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Sample records for unit number index

  1. A Simulation Based Analysis of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) Technique Using Motoneuron Pool and Surface Electromyogram Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Rymer, William Zev; Zhou, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Motor unit number index (MUNIX) measurement has recently achieved increasing attention as a tool to evaluate the progression of motoneuron diseases. In our current study, the sensitivity of the MUNIX technique to changes in motoneuron and muscle properties was explored by a simulation approach utilizing variations on published motoneuron pool and surface electromyogram (EMG) models. Our simulation results indicate that, when keeping motoneuron pool and muscle parameters unchanged and varying the input motor unit numbers to the model, then MUNIX estimates can appropriately characterize changes in motor unit numbers. Such MUNIX estimates are not sensitive to different motor unit recruitment and rate coding strategies used in the model. Furthermore, alterations in motor unit control properties do not have a significant effect on the MUNIX estimates. Neither adjustment of the motor unit recruitment range nor reduction of the motor unit firing rates jeopardizes the MUNIX estimates. The MUNIX estimates closely correlate with the maximum M wave amplitude. However, if we reduce the amplitude of each motor unit action potential rather than simply reduce motor unit number, then MUNIX estimates substantially underestimate the motor unit numbers in the muscle. These findings suggest that the current MUNIX definition is most suitable for motoneuron diseases that demonstrate secondary evidence of muscle fiber reinnervation. In this regard, when MUNIX is applied, it is of much importance to examine a parallel measurement of motor unit size index (MUSIX), defined as the ratio of the maximum M wave amplitude to the MUNIX. However, there are potential limitations in the application of the MUNIX methods in atrophied muscle, where it is unclear whether the atrophy is accompanied by loss of motor units or loss of muscle fiber size. PMID:22514208

  2. Improving the repeatability of Motor Unit Number Index (MUNIX) by introducing additional epochs at low contraction levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yun; Zhang, Yingchun

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of (Motor Unit Number Index) MUNIX under repeatability conditions, specify the origin of variations and provide strategies for quality control. MUNIX calculations were performed on the bicep brachii muscles of eight healthy subjects. Negative effect of suboptimal electrode positions on MUNIX accuracy was eliminated by employing the high-density surface electromyography technique. MUNIX procedures that utilized a variety of surface interferential pattern (SIP) epoch recruitment strategies (including the original MUNIX procedure, two proposed improvement strategies and their combinations) were described. For each MUNIX procedure, ten thousands of different SIP pools were constructed by randomly recruiting necessary SIP epochs from a large SIP epoch pool (3 datasets, 9 independent electromyography recordings at different contraction levels per dataset and 10 SIP epochs per recording) and implemented for MUNIX calculation. The repeatability of each MUNIX procedure was assessed by summarizing the resulting MUNIX distribution and compared to investigate the effect of SIP epoch selection strategy on repeatability performance. SIP epochs selected at lower contraction levels have a stronger influence on the repeatability of MUNIX than those selected at higher contraction levels. MUNIX under repeatability conditions follows a normal distribution and the standard deviation can be significantly reduced by introducing more epochs near the MUNIX definition line. The MUNIX technique shows an inherent variation attributable to SIP epochs at low contraction levels. It is recommended that more epochs should be sampled at these low contraction levels to improve the repeatability. The present study thoroughly documented the inherent variation of MUNIX and the causes, and offered practical solutions to improve the repeatability of MUNIX. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor unit number index (MUNIX) derivation from the relationship between the area and power of surface electromyogram: a computer simulation and clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Francesc

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The motor unit number index (MUNIX) is a technique based on the surface electromyogram (sEMG) that is gaining acceptance as a method for monitoring motor neuron loss, because it is reliable and produces less discomfort than other electrodiagnostic techniques having the same intended purpose. MUNIX assumes that the relationship between the area of sEMG obtained at increasing levels of muscle activation and the values of a variable called ‘ideal case motor unit count’ (ICMUC), defined as the product of the ratio between area and power of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) by that of the sEMG, is described by a decreasing power function. Nevertheless, the reason for this comportment is unknown. The objective of this work is to investigate if the definition of MUNIX could derive from more basic properties of the sEMG. Approach. The CMAP and sEMG epochs obtained at different levels of muscle activation from (1) the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle of persons with and without a carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and (2) from a computer model of sEMG generation previously published were analysed. Main results. MUNIX reflects the power relationship existing between the area and power of a sEMG. The exponent of this function was smaller in patients with motor CTS than in the rest of the subjects. The analysis of the relationship between the area and power of a sEMG could aid in distinguishing a MUNIX reduction due to a motoneuron loss from that due to a loss of muscle fibre. Significance. MUNIX is derived from the relationship between the area and power of a sEMG. This relationship changes when there is a loss of motor units (MUs), which partially explains the diagnostic sensibility of MUNIX. Although the reasons for this change are unknown, it could reflect an increase in the proportion of MUs of great amplitude.

  4. Microcomputer Unit: Generating Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)

  5. MEASURING INFLATION THROUGH STOCHASTIC APPROACH TO INDEX NUMBERS FOR PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Asghar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to estimate the rate of inflation in Pakistan through stochastic approach to index numbers which provides not only point estimate but also confidence interval for the rate of inflation. There are two types of approaches to index number theory namely: the functional economic approaches and the stochastic approach. The attraction of stochastic approach is that it estimates the rate of inflation in which uncertainty and statistical ideas play a major roll of screening index numbers. We have used extended stochastic approach to index numbers for measuring inflation by allowing for the systematic changes in the relative prices. We use CPI data covering the period July 2001--March 2008 for Pakistan.

  6. Rational and irrational numbers from unit resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperski, Maciej; Kłobus, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of constructing a network of unit resistors such that it enables the retrieval of an arbitrary value of equivalent resistance. In particular, we employ the notion of continued fractions to construct a ladder network by which we can easily obtain any fractional value resistance. In addition, since any irrational number is associated with an infinite continued fraction, we discuss the convergence of the equivalent resistance of an infinite resistive ladder and various aspects concerning the approximations of arbitrary numbers attained by adding additional resistors successively to the network. The presented methods can be easily implemented in an educational laboratory and offer an interesting addition to the topic of Ohm’s law. (paper)

  7. Black-Scholes Fuzzy Numbers as Indexes of Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Simonelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the set of propositions of some previous papers to define a fuzzy version of the Black-Scholes value where the risk free instantaneous interest intensity, the volatility and the initial stock price are fuzzy numbers whose parameters are built with statistical financial data. With our Black-Scholes fuzzy numbers we define indexes of performance varing in time. As an example, with data of the Italian Stock Exchange on MIB30, we see that in 2004 and 2006 our indexes are negative, that is, they are indexes of the refuse to invest and this refuse increased. So, on November 11, 2006 we could forecast that the market will become with more risk: the risk of loss will increase. Now, on January 25, 2010, we know that this forecast has happened. Obviously, the parameters of our Black-Scholes fuzzy numbers can be valued also with incomplete, possibilistic data. With respect to the probabilistic one, our fuzzy method is more simple and immediate to have a forecast on the financial market.

  8. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuance, July-December 1980. Index of Volume 12, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Issuances of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (ASLB), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Boards (ALAB), the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), regulatory issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Directors Denial (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking for the period July through December 1980 appear in Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, 12 NRC No. 1, Pages 1-136, through 12 NRC No. 6, Pages 607-742. Digests and indexes for these issuances are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owners of facility); Name of facility, docket number; Type of hearing (for construction permit, operating licenses, etc.); Issues raised by appellants; Issuance number; Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.); Issuance pagination; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); and Subject matter of issues and/or rulings. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case name index; Digests and headers; Legal citation index; Subject index; and Facility index

  9. Index Tracking with Control on the Number of Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Riegel Sant'Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Index tracking is a passive investment strategy, which aims at generating portfolios to reproduce a specific market index’s performance. This article proposes a model for a index tracking problem with control on the number of assets in the portfolio, which corresponds to a restriction in transaction costs. The model is applied to Ibovespa (sample: 67 stocks from January/2009 to July/2012. Portfolios were formed without limiting the amount of stocks and limiting this amount to 40, 30 and 20 stocks, with rebalancing periods of 20, 40 and 60 trading days. The results were satisfactory especially for the 60 days rebalancing period, in which transaction costs become lower due to the longer rebalancing period. We also verified that changes in Cplex parameters didn’t influence the results especially in relation to the computational times. Therefore, we also conclude about the need of using heuristic approaches to form portfolios with smaller amounts of assets.

  10. Brain potentials index executive functions during random number generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppich, Gregor; Däuper, Jan; Dengler, Reinhard; Johannes, Sönke; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2004-06-01

    The generation of random sequences is considered to tax different executive functions. To explore the involvement of these functions further, brain potentials were recorded in 16 healthy young adults while either engaging in random number generation (RNG) by pressing the number keys on a computer keyboard in a random sequence or in ordered number generation (ONG) necessitating key presses in the canonical order. Key presses were paced by an external auditory stimulus to yield either fast (1 press/800 ms) or slow (1 press/1300 ms) sequences in separate runs. Attentional demands of random and ordered tasks were assessed by the introduction of a secondary task (key-press to a target tone). The P3 amplitude to the target tone of this secondary task was reduced during RNG, reflecting the greater consumption of attentional resources during RNG. Moreover, RNG led to a left frontal negativity peaking 140 ms after the onset of the pacing stimulus, whenever the subjects produced a true random response. This negativity could be attributed to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and was absent when numbers were repeated. This negativity was interpreted as an index for the inhibition of habitual responses. Finally, in response locked ERPs a negative component was apparent peaking about 50 ms after the key-press that was more prominent during RNG. Source localization suggested a medial frontal source. This effect was tentatively interpreted as a reflection of the greater monitoring demands during random sequence generation.

  11. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1994. Volume 19, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index, personal author index, subject index, NRC originating organization index (staff reports), NRC originating organization index (international agreements), NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports), contractor index, international organization index, and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  12. Random number generation as an index of controlled processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Marjan; Saleem, T; Ho, Aileen K; Dirnberger, Georg; Fuller, R

    2006-07-01

    Random number generation (RNG) is a functionally complex process that is highly controlled and therefore dependent on Baddeley's central executive. This study addresses this issue by investigating whether key predictions from this framework are compatible with empirical data. In Experiment 1, the effect of increasing task demands by increasing the rate of the paced generation was comprehensively examined. As expected, faster rates affected performance negatively because central resources were increasingly depleted. Next, the effects of participants' exposure were manipulated in Experiment 2 by providing increasing amounts of practice on the task. There was no improvement over 10 practice trials, suggesting that the high level of strategic control required by the task was constant and not amenable to any automatization gain with repeated exposure. Together, the results demonstrate that RNG performance is a highly controlled and demanding process sensitive to additional demands on central resources (Experiment 1) and is unaffected by repeated performance or practice (Experiment 2). These features render the easily administered RNG task an ideal and robust index of executive function that is highly suitable for repeated clinical use. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Malmquist Productivity Index by Extended VIKOR Method Using Interval Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Fallah, Mohammad; Mohajeri, Amir; Najafi, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    The VIKOR method was developed for multicriteria optimization of complex systems. It determines the compromise ranking list and the compromise solution obtained with the given weights. This method focuses on ranking and selecting from a set of alternatives in the presence of conflicting criteria. Here, the VIKOR method is used for two times $t$ and $t+1$ . In order to calculate the progress or regression via Malmquist productivity index, the positive and negative ideals at ...

  14. Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) a relevant indicator? Jean Claude Saha. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol. 12(1) 2005: 1-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs

  16. An index formula for the self-linking number of a space curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Given an embedded closed space curve with non-vanishing curvature, its self-linking number is defined as the linking number between the original curve and a curve pushed slightly off in the direction of its principal normals. We present an index formula for the self-linking number in terms of the...

  17. Emergy sustainability index of a milk producing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although small, the impacts caused by agriculture and livestock productive activities change the environment, which in turn reflects the stress conditions it is under. Some authors these environmental changes occur for countless reasons, many so-called natural while others are due to anthropogenic interventions. This study aims to assess milk production sustainability using the emergy analysis of indicators, considering the annual cycles of production to help decision making. A conceptual model of the milk production system using the Emergy flow chart was built at the Livestock and Agricultural Production Unit (UPA of the Alto da Arauna Farm, located in Guzolândia, SP. After data processing, the emergy calculation table was elaborated. Several emergy sustainability indices were calculated and analyzed (indicators Renewability of Emergy Used Total, Index of Environmental Load Ratio of Investment Ratio Emergia beyond the calculations Tranformidades among others including the Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI. The results showed that the UPA has a high impact per unit of energy source used to produce milk for the general public. The agricultural production systems with ESI value less than one (1 can be considered unsustainable in the long term. The studied UPA has good working conditions and soil conservation, but has a highly disproportionate use of economy inputs in relation to natural resources, which results in low ESI value. The analysis of this ratio indicated low system efficiency. Several management practices and interventions were proposed aiming at improving sustainability indicators of the production system.  Furthermore, strategies were formulated for more sustainable management of this UPA, thus reducing the impacts of the production system in use. The adoption of methods similar to organic production, agroecological systems, integration between farming and livestock, and/or adoption of silvopastoral system are recommended to improve

  18. Ranking Fuzzy Numbers with a Distance Method using Circumcenter of Centroids and an Index of Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Phani Bushan Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ranking fuzzy numbers are an important aspect of decision making in a fuzzy environment. Since their inception in 1965, many authors have proposed different methods for ranking fuzzy numbers. However, there is no method which gives a satisfactory result to all situations. Most of the methods proposed so far are nondiscriminating and counterintuitive. This paper proposes a new method for ranking fuzzy numbers based on the Circumcenter of Centroids and uses an index of optimism to reflect the decision maker's optimistic attitude and also an index of modality that represents the neutrality of the decision maker. This method ranks various types of fuzzy numbers which include normal, generalized trapezoidal, and triangular fuzzy numbers along with crisp numbers with the particularity that crisp numbers are to be considered particular cases of fuzzy numbers.

  19. H-index and academic rank in general surgery and surgical specialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Awais; Kalagara, Roshini; Wasif, Nabil

    2018-09-01

    H-index serves as an alternative to measure academic achievement. Our objective is to study the h-index as a measure of academic attainment in general surgery and surgical specialties. A database of all surgical programs in the United States was created. Publish or Perish software was used to determine surgeons h-index. A total of 134 hospitals and 3712 surgeons (79% male) were included. Overall, mean h-index was 14.9 ± 14.8. H-index increased linearly with academic rank: 6.8 ± 6.4 for assistant professors (n = 1557, 41.9%), 12.9 ± 9.3 for associate professors (n = 891, 24%), and 27.9 ± 17.4 for professors (n = 1170, 31.5%); P h-indices (18.7 ± 16.7 and 18.4 ± 17.6, respectively). Surgeons with additional postgraduate degrees, university affiliations and male had higher mean h-indices; P h-index and the number of publications (R2 = 0.817) and citations (R2 = 0.768). The h-index of academic surgeons correlates with academic rank and serves a potential tool to measure academic productivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA barcoding a nightmare taxon: assessing barcode index numbers and barcode gaps for sweat bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jason

    2018-01-01

    There is an ongoing campaign to DNA barcode the world's >20 000 bee species. Recent revisions of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) for Canada and the eastern United States were completed using integrative taxonomy. DNA barcode data from 110 species of L. (Dialictus) are examined for their value in identification and discovering additional taxonomic diversity. Specimen identification success was estimated using the best close match method. Error rates were 20% relative to current taxonomic understanding. Barcode Index Numbers (BINs) assigned using Refined Single Linkage Analysis (RESL) and barcode gaps using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method were also assessed. RESL was incongruent for 44.5% of species, although some cryptic diversity may exist. Forty-three of 110 species were part of merged BINs with multiple species. The barcode gap is non-existent for the data set as a whole and ABGD showed levels of discordance similar to the RESL. The viridatum species-group is particularly problematic, so that DNA barcodes alone would be misleading for species delimitation and specimen identification. Character-based methods using fixed nucleotide substitutions could improve specimen identification success in some cases. The use of DNA barcoding for species discovery for standard taxonomic practice in the absence of a well-defined barcode gap is discussed.

  1. Evaluation of phase separator number in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanti, A. D.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    The removal process of acid gases such as H2S in natural gas processing industry is required in order to meet sales gas specification. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)is one of the processes in the refinery that is dedicated to reduce sulphur.InHDS unit, phase separator plays important role to remove H2S from hydrocarbons, operated at a certain pressure and temperature. Optimization of the number of separator performed on the system is then evaluated to understand the performance and economics. From the evaluation, it shows that all systems were able to meet the specifications of H2S in the desired product. However, one separator system resulted the highest capital and operational costs. The process of H2S removal with two separator systems showed the best performance in terms of both energy efficiency with the lowest capital and operating cost. The two separator system is then recommended as a reference in the HDS unit to process the removal of H2S from natural gas.

  2. Library Research and Statistics. Research on Libraries and Librarianship in 2002; Number of Libraries in the United States and Canada; Highlights of NCES Surveys; Library Acquisition Expenditures, 2001-2002: U.S. Public, Academic, Special, and Government Libraries; LJ Budget Report: A Precarious Holding Pattern; Price Indexes for Public and Academic Libraries; Library Buildings 2002: The Building Buck Doesn't Stop Here.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee

    2003-01-01

    Includes seven reports that discuss research on libraries and librarianship, including academic, public, and school libraries; awards and grants; number of libraries in the United States and Canada; National Center for Education Statistics results; library expenditures for public, academic, special, and government libraries; library budgets; price…

  3. Genetic patterns in European Geometrid Moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmann, A.; Godfray, H.C.J.; Huemer, J.; Mutane, M.; Rougerie, R.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Ratnasingham, S.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN) system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems), a method that supports automated, rapid species

  4. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1997. Volume 22, Number 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  5. Accurate Computation of Periodic Regions' Centers in the General M-Set with Integer Index Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingyuan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two methods for accurately computing the periodic regions' centers. One method fits for the general M-sets with integer index number, the other fits for the general M-sets with negative integer index number. Both methods improve the precision of computation by transforming the polynomial equations which determine the periodic regions' centers. We primarily discuss the general M-sets with negative integer index, and analyze the relationship between the number of periodic regions' centers on the principal symmetric axis and in the principal symmetric interior. We can get the centers' coordinates with at least 48 significant digits after the decimal point in both real and imaginary parts by applying the Newton's method to the transformed polynomial equation which determine the periodic regions' centers. In this paper, we list some centers' coordinates of general M-sets' k-periodic regions (k=3,4,5,6 for the index numbers α=−25,−24,…,−1 , all of which have highly numerical accuracy.

  6. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Annual compilation for 1997. Volume 22, Number 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  7. Genetic patterns in European geometrid moths revealed by the Barcode Index Number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hausmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The geometrid moths of Europe are one of the best investigated insect groups in traditional taxonomy making them an ideal model group to test the accuracy of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system of BOLD (Barcode of Life Datasystems, a method that supports automated, rapid species delineation and identification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study provides a DNA barcode library for 219 of the 249 European geometrid moth species (88% in five selected subfamilies. The data set includes COI sequences for 2130 specimens. Most species (93% were found to possess diagnostic barcode sequences at the European level while only three species pairs (3% were genetically indistinguishable in areas of sympatry. As a consequence, 97% of the European species we examined were unequivocally discriminated by barcodes within their natural areas of distribution. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BINs and traditionally recognized species for 67% of these species. Another 17% of the species (15 pairs, three triads shared BINs, while specimens from the remaining species (18% were divided among two or more BINs. Five of these species are mixtures, both sharing and splitting BINs. For 82% of the species with two or more BINs, the genetic splits involved allopatric populations, many of which have previously been hypothesized to represent distinct species or subspecies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study confirms the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification and illustrates the potential of the BIN system to characterize formal genetic units independently of an existing classification. This suggests the system can be used to efficiently assess the biodiversity of large, poorly known assemblages of organisms. For the moths examined in this study, cases of discordance between traditionally recognized species and BINs arose from several causes including overlooked species, synonymy, and cases where DNA barcodes revealed

  8. A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeevan Ratnasingham

    Full Text Available Because many animal species are undescribed, and because the identification of known species is often difficult, interim taxonomic nomenclature has often been used in biodiversity analysis. By assigning individuals to presumptive species, called operational taxonomic units (OTUs, these systems speed investigations into the patterning of biodiversity and enable studies that would otherwise be impossible. Although OTUs have conventionally been separated through their morphological divergence, DNA-based delineations are not only feasible, but have important advantages. OTU designation can be automated, data can be readily archived, and results can be easily compared among investigations. This study exploits these attributes to develop a persistent, species-level taxonomic registry for the animal kingdom based on the analysis of patterns of nucleotide variation in the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene. It begins by examining the correspondence between groups of specimens identified to a species through prior taxonomic work and those inferred from the analysis of COI sequence variation using one new (RESL and four established (ABGD, CROP, GMYC, jMOTU algorithms. It subsequently describes the implementation, and structural attributes of the Barcode Index Number (BIN system. Aside from a pragmatic role in biodiversity assessments, BINs will aid revisionary taxonomy by flagging possible cases of synonymy, and by collating geographical information, descriptive metadata, and images for specimens that are likely to belong to the same species, even if it is undescribed. More than 274,000 BIN web pages are now available, creating a biodiversity resource that is positioned for rapid growth.

  9. The Global Solar UV Index used in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, C.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Kitchen, K.; Miners, B.

    2000-01-01

    Weather forecast bulletins on television, radio and in the newspapers in the UK now include advice about the strength of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun in terms of the Global Solar UV Index. A numerical scale of 1 to 20 is used to quote the Index for anywhere in the world and the Index addresses all ethnic groups. The Index replaces the sunburn warning system. The daily UV Index is calculated by the Met. Office from documented UV radiation levels and current atmospheric data and takes into account cloud cover forecast. Armed with the knowledge of the UV Index the public will be able to assess their personal risk of sun damage at home or abroad depending on their natural skin colour. Four categories of skin colour are identified with the Index; white skin that sunburns easily, white skin that tans readily, brown skin and black skin. A colour-coded rating from low to very high is used to identify personal risk with these skin colour categories. The Global UV Index forms an important part of the 'Sun Safety Code' developed by health organisations within the UK. (author)

  10. The Global Solar UV Index used in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    New, C.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Kitchen, K.; Miners, B

    2000-07-01

    Weather forecast bulletins on television, radio and in the newspapers in the UK now include advice about the strength of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun in terms of the Global Solar UV Index. A numerical scale of 1 to 20 is used to quote the Index for anywhere in the world and the Index addresses all ethnic groups. The Index replaces the sunburn warning system. The daily UV Index is calculated by the Met. Office from documented UV radiation levels and current atmospheric data and takes into account cloud cover forecast. Armed with the knowledge of the UV Index the public will be able to assess their personal risk of sun damage at home or abroad depending on their natural skin colour. Four categories of skin colour are identified with the Index; white skin that sunburns easily, white skin that tans readily, brown skin and black skin. A colour-coded rating from low to very high is used to identify personal risk with these skin colour categories. The Global UV Index forms an important part of the 'Sun Safety Code' developed by health organisations within the UK. (author)

  11. Academic Productivity of Neurosurgeons Working in the United Kingdom: Insights from the H-Index and Its Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Aimun A B; Wiggins, A N; Loan, J J M; Emelifeoneu, J; Fouyas, I P; Brennan, P M

    2016-02-01

    Academic metrics can be used to compare the productivity of researchers. We aimed to use a variety of bibliometric parameters to assess the productivity of neurosurgeons working in the United Kingdom. Neurosurgical consultants working in the United Kingdom were identified using the Society of British Neurosurgeons' Audit Programme website. Baseline data collected included year of entry to specialist register, academic position and award of higher degree. Google Scholar was used to compute a range of academic metrics for each consultant including the h-index, hi-norm, e-index and g-index. Non-parametric tests were used to compare median results. Median metrics for the whole cohort were: h-index (5), hi-norm (3), g-index (10.4) and e-index (9). The top 3 units based on h-index were Addenbrookes (13), Great Ormond Street (12.5) and Queen's Square (11.5). The h-index correlated with academic position [Prof (17.5), Senior Lecturer (10.5) and non-academic (5); P 10 year (7), neurosurgeons through the analysis of a number of citation metrics. It provides a benchmark bibliometric profile and we advocate future comparative assessments as a means to assess impact of and guide academic policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1994, July--September. Volume 19, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issues by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: Secondary Report Number Index, Personal Author Index, Subject Index, NRC Originating Organization Index (Staff Reports), NRC Originating Organization Index (International Agreements), NRC Contract Sponsor Index (Contractor Reports) Contractor Index, International Organization Index, Licensed Facility Index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index

  13. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1996 July--September. Volume 21, Number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC's intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index; personal author index; subject index; NRC originating organization index (staff reports); NRC originating organization index (international agreements); NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports); contractor index; international organization index; and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index

  14. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1996 July--September. Volume 21, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: secondary report number index; personal author index; subject index; NRC originating organization index (staff reports); NRC originating organization index (international agreements); NRC contract sponsor index (contractor reports); contractor index; international organization index; and licensed facility index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  15. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for third quarter 1994, July--September. Volume 19, Number 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-12-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issues by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Staff and its contractors. It is NRC`s intention to publish this compilation quarterly and to cumulate it annually. The main citations and abstracts in this compilation are listed in NUREG number order: NUREG-XXXX, NUREG/CP-XXXX, NUREG/CR-XXXX, and NUREG/IA-XXXX. These precede the following indexes: Secondary Report Number Index, Personal Author Index, Subject Index, NRC Originating Organization Index (Staff Reports), NRC Originating Organization Index (International Agreements), NRC Contract Sponsor Index (Contractor Reports) Contractor Index, International Organization Index, Licensed Facility Index. A detailed explanation of the entries precedes each index.

  16. Dictionary of scientific units including dimensionless numbers and scales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerrard, H.G; McNeill, D.B

    1992-01-01

    .... The text includes the most recently accepted values of all units. Several disciplines, which have in the past employed few scientific principles and the dictionary has been extended to include examples of these.

  17. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States. Volume 45, Number 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    Trichinosis Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Yellow fever NOTE: Although varicella is not a nationally notifiable disease, the Council of State and...plague among humans, two of which were fatal, were re- ported in the United States (two cases in Arizona, one in Colorado, and two in New Mexico ). Both...13 cases per year) were reported in the United States. Of these cases, 80% occurred in the southwestern states of New Mexico , Arizona, and

  18. Cost Indexing and Unit Price Adjustments for Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    This project was focused on the assimilation of information regarding unit price adjustment clauses, or PACs, : that are offered for construction materials at the state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). It is intended to : provide the South Carol...

  19. A Finer Classification of the Unit Sum Number of the Ring of Integers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we introduce a finer classification for the unit sum number of a ring and in this new classification we completely determine the unit sum number of the ring of integers of a quadratic field. Further we obtain some results on cubic complex fields which one can decide whether the unit sum number is or ∞. Then we ...

  20. Infection Unit Density as an Index of Infection Potential of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Ryo; Kobae, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Sho; Oka, Norikuni

    2018-03-29

    The effective use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal function to promote host plant phosphate uptake in agricultural practice requires the accurate quantitative evaluation of AM fungal infection potential in field soil or AM fungal inoculation material. The number of infection units (IUs), intraradical fungal structures derived from single root entries formed after a short cultivation period, may reflect the number of propagules in soil when pot soil is completely permeated by the host root. However, the original IU method, in which all AM propagules in a pot are counted, requires the fine tuning of plant growing conditions and is considered to be laborious. The objective of the present study was to test whether IU density, not the total count of IU, but the number of IUs per unit root length, reflects the density of AM fungal propagules in soil. IU density assessed after 12 d of host plant cultivation and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining showed a stronger linear correlation with propagule density than the mean infection percentage (MIP). In addition, IU density was affected less by the host plant species than MIP. We suggest that IU density provides a more rapid and reliable quantitation of the propagule density of AM fungi than MIP or the original IU method. Thus, IU density may be a more robust index of AM fungal infection potential for research and practical applications.

  1. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Loredana Marcovecchio

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI. Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV, have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1 gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children.744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD: 8.4±1.4years underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR.A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033, but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04 and waist circumference (p = 0.01 when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers.In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain.

  2. 21 CFR 203.38 - Sample lot or control numbers; labeling of sample units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... numbers; labeling of sample units. (a) Lot or control number required on drug sample labeling and sample... identifying lot or control number that will permit the tracking of the distribution of each drug sample unit... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sample lot or control numbers; labeling of sample...

  3. United States Air Force Statistical Digest 1947, Second Annual Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-08-01

    Type and Series--Number Inetalled and Status of spere Enginell: lIlar 1944 to Dec 1947•••• ;, ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Tabla 99.-- Se!.o~ed Aircraft

  4. THE NUMBER OF TIDAL DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN DEPENDENCE OF BULGE INDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín; Kroupa, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarf galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation

  5. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1972. Volume 23, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rucks, Frances

    1972-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 65 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  6. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1979. Volume 30, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1979-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 68 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  7. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1985. Volume 36, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, A

    1985-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items, and editorials appearing in 76 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  8. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1982. Volume 33, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hatton, Jackie

    1982-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items, and editorials appearing in 76 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  9. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1975. Volume 26, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rucks, Frances

    1975-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 67 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  10. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1974. Volume 25, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rucks, Frances

    1974-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 65 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  11. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1988. Volume 39, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Emily

    1988-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items, and editorials appearing in 77 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  12. Evidence for increasingly variable Palmer Drought Severity Index in the United States since 1895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-02-15

    Annual and summertime trends towards increasingly variable values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) over a sub-decadal period (five years) were investigated within the contiguous United States between 1895 and the present. For the contiguous United States as a whole, there is a significant increasing trend in the five-year running minimum-maximum ranges for the annual PDSI (aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range)). During this time frame, the average aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) has increased by about one full unit, indicating a substantial increase in drought variability over short time scales across the United States. The end members of the running aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) highlight even more rapid changes in the drought index variability within the past 120 years. This increasing variability in the aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) is driven primarily by changes taking place in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean coastal climate regions, climate regions which collectively comprise one-third the area of the contiguous United States. Similar trends were found for the annual and summertime Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), the Palmer Modified Drought Index (PMDI), and the Palmer Z Index (PZI). Overall, interannual drought patterns in the contiguous United States are becoming more extreme and difficult to predict, posing a challenge to agricultural and other water-resource related planning efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strong Law of Large Numbers for Countable Markov Chains Indexed by an Infinite Tree with Uniformly Bounded Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the strong law of large numbers for the frequencies of occurrence of states and ordered couples of states for countable Markov chains indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degree, which extends the corresponding results of countable Markov chains indexed by a Cayley tree and generalizes the relative results of finite Markov chains indexed by a uniformly bounded tree.

  14. Redundancies in "H" Index Variants and the Proposal of the Number of Top-Cited Papers as an Attractive Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Ruscio, Seaman, D'Oriano, Stremlo, and Mahalchik (this issue) evaluate 22 bibliometric indicators, including conventional measures, like the number of publications, the "h" index, and many "h" index variants. To assess the quality of the indicators, their well-justified criteria encompass conceptual, empirical, and practical…

  15. Strong Law of Large Numbers for Hidden Markov Chains Indexed by an Infinite Tree with Uniformly Bounded Degrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study strong limit theorems for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees. We mainly establish the strong law of large numbers for hidden Markov chains fields indexed by an infinite tree with uniformly bounded degrees and give the strong limit law of the conditional sample entropy rate.

  16. Barcode index number, taxonomic rank and modes of speciation: examples from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartavtsev, Yuri Phedorovich

    2018-05-01

    Species delimitation by DNA sequence data or DNA barcoding is successful, as confirmed by the vast BOLD data base. However, the theory that would explain this fact has not been developed yet. An approach based on Barcoding Index Number (BIN), suggested in the assignment, allows delimiting of taxa of three ranks (species, genera, and families) and statistical validation with a high precision of delimiting (over 80%), as well as shows for majority of Co-1-based single gene trees good correspondence between their topology and conventional taxa content for analyzed fish species (R 2  ≈ 0.84-0.98). Knowledge of deviations from these data can help to find out new taxa and improve biodiversity description. It is concluded that delimiting is successful for bulk of cases because the geographic mode of speciation prevails in nature. It takes a long time for new taxa to form in isolation, which allows accumulation of random mutations and many different nucleotide substitutions between them that can be detected by molecular markers and give unique DNA barcodes. The use of BIN approach, described here, can aid greatly in making this important question clearer especially under wider examination of other organisms.

