depilation: an exploratory study of United States college students' preferences, attitudes, and practices.

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    Basow, Susan A; O'Neil, Katherine

    2014-09-01

    Young men in Western cultures frequently engage in body depilation practices, but little is known regarding how such bodies are perceived. This exploratory study asked United States college students (N=238) to view six pictures of the same male body with different amounts of visible body hair and to indicate which body was most sexually attractive to themselves, to most men, and to most women. Both men and women chose a relatively hairless male body as the most sexually attractive. Women, however, thought men would choose a hairier body than men actually did. Most of the men reduced or removed body hair, especially from the pubic area. Questionnaire responses indicated that men and women had similar attitudes toward men's body hair, with both hair reduction and hair retention being socially acceptable. Men's body depilation, while still optional, may be becoming normative, at least among United States college students.

  6. International students in United States’ medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

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    Jashodeep Datta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to

  7. Problem-Based Learning Associated by Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS) Theory to Enhance Students' High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

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    Mudrikah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…

  8. Embedding Evolution: Exploring Changes in Students' Conceptual Development, Beliefs, and Motivations in a Population Ecology Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore student changes in conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when evolution concepts are embedded and explicit reflective discourse is used in a unit for population ecology. The two research problems were: (1) What changes are observed in student's conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when there is explicit reflective discourse within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution?, and (2) In what ways does explicit reflection influence students' mental models within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution? This mixed-method, quasi-experimental study assessed two regular high school biology classes in a small, urban, Midwestern high school. Students in this study had not studied evolution within any formal chapters, but had been immersed in a curriculum with embedded evolution. The study was conducted over a four-week period in a population ecology unit near the beginning of second semester. Instruction emphasized basic conceptions in population ecology. Five key intervention activities included evolutionary concepts as part of an embedded curriculum. The independent variable was explicit reflective discourse with one or two intervention questions after completion of these activities. Data included pre- and posttest surveys measuring (a) evolutionary understanding of natural selection, (b) science beliefs, and (c) science motivations. Written artifacts included (a) explanations to scenarios, (b) pre- and post-argument reflections revealing student's science beliefs and science motivations resultant from two argumentations, and (c) three, pre-, post-, and 6-week final concept maps constructed from 12 concepts. All data sources provided descriptive data. Conceptual change was interpreted from an ontological, epistemological, and motivational perspective. The experimental class receiving explicit reflective discourse showed greater overall increases in conceptual development. Students

  9. The benefits and challenges of providing nursing student clinical rotations in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinny, Betsy; Brady, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of providing a clinical rotation in a basic nursing program is to integrate skills and knowledge from the classroom setting into the clinical practice setting. In the intensive care unit (ICU), nursing students have the ability to learn about the complex health issues of critically ill patients, practice selected technical skills, and develop communication skills. There are both benefits and challenges to having nursing students in the intensive care setting. With preparation, the student is able to immerse in the ICU environment, acquire new knowledge and skills, and participate alongside the nurse caring for critically ill patients. The staff nurse must balance patient care with the added responsibilities of helping the student meet the clinical goals. It is optimal to have faculty that are also intensive care clinically competent and can facilitate the clinical experience. The school, the hospital, and the ICU need to collaborate to provide a positive clinical experience that is safe for the patient. In return, the hospital can recruit student nurses and clinical faculty. Planned with thought and intention, rotations in the ICU can be an ideal clinical setting for upper-level student nurses to learn the role of the registered nurse.

  10. Introducing blended learning: An experience of uncertainty for students in the United Arab Emirates

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    Linzi J. Kemp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The cultural dimension of Uncertainty Avoidance is analysed in this study of an introduction to blended learning for international students. Content analysis was conducted on the survey narratives collected from three cohorts of management undergraduates in the United Arab Emirates. Interpretation of certainty with blended learning was found in: student skills with technology; student acknowledgement of course organisation; and student appreciation of online feedback. Uncertainty with the introduction of blended learning was found: when membership was assigned for group work, higher quality research methods were introduced; where course structure lacked detail, increased time was required for new and different online activities. These international students, from countries with a high score on Uncertainty Avoidance, exhibited that dimension when introduced to blended learning. The implications of these findings are discussed, and strategies suggested for introducing blended learning to international students. The limitations of the study are considered, and a direction for future research is suggested. This is the first study on undergraduates in the Middle East for the effects of a cultural dimension when introducing blended learning. The findings increase the body of knowledge that relates to learning technology in the international business classroom.

  11. Use and views on social networking sites of pharmacy students in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Maurice; Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Huey, Gwyneth

    2013-02-12

    Objective. To investigate students' use and views on social networking sites and assess differences in attitudes between genders and years in the program.Methods. All pharmacy undergraduate students were invited via e-mail to complete an electronic questionnaire consisting of 21 questions relating to social networking.Results. Most (91.8%) of the 377 respondents reported using social networking Web sites, with 98.6% using Facebook and 33.7% using Twitter. Female students were more likely than male students to agree that they had been made sufficiently aware of the professional behavior expected of them when using social networking sites (76.6% vs 58.1% p=0.002) and to agree that students should have the same professional standards whether on placement or using social networking sites (76.3% vs 61.6%; pnetworking use and potentially inappropriate attitudes towards professionalism were found among pharmacy students. Further training may be useful to ensure pharmacy students are aware of how to apply codes of conduct when using social networking sites.

  12. Predictors of Students` Desire to be an Entrepreneur: Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States

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    Barry A. FRIEDMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is an important element of national economic growth, and college business students represent an important feeder pool for a nation’s supply of entrepreneurs. The purpose of this study is to identify and contrast predictors of students’ desire to be entrepreneurs in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States. Three hundred and five undergraduate business students in Kyrgyzstan, Georgia, and the United States completed the Aspiring Entrepreneurial Motives Questionnaire (Aziz, Friedman & Sayfullin, 2012. While the recognition motive was important for all students, predictors of their desire to be entrepreneurs differed across the three countries. In contrast to Kyrgyzstan and the United States, students’ in Georgia overall desire to be entrepreneurs was more complex as finance, recognition, freedom, marketing opportunities and economic conditions reached significance. National initiatives that recognize entrepreneurial accomplishments may therefore encourage more individuals to start and manage businesses. A more complex strategy may be required in Georgia, as the decision to be an entrepreneur appeared to be more multidimensional.

  13. Clinical neuro-oncology formal education opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Karan S; Nicholas, Martin Kelly; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-12-01

    To develop an understanding of the availability of the formal clinical neuro-oncology educational opportunities for medical students. The curriculum websites of all medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education were reviewed for the presence of clinical neuro-oncology electives as well as other relevant data. Ten (6.8%) of medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education offer formal neuro-oncology electives. Half are clustered in the Midwest. Forty percent are at institutions with neuro-oncology fellowships. All are at institutions with neurosurgery and neurology residency programs. Formal clinical neuro-oncology elective opportunities for medical students in the United States and Canada are limited. Additional such opportunities may be of value in the education of medical students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Introduction and preparation of an objective structured clinical examination in family medicine for undergraduate students at the University of Split.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Šimunović, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    To describe the implementation of the first Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) conducted at the University of Split School of Medicine. Twenty-one clinical skills relevant to general practice were selected and described in a Handbook for students. Assessment sheets were created. After performing an inventory of available resources, teaching models were purchased and practical classes arranged. A Centre for Clinical Competencies was established, where the first OSCE at the University of Split School of Medicine was conducted in March 2011. Attendance by students to the practical classes and the OSCE was 100%. Positive feedback was received by students, who requested extra lessons in clinical skills training. Despite not setting a minimal pass rate, the average OSCE score was 27 out of 30 points. Organization of clinical skills training and assessment was demanding, requiring many hours of preparation and numerous staff involvement but was ultimately very rewarding. Both practical classes and the OSCE were very well received by students, who seemed to be empowered by this experience. Copyright 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  15. Impact of individualized learning plans on United States senior medical students advanced clinical rotations

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    Amalia Guardiola

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The individualized learning plan (ILP is a tool that promotes self-directed learning. The aim of this pilot study was to look at the perception of the ILPs in United States senior medical school students as a way to improve their learning experience during their advanced practice clerkship. We conducted a survey of graduating medical students that contained both quantitative and open-ended questions regarding the students’ experiences with the ILP during their advanced practice clerkship from July 2014 to March 2016. We systematically identified and compiled themes among the qualitative responses. Responses from 294 out of 460 subjects were included for analysis (63.9%. Ninety students (30.6% reported that the ILP was definitely reviewed at the midpoint and 88 (29.9% at the final evaluation. One hundred sixty one students (54.8% felt the ILP provided a framework for learning. One hundred sixty one students (61.6% felt it was a useful tool in helping open a discussion between the student and faculty. The qualitative data was grouped by areas most mentioned and these areas of concern centered on lack of faculty knowledge about ILP, time to complete ILP, and uncertainty of appropriate goal setting. The majority of students perceive the ILP to be helpful. Our results suggest that active intervention is needed by dedicated and trained faculty to improve ILP utilization. It is recommended that faculty gives students examples of learning goals to create their own learning framework and encourages them to discuss and review the ILP.

  16. Tobacco use among middle and high school students --- United States, 2000-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    Tobacco use continues to be the single leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States. More than 80% of established adult smokers begin smoking before age 18 years. To monitor trends in tobacco use among middle and high school students, CDC analyzed 2000-2009 data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS), a school-based survey that collects information on tobacco use and related behaviors and attitudes from middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. This analysis indicated that in 2009, 8.2% of middle school students and 23.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product; 5.2% of middle school students and 17.2% of high school students reported current use of cigarettes. Overall prevalence did not decrease from 2006 to 2009 for use of any tobacco product among either group. During 2000-2009, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school students declined (15.1% to 8.2%), as did current cigarette use (11.0% to 5.2%) and cigarette smoking experimentation (29.8% to 15.0%). Similar trends were observed for high school students (current tobacco use: 34.5% to 23.9%; current cigarette use: 28.0% to 17.2%; cigarette smoking experimentation: 39.4% to 30.1%). Overall, no change in susceptibility to initiate cigarette smoking was observed for either group. To further decrease tobacco use and susceptibility to use among youths, restrictions on advertising, promotion, and availability of tobacco products to youths should be combined with full implementation of evidence-based, communitywide, comprehensive tobacco control policies.

  17. Assessing nursing clinical skills competence through objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for open distance learning students in Open University Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma; Ahmad, Che'an; Ahmad, Nora; Bakar, Rosnida Abu

    2012-06-01

    The objective structured clinical skills examination (OSCE) has over the years emerged as a method of evaluating clinical skills in most medical and allied professions. Although its validity and objectivity has evoked so much debate in the literature, little has been written about its application in non-traditional education systems such as in distance learning. This study examined clinical skills competence among practising nursing students who were enrolled in a distance learning programme. The study examined the effect of work and years of nursing practice on nurses' clinical skills competence. This study used observational design whereby nursing students' clinical skills were observed and scored in five OSCE stations. Two instruments were used for the data collection - A self-administered questionnaire on the students' bio-demographic data, and a check list on the clinical skills which the examiners rated on a four point scale. The findings revealed that 14% of the nurses had level four competence, which indicated that they could perform the tasks correctly and complete. However, 12% failed the OSCE, even though they had more than 10 years experience in nursing and post basic qualifications. Inter-rater reliability was 0.92 for the five examiners. Factor analysis indicated that five participant factors accounted for 74.1% of the variations in clinical skills performance. An OSCE is a necessary assessment tool that should be continuously applied in nursing education, regardless of the mode of the education program, the student's years of experience or his/her clinical placement. This study validates the need for OSCE in both the design of tertiary nursing degree programs and the assessment of nurses' clinical competency level.

  18. Object crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  19. International genetic counseling students' perspective on their training experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Marta; Naldi, Mariana; Packman, Wendy; Youngblom, Janey; Weil, Jon

    2013-12-01

    International students face social, psychological and academic challenges upon moving to a foreign country to pursue higher education. Clinical disciplines such as genetic counseling present additional challenges adapting to an unfamiliar health care system and different interactions and expectations with patients and colleagues. This study used semi-structured interviews to identify challenges that international genetic counseling students face during training in the United States. Eight international genetic counseling alumni who graduated from U.S.-accredited programs were interviewed. Participants stated that the U.S. academic system was unfamiliar-class participation and paper-writing required the greatest adjustment. There was a need for help in understanding social norms in academic settings. Clinically, they were unfamiliar with the dynamics and communication style of U.S. families. Non-native English speakers experienced greater difficulty in all areas. Most participants reported that they were uncomfortable asking for help in transitioning to life, study and work. Participants identified mentorship programs for international students as potentially useful in clarifying expectations in academic and clinical settings. These results may assist international students preparing to study genetic counseling in the U.S. and may help genetic counseling training programs identify the academic and clinical challenges faced by international students.

  20. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  1. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  2. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  3. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R. C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, H. E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J. J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M. J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-09-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  4. The ChemCam Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover: Science Objectives and Mast Unit Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice, S.; Wiens, R.C.; Saccoccio, M.; Barraclough, B.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Mangold, N.; Baratoux, D.; Bender, S.; Berger, G.; Bernardin, J.; Berthé, M.; Bridges, N.; Blaney, D.; Bouyé, M.; Caïs, P.; Clark, B.; Clegg, S.; Cousin, A.; Cremers, D.; Cros, A.; DeFlores, L.; Derycke, C.; Dingler, B.; Dromart, G.; Dubois, B.; Dupieux, M.; Durand, E.; d'Uston, L.; Fabre, C.; Faure, B.; Gaboriaud, A.; Gharsa, T.; Herkenhoff, K.; Kan, E.; Kirkland, L.; Kouach, D.; Lacour, J.-L.; Langevin, Y.; Lasue, J.; Le Mouélic, S.; Lescure, M.; Lewin, E.; Limonadi, D.; Manhès, G.; Mauchien, P.; McKay, C.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Michel, Y.; Miller, E.; Newsom, Horton E.; Orttner, G.; Paillet, A.; Parès, L.; Parot, Y.; Pérez, R.; Pinet, P.; Poitrasson, F.; Quertier, B.; Sallé, B.; Sotin, C.; Sautter, V.; Séran, H.; Simmonds, J.J.; Sirven, J.-B.; Stiglich, R.; Striebig, N.; Thocaven, J.-J.; Toplis, M.J.; Vaniman, D.

    2012-01-01

    ChemCam is a remote sensing instrument suite on board the "Curiosity" rover (NASA) that uses Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to provide the elemental composition of soils and rocks at the surface of Mars from a distance of 1.3 to 7 m, and a telescopic imager to return high resolution context and micro-images at distances greater than 1.16 m. We describe five analytical capabilities: rock classification, quantitative composition, depth profiling, context imaging, and passive spectroscopy. They serve as a toolbox to address most of the science questions at Gale crater. ChemCam consists of a Mast-Unit (laser, telescope, camera, and electronics) and a Body-Unit (spectrometers, digital processing unit, and optical demultiplexer), which are connected by an optical fiber and an electrical interface. We then report on the development, integration, and testing of the Mast-Unit, and summarize some key characteristics of ChemCam. This confirmed that nominal or better than nominal performances were achieved for critical parameters, in particular power density (>1 GW/cm2). The analysis spot diameter varies from 350 μm at 2 m to 550 μm at 7 m distance. For remote imaging, the camera field of view is 20 mrad for 1024×1024 pixels. Field tests demonstrated that the resolution (˜90 μrad) made it possible to identify laser shots on a wide variety of images. This is sufficient for visualizing laser shot pits and textures of rocks and soils. An auto-exposure capability optimizes the dynamical range of the images. Dedicated hardware and software focus the telescope, with precision that is appropriate for the LIBS and imaging depths-of-field. The light emitted by the plasma is collected and sent to the Body-Unit via a 6 m optical fiber. The companion to this paper (Wiens et al. this issue) reports on the development of the Body-Unit, on the analysis of the emitted light, and on the good match between instrument performance and science specifications.

  5. The Adjustment Problems Faced by International Students in the United States: A Comparison of International Students and Administrative Perceptions at Two Private, Religiously Affiliated Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Fred J.; Jenkins, John R.

