Sample records for unit modu ocean

  1. 77 FR 71607 - Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) Electrical Equipment Certification Guidance (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2012-0839] Mobile Offshore Drilling... hazardous areas on foreign-flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) that have never operated, but... International Maritime Organization (IMO) Code for the Construction and Equipment of Mobile Offshore Drilling...

  2. 77 FR 39164 - Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK (United States)


    ... maritime traffic in the vicinity of the areas; (6) the types of vessels navigating in the vicinity of the... Observers and possibly Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) personnel... the Arctic Ocean than normal due to increased vessel traffic in the Arctic Ocean. Consequently, the...

  3. 30 CFR 250.417 - What must I provide if I plan to use a mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU)? (United States)


    ... both hurricane and non-hurricane seasons. If sufficient environmental information and data are not... requirements. You must provide information and data to demonstrate the drilling unit's capability to perform at the proposed drilling location. This information must include the maximum environmental and...

  4. 46 CFR 11.542 - Endorsement as chief engineer (MODU). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsement as chief engineer (MODU). 11.542 Section 11... REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.542 Endorsement as chief engineer (MODU). To qualify for an endorsement as chief engineer (MODU) an applicant must: (a...

  5. 46 CFR 11.544 - Endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU). (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU). 11.544 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.544 Endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU). To qualify for an endorsement as assistant engineer (MODU) an applicant must: (a...

  6. Oceanic Circulation. A Programmed Unit of Instruction. (United States)

    Marine Maritime Academy, Castine.

    This booklet contains a programmed lesson on oceanic circulation. It is designed to allow students to progress through the subject at their own speed. Since it is written in linear format, it is suggested that students proceed through the program from "frame" to succeeding "frame." Instructions for students on how to use the booklet are included.…

  7. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  8. 77 FR 37376 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the United... (United States)


    ... statistics. They are needed to answer any number of research and policy questions related to foreign ocean... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Economic Analysis Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the United States ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of...

  9. 76 FR 14375 - United States Integrated Ocean Observing System Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration United States Integrated... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of and Membership... support a variety of societal benefits. These benefits include supporting national defense; marine...

  10. 76 FR 39885 - Risk-Based Targeting of Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) (United States)


    ... Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... 11-06, Risk-Based Targeting of Foreign Flagged Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs). This policy... applicable regulations, every foreign-flagged mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) must undergo a Coast Guard...

  11. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin


    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  12. Making United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) inclusive of marine biological resources (United States)

    Moustahfid, H.; Potemra, J.; Goldstein, P.; Mendelssohn, R.; Desrochers, A.


    An important Data Management and Communication (DMAC) goal is to enable a multi-disciplinary view of the ocean environment by facilitating discovery and integration of data from various sources, projects and scientific domains. United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS) DMAC functional requirements are based upon guidelines for standardized data access services, data formats, metadata, controlled vocabularies, and other conventions. So far, the data integration effort has focused on geophysical U.S. IOOS core variables such as temperature, salinity, ocean currents, etc. The IOOS Biological Observations Project is addressing the DMAC requirements that pertain to biological observations standards and interoperability applicable to U.S. IOOS and to various observing systems. Biological observations are highly heterogeneous and the variety of formats, logical structures, and sampling methods create significant challenges. Here we describe an informatics framework for biological observing data (e.g. species presence/absence and abundance data) that will expand information content and reconcile standards for the representation and integration of these biological observations for users to maximize the value of these observing data. We further propose that the approach described can be applied to other datasets generated in scientific observing surveys and will provide a vehicle for wider dissemination of biological observing data. We propose to employ data definition conventions that are well understood in U.S. IOOS and to combine these with ratified terminologies, policies and guidelines. ?? 2011 MTS.

  13. Preserved Organic Matter in the Alpine Tethyan Ocean Continental Transition (Totalp unit, Eastern Swiss Alps) (United States)

    Mateeva, T.; Wolff, G. A.; Kusznir, N.; Wheeler, J.; Manatschal, G.


    Observations at hydrothermal systems in modern ocean settings suggest that methane produced by serpentinization can support methanotrophic bio-systems. An important question is whether such bio-systems are localised or are more pervasive in their association with serpentinized mantle in the subsurface. This has implications for the global importance of the hidden sub-surface bio-systems, the fate of methane and the carbon cycle. The Totalp unit, a remnant of a former Ocean Continent Transition (OCT) exposed in Alps of Eastern Switzerland, has been chosen to investigate the presence or absence of methanotrophic biosystems within serpentinized exhumed mantle in the Alpine Tethyan margin. The Totalp unit is made of serpentinized mantle and ophicalcites overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous post-rift sediments. The Totalp unit has undergone little Alpine deformation and only a low-grade metamorphic overprint (serpentinized peridotite, ophicalcite and post-rift sediments contain hydrocarbons in the form of n-alkanes in the range C20 - C40; isoprenoids, for example pristane and phytane are present in sediments. The organic biological marker distribution is consistent with the temperature history of the OCT (i.e.lower maximum temperature than 200°C). First results from Totalp show evidence for preservation of marine organic matter in the serpentinized mantle and overlying sediments, although there is no evidence that any organic matter is generated from methanotrophic bio-systems. Nevertheless, focussing on Tethyan hydrothermal systems and preserved hydrocarbons will be critical in understanding whether methanotrophic biomarkers can be preserved and if so whether the methane originated from serpentenization.

  14. 77 FR 10711 - Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK (United States)


    ... environment given the sensitivity of the environmental and subsistence importance to the indigenous population... Shelf and its distance from both land and safety fairways. Vessels traversing waters near the proposed...

  15. Charting the Course for Ocean Science in the United States for the Next Decade: An Ocean Research Priorities Plan and Implementation Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Understanding society's impact on the ocean and the ocean's impact on society forms the basis for ensuring a clean, healthy, and stable ocean environment that can be responsibly used and enjoyed for generations to come...

  16. Model Data Interoperability for the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) (United States)

    Signell, Richard P.


    Model data interoperability for the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) was initiated with a focused one year project. The problem was that there were many regional and national providers of oceanographic model data; each had unique file conventions, distribution techniques and analysis tools that made it difficult to compare model results and observational data. To solve this problem, a distributed system was built utilizing a customized middleware layer and a common data model. This allowed each model data provider to keep their existing model and data files unchanged, yet deliver model data via web services in a common form. With standards-based applications that used these web services, end users then had a common way to access data from any of the models. These applications included: (1) a 2D mapping and animation using a web browser application, (2) an advanced 3D visualization and animation using a desktop application, and (3) a toolkit for a common scientific analysis environment. Due to the flexibility and low impact of the approach on providers, rapid progress was made. The system was implemented in all eleven US IOOS regions and at the NOAA National Coastal Data Development Center, allowing common delivery of regional and national oceanographic model forecast and archived results that cover all US waters. The system, based heavily on software technology from the NSF-sponsored Unidata Program Center, is applicable to any structured gridded data, not just oceanographic model data. There is a clear pathway to expand the system to include unstructured grid (e.g. triangular grid) data.

  17. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate (United States)


    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  18. A Low Viscosity Lunar Magma Ocean Forms a Stratified Anorthitic Flotation Crust With Mafic Poor and Rich Units: Lunar Magma Ocean Viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dygert, Nick [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX USA; Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville TN USA; Lin, Jung-Fu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX USA; Marshall, Edward W. [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX USA; Kono, Yoshio [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne IL USA; Gardner, James E. [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX USA


    Much of the lunar crust is monomineralic, comprising >98% plagioclase. The prevailing model argues the crust accumulated as plagioclase floated to the surface of a solidifying lunar magma ocean (LMO). Whether >98% pure anorthosites can form in a flotation scenario is debated. An important determinant of the efficiency of plagioclase fractionation is the viscosity of the LMO liquid, which was unconstrained. Here we present results from new experiments conducted on a late LMO-relevant ferrobasaltic melt. The liquid has an exceptionally low viscosity of 0.22 $+0.11\\atop{-0.19}$to 1.45 $+0.46\\atop{-0.82}$ Pa s at experimental conditions (1,300–1,600°C; 0.1–4.4 GPa) and can be modeled by an Arrhenius relation. Extrapolating to LMO-relevant temperatures, our analysis suggests a low viscosity LMO would form a stratified flotation crust, with the oldest units containing a mafic component and with very pure younger units. Old, impure crust may have been buried by lower crustal diapirs of pure anorthosite in a serial magmatism scenario.

  19. Oceanic archipelagos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María


    Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the i...... of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also reaffirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity....

  20. United States of America Ocean Dumping Report for Calendar Year 1981. Dredged Material. (United States)


    ocean dumping rules and regulations, F.R. Vol 42 No. 7, 11 Jan 1977 (2) Metals: () esame as above(3) Orga& nics : same as above 1). Other (I...results: (1) Nutrients: Meets chemical - biological testing criteria II (2) Metals: * B 1 t U S(3) Orga! nics : b. Other analyses: (1) Metals: (2...description of dredged material, dredging, and transportation made: a. Description: Silty sand to silty clay noncohesive Hydrogen Sulfide smell. BIDDLE b

  1. Historical temperature and salinity data collected from 1896-04-22 to 1961-03-26 from the World Ocean and provided by United Kingdom hydrographic office (NODC Accession 0073673) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature and salinity data collected from 1896-04-22 to 1961-03-26 from the World Ocean. Data were digitized from cards provided by United Kingdom...

  2. Managing the Ocean Resources of the United States: The Role of the Federal Marine Sanctuaries Program (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Guilio

    In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory Birds—The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.

  3. Ocean circulation off the north-west coast of the United States is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The coastal upwelling region near Cape Blanco (43°N), Oregon, off the west coast of the ... other eastern boundary current regions of the world. ..... behaviour in August, when the upwelling circulation ... This work was funded by the United.

  4. Oceanic units in the core of the External Rif (Morocco): Intramargin hiatus or South-Tethyan remnants? (United States)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed; Mokhtari, Abdelkader; Rossi, Philippe; Michard, André; El Maz, Abdelkhader; Chalouan, Ahmed; Saddiqi, Omar; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki


    The aim of this paper is to describe the mafic rocks that crop out in the central-western Mesorif Zone (External Rif Belt), and discuss their geodynamic signification. Basalt flows, olistoliths and breccias occur in Oxfordian-Berriasian deposits of Mesorif units ascribed to the distal part of the African paleomargin. The climax of volcanic activity is observed at the northern border of a Kimmeridgian carbonate platform progressively dismembered during the Tithonian-Berriasian. In spite of the alteration of the basalts, their petrological and geochemical characters point to E-MORB affinities. The studied gabbro massifs (Bou Adel, Kef el Rhar west and north) occur as restricted slivers or klippes within the Senhadja nappe or mélange of the internal Mesorif, which overlies the basalt-bearing units and other, more external Mesorif units. The compositions range from troctolitic olivine gabbro to ferrogabbro with frequent ortho- to heteradcumulate textures; they display typical tholeiitic affinity. The gabbro massifs are crosscut by trondjhemite dykes and overlain by metabasalts, fault-scarp breccias, ophicalcites, marbles and radiolarites. Composition featuring initial near liquid composition, display multi elements patterns close to those of E-MORB, with a weak Eu negative anomaly and evidence of slight crustal contamination. These gabbro massifs were regarded as Jurassic-Cretaceous intrusions, locally dated (K-Ar) at 166 ± 3 Ma. Conversely, we assume they represent discrete samples of a Jurassic-Cretaceous oceanic basement (ophiolites), emplaced tectonically in the Senhadja nappe (mélange) of the central Mesorif. The correlation of both these types of mafic rock associations (paleomargin basalts and ophiolite klippes) with the serpentinites of the eastern Mesorif (Beni Malek) and Oran mountains (Algeria) is then briefly discussed. We conclude that the previous hypothesis of an intramargin “Mesorif suture zone” must be reconsidered, being challenged by that of a

  5. Biofacies evidence for Late Cambrian low-paleolatitude oceans, western United State and central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Cook, H.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Melnikova, L. (Palaeontological Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))


    Biofacies that formed on carbonate platform-margin slopes adjacent to an early Paleozoic, low-paleolatitude paleoocean are contained in the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation, Tyby Shale, and Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone of the Hot Creek Range, Nevada, and the Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician part of the Shabakty Suite of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan. These in-situ limestones formed in platform-margin slope and basin-plain environments. Shoal-water faunal assemblages occur in carbonate-turbidite and debris-flow deposits interbedded with in-situ deeper water assemblages of the submarine-fan facies. Abundant sponge spicules, geographically widespread benthic trilobites, and rare ostracodes occur in some of the in-situ beds. In contrast, the shoal-water platform environments were well oxygenated and contain mainly endemic trilobite assemblages. These biofacies characteristics support an interpretation that Late Cambrian oceans were poorly oxygenated, but not anoxic, below the surface mixing layer and that benthic trilobite faunas were widely distributed in response to the more-or-less continuous deep water, low-oxygen habitats. Elements of the Late Cambrian low-oxygen biofacies are widespread in the Tien Shan structural belt of China and the Soviet Union, in central and eastern China, and along the western margin of early Paleozoic North America. This facies distribution pattern defines the transition from low-paleolatitude, shoal-water carbonate platforms to open oceans which have since been destroyed by pre-Late Ordovician and pre-middle Paleozoic Paleotectonic activity.

  6. 78 FR 5168 - BE-29: Survey of Foreign Ocean Carriers' Expenses in the United States (United States)


    ... United States. (d) Carriers means owners or operators of dry cargo, passenger (including cruise and combination) and tanker vessels, including very large crude carriers (VLCCs), calling at U.S. ports. (e... Must Report: Reports are required from U.S. agents of foreign carriers who: (a) handle 40 or more port...

  7. Deformation associated to exhumation of serpentinized mantle rocks in a fossil Ocean Continent Transition: The Totalp unit in SE Switzerland (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Manatschal, G.; Cannat, M.; Andréani, M.


    Although the exhumation of ultramafic rocks in slow and ultraslow spreading Mid-Ocean Ridges and Ocean Continent Transitions (OCTs) has been extensively investigated, the deformation processes related to mantle exhumation are poorly constrained. In this paper we present a new geological map and a section across the exhumed serpentinized peridotites of the Totalp unit near Davos (SE Switzerland), and we propose that the Totalp unit is formed by two Alpine thrust sheets. Geological mapping indicates local exposure of a paleo-seafloor that is formed by an exhumed detachment surface and serpentinized peridotites. The top of the exhumed mantle rocks is made of ophicalcites that resulted from the carbonation of serpentine under static conditions at the seafloor. The ophicalcites preserve depositional contacts with Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments (Bernoulli and Weissert, 1985). These sequences did not exceed prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies conditions, and locally escaped Alpine deformation. Thin mylonitic shear zones as well as foliated amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks have been mapped. The age of these rocks and the link with the final exhumation history are yet unknown but since amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks can be found as clasts in cataclasites related to the detachment fault, they pre-date detachment faulting. Our petrostructural study of the exhumed serpentinized rocks also reveals a deformation gradient from cataclasis to gouge formation within 150 m in the footwall of the proposed paleo-detachment fault. This deformation postdates serpentinization. It involves a component of plastic deformation of serpentine in the most highly strained intervals that has suffered pronounced grain-size reduction and a polyphase cataclastic overprint.

  8. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming. (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C


    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean

  9. Mapping and Assessment of the United States Ocean Wave Energy Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Paul T; Hagerman, George; Scott, George


    This project estimates the naturally available and technically recoverable U.S. wave energy resources, using a 51-month Wavewatch III hindcast database developed especially for this study by National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Prediction. For total resource estimation, wave power density in terms of kilowatts per meter is aggregated across a unit diameter circle. This approach is fully consistent with accepted global practice and includes the resource made available by the lateral transfer of wave energy along wave crests, which enables wave diffraction to substantially reestablish wave power densities within a few kilometers of a linear array, even for fixed terminator devices. The total available wave energy resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge, based on accumulating unit circle wave power densities, is estimated to be 2,640 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 590 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 240 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 80 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 1570 TWh/yr for Alaska, 130 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 30 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico. The total recoverable wave energy resource, as constrained by an array capacity packing density of 15 megawatts per kilometer of coastline, with a 100-fold operating range between threshold and maximum operating conditions in terms of input wave power density available to such arrays, yields a total recoverable resource along the U.S. continental shelf edge of 1,170 TWh/yr, broken down as follows: 250 TWh/yr for the West Coast, 160 TWh/yr for the East Coast, 60 TWh/yr for the Gulf of Mexico, 620 TWh/yr for Alaska, 80 TWh/yr for Hawaii, and 20 TWh/yr for Puerto Rico.

  10. Evidence of oceanic units in the core of the External Rif (Morocco): intramargin hiatus or South-Tethyan remnants? (United States)

    Benzaggagh, Mohamed; Mokhtari, Abdelkhader; El Maz, Abdelkhader; Rossi, Philippe; Michard, André; Saddiqi, Omar; Chalouan, Ahmed; Rjimati, Ech-Cherki


    differentiated (lower MgO, higher total REE) samples that do not contain olivine display REE patterns closer to those of typical MORB (with a weak Eu positive or negative anomaly) and feature near liquid composition. Near the contact between gabbros and volcanic-sedimentary formations, gabbros are crosscut by trondhjemitic veins. These typically oceanic units are associated with the marginal, E-MORB basalts-bearing units in the same suture zone as the serpentinite-bearing Temsamane massif itself. The inversion of the corresponding, Jurassic-Cretaceous thinned crust/oceanic domain took place during the Miocene Iberia-Africa collision. Accordingly, the Maghrebide external suture zone is now recognized over 500 km from Oran (Algeria) to Ouezzane (Morocco) where it disappears beneath the Flysch Nappes. The relationships of this suture zone with the Tethyan suture itself need more elucidation.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Pelagic Thresher Shark (Alopias pelagicus) in the Pacific Ocean: Evidence for Two Evolutionarily Significant Units (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Diego; Hyde, John; Caballero, Susana


    There has been an increasing concern about shark overexploitation in the last decade, especially for open ocean shark species, where there is a paucity of data about their life histories and population dynamics. Little is known regarding the population structure of the pelagic thresher shark, Alopias pelagicus. Though an earlier study using mtDNA control region data, showed evidence for differences between eastern and western Pacific populations, the study was hampered by low sample size and sparse geographic coverage, particularly a lack of samples from the central Pacific. Here, we present the population structure of Alopias pelagicus analyzing 351 samples from six different locations across the Pacific Ocean. Using data from mitochondrial DNA COI sequences and seven microsatellite loci we found evidence of strong population differentiation between western and eastern Pacific populations and evidence for reciprocally monophyly for organelle haplotypes and significant divergence of allele frequencies at nuclear loci, suggesting the existence of two Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESU) in the Pacific Ocean. Interestingly, the population in Hawaii appears to be composed of both ESUs in what seems to be clear sympatry with reproductive isolation. These results may indicate the existence of a new cryptic species in the Pacific Ocean. The presence of these distinct ESUs highlights the need for revised management plans for this highly exploited shark throughout its range. PMID:25337814

  12. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  13. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S. A.


    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  14. The initial superposition of oceanic and continental units in the southern Western Alps: constraints on geometrical restoration and kinematics of the continental subduction wedge (United States)

    Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Matthews, Steve; Malusa, Marco; Jouvent, Marine


    The tectonic contact separating continental and oceanic units is preserved at outcrop in many locations within the Western Alps. The contact has experienced prolonged and progressive deformation during Oligocene collision and subsequent 'extrusive' contraction which is approximately westerly-directed (Dumont et al., 2012). Despite variable metamorphic grade, this tectonic contact displays a relative consistency of tectonostratigraphic and structural characteristics. Removal of the Oligocene and younger deformation is a critical requirement to allow assessment of the kinematic evolution during the Eocene continental subduction phase. The best preserved relationships are observed near the base of the Helminthoid Flysch nappes, in the footwall of the Penninic thrust, or in the external part of the Briançonnais zone. Here, the oceanic units are composed of detached Cretaceous sediments, but they are underlain locally by an olistostrome containing basaltic clasts. Further to the east, the internal boundary of the Briançonnais zone s.l. (including the 'Prepiedmont units'), is frequently marked by breccia or megabreccia, but is strongly affected by blueschist-facies metamorphism and by approximately easterly directed backfolding and backthrusting. At one locality, there is compelling evidence that the oceanic and continental units were already tectonically stacked and metamorphosed (together) 32Ma ago. Some megabreccias of mixed continental/oceanic provenance can be interpreted as a metamorphic equivalent of the external olistostrome, products of the initial pulses of tectonic stacking. The overlying units are composed dominantly of metasediments, containing distributed ophiolitic megaboudins (Tricart & Schwartz, 2006). Further east again, the tectonic contact separates the Dora-Maira continental basement from the Mt. Viso units which are predominantly composed of oceanic lithosphere. Both the Dora-Maira and Mt. Viso units are eclogitic, but the HP peak is apparently

  15. Development of Ocean Acidification Flow-Thru Experimental Raceway Units (OAFTERU): Simulating the Future Reefs in the Keys Today (United States)

    Hall, E. R.; Vaughan, D.; Crosby, M. P.


    Ocean acidification, a consequence of anthropogenic CO2 production due to fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and cement production, has been referred to as "the other CO2 problem" and is receiving much attention in marine science and public policy communities. Critical needs that have been identified by top climate change and marine scientists include using projected pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2 in seawater) levels in manipulative experiments to determine physiological indices of ecologically important species, such as corals. Coral reefs were one of the first ecosystems to be documented as susceptible to ocean acidification. The Florida Keys reef system has already experienced a long-term deterioration, resulting in increased calls for large scale coral reef ecosystem restoration of these critical resources. It has also been speculated that this decline in reef ecosystem health may be exacerbated by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels with resulting ocean acidification. Therefore, reef resilience to ocean acidification and the potential for successful restoration of these systems under forecasted long-term modified pH conditions in the Florida Keys is of great concern. Many studies for testing effects of ocean acidification on corals have already been established and tested. However, many employ pH modification experimental designs that include addition of acid to seawater which may not mimic conditions of climate change induced ocean acidification. It would be beneficial to develop and maintain an ocean acidification testing system more representative of climate change induced changes, and specific to organisms and ecosystems indigenous to the Florida Keys reef tract. The Mote Marine Laboratory research facility in Summerland Key, FL has an established deep well from which its supply of seawater is obtained. This unique source of seawater is 80 feet deep, "fossil" marine water. It is pumped from the on-site aquifer aerated to reduce H2S and ammonia, and passed

  16. 78 FR 5168 - BE-30: Survey of Ocean Freight Revenues and Foreign Expenses of United States Carriers (United States)


    ... 45 days after the end of each calendar quarter. The BE-30 survey forms and instructions are available... institution, or other entity or instrumentality thereof, including a government-sponsored agency). (b) United... at . Additionally, copies of the survey forms and instructions, which contain...

  17. An upwelling model for the Phosphoria sea: A Permian, ocean-margin sea in the northwest United States (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Link, P.K.


    The Permian Phosphoria Formation, a petroleum source rock and world-class phosphate deposit, was deposited in an epicratonic successor basin on the western margin of North America. We calculate the seawater circulation in the basin during deposition of the lower ore zone in the Meade Peak Member from the accumulation rates of carbonate fluorapatite and trace elements. The model gives the exchange rate of water between the Phosphoria sea and the open ocean to the west in terms of an upwelling rate (84 m yr-1) and residence time (4.2 yr) of seawater in the basin. These hydrographic properties supported a mean rate of primary productivity of 0.87 g m-2 d-1 of carbon in the uppermost few tens of meters of the water column (the photic zone) and denitrifying redox conditions in the bottom water (below approximately 150 m depth). High rain rates, onto the sea floor, of the organic matter that hosted the phosphate and several trace elements contributed to the accumulation of phosphorite, chert, and black shales and mudstones. Evaporation in the Goose Egg basin to the east of the Phosphoria basin ensured the import of surface seawater from the Phosphoria sea. Budgets of water, salt, phosphate, and oxygen, plus the minor accumulation of the biomarker gammacerane, show that exchange of water between the two basins was limited, possibly by the shallow carbonate platform that separated the two basins.

  18. Deformation associated to exhumation by detachment faulting of upper mantle rocks in a fossil Ocean Continent Transition: The example of the Totalp unit in SE Switzerland (United States)

    Picazo, S.; Manatschal, G.; Cannat, M.


    The exhumation of upper mantle rocks along detachment faults is widespread at Mid-Ocean Ridges and at the Ocean-Continent Transition (OCT) of rifted continental margins. Thermo-mechanical models indicate that significant strain softening of the fault rocks in the footwall is required in order to produce such large fault offsets. Our work focuses on deformation textures, and the associated mineralogy in ultramafic rocks sampled in the upper levels of the footwall next to the exhumation fault. We present two OCT examples, the Totalp relict of a paleo-Tethys OCT exposed in SE Switzerland, and the Iberian distal margin (ODP Leg 173 Site 1070). We built a new geological map and a section of the Totalp unit near Davos (SE Switzerland) and interpreted this area as a local exposure of a paleo-seafloor that is formed by an exhumed detachment surface and serpentinized peridotites. The top of the exhumed mantle rocks is made of ophicalcites that resulted from the carbonation of serpentine under static conditions at the seafloor. The ophicalcites preserve depositional contacts with Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments. These sequences did not exceed prehnite-pumpellyite metamorphic facies conditions, and locally escaped Alpine deformation. Thin mylonitic shear zones as well as foliated amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks have been mapped. The age of these rocks and the link with the final exhumation history are yet unknown but since amphibole-bearing ultramafic rocks can be found as clasts in cataclasites related to the detachment fault, they pre-date detachment faulting. Our petrostructural study of the exhumed serpentinized rocks also reveals a deformation gradient from cataclasis to gouge formation within 150m in the footwall of the proposed paleo-detachment fault. This deformation postdates serpentinization. It involves a component of plastic deformation of serpentine in the most highly strained intervals that has suffered pronounced grain-size reduction and

  19. Blue ocean strategy. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  20. Ocean Acidification | Smithsonian Ocean Portal (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor ocean is affected. Such a relatively quick change in ocean chemistry doesn't give marine life, which

  1. Long term fish assemblages as units of management in a temperate estuary (Rio de La Plata - SW Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Lorenzo


    Full Text Available Demersal fish assemblages from trawl surveys in the Rio de la Plata estuary and its inner continental shelf were analyzed from 1975 to 1995. The first two factors of Principal Component Analysis explained 48% of the variance in species distribution, and they are consistent with the results of a cluster analysis. The analysis indicated the existence of three spatially and temporally distinct fish assemblages: internal and external estuarine and inner continental shelf (Uruguayan coastal assemblages. These assemblages were persistent considering the environmental characteristics and their species composition. Despite the changes registered in the species density during the period surveyed, the fish assemblages tend to persist over time. It was demonstrated that the assemblages can be considered as open systems and that there exists a reciprocal flow of organisms between adjacent associations. However, each assemblage showed high spatial and temporal persistence in accordance with the environmental characteristics of the system analyzed. Therefore, and according to the multispecies fisheries operating in the system, each assemblage defined could be considered a unit of management.Foram analisadas as associações dos peixes demersais provenientes de arrastos de prospecção no estuário do Rio de la Plata e sua plataforma interna no período de 1975 a 1995. Os dois primeiros fatores da Análise de Componentes Principais explicaram 48% da variância na distribuição das espécies sendo consistentes com os resultados da análise de agrupamento. Os resultados mostraram a existência de três associações de peixes espacial e temporalmente distintas: uruguaia costeira, estuarina externa e estuarina interna. Essas associações foram consistentes quanto às características ambientais e de composição de espécies. A despeito das mudanças registradas na densidade das espécies ao longo do período analisado, as associações de peixes foram

  2. Power recovery method for testing the efficiency of the ECD of an integrated generation unit for offshore wind power and ocean wave energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WeiXing; GAO Feng; MENG XiangDun; REN AnYe; HU Yan


    Offshore wind power and ocean wave energy are clean,renewable and rich resources.The integrated generation unit for the two kinds of energy is introduced.The energy conversion device (ECD) is utilized to convert the mechanical energy absorbed from the wind power and wave energy into the hydraulic energy,the conversion efficiency of which is significant.In this paper,a power recovery method for testing the efficiency of the ECD is proposed.A simulation desktop is developed to validate the proposed method.The efficiency of the ECD is influenced by the hydraulic cylinders and the mechanical transmission.Here,the static efficiency of the hydraulic cylinders of the ECD is tested first.The results show that the static mechanical efficiency is about 95 % and that the volumetric efficiency is over 99%.To test the effects induced by the mechanical transmission of the ECD,each hydraulic cylinder of the ECD is substituted with two springs.Then the power loss of the ECDM under different rotational speeds is obtained.Finally,a test platform is built and the efficiency of the ECD under different rotational speeds and pressures is obtained.The results show that the efficiency is about 80%.

  3. Carbon dioxide, temperature, and salinity collected via surface underway survey in the East Coast of the United States (northwestern Atlantic Ocean) during the Ocean Margins Program cruises (NODC Accession 0083626) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0083626 includes underway chemical and physical data collected from COLUMBUS ISELIN, ENDEAVOR, GYRE, OCEANUS, and SEWARD JOHNSON in the North Atlantic...

  4. Ocean tides (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.


    A review of recent developments in the study of ocean tides and related phenomena is presented. Topics briefly discussed include: the mechanism by which tidal dissipation occurs; continental shelf, marginal sea, and baroclinic tides; estimation of the amount of energy stored in the tide; the distribution of energy over the ocean; the resonant frequencies and Q factors of oceanic normal modes; the relationship of earth tides and ocean tides; and numerical global tidal models.

  5. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  6. Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Dynamic Ocean Track System Plus (DOTS Plus) is a planning tool implemented at the ZOA, ZAN, and ZNY ARTCCs. It is utilized by Traffic Management Unit (TMU) personnel...

  7. A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra (United States)

    McMillian, W. Wallace; Strow, L. Larrabee; Revercomb, H.; Knuteson, R.; Thompson, A.


    This final report summarizes all research activities and publications undertaken as part of NASA Atmospheric Chemistry and Modeling Analysis Program (ACMAP) Grant NAG-1-2022, 'A Climatology of Tropospheric CO over the Central and Southeastern United States and the Southwestern Pacific Ocean Derived from Space, Air, and Ground-based Infrared Interferometer Spectra'. Major project accomplishments include: (1) analysis of more than 300,000 AERI spectra from the ARM SGP site yielding a 5-year (1998-2002) timeseries of CO retrievals from the Lamont, OK AERI; (2) development of a prototype CO profile retrieval algorithm for AERI spectra; (3) validation and publication of the first CO retrievals from the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (SHIS); and (4) development of a prototype AERI tropospheric O3 retrieval algorithm. Compilation and publication of the 5-year Lamont, OK timeseries is underway including a new collaboration with scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Public access to this data will be provided upon article submission. A comprehensive CO analysis of the archive of HIS spectra of remains as the only originally proposed activity with little progress. The greatest challenge faced in this project was motivating the University of Wisconsin Co-Investigators to deliver their archived HIS and AERIOO data along with the requisite temperature and water vapor profiles in a timely manner. Part of the supplied HIS dataset from ASHOE may be analyzed as part of a Master s Thesis under a separate project. Our success with the SAFARI 2000 SHIS CO analysis demonstrates the utility of such aircraft remote sensing data given the proper support from the instrument investigators. In addition to the PI and Co-I s, personnel involved in this CO climatology project include one Post Doctoral Fellow, one Research Scientist, two graduate students, and two undergraduate students. A total of fifteen presentations regarding research related to this

  8. Ocean technology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Peshwe, V.B.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_113.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Ocean acidification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gattuso, J.P; Hansson, L


    The fate of much of the CO 2 we produce will be to enter the ocean. In a sense, we are fortunate that ocean water is endowed with the capacity to absorb far more CO 2 per litre than were it salt free...