  17. A Dental Hygiene Professional Practice Index (DHPPI) and access to oral health status and service use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Paul; Langelier, Margaret H; Continelli, Tracey A; Battrell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize a larger study that developed a statistical index that defines the professional practice environment of dental hygienists (DHs) in the United States, and to determine the extent to which the index scores are related to the number of DHs and dentists, the utilization of dental services, and selected oral health outcomes across the 50 states. A Dental Hygiene Professional Practice Index (DHPPI) defines the professional status, supervision requirements, tasks permitted, and reimbursement options for DHs in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, as of December 31, 2001. Spearman rank order correlations between the DHPPI and numbers of oral health professionals, utilization of oral health services, and oral health outcomes in the 50 states are also presented. The analyses revealed that: There are significant differences in the legal practice environments (as reflected in the DHPPI) across the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Between 1990 and 2001, the number of DHs per capita increased by 46% in the United States, while the number of dentists per 100,000 population increased by only 10%. The DHPPI was not significantly correlated with the number of DHs or dentists in the 50 states in 2001. The DHPPI was significantly positively correlated with the salaries of DHs in 2001. The DHPPI was also significantly and positively correlated with a number of indicators of utilization of oral health services and oral health outcomes. Both access to oral health services and oral health outcomes are positively correlated with the DHPPI. This suggests that states with low DHPPI scores would be logical candidates for revised DH practice statutes and regulations to accomplish these objectives.

  18. Speed of the bacterial flagellar motor near zero load depends on the number of stator units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Ashley L; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Steel, Bradley C; Lo, Chien-Jung; Berry, Richard M

    2017-10-31

    The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) rotates hundreds of times per second to propel bacteria driven by an electrochemical ion gradient. The motor consists of a rotor 50 nm in diameter surrounded by up to 11 ion-conducting stator units, which exchange between motors and a membrane-bound pool. Measurements of the torque-speed relationship guide the development of models of the motor mechanism. In contrast to previous reports that speed near zero torque is independent of the number of stator units, we observe multiple speeds that we attribute to different numbers of units near zero torque in both Na + - and H + -driven motors. We measure the full torque-speed relationship of one and two H + units in Escherichia coli by selecting the number of H + units and controlling the number of Na + units in hybrid motors. These experiments confirm that speed near zero torque in H + -driven motors increases with the stator number. We also measured 75 torque-speed curves for Na + -driven chimeric motors at different ion-motive force and stator number. Torque and speed were proportional to ion-motive force and number of stator units at all loads, allowing all 77 measured torque-speed curves to be collapsed onto a single curve by simple rescaling. Published under the PNAS license.

  19. "Index for Inclusion": A Framework for School Review in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborno, Nadera Emran; Gaad, Eman

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the "Index for Inclusion", developed by Booth and Ainscow, as a framework for investigating inclusive provision in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), introduced through the "School for All" initiative. The study, by Nadera Emran Alborno of the American University in Dubai and Eman Gaad of the British University in…

  20. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Unitizing with Whole Numbers and Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Roy, George J.; Safi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    This article examines prospective elementary teachers' conceptions of unitizing with whole numbers and fraction concepts and operations throughout a semester-long mathematics content course. Student work samples and classroom conversations are used to illustrate the types of unitizing understandings that prospective teachers bring to teacher…

  1. Testing a model of componential processing of multi-symbol numbers-evidence from measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan; Bahnmueller, Julia; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian

    2015-10-01

    Research on numerical cognition has addressed the processing of nonsymbolic quantities and symbolic digits extensively. However, magnitude processing of measurement units is still a neglected topic in numerical cognition research. Hence, we investigated the processing of measurement units to evaluate whether typical effects of multi-digit number processing such as the compatibility effect, the string length congruity effect, and the distance effect are also present for measurement units. In three experiments, participants had to single out the larger one of two physical quantities (e.g., lengths). In Experiment 1, the compatibility of number and measurement unit (compatible: 3 mm_6 cm with 3 mm) as well as string length congruity (congruent: 1 m_2 km with m 2 characters) were manipulated. We observed reliable compatibility effects with prolonged reaction times (RT) for incompatible trials. Moreover, a string length congruity effect was present in RT with longer RT for incongruent trials. Experiments 2 and 3 served as control experiments showing that compatibility effects persist when controlling for holistic distance and that a distance effect for measurement units exists. Our findings indicate that numbers and measurement units are processed in a componential manner and thus highlight that processing characteristics of multi-digit numbers generalize to measurement units. Thereby, our data lend further support to the recently proposed generalized model of componential multi-symbol number processing.

  2. Study on Effect of Number of Transparent Covers and Refractive Index on Performance of Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kalidasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid flat plate collector (solar flat plate collector is one of the important applications in solar thermal system. The development in solar photovoltaic is an emerging challenge for the solar thermal system. In the current work an attempt has been made to optimize the number of transparent covers and refractive index to improve the optical efficiency and thermal efficiency for the collector. Performance of the liquid flat plate collector at VIT University Vellore has been simulated numerically for January 21st at an interval of half an hour with different numbers of transparent covers (0–3 and different refractive index values ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. The formulation and solutions are developed with simple software Microsoft Office Excel to result the performance characteristics. The result shows that the efficiency of the flat plate collector increases with an increase in number of covers and decreases after an optimum number of covers. It also decreases with an increase in refractive index. The combination of optimum number (two and lower refractive index (1.1 results improved useful heat.

  3. The impact of hydraulic flow unit & reservoir quality index on pressure profile and productivity index in multi-segments reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Al-Rbeawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is studying the impact of the hydraulic flow unit and reservoir quality index (RQI on pressure profile and productivity index of horizontal wells acting in finite reservoirs. Several mathematical models have been developed to investigate this impact. These models have been built based on the pressure distribution in porous media, depleted by a horizontal well, consist of multi hydraulic flow units and different reservoir quality index. The porous media are assumed to be finite rectangular reservoirs having different configurations and the wellbores may have different lengths. Several analytical models describing flow regimes have been derived wherein hydraulic flow units and reservoir quality index have been included in addition to rock and fluid properties. The impact of these two parameters on reservoir performance has also been studied using steady state productivity index.It has been found that both pressure responses and flow regimes are highly affected by the existence of multiple hydraulic flow units in the porous media and the change in reservoir quality index for these units. Positive change in the RQI could lead to positive change in both pressure drop required for reservoir fluids to move towards the wellbore and hence the productivity index.

  4. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for second quarter 1997 April--June. Volume 22, Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  5. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for first quarter 1996, January--March. Volume 21, Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility.

  6. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for second quarter 1997 April - June. Volume 22, Number 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  7. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal): Compilation for first quarter 1996, January--March. Volume 21, Number 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  8. Unit Reynolds number, Mach number and pressure gradient effects on laminar-turbulent transition in two-dimensional boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Steffen; Costantini, Marco; Koch, Stefan; Hein, Stefan; Klein, Christian

    2018-05-01

    The influence of unit Reynolds number (Re_1=17.5× 106-80× 106 {m}^{-1}), Mach number (M= 0.35-0.77) and incompressible shape factor (H_{12} = 2.50-2.66) on laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition was systematically investigated in the Cryogenic Ludwieg-Tube Göttingen (DNW-KRG). For this investigation the existing two-dimensional wind tunnel model, PaLASTra, which offers a quasi-uniform streamwise pressure gradient, was modified to reduce the size of the flow separation region at its trailing edge. The streamwise temperature distribution and the location of laminar-turbulent transition were measured by means of temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) with a higher accuracy than attained in earlier measurements. It was found that for the modified PaLASTra model the transition Reynolds number (Re_{ {tr}}) exhibits a linear dependence on the pressure gradient, characterized by H_{12}. Due to this linear relation it was possible to quantify the so-called `unit Reynolds number effect', which is an increase of Re_{ {tr}} with Re_1. By a systematic variation of M, Re_1 and H_{12} in combination with a spectral analysis of freestream disturbances, a stabilizing effect of compressibility on boundary layer transition, as predicted by linear stability theory, was detected (`Mach number effect'). Furthermore, two expressions were derived which can be used to calculate the transition Reynolds number as a function of the amplitude of total pressure fluctuations, Re_1 and H_{12}. To determine critical N-factors, the measured transition locations were correlated with amplification rates, calculated by incompressible and compressible linear stability theory. By taking into account the spectral level of total pressure fluctuations at the frequency of the most amplified Tollmien-Schlichting wave at transition location, the scatter in the determined critical N-factors was reduced. Furthermore, the receptivity coefficients dependence on incidence angle of acoustic waves was used to

  9. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  10. Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessoa, Luis Gustavo Amorim; Freitas, Sergio de

    2008-01-01

    Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing. This work was carried out to investigate the reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa subjected to different densities per rearing unit. Adults of the F 4 offspring were kept at 25 ± 1 deg C, RH 70 ± 10% and 12 h photo phase. It was used the following densities per rearing unit (10 cm of diameter by 23 cm of height, and volume of 1650 cm 3 ): 1 male: 3 female, 2 males: 6 females, 3 males: 9 females and 4 males: 12 females. It was evaluated the pre-oviposition period, the daily and total oviposition per female and per rearing unit, the percentage of viable and infertile eggs percentage and the exploitation index per female and per rearing unit. The density 4 males: 12 females presented better exploitation when compared to the other densities thus equalizing the low values obtained for the mean and total egg laying per female. (author)

  11. Motor unit number estimation in the quantitative assessment of severity and progression of motor unit loss in Hirayama disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaojun; Zhu, Yu; Zhu, Dongqing; Lu, Feizhou; Xia, Xinlei; Jiang, Jianyuan; Ma, Xiaosheng

    2017-06-01

    To investigate motor unit number estimation (MUNE) as a method to quantitatively evaluate severity and progression of motor unit loss in Hirayama disease (HD). Multipoint incremental MUNE was performed bilaterally on both abductor digiti minimi and abductor pollicis brevis muscles in 46 patients with HD and 32 controls, along with handgrip strength examination. MUNE was re-evaluated approximately 1year after initial examination in 17 patients with HD. The MUNE values were significantly lower in all the tested muscles in the HD group (Pdisease duration (Pmotor unit loss in patients with HD within approximately 1year (P4years. A reduction in the functioning motor units was found in patients with HD compared with that in controls, even in the early asymptomatic stages. Moreover, the motor unit loss in HD progresses gradually as the disease advances. These results have provided evidence for the application of MUNE in estimating the reduction of motor unit in HD and confirming the validity of MUNE for tracking the progression of HD in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  13. A medical admission unit reduces duration of hospital stay and number of readmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vork, Jan C; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Political initiatives promoting a more efficient emergency admission process have triggered a reorganisation of the Danish health system with a view to creating fewer and larger admission units counting more experienced physicians. At our hospital, a medical admission unit (MAU) was established. ...... present the effect of this on the length of hospital stay, mortality rates and the number of readmissions for the last year with the previous structure and the first year of the new MAU structure....

  14. A Difference-Index Based Ranking Bilinear Programming Approach to Solving Bimatrix Games with Payoffs of Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-Feng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a bilinear programming method for solving bimatrix games in which the payoffs are expressed with trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TrIFNs, which are called TrIFN bimatrix games for short. In this method, we define the value index and ambiguity index for a TrIFN and propose a new order relation of TrIFNs based on the difference index of value index to ambiguity index, which is proven to be a total order relation. Hereby, we introduce the concepts of solutions of TrIFN bimatrix games and parametric bimatrix games. It is proven that any TrIFN bimatrix game has at least one satisfying Nash equilibrium solution, which is equivalent to the Nash equilibrium solution of corresponding parametric bimatrix game. The latter can be obtained through solving the auxiliary parametric bilinear programming model. The method proposed in this paper is demonstrated with a real example of the commerce retailers’ strategy choice problem.

  15. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06

  16. Research Productivity and Rankings of Anesthesiology Departments in Canada and the United States: The Relationship Between the h-Index and Other Common Metrics [RETRACTED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Alexandra C; Alavifard, Sepand; Walker, Benjamin; Miller, Donald R; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain

    2018-03-05

    To evaluate the relative research productivity and ranking of anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States, using the Hirsch index (h-index) and 4 other previously validated metrics. We identified 150 anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States with an accredited residency program. Publications for each of the 150 departments were identified using Thomson's Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, and the citation report for each department was exported. The bibliometric data were used to calculate publication metrics for 3 time periods: cumulative (1945-2014), 10 years (2005-2014), and 5 years (2010-2014). The following group metrics were then used to determine the publication impact and relative ranking of all 150 departments: h-index, m-index, total number of publications, sum of citations, and average number of citations per article. Ranking for each metric were also stratified by using a proxy for departmental size. The most common journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish their work were identified. The majority (23 of the top 25) of top-ranked anesthesiology departments are in the United States, and 2 of the top 25 departments (University of Toronto; McGill University) are in Canada. There was a strong positive relationship between each of h-index, total number of publications, and the sum of citations (0.91-0.97; P productivity on most metrics. The most frequent journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish are Anesthesiology, Anesthesia and Analgesia, and the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. Our study ranked the Canadian and US anesthesiology departmental research productivity using the h-index applied to each department, total number of publications, total number of citations, and average number of citations. The strong relationship between the h-index and both the number of publications and number of citations of anesthesiology departments shows that the departments

  17. High-Performance Pseudo-Random Number Generation on Graphics Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Nandapalan, Nimalan; Brent, Richard P.; Murray, Lawrence M.; Rendell, Alistair

    2011-01-01

    This work considers the deployment of pseudo-random number generators (PRNGs) on graphics processing units (GPUs), developing an approach based on the xorgens generator to rapidly produce pseudo-random numbers of high statistical quality. The chosen algorithm has configurable state size and period, making it ideal for tuning to the GPU architecture. We present a comparison of both speed and statistical quality with other common parallel, GPU-based PRNGs, demonstrating favourable performance o...

  18. Merrifield-simmons index and minimum number of independent sets in short trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendrup, Allan; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Sapozhenko, Alexander A.

    2013-01-01

    In Ars Comb. 84 (2007), 85-96, Pedersen and Vestergaard posed the problem of determining a lower bound for the number of independent sets in a tree of fixed order and diameter d. Asymptotically, we give here a complete solution for trees of diameter d...

  19. Analysis of the actual number of physicians in radiotherapy units in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenberger, R.; Witucki, G.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Physician workload directly influences the ability of an institution to provide high standards in radiotherapy services. Materials and Methods: Data of 189 radiotherapy units of the DEGRO survey 2000 complemented and corrected (Table 1) are analyzed with simple and multiple linear regression (models in Table 2). Results: In 21 private radiotherapy facilities actual numbers of physicians split up in 0.19 for every 1,000 megavoltage courses per year, 1.8 per megavoltage unit, 0.68 for every ten beds for inpatients minus 0.67 or plus 1.2 physicians per facility providing radiotherapy only or combined with other services, respectively. Radiotherapy units in hospitals were analyzed in two groups, i.e. radiotherapy only (n=69) or in combination with other services (n=59). In the latter, reported numbers of physicians split up in 3.2 for every 1,000 megavoltage courses per year, minus 0.13 per megavoltage unit, 0.87 for every ten beds for inpatients, plus 2.2 per facility. Units providing radiotherapy only had 0.86 physicians for every 1,000 megavoltage courses per year plus 1.0 per megavoltage unit plus 0.97 for every ten beds plus 1.0 per facility. In 36 radiotherapy university clinics actual numbers of physicians split up in 2.4 for every 1,000 megavoltage courses per year, 1.7 per megavoltage unit, 0.86 for every ten beds for inpatients, plus 1.5 per clinic. For confidence limits see Table 3, for results of univariate analysis Figures 1 and 2. Conclusion: In German radiotherapy facilities, physician workload varies considerably. It exceeds that reported for the USA by a substantial margin. (orig.) [de

  20. The distribution of the h-index among academic emergency physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Lawrence A; St John, Alex; Stolz, Uwe; Matheson, Lincoln; Simpson, Allan; Denninghoff, Kurt R

    2013-10-01

    Hirsch's h-index (h) attempts to measure the combined academic impact and productivity of a scientist by counting the number of publications by an author, ranked in descending order by number of citations, until the paper number equals the number of citations. This approach provides a natural number or index of the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H was first described in physics and was demonstrated to be highly predictive of continued academic activity, including recognized measures of scientific excellence such as membership in the National Academy of Sciences and being a Nobel laureate. Citation rates, research environments, and years of experience all affect h, making any comparisons appropriate only for scientists working in the same field for a similar time period. The authors are unaware of any report describing the distribution of h among academic emergency physicians (AEPs). The objective was to describe the distribution of h for AEPs and to determine whether Hirsch's demonstration of the h-index as a predictor of continued scholarly activity among physicists would also apply to AEPs. Academic EPs were identified from lists provided on allopathic U.S. emergency medicine (EM) residency program websites. "Harzing's Publish or Perish," a free program available on the Web that queries Google Scholar, was used to calculate h for each AEP. Agreement between raters was analyzed on a subset of 100 EPs. An analysis of the 20 EPs with the top h-indices was performed to characterize the entire body of their scholarly work, and their h-indices were calculated at 12 and 24 years into their careers. A total of 4,744 AEPs from 136 programs were evaluated. Nine programs did not publicly list the faculty at their institutions and were excluded. A linear weighted kappa was used to measure rater concordance, with agreement of 98.3% and κ = 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.861 to 0.957). The majority of AEPs had h-indices of zero or

  1. Indexing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.G.; Parker, G.E.; Berry, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the indexing mechanism described can be used in a nuclear reactor fuel element inspection rig. It comprises a tubular body adapted to house a canister containing a number of fuel elements located longtitudinally, and has two chucks spaced apart for displacing the fuel elements longitudinally in a stepwise manner, together with a plunger mechanism for displacing them successively into the chucks. A measuring unit is located between the chucks for measuring the diameter of the fuel elements at intervals about their circumferences, and a secondary indexing mechanism is provided for rotating the measuring unit in a stepwise manner. (U.K.)

  2. Investigation of shift in decay hazard (Scheffer) index values over the period 1969-2008 in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Charles G. Carll

    2010-01-01

    A statistical analysis was performed that identified time trends in the Scheffer Index value for 167 locations in the conterminous United States over the period 1969-2008. Year-to-year variation in Index values was found to be larger than year-to-year variation in most other weather parameters. Despite the substantial yearly variation, regression equations, with time (...

  3. Effect of Fluoride Mouthrinse and Toothpaste on Number of Streptococcal Colony Forming Units of Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Jabbarifar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frequent topical fluoride therapy through toothpaste, mouthrinse, professional gels and solutions causes decrease in incidence, pause and repair of dental caries in the enamel. These mechanisms are done through penetration of fluoride ions (F- and their replacement with hydroxyl ions (OH- of hydroxyappatite of enamel, interfere with microbial metabolism of dental plaque and bacteriostatic effect on some cariogenic bacterial strains such as streptococci. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride mouthrinse and toothpaste on the number of streptococcal colony forming units of dental plaque. Methods: 62 children with 6-7 years old were put in two groups. Samples of dental plaque from each group were collected both before and after use of the fluoride mouthrinse and or toothpaste. The samples were cultured on blood agar to find the number of streptococcal colony forming units (CFU. The mean colony forming unit was compared inter and intra groups before and after application of Fluoride products. Results: The streptococcal CFU of dental plaque before and after use of the mouthrinse and toothpaste respectively was (1240±1367, 1253±1341.5 and (551±716, 898±1151. Statistically, the streptococcal CFU in each group before and after use of the toothpaste and mouthrinse was significantly different. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the fluoride toothpaste and mouthrinse reduce number of streptococcal colony forming units of dental plaque. Also this reduction was not depended on level of (F- Ions, sort of vehicle of fluoride and frequent application of the fluoride mouthrinse and toothpaste. Keywords: fluoride mouthrinse, fluoride toothpaste, colony forming unit (CFU, streptococcus

  4. Pseudo-random number generators for Monte Carlo simulations on ATI Graphics Processing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchik, Vadim

    2011-03-01

    Basic uniform pseudo-random number generators are implemented on ATI Graphics Processing Units (GPU). The performance results of the realized generators (multiplicative linear congruential (GGL), XOR-shift (XOR128), RANECU, RANMAR, RANLUX and Mersenne Twister (MT19937)) on CPU and GPU are discussed. The obtained speed up factor is hundreds of times in comparison with CPU. RANLUX generator is found to be the most appropriate for using on GPU in Monte Carlo simulations. The brief review of the pseudo-random number generators used in modern software packages for Monte Carlo simulations in high-energy physics is presented.

  5. Brazil and the United States: The Need for Strategic Engagement (Strategic Forum, Number 266, March 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    If accurate, these astonishing numbers in themselves tell the story of Brazil’s explosive growth. 7 Embrapa is short for Empresa Brasileira de ...in the world. Geography. U.S. citizens think of Brazil as be- ing Rio de Janeiro and its beautiful beaches or as the Amazon, an endless jungle...United States www.ndu.edu/inss SF No. 266 3 and port systems lag. One study suggests that domestic transportation costs and port fees for soy, Brazil’s

  6. Estimation of the number of wild pigs found in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    Based on a compilation of three estimation approaches, the total nationwide population of wild pigs in the United States numbers approximately 6.3 million animals, with that total estimate ranging from 4.4 up to 11.3 million animals. The majority of these numbers (99 percent), which were encompassed by ten states (i.e., Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Texas), were based on defined estimation methodologies (e.g., density estimates correlated to the total potential suitable wild pig habitat statewide, statewide harvest percentages, statewide agency surveys regarding wild pig distribution and numbers). In contrast to the pre-1990 estimates, none of these more recent efforts, collectively encompassing 99 percent of the total, were based solely on anecdotal information or speculation. To that end, one can defensibly state that the wild pigs found in the United States number in the millions of animals, with the nationwide population estimated to arguably vary from about four million up to about eleven million individuals.

  7. An Index to All "Query" Computer Searches Completed from July 1973 to June 1974. Search Number 0403-0619. Information Series No. 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Dolores J., Comp.; Hines, Rella, Comp.

    The Tennessee Research Coordinating Unit (RCU) has implemented a computerized information retrieval system known as "Query," which allows for the retrieval of documents indexed in Research in Education (RIE), Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE), and Abstracts of Instructional and Research Materials (AIM/ARM). The document…

  8. Color photographic index of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development and accumulated thermal units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between accumulated thermal units and developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos can be used to determine the approximate date of egg fertilization in natural redds, thus providing insight into oviposition timing of wild salmonids. However, few studies have documented time to different developmental stages of embryonic Chinook salmon and no reference color photographs are available. The objectives of this study were to construct an index relating developmental stages of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon embryos to time and temperature (e.g., degree days and provide high-quality color photographs of each identified developmental stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fall Chinook salmon eggs were fertilized in a hatchery environment and sampled approximately every 72 h post-fertilization until 50% hatch. Known embryonic developmental features described for sockeye salmon were used to describe development of Chinook salmon embryos. A thermal sums model was used to describe the relationship between embryonic development rate and water temperature. Mean water temperature was 8.0 degrees C (range; 3.9-11.7 degrees C during the study period. Nineteen stages of embryonic development were identified for fall Chinook salmon; two stages in the cleavage phase, one stage in the gastrulation phase, and sixteen stages in the organogenesis phase. The thermal sums model used in this study provided similar estimates of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development rate in water temperatures varying from 3.9-11.7 degrees C (mean=8 degrees C to those from several other studies rearing embryos in constant 8 degrees C water temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The developmental index provides a reasonable description of timing to known developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos and was useful in determining developmental stages of wild fall Chinook salmon embryos excavated from redds in the Columbia River. This index

  9. Intra-rater reliability of motor unit number estimation and quantitative motor unit analysis in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Colleen T; Doherty, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the intra-rater reliability of decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA) motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative motor unit potential analysis in the upper trapezius (UT) and biceps brachii (BB) of subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to compare the results from the UT to control data. Patients diagnosed with clinically probable or definite ALS completed the experimental protocol twice with the same evaluator for the UT (n=10) and BB (n=9). Intra-rater reliability for the UT was good for the maximum compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (ICC=0.88), mean surface-detected motor unit potential (S-MUP) (ICC=0.87) and MUNE (ICC=0.88), and for the BB was moderate for maximum CMAP (ICC=0.61), and excellent for mean S-MUP (ICC=0.94) and MUNE (ICC=0.93). A significant difference between tests was found for UT MUNE. Comparing subjects with ALS to control subjects, UT maximum CMAP (p<0.01) and MUNE (p<0.001) values were significantly lower, and mean S-MUP values significantly greater (p<0.05) in subjects with ALS. This study has demonstrated the ability of the DE-STA MUNE technique to collect highly reliable data from two separate muscle groups and to detect the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. This was the first study to examine the reliability of this technique in subjects with ALS, and demonstrates its potential for future use as an outcome measure in ALS clinical trials and studies of ALS disease severity and natural history. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January-December 1980. Volume 31, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rucks, Frances

    1980-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 73 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  11. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January-December 1981. Volume 32, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 72 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  12. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January-December 1978. Volume 29, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rucks, Frances

    1978-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 68 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  13. Number and distribution of gay bathhouses in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, William J; Tracy, Daniel; Binson, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Although gay bathhouses have been the subject of debate and some public health policy for decades, the relative number and geographic distribution of these establishments has not been described. As a result, it is easy to miss or ignore them in making public policy in response to discase prevention. No straightforward methodology for such a description is available, so we used a series of gay travel books, first published in 1965 by the Damron Company, to estimate this distribution in the United States and Canada. Each of the annual guides published from 1968 to 1999 were reviewed for listings of bathhouses and sex clubs. The results suggest that bathhouses and other similar establishments exist in most states and provinces and in most large and many moderate-sized cities. Furthermore, the largest numbers of listings for bathhouses were in the same six cities across the decades, three in the U.S. and three in Canada. The greatest change in the number of listings was seen in the three U.S. cities where a public policy of closure was attempted. Nevertheless, the numbers of venues in these three cities have been increasing again since the early 1990s, although nothing near the numbers of listings in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

  14. A PRESSURE ULCER AND FALL RATE QUALITY COMPOSITE INDEX FOR ACUTE CARE UNITS: A MEASURE DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E.; Dunton, Nancy E.; Staggs, Vincent S.; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. Objective The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index – the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Design Two-phase measure development study. Settings 5,144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors® during the year 2013. Methods The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. Results The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index = 100 − PUR − FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of

  15. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  16. White-nose syndrome and wing damage index scores among summer bats in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francl, Karen E; Sparks, Dale W; Brack, Virgil; Timpone, John

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) adversely affects millions of bats hibernating in caves of the eastern United States. Beginning in 2009, the US Fish and Wildlife Service supported use of a wing damage index (WDI) scoring system (scale of 0 to 3, or no damage to severe) to assess wing damage of bats captured during summer. Based on bat captures at 459 mist net sites in Pennsylvania, New York, Maryland, Virginia, and New Jersey, USA, we questioned whether WDI scores varied by species group, date, and distance to the closest known affected hibernaculum. We also compared relative health (body mass index [BMI] scores) to WDI scores. Of 3,419 bats (nine species), only four individuals (0.1%; little brown [Myotis lucifugus] and northern bats [Myotis septentrionalis]) were scored as a 3 and 47 (1.4%; big brown [Eptesicus fuscus], little brown, and northern bats) as a 2. All tree bats (eastern red [Lasiurus borealis], hoary [Lasiurus cinereus], and silver-haired bats [Lasionycteris noctivagans]) scored a 0 or 1, suggesting that these species were not affected by WNS. The average WDI score decreased as summer progressed, although trends were weak. Average WDI score and number of bats with class 2 and 3 damage increased with proximity to a known WNS-positive hibernaculum. Similarly, the number of bats with severe wing damage (scoring 2 or 3) was greater at sites closer to infected hibernacula, but little variance was explained by the trend. When species-specific BMI was examined, trends were consistent by sex (female BMI scores were higher than those of males), but no relationship was discovered between BMI and WDI scores. We conclude that, at this larger geographic scale, WDI is not a clear indicator of bat health.

  17. Numerical assessment of flow dynamics for various DI diesel engine designs considering swirl number and uniformity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarmadar, S.; Taghavifar, Hadi; Taghavifar, Hamid; Navid, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Swirl ratio and uniformity index was assessed for six different engine designs. • Lower bowl-depth and higher bowl radius create higher squish and swirl. • The best design for power boost and emission control strategies were identified. • The flow dynamics are considered based on TKE and also the flow field vectors. - Abstract: Geometrical features of combustion chamber are important factors in subsequent engine’s combustion and emissions. Location and configuration of bowl in diesel engine has been the dynamic field of research especially for optimization procedure. This study considers six different engine patterns with outlined parameters. It follows that different designs are characterized with different swirl motions and tumble flows within the combustion chamber. It was determined that maximum and minimum peak swirl number pertains to “Design5” and “Design1” with 1.59 and 1.1 values, respectively. By using “Design5” case instead of “Design1” (baseline case), uniformity index increased by 25.83% whereby peak soot concentration was reduced over 46.7%. The bigger bowl radius (R1) makes higher swirl ratio and this eventually leads to lower soot emission. Lower bowl depth (T), however, gives way to stronger squish pressure and engine-out power.

  18. Estimating the number of latent cracks in pressure tube joints at Bruce unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, C.J.

    1983-10-01

    A model was built to estimate the number of hydride cracks which might have arisen in the rolled joints of Bruce unit 2 prior to the stress relieving operation. The model estimated that about 100 such cracks might exist. Since this estimate is based on experiments that were thermally cycled and since cycling did not occur in Bruce, prior to stress relieving the actual number is expected to be substantially lower. A sensitivity analysis of the model showed that it is sensitive to the assumptions of stress levels, probability of initiation and distribution of initiation time. A better estimate could be made if more data were available on these parameters under realistic conditions. Therefore, the recommendation is made to collect more information about these factors under realistic conditions

  19. Increased numbers of spleen colony forming units in B cell deficient CBA/N mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Krupienicz, A.; Scher, I.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of exogenous and endogenous spleen colonies was studied in immune-defective mice expressing the CBA/N X-linked xid gene. Bone marrow and spleen cells of immune deficient mice formed increased numbers of eight-day exogenous spleen colonies when transferred to either normal or B cell deficient lethally irradiated recipients. Moreover, defective mice showed increased formation of five-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from transient endogenous colony forming units; T-CFU) and of ten-day endogenous spleen colonies (derived from CFU-S). Among the possible mechanisms responsible for the observed effects, the most probable appears the one in which decreased numbers of B cell precursors stimulate stem cell pools through a feedback mechanism. (orig.) [de

  20. A comment on "bats killed in large numbers at United States wind energy facilities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Dalthorp, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Widespread reports of bat fatalities caused by wind turbines have raised concerns about the impacts of wind power development. Reliable estimates of the total number killed and the potential effects on populations are needed, but it is crucial that they be based on sound data. In a recent BioScience article, Hayes (2013) estimated that over 600,000 bats were killed at wind turbines in the United States in 2012. The scientific errors in the analysis are numerous, with the two most serious being that the included sites constituted a convenience sample, not a representative sample, and that the individual site estimates are derived from such different methodologies that they are inherently not comparable. This estimate is almost certainly inaccurate, but whether the actual number is much smaller, much larger, or about the same is uncertain. An accurate estimate of total bat fatality is not currently possible, given the shortcomings of the available data.

  1. 24 CFR 290.21 - Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or alternative uses. 290.21 Section 290.21 Housing and... Multifamily Projects § 290.21 Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based...