    2005-01-01

    International students and the faculty and administrators charged with their oversight were surveyed at two religiously affiliated, private universities to determine the extent of their adjustment problems in the United States. Although the international students were found to have only minor adjustment problems in the twelve areas covered by the…

  6. Self-medication among non-healthcare students of the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Ibrahim Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of self-medication among university students and evaluate factors associated with the practice. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during May, 2012 using a pre-validated questionnaire distributed to 250 students of the 4 years of study at the college of business administration. Data were analyzed using PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc and results are expressed as counts and percentages. Chi-square test was used to evaluate significant association among the study variables and P < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: The response rate was 80% and all respondents were Arabs with 114 (57% females and 86 (43% males. Self-medication was practiced by 118 (59% students and most (88.1% of them obtained medications from pharmacies. About 21 (11% respondents self-medicated with antibiotics. Only 34 (17% and 16 (8% of respondents were aware of bacterial resistance and rational drug use respectively. The most common reasons for self-medication were seeking quick relief (134, 67%, physician′s advice of self-management (100, 50%, illness is minor (91, 45.5%. Common reasons against self-medication include risk of misdiagnosis of illness (160, 80%, risk of using the wrong medication (154, 77%, risk of adverse effects (140, 70%. Self-medication was practiced for headache or mild pain, eye and ear symptoms, gastric problems, cold, fever and allergy. Conclusion: Self-medication among non-healthcare students is common with high prevalence. Knowledge of students of reasons for and against self-medication was adequate, but awareness of respondents of rational drug use and risk of bacterial resistance in response to misuse was poor. Orientation courses/workshops directed to university students would be beneficial.

  7. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  8. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE a...

  9. Improving medical student intensive care unit communication skills: a novel educational initiative using standardized family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, Scott; Rho, Lisa; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Nierman, David M

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether intensive care unit (ICU) communication skills of fourth-year medical students could be improved by an educational intervention using a standardized family member. Prospective study conducted from August 2003 to May 2004. Tertiary care university teaching hospital. All fourth-year students were eligible to participate during their mandatory four-week critical care medicine clerkship. The educational intervention focused on the initial meeting with the family member of an ICU patient and included formal teaching of a communication framework followed by a practice session with an actor playing the role of a standardized family member of a fictional patient. At the beginning of the critical care medicine rotation, the intervention group received the educational session, whereas students in the control group did not. At the end of each critical care medicine rotation, all students interacted with a different standardized family member portraying a different fictional scenario. Sessions were videotaped and were scored by an investigator blinded to treatment assignment using a standardized grading tool across four domains: a) introduction; b) gathering information; c) imparting information; and d) setting goals and expectations. A total of 106 (97% of eligible) medical students agreed to participate in the study. The total mean score as well as the scores for the gathering information, imparting information, setting goals, and expectations domains for the intervention group were significantly higher than for the control group (p communication skills of fourth-year medical students can be improved by teaching and then practicing a framework for an initial ICU communication episode with a standardized family member.

  10. An interactive web-based learning unit to facilitate and improve intrapartum nursing care of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdprasert, Sailom; Pruksacheva, Tassanee; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2011-07-01

    First clinical exposures are stressful situations for nursing students, especially, when practicing on the labour ward. The purpose of this study was to develop intrapartum nursing care web-based learning to facilitate students' acquisition of conceptual knowledge and performance skills. This web-based learning unit integrated the 5E-model and information technology with the lecture content. Eighty four nursing students were recruited in the study. The control group received traditional teaching, while the experimental group was supplemented with the web-based learning unit on intrapartum nursing care. The results showed that the students in the experimental group had significant higher scores in conceptual knowledge and performance skill. The students also had significant lower scores in ignorance - related stress when compared to those of the control group. The students supplemented with the web-based course showed a strong positive attitude toward the new learning method.

  11. Development and validation of the Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese College Students in the United States (ASSCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru

    2016-04-01

    Chinese students are the biggest ethnic group of international students in the United States. This study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to accurately measure their acculturative stress. A 72-item pool was sent online to Chinese students and a five-factor scale of 32 items was generated by exploratory factor analysis. The five factors included language insufficiency, social isolation, perceived discrimination, academic pressure, and guilt toward family. The Acculturative Stress Scale for Chinese Students demonstrated high reliability and initial validity by predicting depression and life satisfaction. It was the first Chinese scale of acculturative stress developed and validated among a Chinese student sample in the United States. In the future, the scale can be used as a diagnostic tool by mental health professionals and a self-assessment tool by Chinese students. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. The disclosure of dyslexia in clinical practice: experiences of student nurses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David K; Turnbull, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Heightened awareness and increasingly sophisticated psychological tests have seen a dramatic rise in the numbers of people diagnosed with dyslexia. Accordingly, there is a reported increase in the numbers of students with dyslexia entering Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) [Singleton, C.H., Chair, 1999. Dyslexia in higher education: policy, provision and practice. Report of the national working party on dyslexia in higher education. University of Hull on behalf of the Higher Education Funding Councils of England and Scotland, Hull], [Higher Education Statistics Agency. HESA. Available from: (accessed 21.12.05)]. Studies researching the effects of dyslexia on the clinical practice of nurses are almost non-existent. This paper reports part of a UK study exploring the clinical experiences of student nurses with dyslexia. In depth interviewing of 18 adult branch student nurses revealed a range of difficulties encountered and a variety of coping mechanisms to manage these. Other than in exceptional circumstances there is no legal requirement to disclose a dyslexia diagnosis. The decision to conceal or disclose their dyslexia was particularly prominent and contentious for these participants. This related to the attitudes of co-workers, concerns for patient safety, expectations of support, confidentiality issues and potential discrimination. Dyslexia continues to attract an unwarranted stigma and can adversely affect the learning experience. The need for disability awareness training in the workplace and improved education/service partnerships to support these students is considered crucial.

  13. Tobacco use among middle and high school students - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Singh, Tushar; Corey, Catherine G; Husten, Corinne G; Neff, Linda J; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Bunnell, Rebecca E; Choiniere, Conrad J; King, Brian A; Cox, Shanna; McAfee, Tim; Caraballo, Ralph S

    2015-04-17

    Tobacco use and addiction most often begin during youth and young adulthood. Youth use of tobacco in any form is unsafe. To determine the prevalence and trends of current (past 30-day) use of nine tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookahs, tobacco pipes, snus, dissolvable tobacco, and bidis) among U.S. middle (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2011-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys (NYTS). In 2014, e-cigarettes were the most commonly used tobacco product among middle (3.9%) and high (13.4%) school students. Between 2011 and 2014, statistically significant increases were observed among these students for current use of both e-cigarettes and hookahs (ptobacco use. Consequently, 4.6 million middle and high school students continue to be exposed to harmful tobacco product constituents, including nicotine. Nicotine exposure during adolescence, a critical window for brain development, might have lasting adverse consequences for brain development, causes addiction, and might lead to sustained tobacco use. For this reason, comprehensive and sustained strategies are needed to prevent and reduce the use of all tobacco products among youths in the United States.

  14. Interprofessional anatomy education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to report on their institutions' uptake of AIPE. Second, a series of case studies explored the experiences of students by using evaluation forms and an in-depth analysis of thematic concepts to understand the learners' perspectives on designing and delivering AIPE. Out of the 13 institutions that took part in the survey, eight did not offer an AIPE program. Between the remaining five institutions that deliver AIPE programs, 10 different modules are offered with the majority involving healthcare professions. The AIPE component is rated highly by students. The themes from the case studies highlight how valuable AIPE is from the student perspective both in terms of engaging them in anatomy as well as in the broader skills of teamwork and communication. The case studies also revealed how AIPE can be engaging for groups of students who might not have previously had access to cadaveric anatomy, for example, engineers and archeologists. The results of this study have implications for curriculum design in medicine and healthcare but also for further engagement of professional groups from non-healthcare backgrounds. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Social and Business Entrepreneurship as Career Options for University Students in the United Arab Emirates: The Drive-Preparedness Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Sanaa

    2016-01-01

    With limited employment opportunities, entrepreneurship is becoming a viable option to combat unemployment. This study explores undergraduate students' attitudes towards business and social entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), assuming that the lack of awareness among students regarding social entrepreneurship and the lack of…

  16. Growing Student Identities and School Competences in Sojourning: Japanese Children's Lived Experiences across Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Nari

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand student identities of five Japanese children (the second through sixth grade) and the processes of identity negotiation within their sojourning experiences between Japan and the United States. An increasing number of Japanese elementary students internationally sojourn in today's globalized societies, and…

  17. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  18. Musical Preference, Identification, and Familiarity: A Multicultural Comparison of Secondary Students from Singapore and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Hargreaves, David J.; Lee, June

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate whether there were significant differences in preferences for, familiarity with, and identification of Chinese, Malay, and Indian music between adolescent students from Singapore (n = 78) and the United Kingdom (n = 53). Also explored are the relationships among these three variables. Students were asked to rate their…

  19. Coordinating Numeric and Linear Units: Elementary Students' Strategies for Locating Whole Numbers on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Geoffrey B.; Shaughnessy, Meghan M.; Gearhart, Maryl; Haldar, Lina Chopra

    2013-01-01

    Two investigations of fifth graders' strategies for locating whole numbers on number lines revealed patterns in students' coordination of numeric and linear units. In Study 1, we investigated the effects of context on students' placements of three numbers on an open number line. For one group ("n"?=?24), the line was…

  20. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  1. Teachers and Students' Perceptions of a Hybrid Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility Learning Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Menendez-Santurio, Jose Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess students and teachers' perceptions concerning their participation in an educational kickboxing learning unit based on a hybridization of two pedagogical models: Sport Education and Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility. Method: Seventy-one students and three physical education teachers…

  2. Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…

  3. High School Students' Experiences in a Sport Education Unit: The Importance of Team Autonomy and Problem-Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,

    2011-01-01

    This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…

  4. Horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, J S

    2001-10-01

    Among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina, the author examined the strength of 4 cultural patterns (horizontal collectivism, vertical collectivism, horizontal individualism, vertical individualism; H. C. Triandis, 1995). A 3-group confirmatory factor analysis established the measurement equivalence among the 3 samples before the comparison. The Taiwanese and the Argentine samples were more vertically collectivist than the U.S. sample. The U.S. and the Taiwanese samples were more vertically individualistic than the Argentine sample. The U.S. sample was more horizontally individualistic than the Argentine sample, which, in turn, was more horizontally individualistic than the Taiwanese sample.

  5. Medical Student Core Clinical Ultrasound Milestones: A Consensus Among Directors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Vi Am; Lakoff, Daniel; Hess, Jamie; Bahner, David P; Hoppmann, Richard; Blaivas, Michael; Pellerito, John S; Abuhamad, Alfred; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2016-02-01

    Many medical schools are implementing point-of-care ultrasound in their curricula to help augment teaching of the physical examination, anatomy, and ultimately clinical management. However, point-of-care ultrasound milestones for medical students remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to formulate a consensus on core medical student clinical point-of-care ultrasound milestones across allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in the United States. Directors who are leading the integration of ultrasound in medical education (USMED) at their respective institutions were surveyed. An initial list of 205 potential clinical ultrasound milestones was developed through a literature review. An expert panel consisting of 34 USMED directors across the United States was used to produce consensus on clinical ultrasound milestones through 2 rounds of a modified Delphi technique, an established anonymous process to obtain consensus through multiple rounds of quantitative questionnaires. There was a 100% response rate from the 34 USMED directors in both rounds 1 and 2 of the modified Delphi protocol. After the first round, 2 milestones were revised to improve clarity, and 9 were added on the basis of comments from the USMED directors, resulting in 214 milestones forwarded to round 2. After the second round, only 90 milestones were found to have a high level of agreement and were included in the final medical student core clinical ultrasound milestones. This study established 90 core clinical milestones that all graduating medical students should obtain before graduation, based on consensus from 34 USMED directors. These core milestones can serve as a guide for curriculum deans who are initiating ultrasound curricula at their institutions. The exact method of implementation and competency assessment needs further investigation. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. The Currency of Gender: Student and Institutional Responses to the First Gender Unit in an Australian Journalism Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Louise

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and implementation of the first unit in an Australian university undergraduate journalism program to specifically examine the gendered nature of both news content and production processes. The paper outlines why such a unit is important to addressing entrenched industry bias, the core content, and student and…

  7. The Development of a Socioscientific Issues-Based Curriculum Unit for Middle School Students: Global Warming Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabey, Nejla; Topçu, Mustafa Sami

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at developing "Human and Environment" unit around SSI based instruction. We followed action research methodology in development and implementation of the unit. The participants of this study were 24 seventh graders students and the instruction was extended to eight and a half weeks, taking four hours in a week.…

  8. Hierarchical object-based mapping of riverscape units and in-stream mesohabitats using LiDAR and VHR imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Demarchi; Simone Bizzi; Hervé Piégay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new, semi-automated methodology for mapping hydromorphological indicators of rivers at a regional scale using multisource remote sensing (RS) data. This novel approach is based on the integration of spectral and topographic information within a multilevel, geographic, object-based image analysis (GEOBIA). Different segmentation levels were generated based on the two sources of Remote Sensing (RS) data, namely very-high spatial resolution, near-infrared imagery (VHR...

  9. Tobacco product use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Nearly 90% of adult smokers in the United States began smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco product use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2012, the prevalence of current tobacco product use among middle and high school students was 6.7% and 23.3%, respectively. After cigarettes, cigars were the second most commonly used tobacco product, with prevalence of use at 2.8% and 12.6%, respectively. From 2011 to 2012, electronic cigarette use increased significantly among middle school (0.6% to 1.1%) and high school (1.5% to 2.8%) students, and hookah use increased among high school students (4.1% to 5.4%). During the same period, significant decreases occurred in bidi and kretek use among middle and high school students, and in dissolvable tobacco use among high school students. A substantial proportion of youth tobacco use occurs with products other than cigarettes, so monitoring and prevention of youth tobacco use needs to incorporate other products, including new and emerging products. Implementing evidence-based interventions can prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco control programs. In addition, implementation of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which granted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) the authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products, also is critical to addressing this health risk behavior.

  10. Tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Neff, Linda J; Kennedy, Sara M; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Jones, Christopher D

    2014-11-14

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease and death in the United States, and nearly all tobacco use begins during youth and young adulthood. Among U.S. youths, cigarette smoking has declined in recent years; however, the use of some other tobacco products has increased, and nearly half of tobacco users use two or more tobacco products. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey to determine the prevalence of ever (at least once) and current (at least 1 day in the past 30 days) use of one or more of 10 tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, hookahs, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes], pipes, snus, bidis, kreteks, and dissolvable tobacco) among U.S. middle school (grades 6-8) and high school (grades 9-12) students. In 2013, 22.9% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, and 12.6% reported current use of two or more tobacco products; current use of combustible products (i.e., cigarettes, cigars, pipes, bidis, kreteks, and/or hookahs) was substantially greater (20.7%) than use of other types of tobacco. Also, 46.0% of high school students reported having ever tried a tobacco product, and 31.4% reported ever trying two or more tobacco products. Among middle school students, 3.1% reported current use of cigars, and 2.9% reported current use of cigarettes, with non-Hispanic black students more than twice as likely to report current use of cigars than cigarettes. Monitoring the prevalence of the use of all available tobacco products, including new and emerging products, is critical to support effective population-based interventions to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths as part of comprehensive tobacco prevention and control programs.

  11. Intelligibility of American English vowels and consonants spoken by international students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States.

  12. Student and school factors associated with school suspension: A multilevel analysis of students in Victoria, Australia and Washington State, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl, A Hemphill; Stephanie, M Plenty; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    One of the common issues schools face is how best to handle challenging student behaviors such as violent behavior, antisocial behavior, bullying, school rule violations, and interrupting other students' learning. School suspension may be used to remove students engaging in challenging behaviors from the school for a period of time. However, the act of suspending students from school may worsen rather than improve their behavior. Research shows that suspensions predict a range of student outcomes, including crime, delinquency, and drug use. It is therefore crucial to understand the factors associated with the use of school suspension, particularly in sites with different policy approaches to problem behaviors. This paper draws on data from state-representative samples of 3,129 Grade 7 and 9 students in Washington State, United States and Victoria, Australia sampled in 2002. Multilevel modeling examined student and school level factors associated with student-reported school suspension. Results showed that both student (being male, previous student antisocial and violent behavior, rebelliousness, academic failure) and school (socioeconomic status of the school, aggregate measures of low school commitment) level factors were associated with school suspension and that the factors related to suspension were similar in the two states. The implications of the findings for effective school behavior management policy are that, rather than focusing only on the student, both student and school level factors need to be addressed to reduce the rates of school suspension.