  10. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This annual evaluation is a synthesis of works published in 2006. Comparisons are presented between the wind power performances and European Commission White Paper and Biomass action plan objectives. The sector covers the energy exploitation of all energy flows specifically supplied by the seas and oceans. At present, most efforts in both research and development and in experimental implementation are concentrated on tidal currents and wave power. 90% of today worldwide ocean energy production is represented by a single site: the Rance Tidal Power Plant. Ocean energies must face up two challenges: progress has to be made in finalizing and perfecting technologies and costs must be brought under control. (A.L.B.)

  11. The deep ocean under climate change (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Le Bris, Nadine


    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems.

  12. Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  13. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  14. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S


    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  15. Ocean Color (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  16. Ocean Quality


    Brevik, Roy Schjølberg; Jordheim, Nikolai; Martinsen, John Christian; Labori, Aleksander; Torjul, Aleksander Lelis


    Bacheloroppgave i Internasjonal Markedsføring fra ESADE i Spania, 2017 In this thesis we were going to answer the problem definition “which segments in the Spanish market should Ocean Quality target”. By doing so we started to collect data from secondary sources in order to find information about the industry Ocean Quality are operating in. After conducting the secondary research, we still lacked essential information about the existing competition in the aquaculture industry o...

  17. Oceans Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Based on research for the History of Marine Animal Populations project, Oceans Past examines the complex relationship our forebears had with the sea and the animals that inhabit it. It presents eleven studies ranging from fisheries and invasive species to offshore technology and the study of marine...... environmental history, bringing together the perspectives of historians and marine scientists to enhance understanding of ocean management of the past, present and future. In doing so, it also highlights the influence that changes in marine ecosystems have upon the politics, welfare and culture of human...

  18. Ocean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    There are 5 different ways of harnessing ocean energy: tides, swells, currents, osmotic pressure and deep water thermal gradients. The tidal power sector is the most mature. A single French site - The Rance tidal power station (240 MW) which was commissioned in 1966 produces 90% of the world's ocean energy. Smaller scale power stations operate around the world, 10 are operating in the European Union and 5 are being tested. Underwater generators and wave energy converters are expanding. In France a 1 km 2 sea test platform is planned for 2010. (A.C.)

  19. Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin


    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  20. Ocean energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, R.H.; Justus, J.R.


    This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are considered. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. The authors also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. This book will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers

  1. Proceedings of oceans '91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This volume contains the proceedings of the Oceans '91 Conference. Topics addressed include: ocean energy conversion, marine communications and navigation, ocean wave energy conversion, environmental modeling, global climate change, ocean minerals technology, oil spill technology, and submersible vehicles

  2. Ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubelet, Helene; Veyre, Philippe; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence


    This brief publication first recalls and outlines that ocean acidification is expected to increase, and will result in severe ecological impacts (more fragile coral reefs, migration of species, and so on), and therefore social and economic impacts. This issue is particularly important for France who possesses the second exclusive maritime area in the world. The various impacts of ocean acidification on living species is described, notably for phytoplankton, coral reefs, algae, molluscs, and fishes. Social and economic impacts are also briefly presented: tourism, protection against risks (notably by coral reefs), shellfish aquaculture and fishing. Issues to be addressed by scientific research are evoked: interaction between elements of an ecosystem and between different ecosystems, multi-stress effects all along organism lifetime, vulnerability and adaptability of human societies

  3. Building a Global Ocean Science Education Network (United States)

    Scowcroft, G. A.; Tuddenham, P. T.; Pizziconi, R.


    It is imperative for ocean science education to be closely linked to ocean science research. This is especially important for research that addresses global concerns that cross national boundaries, including climate related issues. The results of research on these critical topics must find its way to the public, educators, and students of all ages around the globe. To facilitate this, opportunities are needed for ocean scientists and educators to convene and identify priorities and strategies for ocean science education. On June 26 and 27, 2015 the first Global Ocean Science Education (GOSE) Workshop was convened in the United States at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. The workshop, sponsored by the Consortium for Ocean Science Exploration and Engagement (COSEE) and the College of Exploration, had over 75 participants representing 15 nations. The workshop addressed critical global ocean science topics, current ocean science research and education priorities, advanced communication technologies, and leveraging international ocean research technologies. In addition, panels discussed elementary, secondary, undergraduate, graduate, and public education across the ocean basins with emphasis on opportunities for international collaboration. Special presentation topics included advancements in tropical cyclone forecasting, collaborations among Pacific Islands, ocean science for coastal resiliency, and trans-Atlantic collaboration. This presentation will focus on workshop outcomes as well as activities for growing a global ocean science education network. A summary of the workshop report will also be provided. The dates and location for the 2016 GOES Workshop will be announced. See

  4. Fluctuations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation and ocean conditions associated with the dominant modes of wintertime precipitation variability for the contiguous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, T.P.; Blier, W.


    The historical Climatic Division record of monthly- and seasonal-mean wintertime precipitation totals are analyzed to document the dominant patterns of precipitation variability for the contiguous United States. The analysis technique employed is the Rotated Principal Component analysis. Time series for the leading patterns are related to global sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and to gridded surface and upper-air analyses for the Northern Hemisphere

  5. Planet Ocean (United States)

    Afonso, Isabel


    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  6. Ocean bottom seismometer technology (United States)

    Prothero, William A., Jr.

    Seismometers have been placed on the ocean bottom for about 45 years, beginning with the work of Ewing and Vine [1938], and their current use to measure signals from earthquakes and explosions constitutes an important research method for seismological studies. Approximately 20 research groups are active in the United Kingdom, France, West Germany, Japan, Canada, and the United States. A review of ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) instrument characteristics and OBS scientific studies may be found in Whitmarsh and Lilwall [1984]. OBS instrumentation is also important for land seismology. The recording systems that have been developed have been generally more sophisticated than those available for land use, and several modern land seismic recording systems are based on OBS recording system designs.The instrumentation developed for OBS work was the topic of a meeting held at the University of California, Santa Barbara, in July 1982. This article will discuss the state of the art of OBS Technology, some of the problems remaining to be solved, and some of the solutions proposed and implemented by OBS scientists and engineers. It is not intended as a comprehensive review of existing instrumentation.

  7. Ocean Uses: Hawaii (PROUA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  8. The deep ocean under climate change. (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A; Le Bris, Nadine


    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological feedbacks that will occur. Explicit recognition of deep-ocean climate mitigation and inclusion in adaptation planning by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) could help to expand deep-ocean research and observation and to protect the integrity and functions of deep-ocean ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Ocean Prediction Center (United States)

    Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Weather Analysis & Forecasts of Commerce Ocean Prediction Center National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Analysis & Unified Surface Analysis Ocean Ocean Products Ice & Icebergs NIC Ice Products NAIS Iceberg Analysis

  10. Plastic pollution of the world's seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance. (United States)

    Haward, Marcus


    The pervasive nature of marine plastic pollution was highlighted at the recent United Nations Environment Assembly. This meeting saw strong commitments for action, but at the same time reinforced the challenges for contemporary ocean governance in addressing marine plastic pollution.

  11. The Ocean State Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, J.


    Ocean State Power is an independent partnership in the form of utility companies and private developers who have joined forces to build a gas-fired, combined cycle generating plant in Burrillville, Rhode Island. The initial capacity of the plant is expected to be approximately 250 MW, with a provision to double the size. Unit I will be on-line 2989/2990 with unit II shortly thereafter. The OSP equity group includes TransCanada PipeLines, Easter Utilities Associates, New England Electric System, Newport Electric and J. Makowski Associates. The author describes the project's major features and turns to a brief status report on the contracts and licenses. Ocean State Power came about because of; the rapid growth in demand for capacity in new England; the availability of a long-term supply of natural gas from Canada which has recently revised export policies and the inherent efficiency and reliability of combined cycle power generation

  12. The Ocean Literacy Campaign (United States)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.


    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL:

  13. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, Maryland to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Atlantic Ocean to protect mariners...

  14. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  15. People and Oceans. (United States)

    NatureScope, 1988


    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  16. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  17. Ocean Robotic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Oscar [Rutgers University


    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  18. Ocean Uses: California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation Biology Institute. The...

  19. Ethane ocean on Titan (United States)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.


    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  20. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.


    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  1. Ocean Disposal Sites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1972, Congress enacted the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, also known as the Ocean Dumping Act) to prohibit the dumping of material into...

  2. Ocean Station Vessel (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  3. California Ocean Uses Atlas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  4. Ocean Acidification Product Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists within the ACCRETE (Acidification, Climate, and Coral Reef Ecosystems Team) Lab of AOML_s Ocean Chemistry and Ecosystems Division (OCED) have constructed...

  5. Physical trajectory profile data from glider unit_191 deployed by University of Alaska - Fairbanks in the Southern Oceans from 2015-01-05 to 2015-02-26 (NCEI Accession 0145717) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this glider mission is to do along canyon transects of Palmer Deep within the operating CODAR fields off of Anvers Island. This multi-platform field...

  6. Origin of the ``Ocean Bible" (United States)

    Munk, W. H.


    ``The Oceans" is such a landmark for Sverdrup and the Scripps Institution that one ought to take a look at how it came about. The book came very close to NOT being written. Sverdrup was about to decline an invitation by Prentice Hall when his secretary persuaded him to accept. The contract called for 500-600 pages, it ended up with 1087 pages. Royalty was 10% (\\$0.27 to each author for the copy I purchased in 1943). Sverdrup had estimated a market of 550 copies. By the end of 1965 23,766 copies of the American edition alone had been sold. The book was completed in the early war years under very trying conditions for Sverdrup personally. When it did appear in print, a year after Pearl Harbor, the distribution was restricted to the continental United States because `` would be of great aid to the enemy should it fall into his hands." The book carries the mark of Sverdrup's lifelong emphasis on the synthesis of observations: ``we have preferred definite statements to mere enumeration of uncorrelated observations and conflicting interpretations." The result was a coherent presentation of ocean science, a remarkable achievement considering how badly the ocean was undersampled. I will describe my experience as a willing listener while Sverdrup was contemplating of how to organize Chapter XV: The Water Masses and Currents of the Oceans.

  7. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh


    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  8. Environmental toxicology data collected by the NOAA, National Ocean Service, National Centers For Coastal Ocean Science, National Status and Trends Program for monitoring contaminants in coastal United States marine water bodies from 01 Jan 1960 to 05 May 2010 (NODC Accession 0074376) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends Program is comprised of three nationwide programs: Benthic Surveillance, Mussel Watch, and Bioeffects. These programs are in place to...

  9. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.


    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  10. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik


    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  11. Monitoring and assessment of ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean-A scoping paper (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Feely, Richard; Fabry, Victoria


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the ocean surface by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats. The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  12. The Southern Ocean Observing System


    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise


    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  13. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts (United States)

    Kyte, Frank T.


    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  14. Our Changing Oceans: All about Ocean Acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickwood, Peter


    The consequences of ocean acidification are global in scale. More research into ocean acidification and its consequences is needed. It is already known, for example, that there are regional differences in the vulnerability of fisheries to acidification. The combination of other factors, such as global warming, the destruction of habitats, overfishing and pollution, need to be taken into account when developing strategies to increase the marine environment’s resilience. Among steps that can be taken to reduce the impact is better protection of marine coastal ecosystems, such as mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows, which will help protect fisheries. This recommendation was one of the conclusions of a three-day workshop attended by economists and scientists and organized by the IAEA and the Centre Scientifique de Monaco in November 2012. In their recommendations the workshop also stressed that the impact of increasing ocean acidity must be taken into account in the management of fisheries, particularly where seafood is a main dietary source

  15. Ocean Circulation and Dynamics on the West Antarctic Peninsula Continental Shelf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Varas, Carlos F


    Observations of current velocity, temperature, salinity and pressure from a 2-year moored array deployment and four hydrographic cruises conducted by the United States Southern Ocean GLOBEC program...

  16. Ocean surface partitioning strategies using ocean colour remote Sensing: A review (United States)

    Krug, Lilian Anne; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Barbosa, Ana B.


    The ocean surface is organized into regions with distinct properties reflecting the complexity of interactions between environmental forcing and biological responses. The delineation of these functional units, each with unique, homogeneous properties and underlying ecosystem structure and dynamics, can be defined as ocean surface partitioning. The main purposes and applications of ocean partitioning include the evaluation of particular marine environments; generation of more accurate satellite ocean colour products; assimilation of data into biogeochemical and climate models; and establishment of ecosystem-based management practices. This paper reviews the diverse approaches implemented for ocean surface partition into functional units, using ocean colour remote sensing (OCRS) data, including their purposes, criteria, methods and scales. OCRS offers a synoptic, high spatial-temporal resolution, multi-decadal coverage of bio-optical properties, relevant to the applications and value of ocean surface partitioning. In combination with other biotic and/or abiotic data, OCRS-derived data (e.g., chlorophyll-a, optical properties) provide a broad and varied source of information that can be analysed using different delineation methods derived from subjective, expert-based to unsupervised learning approaches (e.g., cluster, fuzzy and empirical orthogonal function analyses). Partition schemes are applied at global to mesoscale spatial coverage, with static (time-invariant) or dynamic (time-varying) representations. A case study, the highly heterogeneous area off SW Iberian Peninsula (NE Atlantic), illustrates how the selection of spatial coverage and temporal representation affects the discrimination of distinct environmental drivers of phytoplankton variability. Advances in operational oceanography and in the subject area of satellite ocean colour, including development of new sensors, algorithms and products, are among the potential benefits from extended use, scope and

  17. Plastic pollution of the world’s seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance


    Haward, Marcus


    The pervasive nature of marine plastic pollution was highlighted at the recent United Nations Environment Assembly. This meeting saw strong commitments for action, but at the same time reinforced the challenges for contemporary ocean governance in addressing marine plastic pollution.

  18. Blue Ocean Thinking (United States)

    Orem, Donna


    This article describes a concept called the "blue ocean thinking strategy," developed by W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne, professors at INSEAD, an international graduate school of business in France. The "blue ocean" thinking strategy considers opportunities to create new markets for services, rather than focusing solely on…

  19. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  20. Communicating Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Pope, Aaron; Selna, Elizabeth


    Participation in a study circle through the National Network of Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI) project enabled staff at the California Academy of Sciences to effectively engage visitors on climate change and ocean acidification topics. Strategic framing tactics were used as staff revised the scripted Coral Reef Dive program,…

  1. Global Ocean Phytoplankton (United States)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.


    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  2. Ocean acidification postcards (United States)

    Schreppel, Heather A.; Cimitile, Matthew J.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting research on ocean acidification in polar, temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions including the Arctic, West Florida Shelf, and the Caribbean. Project activities include field assessment, experimental laboratory studies, and evaluation of existing data. The USGS is participating in international and interagency working groups to develop research strategies to increase understanding of the global implications of ocean acidification. Research strategies include new approaches for seawater chemistry observation and modeling, assessment of physiological effects on organisms, changes in marine ecosystem structure, new technologies, and information resources. These postcards highlight ongoing USGS research efforts in ocean acidification and carbon cycling in marine and coastal ecosystems in three different regions: polar, temperate, and tropical. To learn more about ocean acidification visit:

  3. Library holdings for Continental Slope Coral Banks of the Southeastern United States: Exploring the Distribution, Ecology, and Biology of Deep Coral Habitats and Associated Fauna on the R/V Seward Johnson in the North Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the eastern United States from North Carolina to Florida between October 16, 2005 and November 4, 2005 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Library Catalog may include: Data Management Plans, Cruise Plans, Cruise Summary Reports, Scientific "Quick Look Reports", Video Annotation Logs, Image Collections,...

  4. A Review of Ocean Management and Integrated Resource Management Programs from Around the World


    , Seaplan


    This draft report is one of several prepared under contract to the Massachusetts Ocean Partnership (MOP) to support the Massachusetts Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EOEEA) in its development of the integrated coastal ocean management plan mandated by the Massachusetts Oceans Act of 2008. The purpose of this report was to inventory and review ocean management and integrated resource management programs from around the world, including the United States, Europe, Australia...

  5. Oceans and Coasts (United States)

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  6. Ocean Dumping: International Treaties (United States)

    The London Convention and London Protocol are global treaties to protect the marine environment from pollution caused by the ocean dumping of wastes. The Marine, Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act implements the requirements of the LC.

  7. Ocean Technology Development Tank (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  8. Loggerhead oceanic stage duration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study involves analysis of skeletal growth marks in humerus bones of 222 juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded dead along the Atlantic US...

  9. Ocean iron fertilization

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Smetacek, V.

    In 2009 and 2010, an Indo-German scientific expedition dusted the ocean with iron to stimulate the biological pump that captures atmosphereic carbon dioxide. Two onboard scientists tell the story of this controversial project. Besides raising...

  10. Ocean Dumping Control Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    These Regulations were made further to the Ocean Dumping Control Act which provides for restrictions in dumping operations. The Regulations contain model applications for permits to dump or load a series of materials. (NEA)

  11. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Wittenberg, Andrew; Zeng, Fanrong


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean

  12. Global Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Coordination (United States)

    Telszewski, Maciej; Tanhua, Toste; Palacz, Artur


    multidisciplinary global ocean observing system. Over the past 4-5 years IOCCP's long standing experience in coordinating biogeochemical observations and data flows globally, resulted in assuming a leadership role during the design and implementation of the biogeochemistry portion of the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO, 2012). To optimize and enhance the global ocean observing system IOCCP started to implement major elements of the system's approach outlined in the FOO. Starting by setting of ocean observing requirements representing the needs of societal and scientific stakeholders, followed by development of a set of essential ocean variables (EOVs) with spatial and temporal resolution specifications to best meet current demands for data and information services given current and potential national capabilities. The IOCCP works directly with projects and programs programmatically connected to GOOS as well as the WMO-IOC JCOMM to integrate ocean carbon and biogeochemistry observation information into the plans of the Global Climate Observing System in support of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the Group on Earth Observations, and other international and intergovernmental strategies. We would like to update our partners across disciplines and domains on our short- and long-term strategies as well as learn from their combined experience and knowledge so that our individual activities align more with those undertaken by our counterparts in biological and physical oceanography as well as in terrestrial and atmospheric domains.

  13. IODE OceanTeacher


    Brown, M.; Pikula, L.; Reed, G.


    The OceanTeacher website and CD-ROM publication have proven to be powerful and flexible tools for marine data and information management training. There are two segments of OceanTeacher: marine data management and marine information management. The IODE trainers have created an encyclopedic Resource Kit covering all aspects of the subjects. Through continual updates, the Kit provides the latest versions of popular public-domain software, documentation for global and regional datasets, docu...

  14. Modeling of oceanic vortices (United States)

    Cushman-Roisin, B.

    Following on a tradition of biannual meetings, the 5th Colloquium on the Modeling of Oceanic Vortices was held May 21-23, 1990, at the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H. The colloquium series, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, is intended to gather oceanographers who contribute to our understanding of oceanic mesoscale vortices via analytical, numerical and experimental modeling techniques.

  15. Wind Generated Ocean Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter


    Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)......Book review: I. R. Young, Elsevier Ocean Engineering Series, Vol 2. Elsevier Science, Oxford, UK, 1999, 306 pages, hardbound, ISBN 0-08-043317-0, Dfl. 275,00 (US$ 139.50)...

  16. The Ocean: Our Future (United States)

    Independent World Commission On The Oceans; Soares, Mario


    The Ocean, Our Future is the official report of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mário Soares, former President of Portugal. Its aim is to summarize the very real problems affecting the ocean and its future management, and to provide imaginative solutions to these various and interlocking problems. The oceans have traditionally been taken for granted as a source of wealth, opportunity and abundance. Our growing understanding of the oceans has fundamentally changed this perception. We now know that in some areas, abundance is giving way to real scarcity, resulting in severe conflicts. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, disruptions to global climate, overfishing, habitat destruction, species extinction, indiscriminate trawling, pollution, the dumping of hazardous and toxic wastes, piracy, terrorism, illegal trafficking and the destruction of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. Based on the deliberations, experience and input of more than 100 specialists from around the world, this timely volume provides a powerful overview of the state of our water world.

  17. Volcanic signals in oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Stenchikov, Georgiy L.


    Sulfate aerosols resulting from strong volcanic explosions last for 2–3 years in the lower stratosphere. Therefore it was traditionally believed that volcanic impacts produce mainly short-term, transient climate perturbations. However, the ocean integrates volcanic radiative cooling and responds over a wide range of time scales. The associated processes, especially ocean heat uptake, play a key role in ongoing climate change. However, they are not well constrained by observations, and attempts to simulate them in current climate models used for climate predictions yield a range of uncertainty. Volcanic impacts on the ocean provide an independent means of assessing these processes. This study focuses on quantification of the seasonal to multidecadal time scale response of the ocean to explosive volcanism. It employs the coupled climate model CM2.1, developed recently at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration\\'s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, to simulate the response to the 1991 Pinatubo and the 1815 Tambora eruptions, which were the largest in the 20th and 19th centuries, respectively. The simulated climate perturbations compare well with available observations for the Pinatubo period. The stronger Tambora forcing produces responses with higher signal-to-noise ratio. Volcanic cooling tends to strengthen the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Sea ice extent appears to be sensitive to volcanic forcing, especially during the warm season. Because of the extremely long relaxation time of ocean subsurface temperature and sea level, the perturbations caused by the Tambora eruption could have lasted well into the 20th century.

  18. Impacts of Ocean Acidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijma, Jelle (Alfred Wegener Inst., D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)) (and others)


    There is growing scientific evidence that, as a result of increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, absorption of CO{sub 2} by the oceans has already noticeably increased the average oceanic acidity from pre-industrial levels. This global threat requires a global response. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), continuing CO{sub 2} emissions in line with current trends could make the oceans up to 150% more acidic by 2100 than they were at the beginning of the Anthropocene. Acidification decreases the ability of the ocean to absorb additional atmospheric CO{sub 2}, which implies that future CO{sub 2} emissions are likely to lead to more rapid global warming. Ocean acidification is also problematic because of its negative effects on marine ecosystems, especially marine calcifying organisms, and marine resources and services upon which human societies largely depend such as energy, water, and fisheries. For example, it is predicted that by 2100 around 70% of all cold-water corals, especially those in the higher latitudes, will live in waters undersaturated in carbonate due to ocean acidification. Recent research indicates that ocean acidification might also result in increasing levels of jellyfish in some marine ecosystems. Aside from direct effects, ocean acidification together with other global change-induced impacts such as marine and coastal pollution and the introduction of invasive alien species are likely to result in more fragile marine ecosystems, making them more vulnerable to other environmental impacts resulting from, for example, coastal deforestation and widescale fisheries. The Marine Board-ESF Position Paper on the Impacts of Climate Change on the European Marine and Coastal Environment - Ecosystems indicated that presenting ocean acidification issues to policy makers is a key issue and challenge. Indeed, as the consequences of ocean acidification are expected to emerge rapidly and drastically, but are

  19. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  20. Ocean Physicochemistry versus Climate Change


    Góralski, Bogdan


    It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My today’s lecture will mark an attempt at ...

  1. Red ocean vs blue ocean strategies


    Λαΐνος, Ιάσονας


    This paper is about the strategies that a company can adopt in order to get a competitive advantage over its rivals, and thus be successful (Red Ocean Strategies). We also tried to explain what actually entrepreneurship is, to be able to understand why the corporate strategies are formed as they do, and why companies are choosing to follow them. The following project is a part of our master thesis that we will present for the University of Piraeus for the MBA-TQM master department. The thesis...

  2. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.


    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  3. The ocean planet. (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D


    The Blue Planet is 70% water, and all but 3% of it is salt water. Life on earth first evolved in the primordial soup of ancient seas, and though today's seas provide 99% of all living space on the planet, little is known about the world's oceans. However, the fact that the greatest threats to the integrity of our oceans come from land-based activities is becoming clear. Humankind is in the process of annihilating the coastal and ocean ecosystems and the wealth of biodiversity they harbor. Mounting population and development pressures have taken a grim toll on coastal and ocean resources. The trend arising from such growth is the chronic overexploitation of marine resources, whereby rapidly expanding coastal populations and the growth of cities have contributed to a rising tide of pollution in nearly all of the world's seas. This crisis is made worse by government inaction and a frustrating inability to enforce existing coastal and ocean management regulations. Such inability is mainly because concerned areas contain so many different types of regulations and involve so many levels of government, that rational planning and coordination of efforts are rendered impossible. Concerted efforts are needed by national governments and the international community to start preserving the ultimate source of all life on earth.

  4. 46 CFR 11.920 - Subjects for MODU endorsements. (United States)


    ... X X Medical care: Knowledge and use of: First aid X X X X X X X First response medical action X X X... variable load form X X X X X X X Evaluation of variable load form X X X X X X X Emergency procedures X X X... prevention of fires X X X X X X X Emergency procedures and contingency plans: Temporary repairs X X X X X...

  5. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Nisumaa


    Full Text Available The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additionally, carbonate system variables are often reported in different units, calculated using different sets of dissociation constants and on different pH scales. Hence the direct comparison of experimental results has been problematic and often misleading. The need was identified to (1 gather data on carbonate chemistry, biological and biogeochemical properties, and other ancillary data from published experimental data, (2 transform the information into common framework, and (3 make data freely available. The present paper is the outcome of an effort to integrate ocean carbonate chemistry data from the literature which has been supported by the European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis (EUR-OCEANS and the European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA. A total of 185 papers were identified, 100 contained enough information to readily compute carbonate chemistry variables, and 81 data sets were archived at PANGAEA – The Publishing Network for Geoscientific & Environmental Data. This data compilation is regularly updated as an ongoing mission of EPOCA.

    Data access:

  6. Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification (United States)

    Ekstrom, Julia A.; Suatoni, Lisa; Cooley, Sarah R.; Pendleton, Linwood H.; Waldbusser, George G.; Cinner, Josh E.; Ritter, Jessica; Langdon, Chris; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Gledhill, Dwight; Wellman, Katharine; Beck, Michael W.; Brander, Luke M.; Rittschof, Dan; Doherty, Carolyn; Edwards, Peter E. T.; Portela, Rosimeiry


    Ocean acidification is a global, long-term problem whose ultimate solution requires carbon dioxide reduction at a scope and scale that will take decades to accomplish successfully. Until that is achieved, feasible and locally relevant adaptation and mitigation measures are needed. To help to prioritize societal responses to ocean acidification, we present a spatially explicit, multidisciplinary vulnerability analysis of coastal human communities in the United States. We focus our analysis on shelled mollusc harvests, which are likely to be harmed by ocean acidification. Our results highlight US regions most vulnerable to ocean acidification (and why), important knowledge and information gaps, and opportunities to adapt through local actions. The research illustrates the benefits of integrating natural and social sciences to identify actions and other opportunities while policy, stakeholders and scientists are still in relatively early stages of developing research plans and responses to ocean acidification.

  7. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A


    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  8. Pollution in the open oceans: 2009-2013


    Boelens, R.; Kershaw, Peter; Angelidis, M.; Baker, Alexander; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bowmer, T.; Hedgecock, I.; Tyack, Peter


    This review of pollution in the open oceans updates a report on this topic prepared by GESAMP five years previously (Reports and Studies No. 79, GESAMP, 2009). The latter report, the first from GESAMP focusing specifically on the oceans beyond the 200 m depth contour, was prepared for purposes of the Assessment of Assessments, the preparatory phase of a regular process for assessing the state of the marine environment, led jointly by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Int...

  9. Causes of strong ocean heating during glacial periods (United States)

    Zimov, N.; Zimov, S. A.


    During the last deglaciation period, the strongest climate changes occurred across the North Atlantic regions. Analyses of borehole temperatures from the Greenland ice sheet have yielded air temperature change estimates of 25°C over the deglaciation period (Dahl-Jensen et al. 1998). Such huge temperature changes cannot currently be explained in the frames of modern knowledge about climate. We propose that glacial-interglacial cycles are connected with gradual warming of ocean interior waters over the course of glaciations and quick transport of accumulated heat from ocean to the atmosphere during the deglaciation periods. Modern day ocean circulation is dominated by thermal convection with cold waters subsiding in the Northern Atlantic and filling up the ocean interior with cold and heavy water. However during the glaciation thermal circulation stopped and ocean circulation was driven by 'haline pumps' -Red and Mediterranean seas connected with ocean with only narrow but deep straights acts as evaporative basins, separating ocean water into fresh water which returns to the ocean surface (precipitation) and warm but salty, and therefore heavy, water which flows down to the ocean floor. This haline pump is stratifying the ocean, allowing warmer water locate under the colder water and thus stopping thermal convection in the ocean. Additional ocean interior warming is driven by geothermal heat flux and decomposition of organic rain. To test the hypothesis we present simple ocean box model that describes thermohaline circulation in the World Ocean. The first box is the Red and Mediterranean sea, the second is united high-latitude seas, the third is the ocean surface, and the fourth the ocean interior. The volume of these water masses and straight cross-sections are taken to be close to real values. We have accepted that the exchange of water between boxes is proportional to the difference in water density in these boxes, Sun energy inputs to the ocean and sea surface

  10. An Ocean of Possibilities (United States)

    Williams, Doug


    For more than one hundred years teachers have paddled beside the great ocean of mathematical adventure. Between them they have taught millions of young people. A few have dived in and kept swimming, some have lingered on the shore playing in pools, but most have dipped their toes in and run like heck in the other direction never to return. There…

  11. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics (United States)


    roughly 28°S. The second is the Hawaiian Island Chain, extending to Midway Island at 28°N, 177°W and finally the Emperor Seamount chain running due...dimension array centered near Ascension. The climatology ocean (WOA09) showed very little seasonal dependence or change from the geodesic and this is

  12. Enhanced Ocean Scatterometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fois, F.


    An ocean scatterometer is an active microwave instrument which is designed to determine the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of the sea surface. Scatterometers transmit pulses towards the sea surface and measure the reflected energy. The primary objective of spaceborne scatterometers is to

  13. Power from Ocean Waves. (United States)

    Newman, J. N.


    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  14. Investigating Ocean Pollution. (United States)

    LeBeau, Sue


    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  15. Ocean Dumping Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Act provides for the control of dumping of wastes and other substances in the ocean in accordance with the London Convention of 1972 on Prevention of Marine Pollution by the Dumping of Wastes and other Matter to which Canada is a Party. Radioactive wastes are included in the prohibited and restricted substances. (NEA)

  16. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.


    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  17. Zoogeography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.S.S.

    The distribution pattern of zooplankton in the Indian Ocean is briefly reviewed on a within and between ocean patterns and is limited to species within a quite restricted sort of groups namely, Copepoda, Chaetognatha, Pteropoda and Euphausiacea...

  18. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Temperature (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  19. OW CCMP Ocean Surface Wind (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) Ocean Surface Wind Vector Analyses (Atlas et al., 2011) provide a consistent, gap-free long-term time-series of monthly...

  20. OW ASCAT Ocean Surface Winds (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard the EUMETSAT MetOp polar-orbiting satellite provides ocean surface wind observations by means of radar...

  1. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  2. Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains an operational Satellite Ocean Heat Content Suite (SOHCS) product generated by NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information...

  3. ocean_city_md.grd (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  4. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  5. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  6. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  7. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  8. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities. (United States)

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  11. Energy from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter discusses the role energy from rivers and oceans may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of using energy from rivers and oceans, hydropower assessment including resources, technology and costs, and environmental and regulatory issues, ocean thermal energy conversion including technology and costs and environmental issues, tidal power, and wave power

  12. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD (United States)


    ... FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD. In recent years, there have been unfortunate instances of jets and planes...