  2. Minimum number of transfer units and reboiler duty for multicomponent distillation columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleşu, Valentin; Bonet Ruiz, Alexandra Elena; Bonet, Jordi; Llorens, Joan; Iancu, Petrica

    2013-01-01

    Some guidelines to evaluate distillation columns, considering only basic thermodynamic data and principles, are provided in this paper. The method allows a first insight to the problem by simple calculations, without requiring column variables to ensure rational use of energy and low environmental impact. The separation system is approached by two complementary ways: minimum and infinite reflux flow rate. The minimum reflux provides the minimum energy requirements, and the infinite reflux provides the feasibility conditions. The difficulty of separation can be expressed in terms of number of transfer units (NTU). The applicability of the method is not mathematically limited by the number of components in the mixture. It is also applicable to reactive distillation. Several mixtures, including reactive distillation, are rigorously simulated as illustrative examples, to verify the applicability of the approach. The separation of the mixtures, performed by distillation columns, is feasible if a minimum NTU can be calculated between the distillate and bottom products. Once verified the feasibility of the separation, the maximum thermal efficiency depends only on boiling point of bottom and distillate streams. The minimum energy requirements corresponding to the reboiler can be calculated from the maximum thermal efficiency, and the variation of entropy and enthalpy of mixing between distillate and bottom streams. -- Highlights: • Feasibility analysis complemented with difficulty of separation parameters • Minimum and infinite reflux simplified models for distillation columns • Minimum number of transfer units (NTU) for packed columns at early design stages • Calculation of minimum energy distillation requirements at early design stages • Thermodynamic cycle approach and efficiency for distillation columns

  3. Copy Number Variations in Candidate Genes and Intergenic Regions Affect Body Mass Index and Abdominal Obesity in Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguete-García, Ana Isabel; Bonnefond, Amélie; Peralta-Romero, Jesús; Froguel, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Increase in body weight is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and in adolescence as a result of multiple interactions among environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between copy number variants (CNVs) in five genes and four intergenic regions with obesity in Mexican children. Methods. We studied 1423 children aged 6–12 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood levels of biochemical parameters were obtained. Identification of CNVs was performed by real-time PCR. The effect of CNVs on obesity or body composition was assessed using regression models adjusted for age, gender, and family history of obesity. Results. Gains in copy numbers of LEPR and NEGR1 were associated with decreased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and risk of abdominal obesity, whereas gain in ARHGEF4 and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d and losses in INS were associated with increased BMI and WC. Conclusion. Our results indicate a possible contribution of CNVs in LEPR, NEGR1, ARHGEF4, and CPXCR1 and the intergenic regions 12q15c, 15q21.1a, and 22q11.21d to the development of obesity, particularly abdominal obesity in Mexican children. PMID:28428959

  4. The Curve Number Concept as a Driver for Delineating Hydrological Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Savvidou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new methodology for delineating Hydrological Response Units (HRUs, based on the Curve Number (CN concept, is presented. Initially, a semi-automatic procedure in a GIS environment is used to produce basin maps of distributed CN values as the product of the three classified layers, soil permeability, land use/land cover characteristics and drainage capacity. The map of CN values is used in the context of model parameterization, in order to identify the essential number and spatial extent of HRUs and, consequently, the number of control variables of the calibration problem. The new approach aims at reducing the subjectivity introduced by the definition of HRUs and providing parsimonious modelling schemes. In particular, the CN-based parameterization (1 allows the user to assign as many parameters as can be supported by the available hydrological information, (2 associates the model parameters with anticipated basin responses, as quantified in terms of CN classes across HRUs, and (3 reduces the effort for model calibration, simultaneously ensuring good predictive capacity. The advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated in the hydrological simulation of the Nedontas River Basin, Greece, where parameterizations of different complexities are employed in a recently improved version of the HYDROGEIOS model. A modelling experiment with a varying number of HRUs, where the parameter estimation problem was handled through automatic optimization, showed that the parameterization with three HRUs, i.e., equal to the number of flow records, ensured the optimal performance. Similarly, tests with alternative HRU configurations confirmed that the optimal scores, both in calibration and validation, were achieved by the CN-based approach, also resulting in parameters values across the HRUs that were in agreement with their physical interpretation.

  5. Economist intelligence unit democracy index in relation to health services accessibility: a regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary Ellen; Anonson, June; Szafron, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between political environment and health services accessibility (HSA) has not been the focus of any specific studies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between political environment and HSA. This relationship that HSA indicators (physicians, nurses and hospital beds per 10 000 people) has with political environment was analyzed with multiple least-squares regression using the components of democracy (electoral processes and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, political culture, and civil liberties). The components of democracy were represented by the 2011 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index (EIUDI) sub-scores. The EIUDI sub-scores and the HSA indicators were evaluated for significant relationships with multiple least-squares regression. While controlling for a country's geographic location and level of democracy, we found that two components of a nation's political environment: functioning of government and political participation, and their interaction had significant relationships with the three HSA indicators. These study findings are of significance to health professionals because they examine the political contexts in which citizens access health services, they come from research that is the first of its kind, and they help explain the effect political environment has on health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Factors associated with work ability index (WAI) among intensive care units' (ICUs') nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostamabadi, Akbar; Zamanian, Zahra; Sedaghat, Zahra

    2017-03-28

    Work ability is a crucial occupational health issue in health care settings where a high physical and psychosocial work capacity is required and a high risk of disabling injuries and illnesses is predictable. This study aims to examine the association between the work ability index (WAI) and individual characterizations, workload, fatigue, and diseases among intensive care units' (ICUs') nurses. The study sample included 214 nurses selected by a random sampling method from a target population consisting of 321 registered nurses working in eight ICUs. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test the association between WAI scores and each of the independent variables. Results of multivariate analysis revealed a strong and negative association between WAI scores and diseases (B=-5.82, 95% CI=-7.16, -4.48, Pindex (BMI) was significantly and inversely associated with WAI scores. A significant and negative association was also found between WAI scores and dimensions of MFI-20, such as general fatigue (B=-0.31, 95% CI=-0.53, -0.09, P=0.005) and physical fatigue (B=-0.44, 95% CI=-0.65, -0.23, Pwork environment characterized by a well-structured preventive attitude toward controlling diseases, and a well-designed organizational framework toward increasing the level of performance and motivation, reducing the level of fatigue, as well as reducing the workload, is necessary to promote work ability among ICUs' nurses.

  7. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 33. Index of the proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1958-01-01

    More than 2100 papers were submitted by the Governments, specialized agencies, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, which participated in the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in September 1958. These papers together with the records of the sessions have been published, in English, in a series of thirty-two volumes which constitute the official Proceedings of the Conference. The United Nations has also published abbreviated French and Spanish editions of the Proceedings which total thirteen volumes in each edition. They consist of all the Conference papers in the language of the edition, the complete text of the orally presented papers, the complete text of the one hundred and nine thermonuclear fusion papers, additional selected papers, and the records of the sessions. A similar abbreviated edition is being published in Russian by the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A list of the titles and prices of the volumes in each of the editions published by the United Nations is included in this volume, which is the index volume of the Proceedings. Prices are quoted in US dollars, but the volumes may be purchased in any national currency. This volume also includes, for the English edition only, a subject index, a numerical index, an author index and a list of errata. The numerical index, which was prepared by the United Nations Headquarters Library, lists the individual papers of the Proceedings serially, omitting the numbers of those papers which were withdrawn by Governments before the Conference. The arrangement of the index is self-explanatory except for the use of the letters F, R or S which appear in parentheses following some of the titles. These letters indicate the existence of a published version of the paper in French, Russian or Spanish. French and Spanish texts may be found in the corresponding series given in the list of volumes. In both editions, Volume 1

  8. Proceedings of the second United Nations international conference on the peaceful uses of atomic energy. V. 33. Index of the proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1958-07-01

    More than 2100 papers were submitted by the Governments, specialized agencies, and the International Atomic Energy Agency, which participated in the Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in September 1958. These papers together with the records of the sessions have been published, in English, in a series of thirty-two volumes which constitute the official Proceedings of the Conference. The United Nations has also published abbreviated French and Spanish editions of the Proceedings which total thirteen volumes in each edition. They consist of all the Conference papers in the language of the edition, the complete text of the orally presented papers, the complete text of the one hundred and nine thermonuclear fusion papers, additional selected papers, and the records of the sessions. A similar abbreviated edition is being published in Russian by the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A list of the titles and prices of the volumes in each of the editions published by the United Nations is included in this volume, which is the index volume of the Proceedings. Prices are quoted in US dollars, but the volumes may be purchased in any national currency. This volume also includes, for the English edition only, a subject index, a numerical index, an author index and a list of errata. The numerical index, which was prepared by the United Nations Headquarters Library, lists the individual papers of the Proceedings serially, omitting the numbers of those papers which were withdrawn by Governments before the Conference. The arrangement of the index is self-explanatory except for the use of the letters F, R or S which appear in parentheses following some of the titles. These letters indicate the existence of a published version of the paper in French, Russian or Spanish. French and Spanish texts may be found in the corresponding series given in the list of volumes. In both editions, Volume 1

  9. The Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score predicts unplanned intensive care unit patient readmission: initial development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajic, Ognjen; Malinchoc, Michael; Comfere, Thomas B.; Harris, Marcelline R.; Achouiti, Ahmed; Yilmaz, Murat; Schultz, Marcus J.; Hubmayr, Rolf D.; Afessa, Bekele; Farmer, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Unplanned readmission of hospitalized patients to an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a worse outcome, but our ability to identify who is likely to deteriorate after ICU dismissal is limited. The objective of this study is to develop and validate a numerical index, named the

  10. A Miniaturized Antenna with Negative Index Metamaterial Based on Modified SRR and CLS Unit Cell for UWB Microwave Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized antenna employing a negative index metamaterial with modified split-ring resonator (SRR and capacitance-loaded strip (CLS unit cells is presented for Ultra wideband (UWB microwave imaging applications. Four left-handed (LH metamaterial (MTM unit cells are located along one axis of the antenna as the radiating element. Each left-handed metamaterial unit cell combines a modified split-ring resonator (SRR with a capacitance-loaded strip (CLS to obtain a design architecture that simultaneously exhibits both negative permittivity and negative permeability, which ensures a stable negative refractive index to improve the antenna performance for microwave imaging. The antenna structure, with dimension of 16 × 21 × 1.6 mm3, is printed on a low dielectric FR4 material with a slotted ground plane and a microstrip feed. The measured reflection coefficient demonstrates that this antenna attains 114.5% bandwidth covering the frequency band of 3.4–12.5 GHz for a voltage standing wave ratio of less than 2 with a maximum gain of 5.16 dBi at 10.15 GHz. There is a stable harmony between the simulated and measured results that indicate improved nearly omni-directional radiation characteristics within the operational frequency band. The stable surface current distribution, negative refractive index characteristic, considerable gain and radiation properties make this proposed negative index metamaterial antenna optimal for UWB microwave imaging applications.

  11. Using a topographic index to distribute variable source area runoff predicted with the SCS curve-number equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.; Walter, M. Todd; Gérard-Marchant, Pierre; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2004-10-01

    Because the traditional Soil Conservation Service curve-number (SCS-CN) approach continues to be used ubiquitously in water quality models, new application methods are needed that are consistent with variable source area (VSA) hydrological processes in the landscape. We developed and tested a distributed approach for applying the traditional SCS-CN equation to watersheds where VSA hydrology is a dominant process. Predicting the location of source areas is important for watershed planning because restricting potentially polluting activities from runoff source areas is fundamental to controlling non-point-source pollution. The method presented here used the traditional SCS-CN approach to predict runoff volume and spatial extent of saturated areas and a topographic index, like that used in TOPMODEL, to distribute runoff source areas through watersheds. The resulting distributed CN-VSA method was applied to two subwatersheds of the Delaware basin in the Catskill Mountains region of New York State and one watershed in south-eastern Australia to produce runoff-probability maps. Observed saturated area locations in the watersheds agreed with the distributed CN-VSA method. Results showed good agreement with those obtained from the previously validated soil moisture routing (SMR) model. When compared with the traditional SCS-CN method, the distributed CN-VSA method predicted a similar total volume of runoff, but vastly different locations of runoff generation. Thus, the distributed CN-VSA approach provides a physically based method that is simple enough to be incorporated into water quality models, and other tools that currently use the traditional SCS-CN method, while still adhering to the principles of VSA hydrology.

  12. Computing with impure numbers - Automatic consistency checking and units conversion using computer algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    The computer algebra language MACSYMA enables the programmer to include symbolic physical units in computer calculations, and features automatic detection of dimensionally-inhomogeneous formulas and conversion of inconsistent units in a dimensionally homogeneous formula. Some examples illustrate these features.

  13. TU-FG-209-08: Distribution of the Deviation Index (DI) in Digital Radiography Practices Across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A; Shepard, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dave, J [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Fisher, R [The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hulme, K [The Cleveland Clinic, Beachwood, OH (United States); Rill, L [University Florida, Jacksonville Beach, FL (United States); Zamora, D [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Woodward, A [The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Brady, S [St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); MacDougall, R [Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Goldman, L [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT (United States); Lang, S; Peck, D [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Apgar, B [AGFA HealthCare, Greenville, SC (United States); Uzenoff, R [FUJIFILM Medical Systems U.S.A., Inc., Weston, CT (United States); Willis, C [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bellaire, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To characterize the distribution of the deviation index (DI) in digital radiography practices across the United States. Methods: DI data was obtained from 10 collaborating institutions in the United States between 2012 and 2015. Each institution complied with the requirements of the Institutional Review Board at their site. DI data from radiographs of the body parts chest, abdomen, pelvis and extremity were analyzed for anteroposterior, posteroanterior, lateral, and decubitus views. The DI data was analyzed both in aggregate and stratified by exposure control method, image receptor technology, patient age, and participating site for each body part and view. The number of exposures with DI falling within previously published control limits for DI and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: DI data from 505,930 radiographic exposures was analyzed. The number of exposures with DI falling within published control limits for DI varied from 10 to 20% for adult patients and 10 to 23% for pediatric patients for different body parts and views. Mean DI values averaged over other parameters for radiographs of the abdomen, chest, pelvis, and extremities ranged from 0.3 to 1.0, −0.6 to 0.5, 0.8, and −0.9 to 0.5 for the different adult views and ranged from −1.6 to −0.1, −0.3 to 0.5, −0.1, −0.2 to 1.4 for the different pediatric views, respectively (DI data was solicited only for anteroposterior view of pelvis). Standard deviation values of DI from individual sites ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 and 1.3 to 3.0 for the different adult and pediatric views, respectively. Also of interest was that target exposure indicators varied by up to a factor of 6 between sites for certain body parts and views. Conclusion: Previously published DI control limits do not reflect the state of clinical practice in digital radiography. Mean DI and target exposure indicators are targets for quality improvement efforts in radiography.

  14. TU-FG-209-08: Distribution of the Deviation Index (DI) in Digital Radiography Practices Across the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A; Shepard, S; Dave, J; Fisher, R; Hulme, K; Rill, L; Zamora, D; Woodward, A; Brady, S; MacDougall, R; Goldman, L; Lang, S; Peck, D; Apgar, B; Uzenoff, R; Willis, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the distribution of the deviation index (DI) in digital radiography practices across the United States. Methods: DI data was obtained from 10 collaborating institutions in the United States between 2012 and 2015. Each institution complied with the requirements of the Institutional Review Board at their site. DI data from radiographs of the body parts chest, abdomen, pelvis and extremity were analyzed for anteroposterior, posteroanterior, lateral, and decubitus views. The DI data was analyzed both in aggregate and stratified by exposure control method, image receptor technology, patient age, and participating site for each body part and view. The number of exposures with DI falling within previously published control limits for DI and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results: DI data from 505,930 radiographic exposures was analyzed. The number of exposures with DI falling within published control limits for DI varied from 10 to 20% for adult patients and 10 to 23% for pediatric patients for different body parts and views. Mean DI values averaged over other parameters for radiographs of the abdomen, chest, pelvis, and extremities ranged from 0.3 to 1.0, −0.6 to 0.5, 0.8, and −0.9 to 0.5 for the different adult views and ranged from −1.6 to −0.1, −0.3 to 0.5, −0.1, −0.2 to 1.4 for the different pediatric views, respectively (DI data was solicited only for anteroposterior view of pelvis). Standard deviation values of DI from individual sites ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 and 1.3 to 3.0 for the different adult and pediatric views, respectively. Also of interest was that target exposure indicators varied by up to a factor of 6 between sites for certain body parts and views. Conclusion: Previously published DI control limits do not reflect the state of clinical practice in digital radiography. Mean DI and target exposure indicators are targets for quality improvement efforts in radiography.

  15. Numbers and Measuring, Learning With TOR: MINNEMAST Coordinated Mathematics - Science Series, Unit 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Elaine E., Ed.

    This volume is the sixteenth in a series of 29 coordinated MINNEMAST units in mathematics and science for kindergarten and the primary grades. Intended for use by second-grade teachers, this unit guide provides a summary and overview of the unit, a list of materials needed, and descriptions of five groups of lessons. The purposes and procedures…

  16. Bayesian framework for prediction of future number of failures from a single group of units in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Nader

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers prediction of unknown number of failures in a future inspection of a group of in-service units based on number of failures observed from an earlier inspection. We develop a flexible Bayesian model and calculate Bayesian estimator for this unknown number and other quantities of interest. The paper also includes an illustration of our method in an example about heat exchanger. A main advantage of our approach is in its nonparametric nature. By nonparametric here we simply mean that no assumption is required about the failure time distribution of a unit

  17. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, T T T; Zwart, M P; Phuong, N T; de Jong, M C M; Vlak, J M

    2012-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) located in ORF75, ORF94 and ORF125. In the current study, we investigated whether or not the number of repeat units in the VNTRs correlates with virus outbreak status and/or shrimp farming practice. We analysed 662 WSSV samples from individual WSSV-infected Penaeus monodon shrimp from 104 ponds collected from two important shrimp farming regions of the Mekong Delta: Ca Mau and Bac Lieu. Using this large data set and statistical analysis, we found that for ORF94 and ORF125, the mean number of repeat units (RUs) in VNTRs was significantly lower in disease outbreak ponds than in non-outbreak ponds. Although a higher mean RU number was observed in the improved-extensive system than in the rice-shrimp or semi-intensive systems, these differences were not significant. VNTR sequences are thus not only useful markers for studying WSSV genotypes and populations, but specific VNTR variants also correlate with disease outbreaks in shrimp farming systems. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Causes of systematic over- or underestimation of low streamflows by use of index-streamgage approaches in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, K.; Kiang, J.E.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Carlisle, D.M.; Granato, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Low-flow characteristics can be estimated by multiple linear regressions or the index-streamgage approach. The latter transfers streamflow information from a hydrologically similar, continuously gaged basin ('index streamgage') to one with a very limited streamflow record, but often results in biased estimates. The application of the index-streamgage approach can be generalized into three steps: (1) selection of streamflow information of interest, (2) definition of hydrologic similarity and selection of index streamgage, and (3) application of an information-transfer approach. Here, we explore the effects of (1) the range of streamflow values, (2) the areal density of streamgages, and (3) index-streamgage selection criteria on the bias of three information-transfer approaches on estimates of the 7-day, 10-year minimum streamflow (Q7, 10). The three information-transfer approaches considered are maintenance of variance extension, base-flow correlation, and ratio of measured to concurrent gaged streamflow (Q-ratio invariance). Our results for 1120 streamgages throughout the United States suggest that only a small portion of the total bias in estimated streamflow values is explained by the areal density of the streamgages and the hydrologic similarity between the two basins. However, restricting the range of streamflow values used in the index-streamgage approach reduces the bias of estimated Q7, 10 values substantially. Importantly, estimated Q7, 10 values are heavily biased when the observed Q7, 10 values are near zero. Results of the analysis also showed that Q7, 10 estimates from two of the three index-streamgage approaches have lower root-mean-square error values than estimates derived from multiple regressions for the large regions considered in this study.

  19. Association of UV Index and Sunscreen Use among White High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett Jones, Sherry; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Background: When used appropriately, sunscreen decreases the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure to the skin and is recommended to prevent skin cancer. This study examined the association between annual average UV index and sunscreen use among White, non-Hispanic youth. Methods: The 2007 and 2009 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey…

  20. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge; Overpeck, Mary D; Ruan, W June

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) and the prevalence of BMI at or above the 85th centile and 95th centile (overweight) in adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, nationally representative school-based survey...

  1. Linking climate, gross primary productivity, and site index across forests of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Philip J. Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Assessing forest productivity is important for developing effective management regimes and predicting future growth. Despite some important limitations, the most common means for quantifying forest stand-level potential productivity is site index (SI). Another measure of productivity is gross primary production (GPP). In this paper, SI is compared with GPP estimates...

  2. Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield

  3. Characterization report for Area 23, Building 650 Leachfield, Corrective Action Unit Number 94, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-27

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 94, Building 650 Leachfield, is an historic laboratory disposal unit located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The objectives of this project were twofold: characterize subsurface conditions at the CAU with respect to the on-site disposal unit, and provide sufficient information to develop a closure strategy for the leachfield. To this end, subsurface sampling was conducted in the vicinity of the piping above the distribution box, under and around the distribution box, and within the leachfield.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Hydrologically Connected Zone Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Hydrologically Connected Zone (HCZ) Mask was determined using grid analysis to combine surface water features in the United States from three datasets: First,...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Water Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents all surface water features in the United States. This grid was created by combining water features identified in two sources, the Cropland...

  6. Modeling number of bacteria per food unit in comparison to bacterial concentration in quantitative risk assessment: impact on risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouillot, Régis; Chen, Yuhuan; Hoelzer, Karin

    2015-02-01

    When developing quantitative risk assessment models, a fundamental consideration for risk assessors is to decide whether to evaluate changes in bacterial levels in terms of concentrations or in terms of bacterial numbers. Although modeling bacteria in terms of integer numbers may be regarded as a more intuitive and rigorous choice, modeling bacterial concentrations is more popular as it is generally less mathematically complex. We tested three different modeling approaches in a simulation study. The first approach considered bacterial concentrations; the second considered the number of bacteria in contaminated units, and the third considered the expected number of bacteria in contaminated units. Simulation results indicate that modeling concentrations tends to overestimate risk compared to modeling the number of bacteria. A sensitivity analysis using a regression tree suggests that processes which include drastic scenarios consisting of combinations of large bacterial inactivation followed by large bacterial growth frequently lead to a >10-fold overestimation of the average risk when modeling concentrations as opposed to bacterial numbers. Alternatively, the approach of modeling the expected number of bacteria in positive units generates results similar to the second method and is easier to use, thus potentially representing a promising compromise. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  8. Developing Models to Predict the Number of Fire Hotspots from an Accumulated Fuel Dryness Index by Vegetation Type and Region in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Vega-Nieva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the linkage between accumulated fuel dryness and temporal fire occurrence risk is key for improving decision-making in forest fire management, especially under growing conditions of vegetation stress associated with climate change. This study addresses the development of models to predict the number of 10-day observed Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS active fire hotspots—expressed as a Fire Hotspot Density index (FHD—from an Accumulated Fuel Dryness Index (AcFDI, for 17 main vegetation types and regions in Mexico, for the period 2011–2015. The AcFDI was calculated by applying vegetation-specific thresholds for fire occurrence to a satellite-based fuel dryness index (FDI, which was developed after the structure of the Fire Potential Index (FPI. Linear and non-linear models were tested for the prediction of FHD from FDI and AcFDI. Non-linear quantile regression models gave the best results for predicting FHD using AcFDI, together with auto-regression from previously observed hotspot density values. The predictions of 10-day observed FHD values were reasonably good with R2 values of 0.5 to 0.7 suggesting the potential to be used as an operational tool for predicting the expected number of fire hotspots by vegetation type and region in Mexico. The presented modeling strategy could be replicated for any fire danger index in any region, based on information from MODIS or other remote sensors.

  9. Increase in sensitivity of sensor units of environment refraction index change based on superficial plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenin Yu. V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer modeling of an angular spectrum superficial plasmon resonance in metal films measurements with device PLAZMON-5 with infra-red radiator are analysed. It is shown that use of an infra-red source of radiation allows to improve sensitivity of sensor device in comparison with source of visible light. On an example of dielectric refraction indexes measurement with PLAZMON-5 device experimental check of theoretical calculations has been carried out.

  10. Risk Quantitative Determination of Fire and Explosion in a Process Unit By Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Varmazyar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Fire and explosion hazards are the first and second of major hazards in process industries, respectively. This study has been done to determine fire and explosion risk severity,radius of exposure and estimating of most probable loss.   Methods   In this quantitative study process unit has been selected with affecting parameters on  fire and explosion risk. Then, it was analyzed by DOW's fire and explosion index (F&EI. Technical data were obtained from process documents and reports, fire and explosion guideline.After calculating of DOW's index, radius of exposure determined and finally most  probable loss was estimated.   Results   The results showed an F&EI value of 226 for this process unit.The F&EI was extremely  high and unacceptable.Risk severity was categorized in sever class.Radius of exposure and damage factor were calculated 57 meters and 83%,respectively. As well as most probable loss was  estimated about 6.7 million dollars.   Conclusion   F&EI is a proper technique for risk assessment and loss estimation of fire and  explosion in process industries.Also,It is an important index for detecting high risk and low risk   areas in an industry. At this technique, all of factors affecting on fire and explosion risk was  showed as index that is a base for judgement risk class. Finally, estimated losses could be used as  a base of fire and explosion insurance.

  11. LAND JUDGING AND PLANT NUTRITION, A PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNIT, REPORT NUMBER 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS WAS PRESENTED ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF LAND JUDGING AND PLANT NUTRITION. IN HIS PREPARATION, THE AUTHOR FIRST IDENTIFIED PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE LAND CLASSIFICATION AND PLANT NUTRITION BY EXAMINING RELEVANT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. USING THIS INFORMATION, HE THEN FORMED A TEAM OF 16…

  12. Ambiguity in Units and the Referents: Two Cases in Rational Number Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathouz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    I explore the impact of ambiguous referral to the unit on understanding of decimal and fraction operations during episodes in two different mathematics courses for pre-service teachers (PSTs). In one classroom, the instructor introduces a rectangular area diagram to help the PSTs visualize decimal multiplication. A transcript from this classroom…

  13. Development of a 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Code Numbering System for South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, David E.; Lowry, Claude; Lowery, Mark A.; Hurley, Noel M.

    1999-01-01

    A Hydrologic Unit Map showing the cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds of South Carolina has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, funded through a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 319 Grant, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. These delineations represent 8-, 11-, and 14-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes, respectively. This map presents information on drainage, hydrography, and hydrologic boundaries of the water-resources regions, subregions, accounting units, cataloging units, watersheds, and subwatersheds. The source maps for the basin delineations are 1:24,000-scale 7.5-minute series topographic maps and the base maps are from 1:100,000-scale Digital Line Graphs; however, the data are published at a scale of 1:500,000. In addition, an electronic version of the data is provided on a compact disc.Of the 1,022 subwatersheds delineated for this project, 1,004 range in size from 3,000 to 40,000 acres (4.69 to 62.5 square miles). Seventeen subwatersheds are smaller than 3,000 acres and one subwatershed, located on St. Helena Island, is larger than 40,000 acres.This map and its associated codes provide a standardized base for use by water-resource managers and planners in locating, storing, retrieving, and exchanging hydrologic data. In addition, the map can be used for cataloging water-data acquisition activities, geographically organizing hydrologic data, and planning and describing water-use and related land-use activities.

  14. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units; Indice de complejidad en resonancia magnetica: estudio basado en una escala de unidades relativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-07-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX AND NUM-BER OF INVOLVED CORONARIES IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE ANGINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of vascular disease which can involve peripheral and/or cardiac vessels. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible link between Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI and coronary vessel involvement in patients with stable angina.    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 on 120 individuals who were hospitalized in Chamran Heart Center and underwent coronary angiography. A questionnaire was completed to obtain demographic information, history of previous heart disease and smoking. Body height and weight, as blood pressure on hand and foot were measured. The patients underwent angiography and the extent of coronary involvement (> 75% was determined. After12-14-hour of fasting, blood sugar was obtained to measure total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. The Ankle Brachial Pressure Index (ABI was calculated as the ratio of the blood pressure in the ankles to the blood pressure in the arms. The data were analyzed by SPSS-15 using ANOVA, T-Student test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and discriminant analysis.    RESULTS: Samples were 46 women (38.33% and 74 men (61.67% with a mean age of 55.50 ± 10.49. Mean and SD of ABI in men and women was 0.72 ± 0.20 and 0.80 ± 0.19 with no significant difference (p = 0.012. The correlation between ABI and extent of coronary involvement was 0.47 (p < 0.0001. The group with lower ABI had the highest levels of coronary involvement (triple vessel, p < 0.05.     CONCLUSION: ABI had a significant relationship with the degree of coronary involvement and a significant predictive value. Therefore ABI seems to be a reliable indicator of high coronary risk.      Keywords: Ankle to brachial index, Coronary involvement, Stable angina.  

  16. Octree indexing of DICOM images for voxel number reduction and improvement of Monte Carlo simulation computing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert-Tremblay, Vincent; Archambault, Louis; Tubic, Dragan; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a compression algorithm for the CT (computed tomography) data used in Monte Carlo simulations. Performing simulations on the CT data implies large computational costs as well as large memory requirements since the number of voxels in such data reaches typically into hundreds of millions voxels. CT data, however, contain homogeneous regions which could be regrouped to form larger voxels without affecting the simulation's accuracy. Based on this property we propose a compression algorithm based on octrees: in homogeneous regions the algorithm replaces groups of voxels with a smaller number of larger voxels. This reduces the number of voxels while keeping the critical high-density gradient area. Results obtained using the present algorithm on both phantom and clinical data show that compression rates up to 75% are possible without losing the dosimetric accuracy of the simulation

  17. Designing time-of-use program based on stochastic security constrained unit commitment considering reliability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikzad, Mehdi; Mozafari, Babak; Bashirvand, Mahdi; Solaymani, Soodabeh; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Recently in electricity markets, a massive focus has been made on setting up opportunities for participating demand side. Such opportunities, also known as demand response (DR) options, are triggered by either a grid reliability problem or high electricity prices. Two important challenges that market operators are facing are appropriate designing and reasonable pricing of DR options. In this paper, time-of-use program (TOU) as a prevalent time-varying program is modeled linearly based on own and cross elasticity definition. In order to decide on TOU rates, a stochastic model is proposed in which the optimum TOU rates are determined based on grid reliability index set by the operator. Expected Load Not Supplied (ELNS) is used to evaluate reliability of the power system in each hour. The proposed stochastic model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming (SMILP) problem and solved using CPLEX solver. The validity of the method is tested over the IEEE 24-bus test system. In this regard, the impact of the proposed pricing method on system load profile; operational costs and required capacity of up- and down-spinning reserve as well as improvement of load factor is demonstrated. Also the sensitivity of the results to elasticity coefficients is investigated. -- Highlights: ► Time-of-use demand response program is linearly modeled. ► A stochastic model is proposed to determine the optimum TOU rates based on ELNS index set by the operator. ► The model is formulated as a short-term two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem.

  18. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1960 - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1960 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1960.

  19. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1962 - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1962 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1962.

  20. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1959 - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1959 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1959.

  1. Quantitative assay for the number of leukemic spleen colony forming unit in radiation-induced murine myeloid leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, N [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Bessho, M

    1981-11-01

    In mice with myelogenous leukemia, leukemic spleen colony forming units were assayed quantitatively. When 5 x 10/sup 3/ - 2 x 10/sup 4/ leukemic cells were transplanted to other mice of the same strain, a rectilinear relationship (p < 0.01) was found between the number of the cells transplanted and that of the colonies formed on the surface of the spleen. From these results, the authors considered that myelogenous leukemia in mice is an adequate model for acute myelogenous leukemia in human adults, and that the quantitative assay of the leukemic colony forming units can be used for sensitivity tests of antileukemic agents.

  2. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  3. Runoff curve numbers for 10 small forested watersheds in the mountains of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie H. Tedela; Steven C. McCutcheon; Todd C. Rasmussen; Richard H. Hawkins; Wayne T. Swank; John L. Campbell; Mary Beth Adams; C. Rhett Jackson; Ernest W. Tollner

    2012-01-01

    Engineers and hydrologists use the curve number method to estimate runoff from rainfall for different land use and soil conditions; however, large uncertainties occur for estimates from forested watersheds. This investigation evaluates the accuracy and consistency of the method using rainfall-runoff series from 10 small forested-mountainous watersheds in the eastern...

  4. Curve Numbers for Nine Mountainous Eastern United States Watersheds: Seasonal Variation and Forest Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many engineers and hydrologists use the curve number method to estimate runoff from ungaged watersheds; however, the method does not explicitly account for the influence of season or forest cutting on runoff. This study of observed rainfall and runoff for small, forested watershe...