  13. Assessment of first-year veterinary students' communication skills using an objective structured clinical examination: the importance of context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B

    2012-01-01

    Communication skills are considered to be a core clinical skill in veterinary medicine and essential for practice success, including outcomes of care for patients and clients. While veterinary schools include communication skills training in their programs, there is minimal knowledge on how best to assess communication competence throughout the undergraduate program. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the reliability, utility, and suitability of a communication skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Specifically we wanted to (1) identify the greatest source of variability (student, rater, station, and track) within a first-year, four station OSCE using exam scores and scores from videotape review by two trained raters, and (2) determine the effect of different stations on students' communication skills performance. Reliability of the scores from both the exam data and the two expert raters was 0.50 and 0.46 respectively, with the greatest amount of variance attributable to student by station. The percentage of variance due to raters in the exam data was 16.35%, whereas the percentage of variance for the two expert raters was 0%. These results have three important implications. First, the results reinforce the need for communication educators to emphasize that use of communication skills is moderated by the context of the clinical interaction. Second, by increasing rater training the amount of error in the scores due to raters can be reduced and inter-rater reliability increases. Third, the communication assessment method (in this case the OSCE checklist) should be built purposefully, taking into consideration the context of the case.

  14. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  15. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Cömert

    Full Text Available Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales.We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed, reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues.Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate.Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield

  16. Assessing Opportunities for Student Pharmacist Leadership Development at Schools of Pharmacy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Tara T; Doucette, William R; Witry, Matthew J

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To summarize student pharmacist leadership development opportunities delivered by pharmacy programs, to describe selected opportunities, and to assess how these opportunities meet leadership development competencies. Methods. A multi-method study was conducted that comprised a systematic content analysis of pharmacy education journals, pharmacy program websites, and telephone interviews with key informants, which included open-ended questions and scaled responses. Results. Review of six articles, 37 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) Annual Meeting abstracts, and 138 websites resulted in the identification of 191 leadership development opportunities. These consisted of courses, projects/programs, and events/speaker series. Interviews with 12 key informants detailed unique events that developed leadership competencies. Formal assessments of student leadership development were limited and primarily focused on informal feedback and course evaluations. Conclusion. Most US pharmacy programs offer their students an array of opportunities to develop leadership abilities. Pharmacy programs should consider expanding opportunities beyond elective courses, learn from the successes of others to implement new leadership development opportunities, and bolster the assessment of student leadership competencies and outcomes.

  17. Diversity of United States medical students by region compared to US census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark M Smith,1 Steven H Rose,1 Darrell R Schroeder,2 Timothy R Long1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Increasing the diversity of the United States (US physician workforce to better represent the general population has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to compare medical student race data to that of the US general population. We hypothesized that race demographics of medical school matriculants would reflect that of the general population. Patients and methods: Published race data from the United States Census Bureau (USCB 2010 census and the 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC allopathic medical school application and enrollment by race and ethnicity survey were analyzed and compared. Race data of enrolled medical students was compared to race data of the general population within geographic regions and subregions. Additionally, race data of medical school applicants and matriculants were compared to race data of the overall general population. Results: Race distribution within US medical schools was significantly different than race distribution for the overall, regional, and subregional populations of the US (P<0.001. Additionally, the overall race distribution of medical school applicants differed significantly to the race distribution of the general population (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that race demographics of US medical school applicants and matriculants are significantly different from that of the general population, and may be resultant of societal quandaries present early in formal education. Initiatives targeting underrepresented minorities at an early stage to enhance health care career interest and provide academic support and mentorship will be required to address the racial disparity that exists in US

  18. Current Practices in Assessing Professionalism in United States and Canadian Allopathic Medical Students and Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittur, Nandini

    2017-01-01

    Professionalism is a critically important competency that must be evaluated in medical trainees but is a complex construct that is hard to assess. A systematic review was undertaken to give insight into the current best practices for assessment of professionalism in medical trainees and to identify new research priorities in the field. A search was conducted on PubMed for behavioral assessments of medical students and residents among the United States and Canadian allopathic schools in the last 15 years. An initial search yielded 594 results, 28 of which met our inclusion criteria. Our analysis indicated that there are robust generic definitions of the major attributes of medical professionalism. The most commonly used assessment tools are survey instruments that use Likert scales tied to attributes of professionalism. While significant progress has been made in this field in recent years, several opportunities for system-wide improvement were identified that require further research. These include a paucity of information about assessment reliability, the need for rater training, a need to better define competency in professionalism according to learner level (preclinical, clerkship, resident etc.) and ways to remediate lapses in professionalism. Student acceptance of assessment of professionalism may be increased if assessment tools are shifted to better incorporate feedback. Tackling the impact of the hidden curriculum in which students may observe lapses in professionalism by faculty and other health care providers is another priority for further study. PMID:28652951

  19. Computer Phobia in Higher Education: A Comparative Analysis of United Kingdom and Turkish University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Ursavaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possession or acquisition of a range of computer skills is an implicit assumption related to many undergraduate study programmes, and use of university computer facilities may impact on overall academic performance and employability beyond graduation. This study therefore tested levels of computer anxiety (CARS and computer thoughts (CTS in Turkish and United Kingdom undergraduates with reference to culture group difference, regularity of use (or home use and use of university computer facilities. A substantial minority of students (32-33% reported computer anxiety in both groups, but more UK (41% than Turkish students (21% were deficient in positive self-concept (CTS. Reference to the subscales in the two measures pinpointed cultural differences disguised at scale level, and gender differences were evident across rather than within culture groups. As expected, positive self-concept was associated with use of computer facilities (r’s = 0 to 0.25, p < .001, and anxiety was associated more weakly with avoidance (r’s = 0 to -0.18, p < .001. Results suggest that computer confidence (implying motivation and engagement should not be assumed to exist in the agenda for wider participation. Also within and between group differences indicate that there is no typical or stereotypical student profile in approach to computer activity

  20. Energy drinks, soft drinks, and substance use among United States secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; OʼMalley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-01-01

    Examine energy drink/shot and regular and diet soft drink use among United States secondary school students in 2010-2011, and associations between such use and substance use. We used self-reported data from cross-sectional surveys of nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students and conducted multivariate analyses examining associations between beverage and substance use, controlling for individual and school characteristics. Approximately 30% of students reported consuming energy drinks or shots; more than 40% reported daily regular soft drink use, and about 20% reported daily diet soft drink use. Beverage consumption was strongly and positively associated with past 30-day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use. The observed associations between energy drinks and substance use were significantly stronger than those between regular or diet soft drinks and substance use. This correlational study indicates that adolescent consumption of energy drinks/shots is widespread and that energy drink users report heightened risk for substance use. This study does not establish causation between the behaviors. Education for parents and prevention efforts among adolescents should include education on the masking effects of caffeine in energy drinks on alcohol- and other substance-related impairments, and recognition that some groups (such as high sensation-seeking youth) may be particularly likely to consume energy drinks and to be substance users.

  1. Framework for a virtual nursing faculty and student learning collaboration between universities in Sweden and the United States: A theoretical paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihlborg, Monne; Friberg, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    A sound pedagogical framework must be explored and identified to implement opportunities for collaborative learning through international exchange. This paper identifies the framework used by two universities, in Sweden and the United States. Virtual learning environments and meaningful learning activities can be constructed using web-based learning platforms. The goal for this initiative was 'internationalisation on home plan' for nursing faculty and students that opened up internationalised learning opportunities for all students, including those who do not participate in study abroad/mobility activities. This broader opportunity supports the development of cultural awareness and understanding of global health care practices and the nursing profession on mutual topics of concern, in this case patient safety. Learning activities and learning outcomes can be stipulated. The pedagogical framework was compatible with the Bologna Process' constructive alignment, deep learning and a student focus. The student nurses were not only given the opportunity to explore the learning objective of patient safety and participate in an international collaboration with another university, but also gained university academic credit for fulfilling the task. There is a great gain in using virtual collaboration and learning modules that are embedded in courses for the purpose of 'internationalisation on home plan' since not all students can participate in student mobility activities.

  2. Dutch care innovation units in elderly care: A qualitative study into students' perspectives and workplace conditions for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeren, Miranda; Volbeda, Patricia; Niessen, Theo J H; Abma, Tineke A

    2016-03-01

    To promote workplace learning for staff as well as students, a partnership was formed between a residential care organisation for older people and several nursing faculties in the Netherlands. This partnership took the form of two care innovation units; wards where qualified staff, students and nurse teachers collaborate to integrate care, education, innovation and research. In this article, the care innovation units as learning environments are studied from a student perspective to deepen understandings concerning the conditions that facilitate learning. A secondary analysis of focus groups, held with 216 nursing students over a period of five years, revealed that students are satisfied about the units' learning potential, which is formed by various inter-related and self-reinforcing affordances: co-constructive learning and working, challenging situations and activities, being given responsibility and independence, and supportive and recognisable learning structures. Time constraints had a negative impact on the units' learning potential. It is concluded that the learning potential of the care innovation units was enhanced by realising certain conditions, like learning structures and activities. The learning potential was also influenced, however, by the non-controllable and dynamic interaction of various elements within the context. Suggestions for practice and further research are offered.

  3. Diabetes Mellitus-Related Knowledge among University Students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nelofer; Gomathi, Kadayam G; Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diabetes mellitus (DM)-related knowledge and practices among university students enrolled in non-health care related professional courses in the United Arab Emirates. A pre-tested questionnaire assessing the knowledge of DM was administered to the above-mentioned students. Data collected were transferred to PASW Statistics (Chicago, IL, USA, Version 18) and analysed. Data on 168 university students (47 males and 121 females) were included in the analysis. Of the participants, 25% were overweight or obese and only 27% exercised regularly. Regarding their knowledge of DM, 70% knew that it is characterised by high blood sugar levels and identified family history as a major risk factor. Surprisingly, only just over half could link obesity and physical inactivity as risk factors for developing DM, or could identify an excessive feeling of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss as symptoms. Knowledge of the complications of diabetes, including gangrene, loss of sensation in limbs, oral and dental complications, recurrent infections, and risk for cardiovascular disease got a moderate response. Knowledge of diabetes was found to be higher in females compared to males. No significant differences were observed in the health behaviour of participants with or without a family history of DM. Our study revealed that in spite of exposure to various sources of information, the participants' level of DM-related knowledge was not adequate. We recommend the engagement of health professionals in educational settings in order to enhance health-related knowledge and inculcate healthy lifestyle practices in students.

  4. Assessment of Breast Cancer Awareness among Female University Students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S; Shaikh, Rizwana B; Mathew, Elsheba; Al-Biate, Mawahib A

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess female university students' knowledge of breast cancer and its preventative measures and to identify their main misconceptions regarding breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted between April 2011 and June 2012 and included female students from three large universities in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Data were collected through a validated, pilot-tested, self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included 35 questions testing knowledge of risk factors, warning signs and methods for the early detection of breast cancer. Participants' opinions regarding breast cancer misconceptions were also sought. The participants (n = 392) were most frequently between 18 and 22 years old (63.5%), non-Emirati (90.1%) and never married (89%). A family history of breast cancer was reported by 36 (9.2%) of the students. The percentage of participants who had low/below average knowledge scores regarding risk factors, warning signs and methods for early detection of breast cancer was 40.6%, 45.9% and 86.5%, respectively. Significantly higher knowledge scores on risk factors were noticed among participants with a family history of breast cancer (P = 0.03). The misconception most frequently identified was that "treatment for breast cancer affects a woman's femininity" (62.5%). A profound lack of knowledge about breast cancer was noted among female university students in the three UAE universities studied. The most prominent gaps in knowledge identified were those concerning breast cancer screening methods.

  5. The object of the unitization agreement under the Brazilian legal system; O objeto do acordo de unitizacao no sistema juridico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Tatiana Zuma [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The concept of unitization was incorporated in the Brazilian law through the article 27 of Law n. 9.478/97 (Petroleum Act). There is unitization when a deposit of oil or natural gas extends by two or more contiguous blocks, whose rights of exploration and production belong to different concessionaires and in which case such concessionaires may conclude an Agreement for Individualization of Production (hereinafter referred to Unitization Agreement). This study intends to examine the object of the unitization agreement and to define the limits of the area on which the concessionaires of the neighbouring areas should exercise the production joint operations. Therefore, it was studied the concepts of Block (Petroleum Act, article 6, XIII), Field (Petroleum Act, article 6, XIV), and Reservoir (Petroleum Act, article 6, X and XI), and the articles 26 and 27 of the Petroleum Act were interpreted systematically. The Comparative Law has also been examined and used as a basis for the conclusions presented in this study. (author)

  6. Association of the pre-internship objective structured clinical examination in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Hasan; Labaf, Ali; Anvari, Pasha; Jamali, Arsia; Sheybaee-Moghaddam, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of the pre-internship Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations. SUBJECTS AND MATERIAL: All medical students of October 2004 admission who took part in the October 2010 National Comprehensive Pre-internship Examination (NCPE) and pre-internship OSCE were included in the study (n = 130). OSCE and NCPE scores and medical grade point average (GPA) were collected. GPA was highly correlated with NCPE (r = 0.76 and P<0.001) and moderately with OSCE (r = 0.68 and P < 0.001). Similarly a moderate correlation was observed between NCPE and OSCE scores(r = 0.6 and P < 0.001).Linear stepwise regression shows r(2) of a model applying GPA as predictor of OSCE score is 0.46 (β = 0.68 and P < 0.001), while addition of gender to the model increases r(2) to 0.59 (β = 0.61 and 0.36, for GPA and male gender, respectively and P < 0.001). Logistic forward regression models shows male gender and GPA are the only dependent predictors of high score in OSCE. OR of GPA and male gender for high OSCE score are 4.89 (95% CI = 2.37-10.06) and 6.95 (95% CI = 2.00-24.21), respectively (P < 0.001). Our findings indicate OSCE and examination which mainly evaluate knowledge, judged by GPA and NCPE are moderately to highly correlated. Our results illustrate the interwoven nature of knowledge and clinical skills. In other words, certain level of knowledge is crucial for appropriate clinical performance. Our findings suggest neither OSCE nor written forms of assessments can replace each other. They are complimentary and should also be combined by other evaluations to cover all attributes of clinical competence efficiently.

  7. Unit Fractions in the Context of Proportionality: Supporting Students' Reasoning about the Inverse Order Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Jose Luis; Visnovska, Jana; Zuniga, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a classroom design experiment, conducted in a fourth grade classroom, that served to explore an instructional path in which the introduction of unit fractions and supporting proportional reasoning coincide. Central to this path is the use of means of support in which the objects that unit fractions quantify are not characterized as…

  8. Effect of culturally relevant pedagogy on Latino students' engagement and content mastery on states of matter unit in physical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jennifer

    This research, in response to the lack of empirical evidence of the impact of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) on Latino students in science education, examined the effect CRP on Latino students' engagement and content mastery. Quantitative research was conducted with a treatment group that received an intervention unit on states of matter with CRP approaches and a comparison group that did not receive the intervention. The sample comprised approximately 189 eighth-grade students from a Southern Californian middle school. The research findings reveal that CRP approaches had a statistically significant positive effect on student engagement of all ethnic groups in this study, particularly Latino students, while CRP approaches had a statistically significant negative effect on Latino students' content mastery. Three recommendations result from this study, including professional development of CRP for educators, professional development of CRP for educational leaders, and using CRP to address multiculturalism.

  9. Student-Led Services in a Hospital Aged Care Temporary Stay Unit: Sustaining Student Placement Capacity and Physiotherapy Service Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Madelyn; Fairbrother, Michele; Nagarajan, Srivalli Vilapakkam; Blackford, Julia; Sheepway, Lyndal; Penman, Merrolee; McAllister, Lindy

    2015-01-01

    Through a collaborative university-hospital partnership, a student-led service model (SLS-model) was implemented to increase student placement capacity within a physiotherapy department of a 150 bed Sydney hospital. This study investigates the perceived barriers and enablers to increasing student placement capacity through student-led services…

  10. Sexual satisfaction and sexual health among university students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jenny A; Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B

    2011-09-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships.