  13. MERSEA, the European Gate to Ocean Data (United States)

    Blanc, F. P.; Manzella, G.; Maudire, G.; Bahurel, P.; Bell, M.; Haines, K.


    from partners to 1- Apply or define standard for ocean products and associated information, 2- Harmonise the data exchange procedure (ie. rely on a decentralised but compatible system architecture for distribution on Internet), 3- Allow federation and cluster of individual data centers in order to facilitate the routine real-time exchange of high quality and appropriate environmental information, both in real-time and delayed mode (ie. set up a unique common ocean portal, an information management system for ocean products and services on Internet, which will allow the users to identify and access spatial or geographical information from a wide range of sources, from the local level to the global level, in real time and in an inter-operable way for a variety of uses). This presentation will comment on this member chart and requirements, and the ocean portal concept. We will review here also what has bee done for the precursor project Mersea Strand-1 and strengths and weaknesses raised (the participating ocean models FOAM- United Kingdom, Mercator- France , MFS Italy, Topaz- Norway , the unified framework, the distribution choice with Opendap e-technology, the manipulation and visualisation for education and public outreach or real-time complementary intercomparison expertise with a Live Access Server). [See also S. Baudel's presentation for an overview of what already exists.

  14. NCEI Standard Product: World Ocean Database (WOD) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the world's largest publicly available uniform format quality controlled ocean profile dataset. Ocean profile data are sets of...

  15. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  16. Remote Sensing of Ocean Color (United States)

    Dierssen, Heidi M.; Randolph, Kaylan

    The oceans cover over 70% of the earth's surface and the life inhabiting the oceans play an important role in shaping the earth's climate. Phytoplankton, the microscopic organisms in the surface ocean, are responsible for half of the photosynthesis on the planet. These organisms at the base of the food web take up light and carbon dioxide and fix carbon into biological structures releasing oxygen. Estimating the amount of microscopic phytoplankton and their associated primary productivity over the vast expanses of the ocean is extremely challenging from ships. However, as phytoplankton take up light for photosynthesis, they change the color of the surface ocean from blue to green. Such shifts in ocean color can be measured from sensors placed high above the sea on satellites or aircraft and is called "ocean color remote sensing." In open ocean waters, the ocean color is predominantly driven by the phytoplankton concentration and ocean color remote sensing has been used to estimate the amount of chlorophyll a, the primary light-absorbing pigment in all phytoplankton. For the last few decades, satellite data have been used to estimate large-scale patterns of chlorophyll and to model primary productivity across the global ocean from daily to interannual timescales. Such global estimates of chlorophyll and primary productivity have been integrated into climate models and illustrate the important feedbacks between ocean life and global climate processes. In coastal and estuarine systems, ocean color is significantly influenced by other light-absorbing and light-scattering components besides phytoplankton. New approaches have been developed to evaluate the ocean color in relationship to colored dissolved organic matter, suspended sediments, and even to characterize the bathymetry and composition of the seafloor in optically shallow waters. Ocean color measurements are increasingly being used for environmental monitoring of harmful algal blooms, critical coastal habitats

  17. The Volvo Ocean Adventure (United States)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.


    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 ( Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  18. Open ocean tide modelling (United States)

    Parke, M. E.


    Two trends evident in global tidal modelling since the first GEOP conference in 1972 are described. The first centers on the incorporation of terms for ocean loading and gravitational self attraction into Laplace's tidal equations. The second centers on a better understanding of the problem of near resonant modelling and the need for realistic maps of tidal elevation for use by geodesists and geophysicists. Although new models still show significant differences, especially in the South Atlantic, there are significant similarities in many of the world's oceans. This allows suggestions to be made for future locations for bottom pressure gauge measurements. Where available, estimates of M2 tidal dissipation from the new models are significantly lower than estimates from previous models.

  19. On the Spot: Oceans


    Male, Alan; Butterfield, Moira


    This a children's non-fiction, knowledge bearing picture book that is part of a Reader's Digest series called 'On the Spot'. The series deals with a range of topics related to the natural world and this one introduces its young audience to the ecosystems of the oceans. \\ud The publication was illustrated and designed by the author (Alan Male) and is technically described as a board book with interactive 'pop up' features, specifically conceived to engage children's discovery and learning thro...

  20. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina


    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  1. Ocean Bottom Seismic Scattering (United States)


    EPR, the Clipperton and Orozco fracture zones , and along the coast of Mexico, were recorded for a two month period using ocean bottom seismometers...67. Tuthill, J.D., Lewis, B.R., and Garmany, J.D., 1981, Stonely waves, Lopez Island noise, and deep sea noise from I to 5 hz, Marine Geophysical...Patrol Pell Marine Science Library d/o Coast Guard R & D Center University of Rhode Island Avery Point Narragansett Bay Campus Groton, CT 06340

  2. Turbines in the ocean (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.


    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  3. Ocean Observations of Climate Change (United States)

    Chambers, Don


    The ocean influences climate by storing and transporting large amounts of heat, freshwater, and carbon, and exchanging these properties with the atmosphere. About 93% of the excess heat energy stored by the earth over the last 50 years is found in the ocean. More than three quarters of the total exchange of water between the atmosphere and the earth's surface through evaporation and precipitation takes place over the oceans. The ocean contains 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere and is at present acting to slow the rate of climate change by absorbing one quarter of human emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning, cement production, deforestation and other land use change.Here I summarize the observational evidence of change in the ocean, with an emphasis on basin- and global-scale changes relevant to climate. These include: changes in subsurface ocean temperature and heat content, evidence for regional changes in ocean salinity and their link to changes in evaporation and precipitation over the oceans, evidence of variability and change of ocean current patterns relevant to climate, observations of sea level change and predictions over the next century, and biogeochemical changes in the ocean, including ocean acidification.

  4. Springer handbook of ocean engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Xiros, Nikolaos


    The handbook is the definitive reference for the interdisciplinary field that is ocean engineering. It integrates the coverage of fundamental and applied material and encompasses a diverse spectrum of systems, concepts and operations in the maritime environment, as well as providing a comprehensive update on contemporary, leading-edge ocean technologies. Coverage includes but is not limited to; an overview of ocean science, ocean signals and instrumentation, coastal structures, developments in ocean energy technologies, and ocean vehicles and automation. The handbook will be of interest to practitioners in a range of offshore industries and naval establishments as well as academic researchers and graduate students in ocean, coastal, offshore, and marine engineering and naval architecture.

  5. Ocean circulation generated magnetic signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoj, C.; Kuvshinov, A.; Maus, S.


    Conducting ocean water, as it flows through the Earth's magnetic field, generates secondary electric and magnetic fields. An assessment of the ocean-generated magnetic fields and their detectability may be of importance for geomagnetism and oceanography. Motivated by the clear identification...... of ocean tidal signatures in the CHAMP magnetic field data we estimate the ocean magnetic signals of steady flow using a global 3-D EM numerical solution. The required velocity data are from the ECCO ocean circulation experiment and alternatively from the OCCAM model for higher resolution. We assume...... of the magnetic field, as compared to the ECCO simulation. Besides the expected signatures of the global circulation patterns, we find significant seasonal variability of ocean magnetic signals in the Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Compared to seasonal variation, interannual variations produce weaker signals....

  6. Radiological aspects of sea bed dumping in the deep oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.


    In order to control coastal discharges or ocean dumping of any kind of material, it is necessary to determine a release rate. This can only come from a knowledge of the composition and chemical form of the source materials, the distribution and bioavailability of these materials in the ocean ecosystem, the degree and rates of bioaccumulation and the actual or potential use of the ocean resources. With this information release rates within acceptable limits for man and the ecosystem can then be determined. Today, probably the only situations which apply this approach are the controlled disposal of radioactive wastes. In this paper a recent radiological assessment of the dumping of packaged radioactive wastes on the seabed is discussed and some environmental aspects of the United States Department of Energy program are described examining the feasibility of the emplacement of contained radioactive wastes within the deep ocean sediments

  7. Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Frigaard, Peter

    In October 2004, the Co-ordination Action on Ocean Energy (CA-OE) was launched, co-financed by the European Commission, under the Renewable Energy Technologies priority within the 6th Framework programme, contract number 502701, chaired by Kim Nielsen, Rambøll, Denmark. The project involves 41...... partners. In general the public is not aware of the development of ocean energy and its exploitation. There is a need to make a united effort from the developers and research community to present the various principles and results in a coordinated manner with public appeal. The main objectives of the Co......-ordination Action on Ocean Energy are: To develop a common knowledge base necessary for coherent research and development policiesTo bring a co-ordinated approach within key areas of ocean energy research and development.To provide a forum for the longer term marketing of promising research developments...

  8. Ocean Tide Loading Computation (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr


    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  9. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E


    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  10. Observations: Oceanic climate change and sea level

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bindoff, N.L.; Willebrand, J.; Artale, V.; Cazenave, A; Gregory, J.; Gulev, S.; Hanawa, K.; LeQuere, C.; Levitus, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Shum, C.K.; Talley, L.D.; Unnikrishnan, A

    change is 10.9 ± 3.1 × 10 22 J or 0.14 ± 0.04 W m –2 (data from Levitus et al., 2005a). All of these estimates are per unit area of Earth surface. Despite the fact that there are differences between these three ocean heat content estimates due... to the data used, quality control applied, instrumental biases, temporal and spatial averaging and analysis methods (Appendix 5.A.1), they are consistent with each other giving a high degree of confidence for their use in climate change studies. The global...

  11. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Phytoplankton Physiology and Nutrition for Fishery-based Food Webs (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rising atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are predicted to decrease the pH of high-latitude oceans by 0.3–0.5 units by 2100. Because of their limited capacity for ion...

  12. Monitoring of ocean storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)


    It has been proposed that atmospheric CO2 accumulation could be slowed by capture of CO2 from point sources and subsequent storage of that CO2 in the ocean. If applied, such sequestration efforts would need to be monitored for compliance, effectiveness, and unintended consequences. Aboveground inspection and monitoring of facilities and practices, combined with ocean observations, could assure compliance with ocean sequestration guidelines and regulations. Ocean observations could be made using a variety of sensors mounted on moorings or underwater gliders. Long-term effectiveness and leakage to the atmosphere must be estimated from models, since on large spatial scales it will be impossible to observationally distinguish carbon stored by a project from variable concentrations of background carbon. Furthermore, the ocean naturally would absorb roughly 80% of fossil fuel CO2 released to the atmosphere within a millennium. This means that most of the CO2 sequestered in the ocean that leaks out to the atmosphere will be reabsorbed by the ocean. However, there is no observational way to distinguish remaining carbon from reabsorbed carbon. The science of monitoring unintended consequences in the deep ocean interior is at a primitive state. Little is understood about ecosystems of the deep ocean interior; and even less is understood about how those ecosystems would respond to added CO2. High priority research objectives should be (1) to improve our understanding of the natural ecosystems of the deep ocean, and (2) to improve our understanding of the response of these ecosystems to increased oceanic CO2 concentrations and decreased ocean pH.

  13. Paleomagnetism continents and oceans

    CERN Document Server

    McElhinny, Michael W; Dmowska, Renata; Holton, James R; Rossby, H Thomas


    Paleomagnetism is the study of the fossil magnetism in rocks. It has been paramount in determining that the continents have drifted over the surface of the Earth throughout geological time. The fossil magnetism preserved in the ocean floor has demonstrated how continental drift takes place through the process of sea-floor spreading. The methods and techniques used in paleomagnetic studies of continental rocks and of the ocean floor are described and then applied to determining horizontal movements of the Earth''s crust over geological time. An up-to-date review of global paleomagnetic data enables 1000 millionyears of Earth history to be summarized in terms of the drift of the major crustal blocks over the surface of the Earth. The first edition of McElhinny''s book was heralded as a "classic and definitive text." It thoroughly discussed the theory of geomagnetism, the geologicreversals of the Earth''s magnetic field, and the shifting of magnetic poles. In the 25 years since the highly successful first editio...

  14. Blue ocean leadership. (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée


    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  15. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  16. The ocean circulation inverse problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wunsch, C


    .... This book addresses the problem of inferring the state of the ocean circulation, understanding it dynamically, and even forecasting it through a quantitative combination of theory and observation...

  17. Bioenergetics of photoheterotrophic bacteria in the oceans. (United States)

    Kirchman, David L; Hanson, Thomas E


    Photoheterotrophic microbes, such as proteorhodopsin (PR)-based phototrophic (PRP) and aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, are well known to be abundant in the oceans, potentially playing unique roles in biogeochemical cycles. However, the contribution of phototrophy to the energy requirements of these bacteria has not been quantitatively examined to date. To better understand the implications of photoheterophy in the oceans, we calculated energy benefits and costs of phototrophy and compared net benefits with maintenance costs. Benefits depend on the number of photosynthetic units (PSUs), absorption cross-section area of each PSU as function of wavelength, the in situ light quality, and the energy yield per absorbed photon. For costs we considered the energy required for the synthesis of pigments, amino acids and proteins in each PSU. Our calculations indicate that AAP bacteria harvest more light energy than do PRP bacteria, but the costs of phototrophy are much higher for AAP bacteria. Still, the net energy gained by AAP bacteria is often sufficient to meet maintenance costs, while that is not the case for PRP bacteria except with high light intensities and large numbers of proteorhodopsin molecules per cell. The low costs and simplicity of PR-based phototrophy explain the high abundance of proteorhodopsin genes in the oceans. However, even for AAP bacteria, the net energy yield of phototrophy is apparently too low to influence the distribution of photoheterotrophic bacteria among various marine systems. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Ocean Current Power Generator. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G. A.


    The Ocean Power Generator is both technically and economically suitable for deployment in the Gulf Stream from the US Navy facility in Dania, Florida. Yet to be completed is the calibration test in the Chesapeake Bay with the prototype dual hydroturbine Underwater Electric Kite. For the production units a revised design includes two ballast tanks mounted as pontoons to provide buoyancy and depth control. The power rating of the Ocean Power Generator has been doubled to 200 kW ready for insertion into the utility grid. The projected cost for a 10 MW installation is $3.38 per watt, a cost that is consistent with wind power pricing when it was in its deployment infancy, and a cost that is far better than photovoltaics after 25 years of research and development. The Gulf Stream flows 24 hours per day, and water flow is both environmentally and ecologically perfect as a renewable energy source. No real estate purchases are necessary, and you cannot see, hear, smell, or touch an Ocean Power Generator.

  19. Ocean acidification impacts on black sea bass and scup embryos, responses of finfish in laboratory experiments (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and scup (Stenotomus chrysops) compose important recreational and commercial fisheries along the United States Atlantic coast....

  20. Pelagic ecology of the South West Indian Ocean Ridge seamounts: Introduction and overview (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.


    The Indian Ocean was described by Behrman (1981) as the "Forlorn Ocean", a region neglected by science up to the late-1950s. For example, the Challenger Expedition from 1872 to 1876 largely avoided the Indian Ocean, sailing from Cape Town into Antarctic waters sampling around the Prince Edward Islands, Kerguelen Island and Crozet Islands before heading to Melbourne. From 1876 to the 1950s there were expeditions on several vessels including the Valdivia, Gauss and Planet (Germany), the Snellius (Netherlands), Discovery II, MahaBiss (United Kingdom), Albatross (Sweden), Dana and Galathea (Denmark; Behrman, 1981). There was no coordination between these efforts and overall the Indian Ocean, especially the deep sea remained perhaps the most poorly explored of the world's oceans. This situation was largely behind the multilateral effort represented by the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIEO), which was coordinated by the Scientific Committee for Ocean Research (SCOR), and which ran from 1959-1965. Work during this expedition focused on the Arabian Sea, the area to the northwest of Australia and the waters over the continental shelves and slopes of coastal states in the region. Subsequently several large-scale international oceanographic programmes have included significant components in the Indian Ocean, including the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE). These studies were focused on physical oceanographic measurements and biogeochemistry and whilst the Indian Ocean is still less understood than other large oceans it is now integrated into the major ocean observation systems (Talley et al., 2011). This cannot be said for many aspects of the biology of the region, despite the fact that the Indian Ocean is one of the places where exploitation of marine living resources is still growing (FAO, 2016). The biology of the deep Indian Ocean outside of the Arabian Sea is particularly poorly understood given the presence

  1. Riding the ocean waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yemm, Richard


    It is claimed that important developments over the past five years mean that there will be a range of competing pre-commercial wave-energy systems by 2002. The generation costs should be on a par with biomass schemes and offshore wind systems. The environmental advantages of wave energy are extolled. Ocean Power Delivery (OPD) have produced a set of criteria to be satisfied for a successful wave power scheme and these are listed. OPD is responsible for the snake-like Pelamis device which is a semi-submerged articulated series of cylindrical sections connected through hinged joints. How the wave-induced movement of the hinges is used to generate electricity is explained. The system is easily installed and can be completely removed at the end of its life

  2. The Ocean deserts:salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their

    KAUST Repository

    Carton, Jim


    The Ocean deserts: salt budgets of northern subtropical oceans and their relationship to climate variability The high salinity near surface pools of the subtropical oceans are the oceanic deserts, with high levels of evaporation and low levels of precip

  3. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee


    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  4. Bringing an Ocean to School. (United States)

    MacMillan, Mark W.


    Describes a school program in which two sixth-grade science classes researched, created, and put together an ocean museum targeted at kindergarten through eighth graders who are geographically distanced from the ocean. Details the process for investigating topical areas, organizing teams of students, researching, writing, creating displays, and…

  5. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  6. Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen (United States)

    Gilbert, Denis


    Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

  7. Economics of ocean ranching: experiences, outlook and theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ragnar Arnason


    "The author distinguishes between ocean fish farming and ocean ranching. The distinguishing characteristic of ocean ranching is that the released species are unassisted once released into the ocean...

  8. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.


    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  9. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, C.T.


    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment

  10. Ocean Uses: Oregon and Washington (PROUA) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Pacific Regional Ocean Uses Atlas (PROUA) Project is an innovative partnership between NOAA and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) designed to...

  11. Superficial mineral resources of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Hashimi, N.H.; Gujar, A; Valsangkar, A

    The sea floor of the Indian Ocean and the continental margins bordering the ocean are covered by a wide variety of terrigenous, biogenous and anthigenic mineral deposits. The biogenous deposits in the Indian Ocean comprise the corals on shallow...

  12. Gravity Field Atlas of the S. Ocean (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Gravity Field Atlas of the Southern Ocean from GEOSAT is MGG Report 7. In many areas of the global ocean, the depth of the seafloor is not well known because...

  13. NCEP Global Ocean Data Assimilation System (GODAS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GODAS dataset is a real-time ocean analysis and a reanalysis. It is used for monitoring, retrospective analysis as well as for providing oceanic initial...

  14. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  15. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM): Global (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) and U.S. Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation (NCODA) 3-day, daily forecast at approximately 9-km (1/12-degree)...

  16. Ocean warming ameliorates the negative effects of ocean acidification on Paracentrotus lividus larval development and settlement. (United States)

    García, Eliseba; Clemente, Sabrina; Hernández, José Carlos


    Ocean warming and acidification both impact marine ecosystems. All organisms have a limited body temperature range, outside of which they become functionally constrained. Beyond the absolute extremes of this range, they cannot survive. It is hypothesized that some stressors can present effects that interact with other environmental variables, such as ocean acidification (OA) that have the potential to narrow the thermal range where marine species are functional. An organism's response to ocean acidification can therefore be highly dependent on thermal conditions. This study evaluated the combined effects of predicted ocean warming conditions and acidification, on survival, development, and settlement, of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Nine combined treatments of temperature (19.0, 20.5 and 22.5 °C) and pH (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 units) were carried out. All of the conditions tested were either within the current natural ranges of seawater pH and temperature or are within the ranges that have been predicted for the end of the century, in the sampling region (Canary Islands). Our results indicated that the negative effects of low pH on P. lividus larval development and settlement will be mitigated by a rise in seawater temperature, up to a thermotolerance threshold. Larval development and settlement performance of the sea urchin P. lividus was enhanced by a slight increase in temperature, even under lowered pH conditions. However, the species did show negative responses to the levels of ocean warming and acidification that have been predicted for the turn of the century. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte


    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  18. Ocean gliders as key component within the AORAC-SA (United States)

    Barrera, C.; Hernandez Brito, J.; Castro, A.; Rueda, M. J.; Llinas, O.


    The Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance Coordination and Support Action (AORAC-SA) is designed to provide scientific, technical and logistical support to the EU in developing and implementing transAtlantic Marine Research Cooperation between the European Union, the United States of America and Canada. The Coordination and Support Action (CSA) is carried out within the framework of the Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance (AORA) as outlined in the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation (May 2013). The CSA will be responsible for the organization of expert and stakeholder meetings, workshops and conferences required by the AORA and related to identified research priorities support actions and other initiatives as they arise, taking into account related Horizon 2020 supported transAtlantic projects and on-going national and EU collaborative projects. The AORAC-SA support and governance structure comprises a Secretariat and Management Team, guided by a high-level Operational Board, representative of the major European Marine Research Programming and Funding Organizations as well as those of the USA and Canada. As example of this research cooperative framework, ocean gliders have become nowadays a common, innovative and sustainable ocean-observations tool for the Atlantic basin, linking research groups, govermental institutions and private companies from both sides in terms of technical developments, transatlantic missions in partnership, training forums, etc. aiming to develop common practices and protocols for a better ocean resources management and understanding. Within this context, the Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN), as AORAC-SA partner, is working on specific actions like ocean glider observations programs (endurance line) by AtlantOS project (, related new technical developments by NeXOS FP-7 project ( and a yearly International Glider School forum hosting (

  19. NOAA Water Level Predictions Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  20. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro


    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  1. Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction in Climate Changes (United States)

    Liu, W. Timothy


    The diagram, which attests the El Nino teleconnection observed by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) in 1997, is an example of the results of our research in air-sea interaction - the core component of our three-part contribution to the Climate Variability Program. We have established an interplay among scientific research, which turns spacebased data into knowledge, a push in instrument technology, which improves observations of climate variability, and an information system, which produces and disseminates new data to support our scientific research. Timothy Liu led the proposal for advanced technology, in response to the NASA Post-2002 Request for Information. The sensor was identified as a possible mission for continuous ocean surface wind measurement at higher spatial resolution, and with the unique capability to measure ocean surface salinity. He is participating in the Instrument Incubator Program to improve the antenna technology, and is initiating a study to integrate the concept on Japanese missions. He and his collaborators have set up a system to produce and disseminate high level (gridded) ocean surface wind/stress data from NSCAT and European missions. The data system is being expanded to produce real-time gridded ocean surface winds from Quikscat, and precipitation and evaporation from the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission. It will form the basis for a spacebased data analysis system which will include momentum, heat and water fluxes. The study on 1997 El Nino teleconnection illustrates our interdisciplinary and multisensor approach to study climate variability. The diagram shows that the collapse of trade wind and the westerly wind anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific led to the equatorial ocean warming. The equatorial wind anomalies are connected to the anomalous cyclonic wind pattern in the northeast Pacific. The anomalous warming along the west coast of the United States is the result of the movement of the pre-existing warm sea surface

  2. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama; Yeh, Xiyang; Brantner, Gerald; Soe, Brian; Kim, Boyeon; Ganguly, Shameek; Stuart, Hannah; Wang, Shiquan; Cutkosky, Mark; Edsinger, Aaron; Mullins, Phillip; Barham, Mitchell; Voolstra, Christian R.; Salama, Khaled N.; L'Hour, Michel; Creuze, Vincent


    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  3. Ocean One: A Robotic Avatar for Oceanic Discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, Oussama


    The promise of oceanic discovery has long intrigued scientists and explorers, whether with the idea of studying underwater ecology and climate change or with the hope of uncovering natural resources and historic secrets buried deep in archaeological sites. This quest to explore the oceans requires skilled human access, yet much of the oceans are inaccessible to human divers; nearly ninetenths of the ocean floor is at 1 km or deeper [1]. Accessing these depths is imperative since factors such as pollution and deep-sea trawling threaten ecology and archaeological sites. While remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are inadequate for the task, a robotic avatar could go where humans cannot and still embody human intelligence and intentions through immersive interfaces.

  4. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.


    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  5. 12. Oceans and coasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paden, M.; Seligman, D.; Weber, M.


    The trends of the past 20 years show increasing coastal pollution, accelerated destruction of coastal marine habitats, and, in many areas, a declining catch of marine fish species that have been affected by overfishing and pollution. Stopping land-based pollution, especially pollutants from runoff, requires entering a new political arena, contesting powerful interests in agriculture and industry, and dealing with a nearly worldwide economic framework that allows land-based pollutant sources to dispose of their wastes in waterways at no direct cost. The paper discusses these topics under the following headings: pollution trends (nutrient pollution, human health problems, toxic chemical pollution); coastal habitat destruction (coral reef bleaching, threats to the ocean's surface); fisheries trends; aquaculture; a regional approach to preventing pollution [trends in marine pollution control, upstream activities that pollute coastal waters (logging, agriculture, dam construction and irrigation, cities and industry, air pollution)], vulnerability of coastal waters to pollution, coordinating pollution control (linking the land and the water), case studies of watershed/coastal management (Phuket Province, Thailand; the Chesapeake Bay; the Mediterranean)

  6. Radioactivity in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.


    While the revised ''Definition and Recommendations'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) restricts the dumping of the radioactive wastes that exceed specified concentration/mass limits, the acceptance of the concept of applying the release rate limits as developed by the IAEA provides a rational basis for further considering the emplacement of radioactive wastes in seabed as an attractive and acceptable alternative to terrestrial geological repositories. The technical basis for the present radiological assessment is on release rate limits and not on dumping rates. However, to meet the present requirements of the London Convention, it is necessary to express to Definition in terms of the concentration in a single site and the assumed upper limit on mass dumping rate at a single site of 100,000 tons/year with the added proviso of release rate limits for the finite ocean volume of 10 17 m 3 . This results in the concentration limits of a) 1 Ci/ton for α-emitters but limited to 10 -1 Ci/ton 226 Ra and supported 210 Po; b) 10 2 Ci/ton for β/γ-emitters with half-lives of at least 0.5 yr (excluding 3 H) and the mixtures of β/γ-emitters of unknown half-lives; and c) 10 6 Ci/ton for 3 H and the β/γ-emitters with half-lives less than 0.5 yr. (Yamashita, S.)

  7. Chaotic advection in the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshel' , Konstantin V; Prants, Sergei V [V.I. Il' ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far-Eastern Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)


    The problem of chaotic advection of passive scalars in the ocean and its topological, dynamical, and fractal properties are considered from the standpoint of the theory of dynamical systems. Analytic and numerical results on Lagrangian transport and mixing in kinematic and dynamic chaotic advection models are described for meandering jet currents, topographical eddies in a barotropic ocean, and a two-layer baroclinic ocean. Laboratory experiments on hydrodynamic flows in rotating tanks as an imitation of geophysical chaotic advection are described. Perspectives of a dynamical system approach in physical oceanography are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  8. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo


    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  9. Oceanic ferromanganese deposits: Future resources and past-ocean recorders

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Nair, R.R.; Parthiban, G.; Pattan, J.N.

    decades following the Mero's publication witnessed global "Nodule Rush". The technological leaders of those years like US, Germany, Japan, France, New-Zealand, and USSR have conducted major scientific expeditions to the Central Pacific to map...-Mn-(Cu+Ni+Co) in ferromanganese deposits from the Central Indian Ocean (Source: Jauhari, 1987). OCEANIC FERROMANGANESE DEPOSITS 45 DISTRIBUTION The nodules occur invariably in almost all the deep-sea basins witnessing low sedimentation rates. But abundant ore grade deposits...

  10. Operational Ocean Modelling with the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (United States)

    2008-11-01 TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV2008 A417 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) dr. F.P.A. Lam dr. ir. M.W. Schouten dr. L.A. te Raa...area of theory and implementation of numerical schemes and parameterizations, ocean models have grown from experimental tools to full-blown ocean...sound propagation through mesoscale features using 3-D coupled mode theory , Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, USA. 1992. [9] Robinson

  11. Oceanic Precondition and Evolution of the Indian Ocean Dipole Events (United States)

    Horii, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Ueki, I.; Hase, H.; Mizuno, K.


    Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) is one of the interannual climate variability in the Indian Ocean, associated with the negative (positive) SST anomaly in the eastern (western) equatorial region developing during boreal summer/autumn seasons. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has been deploying TRITON buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean since October 2001. Details of subsurface ocean conditions associated with IOD events were observed by the mooring buoys in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean in 2006, 2007, and 2008. In the 2006 IOD event, large-scale sea surface signals in the tropical Indian Ocean associated with the positive IOD started in August 2006, and the anomalous conditions continued until December 2006. Data from the mooring buoys, however, captured the first appearance of the negative temperature anomaly at the thermocline depth with strong westward current anomalies in May 2006, about three months earlier than the development of the surface signatures. Similar appearance of negative temperature anomalies in the subsurface were also observed in 2007 and 2008, while the amplitude, the timing, and the relation to the surface layer were different among the events. The implications of the subsurface conditions for the occurrences of these IOD events are discussed.

  12. ONR Ocean Wave Dynamics Workshop (United States)

    In anticipation of the start (in Fiscal Year 1988) of a new Office of Naval Research (ONR) Accelerated Research Initiative (ARI) on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics, a workshop was held August 5-7, 1986, at Woods Hole, Mass., to discuss new ideas and directions of research. This new ARI on Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics is a 5-year effort that is organized by the ONR Physical Oceanography Program in cooperation with the ONR Fluid Mechanics Program and the Physical Oceanography Branch at the Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA). The central theme is improvement of our understanding of the basic physics and dynamics of surface wave phenomena, with emphasis on the following areas: precise air-sea coupling mechanisms,dynamics of nonlinear wave-wave interaction under realistic environmental conditions,wave breaking and dissipation of energy,interaction between surface waves and upper ocean boundary layer dynamics, andsurface statistical and boundary layer coherent structures.

  13. Oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, B.N.

    This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...

  14. Ocean tides for satellite geodesy (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.


    Spherical harmonic tidal solutions have been obtained at the frequencies of the 32 largest luni-solar tides using prior theory of the author. That theory was developed for turbulent, nonglobal, self-gravitating, and loading oceans possessing realistic bathymetry and linearized bottom friction; the oceans satisfy no-flow boundary conditions at coastlines. In this theory the eddy viscosity and bottom drag coefficients are treated as spatially uniform. Comparison of the predicted degree-2 components of the Mf, P1, and M2 tides with those from numerical and satellite-based tide models allows the ocean friction parameters to be estimated at long and short periods. Using the 32 tide solutions, the frequency dependence of tidal admittance is investigated, and the validity of sideband tide models used in satellite orbit analysis is examined. The implications of admittance variability for oceanic resonances are also explored.

  15. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  16. Directional spectrum of ocean waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A; Gouveia, A; Nagarajan, R.

    This paper describes a methodology for obtaining the directional spectrum of ocean waves from time series measurement of wave elevation at several gauges arranged in linear or polygonal arrays. Results of simulated studies using sinusoidal wave...

  17. Laboratory Models of Ocean Circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitehead, John


    ...). The subsequent studies were then split into two separate experiments involving convection in the two types of configurations which are likely to produce the very coldest water in the oceans, one...

  18. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities. (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L


    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  19. Mechanical Extraction of Power From Ocean Currents and Tides (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Chao, Yi


    A proposed scheme for generating electric power from rivers and from ocean currents, tides, and waves is intended to offer economic and environmental advantages over prior such schemes, some of which are at various stages of implementation, others of which have not yet advanced beyond the concept stage. This scheme would be less environmentally objectionable than are prior schemes that involve the use of dams to block rivers and tidal flows. This scheme would also not entail the high maintenance costs of other proposed schemes that call for submerged electric generators and cables, which would be subject to degradation by marine growth and corrosion. A basic power-generation system according to the scheme now proposed would not include any submerged electrical equipment. The submerged portion of the system would include an all-mechanical turbine/pump unit that would superficially resemble a large land-based wind turbine (see figure). The turbine axis would turn slowly as it captured energy from the local river flow, ocean current, tidal flow, or flow from an ocean-wave device. The turbine axis would drive a pump through a gearbox to generate an enclosed flow of water, hydraulic fluid, or other suitable fluid at a relatively high pressure [typically approx.500 psi (approx.3.4 MPa)]. The pressurized fluid could be piped to an onshore or offshore facility, above the ocean surface, where it would be used to drive a turbine that, in turn, would drive an electric generator. The fluid could be recirculated between the submerged unit and the power-generation facility in a closed flow system; alternatively, if the fluid were seawater, it could be taken in from the ocean at the submerged turbine/pump unit and discharged back into the ocean from the power-generation facility. Another alternative would be to use the pressurized flow to charge an elevated reservoir or other pumped-storage facility, from whence fluid could later be released to drive a turbine/generator unit at a

  20. Measuring Ocean Literacy: What teens understand about the ocean using the Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE) (United States)

    Greely, T. M.; Lodge, A.