  5. [Systemic candidiasis in medical intensive care unit: analysis of risk factors and the contribution of colonization index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massou, S; Ahid, S; Azendour, H; Bensghir, M; Mounir, K; Iken, M; Lmimouni, B E; Balkhi, H; Drissi Kamili, N; Haimeur, C

    2013-06-01

    Description of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patients introducing risk factors of invasive candidiasis. Analysis of risk factors for candidiasis invasive and evaluation of the contribution of colonization index (CI) in the diagnosis of the systematic candidiasis in medical intensive care. Prospective observational study (October 2007 to October 2009). The selected patients present risk factors of system IC candidiasis with an infectious syndrome or clinical signs suggestive of Candida infection and hospitalized more than 48 hours in medical intensive care unit. Pittet's colonization index was calculated at admission and then once a week added to a blood culture. Patients were classified according to level of evidence of Candida infection and the degree of colonization (CIcandidiasis. In multivariate analysis, the corticosteroid therapy was associated with a high colonisation (IC ≥ 0.5) and neutropenia with a high risk of systemic candidiasis. The positive predictive value of CI was 26%. The negative predictive value was 98%, the sensitivity and specificity was 93% and 48% respectively. CI has the advantage to provide a quantified data of the patient's situation in relation to the colonization. But, it isn't helpful with patients having an invasive candidiasis in medical intensive care unit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparison of body mass index and daily step numbers of secondary school and high school students according to age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Saygın

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to compare the body mass index and daily steps number of secondary and high school students in Mugla region according to age and gender. Material and Methods: A total of 1851 volunteer students (682 secondary school students and 1169 high school students participated in this study. Physical activity level was determined by measuring daily step numbers of students with a pedometer. Body mass index (kg/m2 was calculated by utilizing from height and weight measurements in order to find body composition. Acquired data was recorded in SPSS (18.0 program. In order to find a difference in body composition and physical activity level between gender, Independent t-test was applied. One-way Anova was applied in order to find the differences among ages. Tukey HSD Analysis was used to find from which age the difference stemmed from. Frequencies and percentages values were calculated to assess the number of daily steps and body mass index standards, and chi-square analysis was used to find differences according to sex. Results: As a result of the statistical analyse; statistically significant difference was found in the physical activity level of secondary school students, it was also found both high school student’s body composition and physical activity levels of high school students according to gender (p<0.05. While the body mass index values of both male and female students tend to increase with age, the physical activity level of both students tends to decrease with age. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the daily step count standards were compared by sex (X2=23.999 p=0.000. It was found that 65.91% (n=698 of the female students and 49.87% (n=395 of the male students were below the normal values of the daily step counts. Statistically, a significant difference was found when the body mass index standards were compared by sex (X2=15.702, p=0.000. It was seen that 16.90% of female students (n=179

  7. Measurement of MV CT dose index for Hi-ART helical tomotherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yunlai; Liao Xiongfei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the patient dose from Hi-ART MV helical CT imaging in image-guided radiotherapy. Methods: Weighted CT dose index (CTDI W ) was measured with PTW TM30009 CT ion chamber in head and body phantoms, respectively,for slice thicknesses of 2, 4, 6 mm with scanned range of 5 cm and 15 cm. Dose length products (DLP) were subsequently calculated. The CTDI W and DLP were compared with XVI kV CBCT and ACQSim simulator CT for routine clinical protocols. Results: An inverse relationship between CTDI and the slice thickness was found. The dose distribution was inhomogeneous owing to the attenuation of the couch. CTDI and DLP had close relationship with the slice thickness and the scanned range. Patient dose from MVCT was lower than XVI CBCT for head, but larger for body scan. Conclusions: CTDI W can be used to assess the patient dose in MV helical CT due to its simplicity for measurement and reproducibility. Regular measurement should be performed in QA and QC program. Appropriate slice thickness and scan range should be chosen to reduce the patient dose. (authors)

  8. Chemicals, metals, and pesticide pits waste unit low induction number electromagnetic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Mohon, D.

    1995-06-01

    An electromagnetic survey was conducted at the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticide Waste Unit to identify any buried metallic objects that may be present in the materials used to fill and cover the pits after removal of pit debris. The survey was conducted with a Geonics EM-31 Terrain Conductivity Meter along north - south oriented traverses with 5-ft station intervals to produce a 5-ft by 5-ft square grid node pattern. Both conductivity and in-phase components were measured at each station for vertical dipole orientation with the common axis of the dipoles in the north - south and east - west orientations. The conductivity data clearly show elevated conductivities (2.1 to 7.0 mS/m) associated with the material over the pits, as compared with the surrounding area that is characterized by lower conductivities (1 to 2 mS/m). This is probably the result of the higher clay content of the fill material relative to the surrounding area, which has a higher sand to clay ratio and the presence of a plastic cover beneath the fill that has probably trapped water. Many metal objects are present in the survey area including manhole covers, monitoring well heads, metal, signs, drain culverts, abandoned wells, and BP waste unit marker balls. AU of these exhibit associated conductivity and in-phase anomalies of various magnitude. In addition to these anomalies that can be definitely associated with surface sources, conductivity and in-phase anomalies are also present with no obvious surface source. These anomalies are probably indicative of subsurface buried metallic objects. A high concentration of these objects appears to be present in the southwest corner of the survey area.

  9. Measuring party nationalisation: A new Gini-based indicator that corrects for the number of units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The study of the territorial distribution of votes in elections has become an important field of the political party research in recent years. Quantitative studies on the homogeneity of votes and turnout employ different indicators of territorial variance, but despite important progresses...... in measurement, many of them are sensitive to size and number of political parties or electoral districts. This article proposes a new 'standardised party nationalisation score', which is based on the Gini coefficient of inequalities in distribution. Different from previous indicators, the standardised party...

  10. The Perinatal Risk Index: Early Risks Experienced by Domestic Adoptees in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; De Araujo-Greecher, Marielena; Miller, Emily S; Massey, Suena H; Mayes, Linda C; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess comprehensively the prevalence of perinatal risks experienced by a potentially high-risk yet understudied population of children domestically adopted in the United States. Data are from participant report and medical records from mothers (n = 580) who completed a domestic adoption placement with nonrelatives at or near birth (Mean placement age = 7 days). We describe a comprehensive measure of perinatal risks, including divergences from previous assessment tools and the incorporation of multiple reporters, and report the prevalence of various types of perinatal risks. The prevalence of each specific risk factor was generally low, although several risks were more prevalent in this sample than estimates from nationally representative publicly available data. Nearly the entire sample (99%) experienced some type of risk exposure. Birth mothers who placed their children for adoption domestically in the US experience higher levels of perinatal risks than the national average, but not for all specific types of risk. Thus, the developmental trajectories of children adopted domestically may systematically differ from the general population to the extent that these specific perinatal risks impact development.

  11. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  12. Single motor unit firing behaviour in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eSøgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer work is associated with low level sustained activity in the trapezius muscle that may cause myalgia. The activity may be attention related or part of a general multijoint motor program providing stabilization of the shoulder girdle for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsi or contralateral index finger. Modulated firing rate would support a general multi joint motor program, while a generally increased and continuous firing rate would support attention related activation. 12 healthy female subjects were seated at a computer work place with elbows and forearms supported. Ten double clicks (DC were performed with right and left index finger on a computer mouse instrumented with a trigger.Surface EMG was recorded from right and left trapezius muscle. Intramuscular EMG was recorded with a quadripolar wire electrode in the right trapezius.Surface EMG was analysed as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG was decomposed into individual MU action potential trains. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR was calculated from inter-spike interval with ISI shorter than 20 ms defined as doublets. IFR was averaged across 10 DC to show IFR modulation.Surface EMG in both right and left trapezius was 1.8-2.5%MVE. During right hand DC a total of 32 MUs were identified. Four subjects showed no activity. Four showed MU activity with weak or no variations related to the timing of DC. Four subjects showed large modulation in IFR with temporal relation to DC. During left hand DC 15 MUs were identified in 4 subjects, for two of the subjects with IFR modulations related to DC. Doublets was found as an integrated part of MU activation in the trapezius muscle and for one subject temporarily related to DC. In conclusion, DC with ipsi- and contralateral fast movements of the index finger was found to evoke biomechanically as well as attention related activity pattern in the

  13. Nevada test site underground storage tank number 12-13-1: Nevada division of emergency management case number H931130E corrective action unit 450. Closure report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The project site was identified as an abandoned Underground Storage Tank (UST) to be closed under the Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Program during Fiscal Year 1993. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that before permanent closure is completed an assessment of the site must take place. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) requires assessment and corrective actions for a petroleum substance in the soil which exceeds 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Subsequent to the tank removal, a hydrocarbon release was identified at the site. The release was reported to the NDEP by DOE/NV on November 30, 1993. Nevada Division of Environmental Management (NDEM) Case Number H931130E was assigned. This final closure report documents the assessment and corrective actions taken for the hydrocarbon release identified at the site. The Notification of Closure, EPA Form 7530-1 dated March 22, 1994, is provided in Appendix A. A 45-day report documenting the notification for a hydrocarbon release was submitted to NDEP on April 6, 1994.

  14. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima C. Stockton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix—common components of walkability indices—differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study.  Methods A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i 21,140 output areas, (ii 633 wards and (iii 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003–04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0 based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. Results There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92–0.98, and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39–0.70. After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1–1.9 than those in the least walkable. Conclusions Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This

  15. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Jemima C; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mindell, Jennifer S; Brunner, Eric J; Shelton, Nicola J

    2016-05-18

    Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix-common components of walkability indices-differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study. A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i) 21,140 output areas, (ii) 633 wards and (iii) 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003-04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0) based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92-0.98), and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39-0.70). After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9) than those in the least walkable. Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This walkability index could help urban planners identify and design neighbourhoods in

  16. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  17. Diversity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This map service summarizes racial and ethnic diversity in the United States in 2012.The Diversity Index shows the likelihood that two persons chosen at random from...

  18. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, W E; Hughson, M D; Zimanyi, M; Samuel, T; Douglas-Denton, R; Holden, L; Mott, S; Bertram, J F

    2010-11-01

    Glomerular hypertrophy occurs in a number of normal and pathological states. Glomerular volume in kidneys at autopsy is usually indirectly derived from estimates of total glomerular mass and nephron number, and provides only a single value per kidney, with no indication of the range of volumes of glomeruli within the kidney of any given subject. We review findings of the distribution of volumes of different glomeruli within subjects without kidney disease, and their correlations with age, nephron number, birth weight and body mass index (BMI). The study describes findings from autopsy kidneys of selected adult white males from the Southeast USA who had unexpected deaths, and who did not have renal scarring or renal disease. Total glomerular (nephron) number and total glomerular volume were estimated using the disector/fractionator combination, and mean glomerular volume (Vglom) was derived. The volumes of 30 individual glomeruli (IGV) in each subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri method. IGV values were compared by categories of age, nephron number, birth weight and BMI. There was substantial variation in IGV within subjects. Older age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight and gross obesity were associated with higher mean IGV and with greater IGV heterogeneity. High Vglom and high IGVs were associated with more glomerulosclerosis. However, amongst the generally modest numbers of sclerosed glomeruli, the pattern was uniformly of ischemic collapse of the glomerular tuft. There was no detectable focal segmental glomerular tuft injury. In this series of people without overt renal disease, greater age, nephron deficit, lower birth weight and obesity were marked by glomerular enlargement and greater glomerular volume heterogeneity within individuals.

  19. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (page than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively pphisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  20. Simultaneous minimizing monitor units and number of segments without leaf end abutment for segmental intensity modulated radiation therapy delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kaile; Dai Jianrong; Ma Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Leaf end abutment is seldom studied when delivering segmental intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields. We developed an efficient leaf sequencing method to eliminate leaf end abutment for segmental IMRT delivery. Our method uses simple matrix and sorting operations to obtain a solution that simultaneously minimizes total monitor units and number of segments without leaf end abutment between segments. We implemented and demonstrated our method for multiple clinical cases. We compared the results of our method with the results from exhaustive search method. We found that our solution without leaf end abutment produced equivalent results to the unconstrained solutions in terms of minimum total monitor units and minimum number of leaf segments. We conclude that the leaf end abutment fields can be avoided without affecting the efficiency of segmental IMRT delivery. The major strength of our method is its simplicity and high computing speed. This potentially provides a useful means for generating segmental IMRT fields that require high spatial resolution or complex intensity distributions

  1. Is waist circumference per body mass index rising differentially across the United States, England, China and Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S S; Gordon-Larsen, P; Stern, D; Popkin, B M

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about whether waist circumference (WC) has increased disproportionately relative to body mass index (BMI) around the world. Data came from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994 and 2007-2010), Health Survey for England (1992-1993 and 2008-2009); the Mexican Nutrition Survey (1999) and the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS 2012); and the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1993 and 2011). Country- and sex-stratified (for the United States, also race-/ethnicity-stratified) multivariable linear regressions were used to estimate mean difference in WC over time relative to BMI at specified overweight and obesity cutoff points, adjusting for age and survey year. Although mean WC and BMI shifted upward over time in all age-sex subpopulations in all four countries, trends in overweight prevalence were less consistent. However, WC relative to BMI increased at varying magnitudes across all countries and subpopulations, except US Black men. The magnitude of increase was largest for women in the youngest age group (20-29 years), particularly for women in Mexico (+6.6 cm, PChina (+4.6 cm, PMexico and China, particularly among young women, with the largest increases occurring in the middle-income countries of Mexico and China. These patterns are potentially a cause for concern especially for countries undergoing rapid economic and nutritional transitions.

  2. The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program, the infrastructure of Primary Health Units and the Municipal Human Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Joaquim José; Machado, Maria Helena; Alves, Cecília Brito

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this article was to examine the context in which professionals working within the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program operate. This study used the infrastructure scale of primary health units (PHUs), which was recently developed by Soares Neto and colleagues to provide more information regarding the relationship between the infrastructure of PHUs and the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI) of municipalities that received Mais Médicos Program doctors. Using exploratory and inferential statistics, the article shows that 65.2% of the PHUs that received Mais Médicos Program doctors had medium-quality infrastructure and only 5.8% of them had low-quality infrastructure. The correlation of 0.50 between the infrastructure indicator and the MHDI points to a moderate tendency for municipalities with low MHDIs to have more precarious PHUs. Using multiple linear regression analysis it can be inferred that the main factor that contributed to the increase in the infrastructure indicator of the PHUs was the average municipal income. On the other hand, the factor that negatively affected the infrastructure of the PHUs was being located in the north or northeast regions.

  3. The Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index in Relation to Sunspot Number, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Index, the Mauna Loa Atmospheric Concentration of CO2, and Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming/climate change has been a subject of scientific interest since the early 19th century. In particular, increases in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) have long been thought to account for Earth's increased warming, although the lack of a dependable set of observational data was apparent as late as the mid 1950s. However, beginning in the late 1950s, being associated with the International Geophysical Year, the opportunity arose to begin accurate continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric concentration of CO2. Consequently, it is now well established that the atmospheric concentration of CO2, while varying seasonally within any particular year, has steadily increased over time. Associated with this rising trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is a rising trend in the surface-air and sea-surface temperatures (SSTs). This Technical Publication (TP) examines the statistical relationships between 10-year moving averages (10-yma) of the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI), sunspot number (SSN), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, and the Mauna Loa CO2 (MLCO2) index for the common interval 1964-2006, where the 10-yma values are used to indicate trends in the data. Scatter plots using the 10-yma values between GLOTI and each of the other parameters are determined, both as single-variate and multivariate fits. Scatter plots are also determined for MLCO2 using single-variate and bivariate (BV) fits, based on the GLOTI alone and the GLOTI in combination with the AMO index. On the basis of the inferred preferential fits for MLCO2, estimates for MLCO2 are determined for the interval 1885-1964, thereby yielding an estimate of the preindustrial level of atmospheric concentration of CO2. Lastly, 10-yma values of MLCO2 are compared against 10-yma estimates of the total carbon emissions (TCE) to determine the likelihood that manmade sources of carbon emissions are indeed responsible for the recent warming now

  4. Association between short sleep and body mass index, hypertension among acute coronary syndrome patients in coronary care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahvand, Elham; Jalali, Rostam; Mirzaei, Maryam; Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh

    2014-11-26

    Patients with coronary diseases admitted to special care unit often suffer from sleep disorders, which may cause physiological changes and adversely affect patient's health. The relationship between sleep disorders and obesity is an important factor in studies on sleep disorders and other chronic diseases in all groups, including cardiovascular diseases. Understanding this relationship may increase the chance of progress in effective medical interventions in sleep disorders and obesity. This study was designed to evaluate the association between short sleep and Body Mass Index (BMI), hypertension among acute coronary syndrome patients. In this descriptive analytical study, 221 coronary patients admitted to coronary care unit and general wards were investigated. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability had been confirmed. Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 software. A total of 221 patients with acute coronary diseases (including myocardial infarction and angina pectoris) with a mean age of 61.27 years were studied, of whom 61.5% were male and 38.5% were female. A significant association was observed between short sleep and higher BMI (P=0.000). About half the patients (49.3%) had a history of hypertension, and sleep disorders were also significantly related to hypertension (P=0.006). In this study, sleep disorders were patients' main complaint. Researchers found that patients with less than 5 hours or more than 9 hours sleep at night were more likely to have hypertension compared to patients that slept 7-8 hours. Lack of sleep affects metabolism, and daily energy expenditure reduces with increased immobility. In this study, a significant relationship was observed between BMI and sleep duration among hospitalized patients in coronary care unit (P=0.000), and sleep disorders increased with higher BMI. Short of sleep increases sympathetic tonus, cortisol level, and activation of inflammatory pathways, impairing glucose

  5. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF: Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Wulf Christensen

    Full Text Available Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF. Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following treatment-cycles and a more favorable outcome. The main objective was to explore if treatment cycle number modifies the outcome when investigating the effect of female Body Mass Index (BMI on oocyte quantity in IVF.A historical cohort study was conducted on 5,342 treatment-cycles during the period 1999-2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman.Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect modification from cycle number or a factor related to cycle number. The median dose of total follicular stimulating hormone given to the four BMI groups could not straight forwardly explain the less optimal oocyte outcome observed in first treatment cycles. No statistically significant differences were observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII oocytes (p = 0.009 than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women.Our study suggests a possible interaction or effect modification related to treatment cycle number. Investigating the effects of BMI on IVF-results in first treatment-cycles alone should be carried out cautiously.

  6. The number of pickers and stock-keeping unit arrangement on a uni-directional picking line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagspihl, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The order picking process is often the single largest expense in a distribution centre (DC. The DC considered in this paper uses a picking line configuration to perform order picking. The number of pickers in a picking line, and the initial arrangement of stock-keeping units (SKUs, are two important factors that affect the total completion time of the picking lines. In this paper, the picking line configuration is simulated with an agent-based approach to describe the behaviour of an individual picker. The simulation is then used to analyse the effect of the number of pickers and the SKU arrangement. Verification and validation of this model shows that the model represents the real-world picking line to a satisfactory degree. Marginal analysis (MA was chosen to determine a ‘good’ number of pickers by means of the simulation model. A look-up table is presented to provide decision support for the choice of a ‘good’ number of pickers to improve completion times of the picking line, for the properties of a specific picking line. The initial SKU arrangement on a picking line is shown to be a factor that can affect the level of picker congestion and the total completion time. The greedy ranking and partitioning (GRP and organ pipe arrangement (OPA techniques from the literature, as well as the historical SKU arrangements used by the retailer under consideration, were compared with the proposed classroom discipline heuristic (CDH for SKU arrangement. It was found that the CDH provides an more even spread of SKUs that are picked most frequently, thus decreasing congestion and total completion time.

  7. Evaluation of Relationships between Drilling Rate Index and Physical and Strength Properties of Selected Rock Units of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafique, U.; Abu Bakar, M. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen selected rock types collected from different formations of Pakistan were subjected to Drilling Rate Index (DRI) tests and various physical and strength properties tests including, porosity (n), density, primary wave velocity (V/sub p/), uniaxial compressive strength (sigma/sub c/), Brazilian tensile strength (sigma/sub t/) and Schmidt hammer rebound number (R/sub n/),. Prior knowledge of the drill ability of rocks and their physico-mechanical properties plays a decisive role in planning and design of rock drilling and excavation processes. DRI tests developed by NTNU/SINTEF are in use by the industry since 1960s and have proved very successful in estimation of the boreability of rocks, but no such work has been reported for Pakistani rocks to date. Reasonable correlations were found between the DRI and the properties of the tested rocks. The trends shown in this paper are of interest for the machine manufacturers and operators working on various projects involving the use of drilling machines and other mechanical excavators. (author)

  8. Sea-level rise and archaeological site destruction: An example from the southeastern United States using DINAA (Digital Index of North American Archaeology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David G; Bissett, Thaddeus G; Yerka, Stephen J; Wells, Joshua J; Kansa, Eric C; Kansa, Sarah W; Myers, Kelsey Noack; DeMuth, R Carl; White, Devin A

    2017-01-01

    The impact of changing climate on terrestrial and underwater archaeological sites, historic buildings, and cultural landscapes can be examined through quantitatively-based analyses encompassing large data samples and broad geographic and temporal scales. The Digital Index of North American Archaeology (DINAA) is a multi-institutional collaboration that allows researchers online access to linked heritage data from multiple sources and data sets. The effects of sea-level rise and concomitant human population relocation is examined using a sample from nine states encompassing much of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the southeastern United States. A 1 m rise in sea-level will result in the loss of over >13,000 recorded historic and prehistoric archaeological sites, as well as over 1000 locations currently eligible for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), encompassing archaeological sites, standing structures, and other cultural properties. These numbers increase substantially with each additional 1 m rise in sea level, with >32,000 archaeological sites and >2400 NRHP properties lost should a 5 m rise occur. Many more unrecorded archaeological and historic sites will also be lost as large areas of the landscape are flooded. The displacement of millions of people due to rising seas will cause additional impacts where these populations resettle. Sea level rise will thus result in the loss of much of the record of human habitation of the coastal margin in the Southeast within the next one to two centuries, and the numbers indicate the magnitude of the impact on the archaeological record globally. Construction of large linked data sets is essential to developing procedures for sampling, triage, and mitigation of these impacts.

  9. The Barthel Index: comparing inter-rater reliability between nurses and doctors in an older adult rehabilitation unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hartigan, Irene

    2011-02-01

    To ensure accuracy in recording the Barthel Index (BI) in older people, it is essential to determine who is best placed to administer the index. The aim of this study was to compare doctors\\' and nurses\\' reliability in scoring the BI.

  10. Wide-area measurement system-based supervision of protection schemes with minimum number of phasor measurement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajare, Swaroop; Rao, J Ganeswara; Naidu, O D; Pradhan, Ashok Kumar

    2017-08-13

    Cascade tripping of power lines triggered by maloperation of zone-3 relays during stressed system conditions, such as load encroachment, power swing and voltage instability, has led to many catastrophic power failures worldwide, including Indian blackouts in 2012. With the introduction of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) into the grids, real-time monitoring of transmission network condition is possible. A phasor measurement unit (PMU) sends time-synchronized data to a phasor data concentrator, which can provide a control signal to substation devices. The latency associated with the communication system makes WAMS suitable for a slower form of protection. In this work, a method to identify the faulted line using synchronized data from strategic PMU locations is proposed. Subsequently, a supervisory signal is generated for specific relays in the system for any disturbance or stressed condition. For a given system, an approach to decide the strategic locations for PMU placement is developed, which can be used for determining the minimum number of PMUs required for application of the method. The accuracy of the scheme is tested for faults during normal and stressed conditions in a New England 39-bus system simulated using EMTDC/PSCAD software. With such a strategy, maloperation of relays can be averted in many situations and thereby blackouts/large-scale disturbances can be prevented.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Meats Units for Agricultural Science I and Advanced Livestock Production and Marketing Courses. Instructor's Guide. Volume 18, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; McCaskey, Michael J.

    These two units are designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. The first unit, on meat identification, is to be taught as part of the first year of instruction in agricultural science, while the second unit, advanced meats, was prepared for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students in…

  12. STUDY OF HOME DEMONSTRATION UNITS IN A SAMPLE OF 27 COUNTIES IN NEW YORK STATE, NUMBER 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.; HARSHAW, JEAN

    AN EXPLORATORY STUDY EXAMINED CHARACTERISTICS OF 1,128 HOME DEMONSTRATION UNITS TO SUGGEST HYPOTHESES AND SCOPE FOR A MORE INTENSIVE STUDY OF A SMALL SAMPLE OF UNITS, AND TO PROVIDE GUIDANCE IN SAMPLING. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM A SPECIALLY DESIGNED MEMBERSHIP CARD USED IN 1962. UNIT SIZE AVERAGED 23.6 MEMBERS BUT THE RANGE WAS FAIRLY GREAT. A NEED…

  13. The virtual neonate in The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: when twin number three adds up to error not imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Amir; Chulsky, Elena; Rubin, Robyn; Zohar, Daniel; Barak, Shay

    2014-09-01

    During the administrative admittance of extreme premature twin neonates to the Hospital Information System (HIS), at an Israeli government general hospital, a third virtual baby was mistakenly admitted in addition to the twins. The third virtual baby's records were in department occupancy and transactions were performed in the HIS, such as "admittance" to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), being appended to a mother as well as clinical orders. Once noticed, the records of the third virtual baby were merged in the system with the second correct twin (Baby II), whose records were also in the department occupancy list. An error occurred in the interface whilst merging the records, and patient demography was not updated for clinical orders for Baby II. As a result, all new clinical orders for Baby II carried the non existing third baby's identity. We emphasize that it is advisable to register all newborns as early on in life whilst still in the delivery room, with a permanent identification number as opposed to a temporary identification number to avoid any mismatching if patients records are to be merged or updated. Furthermore, steps that could help prevent such an event could be additional administrative staff to register newborns. However, we conclude, that it would be most helpful to introduce a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system based on a permanent identity number. If any discrepancies in patient information are detected, an alarm will be triggered during transfer of the baby from the delivery room to the designated Department. A RFID receptor is located at the exit of the delivery room. While most literature available regarding Hospital Information Technology (HIT) and patient safety, mainly discusses mismatching of patients during medication and laboratory testing not much literature regarding the process of registering newborns as a source of patient mismatching has been found. The authors feel that there is a need to further investigate this

  14. Effects of gradient encoding and number of signal averages on fractional anisotropy and fiber density index in vivo at 1.5 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, E; Mahmoodabadi, S Z; Rea, D; Moineddin, R; Vidarsson, L; Nilsson, D

    2009-01-01

    Tensor estimation can be improved by increasing the number of gradient directions (NGD) or increasing the number of signal averages (NSA), but at a cost of increased scan time. To evaluate the effects of NGD and NSA on fractional anisotropy (FA) and fiber density index (FDI) in vivo. Ten healthy adults were scanned on a 1.5T system using nine different diffusion tensor sequences. Combinations of 7 NGD, 15 NGD, and 25 NGD with 1 NSA, 2 NSA, and 3 NSA were used, with scan times varying from 2 to 18 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in the internal capsules, middle cerebellar peduncles, and splenium of the corpus callosum, and FA and FDI were calculated. Analysis of variance was used to assess whether there was a difference in FA and FDI of different combinations of NGD and NSA. There was no significant difference in FA of different combinations of NGD and NSA of the ROIs (P>0.005). There was a significant difference in FDI between 7 NGD/1 NSA and 25 NGD/3 NSA in all three ROIs (PNSA, 25 NGD/1 NSA, and 25 NGD/2 NSA and 25 NGD/3 NSA in all ROIs (P>0.005). We have not found any significant difference in FA with varying NGD and NSA in vivo in areas with relatively high anisotropy. However, lower NGD resulted in reduced FDI in vivo. With larger NGD, NSA has less influence on FDI. The optimal sequence among the nine sequences tested with the shortest scan time was 25 NGD/1 NSA.

  15. Estimating the Number of Heterosexual Persons in the United States to Calculate National Rates of HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lansky

    Full Text Available This study estimated the proportions and numbers of heterosexuals in the United States (U.S. to calculate rates of heterosexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Quantifying the burden of disease can inform effective prevention planning and resource allocation.Heterosexuals were defined as males and females who ever had sex with an opposite-sex partner and excluded those with other HIV risks: persons who ever injected drugs and males who ever had sex with another man. We conducted meta-analysis using data from 3 national probability surveys that measured lifetime (ever sexual activity and injection drug use among persons aged 15 years and older to estimate the proportion of heterosexuals in the United States population. We then applied the proportion of heterosexual persons to census data to produce population size estimates. National HIV infection rates among heterosexuals were calculated using surveillance data (cases attributable to heterosexual contact in the numerators and the heterosexual population size estimates in the denominators.Adult and adolescent heterosexuals comprised an estimated 86.7% (95% confidence interval: 84.1%-89.3% of the U.S. population. The estimate for males was 84.1% (CI: 81.2%-86.9% and for females was 89.4% (95% CI: 86.9%-91.8%. The HIV diagnosis rate for 2013 was 5.2 per 100,000 heterosexuals and the rate of persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2012 was 104 per 100,000 heterosexuals aged 13 years or older. Rates of HIV infection were >20 times as high among black heterosexuals compared to white heterosexuals, indicating considerable disparity. Rates among heterosexual men demonstrated higher disparities than overall population rates for men.The best available data must be used to guide decision-making for HIV prevention. HIV rates among heterosexuals in the U.S. are important additions to cost effectiveness and other data used to make critical decisions about resources for

  16. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Base Flow Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset represents the base flow index values within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape layer were calculated for every local NHDPlusV2 catchment and accumulated to provide watershed-level metrics. (See Supplementary Info for Glossary of Terms) The base-flow index (BFI) grid for the conterminous United States was developed to estimate (1) BFI values for ungaged streams, and (2) ground-water recharge throughout the conterminous United States (see Source_Information). Estimates of BFI values at ungaged streams and BFI-based ground-water recharge estimates are useful for interpreting relations between land use and water quality in surface and ground water. The bfi (%) was summarized by local catchment and by watershed to produce local catchment-level and watershed-level metrics as a continuous data type (see Data Structure and Attribute Information for a description).

  17. The Epidemiological Significance and Temporal Stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats-Based Method Applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate the epidemiological significance and temporal stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing in a genetically and geographically diverse set of clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in China. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 982 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from four population-based investigations in China. Apart from the currently applied 24-locus MIRU-VNTR, six additional hypervariable loci were analyzed in order to validate the MIRU-VNTR combinations in terms of their epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance. In vitro temporal stability was analyzed for both individual MIRU-VNTR loci, and for several combinations of loci. In the present study, four MIRU-VNTR combinations, including the hypervariable loci 3820, 3232, 2163a, and 4120, were evaluated. All of these combinations obtained a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI value over 0.9900 with a reduced clustering proportion (from 32.0% to 25.6%. By comparing epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance, we found that the performances of the four MIRU-VNTR combinations were comparable to the insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP, and significantly better than that of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping alone. The proportion of temporally stable loci ranged from 90.5% to 92.5% within the combined MIRU-VNTR genotyping, which is higher than IS6110-RFLP (85.4%. By adding four hypervariable loci to the standard 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping, we obtained a high discriminatory power, stability and epidemiological significance. This algorithm could therefore be used to improve tuberculosis transmission surveillance and outbreak investigation in China.

  18. Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing; Potencial reprodutivo de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera,Chrysopidae) em funcao do numero de individuos por unidade de criacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Luis Gustavo Amorim [Centro Universitario de Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, MT (Brazil). GPA de Ciencias Agrarias e Biologicas], e-mail: gugamorim@yahoo.com.br; Freitas, Sergio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade], e-mail: serfre@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-09-15

    Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing. This work was carried out to investigate the reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa subjected to different densities per rearing unit. Adults of the F{sub 4} offspring were kept at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12 h photo phase. It was used the following densities per rearing unit (10 cm of diameter by 23 cm of height, and volume of 1650 cm{sup 3}): 1 male: 3 female, 2 males: 6 females, 3 males: 9 females and 4 males: 12 females. It was evaluated the pre-oviposition period, the daily and total oviposition per female and per rearing unit, the percentage of viable and infertile eggs percentage and the exploitation index per female and per rearing unit. The density 4 males: 12 females presented better exploitation when compared to the other densities thus equalizing the low values obtained for the mean and total egg laying per female. (author)

  19. Sex in a lifetime: Sexual behaviors in the United States by lifetime number of sex partners, 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderxhanaj, Laura T; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O; Chesson, Harrell W

    2014-06-01

    Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, we found that lifetime number of vaginal sex partners is positively associated with the number of sex partners in the past 12 months and negatively associated with age at first vaginal intercourse among 15- to 44-year-old male and female respondents.

  20. Prevalence of Obesity among Children and Adolescents in the United States and Canada. NCHS Data Brief. Number 211

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Margaret D.; Navaneelan, Tanya; Bryan, Shirley; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    About one-quarter of Canadian adults and more than one-third of adults in the United States are obese. Obese children are at risk of becoming obese adults and can experience immediate health consequences such as psychosocial stress, elevated blood pressure and cholesterol, and abnormal glucose tolerance. Monitoring trends in childhood obesity is…

  1. Music Education in the United States: Schools and Departments of Music. Bulletin, 1908, No. 4. Whole Number 387

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Arthur L.

    1908-01-01

    To define the status of music education in the United States has been practically impossible. The utter lack of systematic courses of instruction, the widely varying standards of merit, and the absence of cooperation upon the part of those engaged in music teaching not only have made impossible any accurate computation of the results which have…

  2. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: National Interests and Strategic Imperatives (Strategic Forum, Number 239, April 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    policymakers. U.S. Interests From its earliest days, the United States has been engaged in trade with East Asia. In February 1784, the Empress of...larger East Asia region dating to the Empress of China and the opening of Japan. Taking into consideration the nearly 225- year history of U.S

  3. Shape indexes for semi-automated detection of windbreaks in thematic tree cover maps from the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Todd A. Kellerman

    2017-01-01

    Windbreaks are an important ecological resource across the large expanse of agricultural land in the central United States and are often planted in straight-line or L-shaped configurations to serve specific functions. As high-resolution (i.e., <5 m) land cover datasets become more available for these areas, semi-or fully-automated methods for distinguishing...