  11. Towards an inpatient diabetes curriculum: medical student-generated aims, objectives and methods for ward-based learning of non-critical, non-perioperative inpatient diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C G; Atherley, A; Murphy, M M

    2016-06-01

    To create a summative document containing aims, objectives and methods that can be used for the training of healthcare professionals in inpatient diabetes care. A four-stage approach was introduced for the ward-based teaching of inpatient diabetes care at the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill over the 2014-2015 academic year. Within this approach, 55 students (100%) submitted aims, objectives and methods to support two 2-h, ward-based sessions. This was guided by brief instructions and access to a copy of the Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline on the management of non-critical, non-perioperative inpatient diabetes. Conceptual content analysis was used to convert submissions into a unifying document. Six themes emerged from students' submissions: diagnosis; assessment and investigation of diabetes and its complications; planning individualized care and pharmacological management; hypoglycaemia management, including severe hypoglycaemia; patient education; discharge planning; and multidisciplinary teamwork. Students were primarily interested in patient management and treatment using higher-level objectives and active learning methods. This study produced comprehensive, student-generated, and hence student-centred, aims, objectives and methods for inpatient diabetes care with objectives appropriately set for higher cognitive levels of learning. This material can be used to guide teaching or for further development into a curriculum. This is the first known publication of content that could be used in a ward-based inpatient diabetes curriculum. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  12. Current tobacco use among middle and high school students--United States, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, with nearly 443,000 deaths occurring annually because of cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. Moreover, nearly 90% of adult smokers begin smoking by age 18 years. To assess current tobacco use among youths, CDC analyzed data from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, in 2011, the prevalence of current tobacco use among middle school and high school students was 7.1% and 23.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of current cigarette use was 4.3%, and 15.8%, respectively. During 2000-2011, among middle school students, a linear downward trend was observed in the prevalence of current tobacco use (14.9% to 7.1%), current combustible tobacco use (14.0% to 6.3%), and current cigarette use (10.7% to 4.3%). For high school students, a linear downward trend also was observed in these measures (current tobacco use [34.4% to 23.2%], current combustible tobacco use [33.1% to 21.0%], and current cigarette use [27.9% to 15.8%]). Interventions that are proven to prevent and reduce tobacco use among youths include media campaigns, limiting advertisements and other promotions, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the availability of tobacco products for purchase by youths. These interventions should continue to be implemented as part of national comprehensive tobacco control programs and should be coordinated with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations restricting the sale, distribution, and marketing of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products to youths.

  13. Correlates of weapon carrying among high school students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel; Siziya, Seter

    2008-01-01

    Background Deaths and injuries arising from interpersonal violence among adolescents are major public health concerns in the United States. The bearing of weapons among adolescents is a critical factor in many of these deaths and injuries. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2005 United States Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System Survey data was carried out to examine the variables associated with self-reported history of weapon carrying on school property among high school students. We used logistic regression analysis to assess the associations. Results Of the 13,707 respondents who participated in the survey, 10.2% of males and 2.6% of females reported carrying a weapon on school property. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, males were more likely to report having carried a weapon than females (odds ratio (OR) = 5.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) [4.23, 7.62]). Self-reported race/ethnicity was also associated with weapon carrying. Other variables positively associated with weapon carrying at school were substance use (OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.16, 2.68]), depression (OR = 1.44; 95% CI [1.10, 1.89]), suicidal ideation (OR = 1.64; 95% CI [1.23, 2.19]), having had property stolen or deliberately damaged at school (OR = 1.55; 95% CI [1.21, 1.98]), having been raped (OR = 1.70; 95% CI [1.22, 2.37]), having been threatened or injured with a weapon on school property (OR = 2.19; 95% CI [1.63, 2.95]), and having engaged in physical fighting (OR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.56, 2.63]). Conclusion This research identifies factors that are associated with weapon bearing among adolescents in the United States. These factors may be important in the design of interventions aimed at improving school safety and adolescent health. PMID:18605995

  14. Associations between Electronic Media Use and Involvement in Violence, Alcohol and Drug Use among United States High School Students

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    Denniston, Maxine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We identified associations between time spent watching television and time spent playing video or computer games or using computers and involvement in interpersonal violence, alcohol and drug use in a nationally representative sample of United States high school students.Methods: We analyzed data from the 2007 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Exposure variables were time spent watching television and time spent playing computer or video games or using computers (hereafter denoted as “computer/video game use” on an average school day; outcome variables included multiple measures assessing involvement in violence and alcohol or drug use. Chi-square tests were used to identify statistically significant associations between each exposure variable and each of the outcome variables. We used logistic regression to obtain crude odds ratios for outcome variables with a significant chi-square p-value and to obtain adjusted odds ratios controlling for sex, race, and grade in school.Results: Overall, 35.4% (95% CI=33.1%-37.7% of students reported frequent television (TV use and 24.9% (95% CI=22.9%-27.0% reported frequent computer/video game use. A number of risk behaviors, including involvement in physical fights and initiation of alcohol use before age 13, were significantly associated with frequent TV use or frequent computer/video game use, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity and grade.Conclusion: Findings highlight the need for additional research to better understand the mechanisms by which electronic media exposure and health-risk behaviors are associated and for the development of strategies that seek to understand how the content and context (e.g., watching with peers, having computer in common area of media use influence risk behaviors among youth. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:310-315.

  15. An Automatic and Dynamic Approach for Personalized Recommendation of Learning Objects Considering Students Learning Styles: An Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorça, Fabiano A.; Araújo, Rafael D.; de Carvalho, Vitor C.; Resende, Daniel T.; Cattelan, Renan G.

    2016-01-01

    Content personalization in educational systems is an increasing research area. Studies show that students tend to have better performances when the content is customized according to his/her preferences. One important aspect of students particularities is how they prefer to learn. In this context, students learning styles should be considered, due…

  16. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-02-03

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Modifizierte objective structured practical examination (OSPE als Leistungskontrolle im Kurs der Mikroskopischen Anatomie an der Universität Ulm [A modified objective structured practical examination (OSPE for medical student assessment in microscopic anatomy at Ulm University, Germany

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    Boeckers, Anja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] In 2005 we introduced a modified objective structured examination (OSPE to assess practical capabilities in the course of microscopical anatomy for medical students at Ulm university. This test was intended to change and improve the working behaviour of students with respect to active participation during the course hours. During the OSPE examination the students had to examine 8 different tissue slides and pinpoint on substructures in a given time. The results were checked and documented by the supervisors in a standardized manner. The practical course and the novel examination procedure were subsequently evaluated by the students. The OSPE showed to be a practical, well accepted and personal ressources saving instrument for student assessment. The test showed a positive influence on student behaviour. [german] Im Sommersemster 2005 wurde an der Universität Ulm eine modifizierte objective practical examination als Erfolgskontrolle der mikroskopisch anatomischen Fähigkeiten von Medizinstundenten eingeführt. Dieser Test sollte als ein integrierendes Instrument, die vorhandenen Lehrangebote auf die Prüfung orientiert sinnvoll miteinander verknüpfen, und dadurch die Motivation zum eigenständigen Lern- und praktischen Arbeitsverhalten während der Kurszeiten erhöhen. In der Prüfung wurden den Studierenden 8 unterschiedliche histologische Schnittbild-präparate vorgelegt, in denen je eine Substruktur in einer vorgegeben Zeit bezeichnet werden sollte. Die Ergebnisse wurden vom Prüfer in standardisierter Weise kontrolliert und dokumentiert. Anschließend wurden der praktische Kurs der mikroskopischen Anatomie sowie die neue Prüfungsart von den Studierenden evaluiert. Zusammenfassend konnte gezeigt werden, dass ein OSPE in der mikroskopischen Anatomie einfach zu organisieren und praktikabel durchführbar ist. Es gelang durch die Einführung der OSPE-Prüfung in der mikroskopischen Anatomie unter Schonung der personellen Ressourcen

  18. Student Support towards War in College Students from Different Religiously Affiliated Colleges in the Midwest of the United States

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    Burks, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a study of student attitudes towards war. To study the impact that the type of university attended has on a student's level of support for war and attitudes towards war a 15-question survey on moral disengagement in support of military actions based on one developed by McAlister was given to college students attending Quaker,…

  19. Multiracial Student Services Come of Age: The State of Multiracial Student Services in Higher Education in the United States

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    Wong, Michael Paul A.; Buckner, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    This article provides insight into the recent appearance of multiracial student services in U.S. higher education by presenting a review of current practice within student affairs administration. The authors begin by discussing the historical and social context for multiracial student services within prevailing approaches to multicultural identity…

  20. The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States.

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    Joseph A Schwartz

    Full Text Available Recent violent attacks on college campuses in the United States have sparked discussions regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the perpetration of violence among college students. While previous studies have examined the potential association between mental health problems and violent behavior, the overall pattern of findings flowing from this literature remain mixed and no previous studies have examined such associations among college students.The current study makes use of a nationally representative sample of 3,929 college students from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC to examine the prevalence of seven violent behaviors and 19 psychiatric disorder diagnoses tapping mood, anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders. Associations between individual and composite psychiatric disorder diagnoses and violent behaviors were also examined. Additional analyses were adjusted for the comorbidity of multiple psychiatric diagnoses.The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non-student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex-standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample.These findings indicate that violence and psychiatric disorders are prevalent on college campuses in the United States, though perhaps less so than in the general population. In addition, college students who have diagnosable psychiatric disorders are significantly more likely to engage in various forms of violent behavior.

  1. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  2. Occupational Therapy Students' Attitudes towards Individuals with Disabilities: A Comparison between Australia, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

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    Brown, Ted; Mu, Keli; Peyton, Claudia G.; Rodger, Sylvia; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Watson, Callie; Hong, Chia Swee; Huang, Yan-hua; Wu, Chin-yu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Students who are enrolled in professional education programs such as occupational therapy may have inherent attitudes towards the future clients they work with. These attitudes may be influenced by the level of their professional education as well as cultural values of their country of origin. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to…

  3. Assessment of medical students' proficiency in dermatology: Are medical students adequately prepared to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions in the United States?

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    Ulman, Catherine A; Binder, Stephen Bruce; Borges, Nicole J

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether a current medical school curriculum is adequately preparing medical students to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. A 15-item anonymous multiple choice quiz covering fifteen diseases was developed to test students' ability to diagnose and treat common dermatologic conditions. The quiz also contained five items that assessed students' confidence in their ability to diagnose common dermatologic conditions, their perception of whether they were receiving adequate training in dermatology, and their preferences for additional training in dermatology. The survey was performed in 2014, and was completed by 85 students (79.4%). Many students (87.6%) felt that they received inadequate training in dermatology during medical school. On average, students scored 46.6% on the 15-item quiz. Proficiency at the medical school where the study was performed is considered an overall score of greater than or equal to 70.0%. Students received an average score of 49.9% on the diagnostic items and an average score of 43.2% on the treatment items. The findings of this study suggest that United States medical schools should consider testing their students and assessing whether they are being adequately trained in dermatology. Then schools can decide if they need to re-evaluate the timing and delivery of their current dermatology curriculum, or whether additional curriculum hours or clinical rotations should be assigned for dermatologic training.

  4. Living in the United States. A Brief Introduction to the Culture for Visitors, Students and Business Travelers.

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    Hawkinson, Anni; Clark, Raymond C.

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of the United States, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money and banks; food; restaurants; drinking and smoking laws; hotels; postal and telecommunications services;…

  5. Gender in STEM Education: An Exploratory Study of Student Perceptions of Math and Science Instructors in the United Arab Emirates

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    Pasha-Zaidi, Nausheen; Afari, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The current study addresses student perceptions of math and science professors in the Middle East. Gender disparity in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education continues to exist in higher education, with male professors holding a normative position. This disparity can also be seen in the United Arab Emirates. As female…

  6. College Students' Spontaneous Self-Concept: The Effect of Culture among Respondents in Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States.

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    Bond, Michael H.; Cheung, Tak-Sing

    1983-01-01

    The Twenty Statements Test was administered to university students in Japan, the United States, and Hong Kong to assess cultural influences on self-concept. Numerous cultural differences were found in the frequency of categories and subcategories used for self-statements and in the level of self-esteem. (AOS)

  7. Becoming In/Competent Learners in the United States: Refugee Students' Academic Identities in the Figured World of Difference

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    Bal, Aydin

    2014-01-01

    A practice-based dialectic theory of identity was used in this study to explore the cultural-historical context of an urban charter school in which a group of newly arrived Muslim Turk refugee students' academic identities were formed. The school, located in the Southwestern United States, was founded by a global Islamist movement. Ethnographic…

  8. Moral Development, HIV/AIDS Knowledge, and Attitude toward HIV/AIDS among Counseling Students in the United States

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    Joe, J. Richelle; Foster, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS will likely require services from mental health professionals to address the complex psychosocial effects of the illness. In the United States, counseling students are not likely to be well prepared to serve clients affected by HIV/AIDS, and little is known about their HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. The present…

  9. Perceived Difficulty of Chemistry Units in Std IX for Students in Kerala Stream Calls for Further Innovations

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    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2013-01-01

    Chemistry is widely perceived as difficult. Specialized language, mathematical and abstract conceptual nature, and the amount of content are often cited reasons. Researchers have been trying to explain how students should be helped in learning chemistry better. This paper reports the results of a survey to identify the chemistry units in standard…

  10. The Admission and Academic Placement of Students from: Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. K., Ed.

    Information is provided on the educational systems of Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and the Yemen Arab Republic in order to assist U.S. colleges and universities as they work with international student agencies and representatives from these countries. For each country, placement recommendations are offered, along with notes to…

  11. Career Plans and Gender-Role Attitudes of College Students in the United States, Japan, and Slovenia.

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    Morinaga, Yasuko; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines attitudes about careers and gender roles for 156 college students from the United States, 621 from Japan, and 157 from Slovenia. A factor analysis indicates that career values form different factors within each country and gender. In all three countries, women are less traditional in gender role attitudes than men. (SLD)

  12. The Challenges Faced by Eastern European Students within a 16-19 Education Setting in the United Kingdom

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    Babalola, Shade

    2015-01-01

    To examine the challenges encountered by Eastern European students within a sixth form college in the United Kingdom. This paper aims to consider the difficulties encountered by this particular ethnic group examining the impact the challenges may have on their performance, success and achievement. This paper will also highlight equality and…

  13. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  14. Effects of an SWH Approach and Self-Evaluation on Sixth Grade Students' Learning and Retention of an Electricity Unit

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    Memis, Esra Kabatas; Seven, Sabriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of guided, inquiry-based laboratory activities using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and self-evaluation on students' science achievement. The study involved three sixth grade classes studying an electricity unit taught by the same primary school teacher. Before the study began, one…

  15. The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit

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    Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

  16. The Intelligence of Observation: Improving High School Students' Spatial Ability by Means of Intervention Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkin, Dorit; Dayan, Ester

    2013-01-01

    This case study of one class versus a control group focused on the impact of an intervention unit, which is not part of the regular curriculum, on the improvement of spatial ability of high school students (forty-six 12th-graders, aged 17-18, both boys and girls) in general as well as from a gender perspective. The study explored three…

  17. Effects of an SWH Approach and Self-Evaluation on Sixth Grade Students' Learning and Retention of an Electricity Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Esra Kabatas; Seven, Sabriye

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of guided, inquiry-based laboratory activities using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and self-evaluation on students' science achievement. The study involved three sixth grade classes studying an electricity unit taught by the same primary school teacher. Before the study began, one…

  18. Teachers Use of Writing to Support Students' Learning in Middle School: A National Survey in the United States

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    Ray, Amber B.; Graham, Steve; Houston, Julia D.; Harris, Karen R.