    Ocean issues with conceptual ties to science and global society have captured the attention, imagination, and concern of an international audience. Climate change, over fishing, marine pollution, freshwater shortages and alternative energy sources are a few ocean issues highlighted in our media and casual conversations. The ocean plays a role in our life in some way everyday, however, disconnect exists between what scientists know and the public understands about the ocean as revealed by numerous ocean and coastal literacy surveys. While the public exhibits emotive responses through care, concern and connection with the ocean, there remains a critical need for a baseline of ocean knowledge. However, knowledge about the ocean must be balanced with understanding about how to apply ocean information to daily decisions and actions. The present study analyzed underlying factors and patterns contributing to ocean literacy and reasoning within the context of an ocean education program, the Oceanography Camp for Girls. The OCG is designed to advance ocean conceptual understanding and decision making by engagement in a series of experiential learning and stewardship activities from authentic research settings in the field and lab. The present study measured a) what understanding teens currently hold about the ocean (content), b) how teens feel toward the ocean environment (environmental attitudes and morality), and c) how understanding and feelings are organized when reasoning about ocean socioscientific issues (e.g. climate change, over fishing, energy). The Survey of Ocean Literacy and Engagement (SOLE), was used to measure teens understanding about the ocean. SOLE is a 57-item survey instrument aligned with the Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts of Ocean Literacy (NGS, 2007). Rasch analysis was used to refine and validate SOLE as a reasonable measure of ocean content knowledge (reliability, 0.91). Results revealed that content knowledge and environmental

  1. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others


    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  2. Numerical Modeling of Ocean Circulation (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.


    The modelling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science. Features examples and critical examination of ocean modelling and results Demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches Includes exercises to illustrate major points and supplement mathematical and physical details

  3. B-DEOS: British Dynamics of Earth and Ocean systems- new approaches for a multidisciplinary ocean observing system in the Atlantic and S Ocean (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Lampitt, R. S.


    Advances in theoretical understanding of the natural systems in the sea and in the Earth below have been closely associated with new data sets made possible by technological advances. The plate tectonic revolution, the discovery of hydrothermal circulation, and many other examples can be attributed to the application of innovative new technology to the study of the sea. A consortium of research groups and institutions within the United Kingdom is planning a system of multidisciplinary ocean observatories to study the components of, and linkages between the physical, chemical and biological processes regulating the earth-ocean-atmosphere-biosphere system. An engineering feasibility design study has been completed which has resulted in a robust and flexible design for a telecommunications/power buoy system, and a UK NERC Thematic Programme is in the advanced planning stage. Representatives of the US, Japan, France, Portugal, Spain, Germany and other countries have been involved in consultations, and a coordinated international effort is expected to develop throughout the Atlantic and S Oceans, with collaborations extended to observatories operated by cooperating partners in other regions. The B-DEOS observatory system is designed to allow studies on scales of order cm to 1000 km, as well as to supplement on larger spatial scales the emerging global ocean and seafloor solid earth observatory network. The facility will make it possible to obtain requisite long-term synoptic baseline data, and to monitor natural and man-made changes to this system by: 1) Establishing a long-term, permanent and relocatable network of instrumented seafloor platforms, moorings and profiler vehicles, provided with power from the ocean surface and internal power supplies, and maintaining a real- or near-real time bidirectional Internet link to shore. 2) Examining the time varying properties of these different environments (solid earth, ocean, atmosphere, biosphere), exploring the links

  4. Smithsonian Ocean Portal | Find Your Blue (United States)

    Natural History Blog For Educators At The Museum Media Archive Ocean Life & Ecosystems Mammals Sharks Mangroves Poles Census of Marine Life Planet Ocean Tides & Currents Waves & Storms The Seafloor life. These two are in the middle of a courtship. VIEW ARCHIVE Ocean Optimism Success Stories in Ocean

  5. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.


    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed tropical marine ecosystem that stretches from the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba in the north, to the Gulf of Aden in the south. Despite its ecological and economic importance, its biological environment is relatively unexplored. Satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration (an index of phytoplankton biomass) offer an observational platform to monitor the health of the Red Sea. However, little is known about the optical properties of the region. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of the Red Sea in the context of satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Making use of a new merged ocean-colour product, from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative, and in situ data in the region, we test the performance of a series of ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms. We find that standard algorithms systematically overestimate chlorophyll when compared with the in situ data. To investigate this bias we develop an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll algorithms and the overestimation in chlorophyll originally observed was corrected. Results suggest that the overestimation was likely due to an excess of CDOM absorption per unit chlorophyll in the Red Sea when compared with average global conditions. However, we recognise that additional information is required to test the influence of other potential sources of the overestimation, such as aeolian dust, and we discuss uncertainties in the datasets used. We present a series of regional chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, designed for a suite of ocean-colour sensors, that may be used for further testing.

  6. Oceanographic data and ROV dive-related multimedia and information collected during the EX1606 (CAPSTONE Wake Island Unit PRIMNM (ROV & Mapping)) on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2016-07-27 to 2016-08-19 (NCEI Accession 0156560) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep water areas around Wake Island and along transits from Guam to Kwajalein. Operations will use the...

  7. The Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) initiative (United States)

    Cook, S.; Rom, E.


    Seven regional Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence have recently been established to promote the integration of ocean science research into high-quality education programs aimed at both formal and informal audiences throughout the United States. The regional Centers include two complementary partnerships in California, a New England regional effort, a Mid-Atlantic partnership, a Southeastern collaborative, a Florida initiative and a central Gulf of Mexico alliance. A Central Coordinating Office in Washington DC will help the group develop into a cohesive and focused national network. Initial funding has been provided by the National Science Foundation with complementary support from the Office of Naval Research and multiple units within the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (specifically the National Ocean Service, the Office of Ocean Exploration and the National SeaGrant Office). Under an umbrella of common goals and objectives, the first cohort of Centers in the COSEE network is remarkably diverse in terms of geography, organizational structure and programmatic focus. NSF’s presentation will describe these partnerships, the different approaches that are being taken by the individual Centers and the expectations that NSF has for the network as a whole.

  8. How healthy is the human-ocean system?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickels, Wilfried; Quaas, Martin F; Visbeck, Martin


    Halpern et al (2012 An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean Nature 488 11397) propose a detailed measure of the state of the human-ocean system against ten societal goals. They devote less attention to the normative foundation of the index, which is crucial for assessing the overall health of the human-ocean system, notably when it comes to aggregation of potentially conflicting goals. Social choice theory provides several possible functional forms for assessing the compound change in various goals. The one chosen by Halpern et al, the arithmetical mean, is not only a specific but also an extreme case. It implicitly allows for unlimited substitution. A one-unit reduction in one goal can be fully offset by a one-unit increase in another with the same weighting factor. For that reason, the current index satisfies an extremely weak sustainability concept. We show that the results in Halpern et al are not robust when one adopts a strong sustainability concept. The overall health score of the ocean decreases, the ranking of the various coastal states changes substantially, and the assessment of sustainable development needs to be partially reversed. (letter)

  9. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  10. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  11. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  12. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide. (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L


    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  13. Ocean eddies and climate predictability. (United States)

    Kirtman, Ben P; Perlin, Natalie; Siqueira, Leo


    A suite of coupled climate model simulations and experiments are used to examine how resolved mesoscale ocean features affect aspects of climate variability, air-sea interactions, and predictability. In combination with control simulations, experiments with the interactive ensemble coupling strategy are used to further amplify the role of the oceanic mesoscale field and the associated air-sea feedbacks and predictability. The basic intent of the interactive ensemble coupling strategy is to reduce the atmospheric noise at the air-sea interface, allowing an assessment of how noise affects the variability, and in this case, it is also used to diagnose predictability from the perspective of signal-to-noise ratios. The climate variability is assessed from the perspective of sea surface temperature (SST) variance ratios, and it is shown that, unsurprisingly, mesoscale variability significantly increases SST variance. Perhaps surprising is the fact that the presence of mesoscale ocean features even further enhances the SST variance in the interactive ensemble simulation beyond what would be expected from simple linear arguments. Changes in the air-sea coupling between simulations are assessed using pointwise convective rainfall-SST and convective rainfall-SST tendency correlations and again emphasize how the oceanic mesoscale alters the local association between convective rainfall and SST. Understanding the possible relationships between the SST-forced signal and the weather noise is critically important in climate predictability. We use the interactive ensemble simulations to diagnose this relationship, and we find that the presence of mesoscale ocean features significantly enhances this link particularly in ocean eddy rich regions. Finally, we use signal-to-noise ratios to show that the ocean mesoscale activity increases model estimated predictability in terms of convective precipitation and atmospheric upper tropospheric circulation.

  14. Life cycle assessment of ocean energy technologies




    Purpose Oceans offer a vast amount of renewable energy. Tidal and wave energy devices are currently the most advanced conduits of ocean energy. To date, only a few life cycle assessments for ocean energy have been carried out for ocean energy. This study analyses ocean energy devices, including all technologies currently being proposed, in order to gain a better understanding of their environmental impacts and explore how they can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply. Methods...

  15. Impacts of ocean acidification on sediment processes in shallow waters of the Arctic Ocean. (United States)

    Gazeau, Frédéric; van Rijswijk, Pieter; Pozzato, Lara; Middelburg, Jack J


    Despite the important roles of shallow-water sediments in global biogeochemical cycling, the effects of ocean acidification on sedimentary processes have received relatively little attention. As high-latitude cold waters can absorb more CO2 and usually have a lower buffering capacity than warmer waters, acidification rates in these areas are faster than those in sub-tropical regions. The present study investigates the effects of ocean acidification on sediment composition, processes and sediment-water fluxes in an Arctic coastal system. Undisturbed sediment cores, exempt of large dwelling organisms, were collected, incubated for a period of 14 days, and subject to a gradient of pCO2 covering the range of values projected for the end of the century. On five occasions during the experimental period, the sediment cores were isolated for flux measurements (oxygen, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate). At the end of the experimental period, denitrification rates were measured and sediment samples were taken at several depth intervals for solid-phase analyses. Most of the parameters and processes (i.e. mineralization, denitrification) investigated showed no relationship with the overlying seawater pH, suggesting that ocean acidification will have limited impacts on the microbial activity and associated sediment-water fluxes on Arctic shelves, in the absence of active bio-irrigating organisms. Only following a pH decrease of 1 pH unit, not foreseen in the coming 300 years, significant enhancements of calcium carbonate dissolution and anammox rates were observed. Longer-term experiments on different sediment types are still required to confirm the limited impact of ocean acidification on shallow Arctic sediment processes as observed in this study.

  16. Ocean power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembicki, E.


    In the fall of 1980 on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands, a floating laboratory of the United States was successfully introduced for testing a heat exchanger and pipes for collecting cold water of the OTES with power of 1 MW. The first American OTES N=10-40 MW should start operation in 1985. By the year 2000, ..sigma..N of the U.S. OTES should reach 10 GW. The Japanese OTES N=10-25 MW should start up in 1989. The experimental OTES N=100 KW has been in operation since October 1981 on the Nauru Island. An OTES of 2 MW is under construction. The concern Empain-Schneider is involved in planning the OTES of closed cycle in France, and the concern CGE is planning the OTES of open cycle.

  17. NOAA Ocean Exploration: Science, Education and Ocean Literacy Online and in Social Media (United States)

    Keener-Chavis, P.


    "Engagement" in ocean science initially might seem like a simple concept, however within an agency like NOAA, with a broad mission and a wide variety of stakeholders, the concept of engagement becomes quite complex. Several years ago, a Kellogg Commission Report was submitted to NOAA's Science Advisory Board to assist the Agency with more closely defining-and refining-how it could more effectively engage with the multiple audiences with which it works. For NOAA, engagement is a two-way relationship that unfolds in a commitment of service to society. It is an Enterprise-wide capability represented in NOAA's Next Generation Strategic Plan and carries the same weight across the Agency as science and technology. NOAA's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) engages scientists, educators and the public through a variety of online and social media offerings explicitly tied to the exploration science of its expeditions. The principle platform for this engagement is the Ocean Explorer website ( It is the single point of entry for formal and informal educators and the public to chronicled OER expeditions to little known regions of the world ocean. The site also enables access to live streaming video and audio from the United States' first ship solely dedicated to ocean exploration, the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer and the Institute for Exploration's E/V Nautilus. Video includes footage from the remotely operated vehicles, sonar displays, navigation displays, and mapping data displays. Through telepresence technologies and other online communication tools, scientists at remote locations around the world, including Exploration Command Centers, collaborate in deep-sea exploration conducted by the Okeanos Explorer. Those wanting access to the ship's track, oceanographic data, daily updates, web logs, and imagery during an expedition can access the online Okeanos Explorer Digital Atlas. Information on archived expeditions can be accessed

  18. Ocean plankton. Structure and function of the global ocean microbiome. (United States)

    Sunagawa, Shinichi; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Chaffron, Samuel; Kultima, Jens Roat; Labadie, Karine; Salazar, Guillem; Djahanschiri, Bardya; Zeller, Georg; Mende, Daniel R; Alberti, Adriana; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Costea, Paul I; Cruaud, Corinne; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Engelen, Stefan; Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Guidi, Lionel; Hildebrand, Falk; Kokoszka, Florian; Lepoivre, Cyrille; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Poulain, Julie; Poulos, Bonnie T; Royo-Llonch, Marta; Sarmento, Hugo; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Dimier, Céline; Picheral, Marc; Searson, Sarah; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Bowler, Chris; de Vargas, Colomban; Gorsky, Gabriel; Grimsley, Nigel; Hingamp, Pascal; Iudicone, Daniele; Jaillon, Olivier; Not, Fabrice; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Pesant, Stephane; Speich, Sabrina; Stemmann, Lars; Sullivan, Matthew B; Weissenbach, Jean; Wincker, Patrick; Karsenti, Eric; Raes, Jeroen; Acinas, Silvia G; Bork, Peer


    Microbes are dominant drivers of biogeochemical processes, yet drawing a global picture of functional diversity, microbial community structure, and their ecological determinants remains a grand challenge. We analyzed 7.2 terabases of metagenomic data from 243 Tara Oceans samples from 68 locations in epipelagic and mesopelagic waters across the globe to generate an ocean microbial reference gene catalog with >40 million nonredundant, mostly novel sequences from viruses, prokaryotes, and picoeukaryotes. Using 139 prokaryote-enriched samples, containing >35,000 species, we show vertical stratification with epipelagic community composition mostly driven by temperature rather than other environmental factors or geography. We identify ocean microbial core functionality and reveal that >73% of its abundance is shared with the human gut microbiome despite the physicochemical differences between these two ecosystems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. The Southern Ocean's role in ocean circulation and climate transients (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Stewart, A.; Hines, S.; Adkins, J. F.


    The ventilation of deep and intermediate density classes at the surface of the Southern Ocean impacts water mass modification and the air-sea exchange of heat and trace gases, which in turn influences the global overturning circulation and Earth's climate. Zonal variability occurs along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Antarctic margins related to flow-topography interactions, variations in surface boundary conditions, and exchange with northern basins. Information about these zonal variations, and their impact on mass and tracer transport, are suppressed when the overturning is depicted as a two-dimensional (depth-latitude) streamfunction. Here we present an idealized, multi-basin, time-dependent circulation model that applies residual circulation theory in the Southern Ocean and allows for zonal water mass transfer between different ocean basins. This model efficiently determines the temporal evolution of the ocean's stratification, ventilation and overturning strength in response to perturbations in the external forcing. With this model we explore the dynamics that lead to transitions in the circulation structure between multiple, isolated cells and a three-dimensional, "figure-of-eight," circulation in which traditional upper and lower cells are interleaved. The transient model is also used to support a mechanistic explanation of the hemispheric asymmetry and phase lag associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events during the last glacial period. In particular, the 200 year lag in southern hemisphere temperatures, following a perturbation in North Atlantic deep water formation, depends critically on the migration of Southern Ocean isopycnal outcropping in response to low-latitude stratification changes. Our results provide a self-consistent dynamical framework to explain various ocean overturning transitions that have occurred over the Earth's last 100,000 years, and motivate an exploration of these mechanisms in more sophisticated climate models.

  20. A Quality Management Evaluation of the Graduate Education Process for Ocean Engineers in the Civil Engineer Corps (United States)


    graduate education required for Ocean Facilities Program (OFP) officers in the Civil Engineer Corps (CEC) of the United States Navy. For the purpose...determined by distributing questionnaires to all officers in the OFP. Statistical analyses of numerical data and judgmental3 analysis of professional...45 B. Ocean Facility Program Officer Graduate Education Questionnaire ....... 47 C. Summary of Questionnaire Responses

  1. 30 CFR 253.3 - How are the terms used in this regulation defined? (United States)


    ... in this regulation defined? Terms used in this part have the following meaning: Advertise means... well drilled from a mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) and the associated riser and well control...

  2. Linked Ocean Data (United States)

    Leadbetter, Adam; Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Shepherd, Adam


    "Linked Data" is a term used in Computer Science to encapsulate a methodology for publishing data and metadata in a structured format so that links may be created and exploited between objects. Berners-Lee (2006) outlines the following four design principles of a Linked Data system: Use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) as names for things. Use HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) URIs so that people can look up those names. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (Resource Description Framework [RDF] and the RDF query language [SPARQL]). Include links to other URIs so that they can discover more things. In 2010, Berners-Lee revisited his original design plan for Linked Data to encourage data owners along a path to "good Linked Data". This revision involved the creation of a five star rating system for Linked Data outlined below. One star: Available on the web (in any format). Two stars: Available as machine-readable structured data (e.g. An Excel spreadsheet instead of an image scan of a table). Three stars: As two stars plus the use of a non-proprietary format (e.g. Comma Separated Values instead of Excel). Four stars: As three stars plus the use of open standards from the World Wide Web Commission (W3C) (i.e. RDF and SPARQL) to identify things, so that people can point to your data and metadata. Five stars: All the above plus link your data to other people's data to provide context Here we present work building on the SeaDataNet common vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server, connecting projects such as the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) and other vocabularies such as the Marine Metadata Interoperability Ontology Register and Repository and the NASA Global Change Master Directory to create a Linked Ocean Data cloud. Publishing the vocabularies and metadata in standard RDF XML and exposing SPARQL endpoints renders them five-star Linked

  3. Sensitivity of ocean acidification and oxygen to the uncertainty in climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Long; Wang, Shuangjing; Zheng, Meidi; Zhang, Han


    Due to increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and associated climate change, the global ocean is undergoing substantial physical and biogeochemical changes. Among these, changes in ocean oxygen and carbonate chemistry have great implication for marine biota. There is considerable uncertainty in the projections of future climate change, and it is unclear how the uncertainty in climate change would also affect the projection of oxygen and carbonate chemistry. To investigate this issue, we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to perform a set of simulations, including that which involves no radiative effect of atmospheric CO 2 and those which involve CO 2 -induced climate change with climate sensitivity varying from 0.5 °C to 4.5 °C. Atmospheric CO 2 concentration is prescribed to follow RCP 8.5 pathway and its extensions. Climate change affects carbonate chemistry and oxygen mainly through its impact on ocean temperature, ocean ventilation, and concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity. It is found that climate change mitigates the decrease of carbonate ions at the ocean surface but has negligible effect on surface ocean pH. Averaged over the whole ocean, climate change acts to decrease oxygen concentration but mitigates the CO 2 -induced reduction of carbonate ion and pH. In our simulations, by year 2500, every degree increase of climate sensitivity warms the ocean by 0.8 °C and reduces ocean-mean dissolved oxygen concentration by 5.0%. Meanwhile, every degree increase of climate sensitivity buffers CO 2 -induced reduction in ocean-mean carbonate ion concentration and pH by 3.4% and 0.02 units, respectively. Our study demonstrates different sensitivities of ocean temperature, carbonate chemistry, and oxygen, in terms of both the sign and magnitude to the amount of climate change, which have great implications for understanding the response of ocean biota to climate change. (letters)

  4. Ocean acidification genetics - Genetics and genomics of response to ocean acidification (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are applying a variety of genetic tools to assess the response of our ocean resources to ocean acidification, including gene expression techniques, identification...

  5. Ship track for Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Life on the Edge 2003: Exploring Deep Ocean Habitats" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. Ship Track for The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the US Coast Guard icebreaker Healy during the "Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  7. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...

  8. Oceanic forcing of coral reefs. (United States)

    Lowe, Ryan J; Falter, James L


    Although the oceans play a fundamental role in shaping the distribution and function of coral reefs worldwide, a modern understanding of the complex interactions between ocean and reef processes is still only emerging. These dynamics are especially challenging owing to both the broad range of spatial scales (less than a meter to hundreds of kilometers) and the complex physical and biological feedbacks involved. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of these processes, ranging from the small-scale mechanics of flow around coral communities and their influence on nutrient exchange to larger, reef-scale patterns of wave- and tide-driven circulation and their effects on reef water quality and perceived rates of metabolism. We also examine regional-scale drivers of reefs such as coastal upwelling, internal waves, and extreme disturbances such as cyclones. Our goal is to show how a wide range of ocean-driven processes ultimately shape the growth and metabolism of coral reefs.

  9. Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment...... of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners...... in the wave energy sector. •Offers a practice-oriented reference guide to the field of ocean wave energy •Presents an overview as well as a deeper insight into wave energy converters •Covers both the economic and engineering aspects related to ocean wave energy conversion...

  10. Ocean and Coastal Law (United States)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  11. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world. (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas


    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  12. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways. (United States)

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike


    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  13. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  14. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.


    Oceanic anthropogenic CO 2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Oarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Oarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO 2 -related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean warming feedback was found to dominate the climate change responses in the surface ocean. Although surface pH is projected to decrease relatively uniformly by about 0.3 by the year 2100, we find pH to be insensitive to climate change feedbacks, whereas Oarag is buffered by ∼15%. Ocean carbonate chemistry creates a situation whereby the direct pH changes due to ocean warming are almost cancelled by the pH changes associated with dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations changes via a reduction in CO 2 solubility from ocean warming. We show that the small climate change feedback on future surface ocean pH is independent to the amount of ocean warming. Our analysis therefore implies that future projections of surface ocean acidification only need to consider future atmospheric CO 2 levels, not climate change induced modifications in the ocean

  15. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.


    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  16. Hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Eckart, Carl


    Hydrodynamics of Oceans and Atmospheres is a systematic account of the hydrodynamics of oceans and atmospheres. Topics covered range from the thermodynamic functions of an ideal gas and the thermodynamic coefficients for water to steady motions, the isothermal atmosphere, the thermocline, and the thermosphere. Perturbation equations, field equations, residual equations, and a general theory of rays are also presented. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic equations and their solutions, with the aim of illustrating the laws of dynamics. The nonlinear

  17. GOCE Data for Ocean Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija

    and order. The method makes use of all available GOCE gradient data in addition to the global models and aims at improving the determination of Earth’s gravitational field in regional areas. Subsequently, the calculated equipotential surface, known as the geoid, is used together with measurements of sea...... surface height in a calculation of the Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT). This reflects the geostrophic ocean currents and leads to a better understanding of ocean mass and heat transfer. In regional geoid recovery from GOCE gradients, two methods are used, one of them being Least-Squares Collocation (LSC...

  18. Upper ocean physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.; Ram, P.S.

    This monograph is the outcome of an attempt by the authors to present a synthesis of the studies on physical processes in the Tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) in relation to air-sea interaction, monsoon/climate variability and biological productivity...

  19. Climate change feedbacks on future oceanic acidification


    McNeil, Ben I.; Matear, Richard J.


    Oceanic anthropogenic CO2 uptake will decrease both the pH and the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) of seawater leading to an oceanic acidification. However, the factors controlling future changes in pH and Ωarag are independent and will respond differently to oceanic climate change feedbacks such as ocean warming, circulation and biological changes. We examine the sensitivity of these two CO2-related parameters to climate change feedbacks within a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The ocean ...

  20. Generating Units (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  1. Seafloor 2030 - Building a Global Ocean Map through International Collaboration (United States)

    Ferrini, V. L.; Wigley, R. A.; Falconer, R. K. H.; Jakobsson, M.; Allen, G.; Mayer, L. A.; Schmitt, T.; Rovere, M.; Weatherall, P.; Marks, K. M.


    With more than 85% of the ocean floor unmapped, a huge proportion of our planet remains unexplored. Creating a comprehensive map of seafloor bathymetry remains a true global challenge that can only be accomplished through collaboration and partnership between governments, industry, academia, research organizations and non-government organizations. The objective of Seafloor 2030 is to comprehensively map the global ocean floor to resolutions that enable exploration and improved understanding of ocean processes, while informing maritime policy and supporting the management of natural marine resources for a sustainable Blue Economy. Seafloor 2030 is the outcome of the Forum for Future of Ocean Floor Mapping held in Monaco in June 2016, which was held under the auspices of GEBCO and the Nippon Foundation of Japan. GEBCO is the only international organization mandated to map the global ocean floor and is guided by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO. The task of completely mapping the ocean floor will require new global coordination to ensure that both existing data are identified and that new mapping efforts are coordinated to help efficiently "map the gaps." Fundamental to achieving Seafloor 2030 will be greater access to data, tools and technology, particularly for developing and coastal nations. This includes bathymetric post-processing and analysis software, database technology, computing infrastructure and gridding techniques as well as the latest developments in seafloor mapping methods and emerging crowd-sourced bathymetry initiatives. The key to achieving this global bathymetric map is capacity building and education - including greater coordination between scientific research and industry and the effective engagement of international organizations such as the United Nations.

  2. A model for the oceanic mass balance of rhenium and implications for the extent of Proterozoic ocean anoxia (United States)

    Sheen, Alex I.; Kendall, Brian; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Bekker, Andrey; Poulton, Simon W.; Anbar, Ariel D.


    Emerging geochemical evidence suggests that the atmosphere-ocean system underwent a significant decrease in O2 content following the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), leading to a mid-Proterozoic ocean (ca. 2.0-0.8 Ga) with oxygenated surface waters and predominantly anoxic deep waters. The extent of mid-Proterozoic seafloor anoxia has been recently estimated using mass-balance models based on molybdenum (Mo), uranium (U), and chromium (Cr) enrichments in organic-rich mudrocks (ORM). Here, we use a temporal compilation of concentrations for the redox-sensitive trace metal rhenium (Re) in ORM to provide an independent constraint on the global extent of mid-Proterozoic ocean anoxia and as a tool for more generally exploring how the marine geochemical cycle of Re has changed through time. The compilation reveals that mid-Proterozoic ORM are dominated by low Re concentrations that overall are only mildly higher than those of Archean ORM and significantly lower than many ORM deposited during the ca. 2.22-2.06 Ga Lomagundi Event and during the Phanerozoic Eon. These temporal trends are consistent with a decrease in the oceanic Re inventory in response to an expansion of anoxia after an interval of increased oxygenation during the Lomagundi Event. Mass-balance modeling of the marine Re geochemical cycle indicates that the mid-Proterozoic ORM with low Re enrichments are consistent with extensive seafloor anoxia. Beyond this agreement, these new data bring added value because Re, like the other metals, responds generally to low-oxygen conditions but has its own distinct sensitivity to the varying environmental controls. Thus, we can broaden our capacity to infer nuanced spatiotemporal patterns in ancient redox landscapes. For example, despite the still small number of data, some mid-Proterozoic ORM units have higher Re enrichments that may reflect a larger oceanic Re inventory during transient episodes of ocean oxygenation. An improved understanding of the modern oceanic Re

  3. Green Ships: Keeping Oceans Blue (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.


    The marine transport sector contributes significantly to air and water pollution, particularly in coastal areas. In the oceans, the threat to marine life comes in various forms, such as overexploitation and harvesting, dumping of waste, pollution, alien species, land reclamation, dredging, and global climate change. A congressional research report…

  4. The impact on ocean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.


    A nuclear war would have less impact on ocean ecosystems than on terrestrial systems. But damage to coastal regions and estuaries might be substantial. This chapter discusses the distribution, effects, and hazards of fallout radionuclides in the ocean, and attempts to assess the impact on ocean ecosystems of dust particles in the atmosphere, ozone depletion, and temperature change following a nuclear war. The information offers some insight into the impact of such a war, but does not provide definitive predictions. Two other consequences, however, do have the potential for devastating effects upon marine ecosystems. It has been predicted that a 100-fold reduction in solar light intensity at the earth's surface due to particles in the atmosphere is possible; this would result in death to most of the phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton in more than half of the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, and under some circumstances, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by NOsub(X) could increase UV radiation at the earth's surface, the magnitude of the change being sufficient to seriously reduce the populations of organisms at the base of the food web. Temperature changes would be of little consequence. (U.K.)

  5. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to

  6. Meteorite impact in the ocean (United States)

    Strelitz, R.


    In the present study, the dynamic of hypervelocity impacts and crater formation in water are examined with allowance for the unique properties of water. More precisely, the transient crater calculated is permitted to relax and act as a source of oceanic surface waves.

  7. The Health of the Oceans. (United States)

    Goldberg, Edward D.

    International scientific literature is used to review relevant data concerning pollution of the world's oceans. Chapters 1, 8 and 9 address themselves to the problems of international control of marine pollution. Chapter 1 introduces the importance of the time factor, revealing information on how long it takes a pollutant to reach an undesirable…

  8. Artificial radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.


    The report highlights the areas of major contributions that the nuclear era has made to the understanding of oceanography and the marine sciences, and in particular the application to the public health problems that arise through anthropogenic exploitation of the oceans for the disposal of radioactive materials

  9. Oceans: Geochemistry and mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joao, H.M.; Paropkari, A.L.

    , Indian became the first country to have been allocated exclusive rights of exploration in the pioneer area in the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Presently world wide some of the near-shore deposits are being exploited. However, the mining for other mineral...

  10. Boundary Conditions, Data Assimilation, and Predictability in Coastal Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, Roger M; Allen, John S; Egbert, Gary D; Kindle, John C; Snyder, Chris


    ...: The specific objectives of this research are to determine the impact on coastal ocean circulation models of open ocean boundary conditions from Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE...