  4. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  5. Reduction in Design Stability Number of Monolayer Armour Units for Singular Conditions of Projects in Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Juan Donini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of concrete single layer of breakwaters is based on the application of design coefficients obtained in laboratory tests, primarily two-dimensional and under controlled conditions. With the experience of more than 30 years in structures of this type in the world, it is important to compare the values of stability numbers used in the design with those who are in breakwaters as built. In this paper, update and increase the data collected with respect to previous publications, developing an analysis of particular situations in which the amour layer stability coefficients are reduced. A series of Accropode® and Core-LocTM recommendations concerning the design elements is also made. Also there are conclusions related to increases in the volume and the reduction in the number of blocks needed for different numbers of stability proposed.

  6. A Doctrine Reader: The Navies of United States, Great Britain France, Italy, and Spain (Newport Paper, Number 9)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Indeed, professional writings in the United States have noted this parallel between doctrine and religion .29 As in other navies, doctrine was not the...Spanish Navy) , "La clctica," in Espana y el Mar en el siglo de Carlos llI, 1 989, p. 77. 13 . John D. Harnron, Tr.yalgar and the Spanish Navy (Annapolis...organization. Doctrine, therefore, can be either fmnly prescriptive, as in religion or in a political ideology, or basically descriptive. As a complex of

  7. Factors related to positive and negative outcomes in psychiatric inpatients in a General Hospital Psychiatric Unit: a proposal for an outcomes index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO KARLING MORESCHI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background General Hospital Psychiatric Units have a fundamental importance in the mental health care systems. However, there is a lack of studies regarding the level of improvement of patients in this type of facility. Objective To assess factors related to good and poor outcomes in psychiatric inpatients using an index composed by clinical parameters easily measured. Methods Length of stay (LOS, Global Assessment of Functioning (variation and at discharge and Clinical Global Impression (severity and improvement were used to build a ten-point improvement index (I-Index. Records of psychiatric inpatients of a general hospital during an 18-month period were analyzed. Three groups (poor, intermediate and good outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate models according to clinical and sociodemographic variables. Results Two hundred and fifty patients were included, with a percentage in the groups with poor, regular and good outcomes of 16.4%, 59,6% and 24.0% respectively. Poor outcome at the discharge was associated mainly with lower education, transient disability, antipsychotics use, chief complaint “behavioral change/aggressiveness” and psychotic features. Multivariate analysis found a higher OR for diagnoses of “psychotic disorders” and “personality disorders” and others variables in relation to protective categories in the poor outcome group compared to the good outcome group. Discussion Our I-Index proved to be an indicator of that allows an easy and more comprehensive evaluation to assess outcomes of inpatients than just LOS. Different interventions addressed to conditions such as psychotic disorders and disruptive chief complaints are necessary.

  8. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the dietary guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Acculturation and environmental factors influencing dietary behaviors and body mass index of Chinese students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Beiwen; Smith, Chery

    2016-08-01

    Focus groups (n = 7) were conducted with Chinese students (n = 43) studying in the USA to determine how acculturation and environmental factors influence dietary behavior and body mass index (BMI). This study used mixed methodology, collecting both qualitative (focus groups) and quantitative (24-h dietary recalls, food adoption scores, degree of acculturation, and height and weight measures) data. Themes emerging from focus group discussions were: a) dietary and social acculturation, b) factors influencing food intake, c) cultural importance of food, and d) changes in weight and BMI status. Environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors appear to have impacted the eating behaviors of the students. Because of the nature of the study, self-reported heights and weights were used to calculate BMI while living in China and actual heights and weights were taken for each student at the focus group to calculate current BMI after living in the USA. The majority of Chinese students (69% males; 85% females) experienced weight gain, resulting in an increased BMI based on weight/height data and as reported in focus group discussions. As a result, if students continue to gain weight, they may be at higher risk of developing chronic diseases in the future. Further, implemented dietary change may be transferred to other family members if students return to China. Results suggest that nutrition education should be provided to incoming foreign students during their orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D.; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. Objective To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Methods Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the Dietary Guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. Results There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Conclusions Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. PMID:25625693

  11. Demonstrativeness of using energy rather than mass as the unit of measure for a number of problems in physics, mechanics, and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golitsyn, G S

    2008-01-01

    Changing from the mass - length - time to the energy - length - time system of units is suggested as a means by which a number of problems in physics, mechanics, and geophysics can be more easily and conveniently solved using similarity analysis and dimensional methods. Eight examples are presented, with the derivations of the Stefan - Boltzmann radiation law, total kinetic energy of a hurricane, cosmic ray energy spectrum, etc. (methodological notes)

  12. National and State Estimates of the Numbers of Adults and Children with Active Epilepsy - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Matthew M; Kobau, Rosemarie

    2017-08-11

    Epilepsy, a brain disorder leading to recurring seizures, has garnered increased public health focus because persons with epilepsy experience pronounced and persistent health and socioeconomic disparities despite treatment advances, public awareness programs, and expanded rights for persons with disabilities (1,2). For almost all states, epilepsy prevalence estimates do not exist. CDC used national data sources including the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for adults (aged ≥18 years), the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), and the 2015 Current Population Survey data, describing 2014 income levels, to estimate prevalent cases of active epilepsy, overall and by state, to provide information for state public health planning. In 2015, 1.2% of the U.S. population (3.4 million persons: 3 million adults and 470,000 children) reported active epilepsy (self-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and under treatment or with recent seizures within 12 months of interview) or current epilepsy (parent-reported doctor-diagnosed epilepsy and current epilepsy). Estimated numbers of persons with active epilepsy, after accounting for income and age differences by state, ranged from 5,900 in Wyoming to 427,700 in California. NHIS data from 2010-2015 indicate increases in the number of persons with active epilepsy, probably because of population growth. This study provides updated national and modeled state-specific numbers of active epilepsy cases. Public health practitioners, health care providers, policy makers, epilepsy researchers, and other epilepsy stakeholders, including family members and people with epilepsy, can use these findings to ensure that evidence-based programs meet the complex needs of adults and children with epilepsy and reduce the disparities resulting from it.

  13. Trends in extreme daily temperatures and humidex index in the United Arab Emirates over 1948-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. W.; Ouarda, T.

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of extreme temperature events in the Middle East, using NCEP reanalysis gridded data, for the summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) seasons. Trends in the occurrences of three types of heat spells during 1948-2014 are studied by both Linear Regression (LR) and Mann-Kendall (MK) test. Changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) are also investigated. To better understand the effects of heat spells on public health, the Humidex, a combination index of ambient temperature and relative humidity, is also used. Using percentile threshold, temperature (Humidex) Type-A and Type-B heat spells are defined respectively by daily maximum and minimum temperature (Humidex). Type-C heat spells are defined as the joint occurrence of Type-A and Type-B heat spells at the same time. In the Middle East, it is found that no coherent trend in temperature Type-A heat spells is observed. However, the occurrences of temperature Type-B and C heat spells have consistently increased since 1948. For Humidex heat spells, coherently increased activities of all three types of heat spells are observed in the area. During the summer, the magnitude of the positive trends in Humidex heat spells are generally stronger than temperature heat spells. More than half of the locations in the area show significantly negative DTR trends in the summer, but the trends vary according to the region in the winter. Annual mean temperature has increased an average by 0.5°C, but it is mainly associated with the daily minimum temperature which has warmed up by 0.84°C.Daily maximum temperature showed no significant trends. The warming is hence stronger in minimum temperatures than in maximum temperatures resulting in a decrease in DTR by 0.16 °C per decade. This study indicates hence that the UAE has not become hotter, but it has become less cold during 1948 to 2014.

  14. Estimated number of preterm births and low birth weight children born in the United States due to maternal binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Khoa D; Reifsnider, Odette S; Mayorga, Maria E; Spitler, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. To estimate the aggregate burden of maternal binge drinking on preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) across American sociodemographic groups in 2008. A simulation model was developed to estimate the number of PTB and LBW cases due to maternal binge drinking. Data inputs for the model included number of births and rates of preterm and LBW from the National Center for Health Statistics; female population by childbearing age groups from the U.S. Census; increased relative risks of preterm and LBW deliveries due to maternal binge drinking extracted from the literature; and adjusted prevalence of binge drinking among pregnant women estimated in a multivariate logistic regression model using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The most conservative estimates attributed maternal binge drinking to 8,701 (95% CI: 7,804-9,598) PTBs (1.75% of all PTBs) and 5,627 (95% CI 5,121-6,133) LBW deliveries in 2008, with 3,708 (95% CI: 3,375-4,041) cases of both PTB and LBW. The estimated rate of PTB due to maternal binge drinking was 1.57% among all PTBs to White women, 0.69% among Black women, 3.31% among Hispanic women, and 2.35% among other races. Compared to other age groups, women ages 40-44 had the highest adjusted binge drinking rate and highest PTB rate due to maternal binge drinking (4.33%). Maternal binge drinking contributed significantly to PTB and LBW differentially across sociodemographic groups.

  15. Developing models to predict the number of fire hotspots from an accumulated fuel dryness index by vegetation type and region in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Vega-Nieva; J. Briseño-Reyes; M. Nava-Miranda; E. Calleros-Flores; P. López-Serrano; J. Corral-Rivas; E. Montiel-Antuna; M. Cruz-López; M. Cuahutle; R. Ressl; E. Alvarado-Celestino; A. González-Cabán; E. Jiménez; J. Álvarez-González; A. Ruiz-González; R. Burgan; H. Preisler

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the linkage between accumulated fuel dryness and temporal fire occurrence risk is key for improving decision-making in forest fire management, especially under growing conditions of vegetation stress associated with climate change. This study addresses the development of models to predict the number of 10-day observed Moderate-Resolution Imaging...

  16. Indigenous well-being in four countries: An application of the UNDP'S Human Development Index to Indigenous Peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimond Eric

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Methods Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices – life expectancy, educational attainment, and income – were combined into a single HDI measure. Results Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. Conclusion The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  17. Indigenous well-being in four countries: an application of the UNDP'S human development index to indigenous peoples in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Martin; Mitrou, Francis; Lawrence, David; Guimond, Eric; Beavon, Dan

    2007-12-20

    Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand consistently place near the top of the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index (HDI) rankings, yet all have minority Indigenous populations with much poorer health and social conditions than non-Indigenous peoples. It is unclear just how the socioeconomic and health status of Indigenous peoples in these countries has changed in recent decades, and it remains generally unknown whether the overall conditions of Indigenous peoples are improving and whether the gaps between Indigenous peoples and other citizens have indeed narrowed. There is unsettling evidence that they may not have. It was the purpose of this study to determine how these gaps have narrowed or widened during the decade 1990 to 2000. Census data and life expectancy estimates from government sources were used to adapt the Human Development Index (HDI) to examine how the broad social, economic, and health status of Indigenous populations in these countries have changed since 1990. Three indices - life expectancy, educational attainment, and income - were combined into a single HDI measure. Between 1990 and 2000, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples in North America and New Zealand improved at a faster rate than the general populations, closing the gap in human development. In Australia, the HDI scores of Indigenous peoples decreased while the general populations improved, widening the gap in human development. While these countries are considered to have high human development according to the UNDP, the Indigenous populations that reside within them have only medium levels of human development. The inconsistent progress in the health and well-being of Indigenous populations over time, and relative to non-Indigenous populations, points to the need for further efforts to improve the social, economic, and physical health of Indigenous peoples.

  18. The clinical utility of lung clearance index in early cystic fibrosis lung disease is not impacted by the number of multiple-breath washout trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Foong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The lung clearance index (LCI from the multiple-breath washout (MBW test is a promising surveillance tool for pre-school children with cystic fibrosis (CF. Current guidelines for MBW testing recommend that three acceptable trials are required. However, success rates to achieve these criteria are low in children aged <7 years and feasibility may improve with modified pre-school criteria that accepts tests with two acceptable trials. This study aimed to determine if relationships between LCI and clinical outcomes of CF lung disease differ when only two acceptable MBW trials are assessed. Healthy children and children with CF aged 3–6 years were recruited for MBW testing. Children with CF also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collection and a chest computed tomography scan. MBW feasibility increased from 46% to 75% when tests with two trials were deemed acceptable compared with tests where three acceptable trials were required. Relationships between MBW outcomes and markers of pulmonary inflammation, infection and structural lung disease were not different between tests with three acceptable trials compared with tests with two acceptable trials. This study indicates that pre-school MBW data from two acceptable trials may provide sufficient information on ventilation distribution if three acceptable trials are not possible.

  19. Are neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as effective as Fournier's gangrene severity index for predicting the number of debridements in Fourner's gangrene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahramanca, Sahin; Kaya, Oskay; Özgehan, Gülay; Irem, Burak; Dural, Ibrahim; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Kargıcı, Hülagü

    2014-03-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) is a rapidly progressive and necrotizing infection of the subcutaneous and fascial tissues with a high mortality rate. In the present study, we aimed to investigate prognostic factors and analyze the outcomes of 68 patients in a tertiary reference hospital. Patients admitted to the emergency department were investigated retrospectively between January 2006 and January 2013 and divided into two groups. The patients in Group I (G1) required one debridement, and Group II (G2) patients required more than one. Patient demographic and clinical characteristics were encoded. Fournier's Gangrene Severity Index (FGSI) scores, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) were calculated. Prognostic factors were compared between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of mean age, female-male ratio, or duration of symptoms on admission; however, there were more infection sources, predisposal factors, and positive culture results in G2. Additionally, hospital stay, total cost, and mortality rate values were high in G2. We found statistically higher NLR and PLR ratios in G2, but there was no significant difference in FGSI scores between the groups. The FGSI scoring system was not found to be valuable in determining prognosis. However, NLR and PLR were valuable, and previous use of NLR and PLR for determining Fournier's gangrene prognosis could not be found in the English literature.

  20. The clinical utility of lung clearance index in early cystic fibrosis lung disease is not impacted by the number of multiple-breath washout trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, Rachel E.; Harper, Alana J.; King, Louise; Turkovic, Lidija; Davis, Miriam; Clem, Charles C.; Davis, Stephanie D.; Ranganathan, Sarath; Hall, Graham L.

    2018-01-01

    The lung clearance index (LCI) from the multiple-breath washout (MBW) test is a promising surveillance tool for pre-school children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Current guidelines for MBW testing recommend that three acceptable trials are required. However, success rates to achieve these criteria are low in children aged tests with two acceptable trials. This study aimed to determine if relationships between LCI and clinical outcomes of CF lung disease differ when only two acceptable MBW trials are assessed. Healthy children and children with CF aged 3–6 years were recruited for MBW testing. Children with CF also underwent bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collection and a chest computed tomography scan. MBW feasibility increased from 46% to 75% when tests with two trials were deemed acceptable compared with tests where three acceptable trials were required. Relationships between MBW outcomes and markers of pulmonary inflammation, infection and structural lung disease were not different between tests with three acceptable trials compared with tests with two acceptable trials. This study indicates that pre-school MBW data from two acceptable trials may provide sufficient information on ventilation distribution if three acceptable trials are not possible.

  1. Risk of chronic liver disease in post-menopausal women due to body mass index, alcohol and their interaction: a prospective nested cohort study within the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Trembling

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the risk of chronic liver disease (CLD due to alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI and the effects of their interaction in a prospective cohort study of women recruited to the UKCTOCS trial. Methods 95,126 post-menopausal women without documented CLD were stratified into 12 groups defined by combinations of BMI (normal, overweight, obese and alcohol consumption (none, <1–15, 16–20 and ≥21 units/week, and followed for an average of 5.1 years. Hazard ratios (HR were calculated for incident liver-related events (LRE. Results First LREs were reported in 325 (0.34% participants. Compared to women with normal BMI, HR = 1.44 (95% CI; 1.10–1.87 in the overweight group and HR = 2.25 (95% CI; 1.70–2.97 in the obese group, adjusted for alcohol and potential confounders. Compared to those abstinent from alcohol, HR = 0.70 (95% CI; 0.55–0.88 for <1–15 units/week, 0.93 (95% CI; 0.50–1.73 for 16–20 units/week and 1.82 (95% CI; 0.97–3.39 for ≥21 units/week adjusted for BMI and potential confounders. Compared to women with normal BMI drinking no alcohol, HR for LRE in obese women consuming ≥21 units/week was 2.86 (95% CI; 0.67–12.42, 1.58 (95% CI; 0.96–2.61 for obese women drinking <1–15 units/week and 1.93 (95% CI; 0.66–5.62 in those with normal BMI consuming ≥21 units/week after adjustment for potential confounders. We found no significant interaction between BMI and alcohol. Conclusion High BMI and alcohol consumption and abstinence are risk factors for CLD in post-menopausal women. However, BMI and alcohol do not demonstrate significant interaction in this group. Trial registration UKCTOCS is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN22488978 . Registered 06/04/2000.

  2. State Medicaid Expansion Tobacco Cessation Coverage and Number of Adult Smokers Enrolled in Expansion Coverage - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiulio, Anne; Haddix, Meredith; Jump, Zach; Babb, Stephen; Schecter, Anna; Williams, Kisha-Ann S; Asman, Kat; Armour, Brian S

    2016-12-09

    In 2015, 27.8% of adult Medicaid enrollees were current cigarette smokers, compared with 11.1% of adults with private health insurance, placing Medicaid enrollees at increased risk for smoking-related disease and death (1). In addition, smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to Medicaid costs, accounting for about 15% (>$39 billion) of annual Medicaid spending during 2006-2010 (2). Individual, group, and telephone counseling and seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications are effective treatments for helping tobacco users quit (3). Insurance coverage for tobacco cessation treatments is associated with increased quit attempts, use of cessation treatments, and successful smoking cessation (3); this coverage has the potential to reduce Medicaid costs (4). However, barriers such as requiring copayments and prior authorization for treatment can impede access to cessation treatments (3,5). As of July 1, 2016, 32 states (including the District of Columbia) have expanded Medicaid eligibility through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA),* ,† which has increased access to health care services, including cessation treatments (5). CDC used data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicaid Budget and Expenditure System (MBES) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the number of adult smokers enrolled in Medicaid expansion coverage. To assess cessation coverage among Medicaid expansion enrollees, the American Lung Association collected data on coverage of, and barriers to accessing, evidence-based cessation treatments. As of December 2015, approximately 2.3 million adult smokers were newly enrolled in Medicaid because of Medicaid expansion. As of July 1, 2016, all 32 states that have expanded Medicaid eligibility under ACA covered some cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion enrollees, with nine states covering all nine cessation treatments for all Medicaid expansion

  3. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Index of Watershed Integrity / Index of Catchment Integrity (IWI/ICI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the Index of Watershed Integrity / Index of Catchment Integrity (IWI/ICI) within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream,...

  4. The binding efficiency of RPA to telomeric G-strands folded into contiguous G-quadruplexes is independent of the number of G4 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancrey, Astrid; Safa, Layal; Chatain, Jean; Delagoutte, Emmanuelle; Riou, Jean-François; Alberti, Patrizia; Saintomé, Carole

    2018-03-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA binding protein involved in replication and in telomere maintenance. During telomere replication, G-quadruplexes (G4) can accumulate on the lagging strand template and need to be resolved. It has been shown that human RPA is able to unfold a single G4. Nevertheless, the G-strand of human telomeres is prone to fold into higher-order structures formed by contiguous G-quadruplexes. To understand how RPA deals with these structures, we studied its interaction with telomeric G-strands folding into an increasing number of contiguous G4s. The aim of this study was to determine whether the efficiency of binding/unfolding of hRPA to telomeric G-strands depends on the number of G4 units. Our data show that the number n of contiguous G4 units (n ≥ 2) does not affect the efficiency of hRPA to coat transiently exposed single-stranded telomeric G-strands. This feature may be essential in preventing instability due to G4 structures during telomere replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Wulf; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte

    2016-01-01

    linear regressions analyses were performed accounting for the non-independence of ≥2 cycles in a woman. RESULTS: Stratification according to cycle number revealed a more suboptimal outcome in the first treatment- cycles than in the following cycles, suggesting a possible interaction or effect......INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following...

  6. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP

  7. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  8. The CT (Hounsfield unit) number of brain tissue in healthy infants. A new reliable method for detection of possible degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, P; Bundgaard, F; Olsen, A

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to correlate CT Hounsfield unit (H. U.) numbers from one CT investigation to another and from one CT scanner to another, especially when dealing with small changes in the brain substance, as in degenerative brain diseases in children. By subtracting the mean value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the mean value of grey and white matter, it is possible to remove most of the errors due, for example, to maladjustments, short and long-term drift, X-ray fan, and detector asymmetry. Measurements of white and grey matter using these methods showed CT H. U. numbers changing from 15 H. U. to 22 H. U. in white matter and 23 H. U. to 30 H. U. in grey matter in 86 healthy infants aged 0-5 years. In all measurements, the difference between grey and white matter was exactly 8 H. U. The method has proven to be highly accurate and reproducible.

  9. A multi-level modeling approach examining PTSD symptom reduction during prolonged exposure therapy: moderating effects of number of trauma types experienced, having an HIV-related index trauma, and years since HIV diagnosis among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junglen, Angela G; Smith, Brian C; Coleman, Jennifer A; Pacella, Maria L; Boarts, Jessica M; Jones, Tracy; Feeny, Norah C; Ciesla, Jeffrey A; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2017-11-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have extensive interpersonal trauma histories and higher rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than the general population. Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is efficacious in reducing PTSD across a variety of trauma samples; however, research has not examined factors that influence how PTSD symptoms change during PE for PLWH. Using multi-level modeling, we examined the potential moderating effect of number of previous trauma types experienced, whether the index trauma was HIV-related or not, and years since HIV diagnosis on PTSD symptom reduction during a 10-session PE protocol in a sample of 51 PLWH. In general, PTSD symptoms decreased linearly throughout the PE sessions. Experiencing more previous types of traumatic events was associated with a slower rate of PTSD symptom change. In addition, LOCF analyses found that participants with a non-HIV-related versus HIV-related index trauma had a slower rate of change for PTSD symptoms over the course of PE. However, analyses of raw data decreased this finding to marginal. Years since HIV diagnosis did not impact PTSD symptom change. These results provide a better understanding of how to tailor PE to individual clients and aid clinicians in approximating the rate of symptom alleviation. Specifically, these findings underscore the importance of accounting for trauma history and index trauma type when implementing a treatment plan for PTSD in PLWH.

  10. Stone heterogeneity index as the standard deviation of Hounsfield units: A novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy outcomes in ureter calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Jae Heon; Kang, Dong Hyuk; Chung, Doo Yong; Lee, Dae Hun; Do Jung, Hae; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Cho, Kang Su

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether stone heterogeneity index (SHI), which a proxy of such variations, was defined as the standard deviation of a Hounsfield unit (HU) on non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT), can be a novel predictor for shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) outcomes in patients with ureteral stones. Medical records were obtained from the consecutive database of 1,519 patients who underwent the first session of SWL for urinary stones between 2005 and 2013. Ultimately, 604 patients with radiopaque ureteral stones were eligible for this study. Stone related variables including stone size, mean stone density (MSD), skin-to-stone distance, and SHI were obtained on NCCT. Patients were classified into the low and high SHI groups using mean SHI and compared. One-session success rate in the high SHI group was better than in the low SHI group (74.3% vs. 63.9%, P = 0.008). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that smaller stone size (OR 0.889, 95% CI: 0.841-0.937, P < 0.001), lower MSD (OR 0.995, 95% CI: 0.994-0.996, P < 0.001), and higher SHI (OR 1.011, 95% CI: 1.008-1.014, P < 0.001) were independent predictors of one-session success. The radiologic heterogeneity of urinary stones or SHI was an independent predictor for SWL success in patients with ureteral calculi and a useful clinical parameter for stone fragility.

  11. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Wetness Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the wetness index within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the Composite Topographic Index...

  12. Area 2 Photo Skid Wastewater Pit corrective action decision document Corrective Action Unit Number 332: Part 1, and Closure report: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Area 2 Photo Skid Wastewater Pit, Corrective Action Site (CAS) Number 02-42-03, the only CAS in Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 332, has been identified as a source of unquantified, uncontrolled, and unpermitted wastewater discharge. The Photo Skid was used for photographic processing of film for projects related to weapons testing, using Kodak RA4 and GPX film processing facilities for black and white and color photographs. The CAU is located in Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The CAS consists of one unlined pit which received discharged photographic process wastewater from 1984 to 1991. The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) and the Closure Report (CR) have been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). The CADD and the CR for this CAS have been combined because sample data collected during the site investigation do not exceed regulatory limits established during the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process. The purpose of the CADD and the CR is to justify why no corrective action is necessary at the CAU based on process knowledge and the results of the corrective action investigation and to request closure of the CAU. This document contains Part 1 of the CADD and Part 2 of the CR

  13. Effect of study design and setting on tuberculosis clustering estimates using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jessica; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Cohen, Theodore; McHugh, Timothy D; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-21

    To systematically review the evidence for the impact of study design and setting on the interpretation of tuberculosis (TB) transmission using clustering derived from Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) strain typing. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL, Web of Science and Scopus were searched for articles published before 21st October 2014. Studies in humans that reported the proportion of clustering of TB isolates by MIRU-VNTR were included in the analysis. Univariable meta-regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of study design and setting on the proportion of clustering. The search identified 27 eligible articles reporting clustering between 0% and 63%. The number of MIRU-VNTR loci typed, requiring consent to type patient isolates (as a proxy for sampling fraction), the TB incidence and the maximum cluster size explained 14%, 14%, 27% and 48% of between-study variation, respectively, and had a significant association with the proportion of clustering. Although MIRU-VNTR typing is being adopted worldwide there is a paucity of data on how study design and setting may influence estimates of clustering. We have highlighted study design variables for consideration in the design and interpretation of future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Real-time bias-adjusted O 3 and PM 2.5 air quality index forecasts and their performance evaluations over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen; Mathur, Rohit; Trivikrama Rao, S.

    2010-06-01

    The National Air Quality Forecast Capacity (NAQFC) system, which links NOAA's North American Mesoscale (NAM) meteorological model with EPA's Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, provided operational ozone (O 3) and experimental fine particular matter (PM 2.5) forecasts over the continental United States (CONUS) during 2008. This paper describes the implementation of a real-time Kalman Filter (KF) bias-adjustment technique to improve the accuracy of O 3 and PM 2.5 forecasts at discrete monitoring locations. The operational surface-level O 3 and PM 2.5 forecasts from the NAQFC system were post-processed by the KF bias-adjusted technique using near real-time hourly O 3 and PM 2.5 observations obtained from EPA's AIRNow measurement network. The KF bias-adjusted forecasts were created daily, providing 24-h hourly bias-adjusted forecasts for O 3 and PM 2.5 at all AIRNow monitoring sites within the CONUS domain. The bias-adjustment post-processing implemented in this study requires minimal computational cost; requiring less than 10 min of CPU on a single processor Linux machine to generate 24-h hourly bias-adjusted forecasts over the entire CONUS domain. The results show that the real-time KF bias-adjusted forecasts for both O 3 and PM 2.5 have performed as well as or even better than the previous studies when the same technique was applied to the historical O 3 and PM 2.5 time series from archived AQF in earlier years. Compared to the raw forecasts, the KF forecasts displayed significant improvement in the daily maximum 8-h O 3 and daily mean PM 2.5 forecasts in terms of both discrete (i.e., reduced errors, increased correlation coefficients, and index of agreement) and categorical (increased hit rate and decreased false alarm ratio) evaluation metrics at almost all locations during the study period in 2008.

  15. DRIC Library Bulletin Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEXTBOOKS, *PERIODICALS, *UNITED KINGDOM, * LIBRARIES , INDEXES, BEHAVIOR, SOCIOLOGY, MEDICINE, CHEMISTRY, OCEANOGRAPHY, ELECTRONICS, MATHEMATICS, ENGINEERING, PHYSICS, COMMUNICATION AND RADIO SYSTEMS, NAVIGATION, DETECTION.

  16. Effect of number of pontics and impression technique on the accuracy of four-unit monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Sunjai

    2018-03-08

    Because of their relatively small scanning area, intraoral scanners may result in less accurate fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) than do laboratory scanners. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of monolithic zirconia FDPs with different numbers of pontics fabricated with different impression techniques. The mandibular right premolars and molars of an acrylic resin model were prepared to receive 4-unit FDPs. Three master models were fabricated with epoxy resin: model NP, no pontic; model 1P, 1 pontic; and model 2P, 2 pontics. Each master model was scanned by using direct (DD) and indirect digitalization (ID). Four-unit monolithic zirconia FDPs were fabricated and divided into 3 groups (groups NP, 1P, and 2P) and then subdivided according to the digitalization technique (group DD and ID; n=10). The FDPs were also evaluated based on the presence (Po) or absence (NPo) of an adjacent pontic. The marginal, axial, and occlusal gap widths of each FDP were measured, and statistical analyses were performed to evaluate and compare the amount of gap present (α=.05). For direct digitalization, group 2P had significantly greater marginal (69.4 μm versus 60.9 μm or 62.3 μm; Pdigitalization. Direct digitalization resulted in significantly smaller gap widths in all measurement areas than indirect digitalization; however, the mean differences were less than 12 μm, which is considered clinically insignificant. The presence of an adjacent pontic had a significant effect on the adjacent marginal and axial gap widths. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Resident Duty Hour Restrictions, Level of Trainee, and Number of Available Residents with Mortality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltempo, Marc; Clement, Karin; Lacroix, Guy; Bélanger, Sylvie; Julien, Anne-Sophie; Piedboeuf, Bruno

    2018-02-08

     This article assesses the effect of reducing consecutive hours worked by residents from 24 to 16 hours on yearly total hours worked per resident in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and evaluates the association of resident duty hour reform, level of trainee, and the number of residents present at admission with mortality in the NICU.  This is a 6-year retrospective cohort study including all pediatric residents working in a Level 3 NICU ( N  = 185) and infants admitted to the NICU ( N  = 8,159). Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated for mortality with respect to Epoch (2008-2011 [24-hour shifts] versus 2011-2014 [16-hour shifts]), level of trainee, and the number of residents present at admission.  The reduction in maximum consecutive hours worked was associated with a significant reduction of the median yearly total hours worked per resident in the NICU (381 hour vs. 276 hour, p  duty hour reform and 0.8% (33/4,052) after the reform (aOR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.98). Neither level of trainee (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.71-2.10; junior vs. senior) nor the number of residents present at admission (aOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 0.43-10.02, 5-8 residents vs. 0-2 residents) were associated with early mortality. Resident duty hour reform was not associated with hospital mortality (aOR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.07; after vs. before resident duty hour reform).  Resident duty hour restrictions were associated with a reduction in the number of yearly hours worked by residents in the NICU as well as a significant decrease in adjusted odds of early mortality but not of hospital mortality in admitted neonates. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. KWIC Index to Government Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Norden

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available United States and United Nations publications were not efficiently proc- essed nor readily available to the reader at Brandeis University Library. Data processing equipment was used to make a list of this material which could be referred to by a computer produced KWIC index. Currency and availability to the user, and time and cost efficiencies for the library were given precedence over detailed subject access. United States and United Nations classification schemes> and existing bibliographies and indexes were used extensively.

  19. Energetic consumption levels and human development indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boa Nova, Antonio Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The article overviews the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes. The human development indexes are described based on the United Nations Development Programme. A comparison between the energetic consumption levels and human development indexes is also presented

  20. Quality of care in the intensive care unit from the perspective of patient's relatives: development and psychometric evaluation of the consumer quality index 'R-ICU'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Ans; van Mol, Margo M; Menheere, Ilse; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Verhoogt, Ellen; Maris, Bea; Manders, Willeke; Vloet, Lilian; Verharen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-24

    The quality standards of the Dutch Society of Intensive Care require monitoring of the satisfaction of patient's relatives with respect to care. Currently, no suitable instrument is available in the Netherlands to measure this. This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire-based Consumer Quality Index 'Relatives in Intensive Care Unit' (CQI 'R-ICU'). The CQI 'R-ICU' measures the perceived quality of care from the perspective of patients' relatives, and identifies aspects of care that need improvement. The CQI 'R-ICU' was developed using a mixed method design. Items were based on quality of care aspects from earlier studies and from focus group interviews with patients' relatives. The time period for the data collection of the psychometric evaluation was from October 2011 until July 2012. Relatives of adult intensive care patients in one university hospital and five general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate. Psychometric evaluation included item analysis, inter-item analysis, and factor analysis. Twelve aspects were noted as being indicators of quality of care, and were subsequently selected for the questionnaire's vocabulary. The response rate of patients' relatives was 81% (n = 455). Quality of care was represented by two clusters, each showing a high reliability: 'Communication' (α = .80) and 'Participation' (α = .84). Relatives ranked the following aspects for quality of care as most important: no conflicting information, information from doctors and nurses is comprehensive, and health professionals take patients' relatives seriously. The least important care aspects were: need for contact with peers, nuisance, and contact with a spiritual counsellor. Aspects that needed the most urgent improvement (highest quality improvement scores) were: information about how relatives can contribute to the care of the patient, information about the use of meal-facilities in the hospital, and

  1. Índices baseados no número de clientes para localização de itens em armazéns Indexes based on the number of customers to locate items in warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcele Elisa Fontana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Para se obter eficiência nas operações de armazenagem, um fator importante é estabelecer a política ótima de atribuição da localização dos itens em armazéns. Para tanto, um dos índices mais difundidos e utilizados é o cuber-per-order (COI. No entanto, observa-se que há situações em que o uso do COI pode concentrar vantagens para uma minoria de clientes. Nesse sentido, este artigo propõe verificar as consequências da utilização de índices alternativos (COIC e CIC, baseados no número de clientes que demandam cada tipo de produto (item, sobre o desempenho de um armazém em relação à utilização do COI. Conclui-se que considerar o número de clientes na determinação da política ótima de atribuição de locais aos itens armazenados proporciona uma maior vantagem competitiva, uma vez que um número maior de clientes pode ser beneficiado. Isso representa uma oportunidade de elevar o nível de serviço oferecido pelo armazém aos clientes.An important factor to obtain efficiency of storage operations is to establish an optimal policy for storage location assignment. To this end, one of the indexes more circulated and used is the Cuber-per-Order (COI. However, it is observed that there are situations where the use of COI can concentrate advantages to a minority of clients. In this sense, this paper proposes to verify the effects on the performance of a warehouse when using alternative indexes (COIC and CIC, based on the number of clients that require each type of product (item, compared to the COI. It was possible to conclude that when the number of clients is considered to determine optimal policy for storage location assignment, the warehouse can acquire a competitive advantage, since the largest number of clients can be benefited. This represents an opportunity to raise the service level offered by the warehouse to its clients.

  2. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: Base Flow Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the base flow index values within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds. Attributes of the landscape...

  3. [Transmission risk of Trypanosoma cruzi in Metztitlán municipality from Hidalgo state, México, by characterization of domiciliary units and their entomologic indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril, Marco A; Angeles-Pérez, Vidal; Noguez-García, Julio Cr; Imbert-Palafox, José L

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by triatomines in Metztitlan municipality, Hidalgo State, Mexico, entomological indexes were calculated and the characteristics of dwellings were described. A transversal, retrospective, descriptive, and observational study was performed by means of an intentional not probabilistic and expertise sampling from January to December of 2005 in 10 localities in which presence of triatomines were investigated either intra or peridomestic environmental in 699 houses. Building material and presence of infected triatomines with T. cruzi were registered to determine entomologic indexes. The triatomine species collected were: Triatoma barberi (Usinger) and T. mexicana (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). The results indicated that natural infection index varied from 7.7% to 50%; colonization index reached 80%; infestation index varied from 7.7% to 25%; dispersion index was 70%. Stone-walled houses were more infested. We can conclude that it is necessary to establish T. cruzi transmission control measures against triatomines in localities from Metztitlan, primarily in stone-walled houses where T. barberi occurs, as it was the most important vector species in the transmission of T. cruzi in this municipality.

  4. Motor Unit Number Estimate and Isometric Hand Grip Strength in Military Veterans with or Without Muscular Complaints: Reference Values for Longitudinal Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mian; Yao, Wenguo; Sundahl, Cynthia

    2018-03-26

    It remains unclear if Gulf War (GW) veterans have a higher risk of developing motor neuron disorder. We intended to establish baseline neurophysiological values, including thenar motor unit number estimate (MUNE) and isometric hand grip (IHG) strength, to compare future follow-ups of deployed GW veterans with or without muscular complaints. We evaluated 19 GW veterans with self-reported weakness, cramps, or excessive muscle fatigue (Ill-19) and compared them with 18 controls without such muscular complaints (C-18). We performed MUNE on hand thenar muscles using adapted multipoint stimulation method for Ill-19 and 15 controls (C-15). We measured IHG strength (maximum force, endurance, and fatigue level) on Ill-19 and C-18 with a hand dynamometer. We performed nerve conduction studies on all study participants to determine which subjects had mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We compared the MUNE and IHG strength measures between Ill group and controls and between those with CTS and those without CTS. We obtained thenar MUNE of Ill-19 (95% CI of mean: 143-215; mean age: 46 yr) and compared it with that of C-15 (95% CI of mean: 161-230; mean age: 45 yr), and 95% of CI of mean among IHG strength variables (maximum force: 324-381 Newton; endurance: 32-42 s; fatigue level: 24%-33%) compared with C-18 (maximum force: 349-408 Newton; endurance: 35-46 s; fatigue level: 21%-27%). There was no significant difference in either MUNE or IHG strength between Ill-19 group and controls. The MUNE and IHG maximum forces were significantly lower in those with CTS compared with those without CTS. As a surrogate of mild CTS, the median versus ulnar distal sensory latency on nerve conduction study was only weakly associated with MUNE, maximum force, and fatigue level, respectively. To our knowledge, no published study on MUNE reference values of military veteran population has been available. The quantifiable values of both thenar MUNE and IHG strength of military veterans serve as

  5. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Alisa L; Ellis, Kelsey N; Reyes Mason, Lisa; Hathaway, Jon M; Howe, David A

    2016-01-11

    Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center) in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  6. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  7. Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems on calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indexes of NPP power units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, V.I.; Koryagin, A.V.; Ruzankov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Computer-aided design system for a complex of problems concerning calculation and analysis of engineering and economical indices of NPP power units is described. In the system there are means for automated preparation and debugging of data base software complex, which realizes th plotted algorithm in the power unit control system. Besides, in the system there are devices for automated preparation and registration of technical documentation

  8. Heat and Humidity in the City: Neighborhood Heat Index Variability in a Mid-Sized City in the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa L. Hass

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily weather conditions for an entire city are usually represented by a single weather station, often located at a nearby airport. This resolution of atmospheric data fails to recognize the microscale climatic variability associated with land use decisions across and within urban neighborhoods. This study uses heat index, a measure of the combined effects of temperature and humidity, to assess the variability of heat exposure from ten weather stations across four urban neighborhoods and two control locations (downtown and in a nearby nature center in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Results suggest that trees may negate a portion of excess urban heat, but are also associated with greater humidity. As a result, the heat index of locations with more trees is significantly higher than downtown and areas with fewer trees. Trees may also reduce heat stress by shading individuals from incoming radiation, though this is not considered in this study. Greater amounts of impervious surfaces correspond with reduced evapotranspiration and greater runoff, in terms of overall mass balance, leading to a higher temperature, but lower relative humidity. Heat index and relative humidity were found to significantly vary between locations with different tree cover and neighborhood characteristics for the full study time period as well as for the top 10% of heat index days. This work demonstrates the need for high-resolution climate data and the use of additional measures beyond temperature to understand urban neighborhood exposure to extreme heat, and expresses the importance of considering vulnerability differences among residents when analyzing neighborhood-scale impacts.

  9. AP Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Planetary Amplitude index - Bartels 1951. The a-index ranges from 0 to 400 and represents a K-value converted to a linear scale in gammas (nanoTeslas)--a scale that...

  10. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) Contract Number: DE-EE0006339

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Kodie [Electricore, Inc., Santa Clarita, CA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The Southwest United States of America – Distributed Technology Training Consortia (SWUSA-DTTC) leveraged the highest concentration of renewable resources in the U.S. as well as operation of the leading independent microgrid installations and other distributed technologies to collect and analyze real-time data streams, advance power system simulations and analysis, identify educational and training gaps and develop solutions-focused curricula. The SWUSA-DTTC consortium posed a unique collaboration between universities and utilities to ensure that classes were focused on subjects and topics of interest to the utilities and ones that had practical benefit related to the preparedness for accommodating high penetration of solar and other distributed energy technologies. This approach to have a close collaboration and shared effort to develop the course content and curriculum is unique and a significant departure from conventional course development. This coursework and training was intended to endure over a long time horizon (10-20 year time frame), and include professionals over the entire Southwest region and the rest of the US, and even outreach into foreign countries. Project Objectives In order to support the increase in power systems research, development, and analytical capacity, the SWUSA-DTTC brought together respected professors in Power Systems education, student/professor research and development, and valuable industry and utility experience. Through this program, the partnered universities created and/or modified existing curricula available to students and professionals in the form of university courses, short courses, videos, consortia-led training, and online materials. During this time, the supporting vendors and utilities provided the SWUSA-DTTC with technical advisory roles as well as providing input and feedback in terms of utility and related energy industry needs. The goals were to create power and energy systems training, curricula, and

  11. Higher Education Faculty in Mexico and the United States: Characteristics and Policy Issues. Understanding the Differences: A Working Paper Series on Higher Education in the U. S. and Mexico. Working Paper Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Cheryl D.; Sanchez, Maria Dolores Soler

    This working paper analyzes higher education faculty characteristics in Mexico and the United States. The first section describes and compares Mexican and U.S. faculty characteristics and conditions, including total number of faculty, student-teacher ratios, full- versus part-time status, rank, tenure, average salaries, gender and ethnicity, and…

  12. AA Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa index provides a long climatology of global geomagnetic activity using 2 antipodal observatories at Greenwich and Melbourne- IAGA Bulletin 37,...

  13. Walkability Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of...

  14. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a granitic terrain of southern India using factor analysis and GIS. 1059. Radhakrishna M see Dev Sheena V .... Landslide susceptibility analysis using Probabilistic. Certainty Factor ... index via entropy-difference analysis. 687. Yidana Sandow ...

  15. Intelligent indexing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  16. Intelligent indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  18. KWIC Index to Government Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Norden, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    United States and United Nations publications were not efficiently proc- essed nor readily available to the reader at Brandeis University Library. Data processing equipment was used to make a list of this material which could be referred to by a computer produced KWIC index. Currency and availability to the user, and time and cost efficiencies for the library were given precedence over detailed subject access. United States and United Nations classification schemes> and existing bibliograp...

  19. Virginia ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  20. Handling large numbers of observation units in three-way methods for the analysis of qualitative and quantitative two-way data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, Henk A.L.; Marchetti, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed for the exploratory analysis of mixtures of qualitative and quantitative variables. In these methods for each variable an object by object similarity matrix is constructed, and these are consequently analyzed by means of three-way methods like

  1. Evoluţia diversităţii structurale şi compoziţionale a arboretelor cu ajutorul indicelui UMF: un studiu de caz la nivel de unitate de producţie[The evolution of stand structural and compositional diversity assessed with the UMF index: A case study at production unit level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Catalin Burlui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the UMF index (Uneven-aged, Mixed, Forest an index because the forest management, whose values are determined easily, data from management planning are the main support. The study was conducted in the Suha Mare area from Mălini, Suceava county. Wet analyzed stand descriptions for all stands for two periods (1956, 1995, using structural and site characteristics required by index. Data were obtained from management plans of the studied forest area. The index values were calculated for each stand, and its value for the total forest area was determined by summing the values calculated for stand, weighted by stand area. Index values vary between the two periods analyzed (1956, 1995, there are differences from a subplot to another, which is explained by the different treatments applied, the number of tree species and the structural heterogeneity, but also - for 1995 - by functional zoning that changed the forest management. UMF index is a good tool to determine structural and compositional diversity of a given area, using data from forest management plans. The results can be analyzed for longer periods of time and may indicate the direction of evolution of an area in relation with anthropogenic changes: from even-aged structure to uneven-aged, from monocultures to mixed stands.

  2. Fast food, other food choices and body mass index in teenagers in the United Kingdom (ALSPAC): a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, L K; Edwards, K L; Cade, J E; Clarke, G P

    2011-10-01

    To assess the association between the consumption of fast food (FF) and body mass index (BMI) of teenagers in a large UK birth cohort. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was chosen to allow direct statistical testing of a theoretical model. SEM is a combination of confirmatory factor and path analysis, which allows for the inclusion of latent (unmeasured) variables. This approach was used to build two models: the effect of FF outlet visits and food choices and the effect of FF exposure on consumption and BMI. A total of 3620 participants had data for height and weight from the age 13 clinic and the frequency of FF outlet visits, and so were included in these analyses. This SEM model of food choices showed that increased frequency of eating at FF outlets is positively associated with higher consumption of unhealthy foods (β=0.29, Pfoods (β=-1.02, Pfoods and were more likely to have higher BMISDS than those teenagers who did not eat frequently at FF restaurants. Teenagers who were exposed to more takeaway foods at home ate more frequently at FF restaurants and eating at FF restaurants was also associated with lower intakes of vegetables and raw fruit in this cohort.

  3. The association of birth order with later body mass index and blood pressure: a comparison between prospective cohort studies from the United Kingdom and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L D; Hallal, P C; Matijasevich, A; Wells, J C; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Lawlor, D A; Victora, C G; Smith, G D

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found greater adiposity and cardiovascular risk in first born children. The causality of this association is not clear. Examining the association in diverse populations may lead to improved insight. We examine the association between birth order and body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) in the 2004 Pelotas cohort from southern Brazil and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) from Bristol, south-west England, restricting analysis to families with two children in order to remove confounding by family size. No consistent differences in BMI, SBP or DBP were observed comparing first and second born children. Within the Pelotas 2004 cohort, first born females were thinner, with lower SBP and DBP; for example, mean difference in SBP comparing first with second born was -0.979 (95% confidence interval -2.901 to 0.943). In ALSPAC, first born females had higher BMI, SBP and DBP. In both cohorts, associations tended to be in the opposite direction in males, although no statistical evidence for gender interactions was found. The findings do not support an association between birth order and BMI or blood pressure. Differences to previous studies may be explained by differences in populations and/or confounding by family size in previous studies.

  4. Influence of body mass index in anti-Müllerian hormone levels in 951 non-polycystic ovarian syndrome women followed at a reproductive medicine unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Pereira, Joana; Nunes, Joaquim; Aguiar, Ana; Sousa, Sandra; Rodrigues, Cátia; Sampaio Matias, Joaquim; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos

    2018-02-22

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve. Obesity/overweight are increasing and may affect the reproductive health. Previous studies regarding the effect of body mass index (BMI) on AMH levels are discordant. Our main goal was to evaluate the influence of BMI on AMH levels in women without polycystic ovarian syndrome. Revision of medical records of 951 women who performed AMH determinations as part of their fertility workup, between 2011 and 2016. Median AMH concentration was 1.75 [interquartile range (IQR) 2] ng/mL (12.9 pmol/mL) and median age at AMH determination was 35 (IQR 6) years. These women evidenced a median BMI of 23 (IQR 5) kg/m 2 . Caucasian women were more represented [889(89.3%)]. Smoking habits (present/past) were present in 359(36.1%), and 147(14.8%) harboured a history of ovarian surgery. On univariable analysis AMH was not correlated with BMI (r = 0.048/p = 0.135); the only factors influencing AMH were age (p ovarian surgery (p ovarian reserve. BMI does not seem to affect AMH levels. The reported concerns on infertility in overweight and obese women may be related to follicular development/oocyte maturation or endometrial disorders, rather than decreased ovarian reserve.

  5. Determination of Fertility Rating (FR in the 3-PG Model for Loblolly Pine Plantations in the Southeastern United States Based on Site Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Subedi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is an important component of forest ecosystems, yet evaluating soil fertility remains one of the least understood aspects of forest science. We hypothesized that the fertility rating (FR used in the model 3-PG could be predicted from site index (SI for loblolly pine in the southeastern US and then developed a method to predict FR from SI to test this hypothesis. Our results indicate that FR values derived from SI when used in 3-PG explain 89% of the variation in loblolly pine yield. The USDA SSURGO dataset contains SI values for loblolly pine for the major soil series in most of the counties in the southeastern US. The potential of using SI from SSURGO data to predict regional productivity of loblolly pine was assessed by comparing SI values from SSURGO with field inventory data in the study sites. When the 3-PG model was used with FR values derived using SI values from SSURGO database to predict loblolly pine productivity across the broader regions, the model provided realistic outputs of loblolly pine productivity. The results of this study show that FR values can be estimated from SI and used in 3-PG to predict loblolly pine productivity in the southeastern US.

  6. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  7. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  8. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  9. Author Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Astr. (2012) 33, 419–420. Author Index. 419. AGGARWAL SUNNY. Photoionization Cross-Section of Chlorine-like Iron, 291. AMBASTHA ASHOK see Das, A. C., 1. ARAKIDA HIDEYOSHI. Effect of Inhomogeneity of the Universe on a Gravitationally. Bound Local System: A No-Go Result for Explaining the Secular Increase in.

  10. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    automorphic solutions to fractional order abstract integro-differential equations. 323. Afrouzi G A see Ala Samira ... 521. Agarwal Praveen. Certain fractional integral operators and the generalized multi-index Mittag- ... of positive solutions for sys- tems of second order multi-point bound- ary value problems on time scales 353.

  11. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  12. The relationship between body mass index and quality of life in community-living older adults living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottone, F G; Hawkins, K; Musich, S; Cheng, Y; Ozminkowski, R J; Migliori, R J; Yeh, C S

    2013-01-01

    Carrying excess weight is associated with various chronic conditions especially in older adults, and can have a negative influence on the quality of life of this population. The objective of this study was to estimate the independent (i.e. adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and health status differences) impact of Body Mass Index (BMI) on health-related quality of life. A mail survey was sent to 60,000 older adults living in 10 states. The survey assessed quality of life using the average physical component scores (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) obtained from the Veterans Rand 12-item (VR-12) health status tool embedded in the survey. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques were used to estimate the independent impact of each BMI category on quality of life, compared to the impact of other chronic conditions. A total of 22,827 (38%) eligible sample members responded to the survey. Of those, 2.2% were underweight, 38.5% had a normal BMI, 37.0% were overweight, 18.5% were obese and 1.9% were morbidly obese. Following OLS regression techniques, respondents' PCS values were statistically significantly lower for the underweight, overweight, obese and morbidly obese BMI categories, compared to the normal BMI group. Compared with all other chronic conditions, being morbidly obese (-6.0 points) had the largest negative impact on the PCS. Underweight was the only BMI category with a statistically significantly lower MCS value. The greatest negative impacts of the various BMI categories on quality of life were on physical rather than mental aspects, especially for those in the underweight, obese and morbidly obese categories, more so than many other chronic conditions.

  13. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping of mycobacterium intracellulare for strain comparison with establishment of a PCR-based database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; McNulty, Steven; Brown Elliott, Barbara A; Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wilson, Rebecca W; Turenne, Christine; Wallace, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    Strain comparison is important to population genetics and to evaluate relapses in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, but the "gold standard" of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is time-consuming and complex. We used variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) for fingerprinting of respiratory isolates of M. intracellulare from patients with underlying bronchiectasis, to establish a nonsequence-based database for population analysis. Different genotypes identified by PFGE underwent species identification using a 16S rRNA gene multiplex PCR. Genotypes of M. intracellulare were confirmed by internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequencing and characterized using seven VNTR primers. The pattern of VNTR amplicon sizes and repeat number defined each specific VNTR type. Forty-two VNTR types were identified among 84 genotypes. PFGE revealed most isolates with the same VNTR type to be clonal or exhibit similar grouping of bands. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) showed minimal pattern diversity between VNTR types compared to PFGE. Fingerprinting of relapse isolates from 31 treated patients using VNTR combined with 16S multiplex PCR unambiguously and reliably distinguished different genotypes from the same patient, with results comparable to those of PFGE. VNTR for strain comparison is easier and faster than PFGE, is as accurate as PFGE, and does not require sequencing. Starting with a collection of 167 M. intracellulare isolates, VNTR distinguished M. intracellulare into 42 clonal groups. Comparison of isolates from different geographic areas, habitats, and clinical settings is now possible.

  14. Viva the h-index

    OpenAIRE

    Waaijers, Leo

    2011-01-01

    In their article 'The inconsistency of the h-index' Ludo Waltman and Nees Jan van Neck give three examples to demonstrate the inconsistency of the h-index. As will be explained, a little extension of their examples just illustrate the opposite, a stable feature of the h-index. For starting authors it, the h-index that is, focusses on the number of articles; for experienced authors its focus shifts towards the citation scores. This feature may be liked or not but does not make the h-index an i...

  15. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Numbers 50-390 and 50-391)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), and Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER. These issues relate to: Design criteria -- structures, components, equipment, and systems; Reactor; Instrumentation and controls; Electrical power systems; Auxiliary systems; Conduct of operations; Accident analysis; and Quality assurance

  16. The Effect of Number and Position of P=O/P=S Bridging Units on Cavitand Selectivity toward Methyl Ammonium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Menozzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the synthesis and complexation properties of five mixed bridge P=O/P=S cavitands toward N,N-methyl butyl ammonium chloride (1 as prototype guest. The influence of number and position of P=O and P=S groups on the affinity of phosphonate cavitands toward 1 is assessed via ITC titrations in DCE as solvent. Comparison of the resulting Kass values, the enthalpic and entropic contributions to the overall binding with those of the parent tetraphosphonate Tiiii and tetrathiophosphonate TSiiii cavitands allows one to single out the simultaneous dual H-bond between the cavitand and the salt as the major player in complexation.

  17. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  18. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  19. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    basis. The data are divided into different indicators such as security, polls, drug, social, economic, refugees etc. This represents a practical division and does not indicate that a picture as to for instance security can be obtained by solely looking at the data under security. In order to obtain...... a more valid picture on security this must incorporate an integrated look on all data meaning that for instance the economic data provides an element as to the whole picture of security.......The Afghanistan index is a compilation of quantitative and qualitative data on the reconstruction and security effort in Afghanistan. The index aims at providing data for benchmarking of the international performance and thus provides the reader with a quick possibility to retrieve valid...

  20. A New Index of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. de Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses and revises the latest Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the United Kingdom. We analyze the changes produced in the index from 2006 to 2011, as well as in the five basic factors that constitute the index: electoral process and pluralism; civil liberties; the functioning of government; political participation; and political culture. The analysis of these factors ?measured by sixty variables? has made it possible to develop a new index, based on the data from 167 countries, and calculate a revised ranking. Countries have been classified into four types: democracies, flawed democracies, mixed systems, and authoritarian/totalitarian regimes. The new index permits a better understanding of the impact of the crisis through variables such as economic growth, human development, quality of life, corruption, and violence.

  1. Dow's chemical exposure index guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.T.; Mundt, A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of events in the 1970's and 1980's impacted the course of process safety. Incidents such as Flixborough, Seveso, Three-Mile Island, and Bhopal are well known throughout industry and are recognized as examples of major disasters. Even though events leading up to these disasters were completely different they had one common element between them: a substance was released from a manufacturing unit, became airborne and presented a hazard of such magnitude as to place the safety of both employees and the surrounding public in jeopardy. As a result, industry became increasingly concerned regarding potential loss, in human and economic terms, as plants and equipment grew in size. The Flixborough incident raised the level of concern for process safety, particularly in terms of the hazards presented by fire and explosion. Seveso and Three-Mile Island emphasized the need to consider far-field exposure. The Bhopal incident created an urgent need to recognize and understand the expected downwind impact of potential releases of acutely toxic substances to the air. In order to meet this need, the Dow Chemical Company, a recognized leader in the area of safety and loss prevention, presented a Chemical Exposure Index in 1986. AIChE has recently published an updated version entitled Dow's Chemical Exposure Index Guide. 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  3. AUTHOR INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Balasubramanian R. Density of primes in l-th power residues. 19. Banerjee Pradipto. Divisibility of class numbers of imag- inary quadratic function fields by a fixed odd number. 1. Basak Gopal K. Process convergence of self-normalized sums of i.i.d. random variables coming from domain of attraction of stable distributions.

  4. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  5. Sprache und Sozio-Oekonomischer Index (Speech and Socioeconomic Index)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhme, Hermann

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the socioeconomic index of 77 speakers of Dutch, recorded in 40 places, revealed certain correlations between index and individual linguistic behavior, particularly in regard to the speed of articulation, quantity quotient (low vowels/short vowels), pitch modulation, number of relative clauses and passive construction. (Text is in…

  6. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  7. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  8. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  9. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient’s trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  10. Comparison the effects of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning on respiratory rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasinia, Mohammad; Irajpour, Alireza; Babaii, Atye; Shamali, Mehdi; Vahdatnezhad, Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square and independent t-tests. RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion : Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient's trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  11. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  12. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  13. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  14. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  15. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  16. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation consists of bibliographic data and abstracts for the formal regulatory and technical reports issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and its contractors. There are four types of reports included: staff reports, conference reports, contractor reports, and international agreement reports. In addition to the main citations with abstracts, the following are also included: Secondary report number index; Personal author index; Subject index; NRC originating organization indices for staff reports and international agreement reports; NRC contract sponsor index; Contractor index; International organization index; and Licensed facility index

  17. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees A. Shaikh, MD, MPH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2 . In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  18. Selection and Classification of United States Military Officers: A fifty-Year Bibliography (1937-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    orientation in Naval aviation cadets. Journal of Educational Psychology , 45, 91-109. 908 Creelman , J.A. (1954). An analysis of the physical fitness index...International Index to Periodicals. (e) Military Testing Association Proceedings, and (f) Psychological Abstracts. The research organizations of the armed...Texas, can trace its beginning to a number of Psychological Research Units of the Medical Division of the United States Army Air Corps. Some of the

  19. Causality relation between the producer price index and the consumer price index. Ecuador Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Quinde Rosales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present document is an investigation with a type of inductive reasoning. It evaluated the relationship of causality between the producer price index (IPP, and the consumer price index (IPC in a period from January 1998 to December 2016. The unit root test Dickey-Fuller Augmented (DFA was used under an empirical- analytic paradigm, an autoregressive vector-VAR model was generated and the Granger causality test was performed. The results show a positive trend and seasonality in the data of the variables, a VAR model of two variables was obtained with a number of optimal remnants of fourteen VAR2 (14 to which the causality test was performed, demonstrating a bi - directionality of both indices.

  20. Synthesis of Tumor-avid Photosensitizer-Gd(III)DTPA conjugates: impact of the number of gadolinium units in T1/T2 relaxivity, intracellular localization, and photosensitizing efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Lalit N; White, William H; Spernyak, Joseph A; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Chen, Yihui; Missert, Joseph R; Morgan, Janet; Mazurchuk, Richard; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2010-05-19

    To develop novel bifunctional agents for tumor imaging (MR) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), certain tumor-avid photosensitizers derived from chlorophyll-a were conjugated with variable number of Gd(III)aminobenzyl DTPA moieties. All the conjugates containing three or six gadolinium units showed significant T(1) and T(2) relaxivities. However, as a bifunctional agent, the 3-(1'-hexyloxyethyl)pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) containing 3Gd(III) aminophenyl DTPA was most promising with possible applications in tumor-imaging and PDT. Compared to HPPH, the corresponding 3- and 6Gd(III)aminobenzyl DTPA conjugates exhibited similar electronic absorption characteristics with a slightly decreased intensity of the absorption band at 660 nm. However, compared to HPPH, the excitation of the broad "Soret" band (near 400 nm) of the corresponding 3Gd(III)aminobenzyl-DTPA analogues showed a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity at 667 nm.

  1. A temporary index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, Jon; Craighead, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing management of low, intermediate and high-level nuclear waste is an unresolved issue for humanity, not least because the time-frames in question when dealing with the hazards of radioactive wastes, range from as little as a few tens of years to more than 100 000 years. It is from this starting point that we are beginning the development of an ambitious multifaceted artwork aiming to help us consider our relationship with deep-time and our nuclear legacy. The expressed aim of Temporary Index is to raise general awareness about these long-term management issues, and in doing so, to embed this knowledge into our collective cultural memory so as to transmit useful information about our nuclear waste into the future. We wish to create a series of decorative, real-time numeric counters based on the probabilistic decay (including decay of daughter products) of existing nuclear waste that we identify from the earliest weapons' development programmes in the United States right through to contemporary wastes being produced by nuclear energy production today across the world. Each display will countdown in seconds, showing the time remaining before the given item of waste (or a particular site) is considered safe to humans. A hypothetical example of one counter could be a bottle of sludge containing plutonium discovered in 2004 during an attempted clean-up of the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, United States. Another example might be the geological storage facility for vitrified nuclear waste at Horonobe in Japan, should it be established in the future. Accident sites, such as Chernobyl or Fukushima Daiichi could also be tagged with counters, as could low-level waste (LLW) repositories such as the one at Drigg near Sellafield in the United Kingdom. Whatever the items identified and this will be a complex process requiring collaboration with experts in the field, it is important that a wide range of short- and long-term counters are established to

  2. Predicting pavement condition index using international roughness index in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A number of pavement condition indices are used to conduct pavement management assessments, two of which are the : International Roughness Index (IRI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI). The IRI is typically measured using specialized : equipment tha...

  3. The impact of meeting donor management goals on the number of organs transplanted per donor: results from the United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 prospective donor management goals study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Patel, Madhukar S; Daly, Michael C; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Salim, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Many organ procurement organizations have implemented critical care end points as donor management goals in efforts to increase organs transplanted per donor after neurologic determination of death. Although retrospective studies have demonstrated an association between meeting donor management goals and organ yield, prospective studies are lacking. In June 2008, nine donor management goals were prospectively implemented as a checklist and every donor after neurologic determination of death was managed to meet them. The donor management goals represented normal cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and endocrine end points. Data were collected for 7 months. Donor management goals "met" was defined a priori as achieving any seven of the nine donor management goals, and this was recorded at the time of consent, 12-18 hrs later, and prior to organ recovery. The primary outcome measure was ≥4 organs transplanted per donor, and binary logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of this outcome with a porgan procurement organizations in the five Southwestern United States (United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5). All standard criteria donors after neurologic determination of deaths. Prospective implementation of a donor management goal checklist. There were 380 standard criteria donors with 3.6±1.7 organs transplanted per donor. Fifteen percent had donor management goals met at the time of consent, 33% at 12-18 hrs, and 38% prior to organ recovery. Forty-eight percent had ≥4 organs transplanted per donor. Donors with ≥4 organs transplanted per donor had significantly more individual donor management goals met at all three time points. Independent predictors of ≥4 organs transplanted per donor were age (odds ratio=0.95 per year), final creatinine (odds ratio=0.75 per 1-unit increase), donor management goals "met" at consent (odds ratio=2.03), donor management goals "met" prior to organ recovery (odds ratio=2.34), and a change in the number of

  4. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  5. Modification of Low Refractive Index Polycarbonate for High Refractive Index Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Suri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycarbonates and polythiourethanes are the most popular materials in use today, for optical applications. Polycarbonates are of two types which fall in the category of low refractive index and medium refractive index. The present paper describes the conversion of low refractive index polycarbonates into high refractive index material by the use of a high refractive index monomer, polythiol, as an additive. Novel polycarbonates, where the properties of refractive index and Abbe number can be tailor made, have been obtained. Thermal studies and refractive index determination indicate the formation of a new polymer with improved properties and suitable for optical applications.

  6. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  7. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25[4] required an extension of Part B

  8. A decrease in the number of cases of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the enhancement of infection prevention and control measures during a Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemyre, Brigitte; Xiu, Wenlong; Bouali, Nicole Rouvinez; Brintnell, Janet; Janigan, Jo-Anne; Suh, Kathryn N; Barrowman, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Most cases of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are sporadic, but outbreaks in hospital settings suggest an infectious cause. Our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experienced an outbreak of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). We aimed to assess whether the enhancement of infection prevention and control measures would be associated with a reduction in the number of cases of NEC. Retrospective chart review. A 24-bed, university-affiliated, inborn level 3 NICU. Infants of less than 30 weeks gestation or birth weight ≤ 1,500 g admitted to the NICU between January 2007 and December 2008 were considered at risk of NEC. All cases of NEC were reviewed. Infection prevention and control measures, including hand hygiene education, were enhanced during the outbreak. Avoidance of overcapacity in the NICU was reinforced, environmental services (ES) measures were enhanced, and ES hours were increased. Two hundred eighty-two at-risk infants were admitted during the study. Their gestational age and birth weight (mean ± SD) were 28.2 ± 2.7 weeks and 1,031 ± 290 g, respectively. The proportion of NEC was 18/110 (16.4%) before the outbreak, 1/54 (1.8%) during the outbreak, and 4/118 (3.4%) after the outbreak. After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight, gender, and singleton versus multiple births, the proportion was lower in the postoutbreak period than in the preoutbreak period (P control measures to manage an MSSA outbreak.