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of middle school teachers (grades 6-9) from across the United States was surveyed about their use of writing to support students' learning. The selection process was stratified so there were an equal number of English language arts, social studies, and science teachers. More than one-half of the teachers reported applying 15 or…

  19. Developing Authentic Online Problem-Based Learning Case Scenarios for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Mike; McCall, Steve; Hinton, Danielle; Weston, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the development of online problem-based learning case scenarios for use in a distance education program for teachers of students with visual impairments in the United Kingdom. Following participation in two case scenarios, a cohort of teachers provided feedback. This feedback was analyzed in relation to the relevant…

  20. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  1. Intra- and intercultural comparisons of the personality profiles of medical students in Argentina and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Horacio J A; Raimondo, Roberto; Erdmann, James B; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the personality profiles of medical students in Argentina and the United States. The ultimate purpose of the research was to study the value of personality measures in predicting academic and professional performances. Participants were 421 medical students in Argentina (254 women, 167 men) and 623 medical students in the United States (207 women, 416 men). Eight personality measures were administered: Perception of Stressful Life Events, Test Anxiety, General Anxiety, Loneliness, Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. Intracultural comparisons showed some minor gender differences in personality profiles within each culture (e.g., in the United States, women scored higher than men on the Perception of Stressful Life Events and General Anxiety scales, and in Argentina, women scored higher on the Test Anxiety scale). Intercultural comparisons of personality profiles showed that Argentine medical students obtained higher average scores than did their American counterparts on the Perception of Stressful Life Events, Test Anxiety, General Anxiety, External Locus of Control, Extraversion, and Neuroticism scales. Argentine students scored lower on the Loneliness scale than did their American counterparts. Psychometric findings supported the measurement properties of the personality measures in the two cultures (e.g., construct validity, and internal consistency aspect of reliability). Further study of the implications of the findings in predicting academic attainment in medical school and to physician performance is recommended.

  2. A structural equation model to investigate the impact of missing occlusal units on objective masticatory function in patients with shortened dental arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, K; Yoshida, E; Igarashi, Y

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of missing occlusal units (MOUs) on objective masticatory function with respect to food comminuting and mixing ability. Sixty partially dentate patients (mean age, 64·1 years) with shortened dental arches participated in the study. Food comminuting ability was assessed using a masticatory performance test with peanuts as a test food. Food mixing ability was assessed using a mixing ability test with a two-coloured wax cube. Maximum bite force (MBF) was measured using a pressure-sensitive film as a mediator for food comminuting and mixing ability. A structural equation model was constructed based on a hypothesis that MOUs would be associated with reduced MBF and impairment of food comminuting and mixing ability. Structural equation modelling analysis found significant direct effects of MOU on median particle size and mixing ability index (MAI) (P dental arches.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL CLINICAL EXAMINATION (CCE V / S OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION (OSCE AS AN EVALUATION TOOL FOR MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND: In India, there has been a considerable rethink on the curriculum of medical education, specially, on the teaching and assessment methodology. Subjective assessment is slowly giving way to objective structured assessment. The aim of undergoing clinical ex amination is to assess the students learning skill, knowledge, professionalism and attitude avoiding examiners variability and bias. OSCE has been advocated as it overcomes the flaws of conventional clinical examination. OBJECTIVE: To find out effective, E valuation tool where the assessment is Structured, Competency based, In - depth testing of skills is done, And higher levels of Millers Pyramid is tested. Method: A comparative study was conducted in Tagore Medical College and Hospital among the 9 th Semester students. Scores obtained under both the methods were compared using statistical methods. After undergoing both the examination, feedback was collected to assess the attitude of the students towards both the methods. RESULTS: By quantitative analysis, t he two - tailed P value is 0.000 which is considered to be extremely statistically significant. So, the null hypothesis was rejected. So, there is strong reason to believe that students are able to score better under a better examination methodology. By qualit ative analysis, attitude of the students towards OSCE method was better than CCE method. CONCLUSION: It is proved that Objective structured clinical examination a statistically significant better evaluation tool with comparison to conventional examination and it can be included in the undergraduate assessment method.

  4. Developing an Understanding of Haitian Culture through Select Social Studies Objectives in a Class for Learning Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggett, Camilla Felicia

    Designed to introduce global perspectives in a sixth-grade class for learning disabled students, this program was designed to help students develop an understanding of Haitian culture and a sense of empathy for persons of Haitian background. The program contained seven strategies: film watching, game playing, food sampling, class discussions,…

  5. Behind the Final Grade in Hybrid v. Traditional Courses: Comparing Student Performance by Assessment Type, Core Competency, and Course Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Lisa Z.

    2012-01-01

    There are many different delivery methods used by institutions of higher education. These include traditional, hybrid, and online course offerings. The comparisons of these typically use final grade as the measure of student performance. This research study looks behind the final grade and compares student performance by assessment type, core…

  6. Analyzing the Impact of the 2012 Ford Focus Target Hunt: Can Student Managed Projects Accomplish Both Academic and Corporate Objectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Timothy W.; St. Clair, Jordan; Sullivan, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Student-managed business projects offer students the opportunity to garner valuable real world experience while businesses can fulfill corporate responsibilities utilizing relatively inexpensive manpower. This paper describes an event marketing/social media marketing project completed in conjunction with Jackson-Dawson Communications, representing…

  7. Analyzing the Impact of the 2012 Ford Focus Target Hunt: Can Student Managed Projects Accomplish Both Academic and Corporate Objectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurand, Timothy W.; St. Clair, Jordan; Sullivan, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Student-managed business projects offer students the opportunity to garner valuable real world experience while businesses can fulfill corporate responsibilities utilizing relatively inexpensive manpower. This paper describes an event marketing/social media marketing project completed in conjunction with Jackson-Dawson Communications, representing…

  8. Prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students - United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B

    2010-04-01

    We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Effects of a Water Conservation Instructional Unit on the Values Held by Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Andrew; Tomera, Audrey

    1977-01-01

    Sixth grade students were divided into two groups. Students in one group received instruction on water conservation using expository and discovery activities. The students in the control group received none. Results gave evidence that students' values could be changed by this mode of water conservation instruction. (MA)

  10. Identification of microorganisms on mobile phones of intensive care unit health care workers and medical students in the tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotris, Ivan; Drenjančević, Domagoj; Talapko, Jasminka; Bukovski, Suzana

    2017-02-01

    Aim To identify and investigate a difference between microorganisms present on intensive care unit (ICU) health care workers' (HCW, doctors, nurses or medical technicians) and medical students' mobile phones as well as to investigate a difference between the frequency and the way of cleaning mobile phones. Methods Fifty swabs were collected from HCWs who work in the ICU (University Hospital Centre Osijek) and 60 swabs from medical students (School of Medicine, University of Osijek). Microorganisms were identified according to standard microbiological methods and biochemical tests to the genus/species level. Results Out of 110 processed mobile phones, mobile phones microorganisms were not detected on 25 (22.7%), 15 (25%) students' and 10 (20%) HCW's mobile phones. No statistically significant difference was found between the number of isolated bacteria between the HCW' and students' mobile phones (p>0.05). Statistically significant difference was found between both HCW and students and frequency of cleaning their mobile phones (pmobile phones between HCWs and students (pmobile phones at least once a week, 35 (52.0%), and most medical students several times per year, 20 (33.3%). HCW clean their mobile phones with alcohol disinfectant in 26 (40.0%) and medical students with dry cloth in 20 (33.3%) cases.

  11. Effect of the dedicated education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lynn E; Locasto, Lisa W; Pyo, Katrina A; W Cline, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model. Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Pre-clinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high self-efficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes.

  12. Tracking Students' Eye-Movements When Reading Learning Objects on Mobile Phones: A Discourse Analysis of Luganda Language Teacher-Trainees' Reflective Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabugo, David; Muyinda, Paul B.; Masagazi, Fred. M.; Mugagga, Anthony M.; Mulumba, Mathias B.

    2016-01-01

    Although eye-tracking technologies such as Tobii-T120/TX and Eye-Tribe are steadily becoming ubiquitous, and while their appropriation in education can aid teachers to collect robust information on how students move their eyes when reading and engaging with different learning objects, many teachers of Luganda language are yet to gain experiences…

  13. Configurable slit-mask unit of the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration for the Keck telescope: integration and tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudakis, Peter; Giriens, Laurent; Henein, Simon; Lisowski, Leszek; O'Hare, Aidan; Onillon, Emmanuel; Schwab, Philippe; Theurillat, Patrick

    2008-07-01

    A Configurable Slit Unit (CSU) has been developed for the Multi-Object Spectrometer for Infra-Red Exploration (MOSFIRE) instrument to be installed on the Keck 1 Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. MOSFIRE will provide NIR multi-object spectroscopy over a field of view of 6.1' x 6.1'. The reconfigurable mask allows the formation of 46 optical slits in a 267 x 267 mm2 field of view. The mechanism is an evolution of a former prototype designed by CSEM and qualified for the European Space Agency (ESA) as a candidate for the slit mask on NIRSpec for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The CSU is designed to simultaneously displace masking bars across the field-of-view (FOV) to mask unwanted light. A set of 46 bar pairs are used to form the MOSFIRE focal plane mask. The sides of the bars are convoluted so that light is prevented from passing between adjacent bars. The slit length is fixed (5.1 mm) but the width is variable down to 200 μm with a slit positioning accuracy of +/- 18 μm. A two-bar prototype mechanism was designed, manufactured and cryogenically tested to validate the modifications from the JWST prototype. The working principle of the mechanism is based on an improved "inch-worm" stepping motion of 92 masking bars forming the optical mask. Original voice coil actuators are used to drive the various clutches. The design makes significant use of flexure structures.

  14. Levels and Patterns of Objectively Assessed Physical Activity and Compliance with Different Public Health Guidelines in University Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia María Arias-Palencia

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA is associated with health enhancement. The aim of this study was to assess: 1 levels and patterns of PA in university students by using accelerometers; and 2 the percentage of fulfilment of PA recommendations for adults, according to different public health guidelines.Observational cross-sectional study (Cuenca's Adults Study involving 296 (206 women healthy Spanish university students aged 18-25 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Total PA, steps and time spent in sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA was assessed, and the prevalence of sufficient PA was calculated according to various public health guidelines.No sex differences in total PA were found. University students were more sedentary during weekend days than weekdays (p<0.05. Only 30.3% of participants accumulated 30 min/day at least five days a week of MVPA. A total of 5.4% of students met the recommendation of 150 min/week of MVPA or 75 min/week of vigorous PA, in PA bouts of at least 10 min. using the same definition, but on five or more days a week, only 0.5% students were found to meet the recommendation. In addition, only 0.5% of students met the recommendation of 30 min/day of MVPA, at least five days a week and in bouts of at least 10 min. Finally, 28.1% of the students met the recommendation of 10,000 steps/day.Our study shows a high incidence of sedentary time in university students. The number of students meeting PA recommendations significantly differed depending on the recommendation proposed. Specific strategies to promote PA in this population are necessary as well as an agreement as to which PA guidelines should be used.

  15. Enhancing quality and safety competency development at the unit level: an initial evaluation of student learning and clinical teaching on dedicated education units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulready-Shick, Joann; Kafel, Kathleen W; Banister, Gaurdia; Mylott, Laura

    2009-12-01

    The need to attend to quality and safety competency development, increase capacity in nursing education programs, address the faculty and nursing shortages, and find new ways to keep step with an ever-changing health care environment has brought forth numerous creative curricular responses and collaborative efforts. To tackle these multiple needs and challenges simultaneously, a new academic-service partnership was created to collaboratively develop an innovative clinical education delivery model. The designed dedicated education unit model not only promoted student learning about quality and safety competencies via unit-based projects but also supported quality improvements in nursing care delivery. Following the initial semester of the model's implementation, a pilot study was conducted. The findings generated the evidence required to take this innovation to the next level. Moreover, the education-practice partnership, which was created to implement the clinical education delivery model, was strengthened as a result of this preliminary evaluation.

  16. Study of the reliability and validity of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of clinical skills of audiology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh; Amiri, Marzieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2013-01-31

    Audiology students should possess clinical competence and skills. To achieve this, their clinical skills must be properly assessed. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a standard and fair examination of clinical competence. The goal of this study is to devise a checklist of OSCE examination criteria and study their validity and reliability for assessing the clinical competence of Audiology students. Among the various procedures in which audiology students should possess demonstrated competence, 10 specific skills were selected and checklists were prepared. Faculty members of university's Audiology Department were consulted to determine the validity of the checklists. Subsequently, the examination was administered to all 14 fourth-year audiology students in their final semester of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The examination consisted of three question stations and seven procedure stations. Each station was managed by two examiners who independently used a checklist to score each student's performance in a given procedure. To determine reliability, the Spearman test was used. The correlation between each examiner's scores of students at question stations was 0.908. The correlation between each examiner's scores at procedure stations was 0.857 (p=0). The site of lesion test had the highest correlation (0.948) and immittance audiometry had the lowest correlation (0.585). The prepared checklists had good validity and reliability and can be used to evaluate the clinical competence of audiology students in their final semester of study.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS USING OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED CLINICAL EXAMINATION IN GENERAL MEDICINE: STUDENT’S AND TEACHER’S PERCEPTION

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    Sudhir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs have become one of the most widely used methods of assessing aspects of clinical competency in healthcare education. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs is also introduced in our newly formed medical college Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (IGIMS, Patna, for last few years in different departments, but this is first study to know the perception of this evaluation method among students and faculties. AIM AND OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to introduce the newer method of assessment Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs. Objective of the study is to assess the perceptions of teachers and students regarding OSCE in general medicine. METHODOLOGY After obtaining permission from ethics committee, this cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of General Medicine; 84 students and 9 faculty members were briefed about OSCEs. At the end of 8th semester, OSCE was conducted and immediate feedback regarding this method of examination was taken using Likert’s scale. Perceptions of students and teachers were collected with suitable statements. Their suggestions and remarks were also collected. RESULTS A 55.55% of faculty members agreed that OSCE covered a wide range of knowledge compared with conventional examination; 66% of faculty members agreed that OSCE assessed the various domain of student’s knowledge in a better way compared with conventional examination; 88% of teachers agreed that checklist in OSCE provided a fair system of marking which removed variability of examiner; 84 out of 87 students of 8th semester undergraduate answered the questionnaire based on Likert’s scale; 67% students strongly agreed that OSCE was a fair method of assessment compared with conventional examination; 58% students found that OSCE tested a wide range of knowledge compared with conventional method. They were disagreed about OSCE being stressful and

  18. International Students' Use of Social Network Services in the New Culture: A Case Study with Korean Youths in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, international students, especially from Asia, have reportedly experienced difficulty adjusting to their new life and culture. Little research has been done to understand the role of social network service (SNS)s, including instant messaging, blogs, chatting websites, and email on these students. Korean students are the…

  19. In Loco Parentis: Recent Developments in this Legal Doctrine as Applied to the University-Student Relationship in the United States of America, 1965-75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrath, Richard Cranmer

    Is the doctrine of "in loco parentis" a viable legal theory today for describing the relationship between the university and the student in the United States? The student dissent of the 1960's forced both the universities and the courts to reconsider the basic legal nature of the university-student relationship, but there is still…

  20. International Students' Use of Social Network Services in the New Culture: A Case Study with Korean Youths in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Meier, Ellen B.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, international students, especially from Asia, have reportedly experienced difficulty adjusting to their new life and culture. Little research has been done to understand the role of social network service (SNS)s, including instant messaging, blogs, chatting websites, and email on these students. Korean students are the…

  1. Solar Heating Systems: Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joanne; And Others

    This Student Manual for a Solar Heating System curriculum contains 22 units of instructional materials for students to use in a course or courses on solar heating systems (see note). For each unit (task), objectives, assignment sheets, laboratory assignments, information sheets, checkpoints (tests), and job sheets are provided. Materials are set…

  2. An Alternative Theoretical Model: Examining Psychosocial Identity Development of International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the plethora of college student identity development research, very little attention has been paid to the identity formation of international students. Rather than adopting existing identity theories in college student development, this exploratory qualitative study proposes a new psychosocial identity development model for international…

  3. A Multilevel Model of Educational Expectations of Secondary School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Jennifer; Elliott, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Using the Educational Longitudinal Survey of 2002, we investigate variation in factors that contribute to Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White students' educational expectations. Separate multilevel models demonstrate group variation in student and school-level influences. Academic and school factors explained the most variation in White students'…

  4. Perceived Support as a Predictor of Acculturative Stress among International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieru

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study was conducted to measure the acculturative stress of international students and investigate the predictors of acculturative stress. A total of 186 students participated in the survey. Results showed that 22.4% of the students in this study exceeded the normal stress level and might need counseling or psychological…

  5. Understanding the Motivation of Vietnamese International Students and Their Higher Education Experiences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randy Scott

    2012-01-01

    This research describes what motivates Vietnamese students to come to the U.S. to study for a degree, what outcomes they expect, and what they experience academically and culturally while studying in the U.S. Currently the surge of international students from Vietnam has reached an all time high of 13,112 students to the U.S. This moves the…

  6. Chinese Doctoral Student Socialization in the United States: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wendan; Collins, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    Although international students annually contribute billions of dollars to the US economy, meaningful intercultural interaction between international students, peers, and faculty is often missing at US host campuses. Feelings of isolation, loneliness, and alienation are pervasive among international students at US campuses; these feelings can…

  7. Physical Aggression and Mindfulness among College Students: Evidence from China and the United States

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    Yu Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between trait mindfulness and several dimensions of aggression (verbal, anger and hostility has been documented, while the link between physical aggression and trait mindfulness remains less clear. Method: We used two datasets: one United States sample from 300 freshmen males from Clemson University, South Carolina and a Chinese sample of 1516 freshmen students from Shanghai University of Finance and Economics. Multiple regressions were conducted to examine the association between mindfulness (measured by Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS and each of the four subscales of aggression. Results: Among the Clemson sample (N = 286, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.29, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.44, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai male subsample, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.57, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.37, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.35, p < 0.001; Anger: β = −0.58, p < 0.001. Among the Shanghai female subsample (N = 512, the mindfulness scale had a significant negative association with each of the four subscales of aggression: Hostility: β = −0.62, p < 0.001; Verbal: β = −0.41, p < 0.001; Physical: β = −0.52, p < 0.001; and Anger: β = −0.64, p < 0.001. Discussion: Our study documents the negative association between mindfulness and physical aggression in two non-clinical samples. Future studies could explore whether mindfulness training lowers physical aggression among younger adults.