  11. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network (United States)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III


    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  12. Methyl bromide: ocean sources, ocean sinks, and climate sensitivity. (United States)

    Anbar, A D; Yung, Y L; Chavez, F P


    The oceans play an important role in the geochemical cycle of methyl bromide (CH3Br), the major carrier of O3-destroying bromine to the stratosphere. The quantity of CH3Br produced annually in seawater is comparable to the amount entering the atmosphere each year from natural and anthropogenic sources. The production mechanism is unknown but may be biological. Most of this CH3Br is consumed in situ by hydrolysis or reaction with chloride. The size of the fraction which escapes to the atmosphere is poorly constrained; measurements in seawater and the atmosphere have been used to justify both a large oceanic CH3Br flux to the atmosphere and a small net ocean sink. Since the consumption reactions are extremely temperature-sensitive, small temperature variations have large effects on the CH3Br concentration in seawater, and therefore on the exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. The net CH3Br flux is also sensitive to variations in the rate of CH3Br production. We have quantified these effects using a simple steady state mass balance model. When CH3Br production rates are linearly scaled with seawater chlorophyll content, this model reproduces the latitudinal variations in marine CH3Br concentrations observed in the east Pacific Ocean by Singh et al. [1983] and by Lobert et al. [1995]. The apparent correlation of CH3Br production with primary production explains the discrepancies between the two observational studies, strengthening recent suggestions that the open ocean is a small net sink for atmospheric CH3Br, rather than a large net source. The Southern Ocean is implicated as a possible large net source of CH3Br to the atmosphere. Since our model indicates that both the direction and magnitude of CH3Br exchange between the atmosphere and ocean are extremely sensitive to temperature and marine productivity, and since the rate of CH3Br production in the oceans is comparable to the rate at which this compound is introduced to the atmosphere, even small

  13. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement. (United States)

    Nigro, Olivia D; Jungbluth, Sean P; Lin, Huei-Ting; Hsieh, Chih-Chiang; Miranda, Jaclyn A; Schvarcz, Christopher R; Rappé, Michael S; Steward, Grieg F


    Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement), but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C) were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B) drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 5  ml -1 ( n = 8), higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27). Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%). Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737), 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome. IMPORTANCE The hydrothermally active ocean basement is voluminous and likely provided conditions critical to the origins of life, but the microbiology of this vast habitat is not

  14. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter


    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  15. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) (United States)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon


    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  16. Viruses in the Oceanic Basement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia D. Nigro


    Full Text Available Microbial life has been detected well into the igneous crust of the seafloor (i.e., the oceanic basement, but there have been no reports confirming the presence of viruses in this habitat. To detect and characterize an ocean basement virome, geothermally heated fluid samples (ca. 60 to 65°C were collected from 117 to 292 m deep into the ocean basement using seafloor observatories installed in two boreholes (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program [IODP] U1362A and U1362B drilled in the eastern sediment-covered flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Concentrations of virus-like particles in the fluid samples were on the order of 0.2 × 105 to 2 × 105 ml−1 (n = 8, higher than prokaryote-like cells in the same samples by a factor of 9 on average (range, 1.5 to 27. Electron microscopy revealed diverse viral morphotypes similar to those of viruses known to infect bacteria and thermophilic archaea. An analysis of virus-like sequences in basement microbial metagenomes suggests that those from archaeon-infecting viruses were the most common (63 to 80%. Complete genomes of a putative archaeon-infecting virus and a prophage within an archaeal scaffold were identified among the assembled sequences, and sequence analysis suggests that they represent lineages divergent from known thermophilic viruses. Of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-containing scaffolds in the metagenomes for which a taxonomy could be inferred (163 out of 737, 51 to 55% appeared to be archaeal and 45 to 49% appeared to be bacterial. These results imply that the warmed, highly altered fluids in deeply buried ocean basement harbor a distinct assemblage of novel viruses, including many that infect archaea, and that these viruses are active participants in the ecology of the basement microbiome.

  17. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  18. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  19. Climate Ocean Modeling on Parallel Computers (United States)

    Wang, P.; Cheng, B. N.; Chao, Y.


    Ocean modeling plays an important role in both understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting future climate change. However, modeling the ocean circulation at various spatial and temporal scales is a very challenging computational task.

  20. California Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  1. CTD Oceanographic Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  2. Juvenile Salmonid Metrics - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  3. Oceanographic Trawl Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  4. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Samoa (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the islands of Samoa at approximately 3-km resolution. While considerable...

  5. Arctic Ocean Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0115771) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To provide an improved oceanographic foundation and reference for multi-disciplinary studies of the Arctic Ocean, NCEI developed a new set of high-resolution...

  6. Marine information technology - Indian Ocean scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Navelkar, G.S.; Singh, K.

    Marine and coastal information is necessary for sound decision making about sustainable utilisation of our oceanic and coastal resources. Due to inadequate data management tools, lack of information technology benefits in the minds of the ocean...

  7. Cross Validating Ocean Prediction and Monitoring Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mooers, Christopher; Meinen, Christopher; Baringer, Molly; Bang, Inkweon; Rhodes, Robert C; Barron, Charlie N; Bub, Frank


    With the ongoing development of ocean circulation models and real-time observing systems, routine estimation of the synoptic state of the ocean is becoming feasible for practical and scientific purposes...

  8. Wave measurement in severe ocean currents

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Diwan, S.G.; Suryavanshi, A.K.; Nayak, B.U.

    The measurement of ocean waves has been of particular interest, as wave data and understanding of wave phenomena are essential to ocean engineering, coastal engineering and to many marine operations. The National Institute of Oceanography, Goa...

  9. Zooplankton Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  10. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Guam (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 6-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding Guam at approximately 2-km resolution. While considerable effort has been...

  11. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Oahu at approximately 1-km resolution. While considerable...

  12. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): CNMI (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) at approximately...

  13. World Ocean Atlas 2013 (NCEI Accession 0114815) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) is a set of objectively analyzed (1 degree grid and 1/4 degree grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved...

  14. OW NASA MODIS Aqua Ocean Color (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer...

  15. Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Atlantic Surfclam and Ocean Quahog Survey has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey was conducted every two or three...

  16. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  17. MyOcean Central Information System - Achievements and Perspectives (United States)

    Claverie, Vincent; Loubrieu, Thomas; Jolibois, Tony; de Dianous, Rémi; Blower, Jon; Romero, Laia; Griffiths, Guy


    Since 2009, MyOcean ( is providing an operational service, for forecasts, analysis and expertise on ocean currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, primary ecosystems and ice coverage. The production of observation and forecasting data is done by 42 Production Units (PU). Product download and visualisation are hosted by 25 Dissemination Units (DU). All these products and associated services are gathered in a single catalogue hiding the intricate distributed organization of PUs and DUs. Besides applying INSPIRE directive and OGC recommendations, MyOcean overcomes technical choices and challenges. This presentation focuses on 3 specific issues met by MyOcean and relevant for many Spatial Data Infrastructures: user's transaction accounting, large volume download and stream line the catalogue maintenance. Transaction Accounting: Set up powerful means to get detailed knowledge of system usage in order to subsequently improve the products (ocean observations, analysis and forecast dataset) and services (view, download) offer. This subject drives the following ones: Central authentication management for the distributed web services implementations: add-on to THREDDS Data Server for WMS and NETCDF sub-setting service, specific FTP. Share user management with co-funding projects. In addition to MyOcean, alternate projects also need consolidated information about the use of the cofunded products. Provide a central facility for the user management. This central facility provides users' rights to geographically distributed services and gathers transaction accounting history from these distributed services. Propose a user-friendly web interface to download large volume of data (several GigaBytes) as robust as basic FTP but intuitive and file/directory independent. This should rely on a web service drafting the INSPIRE to-be specification and OGC recommendations for download taking into account that FTP server is not enough friendly (need to know

  18. The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind (United States)

    Janssen, Peter


    Describing in detail the two-way interaction between wind and ocean waves, this book discusses ocean wave evolution in accordance with the energy balance equation. An extensive overview of nonlinear transfer is given, and the role of four-wave interactions in the generation of extreme events as well as the effects on ocean circulation is included. The volume will interest ocean wave modellers, physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers.

  19. Variational Data Assimilation for the Global Ocean (United States)


    ocean includes the Geoid (a fixed gravity equipotential surface ) as well as the MDT, which is not known accurately enough relative to the centimeter...scales, including processes that control the surface mixed layer, the formation of ocean eddies, meandering ocean J.A. Cummings (E3) nography Division...variables. Examples of this in the ocean are integral quantities, such as acous^B travel time and altimeter measures of sea surface height, and direct

  20. Private governance of ocean resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Bush, S.R.; Bailey, M.L.


    The United Nations (UN) post-2015 development agenda (United Nations 2015) calls for the establishment of a global partnership for sustainable development, ‘bringing together Governments, civil society, the private sector, the United Nations system and other actors and mobilizing all available

  1. Acquiring Marine Data in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Jackson, H. Ruth; Shimeld, John W.; Chapman, C. Borden; Childs, Jonathan R.; Funck, Thomas; Rowland, Robert W.


    Despite the record minimum ice extent in the Arctic Ocean for the past 2 years, collecting geophysical data with towed sensors in ice-covered regions continues to pose enormous challenges. Significant parts of the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean have remained largely unmapped because thick multiyear ice has limited access even by research vessels strengthened against ice [Jackson et al., 1990]. Because of the resulting paucity of data, the western Arctic Ocean is one of the few areas of ocean in the world where major controversies still exist with respect to its origin and tectonic evolution [Grantz et al., 1990; Lawver and Scotese, 1990; Lane, 1997; Miller et al., 2006]. This article describes the logistical challenges and initial data sets from geophysical seismic reflection, seismic refraction, and hydrographic surveys in the Canada Basin conducted by scientists with U.S. and Canadian government agencies (Figure 1a) to fulfill the requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to determine sediment thickness, geological origin, and basin evolution in this unexplored part of the world. Some of these data were collected using a single ship, but the heaviest ice conditions necessitated using two icebreakers, similar to other recent Arctic surveys [e.g., Jokat, 2003].

  2. The oceanic tides in the South Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Genco

    Full Text Available The finite element ocean tide model of Le Provost and Vincent (1986 has been applied to the simulation of the M2 and K1 components over the South Atlantic Ocean. The discretisation of the domain, of the order of 200 km over the deep ocean, is refined down to 15 km along the coasts, such refinement enables wave propagation and damping over the continental shelves to be correctly solved. The marine boundary conditions, from Dakar to Natal, through the Drake passage and from South Africa to Antarctica, are deduced from in situ data and from Schwiderski's solution and then optimised following a procedure previously developed by the authors. The solutions presented are in very good agreement with in situ data: the root mean square deviations from a standard subset of 13 pelagic stations are 1.4 cm for M2 and 0.45 cm for K1, which is significantly better overall than solutions published to date in the literature. Zooms of the M2 solution are presented for the Falkland Archipelago, the Weddell Sea and the Patagonian Shelf. The first zoom allows detailing of the tidal structure around the Falklands and its interpretation in terms of a stationary trapped Kelvin wave system. The second zoom, over the Weddell Sea, reveals for the first time what must be the tidal signal under the permanent ice shelf and gives a solution over that sea which is generally in agreement with observations. The third zoom is over the complex Patagonian Shelf. This zoom illustrates the ability of the model to simulate the tides, even over this area, with a surprising level of realism, following purely hydrodynamic modelling procedures, within a global ocean tide model. Maps of maximum associated tidal currents are also given, as a first illustration of a by-product of these simulations.

  3. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke


    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  4. Models for ecological models: Ocean primary productivity (United States)

    Wikle, Christopher K.; Leeds, William B.; Hooten, Mevin B.


    The ocean accounts for more than 70% of planet Earth's surface, and it processes are critically important to marine and terrestrial life.  Ocean ecosystems are strongly dependent on the physical state of the ocean (e.g., transports, mixing, upwelling, runoff, and ice dynamics(.  As an example, consider the Coastal Gulf of Alaska (CGOA) region.

  5. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng


    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  6. The oceanic literary reading mind : An impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.


    The mind and brain processes of the literary reading mind are most accurately defined as oceanic: the mind is an ocean. This is the essential premise that I put forward in my book Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind (Routledge, 2011).1 The statement is of

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-25 - Ocean. (United States)


    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-25 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 90.10-25 Section 90.10-25 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-51 - Ocean. (United States)


    ... Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-51 Ocean. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the waters of any ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 188.10-51 Section 188.10-51 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  9. 46 CFR 151.03-39 - Ocean. (United States)


    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-39 Ocean. A designation for all vessels normally navigating the waters of any ocean or the Gulf of Mexico more than 20 nautical miles offshore. ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean. 151.03-39 Section 151.03-39 Shipping COAST GUARD...

  10. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities. (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  11. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisumaa, A.-M.; Pesant, S.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Delille, B.; Middelburg, J.J.; Orr, J.C.; Riebesell, U.; Tyrrell, T.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Gattuso, J.P.


    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean

  12. Optimizing Ocean Space: Co-siting Open Ocean Aquaculture (United States)

    Cobb, B. L.; Wickliffe, L. C.; Morris, J. A., Jr.


    In January of 2016, NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service released the Gulf Aquaculture Plan (GAP) to manage the development of environmentally sound and economically sustainable open ocean finfish aquaculture in the Gulf of Mexico (inside the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]). The GAP provides the first regulatory framework for aquaculture in federal waters with estimated production of 64 million pounds of finfish, and an estimated economic impact of $264 million annually. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most industrialized ocean basins in the world, with many existing ocean uses including oil and natural gas production, shipping and commerce, commercial fishing operations, and many protected areas to ensure conservation of valuable ecosystem resources and services. NOAA utilized spatial planning procedures and tools identifying suitable sites for establishing aquaculture through exclusion analyses using authoritative federal and state data housed in a centralized geodatabase. Through a highly collaborative, multi-agency effort a mock permitting exercise was conducted to illustrate the regulatory decision-making process for the Gulf. Further decision-making occurred through exploring co-siting opportunities with oil and natural gas platforms. Logistical co-siting was conducted to reduce overall operational costs by looking at distance to major port and commodity tonnage at each port. Importantly, the process of co-siting allows aquaculture to be coupled with other benefits, including the availability of previously established infrastructure and the reduction of environmental impacts.

  13. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.


    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO 2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO 2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO 2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  14. 46 CFR 11.468 - Officer endorsements for mobile offshore drilling units. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Officer endorsements for mobile offshore drilling units... Officer endorsements for mobile offshore drilling units. Officer endorsements for service on mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs) authorize service on units of any gross tons upon ocean waters while on...

  15. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council


    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)'s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales

  16. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike


    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  17. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia


    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  18. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P


    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  19. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folsom, T.R.


    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  20. Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes in oceanic ferromanganese deposits and ocean floor basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Nions, R.K.; Carter, S.R.; Cohen, R.S.; Evensen, N.M.; Hamilton, P.J.


    The Pb-, Nd-, and Sr-isotope compositions of oceanic ferromanganese deposits, together with the Nd- and Sr-isotope compositions of altered ocean-floor basalts, are here reported. These data are used to evaluate these metals as sources in both the oceans and ocean ferromanganese deposits and the extent to which ocean-floor basalts may be a source of, or a sink for, these metals. (author)

  1. Preventing blue ocean from turning into red ocean: A case study of a room escape game


    Gündüz, Şafak


    The weariness of competitive business environment has made it one of the hot topics of recent business management literature to find ways to escape from the intense Red Ocean by creating a Blue Ocean where there is no competition. Rene and Mauborgne’s Blue Ocean Strategy (2004) provides a reasonable solution for this issue. Blue Ocean Strategy studies demonstrate that every blue ocean will eventually turn red due to fast entries into the market and the literature leaves a gap in understanding...

  2. The Phenomenom of Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Weiss, S.


    The earth is 70% and is protected by its atmosphere. The atmosphere is made up of several layers. The sunlight penetrates through the atmosphere and warms the earth surface. The earth's surface then in turn emits invisible infrared radiation back. As this radiation moves back up each layer absorbs some of it. Each layer then sends some of this energy back to earth again. When the layer becomes so thin the energy then escapes back into space. When we are adding more carbon dioxide to these layers we are causing the layers to absorb more of the energy and the radiation. This in turn causes the layers to become warmer since fewer radiation moves up through the layers and this energy bounces back to earth increasing the temperatures. The entire planet is taking on more of this energy and hence the temperatures are rising. The ocean plays a big rule in this change. It has prevented some of the CO2 from entering the earth's atmosphere. Oceans absorb about one third of the anthropogenic CO2 causing the phenomenon of ocean acidification and this comes at a huge cost to our marine environments. The CO2 is absorbed on the surface and then transferred into the deeper waters. Which causes it to be stuck for centuries before making its way back into the atmosphere. As the CO2 dissolves in seawater it causes the PH to lower. With a lowered PH water becomes more acidic. The Hydrogen ions decrease and become less active. With this process carbonic acid is formed. The ocean now is more acidic then it has ever been in the past 650,000 years. The increase in acidic levels has caused our marine life to adjust. Acidosis caused by the increase of carbonic acid in the body fluids means a lower pH in the blood. This changes is just the start to many health issues for these organism's.

  3. Life in the oceanic realms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Keywords Phytoplankton,zooplankton,pri- mary and secondary producers, zooxanthellae. Chandralata Raghukumar is an emeritus scientist at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa. After obtaining a PhD in plant pathology, she worked for 5 years on fungal... marine animals and plants were collected during such voyages by the researchers onboardthe vesselsandsystematicallydescribed. The HMS Beagle with Charles Darwin on board sailed around different oceans for nearly 4 years and this was the beginning...

  4. Panorama 2011: Ocean renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoulin, P.; Vinot, S.


    Our society is looking increasingly to renewable energy sources in the face of the energy and environmental challenges with which it is grappling. As far as ocean renewable energies are concerned, a wide range of technologies is currently being experimented with, including wind power and energy derived from waves and tidal currents. They are all at varying levels of maturity, and bring with them very different technical and economic challenges. (author)

  5. Collapsed Thunderstorm, Southwest Pacific Ocean (United States)


    This collapsed thunderstorm was observed over the open ocean (9.0N, 120.0E) between the Philippine island of Mindoro and Borneo, Malaysia. The cleared area in the center is the result of the clouds being driven from there by the sudden rush of katabatic air spreading downward and outward from the dying thunderstorm. Around the edges of the downdrafted air, new though smaller storms are developing. The two small coral atolls are the Tubbataha Reefs.

  6. Ocean Literacy After-School (United States)

    Hlinka, Lisa


    Ocean Literacy is a topic that is often underrepresented in secondary school science curriculum. To combat this deficit, our School has partnered up with Hudson River Community Sailing (HRCS), a local organization in New York City that offers an after-school program to high-need high school students in the surrounding community. This organization has developed a 9th grade Sail Academy which allows students from participating public high schools to increase their proficiency in math and science by learning basic sailing, navigation, and boat building. Upon successfully completing the 9th grade Sail Academy curriculum, students enter the "First Mates Program" which offers a scaffolded set of youth development experiences that prepare students for college, career, leadership, and stewardship. This program is built in the context of a new Ocean Literacy Curriculum focused around 3 major topics within Ocean Literacy: Marine Debris, Meteorology, and Ecology (specifically water quality). The learning experiences include weekly data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing in the Hudson River adjacent to the HRCS Boathouse. Additionally there are weekly lessons engaging students in the fundamentals of each of the 3 topics and how they are also important in the lens of sailing. During the marine debris portion of the curriculum students identify sources of marine debris, impacts on the local environment, and study how debris can travel along the ocean currents leading in to larger garbage gyres. To supplement the curriculum, students embarked on a day trip to the Newtown Creek Wastewater Treatment Facility in Brooklyn, NY to learn how and where NYC receives its drinking water, how wastewater is treated, and how water quality in the local area can be easily influenced. While on the trip, students did their data collection of marine debris, weather conditions, and water quality testing at Newtown Creek, and then they compared their results

  7. Alien seas oceans in space

    CERN Document Server

    Lopes, Rosaly


    In the early days of planetary observation, oceans were thought to exist in all corners of the Solar System. Carbonated seas percolated beneath the clouds of Venus. Features on the Moon's surface were given names such as "the Bay of Rainbows” and the "Ocean of Storms." With the advent of modern telescopes and spacecraft exploration these ancient concepts of planetary seas have been replaced by the reality of something even more exotic. Alien Seas serves up the current research, past beliefs, and new theories to offer a rich array of the "seas" on other worlds. It is organized by location and by the material composing the oceans under discussion, with expert authors penning chapters on their  specialty. Each chapter features new original art depicting alien seas, as well as the latest ground-based and spacecraft images. With the contributors as guides, readers can explore the wild seas of Jupiter's watery satellite Europa, believed similar in composition to battery acid. Saturn's planet-sized moon Titan see...

  8. Practical global oceanic state estimation (United States)

    Wunsch, Carl; Heimbach, Patrick


    The problem of oceanographic state estimation, by means of an ocean general circulation model (GCM) and a multitude of observations, is described and contrasted with the meteorological process of data assimilation. In practice, all such methods reduce, on the computer, to forms of least-squares. The global oceanographic problem is at the present time focussed primarily on smoothing, rather than forecasting, and the data types are unlike meteorological ones. As formulated in the consortium Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO), an automatic differentiation tool is used to calculate the so-called adjoint code of the GCM, and the method of Lagrange multipliers used to render the problem one of unconstrained least-squares minimization. Major problems today lie less with the numerical algorithms (least-squares problems can be solved by many means) than with the issues of data and model error. Results of ongoing calculations covering the period of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, and including among other data, satellite altimetry from TOPEX/POSEIDON, Jason-1, ERS- 1/2, ENVISAT, and GFO, a global array of profiling floats from the Argo program, and satellite gravity data from the GRACE mission, suggest that the solutions are now useful for scientific purposes. Both methodology and applications are developing in a number of different directions.

  9. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.


    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  10. The Vertical Profile of Ocean Mixing (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; Nikurashin, M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.


    The upwelling of bottom waters through density surfaces in the deep ocean is not possible unless the sloping nature of the sea floor is taken into account. The bottom--intensified mixing arising from interaction of internal tides and geostrophic motions with bottom topography implies that mixing is a decreasing function of height in the deep ocean. This would further imply that the diapycnal motion in the deep ocean is downward, not upwards as is required by continuity. This conundrum regarding ocean mixing and upwelling in the deep ocean will be resolved by appealing to the fact that the ocean does not have vertical side walls. Implications of the conundrum for the representation of ocean mixing in climate models will be discussed.

  11. GESAMP Working Group 38, The Atmospheric Input of Chemicals to the Ocean (United States)

    Duce, Robert; Liss, Peter


    There is growing recognition of the impact of the atmospheric input of both natural and anthropogenic substances on ocean chemistry, biology, and biogeochemistry as well as climate. These inputs are closely related to a number of important global change issues. For example, the increasing input of anthropogenic nitrogen species from the atmosphere to much of the ocean may cause a low level fertilization that could result in an increase in marine 'new' productivity of up to ~3% and thus impact carbon drawdown from the atmosphere. Similarly, much of the oceanic iron, which is a limiting nutrient in significant areas of the ocean, originates from the atmospheric input of minerals as a result of the long-range transport of mineral dust from continental regions. The increased supply of soluble phosphorus from atmospheric anthropogenic sources (through large-scale use of fertilizers) may also have a significant impact on surface-ocean biogeochemistry, but estimates of any effects are highly uncertain. There have been few assessments of the atmospheric inputs of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the ocean and their impact on the rates of ocean acidification. These inputs may be particularly critical in heavily trafficked shipping lanes and in ocean regions proximate to highly industrialized land areas. Other atmospheric substances may also have an impact on the ocean, in particular lead, cadmium, and POPs. To address these and related issues the United Nations Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP) initiated Working Group 38, The Atmospheric Input of Chemicals to the Ocean, in 2008. This Working Group has had four meetings. To date four peer reviewed papers have been produced from this effort, with a least eight others in the process of being written or published. This paper will discuss some of the results of the Working Group's deliberations and its plans for possible future work.

  12. Insights into global diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Malviya, Shruti; Scalco, Eleonora; Audic, Sté phane; Vincent, Flora; Veluchamy, Alaguraj; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Iudicone, Daniele; de Vargas, Colomban; Bittner, Lucie; Zingone, Adriana; Bowler, Chris


    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) constitute one of the most diverse and ecologically important groups of phytoplankton. They are considered to be particularly important in nutrient-rich coastal ecosystems and at high latitudes, but considerably less so in the oligotrophic open ocean. The Tara Oceans circumnavigation collected samples from a wide range of oceanic regions using a standardized sampling procedure. Here, a total of ∼12 million diatom V9-18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ribotypes, derived from 293 sizefractionated plankton communities collected at 46 sampling sites across the global ocean euphotic zone, have been analyzed to explore diatom global diversity and community composition. We provide a new estimate of diversity of marine planktonic diatoms at 4,748 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Based on the total assigned ribotypes, Chaetoceros was the most abundant and diverse genus, followed by Fragilariopsis, Thalassiosira, and Corethron. We found only a few cosmopolitan ribotypes displaying an even distribution across stations and high abundance, many of which could not be assigned with confidence to any known genus. Three distinct communities from South Pacific, Mediterranean, and Southern Ocean waters were identified that share a substantial percentage of ribotypes within them. Sudden drops in diversity were observed at Cape Agulhas, which separates the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and across the Drake Passage between the Atlantic and Southern Oceans, indicating the importance of these ocean circulation choke points in constraining diatom distribution and diversity. We also observed high diatom diversity in the open ocean, suggesting that diatoms may be more relevant in these oceanic systems than generally considered.

  13. Insights into global diatom distribution and diversity in the world’s ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Malviya, Shruti


    Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) constitute one of the most diverse and ecologically important groups of phytoplankton. They are considered to be particularly important in nutrient-rich coastal ecosystems and at high latitudes, but considerably less so in the oligotrophic open ocean. The Tara Oceans circumnavigation collected samples from a wide range of oceanic regions using a standardized sampling procedure. Here, a total of ∼12 million diatom V9-18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) ribotypes, derived from 293 sizefractionated plankton communities collected at 46 sampling sites across the global ocean euphotic zone, have been analyzed to explore diatom global diversity and community composition. We provide a new estimate of diversity of marine planktonic diatoms at 4,748 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Based on the total assigned ribotypes, Chaetoceros was the most abundant and diverse genus, followed by Fragilariopsis, Thalassiosira, and Corethron. We found only a few cosmopolitan ribotypes displaying an even distribution across stations and high abundance, many of which could not be assigned with confidence to any known genus. Three distinct communities from South Pacific, Mediterranean, and Southern Ocean waters were identified that share a substantial percentage of ribotypes within them. Sudden drops in diversity were observed at Cape Agulhas, which separates the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, and across the Drake Passage between the Atlantic and Southern Oceans, indicating the importance of these ocean circulation choke points in constraining diatom distribution and diversity. We also observed high diatom diversity in the open ocean, suggesting that diatoms may be more relevant in these oceanic systems than generally considered.

  14. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters (United States)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio


    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  15. Deep Drilling Results in the Atlantic Ocean: Ocean Crust (United States)


    the volcano Agua de Pau. //i ( ,.which nas eruted 5 tir-es in tile past 4.600 / ye,.rs, the last in 1563. Xumerous not springs S/ o3220 an’ soradic...complex. In a study layered structure and physical properties to of ophiolite complexes in southern Chile , de Wit ce those of oceanic crust...Spooner et al, 1977) and and Govett, 1973). A large lens, for example that S. Chile (Stern et al, 1976). Zeolite to amphib- at Skouriotissa, had a

  16. Ocean fertilization, carbon credits and the Kyoto Protocol (United States)

    Westley, M. B.; Gnanadesikan, A.


    Commercial interest in ocean fertilization as a carbon sequestration tool was excited by the December 1997 agreement of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change. The Protocol commits industrialized countries to caps on net greenhouse gas emissions and allows for various flexible mechanisms to achieve these caps in the most economically efficient manner possible, including trade in carbon credits from projects that reduce emissions or enhance sinks. The carbon market was valued at 64 billion in 2007, with the bulk of the trading (50 billion) taking place in the highly regulated European Union Emission Trading Scheme, which deals primarily in emission allowances in the energy sector. A much smaller amount, worth $265 million, was traded in the largely unregulated "voluntary" market (Capoor and Ambrosi 2008). As the voluntary market grows, so do calls for its regulation, with several efforts underway to set rules and standards for the sale of voluntary carbon credits using the Kyoto Protocol as a starting point. Four US-based companies and an Australian company currently seek to develop ocean fertilization technologies for the generation of carbon credits. We review these plans through the lens of the Kyoto Protocol and its flexible mechanisms, and examine whether and how ocean fertilization could generate tradable carbon credits. We note that at present, ocean sinks are not included in the Kyoto Protocol, and that furthermore, the Kyoto Protocol only addresses sources and sinks of greenhouse gases within national boundaries, making open-ocean fertilization projects a jurisdictional challenge. We discuss the negotiating history behind the limited inclusion of land use, land use change and forestry in the Kyoto Protocol and the controversy and eventual compromise concerning methodologies for terrestrial carbon accounting. We conclude that current technologies for measuring and monitoring carbon sequestration following ocean fertilization

  17. Shallow Carbon Export from an Iron fertilised Plankton Bloom in the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Sanders, R.; Pollard, R.; Morris, P.; Statham, P.; Moore, C. M. M.; Lucas, M.


    Some regions of the global ocean, notably the Southern Ocean, have high levels of macronutrients yet low levels of chlorophyll (the high nutrient, low chlorophyll or HNLC condition). Numerous artificial iron fertilization experiments conducted in the Southern Ocean have resulted in enhanced phytoplankton biomass and macronutrient drawdown. However the subsequent long-term biogeochemical consequences of such iron fertilization are unclear due in part to the limited size and duration of such experiments. An alternative way to assess the affect of iron over the Southern Ocean biological carbon pump is to observe the evolution of plankton production in regions of the Southern Ocean where shallow topography and Ocean currents interact to promote to release terrestrial iron into HNLC waters. During 2004-5 RRS Discovery conduced a complex programme of observations in such a region around the Crozet Islands in the SW Indian Ocean. The results of this programme, focussing on a quantitative estimate of carbon export per unit iron addition, will be presented.

  18. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.


    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  19. Hypoxia by degrees: Establishing definitions for a changing ocean (United States)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Brewer, P. G.


    The marked increase in occurrences of low oxygen events on continental shelves coupled with observed expansion of low oxygen regions of the ocean has drawn significant scientific and public attention. With this has come the need for the establishment of better definitions for widely used terms such as "hypoxia" and "dead zones". Ocean chemists and physicists use concentration units such as μmolO2/kg for reporting since these units are independent of temperature, salinity and pressure and are required for mass balances and for numerical models of ocean transport. Much of the reporting of dead zone occurrences is in volumetric concentration units of mlO 2/l or mgO 2/l for historical reasons. And direct measurements of the physiological state of marine animals require reporting of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2) in matm or kPa since this provides the thermodynamic driving force for molecular transfer through tissue. This necessarily incorporates temperature and salinity terms and thus accommodates changes driven by climate warming and the influence of the very large temperature range around the world where oxygen limiting values are reported. Here we examine the various definitions used and boundaries set and place them within a common framework. We examine the large scale ocean pO 2 fields required for pairing with pCO 2 data for examination of the combined impacts of ocean acidification and global warming. The term "dead zones", which recently has received considerable attention in both the scientific literature and the press, usually describes shallow, coastal regions of low oxygen caused either by coastal eutrophication and organic matter decomposition or by upwelling of low oxygen waters. While we make clear that bathyal low oxygen waters should not be confused with shallow-water "dead zones", as deep water species are well adapted, we show that those waters represent a global vast reservoir of low oxygen water which can readily be entrained in upwelling

  20. USGS Arctic Ocean carbon cruise 2010: field activity H-03-10-AR to collect carbon data in the Arctic Ocean, August - September 2010 (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Gove, Matthew D.; Knorr, Paul O.; Wynn, Jonathan; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the surface of the ocean by reacting with seawater to form carbonic acid, a weak, naturally occurring acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (Sabine and others, 2004). Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003; Orr and others, 2005; Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats (Raven and others, 2005; Ruttiman, 2006). The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  1. USGS Arctic Ocean carbon cruise 2011: field activity H-01-11-AR to collect carbon data in the Arctic Ocean, August - September 2011 (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Knorr, Paul O.; Wynn, Jonathan; Lisle, John; Buczkowski, Brian J.; Moore, Barbara; Mayer, Larry; Armstrong, Andrew; Byrne, Robert H.; Liu, Xuewu


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is absorbed at the surface of the ocean by reacting with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid. As atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, the concentration of carbonic acid in seawater also increases, causing a decrease in ocean pH and carbonate mineral saturation states, a process known as ocean acidification. The oceans have absorbed approximately 525 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, or about one-quarter to one-third of the anthropogenic carbon emissions released since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (Sabine and others, 2004). Global surveys of ocean chemistry have revealed that seawater pH has decreased by about 0.1 units (from a pH of 8.2 to 8.1) since the 1700s due to absorption of carbon dioxide (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003; Orr and others, 2005; Raven and others, 2005). Modeling studies, based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) CO2 emission scenarios, predict that atmospheric carbon dioxide levels could reach more than 500 parts per million (ppm) by the middle of this century and 800 ppm by the year 2100, causing an additional decrease in surface water pH of 0.3 pH units. Ocean acidification is a global threat and is already having profound and deleterious effects on the geology, biology, chemistry, and socioeconomic resources of coastal and marine habitats (Raven and others, 2005; Ruttiman, 2006). The polar and sub-polar seas have been identified as the bellwethers for global ocean acidification.