  9. EJSCREEN Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  10. EJSCREEN Indexes 2016 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is an EJ Index for each environmental indicator. There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are:...

  11. Handbook of proton-NMR spectra and data index

    CERN Document Server

    Asahi Research Center Co, Ltd

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Proton-NMR Spectra and Data: Index to Volumes 1-10 compiles four types of indexes used in charting the proton-NMR spectral database -Chemical Name Index, Molecular Formula Index, Substructure Index, and Chemical Shift Index. The Chemical Name Index compiles all chemical names in alphabetical order, followed by a spectrum number. When the desired organic compound cannot be found in the Chemical Name Index or its nomenclature is unclear, it becomes necessary to look for a compound by means of its molecular formula, hence the Molecular Formula Index. A unique notation system for repre

  12. Automatic inference of indexing rules for MEDLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shooshan Sonya E

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Indexing is a crucial step in any information retrieval system. In MEDLINE, a widely used database of the biomedical literature, the indexing process involves the selection of Medical Subject Headings in order to describe the subject matter of articles. The need for automatic tools to assist MEDLINE indexers in this task is growing with the increasing number of publications being added to MEDLINE. Methods: In this paper, we describe the use and the customization of Inductive Logic Programming (ILP to infer indexing rules that may be used to produce automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE indexers. Results: Our results show that this original ILP-based approach outperforms manual rules when they exist. In addition, the use of ILP rules also improves the overall performance of the Medical Text Indexer (MTI, a system producing automatic indexing recommendations for MEDLINE. Conclusion: We expect the sets of ILP rules obtained in this experiment to be integrated into MTI.

  13. Unbounding the mental number line – New evidence on children’s spatial representation of numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja eLink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Number line estimation (i.e., indicating the position of a given number on a physical line is a standard assessment of children’s spatial representation of number magnitude. Importantly, there is an ongoing debate on the question in how far the bounded task version with start and endpoint given (e.g., 0 and 100 might induce specific estimation strategies and thus may not allow for unbiased inferences on the underlying representation. Recently, a new unbounded version of the task was suggested with only the start point and a unit fixed (e.g., the distance from 0 to 1. In adults this task provided a less biased index of the spatial representation of number magnitude. Yet, so far there are no children data available for the unbounded number line estimation task. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study on primary school children performing both, the bounded and the unbounded version of the task. We observed clear evidence for systematic strategic influences (i.e., the consideration of reference points in the bounded number line estimation task for children older than grade two whereas there were no such indications for the unbounded version for any one of the age groups. In summary, the current data corroborate the unbounded number line estimation task to be a valuable tool for assessing children's spatial representation of number magnitude in a systematic and unbiased manner. Yet, similar results for the bounded and the unbounded version of the task for first- and second-graders may indicate that both versions of the task might assess the same underlying representation for relatively younger children - at least in number ranges familiar to the children assessed. This is of particular importance for inferences about the nature and development of children's magnitude representation.

  14. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  15. Malmquist Productivity Index on Efficiency Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezai balf ∗

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, a popular linear programming technique is useful to rate comparatively operational effiency of decision Making Unit (DMU based on the their deterministic inputoutput data. The Malmquist productivity index in DEA, calculable with the distance function, for measurement the productivity change among two variant time period or two variant group in the same time. This index is based on two factor of efficiency change index and a technological change index. In this paper, we operate on the collective Malmquist productivity index, which performs clustering operation DMUs with classification into different levels of efficient frontier, and then we discuss on the relation between Malmquist index on the efficiency layers and their attractiveness and progress

  16. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  17. Prediction of massive bleeding. Shock index and modified shock index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terceros-Almanza, L J; García-Fuentes, C; Bermejo-Aznárez, S; Prieto-Del Portillo, I J; Mudarra-Reche, C; Sáez-de la Fuente, I; Chico-Fernández, M

    2017-12-01

    To determine the predictive value of the Shock Index and Modified Shock Index in patients with massive bleeding due to severe trauma. Retrospective cohort. Severe trauma patient's initial attention at the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Patients older than 14 years that were admitted to the hospital with severe trauma (Injury Severity Score >15) form January 2014 to December 2015. We studied the sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive and negative predictive value (PV+ and PV-), positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR+ and LR-), ROC curves (Receiver Operating Characteristics) and the area under the same (AUROC) for prediction of massive hemorrhage. 287 patients were included, 76.31% (219) were male, mean age was 43,36 (±17.71) years and ISS was 26 (interquartile range [IQR]: 21-34). The overall frequency of massive bleeding was 8.71% (25). For Shock Index: AUROC was 0.89 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.84 to 0.94), with an optimal cutoff at 1.11, Se was 91.3% (95% CI: 73.2 to 97.58) and Sp was 79.69% (95% CI: 74.34 to 84.16). For the Modified Shock Index: AUROC was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.86 to 0.95), with an optimal cutoff at 1.46, Se was 95.65% (95% CI: 79.01 to 99.23) and Sp was 75.78% (95% CI: 70.18 to 80.62). Shock Index and Modified Shock Index are good predictors of massive bleeding and could be easily incorporated to the initial workup of patients with severe trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting fiber refractive index from a measured preform index profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiiveri, P.; Koponen, J.; Harra, J.; Novotny, S.; Husu, H.; Ihalainen, H.; Kokki, T.; Aallos, V.; Kimmelma, O.; Paul, J.

    2018-02-01

    When producing fiber lasers and amplifiers, silica glass compositions consisting of three to six different materials are needed. Due to the varying needs of different applications, substantial number of different glass compositions are used in the active fiber structures. Often it is not possible to find material parameters for theoretical models to estimate thermal and mechanical properties of those glass compositions. This makes it challenging to predict accurately fiber core refractive index values, even if the preform index profile is measured. Usually the desired fiber refractive index value is achieved experimentally, which is expensive. To overcome this problem, we analyzed statistically the changes between the measured preform and fiber index values. We searched for correlations that would help to predict the Δn-value change from preform to fiber in a situation where we don't know the values of the glass material parameters that define the change. Our index change models were built using the data collected from preforms and fibers made by the Direct Nanoparticle Deposition (DND) technology.

  19. String Indexing for Patterns with Wildcards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of indexing a string t of length n to report the occurrences of a query pattern p containing m characters and j wildcards. Let occ be the number of occurrences of p in t, and σ the size of the alphabet. We obtain the following results. A linear space index with query time O...

  20. Reineke’s stand density index: a quantitative and non-unitless measure of stand density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2013-01-01

    When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke’s stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless. Reineke’s SDI relates the current stand density to an equivalent number of trees per unit area in a stand with a quadratic mean diameter (Dq)...

  1. Western Alaska ESI: INDEX (Index Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the boundaries of all the hardcopy cartographic products produced as part of the Environmental Sensitivity Index...

  2. Master Veteran Index (MVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...

  3. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  4. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  5. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  6. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  7. Indexing contamination surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility's radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons

  8. CINDU-8 catalogue of numerical neutron data available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qood, W M; Attree, P M; Byer, T A; Hjarne, L; Konshin, V A; Lemmel, H D; Lorenz, A [Nuclear Data Unit, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1969-01-15

    This catalogue is the index to DASTAR, the DAta STorage And Retrieval System of the IAEA Nuclear Data Unit. For the first time, this issue indexes also some parts of evaluated data libraries held at the Nuclear Data Unit. CINDU is written in a slightly modified CINDA format and should be read with the help of the introduction to CINDA. Tables of abbreviations for references and laboratories mentioned in this issue are given on the verso of the front cover. The catalogue serves as a reference to all the experimental and calculated numerical data which are stored at the IAEA Nuclear Data Unit, and each set of data is referred to by an index-number, e.g. DASTAR-00896. The bibliographic references for each experiment are blocked together with the relevant data index entry. All of the indexed data are available to anyone on request. Data should be ordered by their index number. This issue of CINDU is distributed to data centres, members of the International Nuclear Data Committee, correspondents to the IAEA Nuclear Data Unit, and others who have expressed their interest. Entries which have been added or changed since the issue of CINDU-7 are marked with an asterisk following the entry date.

  9. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  10. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  11. Materiales. Numbers 17-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materiales, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2)…

  12. Index theory for locally compact noncommutative geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, A L; Rennie, A; Sukochev, F A

    2014-01-01

    Spectral triples for nonunital algebras model locally compact spaces in noncommutative geometry. In the present text, the authors prove the local index formula for spectral triples over nonunital algebras, without the assumption of local units in our algebra. This formula has been successfully used to calculate index pairings in numerous noncommutative examples. The absence of any other effective method of investigating index problems in geometries that are genuinely noncommutative, particularly in the nonunital situation, was a primary motivation for this study and the authors illustrate this point with two examples in the text. In order to understand what is new in their approach in the commutative setting the authors prove an analogue of the Gromov-Lawson relative index formula (for Dirac type operators) for even dimensional manifolds with bounded geometry, without invoking compact supports. For odd dimensional manifolds their index formula appears to be completely new.

  13. Technical evaluation report on the Third 10-year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan: Florida Power and Light Company, Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4 (Docket Numbers 50-250 and 50-251)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Feige, E.J.; Galbraith, S.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of the Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4, Third 10-Year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan, Revision 0, submitted September 9, 1993, including the requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, requirements that the licensee has determined to be impractical. The Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4, Third 10-Year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan is evaluated in Section 2 of this report. The inservice inspection (ISI) program plan is evaluated for (a) compliance with the appropriate edition/addenda of Section XI, (b) acceptability of the examination sample, (c) correctness of the application of system or component examination exclusion criteria, and (d) compliance with ISI-related commitments identified during previous Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews. The requests for relief are evaluated in Section 3 of this report

  14. Supplement: Commodity Index Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — Shows index traders in selected agricultural markets. These traders are drawn from the noncommercial and commercial categories. The noncommercial category includes...

  15. Indexing mergers and acquisitions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Jianhua; Guo, Jie (Michael); Hu, Nan; Li, Xi

    2017-01-01

    We measure the efficiency of mergers and acquisitions by putting forward an index (the ‘M&A Index’) based on stochastic frontier analysis. The M&A Index is calculated for each takeover deal and is standardized between 0 and 1. An acquisition with a higher index encompasses higher efficiency. We find that takeover bids with higher M&A Indices are more likely to succeed. Moreover, the M&A Index shows a strong and positive relation with the acquirers’ post-acquisition stock perfo...

  16. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  17. Rethinking image indexing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2017-01-01

    Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785......Hans Dam Christensen, ”Rethinking image indexing?”, in: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2017, 1782-1785...

  18. GRI Index 2017

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This World Bank GRI Index 2017 provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting, the GRI Standards: Core option (https://www.globalreporting.org). T...

  19. 2016 GRI Index

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 World Bank Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Index provides an overview of sustainability considerations within the World Bank’s lending and analytical services as well as its corporate activities. This index of sustainability indicators has been prepared in accordance with the internationally recognized standard for sustainability reporting GRI guidelines (https://www.globalrepo...

  20. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  1. EJSCREEN Supplementary Indexes 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 40 supplementary EJSCREEN indexes that are divided into 5 categories: EJ Index with supplementary demographic index, Supplementary EJ Index 1 with...

  2. Matching soil grid unit resolutions with polygon unit scales for DNDC modelling of regional SOC pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. D.; Yu, D. S.; Ni, Y. L.; Zhang, L. M.; Shi, X. Z.

    2015-03-01

    Matching soil grid unit resolution with polygon unit map scale is important to minimize uncertainty of regional soil organic carbon (SOC) pool simulation as their strong influences on the uncertainty. A series of soil grid units at varying cell sizes were derived from soil polygon units at the six map scales of 1:50 000 (C5), 1:200 000 (D2), 1:500 000 (P5), 1:1 000 000 (N1), 1:4 000 000 (N4) and 1:14 000 000 (N14), respectively, in the Tai lake region of China. Both format soil units were used for regional SOC pool simulation with DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) process-based model, which runs span the time period 1982 to 2000 at the six map scales, respectively. Four indices, soil type number (STN) and area (AREA), average SOC density (ASOCD) and total SOC stocks (SOCS) of surface paddy soils simulated with the DNDC, were attributed from all these soil polygon and grid units, respectively. Subjecting to the four index values (IV) from the parent polygon units, the variation of an index value (VIV, %) from the grid units was used to assess its dataset accuracy and redundancy, which reflects uncertainty in the simulation of SOC. Optimal soil grid unit resolutions were generated and suggested for the DNDC simulation of regional SOC pool, matching with soil polygon units map scales, respectively. With the optimal raster resolution the soil grid units dataset can hold the same accuracy as its parent polygon units dataset without any redundancy, when VIV indices was assumed as criteria to the assessment. An quadratic curve regression model y = -8.0 × 10-6x2 + 0.228x + 0.211 (R2 = 0.9994, p < 0.05) was revealed, which describes the relationship between optimal soil grid unit resolution (y, km) and soil polygon unit map scale (1:x). The knowledge may serve for grid partitioning of regions focused on the investigation and simulation of SOC pool dynamics at certain map scale.

  3. Complexity index indicates refinery capability, value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, D.

    1996-01-01

    Refinery size usually is measured in terms of distillation capacity. Relative size, however, can be measured using refinery complexity--a concept developed by W.L. Nelson in the 1960s. Nelson developed the complexity index to quantify the relative cost of components that make up a refinery. It is a pure cost index that provides a relative measure of the construction costs of a particular refinery based on its crude and upgrading capacity. The Nelson index compares the costs of various upgrading units--such as a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit or a catalytic reformer--to the cost of a crude distillation unit. Computation of the index is an attempt to quantify the relative cost of a refinery based on the added cost of various upgrading units and the relative upgrading capacity. A review of complexity calculations, and an explanation of how indices have changed, provide a simple means of determining the complexity of single refineries or refining regions. The impact of complexity on product slate is also examined in this paper

  4. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Index of tariffs. 341.9... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.9 Index of tariffs. (a) In general. Each carrier must publish as a separate tariff publication under its FERC Tariff numbering system, a complete index...

  5. Comparison of a Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (VNTR) Method for Typing Mycobacterium avium with Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit-VNTR and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Takayuki; Nishimori, Kei; Yagi, Tetsuya; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Moriyama, Makoto; Nakagawa, Taku; Shibayama, Takami; Uchiya, Kei-ichi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Ogawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections are increasing annually in various countries, including Japan, but the route of transmission and pathophysiology of the infection remain unclear. Currently, a variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing method using the Mycobacterium avium tandem repeat (MATR) loci (MATR-VNTR) is employed in Japan for epidemiological studies using clinical isolates of M. avium. In this study, the usefulness of this MATR-VNTR typing method was compared with that of ...

  6. Remote determination of the velocity index and mean streamwise velocity profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. D.; Cowen, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    When determining volumetric discharge from surface measurements of currents in a river or open channel, the velocity index is typically used to convert surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities. The velocity index is given by, k=Ub/Usurf, where Ub is the depth-averaged velocity and Usurf is the local surface velocity. The USGS (United States Geological Survey) standard value for this coefficient, k = 0.85, was determined from a series of laboratory experiments and has been widely used in the field and in laboratory measurements of volumetric discharge despite evidence that the velocity index is site-specific. Numerous studies have documented that the velocity index varies with Reynolds number, flow depth, and relative bed roughness and with the presence of secondary flows. A remote method of determining depth-averaged velocity and hence the velocity index is developed here. The technique leverages the findings of Johnson and Cowen (2017) and permits remote determination of the velocity power-law exponent thereby, enabling remote prediction of the vertical structure of the mean streamwise velocity, the depth-averaged velocity, and the velocity index.

  7. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  8. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  9. On-demand rather than daily-routine chest radiography prescription may change neither the number nor the impact of chest computed tomography and ultrasound studies in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröner, Anke; Binnekade, Jan M; Graat, Marleen E; Vroom, Margreeth B; Stoker, Jaap; Spronk, Peter E; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-01-01

    Elimination of daily-routine chest radiographs (CXRs) may influence chest computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound practice in critically ill patients. This was a retrospective cohort study including all patients admitted to a university-affiliated intensive care unit during two consecutive periods of 5 months, one before and one after elimination of daily-routine CXR. Chest CT and ultrasound studies were identified retrospectively by using the radiology department information system. Indications for and the diagnostic/therapeutic yield of chest CT and ultrasound studies were collected. Elimination of daily-routine CXR resulted in a decrease of CXRs per patient day from 1.1 +/- 0.3 to 0.6 +/- 0.4 (P chest CT studies nor the ratio of chest CT studies per patient day changed with the intervention: Before elimination of daily-routine CXR, 52 chest CT studies were obtained from 747 patients; after elimination, 54 CT studies were obtained from 743 patients. Similarly, chest ultrasound practice was not affected by the change of CXR strategy: Before and after elimination, 21 and 27 chest ultrasound studies were performed, respectively. Also, timing of chest CT and ultrasound studies was not different between the two study periods. During the two periods, 40 of 106 chest CT studies (38%) and 18 of 48 chest ultrasound studies (38%) resulted in a change in therapy. The combined therapeutic yield of chest CT and ultrasound studies did not change with elimination of daily-routine CXR. Elimination of daily-routine CXRs may not affect chest CT and ultrasound practice in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.

  10. A new supersymmetric index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Fendley, P.; Intriligator, K.; Vafa, C.

    1992-01-01

    We show that Tr(-1) F F e -βH is an index for N = 2 supersymmetric theories in two dimensions, in the sense that it is independent of almost all deformations of the theory. This index is related to the geometry of the vacua (Berry's curvature) and satisfies an exact differential equation as a function of β. For integrable theories we can also compute the index thermodynamically, using the exact S-matrix. The equivalence of these two results implies a highly non-trivial equivalence of a set of coupled integral equations with these differential equations, among them Painleve III and the affine Toda equations. (orig.)

  11. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, January--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This report indexes the issuances heard and ruled upon from January through June 1997. Issuances are from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Information provided for each case includes the case name, full test reference, issuance number, issues raised by appellants, legal citations, facility name and docket number, subject matter of issues and/or rulings, type of hearing, and type of issuance. Each issuance is displayed in one or more of five separate formats: (1) case name index, (2) headers and digests, (3) legal citations index, (4) subject index, and (5) facility index.

  12. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, January--June 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report indexes the issuances heard and ruled upon from January through June 1997. Issuances are from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors' Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Information provided for each case includes the case name, full test reference, issuance number, issues raised by appellants, legal citations, facility name and docket number, subject matter of issues and/or rulings, type of hearing, and type of issuance. Each issuance is displayed in one or more of five separate formats: (1) case name index, (2) headers and digests, (3) legal citations index, (4) subject index, and (5) facility index

  13. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, James S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Divisibility. Linear Diophantine Equations. Unique Factorization. Applications of Unique Factorization. Congruences. Fermat, Euler, Wilson. Cryptographic Applications. Order and Primitive Roots. More Cryptographic Applications. Quadratic Reciprocity. Primality and Factorization. Sums of Squares. Arithmetic Functions. Continued Fractions. Recent Developments. Appendices. Index.

  14. Lack of support for a role of the insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats minisatellite (INS-VNTR) locus in fetal growth or type 2 diabetes-related intermediate traits in United Kingdom populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon M S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Knight, Beatrice; Turner, Tina; Metcalf, Bradley S; Voss, Linda D; Davies, David; McCarthy, Anne; Wilkin, Terence J; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Frayling, Timothy M

    2004-01-01

    The insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats minisatellite (INS-VNTR) class III allele is associated with altered fetal growth, type 2 diabetes risk (especially when paternally inherited), and insulin and IGF2 gene expression. Further studies are needed to establish the role of the INS-VNTR in fetal growth and assess whether its effects depend on the parent of origin. We analyzed the INS-VNTR-linked -23 Hph1 polymorphism in 2283 subjects, comprising 1184 children and 1099 parents. There were no differences (P VNTR was nominally associated (P VNTR in fetal growth and nominal association with type 2 diabetes-related intermediate traits.

  15. All-solid tellurite optical fiber with transversely disordered refractive index profile and its optical image transport performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hoang Tuan; Kuroyanagi, Shunei; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2018-02-01

    All-solid tellurite-glass optical rod and fiber with transversely-disordered refractive index profile were successfully fabricated to study the transport of infrared images by using transverse localization of light. The fabrication was carried out by using stack-and-draw and rod-in-tube techniques. The fabricated tellurite optical rod and fiber were composed of high-index and low-index units which were arranged randomly in the transverse plane but were invariant in the longitudinal direction. The diameter of each unit was approximately 1.0 μm. The high-index and low-index materials were TeO2-Li2O-WO3-MoO3-Nb2O5 (TLWMN) glass and TeO2-ZnO-Na2O-La2O3 (TZNL) glass, respectively. At 1550 nm, their refractive index difference Δn is 0.096. To investigate the optical image transport capability, A CW laser light at 1550 nm was used as an input probe beam and the 1951 U.S. Air Force test target was installed in front of 10-cm-long segments of the fabricated rod and fiber in the experimental setup. The output signal was recorded by a beam profiler. As a result, clear transported images of numbers and lines on the test target were obtained.

  16. A possible dose-response association between distance to farmers' markets and roadside produce stands, frequency of shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index among customers in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Hinkley, Jedediah; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Lyonnais, Mary Jane; Rafferty, Ann P; Whitt, Olivia R; Winterbauer, Nancy; Phillips, Lisa

    2017-01-11

    The association between farmers' market characteristics and consumer shopping habits remains unclear. Our objective was to examine associations among distance to farmers' markets, amenities within farmers' markets, frequency of farmers' market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that the relationship between frequency of farmers' market shopping and BMI would be mediated by fruit and vegetable consumption. In 15 farmers' markets in northeastern North Carolina, July-September 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 263 farmers' market customers (199 provided complete address data) and conducted farmers' market audits. To participate, customers had to be over 18 years of age, and English speaking. Dependent variables included farmers' market shopping frequency, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Analysis of variance, adjusted multinomial logistic regression, Poisson regression, and linear regression models, adjusted for age, race, sex, and education, were used to examine associations between distance to farmers' markets, amenities within farmers' markets, frequency of farmers' market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Those who reported shopping at farmers' markets a few times per year or less reported consuming 4.4 (standard deviation = 1.7) daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and those who reported shopping 2 or more times per week reported consuming 5.5 (2.2) daily servings. There was no association between farmers' market amenities, and shopping frequency or fruit and vegetable consumption. Those who shopped 2 or more times per week had a statistically significantly lower BMI than those who shopped less frequently. There was no evidence of mediation of the relationship between frequency of shopping and BMI by fruit and vegetable consumption. More work should be done to understand factors within farmers' markets that encourage fruit and vegetable purchases.

  17. A possible dose–response association between distance to farmers’ markets and roadside produce stands, frequency of shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index among customers in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie B. Jilcott Pitts

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between farmers’ market characteristics and consumer shopping habits remains unclear. Our objective was to examine associations among distance to farmers’ markets, amenities within farmers’ markets, frequency of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index (BMI. We hypothesized that the relationship between frequency of farmers’ market shopping and BMI would be mediated by fruit and vegetable consumption. Methods In 15 farmers’ markets in northeastern North Carolina, July–September 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 263 farmers’ market customers (199 provided complete address data and conducted farmers’ market audits. To participate, customers had to be over 18 years of age, and English speaking. Dependent variables included farmers’ market shopping frequency, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Analysis of variance, adjusted multinomial logistic regression, Poisson regression, and linear regression models, adjusted for age, race, sex, and education, were used to examine associations between distance to farmers’ markets, amenities within farmers’ markets, frequency of farmers’ market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Results Those who reported shopping at farmers’ markets a few times per year or less reported consuming 4.4 (standard deviation = 1.7 daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and those who reported shopping 2 or more times per week reported consuming 5.5 (2.2 daily servings. There was no association between farmers’ market amenities, and shopping frequency or fruit and vegetable consumption. Those who shopped 2 or more times per week had a statistically significantly lower BMI than those who shopped less frequently. There was no evidence of mediation of the relationship between frequency of shopping and BMI by fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusions More work should be done to understand

  18. Indexes to Volume 75

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUBJECT INDEX. Mathematical .... A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ... Indigenous development of a 2 kW RF-excited fast axial flow CO2 .... Polarized spectral features of human breast tissues through wavelet.

  19. Glycemic index and diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Most snack foods Potatoes White rice Watermelon Meal Planning with the Glycemic Index When planning your meals: ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  20. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 1034 ... Vol 49, No 2 (2007), African Index Medicus: Improving access to African ... insulin therapy initiation among patients with type 2 diabetes attending a ... Risk Factors Implicated in Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), Abstract PDF.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 194 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 14, No 1 (2000), A functional categoriality of adjectives in ... Vol 1, No 1 (1987), Alienation and affirmation: The humanistic vision of Bessie Head, Abstract PDF.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index ... in a USA school setting: Merging transition theory with a narrative approach, Abstract ... Citation analysis of theses and dissertations submitted at the ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 879 ... South African Journal of Higher Education. ... Browse Title Index .... The challenge of thesis supervision in an art university, Abstract ... No 2 (2004), Robert Sternberg's mental self-government theory and its contribution to ...

  5. Palmer Drought Severity Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PDSI from the Dai dataset. The Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) is devised by Palmer (1965) to represent the severity of dry and wet spells over the U.S. based...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 346 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and hygiene promotion services in Rungwe district, Tanzania, Abstract .... as seen in NIgerian teaching hospital: pattern and a simple classification, Abstract.

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 437 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... prospects and realistic strategies to its implementation in Nigeria\\'s Institute of ... and Communication Technology (ICT) in information dissemination, Abstract.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 901 - 950 of 1355 ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Vol 22, No 2 (2018), Performance evaluation of a locally fabricated sawdust fired oven for ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 788 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 26, No 1 (2018), Gender differentials in the perception of .... Vol 25, No 1 (2017), Impact of total quality management on students' academic performance in ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 465 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... and twinning data of an igbo kindred during the Nigerian Civil War, Abstract ... on laboratory estimations with special reference to clinical chemistry, Abstract.

  11. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 1260 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Consumption of ammonia-nitrogen by aob in immobilized batch culture, Abstract PDF .... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, Design an automatic temperature ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 294 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or .... S Edwards, M Hlongwane, J Thwala, N Robinson ... Vol 16, No 1 (2017), Infancy of internet cafe: The substitute of ubuntu-padare pedagogy, Abstract.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 130 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... using the technological pedagogical content knowledge(TPACK) framework, Abstract PDF ... Tamara N. Hrin, Dušica D. Milenković, Mirjana D. Segedinac.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 278 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... drie paradigmas beskou: 'n eenheid, of 'n veelheid van perspektiewe? ... Vol 45, No 1 (2011), Genre pedagogy in the mediation of socially-situated literacies ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 551 - 600 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... A James, E Ralfe, L van Laren, N Ngcobo ... 1 (2011), Recognition of prior learning in promoting lifelong learning: A pedagogy of hope or a shattering of dreams?

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 533 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... for past tense forms in Northern Sotho: verb stems with final 'm' and 'n', Abstract ... in an academic writing class: Implications for a dialogic pedagogy, Abstract.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 183 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 61 (2017), New interventions and sustainable solutions: .... Vol 35 (2011), Resurgence of tribal levies: Double taxation for the rural poor, Abstract PDF.

  19. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 736 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 5 (2008), A Contagious Malady: The Human Quest for Truth through Religion, Abstract ... A Study of Politeness Strategies Used by the National University of ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 414 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... of an algebraic function for the permutation of truth table columns, Abstract ... appraisal and productivity levels in selected Nigerian universities, Abstract.

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 879 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 4 (2006), Assessing academic potential for university admission: ... Vol 16, No 2 (2002), Book Review: Rethinking truth by Higgs, P & Smith, J, Details.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 165 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 43 (2011), Assessment of the Learning Commons takeoff at the University of ... the archive of South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Abstract.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 644 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Ethics review n international health research: quality assurance or bureaucratic nightmare? Details ... Audit of Management of Open Fractures, Details PDF.

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 449 ... Vol 1, No 3 (2012), Adult Functional Literacy Curriculum: Effective Strategy for Human ... and Exchange Rate Influence on the Nigerian Stock Market Index ... for the Stimulation and Attraction of Foreign Direct Investments ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 98 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... model for the continued professionalisation of student affairs in Africa, Abstract PDF ... Vol 2, No 2 (2014), Book Review: How College Affects Students, A Third decade ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 76 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 4, No 1 (2011), Automation of AutoCAD for Detailing of Reinforced .... Vol 10, No 1 (2017), Housing data base for sustainable housing provision, Abstract PDF.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 147 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index .... Library (TEEAL) Database among faculty members in Federal University, ... Vol 5, No 2 (2014), Effects of corporate culture on the implementation of automation in ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 851 - 900 of 1255 ... Vol 16, No 4 (2010), Origin and generation mechanisms of ... Vol 13, No 4 (2007), Osmotic fragility index of HBAA red blood cells in the presence of ... (2004), Photovoltaic cells, efficiency and optimization, Abstract PDF.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 985 ... Vol 17 (2010), Flood Frequency Analysis of Ikpoba River ... and the corresponding Refractive Index in Uniaxial Crystals, Abstract ... Vol 8 (2004), Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves, Abstract.

  11. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 531 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... thermal conductivity and viscosity in a flat plate solar collector, Abstract PDF .... similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer on the body ...

  13. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  14. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  15. Lattice Index Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Lakshmi; Hong, Yi; Viterbo, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    The index coding problem involves a sender with K messages to be transmitted across a broadcast channel, and a set of receivers each of which demands a subset of the K messages while having prior knowledge of a different subset as side information. We consider the specific case of noisy index coding where the broadcast channel is Gaussian and every receiver demands all the messages from the source. Instances of this communication problem arise in wireless relay networks, sensor networks, and ...

  16. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Hill numbers unify biodiversity metrics by combining several into one expression. For example, species richness, Shannon's diversity index and the Gini–Simpson index are a few of the most used diversity measures, and they can be expressed as Hill numbers. Traditionally, Hill numbers have been calculated from relative abundance data, but the expression has been modified to use incidence data as well. We demonstrate an approach for estimating Hill numbers using an occupancy modelling framework that accounts for imperfect detection.

  17. 2d index and surface operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadde, Abhijit; Gukov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute the superconformal index of 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories. The 2d superconformal index, a.k.a. flavored elliptic genus, is computed by a unitary matrix integral much like the matrix integral that computes the 4d superconformal index. We compute the 2d index explicitly for a number of examples. In the case of abelian gauge theories we see that the index is invariant under flop transition and under CY-LG correspondence. The index also provides a powerful check of the Seiberg-type duality for non-abelian gauge theories discovered by Hori and Tong. In the later half of the paper, we study half-BPS surface operators in N=2 superconformal gauge theories. They are engineered by coupling the 2d (2,2) supersymmetric gauge theory living on the support of the surface operator to the 4d N=2 theory, so that different realizations of the same surface operator with a given Levi type are related by a 2d analogue of the Seiberg duality. The index of this coupled system is computed by using the tools developed in the first half of the paper. The superconformal index in the presence of surface defect is expected to be invariant under generalized S-duality. We demonstrate that it is indeed the case. In doing so the Seiberg-type duality of the 2d theory plays an important role

  18. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority. Supplement number 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), Supplement No. 16 (September 1995), Supplement No. 17 (October 1995), Supplement No. 18 (October 1995), and Supplement No. 19 (November 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the issues identified in the SER

  19. On Merrifield-Simmons index of molecular graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutman Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Merrifield-Simmons index σ = σ(G of a graph G is the number of independent vertex sets of G. This index can be calculated recursively and expressed in terms of Fibonacci numbers. We determine the molecular graphs for which σ can be recursively calculated in a single step.

  20. An index of financial safety of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Jia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper combines a synthetic index system by the variables and evaluates China’s financial safety through the change of indexes in a comprehensive way. First of all, it builds the financial industry evaluation index system composed of 25indicators in terms of the operation of the financial industry and external economic environment and particularly takes into consideration factors which might trigger liquidity risks such as off-balance-sheet business, interbank business and shadow banking; then it selects 10 indicators to conduct empirical analysis and identifies the indicator weight through principal component analysis; finally it combines the financial safety indexes through the linear weighted comprehensive evaluation model.Design/methodology/approach: Synthesis of indexes is made by constructing a proper comprehensive evaluation mathematical model, integrating a number of evaluation indexes into one comprehensive evaluation index and then obtaining corresponding comprehensive evaluation results. In this paper, it selects 10 indexes to conduct empirical analysis and identifies the index weight through principal component analysis; finally it combines the financial safety indexes through the linear weighted comprehensive evaluation model. Principal component analysis (PCA is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components. PCA was invented in 1901 and was later independently developed (and named by Harold Hotelling in the 1930s.Findings: From 2003 to 2013 China’s financial safety indexes fluctuated. From 2003 to 2007 indexes rose, which indicates China’s financial safety status gradually improved; from 2007 to 2009 indexes declined, which indicates due to the impact of subprime crisis, China’s financial safety status took a turn for the worse; from 2009 to 2012

  1. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  2. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  3. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC's NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency's statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE's environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS

  4. Development of a water quality index based on a European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-24

    Aug 24, 2006 ... The mathematical equations to transform the actual concentration values ... The application of the new index was demonstrated at a sampling station on ..... Descriptive statistics of reservoir water quality data set. Variable. Unit.

  5. List of U.S. Army Research Institute Research and Technical Publications for Public Release/Unlimited Distribution. Fiscal Year 2007 (October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index United States Army Research Institute for...Fiscal Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index CONTENTS Page Introduction...39 Author Index .................................................................................................................. 39

  6. INDEXING OF MAPING SCIENCE JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Stojanovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bibliometric analyses based on citations are most often at the forefront where scientific publications are concerned. A fact often neglected is that the visibility and availability of scientific publications are basic prerequisites for future reading, citation and influence. Journal visibility can be significantly improved by providing open access and availability through popular online databases. In this study, we investigated 112 mapping science journals to determine the visibility of scientific publications in a smaller interdisciplinary field. In addition to other data, we collected data on open access, indexing, subject areas within the Web of Science and Scopus bibliographic databases and the number of journals in these databases. The coverage of mapping science journals in 14 bibliographic databases was analyzed. Only 11% of the titles from the journals analyzed were indexed in 10 or more databases. Google Scholar, Scopus, Bibliotheca Cartographica and GEOBASE include most mapping science journals, while only 19 are included in Web of Science. A comparison indicates more thorough coverage of an individual journal in Web of Science than in Scopus. Only a few mapping science journals appear in the Directory of Open Access Journals, despite the large number of open access mapping science journals available. Adding subject categories within databases does not facilitate finding mapping science journals, which are dispersed among numerous, mostly inadequate categories in the Web of Science and Scopus databases.

  7. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    without loss of any generality to be the first k primes), then the equation a + b = c has .... This is an elementary exercise in partial summation (see [12]). Thus ... This is easily done by inserting a stronger form of the prime number theorem into the.

  8. Florida sinkhole index

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Steven; Lane, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    The following data were compiled from the Florida Sinkhole Research Institute data base. That database, which contains approximately 1900 sinkholes, is available from the Florida Geological Survey upon request. The data are arranged alphabetically by county. The first two digits of the identification number represents the county. These numbers correspond to the Florida Department of Transportation county numbering system. Following the county number are three numbers which represe...

  9. A simple centrality index for scientific social recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Osame; Soares, Leonardo D. H.; Cardoso, George C.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new centrality index for bipartite networks of papers and authors that we call K-index. The K-index grows with the citation performance of the papers that cite a given researcher and can be seen as a measure of scientific social recognition. Indeed, the K-index measures the number of hubs, defined in a self-consistent way in the bipartite network, that cites a given author. We show that the K-index can be computed by simple inspection of the Web of Science platform and presents several advantages over other centrality indexes, in particular Hirsch h-index. The K-index is robust to self-citations, is not limited by the total number of papers published by a researcher as occurs for the h-index and can distinguish in a consistent way researchers that have the same h-index but very different scientific social recognition. The K-index easily detects a known case of a researcher with inflated number of papers, citations and h-index due to scientific misconduct. Finally, we show that, in a sample of twenty-eight physics Nobel laureates and twenty-eight highly cited non-Nobel-laureate physicists, the K-index correlates better to the achievement of the prize than the number of papers, citations, citations per paper, citing articles or the h-index. Clustering researchers in a K versus h plot reveals interesting outliers that suggest that these two indexes can present complementary independent information.

  10. Predicted impact and evaluation of North Carolina's phosphorus indexing tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy M; Osmond, Deanna L; Hodges, Steven C

    2005-01-01

    Increased concern about potential losses of phosphorus (P) from agricultural fields receiving animal waste has resulted in the implementation of new state and federal regulations related to nutrient management. In response to strengthened nutrient management standards that require consideration of P, North Carolina has developed a site-specific P indexing system called the Phosphorus Loss Assessment Tool (PLAT) to predict relative amounts of potential P loss from agricultural fields. The purpose of this study was to apply the PLAT index on farms throughout North Carolina in an attempt to predict the percentage and types of farms that will be forced to change management practices due to implementation of new regulations. Sites from all 100 counties were sampled, with the number of samples taken from each county depending on the proportion of the state's agricultural land that occurs in that county. Results showed that approximately 8% of producers in the state will be required to apply animal waste or inorganic fertilizer on a P rather than nitrogen basis, with the percentage increasing for farmers who apply animal waste (approximately 27%). The PLAT index predicted the greatest amounts of P loss from sites in the Coastal Plain region of North Carolina and from sites receiving poultry waste. Loss of dissolved P through surface runoff tended to be greater than other loss pathways and presents an area of concern as no best management practices (BMPs) currently exist for the reduction of in-field dissolved P. The PLAT index predicted the areas in the state that are known to be disproportionately vulnerable to P loss due to histories of high P applications, high densities of animal units, or soil type and landscapes that are most susceptible to P loss.

  11. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4vz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7% participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been

  12. Climate risk index for Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Torresan, Silvia; Bosello, Francesco; Mistry, Malcolm; Amadio, Mattia; Marzi, Sepehr; Furlan, Elisa; Sperotto, Anna

    2018-06-01

    We describe a climate risk index that has been developed to inform national climate adaptation planning in Italy and that is further elaborated in this paper. The index supports national authorities in designing adaptation policies and plans, guides the initial problem formulation phase, and identifies administrative areas with higher propensity to being adversely affected by climate change. The index combines (i) climate change-amplified hazards; (ii) high-resolution indicators of exposure of chosen economic, social, natural and built- or manufactured capital (MC) assets and (iii) vulnerability, which comprises both present sensitivity to climate-induced hazards and adaptive capacity. We use standardized anomalies of selected extreme climate indices derived from high-resolution regional climate model simulations of the EURO-CORDEX initiative as proxies of climate change-altered weather and climate-related hazards. The exposure and sensitivity assessment is based on indicators of manufactured, natural, social and economic capital assets exposed to and adversely affected by climate-related hazards. The MC refers to material goods or fixed assets which support the production process (e.g. industrial machines and buildings); Natural Capital comprises natural resources and processes (renewable and non-renewable) producing goods and services for well-being; Social Capital (SC) addressed factors at the individual (people's health, knowledge, skills) and collective (institutional) level (e.g. families, communities, organizations and schools); and Economic Capital (EC) includes owned and traded goods and services. The results of the climate risk analysis are used to rank the subnational administrative and statistical units according to the climate risk challenges, and possibly for financial resource allocation for climate adaptation. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 336 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2016), A 3-year survey of acute poisoning exposures in ... sound sources and noise levels in neonatal intensive care units, Abstract PDF ... in children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit of Charlotte ...

  14. Sustainability index for Taipei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Huang Chingming

    2007-01-01

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years

  15. Indexing amyloid peptide diffraction from serial femtosecond crystallography: new algorithms for sparse patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, Aaron S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sawaya, Michael R. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McFarlane, Heather T. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Cascio, Duilio [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenberg, David S. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Sauter, Nicholas K., E-mail: nksauter@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Special methods are required to interpret sparse diffraction patterns collected from peptide crystals at X-ray free-electron lasers. Bragg spots can be indexed from composite-image powder rings, with crystal orientations then deduced from a very limited number of spot positions. Still diffraction patterns from peptide nanocrystals with small unit cells are challenging to index using conventional methods owing to the limited number of spots and the lack of crystal orientation information for individual images. New indexing algorithms have been developed as part of the Computational Crystallography Toolbox (cctbx) to overcome these challenges. Accurate unit-cell information derived from an aggregate data set from thousands of diffraction patterns can be used to determine a crystal orientation matrix for individual images with as few as five reflections. These algorithms are potentially applicable not only to amyloid peptides but also to any set of diffraction patterns with sparse properties, such as low-resolution virus structures or high-throughput screening of still images captured by raster-scanning at synchrotron sources. As a proof of concept for this technique, successful integration of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to 2.5 Å resolution for the amyloid segment GNNQQNY from the Sup35 yeast prion is presented.

  16. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  17. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  18. The Cognitive Mobilization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how the cognitive mobilization index, designed for use in observing potential political participation, can be used as an indicator of the political climate that a particular society is going through. Following a discussion of the theoretical elaborations (and their working definitions of the concept of cognitive mobilization, a longitudinal study of various European countries is used to consider the question of how political crises influence cognitive mobilization indexes and what effects they have on the political socialization process among the youngest cohorts.

  19. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We now apply the theory of the Thue equation to obtain an effective bound on m. Indeed, by Lemma 3.2, we can write m2 = ba3 and m2 − 4 = cd3 with b, c cubefree. By the above, both b, c are bounded since they are cubefree and all their prime factors are less than e63727. Now we have a finite number of. Thue equations:.

  20. What's Wrong with the Global Slavery Index?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Gallagher

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Slavery Index (GSI, which has been produced by the Walk Free Foundation in 2013, 2014 and 2016, seeks to calculate the number of victims of human trafficking (or ‘modern slavery’ in each country and to assess and rank government responses. Using the latest iteration of the Index, this article examines each of the three elements (vulnerability measurement; prevalence measurement and response measurement, making some preliminary findings about the quality of the methodology and its application under each heading. It concludes with a consideration of two broader issues: (i the conspicuous lack of critical engagement with the Index; and (ii what the Index reveals about the changing face of anti-trafficking/anti-slavery work—most particularly, the growing involvement of metrics-focused strategic philanthropy in defining the ‘problem’ and directing responses.

  1. Number projection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    1987-01-01

    A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states

  2. Numbers and brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-12-01

    The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.

  3. 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 146 countries. The index...

  4. Number in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role...

  5. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  6. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 391 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Efficacy of four Rodenticides on the Ghanaian Market, Abstract ... Vol 2, No 1 (2000):, Determination of some wear elements in used car engine oil and oil filter ...

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 46 of 46 ... Vol 4, No 1 (2015), Fiscal Federalism and Development In Nigeria, Abstract. Dorcas Akhere Odigwe, Stanley Aibieyi. Vol 1, No 1 (2011), Good Governance Analysing Performance of Economic Community of West African States and Southern African Development Community Members on Mo Ibrahim Index ...

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 73 of 73 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13 (2006), The ageing eye” functional changes from cradle to gray: A ... Vol 12 (2005), The evaluation of vision in children using monocular vision acuity and ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 224 of 224 ... Vol 13, No 2 (2010), Spatial Analysis of Particle Size Distribution of Soils Formed on ... swelling index and moisture content of white and yellow garri in ... and Composition of Milk of West African Dwarf (Wad) Sheep Fed ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 229 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title. Vol 14, No 2 ... Vol 15, No 1 (2017), Qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2013), Simple Algorithm in the Management of Fetal ...

  12. Nitrate leaching index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nitrate Leaching Index is a rapid assessment tool that evaluates nitrate (NO3) leaching potential based on basic soil and climate information. It is the basis for many nutrient management planning efforts, but it has considerable limitations because of : 1) an oversimplification of the processes...

  13. Data Citation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Pavlech

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduced by Thomson Reuters in 2012 as a, ‘‘Single point of access to quality research data from repositories across disciplines and around the world’’ [1], the Data Citation Index (DCI is a searchable collection of data sets and data studies from a select list of repositories.

  14. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1215 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or ... Vol 12, No 1 (2018), Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance of students in universities in Nigeria: Edo State as a focal point, Abstract PDF ... Vol 6, No 1 (2012), Appraisal as a Determinant for Adequate ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weighted Index of Biotic Integrity (SIBI) for use in the assessment of biotic integrity in the Klip River, Gauteng, South Africa, Abstract. P J Kotze, G J Steyn, H H du Preez, C J Kleynhans. Vol 40, No 4 (2015), Diatoms as water ...

  17. Indexes to Volume 77

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: Anurag Srivastava, C. S. Praveen, H. S. Tewari. © 2015 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru. Contact | Site index.

  18. A Tourism Conditions Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper uses monthly data from April 2005 to August 2013 for Taiwan to propose a novel tourism indicator, namely the Tourism Conditions Index (TCI). TCI accounts for the spillover weights based on the Granger causality test and estimates of the multivariate BEKK

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 652 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 18, No 7 (2015), Introduction to virtual property: Lex virtualis ipsa ... Vol 17, No 1 (2014), Legal challenges relating to the commercial use of outer space, with ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 100 ... Vol 5, No 1 (2010), A simple note on some empirical stochastic process ... poverty index with when the parameter is strictly between 0 and 1, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 2 (2015), Bilinear regression model with Kronecker and ...

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 501 - 550 of 913 ... Vol 10, No 1 (2018), Modeling and comparison of IP and fuzzy-pi ... Modeling the potential impacts of global climate change in Bangladesh: An optimal ... Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue, New flood risk index in tropical ...

  2. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 846 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue, The effect of torrefaction on oil palm ... core competency skills of IRBM tax auditors towards their performance, Abstract PDF ... of exchange rates behavior in Malaysia by using NATREX model, Abstract PDF.

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 286 of 286 ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced ... the Hire Purchase and credit sale Act - An unnecessary duplication ? ... Vol 21 (2015), The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour, Abstract PDF ... quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1463 ... Vol 14, No 4 (2014), Association between mean platelet volume levels and inflammation in SLE patients presented with arthritis, Abstract PDF ... Vol 10, No 3 (2010), Atherogenic index of plasma as useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract ...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1117 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007):, an edu-ethical perspecitve on the nature of truth: case studies in elite ... 2009: September: Supplement, An empirical study of university ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 788 ... Browse Title Index ... Issue, Title ... Vol 14, No 1 (2006), Social science research: a critique of quantitative and qualitative methods ... Vol 18, No 1 (2010), Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 1732 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 10, No 3 (2007), An Audit Of Perioperative Cardiac Arrest At ... Vol 11, No 4 (2008), An Audit Of Rejected Repeated X-ray Films As A Quality Assurance ...

  8. The Index House

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Radon Research and Demonstration Project. The project involved the monitoring of the Index House for indoor radon, and was one of the earliest programs involving indoor radon contamination. The history of the house, the investigation, and testing and remediation procedures are discussed

  9. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 823 ... Vol 9, No 2 (2016), Evaluation of antiulcer activity of aqueous ... and Practices About Tsetse Fly in Muri District, Taraba State, Nigeria ... Vol 10, No 1 (2017): Special Conference Edition, Evaluation of heavy metals' health risk index in ... of phytoplankton as bioindicators of water quality in Jakara dam, ...

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 300 of 2005 ... Issue, Title. Vol 92, No 4 (2015), Blood Pressure and Obesity Index Assessment in a Typical Urban Slum in Enugu, Nigeria, Abstract. GI Ahaneku, CU Osuji, OC Oguejiofor, BC Anisiuba, VO Ikeh, JE Ahaneku. Vol 80, No 10 (2003):, Blood pressure control in a population where antihypertensives are ...

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 661 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. .... A El-Mahdy, B Bolduc, J Upadhyay, R Shoukr, A Khoury. Vol 19, No 1 (2013), Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, Abstract PDF.

  12. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 985 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 17 (2010), Alternating Direction Implicit Finite Difference Time Domain Acoustic Wave Algorithm, Abstract. E Ikata .... Vol 17 (2010), Analytic derivation of the wave profile and phase speed of sixth order Stokes waves in deep water, Abstract.

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 217 ... Browse Title Index. Journal Home > Advanced ... Vol 13, No 1 (2016), Access to specialized surgical care, Abstract PDF. H Saidi ... Vol 9, No 2 (2012), Clinical Assessment of the Palmaris Longus – Accuracy of common tests, Abstract PDF ... Vol 11, No 2 (2014), Clinical trials in Surgery, Abstract PDF.

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 97 of 97 ... Journal Home > Advanced Search > Browse Title Index ... Vol 20, No 2 (2008), Research Note: Anthropometric data of the foot of ... Vol 26, No 1 (2014), Validation of the Automation Attitude Questionnaire for Airline Pilots ...

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 351 - 400 of 400 ... Vol 2, No 1 (2007), The effects of Aloe vera [gel] on clotting time, prothrombin time and plasma fibrinogen concentration in albino Wistar rats, Abstract. D V Dapper, P N Achinike, M D Gwotmut. Vol 8, No 3 (2014), The effects of body mass index on some electrocardiographic parameters in young adults: ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 719 ... African Journal of Aquatic Science. ... Vol 32, No 2 (2007), Algal communities associated with aquatic macrophytes ... index to Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae) in the Vaal River system, South Africa, Abstract ... Vol 40, No 2 (2015), Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in mangroves and open ...

  17. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 148 ... Vol 12, No 1S (2018), Addition of anti-Toxoplasma gondii membrane immunoglobulin Y to reduce necrotic index in mice's liver, Abstract PDF. Heni Puspitasari, Lucia T. Suwanti, Mufasirin Mufasirin. Vol 6, No 2 (2012), Advances in the Diagnosis, Treatment and Control of HIV Associated Tuberculosis ...

  19. Drug Impact Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.

    The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…

  20. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  1. The 17 GHz active region number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  2. Hidden supersymmetry and Fermion number fractionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhoury, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how a hidden supersymmetry of the underlying field theories can be used to interpret and to calculate fermion number fractionalization in different dimensions. This is made possible by relating it to a corresponding Witten index of the hidden supersymmetry. The closely related anomalies in odd dimensions are also discussed

  3. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan

    2015-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  4. Asymptotic numbers: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    The set of asymptotic numbers A as a system of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R, as well as infinitely small (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers, is introduced. The detailed algebraic properties of A, which are unusual as compared with the known algebraic structures, are studied. It is proved that the set of asymptotic numbers A cannot be isomorphically embedded as a subspace in any group, ring or field, but some particular subsets of asymptotic numbers are shown to be groups, rings, and fields. The algebraic operation, additive and multiplicative forms, and the algebraic properties are constructed in an appropriate way. It is shown that the asymptotic numbers give rise to a new type of generalized functions quite analogous to the distributions of Schwartz allowing, however, the operation multiplication. A possible application of these functions to quantum theory is discussed

  5. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  6. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  7. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  8. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  9. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, international organization, and licensed facility

  10. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  11. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  12. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  13. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  14. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  15. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  16. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  17. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  18. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors, proceedings of conferences and workshops, grants, and international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  19. Regulatory and technical reports (abstract index journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  20. Regulatory and technical reports (Abstract Index Journal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This journal includes all formal reports in the NUREG series prepared by the NRC staff and contractors; proceedings of conferences and workshops; as well as international agreement reports. The entries in this compilation are indexed for access by title and abstract, secondary report number, personal author, subject, NRC organization for staff and international agreements, contractor, international organization, and licensed facility

  1. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 338 ... Child and adolescent cognitive behaviour therapy in South Africa: An .... discharged from two inpatient psychosocial rehabilitation units, Abstract ... case of high school students in the Cape Metropolitan Area, Cape Town, ...

  2. Browse Title Index - AJOL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 751 - 800 of 1272 ... ... for the simulation of unsteady flow in an open channel, Abstract PDF ... with small-scale reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and ion-exchange units ... on groundwater at Riverlands Nature Reserve (Western Cape, South ...

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , No 2 (2017), Environmental crisis and sustainable development in Zimbabwe: a social ... of Sudanese women in Iowa before and after migration to the United ... Vol 4, No 1 (2014), Rethinking poverty: The role of international ...

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 249 ... Appraisal of the Addis Ababa Peace and Security Cooperation Framework and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2098 for .... intervention: Evaluation of the African Union's right of intervention, Abstract PDF.

  5. Poverty Risk Index as A New Methodology for Social Inequality Distribution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiader, Małgorzata; Szewrański, Szymon; Kazak, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents new concept of poverty risk index measurement due to dynamics of urban development among years. The rapid urbanization could seriously surpass the capacity of the most cities, which may lead to insufficient services of their inhabitants. Consequence of this situation could be polarized, social differentiated cities with high rates of urban poverty. The measurement and analysis of urban poverty phenomenon requires the dedicated tools and techniques. The data based assessment could allow planners and public policy makers to develop more socially integrated cities. This paper presents analysis of urban poverty phenomenon in Wrocław city (Poland) during period 2010-2012. This analysis was conducted for ten Social Assistance Terrain Units (SATU) delineated at the city area. Our primary study objective concerns the proposal and calculation of poverty risk index based on diagnostic features, which represent the most common causes of social benefits granting, as: number of single households granted permanent benefits, number of people in families granted permanent benefits, number of people in families granted temporary benefits due to unemployment, number of people in families granted temporary benefits due to disability, number of people in families granted meals for children. The calculation was conducted by using the theory of development pattern - Hellwig’s economic development measure. The analysis of poverty risk index showed that commonly the central and south-eastern part of the city is characterized by the highest poverty risk index. The obtained results of the inequalities spatial distribution relate to European and American patterns of poverty concentration in urban structures.

  6. A Canadian Indian Health Status Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connop, P J

    1983-01-01

    Health care services for registered "band" Indians in Ontario are provided primarily by the Canadian Federal Government. Complex management methods preclude the direct involvement of Indian people in the decisions for their health resource allocation. Health indicators, need, and health status indexes are reviewed. The biostatistics of mortality and demography of the Indian and reference populations are aggregated with hospitalization/morbidity experience as the Chen G'1 Index, as an indicator of normative and comparative need. This is weighted by linear measurements of perceived need for preventive medicine programs, as ranked and scaled values of priorities, Zj. These were determined by community survey on 11 Indian reserves using a non-probabilistic psychometric method of "pair comparisons," based upon "Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgement.," The calculation of the aggregate single unit Indian Health Status Index [Log.G'1].Zj and its potential application in a "zero-base" budget is described.

  7. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  8. Defense Horizons. Number 79, April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...79, April 2015 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...aggression. Even more issues emerged following the downing of Malaysian Airlines Flight 17 over Ukraine in July 2014, and cross-border ar- tillery renewed

  9. Index to Research in Home Economics: 1972-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Nelma I.; Lefebvre, Verna M.

    This index lists 945 research articles from 4 English-language journals in the field of home economics: the "Canadian Home Economics Journal," volumes 23-30; the "Home Economics Research Journal" (United States), volumes 1-14; the "Journal of Consumer Studies and Home Economics" (United Kingdom), volumes 1-10; and the…

  10. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  11. Invitation to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    2017-01-01

    Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.

  12. Indexing for summary queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Ke; Wang, Lu; Wei, Zhewei

    2014-01-01

    ), of a particular attribute of these records. Aggregation queries are especially useful in business intelligence and data analysis applications where users are interested not in the actual records, but some statistics of them. They can also be executed much more efficiently than reporting queries, by embedding...... returned by reporting queries. In this article, we design indexing techniques that allow for extracting a statistical summary of all the records in the query. The summaries we support include frequent items, quantiles, and various sketches, all of which are of central importance in massive data analysis....... Our indexes require linear space and extract a summary with the optimal or near-optimal query cost. We illustrate the efficiency and usefulness of our designs through extensive experiments and a system demonstration....

  13. Conformity index: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuvret, Loic; Noel, Georges; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Bey, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the conformity indices described in the literature and an evaluation of their field of application. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, with or without intensity modulation, is based on medical imaging techniques, three-dimensional dosimetry software, compression accessories, and verification procedures. It consists of delineating target volumes and critical healthy tissues to select the best combination of beams. This approach allows better adaptation of the isodose to the tumor volume, while limiting irradiation of healthy tissues. Tools must be developed to evaluate the quality of proposed treatment plans. Dosimetry software provides the dose distribution in each CT section and dose-volume histograms without really indicating the degree of conformity. The conformity index is a complementary tool that attributes a score to a treatment plan or that can compare several treatment plans for the same patient. The future of conformal index in everyday practice therefore remains unclear

  14. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  15. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....

  16. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  17. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  18. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang, Abstract PDF. N Yaakub, M.N.A. Raoff, M.N. Haris, A.A.A. Halim, M.K.A. Kamarudin. Vol 9, No 2S (2017): Special Issue, Water quality index assesment around industrial area in Kuantan, Pahang, Abstract ...

  20. Gradient-Index Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 12-04-2011 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views, opinions...Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Imaging Optics, Nonimaging Optics, Gradient Index Optics, Camera, Concentrator...imaging and nonimaging design capabilities to incorporate manufacturable GRIN lenses can provide imaging lens systems that are compact and

  1. Index of cyber integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  2. The Harary index of a graph

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Kexiang; Trinajstić, Nenad

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to focus on the topological index, the Harary index, of a graph, including its mathematical properties, chemical applications and some related and attractive open problems. This book is dedicated to Professor Frank Harary (1921—2005), the grandmaster of graph theory and its applications. It has be written by experts in the field of graph theory and its applications. For a connected graph G, as an important distance-based topological index, the Harary index H(G) is defined as the sum of the reciprocals of the distance between any two unordered vertices of the graph G. In this book, the authors report on the newest results on the Harary index of a graph. These results mainly concern external graphs with respect to the Harary index; the relations to other topological indices; its properties and applications to pure graph theory and chemical graph theory; and two significant variants, i.e., additively and multiplicatively weighted Harary indices. In the last chapter, we present a number o...

  3. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  4. USA by Numbers: A Statistical Portrait of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Susan, Ed.

    This book presents demographic data about a variety of U.S. public policies, social problems, and environmental issues. The issues and problems that the statistics illustrate (such as overflowing garbage dumps, homelessness, child poverty, and smog and water pollution) are connected with, and the consequences of, the expanding U.S. population. The…

  5. Energy Transfer Using Gradient Index Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boopalan Ganapathy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gradient refractive index structure in this paper is used to increase the quantum of energy transfer. This is done by improving the directive gain of the pyramidal horn antenna at a frequency of 10 GHz. A three-dimensional array of closed square rings is placed in front of the horn antenna aperture to form a gradient refractive index structure. This structure increases the directive gain by 1.6 dB as compared to that of the conventional horn antenna. The structure nearly doubles the wireless power transfer quantum between the transmitter and the receiver when placed at both ends. The increase in the directivity is achieved by converting the spherical wave emanating from the horn to a plane wave once it passes through the structure. This transformation is realized by the gradient refractive index structure being placed perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The gradient refractive index is constructed by changing the dimensions of a closed square ring placed in the unit cell of the array. The change in the refractive index gives rise to an improvement of the half power beam width and side lobe level compared to that of the normal horn. The design and simulation were done using CST Studio software.

  6. The split cube in a cage: bulk negative-index material for infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose the split cube in a cage (SCiC) design for application in producing a bulk metamaterial. Applying realistic material data for thin silver films, we observe an immediate convergence of the effective parameters obtained with a number of layers towards the bulk properties. Results...... are obtained by two different numerical techniques: the Fourier modal method and the finite integrals method, thus ensuring their validity. The SCiC exhibits a refractive index of −0.6 for frequencies close to the telecommunication bands. The fast convergence of effective parameters allows consideration...... of the SCiC as a bulk (effectively homogeneous) negative-index metamaterial even for a single layer. The bulk-like nature together with the cubic symmetry of the unit cell make the SCiC a promising candidate for potential applications at telecommunication frequencies....

  7. B-HIT - A Tool for Harvesting and Indexing Biodiversity Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Kelbert

    Full Text Available With the rapidly growing number of data publishers, the process of harvesting and indexing information to offer advanced search and discovery becomes a critical bottleneck in globally distributed primary biodiversity data infrastructures. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF implemented a Harvesting and Indexing Toolkit (HIT, which largely automates data harvesting activities for hundreds of collection and observational data providers. The team of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem has extended this well-established system with a range of additional functions, including improved processing of multiple taxon identifications, the ability to represent associations between specimen and observation units, new data quality control and new reporting capabilities. The open source software B-HIT can be freely installed and used for setting up thematic networks serving the demands of particular user groups.

  8. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January--June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owner(s) of facility); Full text reference (volume and pagination); Issuance number; Issues raised by appellants; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); Name of facility, Docket number; Subject matter of issues and/or rulings; Type of hearing (for construction permit, operating license, etc.); Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: (1) Case Name Index; (2) Digests and Headers; (3) Legal Citations Index; (4) Subject Index; (5) Facility Index

  9. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July-December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owner(s) of facility); Full text reference (volume and pagination); Issuance number Issues raised by appellants; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); Name of facility, Docket number; Subject matter of issues and/or rulings; Type of hearing (operating license, operating license amendment, etc); Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats: Case Name Index, Headers and Digests, Legal Citations Index, Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  10. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, January-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel (ALAB), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions of Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owners of facility); Full text reference (volume and pagination); Issuance number; Issues raised by appellants; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); Name of facility, Docket number; Subject matter of issues and/or rulings; Type of hearing (for construction permit, operating license, etc.); and Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index, Digests and Headers, Legal Citations Index, Subject Index, and Facility Index

  11. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, January--March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Panel (ALAB), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: case name (owner(s) of facility); full text reference (volume and pagination); issuance number; issues raised by appellants; legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); name of facility, Docket number; subject matter of issues and/or rulings; type of hearing (for construction permit, operating license, etc.); and type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: case name index; digests and headers; legal citations index; subject index; and facility index

  12. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July-December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors' Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owner(s) of facility); Full text reference (volume and pagination); Issuance number Issues raised by appellants; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); Name of facility, Docket number; Subject matter of issues and/or rulings; Type of hearing (operating license, operating license amendment, etc); Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats: Case Name Index, Headers and Digests, Legal Citations Index, Subject Index, and Facility Index

  13. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July--September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: 1. Case Name Index: The case name index is an alphabetical arrangement of the case names of the issuances. Each case name is followed by the type of hearing, the type of issuance, docket number, issuance number, and full text reference. 2. Digests and Headers: The headers and digests are presented in issuance number order as follows: the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judge (ALJ), the Directors' Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The header identifies the issuance by issuance number, case name, facility name, docket number, type of hearing, date of issuance, and type of issuance. 3. Legal Citations Index: This index is divided into four parts and consists of alphabetical or alpha-numerical arrangements of Cases, Regulations, Statutes, and Others. These citations are listed as given in the issuances. Changes in regulations and statutes may have occurred to cause changes in the number or name and/or applicability of the citation. It is therefore important to consider the date of the issuance. 4. Subject Index: Subject words and/or phrases, arranged alphabetically, indicate the issues and subjects covered in the issuances. 5. Facility Index: The index consists of an alphabetical arrangement of facility names from the issuance. The name is followed by docket number, type of hearing, data, type of issuance, issuance number, and full text reference

  14. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 174 of 174 ... ... characteristics of Homicide Offenders in a Nigerian prison, Abstract ... Vol 10, No 3 (2012), The Mental Health System in North-Eastern Nigeria: A ... in the Emergency Unit of a Tertiary Health Care Center in Nigeria.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 108 ... Vol 8, No 1 (2016), Kant's theory of concept formation and the role of mind, Abstract PDF ... Vol 8, No 1 (2016), Outsourcing information communication ... Vol 4, No 2 (2012), Public sector ethics in the United Kingdom: an overview, Abstract ... Vol 8, No 1 (2016), The contribution of philosophy to Africa's ...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 1255 ... Vol 13, No 3 (2007), Analysis of lanister variscus and egeria radiata shells as possible raw materials for ceramic glaze production, Abstract. SP Malu, B Ajibade ... Vol 15, No 3-4 (2009), Antibiotic sensitivity of true and opportunistic pathogens in dental unit water lines, Abstract. H.I Inabo, D.O Toryila, ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 112 ... Vol 30, No 1 (2014), A prospective comparison of the efficacy and safety of fully closed-loop ... J de Beer, J Chipps ... Vol 28, No 1 (2012), Endotracheal tube cuff pressure management in adult critical care units, Abstract PDF.

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 19, No 2 (2017): Special Issue, Gestion participative de la fertilite de sol en culture biologique d'Ananas comosus ((L.) Merrill) au Sud de la Republique du Benin ... Vol 17, No 2 (2015), Habiletes manageriales et de leadership et la performance des unites de soins primaires du district des Lacs au Togo Leadership and ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 165 ... ... and library support: insights from an experience in the United States, Abstract ... Vol 28 (2004), The German contribution to South African librarianship, Abstract ... Vol 33 (2006), The kids' lit quiz: Welcome to the sport of reading, Abstract ... Vol 34 (2007), The politics of digital "refrom and revolution": ...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 34 of 34 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2005), Analysis of the heat exchanger network of the topping unit of the Tema Oil Refinery, Abstract. G Afrane. Vol 2, No 2 (2004), Clam shells aggregates for housing construction, Abstract. E Atiemo. Vol 2, No 1 (2004), Commercial appraisal of Pozzolana plant in Ghana, Abstract. E Atiemo.