  8. A brief report on rape myth acceptance: differences between police officers, law students, and psychology students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A common perception is that police officers hold very negative attitudes about rape victims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to establish whether police officers do accept stereotypical rape myths at a higher level compared to members of other populations. There were 3 comparison samples, composed of police officers, law students, and psychology students, that completed the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale. Male and female police officers accepted "she lied" myths at a higher level than the student samples. Student samples were found to accept 2 types of rape myths ("she asked for it" and "he didn't meant to") at a higher level compared to police officers. No significant differences were found in the other 4 subfactors. Therefore, the pattern of results suggests that police officers do not adhere to stereotypical myths about rape victims more than do other populations.

  9. Evaluation of the achievement of educational objectives of the Community Oral Health and Periodontics Departments using the CIPP model of evaluation–students' perspective

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    Pakdaman A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Evaluation is a continuous process which is necessary for improvement of students learning and planning for required changes to obtain the educational objectives. The aim of the present study was to assess students' perspective on the achievement of the educational objectives of the Community Oral Health and Periodontology Departments using the CIPP model of evaluation."nMaterials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey has been conducted using a questionnaire consists of four domains as introduced in the CIPP model of evaluation (Context, Input, Process and Product. Two groups of senior dental students of the dental school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were approached. Data was collected anonymously and was analyzed with non-parametric Mann-Whitney test using the SPSS statistical package."nResults: The response rate was 67.7% for year 6 and 87.5% for the year 5 students. Respondents considered material presented in Periodontology Department more relevant and in need for their future career. However, teaching skills and motivation of the educators in Periodontology Department was considered inadequate. 67% of students reported having problem with material taught in Periodontology Department. Overall, significant difference in domains of Context and Process was observed between two departments (p<0.05. In the output domain students rated their clinical and theoretical ability "weak" in relation to splint, implant, management of acute gingivitis and electrosurgery compared with other topics which rated "good". Students considered their ability in using the principals of Evidence-Based Dentistry moderate."nConclusion: The evaluation of the educational achievements of the two departments (COH and Periodontics using CIPP model of evaluation showed that there is significant difference in two domains (Context and Process. In those topics which achievement was reported weak the revision of teaching methods is

  10. Making the invisible visible: Enhancing students' conceptual understanding by introducing representations of abstract objects in a simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olympiou, G.; Zacharias, Z.; Jong, de T.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify if complementing representations of concrete objects with representations of abstract objects improves students’ conceptual understanding as they use a simulation to experiment in the domain of Light and Color. Moreover, we investigated whether students’ prior knowledge

  11. Making the invisible visible: Enhancing students' conceptual understanding by introducing representations of abstract objects in a simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olympiou, G.; Zacharias, Z.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify if complementing representations of concrete objects with representations of abstract objects improves students’ conceptual understanding as they use a simulation to experiment in the domain of Light and Color. Moreover, we investigated whether students’ prior knowledge

  12. A near-peer teaching program designed, developed and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates for final year medical students sitting the final objective structured clinical examination (OSCE

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    Sobowale Oluwaseun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The General Medical Council states that teaching doctors and students is important for the care of patients. Our aim was to deliver a structured teaching program to final year medical students, evaluate the efficacy of teaching given by junior doctors and review the pertinent literature. Methods We developed a revision package for final year medical students sitting the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. The package was created and delivered exclusively by recent medical graduates and consisted of lectures and small group seminars covering the core areas of medicine and surgery, with a focus on specific OSCE station examples. Students were asked to complete a feedback questionnaire during and immediately after the program. Results One hundred and eighteen completed feedback questionnaires were analysed. All participants stated that the content covered was relevant to their revision. 73.2% stated that junior doctors delivered teaching that is comparable to that of consultant - led teaching. 97.9% stated the revision course had a positive influence on their learning. Conclusions Our study showed that recent medical graduates are able to create and deliver a structured, formal revision program and provide a unique perspective to exam preparation that was very well received by our student cohort. The role of junior doctors teaching medical students in a formal structured environment is very valuable and should be encouraged.

  13. Analysis of midwifery students' written reflections to evaluate progression in learning during clinical practice at birthing units.

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Eva-Kristina; Kvist, LInda; Ekelin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Written daily reflections during clinical practice on birthing units have been used during several years in midwifery education at Lund University, Sweden. However, the usefulness of these reflections for evaluation of progression in learning and professional development of students has to date not been evaluated. In order to analyse written reflections, two taxonomies developed by Bloom and Pettersen have been applied to the texts. Progression in the professional development of midwifery stu...

  14. An Analysis of Academic Assistance Programs on At-Risk Students at the United States Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    determined to be at-risk are enrolled in an academic assistance program known as the Plebe Intervention Program. In addition, other academic assistance...percentage of students at the United States Naval Academy are enrolled in an academic assistance program known as the Plebe Intervention Program. This... Plebe Intervention Program. Results of the study indicate that participation in the Midshipmen Group Study Program leads to an increase in academic

  15. Life Stories of Graduate Students in Chile and the United States: Becoming a Scientist from Childhood to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Fernandez, Marta A.

    The purpose of this cross-national study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding about doctoral students in the United States and Chile and how their decisions to pursue a career in the life sciences field occurred throughout their lives. . I interviewed 15 doctoral students from the Seven Lakes University (Chile) and 15 students from the West Coast University (US), using a life history approach. Analyses revealed that the degree of flexibility in the schooling system and the degree of individualism and collectivism of the social groups in which the students were learning science seemed to influence the informants' vocational decisions in three interrelated processes: (1) Deciding the informants' degree of interest and ability in science by the opportunity of choosing science classes and activities. The highly tracked Chilean system socializes students to science at an early age. The more flexible school system in the US enabled the interviewees to gradually decide about pursuing their interest in science; (2) Experiencing science as a collective learning process for the Chilean informants and an individualistic learning process for the US students; (3) Perceiving science differently at each life stage for both groups of interviewees including: Playing science, Studying science, Doing science, Working in science, Practicing Science in their doctoral programs.

  16. Building and critiquing qualitative research websites: a cyberspace project to connect undergraduate nursing students in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teel, Cynthia S; Shaw, Judith A

    2005-01-01

    This project had a dual purpose: 1) to facilitate student learning about qualitative research methods, and 2) to promote collegiality and professional development among senior nursing students in Canada and the United States through the use of distance technology. In each of three project years, students at St. Francis Xavier University (STFX) in Nova Scotia initiated the experience by working in small groups to develop websites about different methodological approaches in qualitative research. Site information included an overview of the selected approach, discussion of trustworthiness issues, citation of journal articles in which authors used the approach, additional references, and some personal information about the student developers. Also working in small groups, University of Kansas students identified and read related research articles, reviewed website information, and responded to the STFX groups about the usefulness of site information in increasing understanding of qualitative methods and using the information for evaluation of research. The experience promoted active use of qualitative research concepts and facilitated the development of skills in evaluating research article content and website content. Participation in the activity fostered positive perceptions about the value and use of research and helped students appreciate the similarities in courses, programs, and professional requirements and values among international peers.

  17. How States Use Student Learning Objectives in Teacher Evaluation Systems: A Review of State Websites. Summary. REL 2014-013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacireno-Paquet, Natalie; Morgan, Claire; Mello, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the need to improve teaching and learning and by federal priorities reflected in requirements for grant programs such as Race to the Top and the Teacher Incentive Fund, many states are developing teacher evaluation systems that include measures of individual teachers' contributions to their students' learning growth. One way to…

  18. Evaluation of Students' Views about the Use of SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model)-Compatible Materials in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Selahattin; Basaran, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a web site including instructional materials such as Whiteboard Movies (WBM), simulations and animations and testing materials such as true-false, fill-in-the-blanks, puzzles, open-ended questions and multiple-choice questions was designed. The study was carried out with 76 students attending Dicle College (DC), Diyarbakir…

  19. Objects, Entities, Behaviors, and Interactions: A Typology of Student-Constructed Computer-Based Models of Physical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Michael, Michalis; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing and evaluating student-constructed models of physical phenomena and monitoring the progress of these models. Moreover, we aimed to examine whether this framework could capture differences between models created using different computer-based modeling tools; namely, computer-based…

  20. Coming to See Objects of Knowledge: Guiding Student Conceptualization through Teacher Embodied Instruction in a Robotics Programming Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the questions of how a teacher guides students to see concepts, and the role of gesture and gesture viewpoints in mediating the process of guidance. To examine these questions, two sociocultural theoretical frameworks--Radford's cultural-semiotic theory of knowledge objectification (e.g., 2003), and Goldman's Points of Viewing…

  1. Students of the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra as Object of the Research Results in Developing Foreign Language Writing Skills

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    Ľubomíra MORAVCOVÁ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the foreign language is one of the most important language skills students develop and improve at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra. Strong writing skills are essential to their future success, whether they are related to writing general reports on agricultural issues at home or in the world as well as to working-out some research papers aimed at agriculture, but also at some other areas of the business world. We have to state that writing is perhaps one of the most difficult skills students can develop and improve at our University. They learn how to write effectively, they are encouraged to develop an awareness of themselves as students - writers and essay authors. This paper deals with the essay writing analysis in teaching foreign languages at the Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, particularly from the point of their final results. The research was carried out in the Department of Languages and we present in our paper the results students achieved in writing essays in the two compared years, 2007 and 2010.

  2. Coming to see objects of knowledge: Guiding student conceptualization through teacher embodied instruction in a robotics programming class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwah, Helen

    This thesis explores the questions of how a teacher guides students to see concepts, and the role of gesture and gesture viewpoints in mediating the process of guidance. To examine these questions, two sociocultural theoretical frameworks--Radford's cultural-semiotic theory of knowledge objectification (e.g., 2003), and Goldman's Points of Viewing theory (e.g., 2007)--were applied to conduct a microanalytic, explanatory case study of the instructional activity of an exemplary teacher and his students in a middle school robotics programming class. According to Radford, students acquire concepts as they draw upon semiotic resources such as language and gesture to generalize and objectify initially concrete perceptions and actions. I applied Radford's framework to explain the mediations that a teacher might enact in guiding students to objectify and see concepts. Furthermore, I focused on gesture as semiotic means because of emergent research on gesture's role in communicating the visuospatial imagery that underlies math/ scientific concepts. I extended the view of gestures to the viewpoints constructed in gesture, and applied Goldman's theory to explain how perspectives might be actively constructed and shared in the process of guiding student conceptualization. Data was collected over a semester through participant observation, field notes, teacher and student interviews, and reviews of artifacts. Multimodal microanalyses were conducted on video data from eight class sessions. The findings provide confirmations and some disconfirmations about the applicability of Radford's and Goldman's theories for explaining a teacher's process of guiding student conceptualization. Notably, some of Radford's notions about de-contextualization and symbolic generalizations were not confirmed. Overall, the findings are summarized through three themes including, grounding, and perceptual organizers as two ways that gesture and other means served to both index and identify action

  3. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK: a regional survey

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    Payne Karl Frederick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.

  4. An analysis of TA-Student Interaction and the Development of Concepts in 3-d Space Through Language, Objects, and Gesture in a College-level Geoscience Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to describe how a teaching assistant (TA) in an undergraduate geology laboratory employs a multimodal system in order to mediate the students' understanding of scientific knowledge and develop a contextualization of a concept in three-dimensional space and 2) to describe how a linguistic awareness of gestural patterns can be used to inform TA training assessment of students' conceptual understanding in situ. During the study the TA aided students in developing the conceptual understanding and reconstruction of a meteoric impact, which produces shatter cone formations. The concurrent use of speech, gesture, and physical manipulation of objects is employed by the TA in order to aid the conceptual understanding of this particular phenomenon. Using the methods of gestural analysis in works by Goldin-Meadow, 2000 and McNeill, 1992, this study describes the gestures of the TA and the students as well as the purpose and motivation of the meditational strategies employed by TA in order to build the geological concept in the constructed 3-dimensional space. Through a series of increasingly complex gestures, the TA assists the students to construct the forensic concept of the imagined 3-D space, which can then be applied to a larger context. As the TA becomes more familiar with the students' meditational needs, the TA adapts teaching and gestural styles to meet their respective ZPDs (Vygotsky 1978). This study shows that in the laboratory setting language, gesture, and physical manipulation of the experimental object are all integral to the learning and demonstration of scientific concepts. Recognition of the gestural patterns of the students allows the TA the ability to dynamically assess the students understanding of a concept. Using the information from this example of student-TA interaction, a brief short course has been created to assist TAs in recognizing the mediational power as well as the assessment potential of gestural

  5. Student Misconceptions during Two Invasion Game Units in Physical Education: A Qualitative Investigation of Student Thought Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Molly K.; Graber, Kim C.

    2000-01-01

    Described misconceptions of elementary students participating in physical education, testing ways of recording and classifying types of misconceptions. Data from observations, videotapes, interviews, and document analysis indicated that misconceptions fell into categories representing motor skill execution and confusion over terminology, strategy,…

  6. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  7. A randomized comparison of video demonstration versus hands-on training of medical students for vacuum delivery using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Kumpernatz, Anne K; Rezniczek, Günther A; Cetin, Cem; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-03-01

    To compare medical students' skills for vaginal operative delivery by vacuum extraction (VE) after hands-on training versus video demonstration. We randomized medical students to an expert demonstration (group 1) or a hands-on (group 2) training using a standardized VE algorithm on a pelvic training model. Students were tested with a 40-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scoring system after training and 4 days later. OSATS scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were secondary outcomes. We assessed the constructive validity of OSATS in this VE model comparing metric scores of experts and students. In all, 137 students were randomized. OSATS scores were higher in group 2 (n = 63) compared with group 1 (n = 74) (32.89 ± 6.39 vs 27.51 ± 10.27, respectively; P training is superior to video demonstration for teaching VE on a pelvic model.

  8. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  9. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  10. A Methodology to Understand Student Choice of Higher Education Institutions: The Case of the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Richard; Haddock-Fraser, Janet; Rands, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The need to understand how prospective students decide which higher education institution to attend is becoming of paramount importance as the policy context for higher education moves towards market-based systems in many countries. This paper provides a novel methodology by which student preferences between institutions can be assessed, using the…

  11. Teaching Units for Consumer Home Economics. Topic: Mainstreaming Ideas for Special Needs Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maineri, Sandra C.

    This guide is intended to help high school home economics teachers to teach special needs students who are mainstreamed into their classrooms. It aims to familiarize teachers with types of disabilities and approaches for creating empathy among fellow students who are not disabled. Ideas for working with wheelchair bound and developmentally…

  12. Introduction to Social Psychology: Administrative Manual [And] Student Manual [And] Unit Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Robert E.