  2. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006 (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.


    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  3. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Li

    Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  4. Deep Ocean Contribution to Sea Level Rise (United States)

    Chang, L.; Sun, W.; Tang, H.; Wang, Q.


    The ocean temperature and salinity change in the upper 2000m can be detected by Argo floats, so we can know the steric height change of the ocean. But the ocean layers above 2000m represent only 50% of the total ocean volume. Although the temperature and salinity change are small compared to the upper ocean, the deep ocean contribution to sea level might be significant because of its large volume. There has been some research on the deep ocean rely on the very sparse situ observation and are limited to decadal and longer-term rates of change. The available observational data in the deep ocean are too spares to determine the temporal variability, and the long-term changes may have a bias. We will use the Argo date and combine the situ data and topographic data to estimate the temperature and salinity of the sea water below 2000m, so we can obtain a monthly data. We will analyze the seasonal and annual change of the steric height change due to the deep ocean between 2005 and 2016. And we will evaluate the result combination the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems. The deep ocean contribution can be inferred indirectly as the difference between the altimetry minus GRACE and Argo-based steric sea level.

  5. Vertical Motions of Oceanic Volcanoes (United States)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.


    Oceanic volcanoes offer abundant evidence of changes in their elevations through time. Their large-scale motions begin with a period of rapid subsidence lasting hundreds of thousands of years caused by isostatic compensation of the added mass of the volcano on the ocean lithosphere. The response is within thousands of years and lasts as long as the active volcano keeps adding mass on the ocean floor. Downward flexure caused by volcanic loading creates troughs around the growing volcanoes that eventually fill with sediment. Seismic surveys show that the overall depression of the old ocean floor beneath Hawaiian volcanoes such as Mauna Loa is about 10 km. This gross subsidence means that the drowned shorelines only record a small part of the total subsidence the islands experienced. In Hawaii, this history is recorded by long-term tide-gauge data, the depth in drill holes of subaerial lava flows and soil horizons, former shorelines presently located below sea level. Offshore Hawaii, a series of at least 7 drowned reefs and terraces record subsidence of about 1325 m during the last half million years. Older sequences of drowned reefs and terraces define the early rapid phase of subsidence of Maui, Molokai, Lanai, Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau. Volcanic islands, such as Maui, tip down toward the next younger volcano as it begins rapid growth and subsidence. Such tipping results in drowned reefs on Haleakala as deep as 2400 m where they are tipped towards Hawaii. Flat-topped volcanoes on submarine rift zones also record this tipping towards the next younger volcano. This early rapid subsidence phase is followed by a period of slow subsidence lasting for millions of years caused by thermal contraction of the aging ocean lithosphere beneath the volcano. The well-known evolution along the Hawaiian chain from high to low volcanic island, to coral island, and to guyot is due to this process. This history of rapid and then slow subsidence is interrupted by a period of minor uplift

  6. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.


    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  7. [Conservation Units. (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  8. Changing noise levels in a high CO2/lower pH ocean (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Hester, K. C.; Peltzer, E. T.; Kirkwood, W. J.


    We show that ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion and from increased respiration/reduced ventilation, has significantly reduced ocean sound absorption and thus increased ocean noise levels in the kHz frequency range. Below 10 kHz, sound absorption occurs due to well known chemical relaxations in the B(OH)3/B(OH)4- and HCO3-/CO32- systems. The pH dependence of these chemical relaxations results in decreased sound absorption (α = dB/km) as the ocean becomes more acidic from increased CO2 levels. The scale of surface ocean pH change today from the +105 ppmv change in atmospheric CO2 is about - 0.12 pH, resulting in frequency dependent decreases in sound absorption that now exceed 12% over pre- industrial. Under reasonable projections of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions and other sources a pH change of 0.3 units or more can be anticipated by mid-century, resulting in a decrease in α by almost 40%. Increases in water temperature have a smaller effect but also contribute to decreased sound absorption. Combining a lowering of 0.3 pH units with an increase of 3°C, α will decrease further to almost 45%. Ambient noise levels in the ocean within the auditory range critical for environmental, military, and economic interests are set to increase significantly due to the combined effects of decreased absorption and increasing sources from mankind's activities. Incorporation of sound absorption in modeling future ocean scenarios (R. Zeebe, personal communication) and long-term monitoring possibly with the aid of modern cabled observatories can give insights in how ocean noise will continue to change and its effect on groups such as marine mammals which communicate in the affected frequency range.

  9. The Oceans 2015 Initiative, Part I - An updated synthesis of the observed and projected impacts of climate change on physical and biological processes in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, Ella L.; Joos, Fortunat; Eakin, Mark; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre


    The oceans have absorbed approximately 93% of the excess heat caused by global warming. Warming increases stratification, limiting the circulation of nutrients from deep waters to the surface. There is evidence that enhanced stratification and increasing temperature are causing a decline in dissolved oxygen concentration and expanding existing oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Approximately 26% of anthropogenic CO 2 is absorbed by the oceans, resulting in a reduction in pH and carbonate ion concentration, termed ocean acidification. Anthropogenic CO 2 has caused global ocean pH to decrease by 0.1 units since the start of the Industrial Revolution. The ocean ecosystems are responding to the changing environment, but at different rates and magnitudes and with interspecific and geographic variation in responses. Warming causes shifts in species' geographic distribution, abundance, migration patterns and phenology. Organisms that produce shells and skeletons from calcium carbonate are at most risk from ocean acidification as it lowers the saturation state of the mineral, favouring a dissolution reaction. To date, there are few observations of ocean acidification effects in natural communities; however, experimental evidence suggests that the risk to ecosystems will increase over the coming decades. Decreasing dissolved oxygen concentrations and expanding OMZs will favour anaerobic metabolisers such as bacteria and small microbes whilst reducing habitat for larger, oxygen dependent organisms. The interaction of multiple drivers can amplify or alleviate each other's effects. It is likely that marine organisms will experience a combination of warming, acidification and declining oxygen concentrations as well as regionally specific local stressors. This makes it difficult to predict the responses of individual species to multiple drivers, and species interactions make ecosystem- based projections challenging. Using the available evidence, projections have been

  10. The study of the ocean from space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novogrudskii, B V; Skliarov, V E; Fedorov, K N; Shifrin, K S


    The application of earth satellites and manned spacecraft to the study of the world's oceans is reviewed. Attention is given to the atmospheric transfer function in the visible, near-IR, middle-IR and microwave regions and the use of satellites in ocean data acquisition and transmission systems. The measurement of sea level and the topography of the ocean surface by means of orbital radar altimeters is discussed, together with IR and microwave measurements of ocean surface temperature and the study of surface roughness, surface evidence of internal waves, oil pollution and ice fields. Consideration is also given to the determination of ocean chlorophyll content and color distribution, coastal region characteristics, ocean salinity and other biological parameters from space.

  11. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya


    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  12. An Ocean of Knowledge; Un mar de conocimientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Peter [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Public Information, Vienna (Austria)


    On 10 March 1961, the IAEA concluded with the Principality of Monaco and the Oceanographic Institute, then directed by Jacques Cousteau, their first agreement on a research project on the effects of radioactivity in the sea. Fifty years later, that cooperation expanded significantly through collaboration with international and regional organizations, as well as national laboratories. The Laboratories that grew from this initial agreement comprise the only marine laboratory in the United Nations system that undertakes research, while providing training and support services for the study of the oceans and marine environments.

  13. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.


    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  14. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor


    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surfaceheights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection...... zone the measurements may deriveparameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading.The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS...

  15. Evidence for major input of riverine organic matter into the ocean (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Aiken, George R.; Butler, Kenna D.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Balch, William M.; Mao, Jingdong; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus


    The changes in the structure of XAD-8 isolated dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples along a river (Penobscot River) to estuary (Penobscot Bay) to ocean (across the Gulf of Maine) transect and from the Pacific Ocean were investigated using selective and two dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy coupled with elemental and carbon isotope analysis. The results provide important insights into the nature of relatively stable structures in the river-to-ocean continuum and the enigma of the fate of terrestrial DOM in the marine system. First, lignin and carboxyl-rich alicyclic molecules (CRAMs), which are indistinguishable from mass spectrometry, were clearly differentiated with NMR spectroscopy. NMR unambiguously showed that CRAMs persisted along the river-to-ocean transect and in the Pacific Ocean, while lignin residues dramatically decreased in abundance from the river to the coastal ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The results challenge a previous conclusion that lignin-derived compounds are refractory and can accumulate in the coastal ocean. The loss of terrestrial plant-derived aromatic compounds such as lignin and tannin residues throughout the sequence of riverine, coastal, and open ocean DOM extracts could also partially explain the decreasing organic carbon recovery by XAD-8 isolation and the change in carbon stable isotope composition from riverine DOM (δ13C −27.6‰) to ocean DOM (δ13C −23.0‰) extracts. The observation, from advanced NMR, of similar CRAM molecules in XAD-8 isolated DOM samples from the Penobscot River to the Penobscot Bay and from the ocean refutes a previous conclusion that XAD-isolated DOM samples from seawater and river are distinctly different. The alicyclic structural features of CRAMs and their presence as the major structural units in DOM extracts from the Penobscot River to Gulf of Maine transect, together with the deduced old 14C age of CRAMs in the ocean, imply that terrestrial CRAMs may persist on

  16. Deep ocean model penetrator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, T.J.; Burdett, J.R.F.


    Preliminary trials of experimental model penetrators in the deep ocean have been conducted as an international collaborative exercise by participating members (national bodies and the CEC) of the Engineering Studies Task Group of the Nuclear Energy Agency's Seabed Working Group. This report describes and gives the results of these experiments, which were conducted at two deep ocean study areas in the Atlantic: Great Meteor East and the Nares Abyssal Plain. Velocity profiles of penetrators of differing dimensions and weights have been determined as they free-fell through the water column and impacted the sediment. These velocity profiles are used to determine the final embedment depth of the penetrators and the resistance to penetration offered by the sediment. The results are compared with predictions of embedment depth derived from elementary models of a penetrator impacting with a sediment. It is tentatively concluded that once the resistance to penetration offered by a sediment at a particular site has been determined, this quantity can be used to sucessfully predict the embedment that penetrators of differing sizes and weights would achieve at the same site

  17. Geobiological Responses to Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Potts, D. C.


    During 240Ma of evolution, scleractinian corals survived major changes in ocean chemistry, yet recent concerns with rapid acidification after ca. 40Ma of almost constant oceanic pH have tended to distract attention from natural pH variation in coastal waters, where most corals and reefs occur. Unaltered skeletal environmental proxies reflect conditions experienced by individual organisms, with any variation on micro- habitat and micro-time scales appropriate for that individual's ecology, behavior and physiology, but proxy interpretation usually extrapolates to larger spatial (habitat, region to global) and temporal (seasonal, annual, interannual) scales. Therefore, predicting consequences of acidification for both corals and reefs requires greater understanding of: 1. Many potential indirect consequences of pH change that may affect calcification and/or carbonate accretion: e.g. an individual's developmental rates, growth, final size, general physiology and reproductive success; its population's distribution and abundance, symbionts, food availability, predators and pathogens; and its community and ecosystem services. 2. Potentially diverse responses to declining pH, ranging from non-evolutionary, rapid physiological changes (acclimation) or long term (seasonal to interannual) plasticity (acclimatization) of individuals, through genetic adaptation in local populations, and up to directional changes in species" characteristics and/or radiations/extinctions. 3. The evolutionary and environmental history of an organism's lineage, its ecological (own lifetime) exposure to environmental variation, and "pre-adaptation" via other factors acting on correlated characters.

  18. Climate change impact on future ocean acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben


    Full text: Elevated atmospheric C02 levels and associated uptake by the ocean is changing its carbon chemistry, leading to an acidification. The implications of future ocean acidification on the marine ecosystem are unclear but seemingly detrimental particularly to those organisms and phytoplankton that secrete calcium carbonate (like corals). Here we present new results from the Australian CSIRO General Circulation Model that predicts the changing nature of oceanic carbon chemistry in response to future climate change feedbacks (circulation, temperature and biological). We will discuss the implications of future ocean acidification and the potential implications on Australia's marine ecosystems

  19. Sustaining observations of the unsteady ocean circulation. (United States)

    Frajka-Williams, E


    Sustained observations of ocean properties reveal a global warming trend and rising sea levels. These changes have been documented by traditional ship-based measurements of ocean properties, whereas more recent Argo profiling floats and satellite records permit estimates of ocean changes on a near real-time basis. Through these and newer methods of observing the oceans, scientists are moving from quantifying the 'state of the ocean' to monitoring its variability, and distinguishing the physical processes bringing signals of change. In this paper, I give a brief overview of the UK contributions to the physical oceanographic observations, and the role they have played in the wider global observing systems. While temperature and salinity are the primary measurements of physical oceanography, new transbasin mooring arrays also resolve changes in ocean circulation on daily timescales. Emerging technologies permit routine observations at higher-than-ever spatial resolutions. Following this, I then give a personal perspective on the future of sustained observations. New measurement techniques promise exciting discoveries concerning the role of smaller scales and boundary processes in setting the large-scale ocean circulation and the ocean's role in climate. The challenges now facing the scientific community include sustaining critical observations in the case of funding system changes or shifts in government priorities. These long records will enable a determination of the role and response of the ocean to climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. The atmosphere and ocean: A physical introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, N.


    The book's contents are: The Earth within the solar system. Composition and physical properties of the ocean and atmosphere. Radiation, temperature and stability. Water in the atmosphere. Global budgets of heat, water and salt. Observations of winds and currents. The influence of the Earth's rotation on fluid motion. Waves and tides. Energy transfer in the ocean-atmosphere system. Climate variability and predictability. The atmosphere and ocean are two different environmental systems, yet both are interdependent, interacting and exchanging energy, heat and matter. This book attempts to bring the study of the atmosphere and ocean together. It is a descriptive account of physical properties, exploring their common bases, similarities, interactions and fundamental differences

  1. Ocean images in music compositions and folksongs (United States)

    Liu, C. M.


    In general, ocean study usually ranges from physical oceanography, chemical oceanography, marine biology, marine geology, and other related fields. In addition to pure scientific fields, ocean phenomenon influence not only human mood but also the shaping of local cultures. In this paper, we present some ocean images and concepts appeared in music compositions and folksongs to show the mixing, influence and interaction between them. This may give a novel way not for science teachers but also music teachers to deliver the knowledge of ocean science in classes.

  2. Polar ocean stratification in a cold climate. (United States)

    Sigman, Daniel M; Jaccard, Samuel L; Haug, Gerald H


    The low-latitude ocean is strongly stratified by the warmth of its surface water. As a result, the great volume of the deep ocean has easiest access to the atmosphere through the polar surface ocean. In the modern polar ocean during the winter, the vertical distribution of temperature promotes overturning, with colder water over warmer, while the salinity distribution typically promotes stratification, with fresher water over saltier. However, the sensitivity of seawater density to temperature is reduced as temperature approaches the freezing point, with potential consequences for global ocean circulation under cold climates. Here we present deep-sea records of biogenic opal accumulation and sedimentary nitrogen isotopic composition from the Subarctic North Pacific Ocean and the Southern Ocean. These records indicate that vertical stratification increased in both northern and southern high latitudes 2.7 million years ago, when Northern Hemisphere glaciation intensified in association with global cooling during the late Pliocene epoch. We propose that the cooling caused this increased stratification by weakening the role of temperature in polar ocean density structure so as to reduce its opposition to the stratifying effect of the vertical salinity distribution. The shift towards stratification in the polar ocean 2.7 million years ago may have increased the quantity of carbon dioxide trapped in the abyss, amplifying the global cooling.

  3. Possible Habitability of Ocean Worlds (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Bredehöft, Jan H.; Lammer, Helmut


    In the last decade, the number of detected exoplanets has increased to over thousand confirmed planets and more as yet unconfirmed planet candidates. The scientific community mainly concentrates on terrestrial planets (up to 10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone, which describes the distance from the host star where liquid water can exist at the surface (Kasting et al., 1993). Another target group of interest are ocean worlds, where a terrestrial-like body (i.e. with an iron core and a silicate mantle) is covered by a thick water-ice layer - similar to the icy moons of our solar system but with several Earth masses (e.g. Grasset et al., 2009). When an exoplanet is detected and confirmed as a planet, typically the radius and the mass of it are known, leading to the mean density of the planet that gives hints to possible interior structures. A planet with a large relative iron core and a thick ocean on top of the silicate mantle for example would have the same average planet density as a planet with a more Earth-like appearance (where the main contributor to the mass is the silicate mantle). In this study we investigate how the radius and mass of a planet depend on the amount of water, silicates and iron present (after Wagner et al., 2011) the occurence of high-pressure-ice in the water-ice layer (note: we only consider surface temperatures at which liquid water exists at the surface) if the ocean layer influences the initiation of plate tectonics We assume that ocean worlds with a liquid ocean layer (and without the occurence of high-pressure ice anywhere in the water layer) and plate tectonics (especially the occurence of subduction zones, hydrothermal vents and continental formation) may be called habitable (Class III/IV habitats after Lammer et al., 2009). References: Kasting, J.F., Whitmire, D.P., and Reynolds, R.T. (1993). Habitable Zones around Main Sequence Stars. Icarus 101, 108-128. Grasset, O., Schneider, J., and Sotin, C. (2009). A study of the accuracy

  4. Toward a Sociology of Oceans. (United States)

    Hannigan, John


    Despite covering around 70 percent of the earth's surface, the ocean has long been ignored by sociology or treated as merely an extension of land-based systems. Increasingly, however, oceans are assuming a higher profile, emerging both as a new resource frontier, a medium for geopolitical rivalry and conflict, and a unique and threatened ecological hot spot. In this article, I propose a new sociological specialty area, the "sociology of oceans" to be situated at the interface between environmental sociology and traditional maritime studies. After reviewing existing sociological research on maritime topics and the consideration of (or lack of consideration) the sea by classic sociological theorists, I briefly discuss several contemporary sociological approaches to the ocean that have attracted some notice. In the final section of the paper, I make the case for a distinct sociology of oceans and briefly sketch what this might look like. One possible trajectory for creating a shared vision or common paradigm, I argue, is to draw on Deleuze and Guattari's dialectical theory of the smooth and the striated. Même s'il couvre 70% de la surface de la Terre, l'océan a été longtemps ignoré en sociologie ou traité comme une extension des systèmes terrestres. De plus en plus, toutefois, l'océan retient l'attention, en étant vu comme une nouvelle frontière en termes de ressources, un médium pour les rivalités et les conflits géopolitiques, et un lieu écologique névralgique et unique. Dans cet article, je propose une nouvelle spécialisation sociologique, la 'sociologie des océans', se situant dans l'interface entre la sociologie environnementale et les études maritimes traditionnelles. Après une recension de la recherche sociologique existante sur les sujets maritimes et la prise en compte (ou l'absence de prise en compte) de l'océan par les théoriciens de la sociologie classique, je discute brièvement quelques approches sociologiques contemporaines de l

  5. 77 FR 15052 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan (United States)


    ... charge for Federal agencies to implement the National Ocean Policy, the National Ocean Council developed... dollars a year to the national economy, and are essential to public health and national security. Next...

  6. Performance of the ocean state forecast system at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, T.M.B.; Sirisha, P.; Sandhya, K.G.; Srinivas, K.; SanilKumar, V.; Sabique, L.; Nherakkol, A.; KrishnaPrasad, B.; RakhiKumari; Jeyakumar, C.; Kaviyazhahu, K.; RameshKumar, M.; Harikumar, R.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nayak, S.

    The reliability of the operational Ocean State Forecast system at the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) during tropical cyclones that affect the coastline of India is described in this article. The performance...

  7. Puget Sound ocean acidification model outputs - Modeling the impacts of ocean acidification on ecosystems and populations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NWFSC OA team will model the effects of ocean acidification on regional marine species and ecosystems using food web models, life-cycle models, and bioenvelope...

  8. Ship Sensor Observations for The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005 - Office of Ocean Exploration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the US Coast Guard icebreaker Healy during the "The Hidden Ocean Arctic 2005" expedition sponsored by the...

  9. 33 CFR 329.12 - Geographic and jurisdictional limits of oceanic and tidal waters. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic and jurisdictional limits of oceanic and tidal waters. 329.12 Section 329.12 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DEFINITION OF NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES...

  10. EPOCA/EUR-OCEANS data compilation on the biological and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification


    Nisumaa Anne-Marin; Pesant Stephane; Bellerby Richard G J; Delille Bruno; Middelburg Jack J; Orr James C; Riebesell Ulf; Tyrrell Toby; Wolf-Gladrow Dieter A; Gattuso Jean-Pierre


    The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the oceans has led to a rise in the oceanic partial pressure of CO2, and to a decrease in pH and carbonate ion concentration. This modification of the marine carbonate system is referred to as ocean acidification. Numerous papers report the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and communities but few have provided details concerning full carbonate chemistry and complementary observations. Additional...

  11. One kind of atmosphere-ocean three layer model for calculating the velocity of ocean current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Z; Xi, P


    A three-layer atmosphere-ocean model is given in this paper to calcuate the velocity of ocean current, particularly the function of the vertical coordinate, taking into consideratiln (1) the atmospheric effect on the generation of ocean current, (2) a calculated coefficient of the eddy viscosity instead of an assumed one, and (3) the sea which actually varies in depth.

  12. 75 FR 54497 - Ocean Dumping; Guam Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation (United States)


    .... SUMMARY: The EPA is designating the Guam Deep Ocean Disposal Site (G- DODS) as a permanent ocean dredged... administration of ocean disposal permits; (2) development and maintenance of a site monitoring program; (3... include: (1) Regulating quantities and types of material to be disposed, including the time, rates, and...

  13. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... (United States)


    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  14. Distribution of mesozooplankton biomass in the global ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moriarty


    Full Text Available Mesozooplankton are cosmopolitan within the sunlit layers of the global ocean. They are important in the pelagic food web, having a significant feedback to primary production through their consumption of phytoplankton and microzooplankton. In many regions of the global ocean, they are also the primary contributors to vertical particle flux in the oceans. Through both they affect the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and other nutrients in the oceans. Little, however, is known about their global distribution and biomass. While global maps of mesozooplankton biomass do exist in the literature, they are usually in the form of hand-drawn maps for which the original data associated with these maps are not readily available. The dataset presented in this synthesis has been in development since the late 1990s, is an integral part of the Coastal and Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, and Observation Database (COPEPOD, and is now also part of a wider community effort to provide a global picture of carbon biomass data for key plankton functional types, in particular to support the development of marine ecosystem models. A total of 153 163 biomass values were collected, from a variety of sources, for mesozooplankton. Of those 2% were originally recorded as dry mass, 26% as wet mass, 5% as settled volume, and 68% as displacement volume. Using a variety of non-linear biomass conversions from the literature, the data have been converted from their original units to carbon biomass. Depth-integrated values were then used to calculate an estimate of mesozooplankton global biomass. Global epipelagic mesozooplankton biomass, to a depth of 200 m, had a mean of 5.9 μg C L−1, median of 2.7 μg C L−1 and a standard deviation of 10.6 μg C L−1. The global annual average estimate of mesozooplankton in the top 200 m, based on the median value, was 0.19 Pg C. Biomass was highest in the Northern Hemisphere, and there were slight decreases from polar oceans (40

  15. Polychaeta Orbiniidae from Antarctica, the Southern Ocean, the Abyssal Pacific Ocean, and off South America. (United States)

    Blake, James A


    The orbiniid polychaetes chiefly from Antarctic and subantarctic seas and off South America are described based on collections of the National Museum of Natural History and new material from surveys conducted by the United States Antarctic Program and other federal and privately funded sources as well as participation in international programs. A total of 44 species of Orbiniidae distributed in 10 genera are reported from the Pacific Ocean and waters off South America and Antarctica. Twenty-one species are new to science; one species is renamed. Berkeleyia heroae n. sp., B. abyssala n. sp., B. weddellia n. sp.; B. hadala n. sp., Leitoscoloplos simplex n. sp., L. plataensis n. sp., L. nasus n. sp., L. eltaninae n. sp., L. phyllobranchus n. sp., L. rankini n. sp., Scoloplos bathytatus n. sp., S. suroestense n. sp., Leodamas hyphalos n. sp., L. maciolekae n. sp., L. perissobranchiatus n. sp., Califia bilamellata n. sp., Orbinia orensanzi n. sp., Naineris antarctica n. sp., N. argentiniensis n. sp., Orbiniella spinosa n. sp., and O. landrumae n. sp. are new to science. A new name, Naineris furcillata, replaces N. chilensis Carrasco, 1977, a junior homonym of N. dendtritica chilensis Hartmann‑Schröder, 1965, which is raised to full species status. Leodamas cochleatus (Ehlers, 1900) is removed from synonymy and redescribed. A neotype is established for Leodamas verax Kinberg, 1966, the type species. A general overview of Leodamas species is provided. The Leitoscoloplos kerguelensis (McIntosh, 1885) complex is reviewed and partially revised. Definitions of the genera of the Orbiniidae are updated to conform to recently described taxa. Several new synonymies are proposed following a reexamination of previously described type specimens. The morphological characters used to identify and classify orbiniids are reviewed. The biogeographic and bathymetric distributions of the South American and Southern Ocean orbiniid fauna are reviewed.

  16. A review of ocean chlorophyll algorithms and primary production models (United States)

    Li, Jingwen; Zhou, Song; Lv, Nan


    This paper mainly introduces the five ocean chlorophyll concentration inversion algorithm and 3 main models for computing ocean primary production based on ocean chlorophyll concentration. Through the comparison of five ocean chlorophyll inversion algorithm, sums up the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithm,and briefly analyzes the trend of ocean primary production model.

  17. Ocean acidification buffering effects of seagrass in Tampa Bay (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly K.; Moyer, Ryan P.; Moore, Christopher; Tomasko, David A.; Smiley, Nathan A.; Torres-Garcia, Legna; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana; Smiley, Nathan; Torres-Garcia, Legna M.; Powell, Christina E.; Chappel, Amanda R.; Bociu, Ioana


    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified ocean acidification as a critical threat to marine and estuarine species in ocean and coastal ecosystems around the world. However, seagrasses are projected to benefit from elevated atmospheric pCO2, are capable of increasing seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states through photosynthesis, and may help buffer against the chemical impacts of ocean acidification. Additionally, dissolution of carbonate sediments may also provide a mechanism for buffering seawater pH. Long-term water quality monitoring data from the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County indicates that seawater pH has risen since the 1980‘s as seagrass beds have continued to recover since that time. We examined the role of seagrass beds in maintaining and elevating pH and carbonate mineral saturation state in northern and southern Tampa Bay where the percent of carbonate sediments is low (40%), respectively. Basic water quality and carbonate system parameters (including pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, partial pressure of CO2, and carbonate mineral saturation state) were measured over diurnal time periods along transects (50-100 m) including dense and sparse Thalassia testudinum. seagrass beds, deep edge seagrass, and adjacent bare sand bottom. Seagrass density and productivity, sediment composition and hydrodynamic parameters were also measured, concurrently. Results indicate that seagrass beds locally elevate pH by up to 0.5 pH unit and double carbonate mineral saturation states relative to bare sand habitats. Thus, seagrass beds in Tampa Bay may provide refuge for marine organisms from the impacts of ocean acidification.

  18. The OceanLink Project (United States)

    Narock, T.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Cheatham, M.; Finin, T.; Hitzler, P.; Krisnadhi, A.; Raymond, L. M.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.


    A wide spectrum of maturing methods and tools, collectively characterized as the Semantic Web, is helping to vastly improve the dissemination of scientific research. Creating semantic integration requires input from both domain and cyberinfrastructure scientists. OceanLink, an NSF EarthCube Building Block, is demonstrating semantic technologies through the integration of geoscience data repositories, library holdings, conference abstracts, and funded research awards. Meeting project objectives involves applying semantic technologies to support data representation, discovery, sharing and integration. Our semantic cyberinfrastructure components include ontology design patterns, Linked Data collections, semantic provenance, and associated services to enhance data and knowledge discovery, interoperation, and integration. We discuss how these components are integrated, the continued automated and semi-automated creation of semantic metadata, and techniques we have developed to integrate ontologies, link resources, and preserve provenance and attribution.

  19. Handbook of ocean wave energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kofoed, Jens


    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering aspects and describe in detail all the key aspects to be considered in the techno-economic assessment of wave energy converters. Written in an easy-to-understand style, the book answers questions relevant to readers of different backgrounds, from developers, private and public investors, to students and researchers. It is thereby a valuable resource for both newcomers and experienced practitioners in the wave energy sector.

  20. Ecological Stoichiometry of Ocean Plankton (United States)

    Moreno, Allison R.; Martiny, Adam C.


    Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained. We propose that specific physiological mechanisms have a strong impact on plankton and community stoichiometry in nutrient-rich environments, whereas biogeochemical interactions are important for the stoichiometry of the oligotrophic gyres. Finally, we outline key areas with missing information that is needed to advance understanding of the present and future ecological stoichiometry of ocean plankton.

  1. Arctic Ocean data in CARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jutterström


    Full Text Available The paper describes the steps taken for quality controlling chosen parameters within the Arctic Ocean data included in the CARINA data set and checking for offsets between the individual cruises. The evaluated parameters are the inorganic carbon parameters (total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and pH, oxygen and nutrients: nitrate, phosphate and silicate. More parameters can be found in the CARINA data product, but were not subject to a secondary quality control. The main method in determining offsets between cruises was regional multi-linear regression, after a first rough basin-wide deep-water estimate of each parameter. Lastly, the results of the secondary quality control are discussed as well as applied adjustments.

  2. World ocean and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiknadze, O.E.; Sivintsev, Yu.V.


    The radioecological situation that took shape in the Arctic, North Atlantic Ocean and Far East regions as a result of radioactive waste marine disposal was assessed. Accurate account of radionuclides formation and decay in submerged water-water reactors of nuclear submarines suggests that total activity of radioactive waste disposed near the Novaya Zemlya amounted to 107 kCi by the end of 1999. Activity of radioactive waste disposed in the North Atlantic currently is not in excess of 430 kCi. It is pointed out that the Far East region heads the list in terms of total activity disposed (529 kCi). Effective individual dose for critical groups of population in the Arctic, North Atlantic and Far East regions was determined. The conclusion was made that there is no detrimental effect of the radioactive waste disposed on radioecological situation in the relevant areas [ru

  3. Ocean disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, H.O.


    A 1:40 scale model of a sea bed repository has been tested in a laboratory flume 1.5 m wide x 0.8 m deep. The nature of the very thick turbulent boundary layer developed at the bed in deep ocean flows has been reviewed from all available literature. Flow of this kind has been reproduced in the laboratory flume so that it correctly envelops the model repository. The repository is placed in the flume on a bed of coal grains to study the scour effect of the boundary layer flow as it passes around the repository. Results are presented for scour around a repository with the centre-line aligned with the direction of flow. (author)

  4. Microcontroller Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulaev, A.B.


    The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. A New Paradigm for New Oceans (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.; Doré, A. G.; Franke, D.; Geoffroy, L.; Gernigon, L.; Hole, M.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Julian, B. R.; Kusznir, N.; Martinez, F.; Natland, J. H.; Peace, A.; Petersen, K. D.; Schiffer, C.; Stephenson, R.; Stoker, M. S.


    The original simple theory of plate tectonics had to be refined to accommodate second-order geological features such as back-arc basins and continental deformation zones. We propose an additional refinement that is required by complexities that form and persist in new oceans when inhomogeneous continental lithosphere/tectosphere disintegrates. Such complexities include continual plate-boundary reorganizations and migrations, distributed continental material in the ocean, propagating and dying ridges, and sagging, flexing and tilting in the oceans and at continent-ocean boundary zones. Reorganizations of stress and motion persist, resulting in variable orientations over short distances, tectonic reactivations, complex plate boundary configurations including multiple triple junctions, and the formation and abandonment of oceanic microplates. Resulting local compressions and extensions are manifest as bathymetric anomalies, vertical motions, and distributed volcanism at various times and places as the new ocean grows. Examples of regions that exhibit some or all of these features include the North Atlantic, the Rio Grande Rise/Walvis Ridge region of the South Atlantic, and the Seychelles-Mauritius region in the Indian Ocean. We suggest that these complexities arise as a result of the formation of new spreading plate boundaries by rifts propagating through continental lithosphere/tectosphere that is anisotropic as a result of inherited structure/composition and/or a sub-lithospheric mantle destabilized by lithospheric-controlled processes. Such scenarios result in complicated disintegration of continents and local persistent dynamic instability in the new ocean.

  6. International Regulation of Central Arctic Ocean Fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, E.J.

    Due in particular to the impacts of climate change, the adequacy of the international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years. As shown in this article, however, international regulation of Central Arctic Ocean fisheries is by no means entirely

  7. Lagrangian ocean analysis : Fundamentals and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, Erik; Deleersnijder, E.L.C.; Heemink, A.W.; Griffies, Stepehn M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Authors, More


    Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several

  8. Ocean FEST: Families Exploring Science Together (United States)

    Bruno, Barbara C.; Wiener, Carlie; Kimura, Arthur; Kimura, Rene


    This project engages elementary school students, parents, teachers, and administrators in ocean-themed family science nights based on a proven model. Our key goals are to: (1) educate participants about ocean and earth science issues that are relevant to their communities; and (2) inspire more underrepresented students, including Native Hawaiians,…

  9. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21... for USAID Financing § 228.21 Ocean transportation. (a) The Cargo Preference Act of 1954, Section 901(b... transportation services is determined by the flag registry of the vessel. (1) When the authorized source for...

  10. Ocean transport and the facilitation of trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.W.; Lee, C.Y.; Meng, Q.


    In this chapter, we describe transactions in international trade transaction, and we zoom in on the ocean transport part of that transaction. We use transaction cost economics as our theoretical framework. We highlighted a number of ocean transport related processes that generate uncertainty and

  11. The Indian Ocean as a Connector (United States)

    Durgadoo, J. V.; Biastoch, A.; Boning, C. W.


    The Indian Ocean is a conduit for the upper ocean flow of the global thermohaline circulation. It receives water from the Pacific Ocean through the Indonesian throughflow and the Tasman leakage, and exports water into the Atlantic by means of Agulhas leakage. A small contribution from the northern Indian Ocean is also detectable within Agulhas leakage. Changes on different timescales in the various components of the Pacific inflows and the Atlantic outflow have been reported. Little is known on the role of the Indian Ocean circulation in communicating changes from the Pacific into the Atlantic, let alone any eventual alterations in response to climate change. The precise routes and timescales of Indonesian throughflow, Tasman leakage, Red Sea and Persian Gulf Waters towards the Atlantic are examined in a Lagrangian framework within a high-resolution global ocean model. In this presentation, the following questions are addressed: How are Pacific waters modified in the Indian Ocean before reaching the Agulhas system? On what timescale is water that enters the Indian Ocean from the Pacific flushed out? How important are detours in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea?

  12. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alex J.


    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  13. Role of remote sensing in ocean management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Voices_Oceans_1996_114.pdf.txt stream_source_info Voices_Oceans_1996_114.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Kinas ambitioner i det Indiske Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Morten Hetmar


    The article examines China's strategic and maritime interests and behaviour in the Indian Ocean and the Sino-Indian rivalry in Asia, as both countries vie for political and economic influnce in the countries dotting the Indian Ocean littoral from the Persian Gulf to the Strait of Malacca....

  15. Lagrangian ocean analysis : Fundamentals and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sebille, Erik; Griffies, Stephen M.; Abernathey, Ryan; Adams, Thomas P.; Berloff, Pavel; Biastoch, Arne; Blanke, Bruno; Chassignet, Eric P.; Cheng, Yu; Cotter, Colin J.; Deleersnijder, Eric; Döös, Kristofer; Drake, Henri F.; Drijfhout, Sybren; Gary, Stefan F.; Heemink, Arnold W.; Kjellsson, Joakim; Koszalka, Inga Monika; Lange, Michael; Lique, Camille; MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marsh, Robert; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela; McAdam, Ronan; Nencioli, Francesco; Paris, Claire B.; Piggott, Matthew D.; Polton, Jeff A.; Rühs, Siren; Shah, Syed H.A.M.; Thomas, Matthew D.; Wang, Jinbo; Wolfram, Phillip J.; Zanna, Laure; Zika, Jan D.


    Lagrangian analysis is a powerful way to analyse the output of ocean circulation models and other ocean velocity data such as from altimetry. In the Lagrangian approach, large sets of virtual particles are integrated within the three-dimensional, time-evolving velocity fields. Over several decades,

  16. 78 FR 33961 - National Oceans Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... and energy to helping sustain our climate and our security, the oceans play a critical role in nearly... generations to come. Rising to meet that test means addressing threats like overfishing, pollution, and... solutions to the challenges we face. By making smart choices in ocean management, we can give our businesses...

  17. Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim.: ocean-spray (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney


    Holodiscus is a taxonomically complex genus including about 6 species of western North America and northern South America (Hitchcock and others 1961; Ley 1943). The 2 generally recognized North American species (table 1) - creambush ocean-spray and gland ocean-spray - are deciduous, multistemmed shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, toothed to shallowly lobed,...

  18. Indian Ocean experiments with a coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainer, I. [Sao Paulo, Univ. (Brazil). Dept. of Oceanography


    A coupled ocean-atmosphere model is used to investigate the equatorial Indian Ocean response to the seasonally varying monsoon winds. Special attention is given to the oceanic response to the spatial distribution and changes in direction of the zonal winds. The Indian Ocean is surrounded by an Asian land mass to the North and an African land mass to the West. The model extends latitudinally between 41 N and 41 S. The asymmetric atmospheric model is driven by a mass source/sink term that is proportional to the sea surface temperature (SST) over the oceans and the heat balance over the land. The ocean is modeled using the Anderson and McCreary reduced-gravity transport model that includes a prognostic equation for the SST. The coupled system is driven by the annual cycle as manifested by zonally symmetric and asymmetric land and ocean heating. They explored the different nature of the equatorial ocean response to various patterns of zonal wind stress forcing in order to isolate the impact of the remote response on the Somali current. The major conclusions are : i) the equatorial response is fundamentally different for easterlies and westerlies, ii) the impact of the remote forcing on the Somali current is a function of the annual cycle, iii) the size of the basin sets the phase of the interference of the remote forcing on the Somali current relative to the local forcing.

  19. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context (United States)

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol


    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

  20. OW NASA SeaWIFS Ocean Color (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface ocean color (chlorophyll-a) measurements collected by means of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS)...

  1. An assessment of research and development leadership in ocean energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruch, V.L.


    Japan is clearly the leader in ocean energy technologies. The United Kingdom also has had many ocean energy research projects, but unlike Japan, most of the British projects have not progressed from the feasibility study stage to the demonstration stage. Federally funded ocean energy research in the US was stopped because it was perceived the technologies could not compete with conventional sources of fuel. Despite the probable small market for ocean energy technologies, the short sighted viewpoint of the US government regarding funding of these technologies may be harmful to US economic competitiveness. The technologies may have important uses in other applications, such as offshore construction and oil and gas drilling. Discontinuing the research and development of these technologies may cause the US to lose knowledge and miss market opportunities. If the US wishes to maintain its knowledge base and a market presence for ocean energy technologies, it may wish to consider entering into a cooperative agreement with Japan and/or the United Kingdom. Cooperative agreements are beneficial not only for technology transfer but also for cost-sharing

  2. Oceans Melting Greenland: Early Results from NASA's Ocean-Ice Mission in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenty, Ian; Willis, Josh K.; Khazendar, Ala


    the continental shelf, and about the extent to which the ocean interacts with glaciers. Early results from NASA's five-year Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission, based on extensive hydrographic and bathymetric surveys, suggest that many glaciers terminate in deep water and are hence vulnerable to increased...... melting due to ocean-ice interaction. OMG will track ocean conditions and ice loss at glaciers around Greenland through the year 2020, providing critical information about ocean-driven Greenland ice mass loss in a warming climate....

  3. Microbial diversity from chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and bottom zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Medina-Silva, Renata; de Oliveira, Rafael R.; Pivel, Maria A. G.; Borges, Luiz G. A.; Simão, Taiz L. L.; Pereira, Leandro M.; Trindade, Fernanda J.; Augustin, Adolpho H.; Valdez, Fernanda P.; Eizirik, Eduardo; Utz, Laura R. P.; Groposo, Claudia; Miller, Dennis J.; Viana, Adriano R.; Ketzer, João M. M.; Giongo, Adriana


    Conspicuous physicochemical vertical stratification in the deep sea is one of the main forces driving microbial diversity in the oceans. Oxygen and sunlight availability are key factors promoting microbial diversity throughout the water column. Ocean currents also play a major role in the physicochemical stratification, carrying oxygen down to deeper zones as well as moving deeper water masses up towards shallower depths. Water samples within a 50-km radius in a pockmark location of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean were collected and the prokaryotic communities from different water depths - chlorophyll maximum, oxygen minimum and deep-sea bottom (down to 1355 m) - were described. At phylum level, Proteobacteria were the most frequent in all water depths, Cyanobacteria were statistically more frequent in chlorophyll maximum zone, while Thaumarchaeota were significantly more abundant in both oxygen minimum and bottom waters. The most frequent microorganism in the chlorophyll maximum and oxygen minimum zones was a Pelagibacteraceae operational taxonomic unit (OTU). At the bottom, the most abundant genus was the archaeon Nitrosopumilus. Beta diversity analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing data uncovered in this study shows high spatial heterogeneity among water zones communities. Our data brings important contribution for the characterisation of oceanic microbial diversity, as it consists of the first description of prokaryotic communities occurring in different oceanic water zones in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Wright


    Full Text Available Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a reduction in carbonate ion (CO32− concentration. The potential impact that this change in ocean chemistry will have on marine and estuarine organisms and ecosystems is a growing concern for scientists worldwide. While species-specific responses to ocean acidification are widespread across a number of marine taxa, molluscs are one animal phylum with many species which are particularly vulnerable across a number of life-history stages. Molluscs make up the second largest animal phylum on earth with 30,000 species and are a major producer of CaCO3. Molluscs also provide essential ecosystem services including habitat structure and food for benthic organisms (i.e., mussel and oyster beds, purification of water through filtration and are economically valuable. Even sub lethal impacts on molluscs due to climate changed oceans will have serious consequences for global protein sources and marine ecosystems.

  5. Predicting the Response of Molluscs to the Impact of Ocean Acidification (United States)

    Parker, Laura M.; Ross, Pauline M.; O’Connor, Wayne A.; Pörtner, Hans O.; Scanes, Elliot; Wright, John M.


    Elevations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are anticipated to acidify oceans because of fundamental changes in ocean chemistry created by CO2 absorption from the atmosphere. Over the next century, these elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 are expected to result in a reduction of the surface ocean waters from 8.1 to 7.7 units as well as a reduction in carbonate ion (CO32−) concentration. The potential impact that this change in ocean chemistry will have on marine and estuarine organisms and ecosystems is a growing concern for scientists worldwide. While species-specific responses to ocean acidification are widespread across a number of marine taxa, molluscs are one animal phylum with many species which are particularly vulnerable across a number of life-history stages. Molluscs make up the second largest animal phylum on earth with 30,000 species and are a major producer of CaCO3. Molluscs also provide essential ecosystem services including habitat structure and food for benthic organisms (i.e., mussel and oyster beds), purification of water through filtration and are economically valuable. Even sub lethal impacts on molluscs due to climate changed oceans will have serious consequences for global protein sources and marine ecosystems. PMID:24832802

  6. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.


    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  7. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month precipitation outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly outlook...

  8. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  9. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Three Month Probabilistic Precipitation Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a series of thirteen probabilistic three-month precipitation outlooks for the United States. CPC issues the thirteen...

  10. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Three Month Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a series of thirteen probabilistic three-month temperature outlooks for the United States. CPC issues the thirteen...

  11. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) One Month Probabilistic Temperature Outlook for the Contiguous United States and Alaska (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) issues a probabilistic one-month temperature outlook for the United States twice a month. CPC issues an initial monthly outlook...

  12. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.


    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  13. Air-sea interaction in the tropical Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Allison, L. J.; Steranka, J.; Holub, R. J.; Hansen, J.; Godshall, F. A.; Prabhakara, C.


    Charts of 3-month sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean were produced for the period 1949 to 1970. The anomalies along the United States and South American west coasts and in the eastern tropical Pacific appeared to be oscillating in phase during this period. Similarly, the satellite-derived cloudiness for each of four quadrants of the Pacific Ocean (130 deg E to 100 deg W, 30 deg N to 25 deg S) appeared to be oscillating in phase. In addition, a global tropical cloudiness oscillation from 30 deg N to 30 deg S was noted from 1965 to 1970, by using monthly satellite television nephanalyses. The SST anomalies were found to have a good degree of correlation both positive and negative with the following monthly geophysical parameters: (1) satellite-derived cloudiness, (2) strength of the North and South Pacific semipermanent anticyclones, (3) tropical Pacific island rainfall, and (4) Darwin surface pressure. Several strong direct local and crossequatorial relationships were noted. In particular, the high degree of correlation between the tropical island rainfall and the SST anomalies (r = +0.93) permitted the derivation of SST's for the tropical Pacific back to 1905. The close occurrence of cold tropical SST and North Pacific 700-mb positive height anomalies with central United States drought conditions was noted.

  14. Swell Propagation over Indian Ocean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra A. Bhowmick


    Full Text Available Swells are the ocean surface gravity waves that have propagated out of their generating fetch to the distant coasts without significant attenuation. Therefore they contain a clear signature of the nature and intensity of wind at the generation location. This makes them a precursor to various atmospheric phenomena like distant storms, tropical cyclones, or even large scale sea breeze like monsoon. Since they are not affected by wind once they propagate out of their generating region, they cannot be described by regional wave models forced by local winds. However, their prediction is important, in particular, for ship routing and off shore structure designing. In the present work, the propagation of swell waves from the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean to the central and northern Indian Ocean has been studied. For this purpose a spectral ocean Wave Model (WAM has been used to simulate significant wave height for 13 years from 1993–2005 using NCEP blended winds at a horizontal spatial resolution of 1° × 1°. It has been observed that Indian Ocean, with average wave height of approximately 2–3 m during July, is mostly dominated by swell waves generated predominantly under the extreme windy conditions prevailing over the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean. In fact the swell waves reaching the Indian Ocean in early or mid May carry unique signatures of monsoon arriving over the Indian Subcontinent. Pre-monsoon month of April contains low swell waves ranging from 0.5–1 m. The amplitudes subsequently increase to approximately 1.5–2 meters around 7–15 days prior to the arrival of monsoon over the Indian Subcontinent. This embedded signature may be utilized as one of the important oceanographic precursor to the monsoon onset over the Indian Ocean.

  15. Dynamics of a Snowball Earth ocean. (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Yosef; Gildor, Hezi; Losch, Martin; Macdonald, Francis A; Schrag, Daniel P; Tziperman, Eli


    Geological evidence suggests that marine ice extended to the Equator at least twice during the Neoproterozoic era (about 750 to 635 million years ago), inspiring the Snowball Earth hypothesis that the Earth was globally ice-covered. In a possible Snowball Earth climate, ocean circulation and mixing processes would have set the melting and freezing rates that determine ice thickness, would have influenced the survival of photosynthetic life, and may provide important constraints for the interpretation of geochemical and sedimentological observations. Here we show that in a Snowball Earth, the ocean would have been well mixed and characterized by a dynamic circulation, with vigorous equatorial meridional overturning circulation, zonal equatorial jets, a well developed eddy field, strong coastal upwelling and convective mixing. This is in contrast to the sluggish ocean often expected in a Snowball Earth scenario owing to the insulation of the ocean from atmospheric forcing by the thick ice cover. As a result of vigorous convective mixing, the ocean temperature, salinity and density were either uniform in the vertical direction or weakly stratified in a few locations. Our results are based on a model that couples ice flow and ocean circulation, and is driven by a weak geothermal heat flux under a global ice cover about a kilometre thick. Compared with the modern ocean, the Snowball Earth ocean had far larger vertical mixing rates, and comparable horizontal mixing by ocean eddies. The strong circulation and coastal upwelling resulted in melting rates near continents as much as ten times larger than previously estimated. Although we cannot resolve the debate over the existence of global ice cover, we discuss the implications for the nutrient supply of photosynthetic activity and for banded iron formations. Our insights and constraints on ocean dynamics may help resolve the Snowball Earth controversy when combined with future geochemical and geological observations.

  16. Modeling study on nuclide transport in ocean - an ocean compartment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Kyoung Won


    An ocean compartment model simulating transport of nuclides by advection due to ocean circulation and interaction with suspended sediments is developed, by which concentration breakthrough curves of nuclides can be calculated as a function of time. Dividing ocean into arbitrary number of characteristic compartments and performing a balance of mass of nuclides in each ocean compartment, the governing equation for the concentration in the ocean is obtained and a solution by the numerical integration is obtained. The integration method is specially useful for general stiff systems. For transfer coefficients describing advective transport between adjacent compartments by ocean circulation, the ocean turnover time is calculated by a two-dimensional numerical ocean method. To exemplify the compartment model, a reference case calculation for breakthrough curves of three nuclides in low-level radioactive wastes, Tc-99, Cs-137, and Pu-238 released from hypothetical repository under the seabed is carried out with five ocean compartments. Sensitivity analysis studies for some parameters to the concentration breakthrough curves are also made, which indicates that parameters such as ocean turnover time and ocean water volume of compartments have an important effect on the breakthrough curves. (Author)

  17. Proceedings of international workshop on utilization of nuclear power in oceans (N'ocean 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, A.; Nariyama, N.; Sawada, K.


    Human beings and the ocean have maintained close relations for a long time. The ocean produced the life at very old time and human beings have been benefited by ocean, particularly in Japan that is surrounded by the ocean. In the utilization of nuclear power in ocean, Japan has been very active from the beginning of the development of nuclear power. The nuclear powered ship MUTSU has been developed and completed the experimental voyage. Besides the nuclear powered ship, we are using the ocean for the transportation of radioactive materials. This International Workshop aimed at offering further information about nuclear utilization in oceans such as icebreakers, deep-sea submarines, high speed carriers, floating plant, desalination and heating plants, radioactive materials transport ships, and so on. The discussions on the economical, environmental and scientific effects are included. The 36 of the present papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Use of a free ocean CO₂ enrichment (FOCE) system to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on the foraging behavior of a deep-sea urchin. (United States)

    Barry, James P; Lovera, Chris; Buck, Kurt R; Peltzer, Edward T; Taylor, Josi R; Walz, Peter; Whaling, Patrick J; Brewer, Peter G


    The influence of ocean acidification in deep-sea ecosystems is poorly understood but is expected to be large because of the presumed low tolerance of deep-sea taxa to environmental change. We used a newly developed deep-sea free ocean CO2 enrichment (dp-FOCE) system to evaluate the potential consequences of future ocean acidification on the feeding behavior of a deep-sea echinoid, the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis. The dp-FOCE system simulated future ocean acidification inside an experimental enclosure where observations of feeding behavior were performed. We measured the average movement (speed) of urchins as well as the time required (foraging time) for S. fragilis to approach its preferred food (giant kelp) in the dp-FOCE chamber (-0.46 pH units) and a control chamber (ambient pH). Measurements were performed during each of 4 trials (days -2, 2, 24, 27 after CO2 injection) during the month-long period when groups of urchins were continuously exposed to low pH or control conditions. Although urchin speed did not vary significantly in relation to pH or time exposed, foraging time was significantly longer for urchins in the low-pH treatment. This first deep-sea FOCE experiment demonstrated the utility of the FOCE system approach and suggests that the chemosensory behavior of a deep-sea urchin may be impaired by ocean acidification.

  19. Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) (NCEI Accession 0093183) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Ocean Currents Database (GOCD) is a collection of quality controlled ocean current measurements such as observed current direction and speed obtained from...

  20. Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean (NODC Accession 0044630) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The present Hydrochemical Atlas of the Arctic Ocean is a description of hydrochemical conditions in the Arctic Ocean on the basis of a greater body of hydrochemical...

  1. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Dominant and Aggregates (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  2. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Fishing sector (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  3. New Hampshire / Southern Maine Ocean Uses Atlas: Industrial sector (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ocean Uses Atlas Project is an innovative partnership between the Coastal Response Research Center (CRRC) and NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource...

  4. OceanSITES RAMA daily in-situ data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OceanSITES daily in-situ data. OceanSITES Global Tropical Moored Buoy Array Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA)...

  5. Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation. Revised (United States)

    Fargion, Giulietta S.; Mueller, James L.


    The document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. This document supersedes the earlier version (Mueller and Austin 1995) published as Volume 25 in the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. This document marks a significant departure from, and improvement on, theformat and content of Mueller and Austin (1995). The authorship of the protocols has been greatly broadened to include experts specializing in some key areas. New chapters have been added to provide detailed and comprehensive protocols for stability monitoring of radiometers using portable sources, abovewater measurements of remote-sensing reflectance, spectral absorption measurements for discrete water samples, HPLC pigment analysis and fluorometric pigment analysis. Protocols were included in Mueller and Austin (1995) for each of these areas, but the new treatment makes significant advances in each topic area. There are also new chapters prescribing protocols for calibration of sun photometers and sky radiance sensors, sun photometer and sky radiance measurements and analysis, and data archival. These topic areas were barely mentioned in Mueller and Austin (1995).

  6. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V


    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  7. Coral calcification and ocean acidification (United States)

    Jokiel, Paul L.; Jury, Christopher P.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.


    Over 60 years ago, the discovery that light increased calcification in the coral plant-animal symbiosis triggered interest in explaining the phenomenon and understanding the mechanisms involved. Major findings along the way include the observation that carbon fixed by photosynthesis in the zooxanthellae is translocated to animal cells throughout the colony and that corals can therefore live as autotrophs in many situations. Recent research has focused on explaining the observed reduction in calcification rate with increasing ocean acidification (OA). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between declining ocean pH, declining aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), declining [CO32_] and coral calcification. Nearly all previous reports on OA identify Ωarag or its surrogate [CO32] as the factor driving coral calcification. However, the alternate “Proton Flux Hypothesis” stated that coral calcification is controlled by diffusion limitation of net H+ transport through the boundary layer in relation to availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The “Two Compartment Proton Flux Model” expanded this explanation and synthesized diverse observations into a universal model that explains many paradoxes of coral metabolism, morphology and plasticity of growth form in addition to observed coral skeletal growth response to OA. It is now clear that irradiance is the main driver of net photosynthesis (Pnet), which in turn drives net calcification (Gnet), and alters pH in the bulk water surrounding the coral. Pnet controls [CO32] and thus Ωarag of the bulk water over the diel cycle. Changes in Ωarag and pH lag behind Gnet throughout the daily cycle by two or more hours. The flux rate Pnet, rather than concentration-based parameters (e.g., Ωarag, [CO3 2], pH and [DIC]:[H+] ratio) is the primary driver of Gnet. Daytime coral metabolism rapidly removes DIC from the bulk seawater. Photosynthesis increases the bulk seawater pH while providing the energy that drives

  8. Nuclear waste dumping in the oceans: Has the Cold War taught us anything?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody-O'Grady, K.


    The United States and other international actors have relied without much success on traditional approaches to contain environmental damage done to our oceans by Russian dumping of nuclear waste. Our arms control experience suggests that on-site inspection is successful in situations where there is a lack of information or a lack of trust. Using on-site inspection to gather information and bolster trust could ameliorate the problem of Russian dumping of radioactive wastes into the ocean, so long as the political and financial costs of on-site inspection do not prove to be prohibitively high

  9. The reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea exhibits parabolic responses to ocean acidification and warming


    Castillo, Karl D.; Ries, Justin B.; Bruno, John F.; Westfield, Isaac T.


    Anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 over this century are predicted to cause global average surface ocean pH to decline by 0.1–0.3 pH units and sea surface temperature to increase by 1–4°C. We conducted controlled laboratory experiments to investigate the impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification (pCO2 = 324, 477, 604, 2553 µatm) and warming (25, 28, 32°C) on the calcification rate of the zooxanthellate scleractinian coral Siderastrea siderea, a widespread, abundant and keystone reef-...

  10. Changing U.S. Ocean Policy Can Set a New Direction for Marine Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Rosenberg


    Full Text Available A central concept in a new direction for ocean policy in the United States is ecosystem-based management, that is, implementation of management integrated across sectors of human activity to achieve the common goal of conserving the structure and function of marine ecosystems to provide a full suite of ecosystem services. Fisheries are a critical sector of ocean activity that impacts these ecosystems, and fishery management is in urgent need of reform to perform better from a conservation perspective. Here, I suggest some specific changes in perspective for fishery management as part of an overall ecosystem-based approach.

  11. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BURTON ISLAND as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / International Ocean Studies / First Dynamic Response and Kinematics Experiment in the Drake Passage (IDOE/ISOS/FDRAKE) from 1975-09-02 to 1976-02-04 (NODC Accession 7700720) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BURTON ISLAND from 02 September 1975 to 04 February 1976. Data were collected by the United States Coast...

  12. Characterizing the chaotic nature of ocean ventilation (United States)

    MacGilchrist, Graeme A.; Marshall, David P.; Johnson, Helen L.; Lique, Camille; Thomas, Matthew


    Ventilation of the upper ocean plays an important role in climate variability on interannual to decadal timescales by influencing the exchange of heat and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and ocean. The turbulent nature of ocean circulation, manifest in a vigorous mesoscale eddy field, means that pathways of ventilation, once thought to be quasi-laminar, are in fact highly chaotic. We characterize the chaotic nature of ventilation pathways according to a nondimensional "filamentation number," which estimates the reduction in filament width of a ventilated fluid parcel due to mesoscale strain. In the subtropical North Atlantic of an eddy-permitting ocean model, the filamentation number is large everywhere across three upper ocean density surfaces—implying highly chaotic ventilation pathways—and increases with depth. By mapping surface ocean properties onto these density surfaces, we directly resolve the highly filamented structure and confirm that the filamentation number captures its spatial variability. These results have implications for the spreading of atmospherically-derived tracers into the ocean interior.

  13. Electromagnetic exploration of the oceanic mantle. (United States)

    Utada, Hisashi


    Electromagnetic exploration is a geophysical method for examining the Earth's interior through observations of natural or artificial electromagnetic field fluctuations. The method has been in practice for more than 70 years, and 40 years ago it was first applied to ocean areas. During the past few decades, there has been noticeable progress in the methods of instrumentation, data acquisition (observation), data processing and inversion. Due to this progress, applications of this method to oceanic regions have revealed electrical features of the oceanic upper mantle down to depths of several hundred kilometers for different geologic and tectonic environments such as areas around mid-oceanic ridges, areas around hot-spot volcanoes, subduction zones, and normal ocean areas between mid-oceanic ridges and subduction zones. All these results estimate the distribution of the electrical conductivity in the oceanic mantle, which is key for understanding the dynamics and evolution of the Earth together with different physical properties obtained through other geophysical methods such as seismological techniques.

  14. Magnetically-driven oceans on Jovian satellites (United States)

    Gissinger, C.; Petitdemange, L.


    During the last decade, data from Galileo space missions have added strong support for the existence of subsurface liquid oceans on several moons of Jupiter. For instance, it is now commonly accepted that an electrically conducting fluid beneath the icy crust of Europa's surface may explain the variations of the induced field measured near the satellite. These observations have raised many questions regarding the size and the salinity of such subsurface ocean, or how and why the water remains liquid. In addition, the hydrodynamics of such oceans is mostly unknown. These questions are of primary importance since Europa is often considered as a good candidate for the presence of life beyond the Earth. Here, we present the first numerical modeling of the rapidly-rotating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow generated in Europa's interior: due to Jupiter's rotation with respect to Europa, we show that the Lorentz force induced by the time-varying Jovian magnetic field is able to generate an oceanic flow of a few km/h. Our results are understood in the framework of a simple theoretical model and we obtain a scaling law for the prediction of the mean oceanic velocity and the total heating generated inside the ocean of Europa. Finally, by comparing our simulations to Galileo observations, we make predictions on both the thickness and the electrical conductivity of the ocean of different Jovian's satellites.

  15. Influencing a Vision for the Future Ocean (United States)

    Macko, S. A.


    The ocean is the major source of nutrition for billions of people, while employing millions of workers, and generating trillions of dollars for the world economy. Clearly, the ocean is central to human well-being. As vast as our ocean and its resources are, they are not infinite. And today the ocean is under tremendous pressure from human activity - including unsustainable and illegal fishing, marine pollution, and climate-related impacts. We have created a special January-term class that offered students exposure to the utilization of the oceans' resources through a mixture of in-class work and field experiences. The course addressed not only fundamentals of marine science, but also legalities and ethics on aspects of culturing and capturing marine animals, with an emphasis on aquaculture and sustainability for wild fisheries. We limited the course to a manageble number (18) with transport in 3 vans, and overnighting at convenient hotels near the sites. Various trips to locations where the ocean is being maricultured and/or marketed allowed students to explore both the extant ocean while complementing class activities with speakers dealing with fishery product distribution and aquaculture with laboratory experiences at UVa. Locations for field trips included the National Aquarium in Baltimore, Washington, Virginia Beach and Baltimore seafood markets, Virginia aquaculture facilities and the Virginia Aquarium in Virginia Beach.

  16. Geoengineering Downwelling Ocean Currents. A Cost Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, S.; Flynn, P.C.


    Downwelling ocean currents carry carbon into the deep ocean (the solubility pump), and play a role in controlling the level of atmospheric carbon. The formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) also releases heat to the atmosphere, which is a contributor to a mild climate in Europe. One possible response to the increase in anthropogenic carbon in the atmosphere and to the possible weakening of the NADW is modification of downwelling ocean currents, by an increase in carbon concentration or volume. This study assesses the costs of seven possible methods of modifying downwelling currents, including using existing industrial techniques for exchange of heat between water and air. Increasing carbon concentration in downwelling currents is not practical due to the high degree of saturation of high latitude surface water. Two of the methods for increasing the volume of downwelling currents were found to be impractical, and four were too expensive to warrant further consideration. Formation of thicker sea ice by pumping ocean water onto the surface of ice sheets is the least expensive of the methods identified for enhancing downwelling ocean currents. Modifying downwelling ocean currents is highly unlikely to ever be a competitive method of sequestering carbon in the deep ocean, but may find future application for climate modification

  17. Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S.J.; Wetzel, Patrick


    Terrestrial vegetation sinks have entered the Kyoto Protocol as offsets for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but ocean sinks have escaped attention. Ocean sinks are as unexplored and uncertain as were the terrestrial sinks at the time of negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol. It is not unlikely that certain countries will advocate the inclusion of ocean carbon sinks to reduce their emission reduction obligations in post-2012 negotiations. We use a simple model of the international market for carbon dioxide emissions to evaluate who would gain or loose from allowing for ocean carbon sinks. Our analysis is restricted to information on anthropogenic carbon sequestration within the exclusive economic zone of a country. We use information on the actual carbon flux and derive the human-induced uptake for the period from 1990 onwards. Like the carbon sequestration of business as usual forest management activities, natural ocean carbon sequestration applies at zero costs. The total amount of anthropogenic ocean carbon sequestration is large, also in the exclusive economic zones. As a consequence, it substantially alters the costs of emission reduction for most countries. Countries such as Australia, Denmark, France, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway and Portugal would gain substantially, and a large number of countries would benefit too. Current net exporters of carbon permits, particularly Russia, would gain less and oppose the inclusion of ocean carbon sinks

  18. Southern Ocean carbon-wind stress feedback (United States)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason


    The Southern Ocean is the largest sink of anthropogenic carbon in the present-day climate. Here, Southern Ocean pCO2 and its dependence on wind forcing are investigated using an equilibrium mixed layer carbon budget. This budget is used to derive an expression for Southern Ocean pCO2 sensitivity to wind stress. Southern Ocean pCO2 is found to vary as the square root of area-mean wind stress, arising from the dominance of vertical mixing over other processes such as lateral Ekman transport. The expression for pCO2 is validated using idealised coarse-resolution ocean numerical experiments. Additionally, we show that increased (decreased) stratification through surface warming reduces (increases) the sensitivity of the Southern Ocean pCO2 to wind stress. The scaling is then used to estimate the wind-stress induced changes of atmospheric pCO_2 in CMIP5 models using only a handful of parameters. The scaling is further used to model the anthropogenic carbon sink, showing a long-term reversal of the Southern Ocean sink for large wind stress strength.