    This learning package is a three-semester-hour, independent-study course in social psychology designed for postsecondary, external degree students. Keyed to the commercially published textbook "Social Psychology: Explorations in Understanding" (Del Mar, CA: CRM, 1974), the package consists of an administrator manual, a student manual, and a…

  13. Comparison of Motivational Factors between Japanese and United States High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    Spanning multiple subjects and age groups, U.S. students rate poorly while Japanese students rate highly when subject to international testing. Japanese children complete twice as much homework as their U.S. counterparts and sometimes attend school on Saturdays. The literature review looks at motivation in both U.S. American and Japanese students…

  14. Social Environments and Physical Aggression among 21,107 Students in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, William; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Dostaler, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical aggression is an important issue in North American populations. The importance of students' social environments in the occurrence of physical aggression requires focused study. In this study, reports of physical aggression were examined in relation to social environment factors among national samples of students from Canada…

  15. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  16. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

  17. Effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring on the Performance of Sixth Grade Students during a Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the effects of Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT), a variation of peer tutoring on the volleyball skills of four 6th grade middle school students purposefully selected from an intact class of 21 students. Participants were average to low skilled males and females. A single subject A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to…

  18. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  19. ALOHA to New Learning: Uniting Student and Career Staff through Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lynn N.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines staff training from a different perspective, as a means of transmitting organizational culture to student employees through a closer communication between career and student part-time employees. Results of a qualitative survey suggest communication supports multigenerational relationships and administrators who invest in…

  20. Undergraduate Student Acceptance of a Unit Design for Developing Independent Learning Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutshi, Samar; Mitchell, Matthew; Weaver, Debbi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a method intended to advance students along the path to independent learning. The method is consistent with the principles of enquiry-based learning. It involves restructuring student contact class time into a single three-hour block, and dedicating the majority of this time to working in small research project groups.…

  1. Analysis of midwifery students' written reflections to evaluate progression in learning during clinical practice at birthing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Eva K; Kvist, Linda J; Ekelin, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Written daily reflections during clinical practice on birthing units have been used during several years in midwifery education at Lund University, Sweden. However, the usefulness of these reflections for evaluation of progression in learning and professional development of students has to date not been evaluated. In order to analyse written reflections, two taxonomies developed by Bloom and Pettersen have been applied to the texts. Progression in the professional development of midwifery students can be seen through levels of complexity in cognitive and psycho-motor learning areas and also in the description of learning situations. Progression can be seen from a basic description of facts in simple situations at the beginning of the students' practice to a complex description of complicated situations towards the end of the practice. Written daily reflections appear to be a suitable method to help students to reflect in a structured way, thereby helping their professional development. Reflections can help clinical supervisors to understand the needs of the individual student and to support their knowledge accruement. Daily written reflections on clinical practice can be of use in other health education programs.

  2. BONE PICTURE BOOK, A BOOK FOR STUDENTS USING THE ESS UNIT BONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elementary Science Study, Newton, MA.

    THIS PICTURE BOOK WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE WITH THE ELEMENTARY SCIENCE STUDY UNIT ON "BONES." THE UNIT PROVIDES AN OPPORTUNITY TO DEVELOP MANY CONCEPTS ABOUT THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. NUMEROUS PHOTOGRAPHS ARE PROVIDED OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FIVE VERTEBRATE CLASSES AND SELECTED INVERTEBRATES. BOTH EXTANT AND EXTINCT MEMBERS ARE REPRESENTED. THE MEMBERS…

  3. Get on Board the Underground Railroad: A Sample Unit for Fifth-Grade History Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Phyllis M.; Young, Terrell A.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the materials and procedures used in a fifth-grade history unit on the Underground Railroad. The unit integrated a variety of teaching methods and materials making extensive use of historical literature, K-W-L (what we Know, what we Want to find out, what we Learned) charts, and activities aimed at different learning styles. (MJP)

  4. Intensive Mode Delivery of a Neuroanatomy Unit: Lower Final Grades but Higher Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Macquarie University moved to a three-session academic year which included two 13-week sessions (traditional mode) and one seven-week session (intensive mode). This study was designed to compare the intensive and traditional modes of delivery in a unit of undergraduate neuroanatomy. The new intensive mode neuroanatomy unit provided the…

  5. Analysis of the level of general clinical skills of physician assistant students using an objective structured clinical examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vught, A.J. van; Hettinga, A.M.; Denessen, E.J.; Gerhardus, M.J.T.; Bouwmans, G.A.M.; Brink, G.T. van den; Postma, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The physician assistant (PA) is trained to perform clinical tasks traditionally performed by medical doctors (MDs). Previous research showed no difference in the level of clinical skills of PAs compared with MDs in a specific niche, that is the specialty in which they

  6. Objectives and Actual HIV and AIDS Education Programme Delivery and Behavioral Changes among Kenyan Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongunya, R. O.; Indoshi, F. C.; Agak, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Although there seems to be a high level of awareness of the HIV and AIDS menace among the youth, their behavior does not reflect this level of awareness. There seems to be a mismatch between HIV and AIDS Programme objectives and behavior change among the youth. However, this level of mismatch has not been established for effective intervention…

  7. Subjective and objective measures of socioeconomic status: predictors of cardiovascular risk in college students in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchday, Sonia; Chhabra, Rosy; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Almeida, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health changes as a society develops. In developed countries, high SES is associated with better health, but in developing countries, high SES is associated with poorer health. However, measuring SES is difficult in countries like India, where the traditional class and caste system are interwoven and complex. The current study explored the relationship between subjective and objective indices of SES and between SES and the metabolic syndrome among Asian Indians residing in Mumbai, India. Participants were a subset of young adults (N = 112, median age 19 years, 24% male) who were part of larger study assessing psychosocial correlates of the metabolic syndrome. SES was assessed through objective (father's education) and subjective (SES ladder) indices. Data indicated that high subjective SES was correlated with fasting blood sugar (r = .28, P < .003), and father's education was correlated with high cholesterol (r = .32, P < .005). Subjective and objective indices of SES were also correlated with each other (r = .24, P < .04). These data reiterate that the link between SES and health is obvious from an early age, regardless of the measures used to assess SES. Given the complexity of assessing SES in developing countries, objective subjective indices should be used in assessing SES.

  8. The Pedagogy of Critical Thinking: Object Design Implications for Improving Students' Thoughtful Engagement within E-Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcaen, Philip L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author described how a model of teaching critical thinking couples with the development of learning objects may help respond to broader calls for critical thinking both as a central goal in education and as a key aspect in the ecology of 21st century e-learning environment. The model developed by the Canadian Critical Thinking…

  9. Enhanced Web-Based Otitis Study Case vs. Simple Paper-Case: Impact on Medical Student Objective Structured Clinical Exam Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Malloy, M.D., M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distance education methods have taken on greater importance as medical student education has moved off campus into the community. What the best methods are for conveying information to students at distant sites has not been determined. Objective: To determine if students at distant community sites who received an otitis media study case by e-mail that was enhanced with a referral to a web-based otitis study case, performed better on otitis OSCE stations than students who received the same case not enhanced with visuals or referrals to a web-based otitis case. Design/Methods: Students were randomized by community site to receive either the enhanced (E or simple otitis study case (S. Students were e-mailed an otitis media study case during the 5th week of the rotation. Those randomized to the E-case received a case that started with a case scenario followed by a "Task" that instructed them to go to this web address: http://www.aap.org/otitismedia/www/vc/ear/index.cfm (American Academy of Pediatrics Otitis Web Site. They were then to select "Case 1" which was a continuation of the case scenario present on their e-mail. A list of learning objectives was also printed on the e-mail. Students receiving the S-case viewed the same case scenario and objectives, but were not instructed to go to the web page. All students rotated through two OSCE otitis stations. In the first station they interviewed a simulated patient(OSCE-SP and counseled her on the management of her 12 month old with otitis. Within that station they viewed a video of a pneumoscopic exam of two ears, one ear with otitis and the other ear normal. At the 2nd otitis station the student presented the case to a faculty and was asked a series of questions about otitis media(OSCE-PR. Scores on the two stations were compared by group. Results: There were 198 students who took the OSCE. 178 (90% responded to a survey that indicated they had opened and read the e-mailed case. There

  10. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): a regional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps) has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257) of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131) of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203) of students and 68.4% (n=67/98) of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, papp usage of several times a day. Over 24hours apps were used for between 1–30 minutes for students and 1–20 minutes for doctors, students used disease diagnosis/management and drug reference apps, with doctors favouring clinical score/calculator apps. Conclusions This study found a high level of

  11. Nursing students´perception of taking part in an Inter-professional Clinical Study Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahnsen, Iben Bøgh; Braad, Mette; Lisby, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    collected among nursing students by focus group interviews. Findings: Nursing students increased knowledge of both own and other professions. Similarly, they realised the importance of inter-professional teamwork. However, they problematized that it was difficult to see the relevance and to integrate...... the stay at ICSU in their final clinical placement. Moreover, students spent a considerable amount of time an basic nursing tasks during their stay at the ICSU; skills already acquired earlier in their education programme. Conclusion: Staying in an ICSU improved inter-professional collaboration skills...

  12. Analysis of the objectives of physical education in schools in Algeria and their perception by teachers and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek SAKER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the education system, the teaching of physical education is considered as an activity rather than a formalized intellectual activity. As a result, the perce ption of the pedagogical relationship actors in this f ield it is not always favorable , especially in Western countries. No data are currently avail able on this subject in Algeria . The goal of our research is to fill this gap. We proposed to 142 physical ed ucation teachers and 464 students in secondary and middle schools in the Algiers region to complete questionnaires to collect their representations with respect to physical education. We based on closed questions (Likert scale with four levels. In additi on, an open question was included in the questionnaire for teachers. In this case a content analysis allowed us to classify the responses into a system of categories (% agree intra - analyst 93.3 %. Among the results, we will retain that: (1 the represent ation of the majority of teachers to comp ly with official guidelines; ( 2 physical education teachers mainly consider the status of physical education as "lower" than other school subjects; (3 physical education is well appreciated by all students subje ct in school, (4 representations of actors pedagogical relationship differ between the Algerian situation and that of European countries.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THEORY AND METHODS OF USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS OF ENGINEERING SPECIALITIES STUDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia M. Kiianovska; Natalia V. Rashevska; Serhii O. Semerikov

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of information and communication technologies (ICT) development in teaching mathematics of engineering specialities students in the United States. In the article the nature of trends of convergence of information system in higher technical education and other tendencies in the USA are сharacterized. The main historical stages of development of the theory and methods of ICT use in teaching mathematics of engineering specialities students in the United States...

  14. E-learning module on chronic low back pain in older adults: evidence of effect on medical student objective structured clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Debra K; Morone, Natalia E; Spallek, Heiko; Karp, Jordan F; Schneider, Michael; Washburn, Carol; Dziabiak, Michael P; Hennon, John G; Elnicki, D Michael

    2014-06-01

    The Institute of Medicine has highlighted the urgent need to close undergraduate and graduate educational gaps in treating pain. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common pain conditions, and older adults are particularly vulnerable to potential morbidities associated with misinformed treatment. An e-learning case-based interactive module was developed at the University of Pittsburgh Center of Excellence in Pain Education, one of 12 National Institutes of Health-designated centers, to teach students important principles for evaluating and managing CLBP in older adults. A team of six experts in education, information technology, pain management, and geriatrics developed the module. Teaching focused on common errors, interactivity, and expert modeling and feedback. The module mimicked a patient encounter using a standardized patient (the older adult with CLBP) and a pain expert (the patient provider). Twenty-eight medical students were not exposed to the module (Group 1) and 27 were exposed (Group 2). Their clinical skills in evaluating CLBP were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Mean scores were 62.0 ± 8.6 for Group 1 and 79.5 ± 10.4 for Group 2 (P students (60.7%) and 26 of 27 Group 2 students (96.3%) passed. The CLBP OSCE was one of 10 OSCE stations in which students were tested at the end of a Combined Ambulatory Medicine and Pediatrics Clerkship. There were no between-group differences in performance on eight of the other nine OSCE stations. This module significantly improved medical student clinical skills in evaluating CLBP. Additional research is needed to ascertain the effect of e-learning modules on more-advanced learners and on improving the care of older adults with CLBP.

  15. Teaching with Soap: Examples of Project-Based Units for Students and Future Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ivan; Hamed, Kastro M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of project-based instruction in activities and labs intended to develop higher-order thinking skills with high school students and pre-service teachers through the use of soap making.

  16. Studying United States Constitutional Law: A Personal Experience of a Chinese Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengming

    1987-01-01

    A Chinese student of American constitutional law looks at problems and prospects in the application of the American constitutional experience in China and encourages more comparative study of consitutional law. (MSE)

  17. The impact of an international health study abroad program on university students from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Reginald

    2009-09-01

    International experience is paramount in society today. However, many US citizens have little understanding of the world beyond US borders. The purpose of this qualitative study was to (i) assess the impact of a study abroad program on students and (ii) the impact on the career goals of students who completed the program. Fall 2005 alumni (N = 68) of an international health study abroad program were sent a mail survey. Twenty-seven of the students who responded to the survey (61%) were currently in medical school, nursing school, or a master's program. All students indicated the program influenced their global view of the world. Participants indicated the experience continues to have an impact on how they critically think about the world, including US politics.

  18. Mental health and learning disability nursing students' perceptions of the usefulness of the objective structured clinical examination to assess their competence in medicine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Steve; Stephenson, John; Roberts, Bronwyn; McCann, Terence

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mental health and learning disability nursing students' perceptions of the usefulness of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in assessing their administration of medicine competence. Learning disability (n = 24) and mental health (n = 46) students from a single cohort were invited to evaluate their experience of the OSCE. A 10-item survey questionnaire was used, comprising open- and closed-response questions. Twelve (50%) learning disability and 32 (69.6%) mental health nursing students participated. The OSCE was rated highly compared to other theoretical assessments; it was also reported as clinically real and as a motivational learning strategy. However, it did not rate as well as clinical practice. Content analysis of written responses identified four themes: (i) benefits of the OSCE; (ii) suggestions to improve the OSCE; (iii) concern about the lack of clinical reality of the OSCE; and (iv) OSCE-induced stress. The themes, although repeating some of the positive statistical findings, showed that participants were critical of the university setting as a place to conduct clinical assessment, highlighted OSCE-related stress, and questioned the validity of the OSCE as a real-world assessment. The OSCE has an important role in the development of student nurses' administration of medicine skills. However, it might hinder their performance as a result of the stress of being assessed in a simulated environment.

  19. Association of weekly strength exercise frequency and academic performance among students at a large university in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Castelli, Darla; Ayers, Suzan F

    2013-07-01

    The study aimed to examine (a) the association between weekly strength exercise frequency and grade point average (GPA), and (b) the demographic characteristics of weekly strength exercise frequency among undergraduate students at a large southern state university in the United States. Health behavior data (N = 1125) collected by the American College Health Association at the university in 2008 were analyzed. Analysis of variance was used to investigate weekly strength exercise frequency differences in GPA, sex, ethnicity, and year in university. The results revealed that those who more frequently engaged in strength exercise had significantly higher GPA. There was a significant difference in weekly strength exercise frequency by sex and ethnicity. Findings suggest that regular engagement in strength exercise may not only have physical health benefits but is also associated with academic achievement in high education. There is a need to further investigate the mechanism of strength exercise on GPA among university students.

  20. The Influence of Parents' Beliefs and Expectations on Students' Mathematics Achievement in the United States and Japan: A Comparison of Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskow, Tia

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, considerable research has been done comparing the relative achievement in mathematics by students in the United States and Japan. The current study focuses on one possible factor influencing student achievement: parental influence. The researcher interviewed a small group of teachers in the two countries regarding their…

  1. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  2. Language Anxiety: A Case Study of the Perceptions and Experiences of Students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lababidi, Rola Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores and investigates the perceptions and experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) among students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates. The first phase explored the scope and severity of language anxiety among all Foundation level male students at a college in the…

  3. Interest in the Teaching Alliance and Its Associations with Multicultural Counseling Education among a Sample of Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth

    2016-01-01

    Using a scenario-based analogue experiment embedded within an online survey, 174 masters-level counseling students located at a university on the Southwest Coast of the United States provided data to test the notion that the teaching alliance--a framework for enhancing the quality of the student-instructor relationship--is (a) important in…

  4. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship among Quality Instruction, Teacher Self-Efficacy, Student Background, and Mathematics Achievement in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Han, Seong Won; Kang, Chungseo; Kwon, Oh Nam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast student, teacher, and school factors that are associated with student mathematics achievement in South Korea and the United States. Using the data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, this study examines factors that are linked to teachers who deliver…

  5. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  6. Choosing a Field: How Graduate Student Choices of Field Sites Reflect Different Ideas of "Real" Anthropology in Colombia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decisions and motivations of graduate students in cultural anthropology when defining the field sites and topics of their final projects. The decisions among students at the Universidad de los Andes in Colombia are contrasted with those at the University of Pittsburgh in the United States. A review of recent final projects…

  7. Effect of Computer Animation Technique on Students' Comprehension of the "Solar System and Beyond" Unit in the Science and Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of computer animation technique on academic achievement of students in the "Solar System and Beyond" unit lecture as part of the Science and Technology course of the seventh grade in primary education. The sample of the study consists of 60 students attending to the 7th grade of primary school…

  8. Examining the Prevalence of Self-Reported Foodborne Illnesses and Food Safety Risks among International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonga, Agnes Ngale; Eighmy, Myron A.; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Foodborne illness and food safety risks pose health threats to everyone, including international college students who live in the United States and encounter new or unfamiliar foods. This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported foodborne illness among international college students by cultural regions and length of time in the United…

  9. The Impact of a Hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model Soccer Unit on Students' Decision Making, Skill Execution and Overall Game Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Isabel; Farias, Claudio; Hastie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a hybrid Sport Education-Invasion Games Competence Model (SE-IGCM) unit application on students' improvements in decision making, skill execution and overall game performance, during a soccer season. Twenty-six fifth-grade students from a Portuguese public elementary school participated in a…

  10. Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and academic achievement from the beginning to the end of their academic year during their 11th–12th year of age. For both samples, quantitative results demonstrated that fall self-esteem was related to multiple indicators of later year academic achievement. While country differences emerge by the end of the year, math appears to have a consistent relationship with self-esteem in both country contexts. Qualitative analyses found some support for British students’ self-perceptions as more accurately reflecting their academic experience than the students from the United States. PMID:24068853

  11. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  12. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a…

  13. Introduction to Agribusiness. Unit A-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This secondary curriculum guides is comprised of two jobs (units of instruction) designed to introduce students to Agribusiness. An introductory section lists the jobs included in the guide, intended use, unit objectives, and references. Jobs included are (1) Understanding the Importance of Agribusiness and (2) Defining Types of Business…

  14. Medical Students in the United States Reveal Their Ideal Expectations to Help Planners of a New Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn Conway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Aronoff, N. (2016. Surveying medical students to gauge library use and plan for a new medical library. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 35(2, 187-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02763869.2016.1152144 Abstract Objective – To help plan for a new library by exploring student use of existing library services and identifying their priorities for the new space. Design – Online survey, sent via email. Setting – Medical school at a university in New York. Subjects – 585 medical students. Methods – The researchers emailed a 45-item online survey to all medical students enrolled at the school. Responses were anonymised and all questions were non-mandatory. Main results – 27% of students (157 out of 585 took part in the survey by answering at least one question. The questions were categorised into the following six topic areas: 1. Use of space and expectations for the new library space: More than half of the participants (67% indicated that they rarely or never came to the library during the academic year in question. Of the students who reported frequenting the library on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis, the majority indicated that they preferred independent study to group study. The following resources were ranked as very important for an ideal library space: sufficient electrical outlets, strong wireless connectivity, printing facilities, individual and quiet study spaces, comfortable seating, online resources, computers, windows/natural light, and group study spaces. Open-ended responses indicated that students desire close proximity to food and beverage services, large study tables to accommodate reading materials and technology, improved opening hours, and satisfactory bathroom facilities. 2. Where medical students study: Of the participants, one third of students reported studying at home, 21% chose to describe the physical characteristics of their place of study rather than name a place, 18% of students studied in

  15. Effects of Peer Instruction on State College Student Achievement in an Introductory Biology Unit in Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Holly Nicole

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Peer Instruction (PI) in a state college biology classroom. Students discussed biological concepts in the area of genetics among their peers during class time. Conceptual questions were delivered to the student in the form of ConcepTests, conceptual questions designed to uncover students' misconceptions in the material. Students first answered a question projected from the computer to an overhead screen on their own. Depending on the percentage of students that answered correctly, students then discussed their answers with their peers (PI). These discussions allowed students to uncover their misunderstandings in the material by asking them to think about what they know and what they don't know. Students' initial and secondary responses to the related questions gave the instructor a real time instant view of the collective class' conceptual understanding of concepts being covered. This study was a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, control group design. The sample consisted of 134 students enrolled in General Biology (BSCC 1010) a Eastern Florida State College (EFSC) in Palm Bay, Florida. Both control N = 62 and experimental groups N = 72 were comprised of whole intact classes during the Fall 2014 semester. The control groups received traditional lecture content during the course of the study. They had access to conceptual questions but they were not used in a Peer Instruction format during class time. A statistical analysis was conducted after the completion of pre-tests and posttests during the Fall 2014 semester. Although there was an increase in test scores in the experimental group compared to the control, the results were not significant with p = 0.0687 at an alpha level of .05. No significant difference was found in retention p= 0.5954, gender p = 0.4487 or past science coursework p = 0.6695 between classes that engaged in PI and classes that were taught in traditional lecture-based classes. There

  16. The use of animals in national high school student science fair projects in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Spiegel, Crystal

    2004-06-01

    Science fair projects can provide a sound opportunity to teach students the value of scientific methodology without relying on the routine and unnecessary use of animals. Unfortunately, students are often encouraged to use animals in an expendable manner that both duplicates previous experiments and neglects the opportunity to "think outside the box" in order to generate new hypotheses/theories about human health, physiological processes or basic biological concepts. Although at least one national science fair sponsor has changed its policy regarding students' utilisation of vertebrate animals, others continue to encourage the more traditional in vivo experimental projects. This paper will review the guidelines of two major national science fairs in the USA; types of projects conducted that involve animals; numbers of animals involved; interview responses by some student finalists who used vertebrates in their projects; successful initiatives by animal advocates in the USA to eliminate the use of animals in science fairs; and potential areas of outreach to science educators, science fair sponsors, high schools and students.

  17. Cigarette, Cigar, and Marijuana Use Among High School Students - United States, 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Italia V; Kennedy, Sara M; Agaku, Israel; Jones, Sherry Everett; Bunnell, Rebecca; Caraballo, Ralph; Xu, Xin; Schauer, Gillian; McAfee, Tim

    2015-10-16

    What is already known on this topic? Since 2010, the proportion of U.S. 12th grade students who reported using marijuana during the preceding 30 days (21.4%) has surpassed the proportion reporting use of cigarettes during the preceding 30 days (19.2%).What is added by this report? During 1997–2013, the proportion of white, black, and Hispanic high school students overall who were exclusive cigarette or cigar users decreased 64%, from 20.5% to 7.4%. The proportion of white, black, and Hispanic students who were exclusive marijuana users more than doubled from 4.2% to 10.2%, and among cigarette or cigar users, marijuana use increased, with considerable increases identified among black and Hispanic students toward the end of the study period.What are the implications for public health practice? Despite significant declines since 1997, approximately 30% of white, black, and Hispanic U.S. high school students were current users of cigarettes, cigars, or marijuana in 2013. Policy and programmatic efforts might benefit from integrated approaches that focus on reducing the use of tobacco and marijuana among youths.

  18. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-09-26

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  19. Construct validity test of evaluation tool for professional behaviors of entry-level occupational therapy students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hon K. Yuen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to test the construct validity of an instrument to measure student professional behaviors in entry-level occupational therapy (OT students in the academic setting. Methods: A total of 718 students from 37 OT programs across the United States answered a self-assessment survey of professional behavior that we developed. The survey consisted of ranking 28 attributes, each on a 5-point Likert scale. A split-sample approach was used for exploratory and then confirmatory factor analysis. Results: A three-factor solution with nine items was extracted using exploratory factor analysis [EFA] (n=430, 60%. The factors were ‘Commitment to Learning’ (2 items, ‘Skills for Learning’ (4 items, and ‘Cultural Competence’ (3 items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA on the validation split (n=288, 40% indicated fair fit for this three-factor model (fit indices: CFI=0.96, RMSEA=0.06, and SRMR=0.05. Internal consistency reliability estimates of each factor and the instrument ranged from 0.63 to 0.79. Conclusion: Results of the CFA in a separate validation dataset provided robust measures of goodness-of-fit for the three-factor solution developed in the EFA, and indicated that the three-factor model fitted the data well enough. Therefore, we can conclude that this student professional behavior evaluation instrument is a structurally validated tool to measure professional behaviors reported by entry-level OT students. The internal consistency reliability of each individual factor and the whole instrument was considered to be adequate to good.

  20. Perspectives of South Korean Undergraduate Exchange Students Attending a University in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lishu; Huang, Li-Ching; Hare, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    This in-depth study examined the perspectives of 17 Korean undergraduate exchange students attending a U.S. southern university during the 2005-2006 school year. The struggles and frustrations they experienced; the difficulties they encountered socially, culturally, and academically; their contributions to the American academic community; and…

  1. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  2. The Association between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism among High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Yang, Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the relationship between exposure to electronic bullying and absenteeism as a result of being afraid. Methods: This multivariate, multinomial regression analysis of the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data assessed the association between experiencing electronic bullying in the past year and how often students were absent…

  3. Participant Perceptions of an Online Discussion among University Students in Israel, Taiwan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Lynn W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether and how online discussions used in learning situations help to develop interactive intercultural communication. Undergraduate university students in the US, Taiwan, and Israel engaged in an online discussion about gender stereotypes. This study examines their perceptions of the interactions. There were 31 undergraduate…

  4. Re-Engaging Students Disengaged with English: A Unit of Work on Othering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Assunta

    2009-01-01

    The context for this teacher narrative is a multicultural South Australian secondary school with over 50 nationalities represented, where many of the older students are disengaged from English. A transformative moment for the writer occurred following research for here doctoral thesis, which unexpectedly challenged her thinking about the English…

  5. The Association between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism among High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Yang, Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the relationship between exposure to electronic bullying and absenteeism as a result of being afraid. Methods: This multivariate, multinomial regression analysis of the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data assessed the association between experiencing electronic bullying in the past year and how often students were absent…

  6. Motivation for Academically Gifted Students in Germany and the United States: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends toward globalization have engendered interest in comparative educational systems, pointing toward more fundamental change beyond the current focus upon accountability measures. This phenomenological study considered the effect of extrinsic motivators on the intrinsic motivation of academically gifted students in Germany and the…

  7. Teaching America's Past to Our Newest Americans: Immigrant Students and United States History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Kerry A.; Martell, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    At one high school outside of Boston, most students look forward to their daily American history class. They love their teacher's regular pop culture references and arrive ready to participate in the lively and contentious debates. Yet, despite Almira's fondness for the teacher and deep commitment to academic success, this class causes her more…

  8. Effects of Fair Play Instruction on Student Social Skills during a Middle School Sport Education Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidoni, Carla; Ward, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research on social skills in physical education has shown that students' fair play behaviors remain underdeveloped unless teachers include social skills instruction into the curriculum. Fair play behaviors are learned behaviors that are specific to the context of physical education and sport, and may generalize to other settings. One…

  9. Intelligibility of American English Vowels and Consonants Spoken by International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. Method: 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16…

  10. Canadian and United States Students' Performances on the OECD's PISA 2012 Problem-Solving Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, John A.; Funke, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 Problem-Solving assessment. The assessment examined the capabilities of 15-year-olds in 40 nations and four large international cities, as well as the Canadian Provinces, to solve a set…

  11. Cognitive Skills Development among International Students at Research Universities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young K.; Edens, David; Iorio, Michael F.; Curtis, Christie J.; Romero, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Set in the context of a statewide research university system, this study attempted to improve our understanding of cognitive skills development among international students. Specifically, this study examined how the patterns and predictors of cognitive skills development among this population differ from their domestic counterparts. The study…

  12. Students' First Impression of Second Life: A Case from the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Salam; Douglas, Jamal

    2010-01-01

    Emerging 3D virtual worlds such as Second Life can offer students with opportunities to enhance learning using rich collaborative asynchronous media. Virtual worlds are believed to impact the future of higher education and therefore, universities across the world are immersing themselves inside virtual worlds to establish a unique learning and…

  13. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  14. Biomedical Mathematics, Unit VII: Exponential and Logarithmic Functions. Student Text. Revised Version, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This collection of lessons, exercises, and experiments deals with exponential and logarithmic mathematical functions in the context of biomedical situations. Typical units in this collection provide discussion of the biomedical problem or setting, discussion of the mathematical concept, several example problems and solutions, and a set of problems…

  15. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cun

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  16. Investigating the Language Learning Strategies of Students in the Foundation Program of United Arab Emirates University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sadiq Abdulwahed Ahmed; Al Khatib, Ahmad Z.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, language learning strategies have gained a lot of importance in different parts of the world, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Successful foreign or second language learning attempts are viewed in the light of using appropriate and effective language learning strategies. This study investigated the patterns of language learning…

  17. The Analysis of Amount of Units of Multi-Objective Sample%多目标抽样中样本容量设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林才生; 曾五一

    2005-01-01

    This paper first gives out the existence of the multi-object sample survey's optimum sample size, then analyses the recent research of this field, presents a new method of solving the multi-object sample survey's optimum sample size, and its mathematical proof。

  18. Epistemic beliefs of middle and high school students in a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit: An exploratory, mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyue

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students' epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students' problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students' epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL. Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water quality in a 2-week long problem-based learning (PBL) unit. The students worked in small groups to conduct water quality tests at in their local watershed and visited several stakeholders for their investigation. Pretest and posttest versions of the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted to assess students' self-reported epistemic beliefs before and after the unit. I videotaped and interviewed three groups of students during the unit and conducted discourse analysis to examine their epistemic beliefs revealed from scientific inquiry activities and triangulate with their self-reported data. There are three main findings from this study. First, students in this study self-reported relatively sophisticated epistemic beliefs on the pretest. However, the comparison between their self-reported beliefs and beliefs revealed from practice indicated that some students were able to apply sophisticated beliefs during the unit while others failed to do so. The inconsistency between these two types of epistemic beliefs may due to students' inadequate cognitive ability, low validity of self-report measure, and the influence of contextual factors. Second, qualitative analysis indicated that students' epistemic beliefs of the nature of knowing influenced their problem

  19. "The State of Chihuahua", Lesson Plan for "Cultural Unit: Focus on Mexico."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Marianne

    This lesson plan was designed for students in Montana schools. The objectives for this culture unit are having: (1) students recognize the similarities between their home stat of Montana and the Mexican state of Chihuahua; (2) students learn about features unique to Chihuahua; and (3) students create an advertising brochure marketing Chihuahua to…

  20. Intrinsic component of resilience among entry level medical students in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehzabin Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundResilience is the capacity to recover and to cope successfullywith everyday challenges. Resilience has intrinsic andextrinsic components and an effort has been made to studythe intrinsic component and its association with sociodemographicfactors, among the entry level students of theIntegrated Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery(MBBS course.MethodThe present study was conducted in Gulf MedicalUniversity, using a self-administered questionnaire,comprising of two parts, distributed to all the students whoconsented to participate. The first part contained questionson socio-demographic details while the second partcontained questions on the intrinsic and extrinsiccomponents of resilience of the students. The datacollected was analysed using Predictive Analytic Software(PASW 18.0 using frequency, mean, SD and median.ResultsAmong the 58 students who participated 24 (41.4% weremales and 34 (58.6% females, of which 70.7% were 20years. The mean score for the intrinsiccomponent of resilience was 48.9 (SD, 5 and range 35–60.The median scores showed no significant variation (p<0.05with age, gender, religion, nationality, family structure,highest education among parents, the person they sharetheir feelings with or the number of friends. However,minimally higher scores were noted in the median scores ofstudents from nuclear families, with Western nationalityand those whose parents had a university level education,who shared their feelings with people of their owngeneration or outside their family and who have 5–9friends.ConclusionThe intrinsic component of resilience was found to bealmost uniform for the study group and the level is high. Astudy has to further look into its effect on coping with thestresses encountered during the academic year.