  19. COPEPOD: The Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observation Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal & Oceanic Plankton Ecology, Production, & Observation Database (COPEPOD) provides NMFS scientists with quality-controlled, globally distributed...

  20. Real-time Ocean Observations and Forecast Facility (ROOFF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to visualize "ocean weather" for selected ocean regions. The collection of satellite observations with numerical circulation models...

  1. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin


    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  2. Rogue Waves in the Ocean (United States)

    Waseda, Takuji


    Giant episodic ocean waves that suddenly soar like a wall of water out of an otherwise calm sea are not just a legend. Such waves—which in the past have been called “abnormal,” “exceptional,” “extreme,” and even “vicious killer” waves—are now commonly known as “rogue waves” or “freak waves.” These waves have sunk or severely damaged 22 supercarriers in the world and caused the loss of more than 500 lives in the past 40 years. The largest wave registered by reliable instruments reached 30 meters in height, and the largest wave recorded by visual observation reached about 34 meters, equivalent to the height of an eight-story building. Tales of seafarers from Christopher Columbus to the passengers of luxury cruise ships had long been undervalued by scientists, but in the past 10 or so years, those historical notes and modern testimonies have been scientifically dissected to reveal the nature of these monster waves.

  3. Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G; Niblett, C; Walker, L


    Ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) is a novel 'alternative' energy technology that has created much interest in a number of countries; namely, the USA, Japan, France, Sweden, Holland, India and most recently, the UK. In particular, the first three of these have had programmes to develop the required technology. However, most interest has been centred in the USA, where the current hiatus in Federal funding provides a timely opportunity to assess progress. This paper offers a survey of the prevailing position there; outlining the outstanding technical and associated problems, and likely future developments. Non-USA programmes are only mentioned to contrast them with the American position. At present, it does not appear that OTEC plants will be commercially viable on a widespread basis even in the tropics. This is particularly true of the larger plants (400 MWe, MWe = megawatts of electrical energy, the final output of a power station) towards which the American programme is ultimately geared. There does seem to be a strong possibility that small OTEC plants, around 40 MWe or less, can be commercial in certain circumstances. This would be possible when one or, preferably, more of the following conditions are met: (i) where a land-based rather than 'at sea' plant is possible, (ii) where alternative energy supplies are at a premium, i.e. islands or regions without indigenous energy supplies, and (iii) where conditions are such that an OTEC plant could operate in conjunction with either or both an aquaculture or desalination plant.

  4. Book review: Extreme ocean waves (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.


    ‘‘Extreme Ocean Waves’’ is a collection of ten papers edited by Efim Pelinovsky and Christian Kharif that followed the April 2007 meeting of the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union. A note on terminology: extreme waves in this volume broadly encompass different types of waves, includ- ing deep-water and shallow-water rogue waves (alternatively termed freak waves), storm surges from cyclones, and internal waves. Other types of waves such as tsunamis or rissaga (meteotsunamis) are not discussed in this volume. It is generally implied that ‘‘extreme’’ has a statistical connotation relative to the average or significant wave height specific to each type of wave. Throughout the book, in fact, the reader will find a combination of theoretical and statistical/ empirical treatment necessary for the complete examination of this subject. In the introduction, the editors underscore the importance of studying extreme waves, documenting several dramatic instances of damaging extreme waves that occurred in 2007. 

  5. In Brief: Ocean life census (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    The Census of Marine Life, an international effort to assess the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life, issued a report on 23 September summarizing the decade­long project that the organization calls “the most comprehensive inventory of known marine life ever compiled.” The census has involved more than 2700 scientists and 670 participating institutions from more than 80 nations and territories. In addition, three books were released on 23 September that provide an overview of census insights and their implications, a summary of findings and discoveries by the 17 census projects, and portraits of about 100 species. “The Census of Marine Life is the book of oceans' nature,” census cofounder Jesse Ausubel wrote in a forward to one of the books. Ausubel is vice president of programs for the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, which contributed $75 million to the $650 million census. “This book reports the known, unknown, and unknowable of the first Census of Marine Life. This book is about the richness of 3.5 billion years.” For more information, visit

  6. Shifting the Perspective: Artists in the Ocean (United States)

    Van Dover, C. L.


    The deep ocean is to most of us a place unknown. Few of us experience the sea far from shore, fewer still dive to the seafloor at great depths. When scientists report on the outcome of deep-ocean exploration, their technical prose captures facts and insights, but fails to capture the emotional power of place and process. Through batik, watercolor illustrations, music, digital art, cartoon, and experimental video, six artists have created a portfolio of work that communicates the human experience of the deep ocean.

  7. State of Climate 2011 - Global Ocean Phytoplankton (United States)

    Siegel, D. A.; Antoine, D.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; d'Andon, O. H. Fanton; Fields, E.; Franz, B. A.; Goryl, P.; Maritorena, S.; McClain, C. R.; Wang, M.; hide


    Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the sun lit upper layer of the global ocean is the overwhelmingly dominant source of organic matter that fuels marine ecosystems. Phytoplankton contribute roughly half of the global (land and ocean) net primary production (NPP; gross photosynthesis minus plant respiration) and phytoplankton carbon fixation is the primary conduit through which atmospheric CO2 concentrations interact with the ocean s carbon cycle. Phytoplankton productivity depends on the availability of sunlight, macronutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorous), and micronutrients (e.g., iron), and thus is sensitive to climate-driven changes in the delivery of these resources to the euphotic zone

  8. The IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.


    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) started in 1995 a five-year project 'Research on World-wide Marine Radioactivity', generously supported by the Government of Japan. In the framework of the project, IAEA-MEL conducted the 'IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean Expedition' to the NW Pacific Ocean from 21 October to 20 November, 1997. The objectives of the expedition were to provide new data on the current marine radioactivity in order to compare them with data sets obtained during national and international surveys at sites used for radioactive waste dumping or nuclear bomb testing in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

  9. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy


    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  10. Ecological niches of open ocean phytoplankton taxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark


    We characterize the realized ecological niches of 133 phytoplankton taxa in the open ocean based on observations from the MAREDAT initiative and a statistical species distribution model (MaxEnt). The models find that the physical conditions (mixed layer depth, temperature, light) govern large...... conditions in the open ocean. Our estimates of the realized niches roughly match the predictions of Reynolds' C-S-R model for the global ocean, namely that taxa classified as nutrient stress tolerant have niches at lower nutrient and higher irradiance conditions than light stress tolerant taxa. Yet...

  11. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative (United States)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.


    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  12. Termination unit (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK


    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  13. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann


    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  14. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (United States)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.


    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site ( which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  15. Waste disposal in the deep ocean: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, T.P.; Kester, D.R.; Burt, W.V.; Capuzzo, J.M.; Park, P.K.; Duedall, I.W.


    Incineration at sea, industrial and sewage waste disposal in the surface mixing zone, and disposal of low-level nuclear wastes, obsolete munitions, and nerve gas onto the seafloor have been the main uses of the deep sea for waste management. In 1981 the wastes disposed of in the deep sea consisted of 48 X 10/sup 4/ t of liquid industrial wastes and 2 X 10/sup 4/ t of sewage sludge by the United States; 1.5 X 10/sup 4/ t (solids) of sewage sludge by the Federal Republic of German; 5300 t of liquid industrial wastes by Denmark; 99 t of solid industrial wastes by the United Kingdom; and 9400 t of low-level radioactive wastes by several European countries. Also in 1981 at-sea incineration of slightly more than 10/sup 5/ t of organic wastes from Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom was carried out in the North Sea. Unique oceanographic features of the deep sea include its large dilution capacity; the long residence time of deep-sea water (on the order of 10/sup 2/ y); low biological productivity in the surface water of the open ocean (≅50 g m/sup -2/ of carbon per year); the existence of an oxygen minimum zone at several hundred meters deep in the mid-latitudes; and the abyssal-clay regions showing sedimentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine-grained clay. Any deep-sea waste disposal strategy must take into account oceanic processes and current scientific knowledge in order to attain a safe solution that will last for centuries

  16. First evaluation of MyOcean altimetric data in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per


    The MyOcean V2 preliminary (V2p) data set of weekly gridded sea level anomaly (SLA) maps from 1993 to 2009 over the Arctic region is evaluated against existing altimetric data sets and tide gauge data. Compared with DUACS V3.0.0 (Data Unification and Altimeter Combination System) data set, MyOcean...... V2p data set improves spatial coverage and quality as well as maximum temporal correlation coefficient between altimetry and tide gauge data. The estimated amplitude of sea level annual signal and linear sea level trend from MyOcean data set are evaluated against altimetry from DUACS and RADS (Radar...... Altimeter Database System), the SODA (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation) ocean reanalysis and tide gauge data sets from PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level). The results show that the MyOcean data set fits in-situ measurements better than DUACS data set with respect to amplitude of annual signal...

  17. South African southern ocean research programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)



    Full Text Available This document describes the South African National Antarctic Research Programme's (SANARP) physical, chemical and biological Southern Ocean research programme. The programme has three main components: ecological studies of the Prince Edward Islands...

  18. Ray Tracing for Ocean Acoustic Tomography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dushaw, Brian


    .... The Numerical Recipes software package provided the basis for much of this computer code. The ray equations are reviewed, and ray equations that include the effects of ocean current are derived...

  19. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  1. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. 75 FR 32083 - National Oceans Month, 2010 (United States)


    ... livelihoods of Gulf Coast small businesses and communities. The environmental and economic devastation to the..., overfishing, climate change, and other human activity. Last year, I established the Interagency Ocean Policy...

  3. The origin of continents and oceans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegener, Alfred 1880-1930; Biram, John


    ... and Antarctica up through the Indian Ocean, and closing the remaining gaps. Wegener then explained various phenomena in historical geology, geomorphy, paleontology, paleoclimatology, and similar areas of science in terms of this continental drift."--From back cover.

  4. Ocean wave forecasting using recurrent neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.

    , merchant vessel routing, nearshore construction, etc. more efficiently and safely. This paper describes an artificial neural network, namely recurrent neural network with rprop update algorithm and is applied for wave forecasting. Measured ocean waves off...

  5. PIR Marine Turtle Ocean Captures & Observations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Effective management of marine turtle data is essential to maximize their research value and enable timely population assessments and recovery monitoring. To provide...

  6. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Product bundling in global ocean transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Acciaro (Michele); H. Haralambides (Hercules)


    textabstractThere are over 20 'components' in an international door-to-door transportation, ranging from warehousing and distribution, to forwarding, documentation, transportation, customs clearance, etc.. As tariffs in ocean transportation tend to converge due to competition and service

  8. Acoustic remote sensing of ocean flows

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.

    Acoustic techniques have become powerful tools for measurement of ocean circulation mainly because of the ability of acoustic signals to travel long distances in water, and the inherently non-invasive nature of measurement. The satellite remote...

  9. History of oceanography of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.

    This paper highlights history of the oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Oceanographic activities during Ancient period, Medieval period, British period, Post-Independence period are briefly discussed. The role of the IIOE, IOC, UNESCO are also...

  10. Ocean Sciences and Remote Sensing Research Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: A 52,000 ft 2 state-of-the-art buildig designed to house NRL's Oceanography Division, part of the Ocean and Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate....

  11. 76 FR 33119 - National Oceans Month, 2011 (United States)


    ..., sustainable commercial fisheries, recreational fishing, boating, tourism, and energy production are all able... oceans as crucial catalysts for trade, bountiful sources of food, and frontiers for renewable energy, we...

  12. Ocean Drilling: Forty Years of International Collaboration (United States)

    Smith, Deborah K.; Exon, Neville; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki


    International cooperation is an essential component of modern scientific research and societal advancement [see Ismail-Zadeh and Beer, 2009], and scientific ocean drilling represents one of Earth science's longest-running and most successful international collaborations. The strength of this collaboration and its continued success result from the realization that scientific ocean drilling provides a unique and powerful tool to study the critical processes of both short-term change and the long-term evolution of Earth systems. A record of Earth's changing tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and biota is preserved in marine sedimentary deposits and the underlying basement rocks. And because the ocean floor is the natural site for accumulation and preservation of geological materials, it may preserve a continuous record of these processes.

  13. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  14. Survey technology for ocean engineering applications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.; Chandramohan, P.

    Various types of sophisticated instruments available at the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India, for obtaining precise information on waves, ocean currents, water level variations, meteorological parameters, etc. are described...

  15. Ecosystem characterization in Indian Ocean sector, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Parulekar, A.H.

    is most pronounced, which makes Indian Ocean sector an upwelled area marked by high nutrients, appreciable growth rate of phytoplankton and rich organic matter in the water column. The fractionation studies revealed the importance of picoautotrophs...

  16. The geological record of ocean acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hönisch, B.; Ridgwell, A.; Schmidt, D.N.; Thomas, E.; Gibbs, S.J.; Sluijs, A.; Zeebe, R.; Kump, L.; Martindale, R.C.; Greene, S.E.; Kiessling, W.; Ries, J.; Zachos, J.C.; Royer, D.L.; Barker, S.; Marchitto Jr., T.M.; Moyer, R.; Pelejero, C.; Ziveri, P.; Foster, G.L.; Williams, B.


    Ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine ecosystems; however, assessing its future impact is difficult because laboratory experiments and field observations are limited by their reduced ecologic complexity and sample period, respectively. In contrast, the geological record

  17. Climate Modeling: Ocean Cavities below Ice Shelves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Mark Roger [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Computer, Computational, and Statistical Sciences Division


    The Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME), a new initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, includes unstructured-mesh ocean, land-ice, and sea-ice components using the Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) framework. The ability to run coupled high-resolution global simulations efficiently on large, high-performance computers is a priority for ACME. Sub-ice shelf ocean cavities are a significant new capability in ACME, and will be used to better understand how changing ocean temperature and currents influence glacial melting and retreat. These simulations take advantage of the horizontal variable-resolution mesh and adaptive vertical coordinate in MPAS-Ocean, in order to place high resolution below ice shelves and near grounding lines.

  18. Microwave Radiometry and Radiometers for Ocean Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels


    aperture radiometer technique, both yielding imaging capability without scanning. Typical applications of microwave radiometry concerning oceans are: sea salinity, sea surface temperature, wind speed and direction, sea ice detection and classification. However, in an attempt to measure properties...

  19. Ocean Drilling Program: Web Site Access Statistics (United States)

    web site ODP/TAMU Science Operator Home Ocean Drilling Program Web Site Access Statistics* Overview See statistics for JOIDES members. See statistics for Janus database. 1997 October November December

  20. Improved Global Ocean Color Using Polymer Algorithm (United States)

    Steinmetz, Francois; Ramon, Didier; Deschamps, ierre-Yves; Stum, Jacques


    A global ocean color product has been developed based on the use of the POLYMER algorithm to correct atmospheric scattering and sun glint and to process the data to a Level 2 ocean color product. Thanks to the use of this algorithm, the coverage and accuracy of the MERIS ocean color product have been significantly improved when compared to the standard product, therefore increasing its usefulness for global ocean monitor- ing applications like GLOBCOLOUR. We will present the latest developments of the algorithm, its first application to MODIS data and its validation against in-situ data from the MERMAID database. Examples will be shown of global NRT chlorophyll maps produced by CLS with POLYMER for operational applications like fishing or oil and gas industry, as well as its use by Scripps for a NASA study of the Beaufort and Chukchi seas.

  1. Temperature fluctuations in the Atlantic Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjoello, Solfrid Saetre


    The article discusses the temperature fluctuations in connection with drought in Africa, the climate in North America, the European heat waves and the frequent tropical hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean. Problems with climate modelling and some pollution aspects are mentioned

  2. Public affairs events at Ocean Sciences Meeting (United States)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan


    AGU public affairs will be cohosting two special events at Ocean Sciences 2012 that offer scientists opportunities to expand their communication, policy, and media experience. Join the conversations that highlight two important topics to connect science to society.

  3. Scientists’ perspectives on global ocean research priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Alan Rudd


    Full Text Available Diverse natural and social science research is needed to support policies to recover and sustain healthy oceans. While a wide variety of expert-led prioritization initiatives have identified research themes and priorities at national and regional scale, over the past several years there has also been a surge in the number of scanning exercises that have identified important environmental research questions and issues ‘from the bottom-up’. From those questions, winnowed from thousands of contributions by scientists and policy-makers around the world who participated in terrestrial, aquatic and domain-specific horizon scanning and big question exercises, I identified 657 research questions potentially important for informing decisions regarding ocean governance and sustainability. These were distilled to a short list of 67 distinctive research questions that, in an internet survey, were ranked by 2179 scientists from 94 countries. Five of the top 10 research priorities were shared by respondents globally. Despite significant differences between physical and ecological scientists’ priorities regarding specific research questions, they shared seven common priorities among their top 10. Social scientists’ priorities were, however, much different, highlighting their research focus on managerial solutions to ocean challenges and questions regarding the role of human behavior and values in attaining ocean sustainability. The results from this survey provide a comprehensive and timely assessment of current ocean research priorities among research-active scientists but highlight potential challenges in stimulating crossdisciplinary research. As ocean and coastal research necessarily becomes more transdisciplinary to address complex ocean challenges, it will be critical for scientists and research funders to understand how scientists from different disciplines and regions might collaborate and strengthen the overall evidence base for ocean

  4. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G


    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  5. Plastic debris in the open ocean


    Cózar, Andrés; Echevarría, Fidel; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Irigoien, Xabier; Úbeda, Bárbara; Hernández-León, Santiago; Palma, Álvaro T.; Navarro, Sandra; García-de-Lomas, Juan; Ruiz, Andrea; Fernández-de-Puelles, María L.; Duarte, Carlos M.


    There is a rising concern regarding the accumulation of floating plastic debris in the open ocean. However, the magnitude and the fate of this pollution are still open questions. Using data from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation, regional surveys, and previously published reports, we show a worldwide distribution of plastic on the surface of the open ocean, mostly accumulating in the convergence zones of each of the five subtropical gyres with comparable density. Howeve...

  6. DUMAND: the ocean as a neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.; Blood, H.; Learned, J.; Reines, F.


    It is looked for the possibility of using the ocean as a neutrino detector. Neutrino produced interactions result in charged particles which generate Cerenkov radiation in the water, which can be detected by light-gathering equipment and photomultipliers. The properties of the ocean as seen from this standpoint are critically examined, and the advantages and disadvantages pointed out. Possible uses for such a neutrino detector are the detection of neutrinos emitted in gravitational collapse of stars for example. (BJ) [de

  7. Oceans, microbes, and global climate change


    Danovaro, Roberto


    Sea-surface warming, sea-ice melting and related freshening, changes in circulation and mixing regimes, and ocean acidification induced by the present climate changes are modifying marine ecosystem structure and function and have the potential to alter the cycling of carbon and nutrients in surface oceans. Changing climate has direct and indirect consequences on marine life and on microbial components. Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea), viruses and other microbial life forms are impacted by ...

  8. Physical and radiological chemistry on ocean solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This study is designed to investigate the rates and mechanisms of ocean mixing processes using natural and artificial radionuclides as tracers of these processes. Using these same radionuclides, especially 7 Be, rates of air-to-sea transfer of atmospheric aerosol can be determined. Measurement of the concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants in the aerosol provides the means for determining the magnitude of injection of these pollutants to the world's oceans

  9. Assessing ocean alkalinity for carbon sequestration (United States)

    Renforth, Phil; Henderson, Gideon


    Over the coming century humanity may need to find reservoirs to store several trillions of tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from fossil fuel combustion, which would otherwise cause dangerous climate change if it were left in the atmosphere. Carbon storage in the ocean as bicarbonate ions (by increasing ocean alkalinity) has received very little attention. Yet recent work suggests sufficient capacity to sequester copious quantities of CO2. It may be possible to sequester hundreds of billions to trillions of tons of C without surpassing postindustrial average carbonate saturation states in the surface ocean. When globally distributed, the impact of elevated alkalinity is potentially small and may help ameliorate the effects of ocean acidification. However, the local impact around addition sites may be more acute but is specific to the mineral and technology. The alkalinity of the ocean increases naturally because of rock weathering in which >1.5 mol of carbon are removed from the atmosphere for every mole of magnesium or calcium dissolved from silicate minerals (e.g., wollastonite, olivine, and anorthite) and 0.5 mol for carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite). These processes are responsible for naturally sequestering 0.5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Alkalinity is reduced in the ocean through carbonate mineral precipitation, which is almost exclusively formed from biological activity. Most of the previous work on the biological response to changes in carbonate chemistry have focused on acidifying conditions. More research is required to understand carbonate precipitation at elevated alkalinity to constrain the longevity of carbon storage. A range of technologies have been proposed to increase ocean alkalinity (accelerated weathering of limestone, enhanced weathering, electrochemical promoted weathering, and ocean liming), the cost of which may be comparable to alternative carbon sequestration proposals (e.g., $20-100 tCO2-1). There are still many

  10. Online Customization and Enrollment Application Network (OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kongar


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the Online Customization and Enrollment Application Network (OCEAN, developed in the School of Engineering at the University of Bridgeport. OCEAN is an interactive web-based application for graduate programs, concentrations, certificates and courses across the Schools of Engineering, Business and Education that allows prospective and current students to customize their preferences in the course selection process depending on the targeted graduate concentrations, degrees, and/or dual degree programs.

  11. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.


    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  12. Organophosphorus esters in the oceans and possible relation with ocean gyres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wenhan; Xie, Zhouqing; Blais, Jules M.; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Ming; Yang, Chengyun; Huang, Wen; Ding, Rui; Sun, Liguang


    Four organophosphorus esters (OPEs) were detected in aerosol samples collected in the West Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean from 2009 to 2010, suggesting their circumpolar and global distribution. In general, the highest concentrations were detected near populated regions in China, Australia and New Zealand. OPE concentrations in the Southern Ocean were about two orders of magnitude lower than those near major continents. Additionally, relatively high OPE concentrations were detected at the Antarctic Peninsula, where several scientific survey stations are located. The four OPEs investigated here are significantly correlated with each other, suggesting they may derive from the same source. In the circumpolar transect, OPE concentrations were associated with ocean gyres in the open ocean. Their concentrations were positively related with average vorticity in the sampling area suggesting that a major source of OPEs may be found in ocean gyres where plastic debris is known to accumulate. -- Highlights: •We provide OPE concentrations in aerosols in a circumpolar expedition. •We find strong anthropogenic source of OPE pollution. •We suggest potential relationship between ocean gyres and OPE pollution. -- Our work provides a circumpolar investigation on OPEs in the Southern Ocean and we suggest a possibility that ocean currents and gyres may act as important roles in global transport of OPEs

  13. Ocean FEST and TECH: Inspiring Hawaii's Students to Pursue Ocean, Earth and Environmental Science Careers (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Wren, J. L.; Ayau, J. F.


    Ocean TECH (Technology Expands Career Horizons) is a new initiative funded by NSF/GeoEd to stimulate interest in ocean, earth and environmental science careers - and the college majors that lead to such careers - among Hawaii's underrepresented students in grades 6-14. The Ocean TECH project features hands-on ocean science and technology and interactions with career professionals. Ocean TECH builds upon Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together), a previous NSF/OEDG project aimed at teaching fun hands-on science in culturally and locally relevant ways to Hawaii's elementary school students and their families. Ocean FEST was rigorously evaluated (including cognitive pre-testing developed in partnership with external evaluators) and shown to be successful both in teaching science content and changing attitudes toward ocean, earth and environmental science careers. Over the course of the four-year grant, Ocean FEST reached 20,99 students and adults, including 636 classroom teachers and other volunteers who assisted with program delivery, most of whom were from underrepresented groups. For more info on Ocean FEST: Ocean TECH events have various formats, but common themes include: (1) Using technology as a hook to engage students in ocean, earth and environmental science. (2) Bringing middle school through community college students to college campuses, where they engage in hands-on science activities and learn about college majors. (3) Drawing direct links between the students' hands-on science activities and the research currently occurring at the UH Manoa's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), such as C-MORE and HOT research. (4) Respecting and valuing students' local knowledge and experiences. (5) Explicitly showing, through concrete examples, how becoming an ocean, earth or environmental scientist addresses would beneit Hawaii (6) Having graduate students from diverse backgrounds serve as instructors and

  14. Environmental issues and challenges. Tomorrow's Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.


    In this Un Year of the Ocean -1998- multiple activities are focusing the attention of the public, policy-makers, and media on the planet's largest natural resource. As the new millennium approaches, there is an increasing urgency to highlight the ocean's role in a broad range of human activities and to heighten awareness about the need to preserve this vital resource for the future. The health and understanding of the oceans will continue to be of critical concern for the foreseeable future. Among these many activities is a major event, led by the IAEA, to focus attention on the ocean - the International Symposium on Marine Pollution to be held in Monaco. 5-9 October 1998. This article briefly reviews major issues being examined at the Symposium that affect the ocean's health and future, and highlights cooperative initiatives involving and the IAEA and its global partners. Other featured articles in this edition of the IAEA Bulletin present contemporary examples of how the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco is serving the interests of countries in matters pertaining to the quality of the ocean environment. They address not only the activities of MEL itself, but also those organized in association with other IAEA departments, UN agencies and international organizations

  15. The great challenges in Arctic Ocean paleoceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, Ruediger


    Despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system, the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. In order to fill this gap in knowledge, international, multidisciplinary expeditions and projects for scientific drilling/coring in the Arctic Ocean are needed. Key areas and approaches for drilling and recovering undisturbed and complete sedimentary sequences are depth transects across the major ocean ridge systems, i.e., the Lomonosov Ridge, the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, and the Chukchi Plateau/Northwind Ridge, the Beaufort, Kara and Laptev sea continental margins, as well as the major Arctic gateways towards the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The new detailed climate records from the Arctic Ocean spanning time intervals from the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene Greenhouse world to the Neogene-Quaternary Icehouse world and representing short- and long-term climate variability on scales from 10 to 10 6 years, will give new insights into our understanding of the Arctic Ocean within the global climate system and provide an opportunity to test the performance of climate models used to predict future climate change. With this, studying the Arctic Ocean is certainly one of the major challenges in climate research for the coming decades.

  16. Ocean Margins Programs, Phase I research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verity, P. [ed.


    During FY 1992, the DOE restructured its regional coastal-ocean programs into a new Ocean Margins Program (OMP), to: Quantify the ecological and biogeochemical processes and mechanisms that affect the cycling, flux, and storage of carbon and other biogenic elements at the land/ocean interface; Define ocean-margin sources and sinks in global biogeochemical cycles, and; Determine whether continental shelves are quantitatively significant in removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and isolating it via burial in sediments or export to the interior ocean. Currently, the DOE Ocean Margins Program supports more than 70 principal and co-principal investigators, spanning more than 30 academic institutions. Research funded by the OMP amounted to about $6.9M in FY 1994. This document is a collection of abstracts summarizing the component projects of Phase I of the OMP. This phase included both research and technology development, and comprised projects of both two and three years duration. The attached abstracts describe the goals, methods, measurement scales, strengths and limitations, and status of each project, and level of support. Keywords are provided to index the various projects. The names, addresses, affiliations, and major areas of expertise of the investigators are provided in appendices.

  17. An isopycnic ocean carbon cycle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Assmann


    Full Text Available The carbon cycle is a major forcing component in the global climate system. Modelling studies, aiming to explain recent and past climatic changes and to project future ones, increasingly include the interaction between the physical and biogeochemical systems. Their ocean components are generally z-coordinate models that are conceptually easy to use but that employ a vertical coordinate that is alien to the real ocean structure. Here, we present first results from a newly-developed isopycnic carbon cycle model and demonstrate the viability of using an isopycnic physical component for this purpose. As expected, the model represents well the interior ocean transport of biogeochemical tracers and produces realistic tracer distributions. Difficulties in employing a purely isopycnic coordinate lie mainly in the treatment of the surface boundary layer which is often represented by a bulk mixed layer. The most significant adjustments of the ocean biogeochemistry model HAMOCC, for use with an isopycnic coordinate, were in the representation of upper ocean biological production. We present a series of sensitivity studies exploring the effect of changes in biogeochemical and physical processes on export production and nutrient distribution. Apart from giving us pointers for further model development, they highlight the importance of preformed nutrient distributions in the Southern Ocean for global nutrient distributions. The sensitivity studies show that iron limitation for biological particle production, the treatment of light penetration for biological production, and the role of diapycnal mixing result in significant changes of nutrient distributions and liniting factors of biological production.

  18. Modeling Europa's Ice-Ocean Interface (United States)

    Elsenousy, A.; Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.


    This work focuses on modeling the ice-ocean interface on Jupiter's Moon (Europa); mainly from the standpoint of heat and salt transfer relationship with emphasis on the basal ice growth rate and its implications to Europa's tidal response. Modeling the heat and salt flux at Europa's ice/ocean interface is necessary to understand the dynamics of Europa's ocean and its interaction with the upper ice shell as well as the history of active turbulence at this area. To achieve this goal, we used McPhee et al., 2008 parameterizations on Earth's ice/ocean interface that was developed to meet Europa's ocean dynamics. We varied one parameter at a time to test its influence on both; "h" the basal ice growth rate and on "R" the double diffusion tendency strength. The double diffusion tendency "R" was calculated as the ratio between the interface heat exchange coefficient αh to the interface salt exchange coefficient αs. Our preliminary results showed a strong double diffusion tendency R ~200 at Europa's ice-ocean interface for plausible changes in the heat flux due to onset or elimination of a hydrothermal activity, suggesting supercooling and a strong tendency for forming frazil ice.

  19. Satellite based Ocean Forecasting, the SOFT project (United States)

    Stemmann, L.; Tintoré, J.; Moneris, S.


    The knowledge of future oceanic conditions would have enormous impact on human marine related areas. For such reasons, a number of international efforts are being carried out to obtain reliable and manageable ocean forecasting systems. Among the possible techniques that can be used to estimate the near future states of the ocean, an ocean forecasting system based on satellite imagery is developped through the Satelitte based Ocean ForecasTing project (SOFT). SOFT, established by the European Commission, considers the development of a forecasting system of the ocean space-time variability based on satellite data by using Artificial Intelligence techniques. This system will be merged with numerical simulation approaches, via assimilation techniques, to get a hybrid SOFT-numerical forecasting system of improved performance. The results of the project will provide efficient forecasting of sea-surface temperature structures, currents, dynamic height, and biological activity associated to chlorophyll fields. All these quantities could give valuable information on the planning and management of human activities in marine environments such as navigation, fisheries, pollution control, or coastal management. A detailed identification of present or new needs and potential end-users concerned by such an operational tool is being performed. The project would study solutions adapted to these specific needs.

  20. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.


    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming