WorldWideScience

Sample records for unit mass owing

  1. INTERNET CONNECTIVITY FOR MASS PRODUCED UNITS WITHOUT USER INTERFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    To the manufacturer of mass produced units without a user interface, typically field level units, connection of these units to a communications network for enabling servicing, control and trackability is of interest. To provide this connection, a solution is described in which an interface...... comprising an ASIC is built into a mass produced unit, whereby the ASIC is incorporating selected portions of selected layers of the Internet Protocol. The mass produced unit is then allocated a unit address....

  2. Novel negative mass density resonant metamaterial unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cselyuszka, Norbert, E-mail: cselyu@yahoo.com; Sečujski, Milan, E-mail: secujski@uns.ac.rs; Crnojević-Bengin, Vesna, E-mail: bengin@uns.ac.rs

    2015-01-02

    In this paper a novel resonant unit cell of one-dimensional acoustic metamaterials is presented, which exhibits negative effective mass density. We theoretically analyze the unit cell and develop a closed analytical formula for its effective mass density. Then we proceed to demonstrate left-handed propagation of acoustic waves using the proposed unit cell. Finally, we present its dual-band version, capable of operating at two independent frequencies. - Highlights: • A novel acoustic metamaterial unit cell provides Lorentz-type resonant effective mass density. • Analytical formula for effective mass density is derived. • Acoustic bandstop medium and left-handed metamaterial based on the novel unit cell are presented. • Modified version of the unit cell, operating at two independent frequencies, is proposed.

  3. Disseminating the unit of mass from multiple primary realisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars

    2016-12-01

    When a new definition of the kilogram has been adopted in 2018 as expected, the unit of mass will be realised by the watt balance method, the x-ray crystal density method or perhaps other primary methods still to be developed. So far, the standard uncertainties associated with the available primary methods are at least one order of magnitude larger than the standard uncertainty associated with mass comparisons using mass comparators, so differences in primary realisations of the kilogram are easily detected, whereas many National Metrology Institutes would have to increase their calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) if they were traceable to a single primary realisation. This paper presents a scheme for obtaining traceability to multiple primary realisations of the kilogram using a small group of stainless steel 1 kg weights, which are allowed to change their masses over time in a way known to be realistic, and which are calibrated and stored in air. An analysis of the scheme shows that if the relative standard uncertainties of future primary realisations are equal to the relative standard uncertainties of the present methods used to measure the Planck constant, the unit of mass can be disseminated with a standard uncertainty less than 0.015 mg, which matches the smallest CMCs currently claimed for the calibration of 1 kg weights.

  4. Mass Metrology and the International System of Units (SI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard S.

    The International System of Units (SI) is widely used in science, industry, and commerce because it caters simultaneously to the needs of all. In the early twenty-first century, this means defining the units of time, length, mass, and electricity in terms of the fundamental constants of physics, and then "realizing" these definitions to sufficient accuracy on the human scale of the second, meter, kilogram, and ampere. This program has already been successful except for the kilogram, which is still defined in terms of an artifact constructed in the late nineteenth century. Although quantum-based electrical standards are widely used, the SI voltages or resistances produced by these standards depend on the values of constants that are at present based on experimental values derived from the artifact kilogram. This chapter presents the current state of affairs, which is unsatisfactory, and proceeds to describe work that will lead to a redefinition of the kilogram, probably in terms of a fixed value for the Planck constant.

  5. 16 CFR 500.8 - Units of weight or mass and measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Units of weight or mass and measure. 500.8... SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.8 Units of weight or mass and measure. (a... (15 oz)” or “Net Mass 680 g (11/2 lbs)” or “100 g e (3.5 oz).”) (b) Statements of fluid measure shall...

  6. Mass spectrometry of pertrimethylsilyl oligosaccharides containing fructose units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Vink, Jan; Ridder, J.J. de

    1972-01-01

    Mass spectra of 6 TMS-disaccharides of type aldohexosyl-(1-> x)-fructose, in which x varies from 1 to 6, were compared and could be divided into two main groups i.e. (1 ar 1), (1 ar 2) disaccharides and (1 ar 3), (1 ar 4), (1 ar 5), (1 ar 6) disaccharides. Within both groups a further differentiatio

  7. United States Air Force Role in Mass Atrocity Response Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    through the lens of their own perspective. They cannot view the world objectively because of their own preconceptions : history, prejudices, ideology...initial stages of the genocide. Similarly, the RC-135’s ability to detect and locate those stations would provide the perfect target for strikes having...all levels. Air Force unit exercises would integrate air power, focusing on those specific tasks required in a MARO. These training exercises , in

  8. A brief history of the unit of mass: continuity of successive definitions of the kilogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard S.; Barat, Pauline; Stock, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The very first definition of the kilogram was in terms of a constant of nature, although this idea could not be fully realized at the end of the 18th century. Instead the kilogram was defined by an artefact whose mass was made to approximate as closely as possible a physical constant with unit kg m-3—the maximum density of distilled water at atmospheric pressure. For the next two centuries, mass comparators improved greatly as did the materials from which artefacts could be constructed. These improvements put tighter constraints on the realization of a non-artefact definition of the kilogram. However, it is now expected that the goal of redefining the kilogram in terms of fundamental constants will be achieved in 2018. We present a history of the kilogram with emphasis on continuity of this unit of mass each time it has been redefined and the stability of a unit defined by the mass of an artefact.

  9. Use of Multicriteria Valuation of Spatial Units in a System of Mass Real Estate Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kuburić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A model of mass valuation at the national level must be functional, practically applicable, consistent and adaptable to actual conditions and real estate market trends. A consideration of the influence of location on real estate value in a spatial unit, and a description of spatial units with a sufficient number of attributes to determine a connection between the value of these attributes and the average price of real estate in a spatial unit, are important tasks in modelling a system of mass real estate valuation. This paper, based on a test implementation of mass real estate valuation for an area covering a number of municipalities in the Republic of Serbia, offers conclusions on the suitability of the use of a mass valuation method grounded in the principles of logical aggregation and case based reasoning. The values of location characteristics, or factors of spatial unit valuation, were determined in spatial analyses employing GIS, according to an established system of multicriteria valuation. This approach ensures that a model-defined value is not stored as offline data, but that each time such data is needed, it can be determined following the proposed methodology, based on actual, updated data from the databases of official spatial data registries. Prior to this, it is necessary to meet all the required prerequisites, which include the distributed databases of official real estate data registries and other factors needed in the mass valuation procedure. Keywords: real estate valuation; spatial units; multicriteria analysis

  10. Galaxy S-Stars Exhibit Orbital Angular Momentum Quantization per Unit Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost stars of our Galaxy, called S-stars, are in Keplerian orbits. Quantum celestial mechanics (QCM predicts orbital angular momentum quantization per unit mass for each of them. I determine the quantization integers for the 27 well-measured S-stars and the total angular momentum of this nearly isolated QCM system within the Galactic bulge.

  11. The role of mass media in disease outbreak reporting in the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of mass media in disease outbreak reporting in the United Republic of ... with accurate epidemiological reports if correct information is to reach the public. The role of media in outbreak reporting is herein discussed in relation to the ...

  12. The Atomic Mass Unit, the Avogadro Constant, and the Mole: A Way to Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Numerous articles have been published that address problems encountered in teaching basic concepts of chemistry such as the atomic mass unit, Avogadro's number, and the mole. The origin of these problems is found in the concept definitions. If these definitions are adjusted for teaching purposes, understanding could be improved. In the present…

  13. Solar Mass Loss, the Astronomical Unit, and the Scale of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Noerdlinger, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    The radiative and particulate loss of mass by the Sun, -9.13*10^-14 Solar masses per year or more causes the orbits of the planets to expand at the same rate, and their periods to lengthen at twice this rate. Unfortunately, under the present definition of the Astronomical Unit (AU) based on the fixed Gaussian gravity constant kGS = 0.01720209895 (AU)^1.5/day, the value AUmet of the AU in meters must decrease at 1/3 this rate, all these rates being expressed logarithmically. The progress of the planets along their orbits slows quadratically with time. For example, in one century Mercury would lag behind the position predicted using constant solar mass by almost 1.4 km, in two centuries 5.5 km. The value of AUmet can be made constant by redefining it, based on a reference solar mass unit, such as the solar mass at J2000; else, the solar Gaussian gravity constant kGS used in defining the AU could be redefined proportional to the square root of the solar mass. Improved accuracy of the ephemerides would impose use...

  14. Experimental study on mass transfer of contaminants through an enthalpy recovery unit with polymer membrane foils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    recovery unit with polymer membrane foils was used as refeering unit in this study. The experiments were conducted with different outdoor thermal climates e.g. warm-humid and cold-dry climates; isothermal and non isothermal as well as equal humidity and non equal humidity with indoor climate. Three......Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate the mass transfer of contaminants through a total heat recovery unit with polymer membranes foils. The studies were conducted in twin climate chambers which simulated outdoor and indoor thermal climates. One manufacturd total heat...... chemical gases were used to simulate air contaminants. The concentrations of dosed contaminants in the supply and exhaust air upstream and downstream of the total heat recovery unit were measured with Multi-Gas Monitor Innova 1316 in real time. Experiment results showed that 5% to 9% of dosed contaminants...

  15. Introduction to Mass Unit kg%浅谈质量单位千克

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱军; 赵明泽

    2014-01-01

    Kilogram in the international unit system is the basic unit of mass, its symbol is kg, and it is equal to the mass of the international kilogram original device. The use of kilogram is increasingly frequent. Deeply and correctly understanding and using kilogram are benefit for people to have a more comprehensive understanding of the mass of the object, and play a more and more important role in ensuring unite, accurate and consistent of the mass value. This paper studies and reviews the origin and the development history of mass unit kg, laying a solid foundation for the future development of related research.%在国际单位制中千克是表示质量的基本单位,它的符号是kg,它等于国际千克原器的质量。千克的使用日渐频繁,深入地了解千克、正确地理解和使用千克对于人们对物体的质量有较全面的认识大有裨益,对于保证质量量值的统一、准确、一致的作用越来越大。本文研究和回顾了质量单位千克的由来和发展历史,为今后相关研究的开展打下了坚实基础。

  16. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  17. Decreases in elemental carbon and fine particle mass in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murphy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations at national parks and other remote sites show that average elemental carbon and fine particle mass concentrations in the United States both decreased by over 25% between 1990 and 2004. Percentage decreases in elemental carbon were much larger in winter than in summer. These data suggest that emissions controls have been effective in reducing particulate concentrations not only in polluted areas but also across the United States. Despite the reduction in elemental carbon, the simultaneous decrease in non-absorbing particles implies that the overall radiative forcing from these changes was toward warming. The use of a 2005 instead of 1990 as a baseline for climate-relevant emissions from the United States would imply a significantly lower baseline for aerosol emissions. The use of older data will overestimate the possibility for future reductions in warming due to black carbon controls.

  18. Decreases in elemental carbon and fine particle mass in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Murphy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Observations at national parks and other remote sites show that average elemental carbon and fine particle mass concentrations in the United States both decreased by over 25 % between 1990 and 2004. Percentage decreases in elemental carbon were much larger in winter than in summer. These data suggest that emissions controls have been effective in reducing particulate concentrations not only in polluted areas but also across the United States. Despite the reduction in elemental carbon, the simultaneous decrease in non-absorbing particles implies that the overall radiative forcing from these changes was toward warming. The use of a 2005 instead of 1990 as a baseline for climate-relevant emissions from the United States would imply a significantly lower baseline for aerosol emissions. The use of older data will overestimate the possibility for future reductions in warming due to black carbon controls.

  19. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A; Andraski, Brian J; Cooper, Clay A; Mayers, C Justin; Michel, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5 × 10(12) tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activitiestritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  20. Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

  1. Modulation frequency and modulation level owing to vocal microtremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoentgen, Jean

    2002-08-01

    Vocal microtremor designates a normal slow modulation of the vocal cycle lengths of speakers who do not suffer from pathological tremor of the limbs and whose voices are not perceived as tremulous. Vocal microtremor is therefore distinct from pathological vocal tremor. The objective is to report data about the modulation frequency and modulation level owing to vocal microtremor. The modulation data have been obtained for vowels [a], [i], and [u] sustained by normophonic and mildly dysphonic male and female speakers. The results are the following. First, modulation frequencies and relative modulation levels do not differ significantly for male and female speakers, normophonic and mildly dysphonic speakers, as well as for vowel timbres [a], [i], and [u]. Second, the typical interquartile intervals of the modulation frequency and modulation level are equal to 2.0-4.7 Hz and 0.4%-1.3%, respectively. Third, dissimilarities between data reported by different studies are due to different cutoff frequencies below which spectral peaks are considered not to contribute to vocal microtremor.

  2. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  3. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  4. [Variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between breast cancer mass screening units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natal, Carmen; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Tardón, Adonina; Castells, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    To analyse variations in the diagnostic confirmation process between screening units, variations in the outcome of each episode and the relationship between the use of the different diagnostic confirmation tests and the lesion detection rate. Observational study of variability of the standardised use of diagnostic and lesion detection tests in 34 breast cancer mass screening units participating in early-detection programmes in three Spanish regions from 2002-2011. The diagnostic test variation ratio in percentiles 25-75 ranged from 1.68 (further appointments) to 3.39 (fine-needle aspiration). The variation ratio in detection rates of benign lesions, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive cancer were 2.79, 1.99 and 1.36, respectively. A positive relationship between rates of testing and detection rates was found with fine-needle aspiration-benign lesions (R(2): 0.53), fine-needle aspiration-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0 28), core biopsy-benign lesions (R(2): 0.64), core biopsy-ductal carcinoma in situ (R(2): 0.61) and core biopsy-invasive carcinoma (R(2): 0.48). Variation in the use of invasive tests between the breast cancer screening units participating in early-detection programmes was found to be significantly higher than variations in lesion detection. Units which conducted more fine-needle aspiration tests had higher benign lesion detection rates, while units that conducted more core biopsies detected more benign lesions and cancer. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. On the conversion of tritium units to mass fractions for hydrologic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Andraski, Brain J.; Cooper, Clay A.; Mayers, Charles J.; Michel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a general equation for converting laboratory-reported tritium levels, expressed either as concentrations (tritium isotope number fractions) or mass-based specific activities, to mass fractions in aqueous systems. Assuming that all tritium is in the form of monotritiated water simplifies the derivation and is shown to be reasonable for most environmental settings encountered in practice. The general equation is nonlinear. For tritium concentrations c less than 4.5×1012 tritium units (TU) - i.e. specific tritium activities11 Bq kg-1 - the mass fraction w of tritiated water is approximated to within 1 part per million by w ≈ c×2.22293×10-18, i.e. the conversion is linear for all practical purposes. Terrestrial abundances serve as a proxy for non-tritium isotopes in the absence of sample-specific data. Variation in the relative abundances of non-tritium isotopes in the terrestrial hydrosphere produces a minimum range for the mantissa of the conversion factor of [2.22287; 2.22300].

  6. Mass flow-rate control unit to calibrate hot-wire sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durst, F.; Uensal, B. [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Haddad, K. [FMP Technology GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, LSTM-Erlangen, Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Erlangen (Germany); Al-Salaymeh, A.; Eid, Shadi [University of Jordan, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Amman (Jordan)

    2008-02-15

    Hot-wire anemometry is a measuring technique that is widely employed in fluid mechanics research to study the velocity fields of gas flows. It is general practice to calibrate hot-wire sensors against velocity. Calibrations are usually carried out under atmospheric pressure conditions and these suggest that the wire is sensitive to the instantaneous local volume flow rate. It is pointed out, however, that hot wires are sensitive to the instantaneous local mass flow rate and, of course, also to the gas heat conductivity. To calibrate hot wires with respect to mass flow rates per unit area, i.e., with respect to ({rho}U), requires special calibration test rigs. Such a device is described and its application is summarized within the ({rho}U) range 0.1-25 kg/m{sup 2} s. Calibrations are shown to yield the same hot-wire response curves for density variations in the range 1-7 kg/m{sup 3}. The application of the calibrated wires to measure pulsating mass flows is demonstrated, and suggestions are made for carrying out extensive calibrations to yield the ({rho}U) wire response as a basis for advanced fluid mechanics research on ({rho}U) data in density-varying flows. (orig.)

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DAMPING FACTOR PER UNIT MASS AND THE FREE LENGTH FOR COMPOSITE SANDWICH BARS. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Oliviu BURADA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have build some composite sandwich bars in this way: the core is made with polypropylene honeycomb (its thickness is 10, 15 and 20 mm reinforced with 1 layer of carbon fiber (on the sample upper and lower sides. For these samples we have determined, by experimental means, the damping factor per unit mass and per unit length. Then, by using the regression analysis, we have established correlations between the damping factor per unit mass and the bars free length. In order to obtain these correlations, we have considered the next free lengths of the bars: 200, 230, 260, 290, 320, 350.

  8. Party Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how political parties formed in the world's first mass democracy, the United States. I trace the process of party formation from the bottom up. First, I ask: How do individuals become engaged in politics and develop political affiliations? In most states, throughout the antebellum era, the county was the primary unit of political administration and electoral representation. Owing to their small size, contiguity, and economic homogeneity, I expect that each county's ...

  9. Thermoregulation in boys and men exercising at the same heat production per unit body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leites, Gabriela T; Cunha, Giovani S; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Meyer, Flavia; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    Child-adult thermoregulatory comparisons may be biased by differences in metabolic heat production ([Formula: see text]). We compared thermoregulatory responses of boys and men exercising at two intensities prescribed to elicit either a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit body mass (BM) or a fixed absolute [Formula: see text]. Ten boys (10-12 years) and 10 men (19-25 years) performed 4 × 20-min cycling at a fixed [Formula: see text] per BM (W kg(-1)) at 35 °C and 35 % relative humidity (MENREL). Men also cycled (MENABS) at the same absolute [Formula: see text] (in W) as the boys. [Formula: see text] was lower in boys compared with MENREL, but similar to MENABS (mean ± SD, 233.6 ± 38.4, 396.5 ± 72.3, 233.6 ± 34.1 W, respectively, P < 0.001). Conversely, [Formula: see text] per unit BM was similar between boys and MENREL, and lower in MENABS (5.7 ± 1.0, 5.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.3 W kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.001). The change in rectal temperature was similar between boys and MENREL (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.92) but was lower in MENABS (0.3 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.004). Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to MENABS (500 ± 173 vs. 710 ± 150 mL; P = 0.041), despite the same evaporative heat balance requirement (E req) (199.1 ± 34.2 vs. 201.0 ± 32.7 W, P = 0.87). Boys and men demonstrated similar thermoregulatory responses to 80 min of exercise in the heat performed at a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit BM. Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to men, despite similarities in absolute [Formula: see text] and E req.

  10. Validity of Ski Skating Center-of-Mass Displacement Measured by a Single Inertial Measurement Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Håvard; Gløersen, Øyvind; Hallén, Jostein

    2015-12-01

    In regard to simplifying motion analysis and estimating center of mass (COM) in ski skating, this study addressed 3 main questions concerning the use of inertial measurement units (IMU): (1) How accurately can a single IMU estimate displacement of os sacrum (S1) on a person during ski skating? (2) Does incorporating gyroscope and accelerometer data increase accuracy and precision? (3) Moreover, how accurately does S1 determine COM displacement? Six world-class skiers roller-ski skated on a treadmill using 2 different subtechniques. An IMU including accelerometers alone (IMU-A) or in combination with gyroscopes (IMU-G) were mounted on the S1. A reflective marker at S1, and COM calculated from 3D full-body optical analysis, were used to provide reference values. IMU-A provided an accurate and precise estimate of vertical S1 displacement, but IMU-G was required to attain accuracy and precision of < 8 mm (root-mean-squared error and range of displacement deviation) in all directions and with both subtechniques. Further, arm and torso movements affected COM, but not the S1. Hence, S1 displacement was valid for estimating sideways COM displacement, but the systematic amplitude and timing difference between S1 and COM displacement in the anteroposterior and vertical directions inhibits exact calculation of energy fluctuations.

  11. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  12. Teaching Mass Transfer and Filtration Using Crossflow Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Unit Operations Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, Daniel; McCutcheon, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A crossflow reverse osmosis (RO) system was built for a senior-level chemical engineering unit operations laboratory course. Intended to teach students mass transfer fundamentals related to membrane separations, students tested several commercial desalination membranes, measuring water flux and salt rejections at various pressures, flow rates, and…

  13. 29 CFR 1918.5 - Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance duties owed to each employee. 1918.5 Section... Compliance duties owed to each employee. (a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring... PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.9 - Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance duties owed to each employee. 1915.9 Section... Provisions § 1915.9 Compliance duties owed to each employee. (a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in... and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect...

  15. Mass Transport Complexes in bacini confinati a controllo strutturale: l'Unità Epiligure di Specchio (Appennino Settentrionale)

    OpenAIRE

    Ogata, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Il recente incremento dell’esplorazione geofisica dei margini continentali e il concomitante sviluppo di tecnologie d’indagine, sismiche ed acustiche, sempre più accurate, hanno rivelato la comune presenza di vasti accumuli di sedimenti rimobilizzati a causa di franamenti sottomarini, e comunemente identificati con il termine di Mass Transport Deposit o Complex (MTD e MTC, rispettivamente). Attualmente, queste unità sono intensamente studiate non solo per ragioni strettamente scientifiche,...

  16. Energy and mass balances in multiple-effect upward solar distillers with air flow through the last-effect unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homing Yeh; Chiidong Ho [Tamkang Univ. Tamsui, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Taipei Hsien (Taiwan)

    2000-04-01

    Considerable improvement in productivity may be obtained if water vapor in the last-effect unit is carried away directly by flowing air. The theory of a closed-type upward multiple-effect solar distiller has been modified to that of an open-type device, and the energy and mass balances have been derived. The production rate of distilled water for each effect under various climate, design, and operational conditions may be predicted by simultaneously solving the appropriate equations. (Author)

  17. Kepler-47 Circumbinary Planets obey Quantization of Angular Momentum per Unit Mass predicted by Quantum Celestial Mechanics (QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kepler-47 circumbinary system has three known planets orbiting its binary star barycenter and therefore can provide a precision test of the Quantum Celestial Mechan- ics (QCM prediction of the quantization of angular momentum per unit mass in all gravitationally bound systems. Two of the planets are in the Habitable Zone (HZ, so system stability can be a primary concern. QCM may be a major contributor to the stability of this system.

  18. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  19. Representation of People of Asian Descent in Mainstream Mass Media within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghan

    2013-01-01

    The public school classroom in the United States has been getting more diverse, linguistically and ethnically. Immigrant and second/third generation students learn American culture and norms from messages conveyed through mainstream media like internet, advertisements, films, newspapers, TV, and magazines. Their self-perceptions, perspectives…

  20. An Examination of Carbon Monoxide and Organic Aerosol Mass Sources in the Southeastern United States during the SENEX Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Angevine, W. M.; Brioude, J. F.; Brock, C. A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Gilman, J.; Graus, M.; Hanisco, T. F.; Holloway, J. S.; Horowitz, L. W.; Kaiser, J.; Keutsch, F. N.; Lerner, B. M.; Liao, J.; Mao, J.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wolfe, G. M., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Southeast Nexus (SENEX) project occurred during the summer of 2013 over the southeastern United States and involved studying the interactions between natural and anthropogenic emissions at the nexus of climate change and air quality. As part of the project, a suite of instruments for aerosol and gas-phase species was deployed on the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and models were used to calculate trace gas and aerosol species in the region and along the aircraft flight tracks. Throughout the study, the measured non-refractory submicron aerosol mass was dominated by organic material (58% +/- 9%) with smaller contributions from sulfate (27% +/- 8%), ammonium (10% +/- 3%), nitrate (3% +/- 1%), and chloride (0.1% +/- 0.1%). Here we examine the influence of urban emissions on the organic aerosol (OA) mass in regions characterized by higher and lower biogenic emissions. For the air around and downwind of urban areas, OA mass is highly correlated with carbon monoxide (CO), a tracer of anthropogenic emissions as well as an oxidation product of isoprene, a biogenic species. The slope of this correlation is roughly 0.15 micrograms per standard cubic meter per ppbv, which is significantly higher than observed in prior studies downwind of urban areas. The enhancement in OA mass relative to the enhancement in CO is independent of the concentration of biogenic species. In contrast, formaldehyde enhancements are clearly higher in the presence of biogenic species in agreement with the NOAA GFDL AM3 model. Downwind from the urban areas, CO and OA mass were not strongly enhanced relatively to a region-wide enhancement in these species that can only be explained from the accumulation of emissions in the eastern U.S. for several days. Back-trajectories of air parcels with emissions from biogenic and anthropogenic sources will be examined to elucidate the impact of both sources on CO and OA mass.

  1. The Effect of Fuel Mass Fraction on the Combustion and Fluid Flow in a Sulfur Recovery Unit Thermal Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lang Yeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur recovery unit (SRU thermal reactors are negatively affected by high temperature operation. In this paper, the effect of the fuel mass fraction on the combustion and fluid flow in a SRU thermal reactor is investigated numerically. Practical operating conditions for a petrochemical corporation in Taiwan are used as the design conditions for the discussion. The simulation results show that the present design condition is a fuel-rich (or air-lean condition and gives acceptable sulfur recovery, hydrogen sulfide (H2S destruction, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and thermal reactor temperature for an oxygen-normal operation. However, for an oxygen-rich operation, the local maximum temperature exceeds the suggested maximum service temperature, although the average temperature is acceptable. The high temperature region must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period if there are oxygen-rich operations. If the fuel mass fraction to the zone ahead of the choke ring (zone 1 is 0.0625 or 0.125, the average temperature in the zone behind the choke ring (zone 2 is higher than the zone 1 average temperature, which can damage the downstream heat exchanger tubes. If the zone 1 fuel mass fraction is reduced to ensure a lower zone 1 temperature, the temperature in zone 2 and the heat exchanger section must be monitored closely and the zone 2 wall and heat exchanger tubes must be inspected very carefully during the annual maintenance period. To determine a suitable fuel mass fraction for operation, a detailed numerical simulation should be performed first to find the stoichiometric fuel mass fraction which produces the most complete combustion and the highest temperature. This stoichiometric fuel mass fraction should be avoided because the high temperature could damage the zone 1 corner or the choke ring. A higher fuel mass fraction (i.e., fuel-rich or air-lean condition is more suitable because it can avoid deteriorations of both zone 1

  2. Unit operations for gas-liquid mass transfer in reduced gravity environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Donald R.; Allen, David T.

    1992-01-01

    Basic scaling rules are derived for converting Earth-based designs of mass transfer equipment into designs for a reduced gravity environment. Three types of gas-liquid mass transfer operations are considered: bubble columns, spray towers, and packed columns. Application of the scaling rules reveals that the height of a bubble column in lunar- and Mars-based operations would be lower than terrestrial designs by factors of 0.64 and 0.79 respectively. The reduced gravity columns would have greater cross-sectional areas, however, by factors of 2.4 and 1.6 for lunar and Martian settings. Similar results were obtained for spray towers. In contract, packed column height was found to be nearly independent of gravity.

  3. Active damping control unit using a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Díaz, Cristóbal; Paulitsch, Christoph; Gardonio, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a study on the design and use of a small scale proof mass electrodynamic actuator, with a low mounting resonance frequency, for velocity feedback control on a thin rectangular panel. A stability-performance formula is derived, which can be effectively used to assess the down scaling effects on the stability and control performance of the feedback loop. The design and tests of a velocity feedback loop with a prototype small scale proof mass actuator are also presented. When a feedback control having a gain margin of about 6 dB is implemented, so that there is little control spillover effect around the fundamental resonance of the actuator, reductions of vibration between 5 dB and 10 dB in the frequency band between 80 Hz and 250 Hz have been measured at the control position.

  4. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  5. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge; Overpeck, Mary D; Ruan, W June

    2004-01-01

    in 1997-1998 by means of identical data collection methods. SETTING: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Flemish Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Ireland, Israel, Portugal, Slovakia, Sweden, and the United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 242 boys and girls, aged 13 and 15 years....... MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The BMI, BMI at or above the 85th centile, and BMI at or above the 95th centile (overweight) from self-reported height and weight. RESULTS: The highest prevalence of overweight was found in the United States and the lowest in Lithuania. On the basis of the study reference...... standard, the prevalence of overweight (percentage) in the United States was 12.6% in 13-year-old boys, 10.8% in 13-year-old girls, 13.9% in 15-year-old boys, and 15.1% in 15-year-old girls, all significantly increased. Prevalence of overweight in Lithuania was significantly below the expected 5%, with 1...

  6. Pathogenic lineage of Perkinsea associated with mass mortality of frogs across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro Ayza, Marcos; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Grear, Daniel; Winzeler, Megan; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Barichivich, William J.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis and ranavirus infections are important contributors to the worldwide decline of amphibian populations. We reviewed data on 247 anuran mortality events in 43 States of the United States from 1999–2015. Our findings suggest that a severe infectious disease of tadpoles caused by a protist belonging to the phylum Perkinsea might represent the third most common infectious disease of anurans after ranavirus infections and chytridiomycosis. Severe Perkinsea infections (SPI) were systemic and led to multiorganic failure and death. The SPI mortality events affected numerous anuran species and occurred over a broad geographic area, from boreal to subtropical habitats. Livers from all PCR-tested SPI-tadpoles (n = 19) were positive for the Novel Alveolate Group 01 (NAG01) of Perkinsea, while only 2.5% histologically normal tadpole livers tested positive (2/81), suggesting that subclinical infections are uncommon. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SPI is associated with a phylogenetically distinct clade of NAG01 Perkinsea. These data suggest that this virulent Perkinsea clade is an important pathogen of frogs in the United States. Given its association with mortality events and tendency to be overlooked, the potential role of this emerging pathogen in amphibian declines on a broad geographic scale warrants further investigation.

  7. Mass Balance Assessment for Six Neonicotinoid Insecticides During Conventional Wastewater and Wetland Treatment: Nationwide Reconnaissance in United States Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence and removal of six high-production high-volume neonicotinoids was investigated in 13 conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and one engineered wetland. Flow-weighted daily composites were analyzed by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing the occurrence of imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin at ng/L concentrations in WWTP influent (60.5 ± 40.0; 2.9 ± 1.9; 149.7 ± 289.5, respectively) and effluent (58.5 ± 29.1; 2.3 ± 1.4; 70.2 ± 121.8, respectively). A mass balance showed insignificant removal of imidacloprid (p = 0.09, CI = 95%) and limited removal of the sum of acetamiprid and its degradate, acetamiprid-N-desmethyl (18 ± 4%, p = 0.01, CI = 95%). Clothianidin was found only intermittently, whereas thiamethoxam, thiacloprid, and dinotefuran were never detected. In the wetland, no removal of imidacloprid or acetamiprid was observed. Extrapolation of data from 13 WWTPs to the nation as a whole suggests annual discharges on the order of 1000–3400 kg/y of imidacloprid contained in treated effluent to surface waters nationwide. This first mass balance and first United States nationwide wastewater reconnaissance identified imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and clothianidin as recalcitrant sewage constituents that persist through wastewater treatment to enter water bodies at significant loadings, potentially harmful to sensitive aquatic invertebrates. PMID:27196423

  8. The recent prevalence of Osteoporosis and low bone mass in the United States based on bone mineral density at the Femoral Neck or Lumbar Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral ...

  9. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  10. Painful snapping hip owing to bifid iliopsoas tendon and concurrent labral tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Thompson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of internal snapping hip owing to a bifid iliopsoas tendon is described with a concurrent labral tear in a young active female. The labral tear was identified on magnetic resonance imaging, and the snapping bifid tendon on dynamic ultrasound. The patient was administered bupivicaine and steroid around the tendon and symptoms resolved. A snapping bifid tendon must be identified pre-operatively to avoid incomplete release. Labral repair may be accompanied by psoas release when psoas impingement is suspected owing to a labral tear at the 3 o’clock position in an otherwise normal hip.

  11. Allergy vaccines: a need for standardisation in mass units of major allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Dorpema, J W; Vieths, S

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of respiratory allergies can be performed with allergen-specific immunotherapy using allergen extracts. These products are biologicals with an extremely complex and variable composition. Only a few components are of major importance for the disease, the so-called major allergens. At present, standardisation of allergen extracts is dominated by techniques that aim at establishing their overall IgE-binding potencies using pooled sera of allergic patients. Each company in the market uses its own type of units to express potencies, thus hampering comparability. Another disadvantage is that the major allergen composition is not determined. Most companies have introduced assays for the measurement of major allergens in their quality control systems, but these data are not yet used for labelling purposes. The need to include major allergen content in standardisation protocols is now widely accepted. To support future labelling on the basis of major allergen content the European Union has funded the multidisciplinary multicentre project CREATE. This project aims at developing international certified references for the most important major respiratory allergens and at evaluating the performance of available ELISA for their measurement. The project will facilitate expression of potencies by active ingredient (major allergen) content and will allow direct comparison of competitor products.

  12. FOETAL MUMMIFICATION OWING TO SEVERE THERMAL BURN IN AN INDIGENOUS COW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Jana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A very rare incidence of bovine foetal mummification owing to thermal burn injury and its successful obstetrical treatment and management with the extraction of an inert mummified foetus diagnosed to be an atypical amorphous globocephalus foetal monster at its 2nd trimester of development is reported.

  13. Problem of fuel losses owing to evaporation during operation of air engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Бойченко

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Considered is the problem of irrevocable losses of air fuel which happen owing to evaporation in conditions of operation of air engineering, particularly in flight time of airplane. Composed is generalized performance of fuel losses from evaporation in conditions of flight of airplane

  14. Do Schools Owe a Special Duty of Care to "Special-Needs" Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Richard; Russo, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools officials owe a duty of care to all the students in their custody. An emerging, but not unanimous, judicial consensus seems to agree that school board officials have a greater legal duty when supervising students with disabilities. A case on this important issue arose in "Jennifer C. v. Los Angeles Unified School District"…

  15. Do You Know What You Owe? Students' Understanding of Their Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruska, Emily A.; Hogarth, Jeanne M.; Fletcher, Cynthia Needles; Forbes, Gregory R.; Wohlgemuth, Darin R.

    2014-01-01

    Using a data set that augments a student survey with administrative data from the Iowa State University Office of Financial Aid, the authors posed two questions: Do students know whether they have student loans? Do students know how much they owe on outstanding student loans? We used logistic and ordered logit regressions to answer these…

  16. 29 CFR 1917.5 - Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance duties owed to each employee. 1917.5 Section... employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The..., impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer...

  17. 29 CFR 1910.9 - Compliance duties owed to each employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance duties owed to each employee. 1910.9 Section... employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The..., impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer...

  18. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  19. Comparison of methods for accurate quantification of DNA mass concentration with traceability to the international system of units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Somanath; Curach, Natalie; Mostyn, Thomas; Bains, Gursharan Singh; Griffiths, Kate R; Emslie, Kerry R

    2010-09-01

    Accurate estimation of total DNA concentration (mass concentration, e.g., ng/muL) that is traceable to the International System of Units (SI) is a crucial starting point for improving reproducible measurements in many applications involving nucleic acid testing and requires a DNA reference material which has been certified for its total DNA concentration. In this study, the concentrations of six different lambda DNA preparations were determined using different measurement platforms: UV Absorbance at 260 nm (A(260)) with and without prior sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment of the DNA, PicoGreen assay, and digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). DNA concentration estimates by A(260) with and without prior NaOH treatment were significantly different for five of the six samples tested. There were no significant differences in concentration estimates based on A(260) with prior NaOH treatment, PicoGreen analysis, and dPCR for two of the three samples tested using dPCR. Since the measurand in dPCR is amount (copy number) concentration (copies/muL), the results suggest that accurate estimation of DNA mass concentration based on copy number concentration is achievable provided the DNA is fully characterized and in the double-stranded form or amplification is designed to be initiated from only one of the two complementary strands.

  20. Identifying acetylated lignin units in non-wood fibers using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana; Martínez, Angel T

    2004-01-01

    A series of non-wood plant fibers, namely kenaf, jute, sisal and abaca, have been analyzed upon pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) of the whole material. The pyrolysis products mainly arise from the carbohydrate and lignin moieties of the fibers. The lignin-derived phenols belonged to the p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid (H), guaiacylpropanoid (G) and syringylpropanoid (S) structures, and showed a high S/G ratio of between 2.0 and 5.4, the highest corresponding to kenaf. Among the lignin-derived phenols released, small amounts of sinapyl and coniferyl acetates (in both cis- and trans-forms) were identified for the first time upon Py-GC/MS of lignocellulosic materials. Acetylation of the sinapyl and coniferyl alcohols was at the gamma-position of the side chain. The release of these alcohols derived from intact acetylated lignin units upon pyrolysis seems to indicate that the native lignin in the fibers selected for this study is at least partially acetylated. Sinapyl (and coniferyl) acetates have recently been suggested to be authentic lignin precursors involved in the polymerization of lignin along with the normal sinapyl and coniferyl alcohols. Py-GC/MS will offer a convenient and rapid tool for analyzing naturally acetylated lignins, as well as to screen plant materials for the presence of acetylated units in lignin.

  1. International system of units traceable results of Hg mass concentration at saturation in air from a newly developed measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétel, Christophe R; Zampella, Mariavittoria; Brown, Richard J C; Ent, Hugo; Horvat, Milena; Paredes, Eduardo; Tunc, Murat

    2014-08-05

    Data most commonly used at present to calibrate measurements of mercury vapor concentrations in air come from a relationship known as the "Dumarey equation". It uses a fitting relationship to experimental results obtained nearly 30 years ago. The way these results relate to the international system of units (SI) is not known. This has caused difficulties for the specification and enforcement of limit values for mercury concentrations in air and in emissions to air as part of national or international legislation. Furthermore, there is a significant discrepancy (around 7% at room temperature) between the Dumarey data and data calculated from results of mercury vapor pressure measurements in the presence of only liquid mercury. As an attempt to solve some of these problems, a new measurement procedure is described for SI traceable results of gaseous Hg concentrations at saturation in milliliter samples of air. The aim was to propose a scheme as immune as possible to analytical biases. It was based on isotope dilution (ID) in the liquid phase with the (202)Hg enriched certified reference material ERM-AE640 and measurements of the mercury isotope ratios in ID blends, subsequent to a cold vapor generation step, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The process developed involved a combination of interconnected valves and syringes operated by computer controlled pumps and ensured continuity under closed circuit conditions from the air sampling stage onward. Quantitative trapping of the gaseous mercury in the liquid phase was achieved with 11.5 μM KMnO4 in 2% HNO3. Mass concentrations at saturation found from five measurements under room temperature conditions were significantly higher (5.8% on average) than data calculated from the Dumarey equation, but in agreement (-1.2% lower on average) with data based on mercury vapor pressure measurement results. Relative expanded combined uncertainties were estimated following a model based approach. They ranged from 2

  2. 31 CFR 285.5 - Centralized offset of Federal payments to collect nontax debts owed to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL.../payee. (11) Debts at FMS, a debt collection center, or the Department of Justice. If a creditor agency.... 3711(g) and 31 CFR 285.12, or if a creditor agency has referred a debt to the Department of Justice...

  3. Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck or Lumbar Spine in Older Adults: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Osteoporosis or Low Bone Mass at the Femur Neck ... Survey, 2005–2008. What is the prevalence of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femur neck ...

  4. Probabilistic Discounting of Hypothetical Monetary Gains: University Students Differ in How They Discount "Won" and "Owed" Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested whether participants would discount "won" money differently than they would "owed" money in a probability-discounting task. Participants discounted $1000 or $100,000 that they had won in a sweepstakes or that was owed to them using the multiple-choice (Experiment 1) or fill-in-the-blank (Experiment 2) method of collecting…

  5. Probabilistic Discounting of Hypothetical Monetary Gains: University Students Differ in How They Discount "Won" and "Owed" Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested whether participants would discount "won" money differently than they would "owed" money in a probability-discounting task. Participants discounted $1000 or $100,000 that they had won in a sweepstakes or that was owed to them using the multiple-choice (Experiment 1) or fill-in-the-blank (Experiment 2) method of collecting…

  6. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence D Hurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5 project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds, as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased

  7. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  8. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  9. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    KAUST Repository

    Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-12-18

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  10. An unusual case of hemoperitoneum owing to acute splenic torsion in a child with immunoglobulin deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Tomassetti Fernandez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Wandering spleen is an uncommon clinical entity, which rarely affects children and adolescents. It is usually described in adults, being most common in the multiparous women of childbearing age. A case of a 14-year-old girl with a past history of splenomegaly and immunoglobulin A (IgA deficiency, who presented with a sudden onset of abdominal pain, is presented. Diagnosis of hemoperitoneum secondary to torsion of a wandering spleen was made by computed tomography scan and Doppler ultrasound. Laparoscopy revealed hemoperitoneum owing to a ruptured and infarcted spleen. Laparotomy was undertaken and open splenectomy was successfully performed. The patient was discharged after an uneventful postoperative course that was not punctuated by any major complication. Management of this rare surgical emergency is discussed. Based on the details of this case, the authors hypothesize that IgA deficiency causes splenomegaly, which in turn predisposes to ligamentous laxity and splenic torsion.

  11. BADANIA SONDAŻOWE OPINII KONSUMENTÓW WODY Z WODOCIĄGU MIELECKIEGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz R. RAK

    Full Text Available Badania sondażowe są ważnym elementem pozwalającym poprawić działanie systemu zaopatrzenie w wodę oraz bezpieczeństwo jego funkcjonowania. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań przeprowadzonego sondażu, na temat zadowolenia z funkcjonowania wodociągów publicznych przez konsumentów korzystających z ich usług. W badaniu udział wzięło 100 respondentów z miasta Mielec. Badanie obejmowało opinie ankietowanych na temat cen i jakości wody, nieudogodnień oraz poziomu uciążliwości jaki są związane z przerwami w dostawie wody.

  12. Mass fatality preparedness among medical examiners/coroners in the United States: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Orr, Mark G; Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Chen, Daniel Y; Riley, Halley E M; Sherman, Martin F

    2014-12-15

    In the United States (US), Medical Examiners and Coroners (ME/Cs) have the legal authority for the management of mass fatality incidents (MFI). Yet, preparedness and operational capabilities in this sector remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold; first, to identify appropriate measures of preparedness, and second, to assess preparedness levels and factors significantly associated with preparedness. Three separate checklists were developed to measure different aspects of preparedness: MFI Plan Elements, Operational Capabilities, and Pre-existing Resource Networks. Using a cross-sectional study design, data on these and other variables of interest were collected in 2014 from a national convenience sample of ME/C using an internet-based, anonymous survey. Preparedness levels were determined and compared across Federal Regions and in relation to the number of Presidential Disaster Declarations, also by Federal Region. Bivariate logistic and multivariable models estimated the associations between organizational characteristics and relative preparedness. A large proportion (42%) of respondents reported that less than 25 additional fatalities over a 48-hour period would exceed their response capacities. The preparedness constructs measured three related, yet distinct, aspects of preparedness, with scores highly variable and generally suboptimal. Median scores for the three preparedness measures also varied across Federal Regions and as compared to the number of Presidential Declared Disasters, also by Federal Region. Capacity was especially limited for activating missing persons call centers, launching public communications, especially via social media, and identifying temporary interment sites. The provision of staff training was the only factor studied that was significantly (positively) associated (p < .05) with all three preparedness measures. Although ME/Cs ranked local partners, such as Offices of Emergency Management, first responders, and

  13. Increasing of Manoeuvrability of Cogeneration Combined Cycle Power Plants Owing to the Usage of Electric Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of efficiency evaluation  of using the electric boilers to improve maneuver capabilities of the cogeneration combined cycle power plants (as an example, 230 MW combined cycle unit of Minsk CHP-3 in comparison with the traditional steam-turbine units of cogeneration power plants.

  14. Heat and Mass Transfer during Hydrogen Generation in an Array of Fuel Bars of a BWR Using a Periodic Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Romero-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, the numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during hydrogen generation in an array of fuel cylinder bars, each coated with a cladding and a steam current flowing outside the cylinders. The analysis considers the fuel element without mitigation effects. The system consists of a representative periodic unit cell where the initial and boundary-value problems for heat and mass transfer were solved. In this unit cell, we considered that a fuel element is coated by a cladding with steam surrounding it as a coolant. The numerical simulations allow describing the evolution of the temperature and concentration profiles inside the nuclear reactor and could be used as a basis for hybrid upscaling simulations.

  15. A mobile killing- and mincing unit represents a possible alternative in mass destruction of AIV infected poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, Anne Ahlmann; Handberg, Kurt

    In Denmark the veterinary authorities have approved a mobile mechanical unit for humane culling and processing of end-of lay hens. The elimination of transportation of live table egg layers is from a welfare point of view valuable, and in this respect, this multifunctional unit performs the initial...

  16. Rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding owing to hepatic cancer invasion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Ding; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hong-Guo; Chen, Yuan; Zhang, Cheng-Wu; Zhao, Da-Jian; Hu, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-21

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding refers to bleeding that arises from the gastrointestinal tract proximal to the ligament of Treitz. The primary reason for gastrointestinal bleeding associated with hepatocellular carcinoma is rupture of a varicose vein owing to pericardial hypotension. We report a rare case of gastrointestinal bleeding with hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient who presented with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. The initial diagnosis was gastric cancer with metastasis to the multiple lymph nodes of the lesser curvature. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, which identified two lesions in the gastric wall. Total gastrectomy and hepatic local excision was then performed. Pathological results indicated that the hepatocellular carcinoma had invaded the stomach directly, which was confirmed immunohistochemically. The patient is alive with a disease-free survival of 1 year since the surgery. Hepatocellular carcinoma with gastric invasion should be considered as a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in hepatocellular carcinoma patients, especially with lesions located in the left lateral hepatic lobe. Surgery is the best solution.

  17. Improved Bonding of Partially Osteomyelitic Bone to Titanium Pins Owing to Biomimetic Coating of Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased fixation strength of the bone-pin interface is important for inhibiting pin loosening after external fixation. In a previous study, an apatite (Ap layer was formed on anodically oxidized titanium (Ti pins by immersing them in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 °C for 48 h. In the present study, an Ap layer was also successfully formed using a one-step method at 25 °C for 48 h in an infusion fluid-based supersaturated calcium phosphate solution, which is clinically useful due to the immersion temperature. After percutaneous implantation in a proximal tibial metaphysis for four weeks in rabbits (n = 20, the Ti pin coated with the Ap layer showed significantly increased extraction torque compared with that of an uncoated Ti screw even with partial osteomyelitis present, owing to dense bone formation on the Ap layer in the cortical and medullary cavity regions. When the infection status was changed from “no osteomyelitis” to “partial osteomyelitis,” the extraction torque in the Ap group with “partial osteomyelitis” was almost identical to that for “no osteomyelitis” cases. These results suggest that the Ap layer formed by the room temperature process could effectively improve the fixation strength of the Ti pin for external fixation clinically even with partial osteomyelitis present.

  18. The Social Capital of Blacks and Whites: Differing Effects of the Mass Media in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Thorson, Esther

    2006-01-01

    This study relied on telephone survey interviews of adults in two U.S. metropolitan areas to examine whether the relationship between mass media use and social capital varies according to ethnicity. A multigroup approach taken with structural equation modeling validates a four-factor model of social capital for Blacks and Whites and then, with the…

  19. Osteoporosis and low bone mass at the femur neck or lumbar spine in older adults: United States, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many current clinical guidelines recommend that assessment of osteoporosis or low bone mass, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (1), be based on bone mineral density at either the femur neck region of the proximal femur (hip) or the lumbar spine (2,3). This data brief presents the mos...

  20. The Social Capital of Blacks and Whites: Differing Effects of the Mass Media in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Thorson, Esther

    2006-01-01

    This study relied on telephone survey interviews of adults in two U.S. metropolitan areas to examine whether the relationship between mass media use and social capital varies according to ethnicity. A multigroup approach taken with structural equation modeling validates a four-factor model of social capital for Blacks and Whites and then, with the…

  1. 40 CFR 75.81 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at the unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cubic meter (µg/scm); and (2) A flow monitoring system; and (3) A continuous moisture monitoring system... Hg concentration monitoring system (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter) or a sorbent trap monitoring system (as defined in § 72.2 of this chapter), to measure the mass concentration of total...

  2. Effect of Population Trends in Body Mass Index on Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Gulati, Roman; Zeliadt, Steve; Weiss, Noel; Kristal, Alan R.; Etzioni, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with increasing prostate cancer incidence and declining prostate cancer mortality in the United States, the prevalence of obesity has been increasing steadily. Several studies have reported that obesity is associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality, and it is thus likely that the increase in obesity has increased the burden of prostate cancer. In this study, we assess the potential effect of increasing obesity on prostate cancer incid...

  3. Lithium toxicity in a neonate owing to false elevation of blood lithium levels caused by contamination in a lithium heparin container: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zainab; Athiraman, Naveen K; Clark, Simon J

    2016-08-01

    Lithium toxicity in a neonate can occur owing to antenatal exposure as a result of maternal treatment for psychiatric illnesses. False elevation of lithium levels has been reported in the paediatric population when the sample was mistakenly collected in a lithium heparin container. A term, male infant was born to a mother who was on lithium treatment for a psychiatric illness. On day 1, the infant was jittery, had a poor suck with difficulties in establishing feeds. Blood taken from the infant approximately 8 hours after birth demonstrated a lithium level of 4.9 mmol/L (adult toxic level w1.5 mmol/L). However, the sample for lithium levels was sent in a lithium heparin container and the probability of false elevation was considered. He was closely monitored in the neonatal intensive care unit and his hydration was optimised with intravenous fluids. Clinically, he remained well and commenced feeding, and his jitteriness had decreased the following day. A repeat blood lithium level, collected in a gel container, was only 0.4 mmol/L. The initially raised lithium level was owing to contamination from the lithium heparin container.

  4. Analysing drying unit performance in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing line by means of mass – Energy balances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas De Beer

    2014-01-01

    used. In this paper the data of the six-segmented fluidized bed dryer in the line are used for the development and evaluation of a mass and energy balance. The objectives are multiple: (1) prediction of the moisture content of the granules leaving the dryer solely based on the currently logged data...... in the fluidized bed can be used to predict the gas temperature in different horizontal sections of the dryer. An extra sensor measuring the gas temperature and the humidity at the wet transfer line would increase the accuracy of the calculations. An extra gas velocity sensor at the outlet would be useful...

  5. Review and reassessment of hazards owing to volcano-glacier interactions in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Ceballos, Jorge Luis; Pulgarín, Bernardo; Ramírez, Jair; Thouret, Jean-Claude

    The Cordillera Central in Colombia hosts four important glacier-clad volcanoes, namely Nevado del Ruiz, Nevado de Santa Isabel, Nevado del Tolima and Nevado del Huila. Public and scientific attention has been focused on volcano-glacier hazards in Colombia and worldwide by the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz/Armero catastrophe, the world's largest volcano-glacier disaster. Important volcanological and glaciological studies were undertaken after 1985. However, recent decades have brought strong changes in ice mass extent, volume and structure as a result of atmospheric warming. Population has grown and with it the sizes of numerouscommunities located around the volcanoes. This study reviews and reassesses the current conditions of and changes in the glaciers, the interaction processes between ice and volcanic activity and the resulting hazards. Results show a considerable hazard potential from Nevados delRuiz, Tolima and Huila. Explosive activity within environments of snow and ice as well as non-eruption-related mass movements induced by unstable slopes, or steep and fractured glaciers, can produce avalanches that are likely to be transformed into highly mobile debris flows. Such events can have severe consequences for the downstream communities. Integrated monitoring strategies are therefore essential for early detection of emerging activity that may result in hazardous volcano-ice interaction. Corresponding efforts are currently being strengthened within the framework of international programmes.

  6. Numerical Study of the Dynamic Response of Heat and Mass Transfer to Operation Mode Switching of a Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge concerning the complicated changes of mass and heat transfer is desired to improve the performance and durability of unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs. In this study, a transient, non-isothermal, single-phase, and multi-physics mathematical model for a URFC based on the proton exchange membrane is generated to investigate transient responses in the process of operation mode switching from fuel cell (FC to electrolysis cell (EC. Various heat generation mechanisms, including Joule heat, reaction heat, and the heat attributed to activation polarizations, have been considered in the transient model coupled with electrochemical reaction and mass transfer in porous electrodes. The polarization curves of the steady-state models are validated by experimental data in the literatures. Numerical results reveal that current density, gas mass fractions, and temperature suddenly change with the sudden change of operating voltage in the mode switching process. The response time of temperature is longer than that of current density and gas mass fractions. In both FC and EC modes, the cell temperature and gradient of gas mass fraction in the oxygen side are larger than that in the hydrogen side. The temperature difference of the entire cell is less than 1.5 K. The highest temperature appears at oxygen-side catalyst layer under the FC mode and at membrane under a more stable EC mode. The cell is exothermic all the time. These dynamic responses and phenomena have important implications for heat analysis and provide proven guidelines for the improvement of URFCs mode switching.

  7. The Energy Dissipation Rate Per Unit Mass of Jet Pump Mixture%射流泵混合的单位质量能量耗散率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷浩; 陆宏圻

    2000-01-01

    The formula of jet pump energy dissipation rate per unit mass is derived in this paper related to jet pump axis dimension with energy dissipation rote. Thereby replenishes the lack of basic capability equation only referred to section dimension. By comparing and analyzing the formula of jet pump energy dissipation rate per unit mass with beater and static, it comes to the conclusion that jet pump has great capability of liquid-liquid mixing. Although the efficiency of jet pump is lower, but it can get high intensity when it used for mixing%推导出射流泵单位质量能量耗散率公式,涉及到射流泵轴向尺寸与能耗率,弥补了基本性能方程只涉及截面尺寸的不足。将射流泵的单位质量能量耗散率公式与搅拌器和静态混合器比较,进而分析得出射流泵有较强液一液混合性能的本质。虽然射流泵效率低,但将其用作混合时却强度高。

  8. Using Lean Six Sigma Methodology to Improve a Mass Immunizations Process at the United States Naval Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chrysanthy; McCoy, Donald A; Taylor, Christopher B; Kirk, Kayla D; Fry, Robert S; Modi, Jitendrakumar R

    2016-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology developed in the manufacturing industry to increase process efficiency while maintaining product quality. The efficacy of LSS application to the health care setting has not been adequately studied. This article presents a quality improvement project at the U.S. Naval Academy that uses LSS to improve the mass immunizations process for Midshipmen during in-processing. The process was standardized to give all vaccinations at one station instead of giving a different vaccination at each station. After project implementation, the average immunizations lead time decreased by 79% and staffing decreased by 10%. The process was shown to be in control with a capability index of 1.18 and performance index of 1.10, resulting in a defect rate of 0.04%. This project demonstrates that the LSS methodology can be applied successfully to the health care setting to make sustainable process improvements if used correctly and completely.

  9. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  10. Enhanced ice sheet growth in Eurasia owing to adjacent ice-dammed lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinner, G; Mangerud, J; Jakobsson, M; Crucifix, M; Ritz, C; Svendsen, J I

    2004-01-29

    Large proglacial lakes cool regional summer climate because of their large heat capacity, and have been shown to modify precipitation through mesoscale atmospheric feedbacks, as in the case of Lake Agassiz. Several large ice-dammed lakes, with a combined area twice that of the Caspian Sea, were formed in northern Eurasia about 90,000 years ago, during the last glacial period when an ice sheet centred over the Barents and Kara seas blocked the large northbound Russian rivers. Here we present high-resolution simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model that explicitly simulates the surface mass balance of the ice sheet. We show that the main influence of the Eurasian proglacial lakes was a significant reduction of ice sheet melting at the southern margin of the Barents-Kara ice sheet through strong regional summer cooling over large parts of Russia. In our simulations, the summer melt reduction clearly outweighs lake-induced decreases in moisture and hence snowfall, such as has been reported earlier for Lake Agassiz. We conclude that the summer cooling mechanism from proglacial lakes accelerated ice sheet growth and delayed ice sheet decay in Eurasia and probably also in North America.

  11. Uncovering changes in spider orb-web topology owing to aerodynamic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Ramón; Soler, Alejandro; Teus, Jaime

    2014-09-06

    An orb-weaving spider's likelihood of survival is influenced by its ability to retain prey with minimum damage to its web and at the lowest manufacturing cost. This set of requirements has forced the spider silk to evolve towards extreme strength and ductility to a degree that is rare among materials. Previous studies reveal that the performance of the web upon impact may not be based on the mechanical properties of silk alone, aerodynamic drag could play a role in the dissipation of the prey's energy. Here, we present a thorough analysis of the effect of the aerodynamic drag on wind load and prey impact. The hypothesis considered by previous authors for the evaluation of the drag force per unit length of thread has been revisited according to well-established principles of fluid mechanics, highlighting the functional dependence on thread diameter that was formerly ignored. Theoretical analysis and finite-element simulations permitted us to identify air drag as a relevant factor in reducing deterioration of the orb web, and to reveal how the spider can take greater-and not negligible-advantage of drag dissipation. The study shows the beneficial air drag effects of building smaller and less dense webs under wind load, and larger and denser webs under prey impact loads. In essence, it points out why the aerodynamics need to be considered as an additional driving force in the evolution of silk threads and orb webs.

  12. Performance of the wet oxidation unit of the HPLC isotope ratio mass spectrometry system for halogenated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilevska, Tetyana; Gehre, Matthias; Richnow, Hans Hermann

    2014-08-05

    The performance of liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) for polar halogenated compounds was evaluated. Oxidation capacity of the system was tested with halogenated acetic acids and halogenated aromatic compounds. Acetic acid (AA) was selected as a reference compound for complete oxidation and compared on the molar basis to the oxidation of other analytes. The isotope values were proofed with calibrated δ(13)C values obtained with an elemental analyzer (EA). Correct isotope values were obtained for mono- and dichlorinated, fluorinated, and tribrominated acetic acids and also for aniline, phenol, benzene, bromobenzene, chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, pentafluorophenol, and nitrobenzene. Incomplete oxidation of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) resulted in lower recovery compared to AA (37% and 24%, respectively) and in isotopic shift compared to values obtained with EA (TCA Δδ(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 8.8‰, TFA Δδ(13)C(EA/LC-IRMS) = 6.0‰). Improvement of oxidation by longer reaction time in the reactor and increase in the concentration of sulfate radicals did not lead to complete combustion of TCA and TFA needed for δ(13)C analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such highly chlorinated compounds were studied with the LC-IRMS system. This work provides information for method development of LC-IRMS methods for halogenated contaminants that are known as potential threats to public health and the environment.

  13. Dramatic reduction of dimensionality in large biochemical networks owing to strong pair correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Michael; Mukherjee, Sayak; Jayaprakash, Ciriyam; Das, Jayajit

    2012-01-01

    Large multi-dimensionality of high-throughput datasets pertaining to cell signalling and gene regulation renders it difficult to extract mechanisms underlying the complex kinetics involving various biochemical compounds (e.g. proteins and lipids). Data-driven models often circumvent this difficulty by using pair correlations of the protein expression levels to produce a small number (fewer than 10) of principal components, each a linear combination of the concentrations, to successfully model how cells respond to different stimuli. However, it is not understood if this reduction is specific to a particular biological system or to nature of the stimuli used in these experiments. We study temporal changes in pair correlations, described by the covariance matrix, between concentrations of different molecular species that evolve following deterministic mass-action kinetics in large biologically relevant reaction networks and show that this dramatic reduction of dimensions (from hundreds to less than five) arises from the strong correlations between different species at any time and is insensitive to the form of the nonlinear interactions, network architecture, and to a wide range of values of rate constants and concentrations. We relate temporal changes in the eigenvalue spectrum of the covariance matrix to low-dimensional, local changes in directions of the system trajectory embedded in much larger dimensions using elementary differential geometry. We illustrate how to extract biologically relevant insights such as identifying significant timescales and groups of correlated chemical species from our analysis. Our work provides for the first time, to our knowledge, a theoretical underpinning for the successful experimental analysis and points to a way to extract mechanisms from large-scale high-throughput datasets. PMID:22378749

  14. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE ACCELERATION PROCESS OF A MACHINE AND TRACTOR UNIT ON THE BASIS OF CLASS 1,4 TRACTOR WITH A VARIABLE ROTATING MASS OF THE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchenko V. A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is theoretical and experimental confirmation of the possibility of improvement in tractor unit acceleration due to the variable inertia moment of the rotating masses of the engine. The use of high-speed tractors in agricultural production meets a number of difficulties associated with unsteady processes during acceleration of the tractor units. The emerging significant inertial loads during acceleration result in the loss of engine power because of what the machine and tractor unit is operating at reduced productivity and efficiency. An analysis of published works shows that the tractor unit acceleration is strongly influenced by the rotating mass of the engine. A device based on the application of additional rotating masses in a free flywheel connected or disconnected automatically to the main engine flywheel at appropriate stages is offered. As a result, the tension during acceleration is reduced. The results of experimental studies on the effect of the additional rotating masses on the engine acceleration characteristics of the machine and tractor units on the basis of Class 1.4 tractor are given. It is proved that the use of the tractor additional rotating mass connected or disconnected to the respective modes of movement of a machine and tractor unit to the flywheel of the engine, improves acceleration performance

  15. Description of Medication Administration by Emergency Medical Services during Mass-casualty Incidents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Mazen; Tamim, Hani; Mann, N Clay

    2016-04-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) preparedness and availability of essential medications are important to reduce morbidity and mortality from mass-casualty incidents (MCIs). This study describes prehospital medication administration during MCIs by different EMS service levels. The US National EMS Public-Release Research Dataset maintained by the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) was used to carry out the study. Emergency Medical Services activations coded as MCI at dispatch, or by EMS personnel, were included. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) service level was used for the level of service provided. A descriptive analysis of medication administration by EMS service level was carried out. Among the 19,831,189 EMS activations, 53,334 activations had an MCI code, of which 26,110 activations were included. There were 8,179 (31.3%) Advanced Life Support (ALS), 5,811 (22.3%) Basic Life Support (BLS), 399 (1.5%) Air Medical Transport (AMT; fixed or rotary), and 38 (0.2%) Specialty Care Transport (SCT) activations. More than 80 different medications from 18 groups were reported. Seven thousand twenty-one activations (26.9%) had at least one medication administered. Oxygen was most common (16.3%), followed by crystalloids (6.9%), unknown (5.2%), analgesics (3.2%) mainly narcotics, antiemetics (1.5%), cardiac/vasopressors/inotropes (0.9%), bronchodilators (0.9%), sedatives (0.8%), and vasodilators/antihypertensives (0.7%). Overall, medication administration rates and frequencies of medications groups significantly varied between EMS service levels (Psystems can use the findings of this study to better prepare their stockpiles for MCIs.

  16. Telomerase-Deficient Mice Exhibit Bone Loss Owing to Defects in Osteoblasts and Increased Osteoclastogenesis by Inflammatory Microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, H.; Abdallah, B. M.; Ditzel, N.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere shortening owing to telomerase deficiency leads to accelerated senescence of human skeletal (mesenchymal) stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, whereas overexpression leads to telomere elongation, extended life span, and enhanced bone formation. To study the role of telomere shortening in vivo, we...... osteoblastic defects and creation of a proinflammatory osteoclast-activating microenvironment. Thus telonnerization of MSCs may provide a novel approach for abolishing age-related bone loss. (C) 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  17. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol, and high body mass index among non-Hispanic Asian adults: United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yutaka; Yoon, Sung Sug; Chong, Yinong; Carroll, Margaret D

    2014-01-01

    not completely captured by BMI (10). This report builds on recently published estimates of hypertension, cholesterol, and obesity from NHANES 2011–2012 (3,6,11) by providing related estimates for Asian adults by select demographic characteristics. Hypertension, abnormal cholesterol levels, and elevated body weight are important risk factors for major chronic diseases, for which differences by race as well as ethnicity have been reported. The Asian population includes many ethnic groups, and the majority of non-Hispanic Asian adults in the United States are immigrants (12). Note that these estimates are for non-Hispanic Asian persons overall and may not reflect patterns for specific subgroups of Asian persons. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. How did policy actors use mass media to influence the Scottish alcohol minimum unit pricing debate? Comparative analysis of newspapers, evidence submissions and interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona

    2015-04-01

    Aims: To explore how policy actors attempted to deliberately frame public debate around alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) in the UK by comparing and contrasting their constructions of the policy in public (newspapers), semi-public (evidence submissions) and private (interviews). Methods: Content analysis was conducted on articles published in ten national newspapers between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2012. Newsprint data were contrasted with alcohol policy documents, evidence submissions to the Scottish Parliament's Health and Sport Committee and 36 confidential interviews with policy stakeholders (academics, advocates, industry representatives, politicians and civil servants). Findings: A range of policy actors exerted influence both directly (through Parliamentary institutions and political representatives) and indirectly through the mass media. Policy actors were acutely aware of mass media's importance in shaping public opinion and used it tactically to influence policy. They often framed messages in subtly different ways, depending on target audiences. In general, newspapers presented the policy debate in a "balanced" way, but this arguably over-represented hostile perspective and suggested greater disagreement around the evidence base than is the case. Conclusions: The roles of policy actors vary between public and policy spheres, and how messages are communicated in policy debates depends on perceived strategic advantage.

  19. Coronary artery calcification detected by a mobile helical CT unit in a mass screening. The frequency and relationship to coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itani, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Shigeru; Masuda, Yoshiaki [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hanamura, Kazuhisa; Asakura, Kazuhiro; Sone, Shusuke; Sunami, Yuko; Shimura, Akimitsu; Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2001-06-01

    A strong relationship is known to exist between coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) detected by CT. In this study, we investigated the frequency of CAC and the relationship between coronary risk factors, CAD and CAC in a mass screening using a mobile helical CT unit. The total number of participants was 10008 people undergoing a medical examination for lung cancer and tuberculosis using a mobile helical CT unit. We measured the CT density of the coronary artery to detect CAC. The CT density threshold for determining CAC was above +110HU. The frequency of CAC was 16.0% in the overall patient population and significantly higher in males than in females (20.6% vs 10.7%). Frequency increased with age in both genders. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were significantly related to CAC. Smoking showed a correlation with CAC only in males. A significant relationship was observed between CAD and CAC in males. In particular, the relationship between them was strongest in males under 60 years of age. Furthermore, the odds ratio of CAC in predicting CAD increased with increasing risk factors in both genders. (author)

  20. In situ vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, mass, and composition over the southeast United States during SENEX and SEAC4RS: observations of a modest aerosol enhancement aloft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Wagner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of submicron aerosol over the southeastern United States (SEUS during the summertime from in situ aircraft-based measurements were used to construct aggregate profiles of chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. Shallow cumulus convection was observed during many profiles. These conditions enhance vertical transport of trace gases and aerosol and create a cloudy transition layer on top of the sub-cloud mixed layer. The trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the transition layer were modeled as a mixture with contributions from the mixed layer below and the free troposphere above. The amount of vertical mixing, or entrainment of air from the free troposphere, was quantified using the observed mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO. Although the median aerosol mass, extinction, and volume decreased with altitude in the transition layer, they were ~10% larger than expected from vertical mixing alone. This enhancement was likely due to secondary aerosol formation in the transition layer. Although the transition layer enhancements of the particulate sulfate and organic aerosol (OA were both similar in magnitude, only the enhancement of sulfate was statistically significant. The column integrated extinction, or aerosol optical depth (AOD, was calculated for each individual profile, and the transition layer enhancement of extinction typically contributed less than 10% to the total AOD. Our measurements and analysis were motivated by two recent studies that have hypothesized an enhanced layer of secondary organic aerosol (SOA aloft to explain the summertime enhancement of AOD (2–3 times greater than winter over the southeastern United States. In contrast to this hypothesis, the modest enhancement we observed in the transition layer was not dominated by OA and was not a large fraction of the summertime AOD.

  1. Functional units and lead topologies: a hierarchical framework for observing and modeling the interplay of structures, storage dynamics and integral mass and energy flows in lower mesoscale catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad; Blume, Theresa; Haßler, Sibylle; Allroggen, Niklas; Tronicke, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The CAOS Research Unit recently proposed a hierarchical classification scheme to subdivide a catchment into what we vaguely name classes of functional entities that puts the gradients driving mass and energy flows and their controls on top of the hierarchy and the arrangement of landscape attributes controlling flow resistances along these driving gradients (for instance soil types and apparent preferential pathways) at the second level. We name these functional entities lead topology classes, to highlight that they are characterized by a spatially ordered arrangement of landscape elements along a superordinate driving gradient. Our idea is that these lead topology classes have a distinct way how their structural and textural architecture controls the interplay of storage dynamics and integral response behavior that is typical for all members of a class, but is dissimilar between different classes. This implies that we might gain exemplary understanding of the typical dynamic behavior of the class, when thoroughly studying a few class members. We propose that the main integral catchment functions mass export and drainage, mass redistribution and storage, energy exchange with the atmosphere, as well as energy redistribution and storage - result from spatially organized interactions of processes within lead topologies that operate at different scale levels and partly dominate during different conditions. We distinguish: 1) Lead topologies controlling the land surface energy balance during radiation driven conditions at the plot/pedon scale level. In this case energy fluxes dominate and deplete a vertical temperature gradient that is build up by depleting a gradient in radiation fluxes. Water is a facilitator in this concert due to the high specific heat of vaporization. Slow vertical water fluxes in soil dominate, which are driven by vertical gradients in atmospheric water potential, chemical potential in the plant and in soil hydraulic potentials. 2) Lead topologies

  2. Vulnerability of the Nigerian coast: An insight into sea level rise owing to climate change and anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danladi, Iliya Bauchi; Kore, Basiru Mohammed; Gül, Murat

    2017-10-01

    Coastal areas are important regions in the world as they host huge population, diverse ecosystems and natural resources. However, owing to their settings, elevations and proximities to the sea, climate change (global warming) and human activities are threatening issues. Herein, we report the coastline changes and possible future threats related to sea level rise owing to global warming and human activities in the coastal region of Nigeria. Google earth images, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and geological maps were used. Using google earth images, coastal changes for the past 43 years, 3 years prior to and after the construction of breakwaters along Goshen Beach Estate (Lekki) were examined. Additionally, coastline changes along Lekki Phase I from 2013 to 2016 were evaluated. The DEM map was used to delineate 0-2 m, 2-5 m and 5-10 m asl which correspond to undifferentiated sands and gravels to clays on the geological map. The results of the google earth images revealed remarkable erosion along both Lekki and Lekki Phase I, with the destruction of a lagoon in Lekki Phase I. Based on the result of the DEM map and geology, elevations of 0-2 m, 2-5 m and 5-10 m asl were interpreted as highly risky, moderately risky and risky respectively. Considering factors threatening coastal regions, the erosion and destruction of the lagoon along the Nigerian coast may be ascribed to sea level rise as a result of global warming and intense human activities respectively.

  3. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance.

  4. Ge Implantation to Improve Crystallinity and Productivity for Solid Phase Epitaxy Prepared by Atomic Mass Unit Cross Contamination-Free Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kong-Soo; Yoo, Dae-Han; Han, Jae-Jong; Son, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Hun; Noh, Ju-Hee; Kim, Seok-Jae; Kim, Yong-Kwon; You, Young-Sub; Hyung, Yong-Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Deok

    2006-11-01

    Germanium (Ge) ion implantation was investigated for crystallinity enhancement during solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurement showed numerical increase of 19% of (100) signal, which might be due to the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) on silicon layer. On the other hand, electrical property such as off-leakage current of n-channel metal oxide semiconductor (NMOS) transistor degraded in specific regions of wafers. It was confirmed that arsenic (As) atoms were incorporated into channel area during Ge ion implantation. Since the equipment for Ge PAI was using several source gases such as BF3 and AsH3, atomic mass unit (AMU) contamination during PAI of Ge with AMU 74 caused the incorporation of As with AMU 75 which resided in arc-chamber and other parts of the equipment. It was effective to use Ge isotope of AMU 72 to suppress AMU contamination. It was effective to use enriched Ge source gas with AMU 72 in order to improve productivity.

  5. Do Australian Fire Brigades Owe a Common Law Duty of Care? A Review of Three Recent Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eburn

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The law regarding the fire service’s liability for alleged negligence in the way they plan for or respond to a fire is reasonably untested. This paper reports on three cases that were decided in 2012 by the Supreme Courts of New South Wales, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory. It is argued that the weight of authority is that the fire brigades are established to provide fire services for the common good, not for individual benefit, and the financial burden of unfortunate operational decisions should be borne by insurers or by the uninsured. Even so, two Supreme Courts have arrived at different conclusions with respect to the question of whether or not the NSW Rural Fire Service owes a common law duty of care to those at risk from bushfire. It is therefore argued that the issue of duty of care would benefit from a determination by the High Court of Australia.

  6. Dopamine and opioid gene variants are associated with increased smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Lerman, Caryn; Grottenthaler, Amy; Ciccocioppo, Melinda M; Milanak, Melissa; Conklin, Cynthia A; Bergen, Andrew W; Benowitz, Neal L

    2008-09-01

    Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and risk of relapse. We explored associations of gene variants in the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin pathways with smoking reward ('liking') and reinforcement (latency to first puff and total puffs) as a function of negative mood and expected versus actual nicotine content of the cigarette. Smokers of European ancestry (n=72) were randomized to one of four groups in a 2x2 balanced placebo design, corresponding with manipulation of actual (0.6 vs. 0.05 mg) and expected (told nicotine and told denicotinized) nicotine 'dose' in cigarettes during each of two sessions (negative vs. positive mood induction). Following mood induction and expectancy instructions, they sampled and rated the assigned cigarette, and then smoked additional cigarettes ad lib during continued mood induction. The increase in smoking amount owing to negative mood was associated with: dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T (CC>TT or CT), SLC6A3 (presence of 9 repeat>absence of 9), and among those given a nicotine cigarette, DRD4 (presence of 7 repeat>absence of 7) and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA (TT or CT>CC). SLC6A3, and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA were also associated with smoking reward and smoking latency. OPRM1 (AA>AG or GG) was associated with smoking reward, but SLC6A4 variable number tandem repeat was unrelated to any of these measures. These results warrant replication but provide the first evidence for genetic associations with the acute increase in smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.

  7. Primary care consultation, hospital admission, sick leave and disability pension owing to neck and low back pain: a 12-year prospective cohort study in a rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmberg Sara AC

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck and low back pain are common musculoskeletal complaints generating large societal costs in Western populations. In this study we evaluate the magnitude of long-term health outcomes for neck and low back pain, taking possible confounders into account. Method A cohort of 2,351 Swedish male farmers and rural non-farmers (40–60 years old was established in 1989. In the first survey, conducted in 1990–91, 1,782 men participated. A 12-year follow-up survey was made in 2002–03 and 1,405 men participated at both times. After exclusion of 58 individuals reporting a specific back diagnosis in 1990–91, the study cohort encompassed 1,347 men. The health outcomes primary care consultation, hospital admission, sick leave and disability pension were assessed in structured interviews in 2002–03 (survey 2. Symptoms and potential confounders were assessed at survey 1, with the exception of rating of depression and anxiety, which was assessed at survey 2. Multiple logistic regression generating odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI was performed to adjust the associations between reported symptoms and health outcomes for potential confounders (age, farming, workload, education, demand and control at work, body mass index, smoking, snuff use, alcohol consumption, psychiatric symptoms and specific back diagnoses during follow up. Results Of the 836 men reporting current neck and/or low back pain at survey 1, 21% had had at least one primary care consultation for neck or low back problems, 7% had been on sick leave and 4% had disability pension owing to the condition during the 12 year follow up. Current neck and/or low back pain at survey 1 predicted primary care consultations (OR = 4.10, 95% CI 2.24–7.49 and sick leave (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.13–9.22 after potential confounders were considered. Lower education and more psychiatric symptoms were independently related to sick leave. Lower education and snuff use

  8. Z problematyki polskich i słoweńskich analityzmów kauzatywnych z parafrazą przymiotnikową

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zatorska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some remarks on Polish and Slovene analytic causatives paraphrased by adjectives The article is devoted to the analytic causative predicates. The data is collected from Polish and Slovene. The basic methodological device is a paraphrase which obligatorily includes an adjective. Special attention is paid to operator verbs, which often have their own semantic features. Some of them are verbs of transfer, others – verbs of motion. In most cases, however, they are causatives which denote change of features. Apart from the basic causative category, the material is classified according to its semantic features, including especially inchoativeness, terminativeness and restorativeness. In conclusion it is emphasized that analytic causatives show their semantic parameters more explicitly than is the case with verbal units and that they demonstrate considerable semantic condensity.   Z problematyki polskich i słoweńskich analityzmów kauzatywnych z parafrazą przymiotnikową Artykuł dotyczy analitycznych realizacji predykatu kauzatywnego. Materiał obejmuje przykłady z języków polskiego i słoweńskiego. Podstawowym narzędziem badawczym jest parafraza, która obligatoryjnie zawiera przymiotnik. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na czasowniki operatorowe, które często mają samodzielne zna­czenie. Niektóre z nich są czasownikami transferu, inne – czasownikami ruchu. Jednakże wiele z nich to także kauzatywa, określające zmianę cechy. Oprócz nadrzędnej kategorii kauzatywnej badane kauzatywa zostały poklasyfikowane ze względu na kategorię inchoatywności, terminatywności, restauratywności. We wnioskach podkreślono, że konstrukcje analityczne bardziej eksplicytnie niż jednostki werbalne ujawniają w swej budowie parametry semantyczne, jak również to, że charakterystyczna jest dla nich duża kondensacja semantyczna.

  9. In situ vertical profiles of aerosol extinction, mass, and composition over the southeast United States during SENEX and SEAC4RS: observations of a modest aerosol enhancement aloft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N. L.; Brock, C. A.; Angevine, W. M.; Beyersdorf, A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D.; de Gouw, J. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Gordon, T. D.; Graus, M. G.; Holloway, J. S.; Huey, G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Lack, D. A.; Liao, J.; Liu, X.; Markovic, M. Z.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Mikoviny, T.; Peischl, J.; Perring, A. E.; Richardson, M. S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Schwarz, J. P.; Warneke, C.; Welti, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Ziemba, L. D.; Murphy, D. M.

    2015-06-01

    Vertical profiles of submicron aerosol from in situ aircraft-based measurements were used to construct aggregate profiles of chemical, microphysical, and optical properties. These vertical profiles were collected over the southeastern United States (SEUS) during the summer of 2013 as part of two separate field studies: the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study and the Study of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). Shallow cumulus convection was observed during many profiles. These conditions enhance vertical transport of trace gases and aerosol and create a cloudy transition layer on top of the sub-cloud mixed layer. The trace gas and aerosol concentrations in the transition layer were modeled as a mixture with contributions from the mixed layer below and the free troposphere above. The amount of vertical mixing, or entrainment of air from the free troposphere, was quantified using the observed mixing ratio of carbon monoxide (CO). Although the median aerosol mass, extinction, and volume decreased with altitude in the transition layer, they were ~10 % larger than expected from vertical mixing alone. This enhancement was likely due to secondary aerosol formation in the transition layer. Although the transition layer enhancements of the particulate sulfate and organic aerosol (OA) were both similar in magnitude, only the enhancement of sulfate was statistically significant. The column integrated extinction, or aerosol optical depth (AOD), was calculated for each individual profile, and the transition layer enhancement of extinction typically contributed less than 10 % to the total AOD. Our measurements and analysis were motivated by two recent studies that have hypothesized an enhanced layer of secondary aerosol aloft to explain the summertime enhancement of AOD (2-3 times greater than winter) over the southeastern United States. The first study attributes the layer aloft to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) while

  10. The Meson Mass System

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    The neglected 35 MeV/c2 particle mass quantization hypothesis has recently been reassessed for all known meson states. The rule is found to be statistically relevant, once the states are grouped by quark composition and JPC, with slightly different mass units for each group. In certain groups the mass unit is spin-dependent. Also the mass units are linearly quantized, with highly structured correlation patterns. The baryon masses are organized along similar lines. These results support an indication that hadrons might be shell-structured.

  11. Preparedness for the evaluation and management of mass casualty incidents involving anticholinesterase compounds: a survey of emergency department directors in the 12 largest cities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, James M; Greenberg, Michael I

    2010-01-01

    Anticholinesterases include carbamate and organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and nerve agents. Release of these compounds can flood emergency departments (EDs) with large numbers of poisoned victims and worried individuals. It was hypothesized that despite the focus of disaster preparedness on large metropolitan areas, EDs in these cities would still report self-perceptions of deficiencies in preparedness for mass casualty incidents (MCIs) involving these chemicals. A secure and anonymous online survey was prepared and piloted, and E-mail invitations were sent to the physician directors of the 220 continuously staffed EDs in the 12 most populous incorporated cities in the United States. Forty-six ED directors could not be contacted despite repeated attempts. Of the remaining 174 directors, eight declined and 89 took the survey, for a response rate of 51.1 percent. Fewer than 20 percent were very confident in the effectiveness of their training, and only 4.9 percent were very confident that drills had given them the preparation that they needed. Only 45. 7 percent of reporting hospitals had a board-certified medical toxicologist to help in such an emergency. Almost two-thirds (73.6 percent) of those familiar with the online Radiation Event Medical Management (REMM) module from the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health thought that a chemical counterpart to REMM would be either moderately or very helpful for MCIs involving anticholinesterases. This study demonstrates that physician ED directors perceived marked deficiencies in their abilities to respond to this kind of toxicological emergency and suggests critical directions for remediation of these deficiencies.

  12. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  13. Impedance-Based Stability Analysis in Grid Interconnection Impact Study Owing to the Increased Adoption of Converter-Interfaced Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngho Cho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emerging harmonic stability concerns to be addressed by grid planners in generation interconnection studies, owing to the increased adoption of renewable energy resources connected to the grid via power electronic converters. The wideband and high-frequency electromagnetic transient (EMT characteristics of these converter-interfaced generators (CIGs and their interaction with the grid impedance are not accurately captured in the typical dynamic studies conducted by grid planners. This paper thus identifies the desired components to be studied and subsequently develops a practical process for integrating a new CIG into a grid with the existing CIGs. The steps of this process are as follows: the impedance equation of a CIG using its control dynamics and an interface filter to the grid, for example, an LCL filter (inductor-capacitor-inductor type, is developed; an equivalent impedance model including the existing CIGs nearby and the grid observed from the point of common coupling are derived; the system stability for credible operating scenarios is assessed. Detailed EMT simulations validate the accuracy of the impedance models and stability assessment for various connection scenarios. By complementing the conventional EMT simulation studies, the proposed analytical approach enables grid planners to identify critical design parameters for seamlessly integrating a new CIG and ensuring the reliability of the grid.

  14. Volkmann's contracture of the forearm owing to an insect bite: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, J; Srivastava, S

    2013-03-01

    Compartment syndrome affecting the upper limb is reported rarely in the literature and is usually limited to single case reports. Upper limb compartment syndrome secondary to envenomation is rare, especially in the UK. Worldwide, it has been reported resulting from snake and insect bites, mostly from snakes from the Viperidae family, and from insects such as bees and wasps. Reports from the UK are limited to one case of an adder bite. We present a case of a previously fit and well adult who developed an ischaemic contracture of the forearm after an insect bite. Surgical exploration revealed segmental necrosis and contracture of the superficial and deep flexors of the fingers, requiring fasciotomy and tendon-lengthening procedures. This is the first report of a compartment syndrome, or a late ischaemic contracture from an insect bite in the UK. Owing to the rarity of compartment syndrome of the upper limb secondary to envenomation, a delay in diagnosis and treatment can lead to irreversible changes in the muscular compartments of the forearm.

  15. Integrated sampling and analysis unit for the determination of sexual pheromones in environmental air using fabric phase sorptive extraction and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcudia-León, M Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-03-10

    This article presents a novel unit that integrates for the first time air sampling and preconcentration based on the use of fabric phase sorptive extraction principles. The determination of Tuta absoluta sexual pheromone traces in environmental air has been selected as analytical problem. For this aim, a novel laboratory-built unit made up of commercial brass elements as holder of the sol-gel coated fabric extracting phase has been designed and optimized. The performance of the integrated unit was evaluated analyzing environmental air sampled in tomato crops. The unit can work under sampling and analysis mode which eliminates any need for sorptive phase manipulation prior to instrumental analysis. In the sampling mode, the unit can be connected to a sampling pump to pass the air through the sorptive phase at a controlled flow-rate. In the analysis mode, it is placed in the gas chromatograph autosampler without any instrumental modification. It also diminishes the risk of cross contamination between sampling and analysis. The performance of the new unit has been evaluated using the main components of the sexual pheromone of Tuta absoluta [(3E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate and (3E,8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate] as model analytes. The limits of detection for both compounds resulted to be 1.6μg and 0.8μg, respectively, while the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was better than 3.7%. Finally, the unit has been deployed in the field to analyze a number of real life samples, some of them were found positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration campaign against the international prototype of the kilogram in anticipation of the redefinition of the kilogram, part II: evolution of the BIPM as-maintained mass unit from the 3rd periodic verification to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mirandés, Estefanía; Barat, Pauline; Stock, Michael; Milton, Martin J. T.

    2016-10-01

    In 2014 the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) carried out a calibration campaign using the international prototype of the kilogram (IPK). This is the second part in a series of publications describing the results of that campaign. As reported in [Metrologia 52 310–6] following the comparisons between the IPK and its official copies, it was found that the BIPM ‘as-maintained mass unit’ was offset by 35 mg from the mass of the IPK in 2014. We report here the results of an investigation into this offset that has considered all data available from internal BIPM mass comparisons carried out between 1992 and 2014. This has enabled us to model the evolution of the offset in the as-maintained mass unit and to identify some possible reasons why it has developed. We also report how the model has been used to estimate corrections to all 1 kg mass calibration certificates issued by the BIPM during this period.

  17. Comparison of unit resolution SRM and TOF-MS at 12,000 mass resolution for quantitative bioanalysis of 11 steroids from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousu, Timo; Tolonen, Ari

    2012-03-01

    The use of high-resolution MS systems for quantitative bioanalysis is a growing field, even though a clear majority of bioanalytical methods are still based on MS/MS with triple quadrupole (QqQ) instrumentation. The recent advances in TOF-MS technology have provided increased linear range and a high selectivity of detection by increased mass resolution and mass accuracy, making these instruments attractive for quantitative analysis due to lack of a need for compound-specific detection reaction optimization and their capability to collect data for a high number of compounds by sensitive wide mass range data acquisition. Here, 11 steroids spiked to human plasma were analyzed by LC-MS using both a QqQ MS system and a TOF instrument operating at 12,000 mass resolution. Sample preparation was performed by hybrid SPE technology. The LOD were 0.5-5 and 0.5-20 ng/ml in plasma for all analytes with QqQ and TOF-MS detection, respectively. Although the results show wider linear range and slightly better sensitivity for most of the compounds with QqQ in comparison to TOF, acceptable performance was obtained for most of the compounds within the range of LOD to 2000 ng/ml (in plasma), this was also the case with LC-TOF-MS analysis. The main problem in TOF-MS analysis at 12,000 mass resolution from plasma was selectivity rather than sensitivity or linear range.

  18. Investigation of The regularities of the process and development of method of management of technological line operation within the process of mass raw mate-rials supply in terms of dynamics of inbound traffic of unit trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Ігорівна Сізова

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sinter plants at metallurgical enterprises incorporate highly productive transport-and-handling complexes (THC that receive and process mass iron-bearing raw materials. Such THCs as a rule include unloading facilities and freight railway station. The central part of the THC is a technological line that carries out operations of reception and unloading of unit trains with raw materials. The technological line consists of transport and freight modules. The latter plays a leading role and, in its turn, consists of rotary car dumpers and conveyor belts. This module represents a determinate system that carries out preparation and unloading operations. Its processing capacity is set in accordance with manufacturing capacity of the sinter plant. The research has shown that in existing operating conditions, which is characterized by “arrhythmia” of interaction between external transport operation and production, technological line of THC functions inefficiently. Thus, it secures just 18-20 % of instances of processing of inbound unit trains within set standard time. It was determined that duration of the cycle of processing of inbound unit train can play a role of regulator, under stochastic characteristics of intervals between inbound unit trains with raw materials on the one hand, and determined unloading system on the other hand. That is why evaluation of interdependence between these factors allows determination of duration of cycle of processing of inbound unit trains. Basing on the results of the study, the method of logistical management of the processing of inbound unit trains was offered. At the same time, real duration of processing of inbound unit train is taken as the regulated value. The regulation process implies regular evaluation and comparison of these values, and, taking into account different disturbances, decision-making concerning adaptation of functioning of technological line. According to the offered principles

  19. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  20. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  1. Parenting for Cognitive Development from 1950 to 2000: The Institutionalization of Mass Education and the Social Construction of Parenting in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Over the second half of the twentieth century, changes occurred in parent reports of their engagement in cognitive activities with their young children in the United States. This article argues that the growing trend of "parenting for cognitive development" in young children in the latter half of the twentieth century is associated with the…

  2. Parenting for Cognitive Development from 1950 to 2000: The Institutionalization of Mass Education and the Social Construction of Parenting in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Maryellen

    2010-01-01

    Over the second half of the twentieth century, changes occurred in parent reports of their engagement in cognitive activities with their young children in the United States. This article argues that the growing trend of "parenting for cognitive development" in young children in the latter half of the twentieth century is associated with the…

  3. 7 CFR 1950.103 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. 1950.103 Section 1950.103 Agriculture Regulations... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by chattels. (a... actions to take in connection with the FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354...

  4. 7 CFR 1950.104 - Borrower owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by real estate. 1950.104 Section 1950.104 Agriculture... owing FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans which are secured by real estate... borrowers with FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 loans secured by real estate who...

  5. Quantification of Art v 1 and Act c 1 being major allergens of mugwort pollen and kiwi fruit extracts in mass-units by ion-exchange HPLC-UV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanusa, Milan; Perovic, Iva; Popovic, Milica; Polovic, Natalija; Burazer, Lidija; Milovanovic, Mina; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija; Jankov, Ratko; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja

    2007-10-01

    A simple ion-exchange HPLC-UV method was developed for determination of major allergens from mugwort pollen and kiwi fruit extracts in mass-units. The separation of Art v 1 and Act c 1 from other components in the extracts was achieved in one step. The extinction coefficients used in the study were theoretically determined and compared to the extinction coefficients determined by gravimetry. We also reported a close correlation of the major allergen contents with the overall allergenic potency of the extracts determined by inhibition ELISA. This method could be a useful tool for standardization of allergenic extracts for clinical use.

  6. The history,status and developments in the definition of the kilogram mass unit%质量单位千克定义的历史、现状和发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈乃澂

    2014-01-01

    自1889年以来,千克的国际原器作为国际单位制(SI)质量单位的定义。这是SI定义基本单位最后一个人工制造的基准,它的重新定义必将影响着几个其他基本单位。文章介绍了瓦特天平的工作原理以及普朗克常数的实验测定。这些结果对物理学和计量学具有重要的意义。%Since 1889, the international prototype of the kilogram has served as the definition of the unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI). It is the last man-made standard to be used to define a basic SI unit, and its redefinition will influence several other base units. This paper describes the principle of the watt balance and the experimental determination of Planck's constant. These results are of great significance for physics and metrology.

  7. The effect of job loss and unemployment duration on suicide risk in the United States: a new look using mass-layoffs and unemployment duration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the link between employment status and suicide risk using a panel of US states from 1996 to 2005 with monthly data on suicides, the duration of unemployment spells and the number of job losses associated with mass layoff events. The use of aggregate data at the monthly level along with the distribution of unemployment duration allows us to separate the effect of job loss from the effect of unemployment duration, an important distinction for policy purposes, especially for the timing of potential interventions. Our results are consistent with unemployment duration being the dominant force in the relationship between job loss and suicide. Nevertheless, mass layoffs may be powerful localized events where suicide risk increases shortly afterward. Implications for the design of unemployment insurance are discussed. PMID:21322087

  8. Losses of leaf area owing to herbivory and early senescence in three tree species along a winter temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Zurdo, P.; Escudero, A.; Nuñez, R.; Mediavilla, S.

    2016-11-01

    In temperate climates, evergreen leaves have to survive throughout low temperature winter periods. Freezing and chilling injuries can lead to accelerated senescence of part of the leaf surface, which contributes to a reduction of the lifespan of the photosynthetic machinery and of leaf lifetime carbon gain. Low temperatures are also associated with changes in foliar chemistry and morphology that affect consumption by herbivores. Therefore, the severity of foliar area losses caused by accelerated senescence and herbivory can change along winter temperature gradients. The aim of this study is to analyse such responses in the leaves of three evergreen species ( Quercus ilex, Q. suber and Pinus pinaster) along a climatic gradient. The leaves of all three species presented increased leaf mass per area (LMA) and higher concentrations of structural carbohydrates in cooler areas. Only the two oak species showed visible symptoms of damage caused by herbivory, this being less intense at the coldest sites. The leaves of all three species presented chlorotic and necrotic spots that increased in size with leaf age. The foliar surface affected by chlorosis and necrosis was larger at the sites with the coldest winters. Therefore, the effects of the winter cold on the lifespan of the photosynthetic machinery were contradictory: losses of leaf area due to accelerated senescence increased, but there was a decrease in losses caused by herbivory. The final consequences for carbon assimilation strongly depend on the exact timing of the appearance of the damage resulting from low temperature and grazing by herbivores.

  9. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thümmler, T.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the neutrino rest mass plays an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. This topic is currently being addressed by two complementary approaches in laboratory experiments. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments probe whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine an effective neutrino mass value. Single beta decay experiments such as KATRIN and MARE investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Owing to neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass parameter appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β-spectroscopy close to the T 2 end-point with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/ c 2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino rest mass.

  10. Mass balances and dynamic changes of the Bering, Malaspina, and Icy Bay glacier systems of Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Reginald R.

    The Bering and the Malaspina Glacier systems of south-central Alaska, U.S.A., and southwest Yukon Territory, Canada, in the Saint Elias Mountains constitute the two largest temperate surge-type piedmont glaciers on Earth. This is largest region of glaciers and icefields in continental North America. Determining and understanding the causes of wastage of these two glaciers is important to understanding the linkages of glacier mass balance to climate change, glacier dynamics, and the contributions of the glaciers of northwestern North America to rising sea level. Presented are the first detailed estimate of the net mass balances of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems, the effects of glacier dynamics on their accumulation areas, and the wastage of the tidewater glaciers of Icy Bay. The combined wastage of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems from 1972 to 2003, 254 +/- 16 km 3 water equivalent over a glacier area of 7734 km2, is equivalent to an area-average mass balance of -1.06 +/- 0.07 m/y over that time period. This represents a contribution to global sea-level rise of 0.70 +/- 0.05 mm, 0.023 +/- 0.002 mm/yr from 1972 to 2003. This is roughly 0.8% of the modern sea-level rise as estimated from tide-gauges and satellites, and roughly 9% of the contribution from non-polar glaciers and ice caps. Glacier wastage has been caused by climate warming (negative mass balance) superimposed on the effects of glacier dynamics. Near-concurrent surge of the three largest glaciers of the Malaspina Glacier piedmont were observed during 1999 to 2002. In addition, the tidewater Tyndall Glacier, whose retreat since 1910 was interrupted in 1964 by a major surge, also surged during 1999 to 2002. These four surges have occurred roughly 23 years after the 1976/77 shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation to its current warm-wet phase. Despite the increase of high-elevation snow accumulation observed on Mt. Logan, the accumulation areas of the Bering and Malaspina Glacier systems

  11. Quadruple space-group ambiguity owing to rotational and translational noncrystallographic symmetry in human liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Armin; Tetaz, Tim; Schott, Brigitte; Joseph, Catherine; Rudolph, Markus G

    2016-11-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a key regulator of gluconeogenesis and a potential drug target for type 2 diabetes. FBPase is a homotetramer of 222 symmetry with a major and a minor dimer interface. The dimers connected via the minor interface can rotate with respect to each other, leading to the inactive T-state and active R-state conformations of FBPase. Here, the first crystal structure of human liver FBPase in the R-state conformation is presented, determined at a resolution of 2.2 Å in a tetragonal setting that exhibits an unusual arrangement of noncrystallographic symmetry (NCS) elements. Self-Patterson function analysis and various intensity statistics revealed the presence of pseudo-translation and the absence of twinning. The space group is P41212, but structure determination was also possible in space groups P43212, P4122 and P4322. All solutions have the same arrangement of three C2-symmetric dimers spaced by 1/3 along an NCS axis parallel to the c axis located at (1/4, 1/4, z), which is therefore invisible in a self-rotation function analysis. The solutions in the four space groups are related to one another and emulate a body-centred lattice. If all NCS elements were crystallographic, the space group would be I4122 with a c axis three times shorter and a single FBPase subunit in the asymmetric unit. I4122 is a minimal, non-isomorphic supergroup of the four primitive tetragonal space groups, explaining the space-group ambiguity for this crystal.

  12. United theory of biological evolution:Disaster-forced evolution through Supernova, radioactive ash fall-outs, genome instability, and mass extinctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki; Shigenori Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    We present the disaster-forced biological evolution model as a general framework that includes Darwinian “phylogenic gradualism”, Eldredge-Gould’s “punctuated equilibrium”, mass extinctions, and allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation. It describes how reproductive isolation of organisms is established through global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive volcanic ash fall-outs by continental alkaline volcanism. Our new evolution model uniquely highlights three major factors of disaster-forced speciation: enhanced mutation rate by higher natural radiation level, smaller population size, and shrunken habitat size (i.e., isolation among the individual pop-ulations). We developed a mathematical model describing speciation of a half-isolated group from a parental group, taking into account the population size (Ne), immigration rate (m), and mutation rate (m). The model gives a quantitative estimate of the speciation, which is consistent with the observations of speciation speed. For example, the speciation takes at least 105 generations, if mutation rate is less than 10?3 per generation per individual. This result is consistent with the previous studies, in which m is assumed to be 10?3e10?5. On the other hand, the speciation is much faster (less than 105 generations) for the case that m is as large as 0.1 in parapatric conditions (mmass extinction events, such as observed during the Cambrian explosion of biodiversity. A similar rapid speciation (though in a much smaller

  13. United theory of biological evolution: Disaster-forced evolution through Supernova, radioactive ash fall-outs, genome instability, and mass extinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the disaster-forced biological evolution model as a general framework that includes Darwinian “phylogenic gradualism”, Eldredge-Gould's “punctuated equilibrium”, mass extinctions, and allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation. It describes how reproductive isolation of organisms is established through global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive volcanic ash fall-outs by continental alkaline volcanism. Our new evolution model uniquely highlights three major factors of disaster-forced speciation: enhanced mutation rate by higher natural radiation level, smaller population size, and shrunken habitat size (i.e., isolation among the individual populations. We developed a mathematical model describing speciation of a half-isolated group from a parental group, taking into account the population size (Ne, immigration rate (m, and mutation rate (μ. The model gives a quantitative estimate of the speciation, which is consistent with the observations of speciation speed. For example, the speciation takes at least 105 generations, if mutation rate is less than 10−3 per generation per individual. This result is consistent with the previous studies, in which μ is assumed to be 10−3–10−5. On the other hand, the speciation is much faster (less than 105 generations for the case that μ is as large as 0.1 in parapatric conditions (m < μ. Even a sympatric (m ~ 1 speciation can occur within 103 generations, if mutation rate is very high (μ ~ 1 mutation per individual per generation, and if Ne < 20–30. Such a high mutation rate is possible during global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive ash fall-outs. They raise natural radiation level by a factor of 100–1000. Such rapid speciation events can also contribute to macro-evolution during mass extinction events, such as observed during the Cambrian explosion of biodiversity. A

  14. Simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air-condensing unit of Scientific Production Company "Turbocon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, V. I.; Minko, K. B.; Yan'kov, G. G.; Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed to be used for numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air condenser (ESAC) created in the Scientific Production Company (SPC) "Turbocon" and mounted on the territory of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The simulations were performed using the author's CFD code ANES. The verification of the models was carried out involving the experimental data obtained in the tests of ESAC. The operational capability of the proposed models to calculate the processes in steam-air mixture and cooling air and algorithms to take into account the maldistribution in the various rows of tube bundle was shown. Data on the influence of temperature and flow rate of the cooling air on the pressure in the upper header of ESAC, effective heat transfer coefficient, steam flow distribution by tube rows, and the dimensions of the ineffectively operating zones of tube bundle for two schemes of steam-air mixture flow (one-pass and two-pass ones) were presented. It was shown that the pressure behind the turbine (in the upper header) increases significantly at increase of the steam flow rate and reduction of the flow rate of cooling air and its temperature rise, and the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient is fully determined by the flow rate of cooling air. Furthermore, the steam flow rate corresponding to the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient substantially depends on the ambient temperature. The analysis of the effectiveness of the considered schemes of internal coolant flow was carried out, which showed that the two-pass scheme is more effective because it provides lower pressure in the upper header, despite the fact that its hydraulic resistance at fixed flow rate of steam-air mixture is considerably higher than at using the one-pass schema. This result is a consequence of the fact that, in the two-pass scheme, the condensation process involves the larger internal surface of tubes

  15. Rest mass or inertial mass?

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapko, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Rest mass takes the place of inertial mass in modern physics textbooks. It seems to be wrong. But this phenomenon is hidden away by the facts that rest mass adherents busily call rest mass "mass", not rest mass, and the word "mass" is associated with a measure of inertia. This topic has been considered by the author in the article "What is mass?" [1, 2, 3]. Additional arguments to a confirmation of such a thesis are presented here.

  16. Discussion on macro, meso and microstructures in the mass migration Mexico-United States: late twentieth century and the early twenty-first. A different perspective to understanding the phenomenon of great importance for Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone, a la luz de novedosos planteamientos teórico e historiográficos,This paper proposes a novel view of theoretical and historiographical approaches, as a first attempt, discussing the multicausal nature of contemporary international migration Mexico- United States. The intention is not going deeper into the different causal mechanisms, but only list them and ponder their interaction to better understand this phenomenon that goes beyond the macro-level considerations (economic and political. Migration, understood as a social process, manifests various causes and consequences in their past and present. And, in the case of the mass migration of Mexicans to the United States in recent decades, it is givable to think that this is a product of historical trends, economic asymmetries, of deep social inequalities and poverty in Mexico, of push and the pull factors, tradition and socialization migrant, social networks, transnational communities, symbolisms and collective imaginaries, modernization in transport and communication, migration industry, cultural values and psychological components, among others. It proposal is to analyze briefly this binational contemporary phenomenon under the epistemological consideration that migration is a social process. For this, macro, meso and microstructures will be essential in the explanation.

  17. Disseminated Mucormycosis With Cerebral Involvement Owing to Rhizopus Microsporus in a Kidney Recipient Treated With Combined Liposomal Amphotericin B and Posaconazole Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ville, Simon; Talarmin, Jean Philippe; Gaultier-Lintia, Alina; Bouquié, Régis; Sagan, Christine; Le Pape, Patrice; Giral, Magali; Morio, Florent

    2016-02-01

    Three months after a kidney transplant, a man experienced an internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging found a punctuate hyperintensity of the brainstem. Afterwards, the patient presented with peripheral facial paralysis. A complete morphologic assessment showed an increase of the brainstem lesion, together with an excavated pulmonary nodule. Combination therapy with high-dose liposomal amphotericin B and voriconazole was begun for the putative aspergillosis. Owing to its atypical clinical presentation and negative detection of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen on sera, a biopsy specimen of the lung lesion was obtained. Histopathological and mycological investigations allowed the diagnosis of mucormycosis owing to Rhizopus microsporus. Accordingly, voriconazole was replaced with posaconazole. After 5 months, regression of the cerebral lesion was noted. Disseminated mucormycosis in solid-organ recipients is uncommon and mycological diagnosis is challenging. Mortality is high and is increased by diagnostic delay. Treating mucormycosis requires surgical debridement and appropriate antifungal therapy (usually intravenous liposomal amphotericin B). This report suggests that a combination of liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole can be a therapeutic option in patients with a poor prognosis.

  18. The Mass of the Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Hellaby, C

    2006-01-01

    We point out that the mass of the cosmos on gigaparsec scales can be measured, owing to the unique geometric role of the maximum in the areal radius. Unlike all other points on the past null cone, this maximum has an associated mass, which can be calculated with very few assumptions about the cosmological model, providing a measurable characteristic of our cosmos. In combination with luminosities and source counts, it gives the bulk mass to light ratio. The maximum is particularly sensitive to the values of the bulk cosmological parameters. In addition, it provides a key reference point in attempts to connect cosmic geometry with observations. We recommend the determination of the distance and redshift of this maximum be explicitly included in the scientific goals of the next generation of reshift surveys. The maximum in the redshift space density provides a secondary large scale characteristic of the cosmos.

  19. Monitoring of mass flux of catalyst FCC in a Cold Pilot Unit by gamma radiation transmission; Monitoramento da taxa de fluxo do catalisador FCC em uma unidade piloto a frio por medicao de transmissao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Marcio Fernando Paixao de

    2014-09-01

    This paper proposes a model for monitoring the mass flow of catalyst FCC - Fluid Catalytic Cracking - in a CPU - Cold Pilot unit - due to the injection of air and solid by gamma radiation transmission. The CPU simplifies the process of FCC, which is represented by the catalyst cycle, and it was constructed of acrylic, so that the flow can be visualized. The CPU consists of riser separation chamber and return column, and simulates the riser reactor of the FCC process. The catalyst is injected into the column back to the base of the riser, an inclined tube, where the compressed air means that there fluidization along the riser. When the catalyst comes in the separation chamber, the solid phase is sent to the return column, and the gas phase exits the system through one of the four cyclones at the top of the separation chamber. The transmission gamma of measures will be made by means of three test sections that have source and detector shielded. Pressure drop in the riser measurements are made through three pressure gauges positioned on the riser. The source used was Am-241 gamma ray with energy of 60 keV, and detector used was a scintillator of NaI (Tl) of 2 {sup x} 2{sup .} Measures the mass flow of catalyst are made by varying the seal of the catalyst, and density of solid in the riser because with the combination of these measures can determine the speed of the catalyst in the riser. The results show that the transmission gamma is a suitable technique for monitoring the flow of catalyst, flow model in CPU is annular, tomography third generation is more appropriate to study the CPU and the density variation in circulation in the CPU decreases linearly with increasing air flow. (author)

  20. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raees A. Shaikh, MD, MPH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2 . In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  1. First case of villous adenoma of the appendix leading to acute appendicitis presenting as strangulated femoral hernia: changes in management owing to concurrent adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, A; Barandiaran, J; Morgan, R; Perry, E P

    2008-02-01

    A 78-year-old lady presented with signs and symptoms of a strangulated femoral hernia. Peri-operatively she was found to have appendicitis within the hernia sac. Appendicectomy and non-mesh hernia repair were performed. Histology revealed acute inflammation and a villous adenoma of the appendix. Villous adenomas of the vermiform appendix are extremely rare tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. This is the first case combining two very rare pathologies--acute appendicitis presenting as strangulated femoral hernia and villous adenoma of the appendix. Early diagnosis and surgery are required to avoid high morbidity of perforated appendicitis within a femoral hernia. First, we discuss the diagnosis and surgical treatment of acute appendicitis within a femoral hernia. Second, the presence of an adenoma changes the aetiology of appendicitis. More importantly, changes in surgical management of acute appendicitis presenting as a strangulated femoral hernia owing to a co-existing adenoma are discussed.

  2. An MCNPX2.7.0 study of Bragg peak degradation owing to density heterogeneity patterns for a CGMH therapeutic proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tsi-Chian; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Shih-Kuan; Wu, Shu-Wei; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Hong, Ji-Hong; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the density heterogeneity pattern as a factor affecting Bragg peak degradation, including shifts in Bragg peak depth (ZBP), distal range (R80 and R20), and distal fall-off (R80-R20) using Monte Carlo N-Particles, eXtension (MCNPX). Density heterogeneities of different patterns with increasing complexity were placed downstream of commissioned proton beams at the Proton and Radiation Therapy Centre of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, including one 150 MeV wobbling broad beam (10×10 cm2) and one 150 MeV proton pencil beam (FWHM of cross-plane=2.449 cm, FWHM of in-plane=2.256 cm). MCNPX 2.7.0 was used to model the transport and interactions of protons and secondary particles in density heterogeneity patterns and water using its repeated structure geometry. Different heterogeneity patterns were inserted into a 21×21×20 cm3 phantom. Mesh tally was used to track the dose distribution when the proton beam passed through the different density heterogeneity patterns. The results show that different heterogeneity patterns do cause different Bragg peak degradations owing to multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) occurring in the density heterogeneities. A trend of increasing R20 and R80-R20 with increasing geometry complexity was observed. This means that Bragg peak degradation is mainly caused by the changes to the proton spectrum owing to MCS in the density heterogeneities. In contrast, R80 did not change considerably with different heterogeneity patterns, which indicated that the energy spectrum has only minimum effects on R80. Bragg peak degradation can occur both for a broad proton beam and a pencil beam, but is less significant for the broad beam.

  3. Effect of diet on the incidence of and mortality owing to gastritis and renal disease in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, E P; Miller, S; Lobetti, R; Caldwell, P; Bertschinger, H J; Burroughs, R; Kotze, A; van Dyk, A

    2012-01-01

    Seventy-two adult cheetahs were evaluated for the degree of gastritis by endoscopic biopsy and for renal disease by serum creatinine. Cheetahs free of Grade 3 gastritis and renal disease were placed on Trial A; remaining cheetahs were placed on Trial B, which ran concurrently. All cheetahs were monitored for 4 years. Cheetahs exited Trial A and entered Trial B if they developed Grade 3 gastritis or renal disease. Cheetahs exited Trial B if they developed clinical gastritis or renal disease that required a dietary change or aggressive medical therapy or died owing to either disease. Cheetahs on Trial A were fed either a supplemented meat diet (N = 26) or commercial cat food (N = 22). Cheetahs on Trial B were fed either the same meat diet (N = 28) or a commercial dry cat food formulated for renal disease (N = 16). Cheetahs fed meat on Trial A had a daily hazard of developing Grade 3 gastritis 2.21 times higher (95% CI 0.95-5.15) than cheetahs fed commercial cat food. This hazard was not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Mean gastritis scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Cheetahs fed commercial cat food in both Trials had lower serum urea levels and higher creatinine levels than those fed meat. Evidence for the effect of diet in cheetahs with gastritis and/or renal disease (Trial B) was inconclusive. The number of cheetahs dying of gastritis or renal disease at the facility has dropped markedly since the study began. These results indicate that diet may play an important role in the incidence of Grade 3 gastritis and that dietary and/or therapeutic management of gastritis may reduce mortality owing to gastritis and renal disease in captive cheetahs.

  4. Axino mass

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jihn E

    2012-01-01

    I will talk on my recent works. Axino, related to the SUSY transformation of axion, can mix with Goldstino in principle. In this short talk, I would like to explain what is the axino mass and its plausible mass range. The axino mass is known to have a hierarchical mass structure depending on accidental symmetries. With only one axino, if G_A=0 where G=K+ 2ln|W|, we obtain axino mass= gravitino mass. For G_A nonzero, the axino mass depends on the details of the Kaehler potential. I also comment on the usefulness of a new parametrization of the CKM matrix.

  5. Determination of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans at the part per trillion level in United States beef fat using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; McDaniel, D.; Dupuy, A. Jr; Harless, R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment Program, the 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were measured at part per trillion (ppt) levels in beef fat collected from slaughter facilities in the United States. This is the first statistically designed national survey of these compounds in the U.S. beef supply. Analyte concentrations were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, using isotope dilution methodology. Method limits of detection on a whole weight basis were 0.05 ppt for TCDD and 0.10 ppt for TCDF, 0.50 ppt for the pentas (PeCDDs/PeCDFs)/hexas (HxCDDs/HxCDFs)/heptas (HpCDDs/HpCDFs), and 3.00 ppt for the octas (OCDD/OCDF). Method detection and quantitation limits were established on the basis of demonstrated performance criteria utilizing fortified samples rather than by conventional signal-to-noise or variability of response methods. The background subtraction procedures developed for this study minimized the likelihood of false positives and increased the confidence associated with reported values near the detection limits. Mean and median values for each of the 2,3,7,8-Cl-substituted dioxins and furans are reported, along with the supporting information required for their interpretation. The mean toxic equivalence values for the samples are 0.35 ppt (nondetects = 0) and 0.89 ppt (nondetects = 1/2 LOD).

  6. The Field White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, P -E; Kalirai, J S; Gaensicke, B T; Gentile-Fusillo, N; Raddi, R

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the properties and astrophysical implications of the field white dwarf mass distribution in preparation of Gaia applications. Our study is based on the two samples with the best established completeness and most precise atmospheric parameters, the volume-complete survey within 20 pc and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) magnitude-limited sample. We explore the modelling of the observed mass distributions with Monte Carlo simulations, but find that it is difficult to constrain independently the initial mass function (IMF), the initial-to-final-mass relation (IFMR), the stellar formation history (SFH), the variation of the Galactic disk vertical scale height as a function of stellar age, and binary evolution. Each of these input ingredients has a moderate effect on the predicted mass distributions, and we must also take into account biases owing to unidentified faint objects (20 pc sample), as well as unknown masses for magnetic white dwarfs and spectroscopic calibration issues (SDSS sample). Never...

  7. Mass Media and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Alan

    Designed to serve as a basic text for general liberal arts courses in mass communication, this book presents essays, largely from recent magazine articles, written from the layman (although there are a few more overtly scholarly articles). It begins with an examination of the media industries in the United States, treating them as complex…

  8. 直接空冷岛顺流基管管内冷凝的传热传质分析%Analysis for Heat and Mass Transfer of Condensation inside Down-Flow Unit Tube of Air Cooled Heat Exchanger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓慧; 白焰; 李小缤; 党伟玮; 李欣欣

    2015-01-01

    顺流基管是火电厂直接空冷岛关键部件,分析基管管内传热传质机理,对优化基管传热和空冷岛安全运行有重要意义.考虑基管几何特征和安装倾角,建立模拟蒸汽在基管内壁上冷凝的三维坐标数学模型.求解模型数值解时,假设基管壁温未知,设计迭代算法估算壁温.通过对比蒸汽凝结率数值解与设计值,管内换热系数数值解与Nusselt经验公式值,验证了模型的有效性.对模型数值解进一步分析发现,膜厚偏微分方程能正确描述基管几何特征和倾角影响下的液膜特性,汽液两相分离位置的预测值与直接空冷岛运行实际相符,凝结水过冷度数值解不能完全匹配实际测量值.本文的研究成果,为设计高效换热基管和空冷岛冬季防冻,提供了理论依据.%The down-flow unit tube is a key component of air cooled heat exchanger (ACHE) in power plant. The study on the heat and mass transfer mechanism inside the unit tube is very important for heat-transfer efficiency optimization and safe operation of ACHE. In this paper, considering the geometry characteristics of tube, a 3D mathematical model was constructed to simulate the condensation of steam on the internal wall of unit tube. The temperature of tube wall was assumed to be unknown and an iterative algorithm was developed to evaluate this temperature. The numerical solution of steam condensate rate was compared with design value, and simultaneously, numerical solution of heat transfer coefficient was compared with Nusselt empirical formula value to verify the model validation. Further analysis on the model numerical solution shows that the partial differential equations of condensate film thickness can accurately describe the film characteristic which varies with geometry structure and declination of the tube. And the predicted value of vapour-liquid separation location agrees well with ACHE experimental operation. However, the numerical solution of

  9. Abdominal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass in the abdomen ... care provider make a diagnosis. For example, the abdomen can be divided into four areas: Right-upper ... pain or masses include: Epigastric -- center of the abdomen just below the rib cage Periumbilical -- area around ...

  10. Fabrication of polymer-based reflowed microlenses on optical fibre with control of focal length using differential coating technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Ashraf; Franck Chollet; Murukeshan Matham; Chun Yang

    2009-08-01

    Thermal reflow of polymer to generate spherical profile has been used to fabricate microlenses in this paper. A simple model based on the volume conservation (before and after reflow) and geometrical consideration of lens profile, shows that the focal length of the microlens produced by reflow technique is a function of the initial geometry of microcylinders, i.e. diameter and thickness. This relationship of focal length with diameter and thickness is used as a basis to control focal length. A simple spin coating technique on dual surface is used to achieve differential thickness, to control the focal length of microlenses produced on the same substrate. A biomedical application of such combination of microlenses is endoscopy where the lenses of varying diameter and equal focal length are needed on top of optical fibre bundles to provide independent function of illumination and imaging. This paper incorporates the differential thickness technique to show a micro fabrication process to produce the polymer reflowed microlenses, with a control of focal length based on thickness. The design also helps to integrate these microlenses on top an optical fibre with accurate alignment.

  11. Forest stands volume estimation by using Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory in Stołowe Mountains National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachana Przemko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to convey to the reader the method and application of the Finnish Multi-Source National Forest Inventory (MS-NFI that was devised in the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The study area concerned is Stołowe Mountains National Park, which is located in the south-western Poland, near the border with the Czech Republic. To accomplish the above mentioned aim, the following data have been applied: timber volume derived from field sample plots, satellite image, digital map data and digital elevation model. The Pearson correlation coefficient between independent and dependent variables has been verified. Furthermore, the non-parametric k-nearest neighbours (k-NN technique and genetic algorithm have been used in order to estimate forest stands biomass at the pixel level. The error estimates have been obtained by leave-one-out cross-validation method. The main computed forest stands features were total and mean timber volume as well as maximum and minimum biomass occurring in the examined area. In the final step, timber volume map of the growing stock has been created.

  12. [An effective treatment by chemotherapy with CDDP+CPT-11 for recurrent gastric cancer which S-1 cannot be used owing to adverse effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko; Kaneko, Jun; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Kumi; Isogai, Jun; Maejima, Shizuaki

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of a 64-year-old man with multiple lung metastases after gastric cancer surgery. This patient was initially treated with S-1. However, he experienced adverse effects, and subsequently, he was effectively treated with cisplatin (CDDP) and irinotecan (CPT-11). In July 2010, the patient experienced a decrease in appetite and underwent a detailed examination. He also underwent distal gastrectomy in the same month. The postoperative diagnosis was T4a( SE), N2, M0, Stage IIIB. In November 2010, adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 was initiated. In February 2011, the patient developed a skin disorder( grade 3) and generalized edema along with walking difficulty, which were identified as adverse effects of S-1. Evidently, S-1 was contraindicated for this patient, and adjuvant therapy was discontinued. In September 2011, contrast -enhanced thoracoabdominal computed tomography( CT) was performed and para-aortic lymph node metastasis and multiple lung metastases were detected. CDDP+CPT-11 therapy was initiated. By June 2012, 8 courses had been administered, and the patient had a good partial response. With regard to chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent gastric cancer, there is no consensus on a treatment policy for cases in which S-1 cannot be used owing to adverse effects. CDDP+CPT-11 therapy is considered a safe and effective choice.

  13. Comparison of PCR/Electron spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for active surveillance of organisms contaminating high-use surfaces in a burn intensive care unit, an orthopedic ward and healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Heather C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding nosocomial pathogen transmission is restricted by culture limitations. Novel platforms, such as PCR-based electron spray ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS, may be useful as investigational tools. Methods Traditional clinical microbiology (TCM and PCR/ESI-TOF-MS were used to recover and detect microorganisms from the hands and personal protective equipment of 10 burn intensive care unit (ICU healthcare workers providing clinical care at a tertiary care military referral hospital. High-use environmental surfaces were assessed in 9 burn ICU and 10 orthopedic patient rooms. Clinical cultures during the study period were reviewed for pathogen comparison with investigational molecular diagnostic methods. Results From 158 samples, 142 organisms were identified by TCM and 718 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. The molecular diagnostic method detected more organisms (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p S. aureus in 13 samples vs. 21 by PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. Gram-negative organisms were less commonly identified than gram-positive by both methods; especially by TCM. Among all detected bacterial species, similar percentages were typical nosocomial pathogens (18-19% for TCM vs. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS. PCR/ESI-TOF-MS also detected mecA in 112 samples, vanA in 13, and KPC-3 in 2. MecA was associated (p S. aureus. No vanA was codetected with enterococci; one KPC-3 was detected without Klebsiella spp. Conclusions In this pilot study, PCR/ESI-TOF-MS detected more organisms, especially gram-negatives, compared to TCM, but the current assay format is limited by the number of antibiotic resistance determinants it covers. Further large-scale assessments of PCR/ESI-TOF-MS for hospital surveillance are warranted.

  14. Greenland ice mass balance from GPS, GRACE and ICESat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and its contribution to future sea-level rise. The GrIS has seen dramatic changes over the last two decades and mass loss has been accelerating, owing to a combination of increased runoff and discharge of ice...

  15. Neutrino Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Weinheimer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The various experiments on neutrino oscillation evidenced that neutrinos have indeed non-zero masses but cannot tell us the absolute neutrino mass scale. This scale of neutrino masses is very important for understanding the evolution and the structure formation of the universe as well as for nuclear and particle physics beyond the present Standard Model. Complementary to deducing constraints on the sum of all neutrino masses from cosmological observations two different methods to determine the neutrino mass scale in the laboratory are pursued: the search for neutrinoless double $\\beta$-decay and the direct neutrino mass search by investigating single $\\beta$-decays or electron captures. The former method is not only sensitive to neutrino masses but also probes the Majorana character of neutrinos and thus lepton number violation with high sensitivity. Currently quite a few experiments with different techniques are being constructed, commissioned or are even running, which aim for a sensitivity on the neutrino ...

  16. 脑瘫吞咽障碍患儿的进食护理%Swal owing disorders in children with cerebral palsy to eat Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽雅; 黄淑媛; 黄涌森; 朱奋油; 王华珠; 杨经伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:重视脑瘫中重度吞咽障碍患儿的进食护理,提高脑瘫吞咽障碍患儿的生存质量。方法:随机选取我院2011年1月~2013年12月期间接受康复治疗的149例脑瘫吞咽障碍患儿,进行随机对照分组,分成观察组和对照组,观察组采用具有针对性的综合护理干预措施,对照组采用常规护理干预措施。在护理干预结束后,观察两组患儿的护理效果与进食技能评价表评分。结果:观察组护理后进食技能评价表评分显著优于对照组,两组对比有非常显著性差异( P<0.01);两组患儿经过护理后,观察组总有效率为93.3%,对照组的74.3%;观察组总有效率显著由于对照组,有统计学差异( P<0.05)。结论:对脑瘫吞咽障碍患儿采取早期综合护理干预方式,能够有效帮助改善患儿的吞咽功能,提高进食技能。%Objective: importance of cerebral palsy in children with moderate to severe dysphasia eating care, swal owing disorders in children with cerebral palsy to improve the quality of life . Methods: A hospital in January 2011 ~ December 2013 while receiving rehabilitation treatment 149 cases of dysphasia in children with cerebral palsy, randomized control ed grouped into observation group and control group, the observation group comprehensive nursing intervention targeted measures to control group using conventional care interventions. After the nursing intervention effects were observed in children’s care and feeding skil s evaluation form scores. Results: The evaluation form after nursing eating skil s scores were significantly better than the control group , comparing the two groups was significant difference (P <0.01); two groups of children after treatment , total effective rate was 93.3 % in the control group the 74.3% ; observation group, the total efficiency is significantly due to the control group, there was significant difference (P <0.05). Conclusion: Children with

  17. Testicular histomorphometry and the proliferative and apoptotic activities of the seminiferous epithelium in Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) during regression owing to short photoperiod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Rovira, V; Beltrán-Frutos, E; Ferrer, C; Saez, F J; Madrid, J F; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2015-05-01

    During the non-breeding season some animals exhibit testicular atrophy, decreased testicular weight and reduced seminiferous tubule diameter accompanied by depletion of the seminiferous epithelium. Some cellular factors involved in this depletion are changes in germ cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the Syrian hamster this depletion has been studied histologically and in terms of the involvement of proliferation and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium of fully regressed testes. The objectives of this study included the histomorphometrical characterization of the testis and the determination of the proliferative and apoptotic activity of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium during testicular regression owing to short photoperiod. The study was performed using conventional light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling staining, image analysis software, and transmission electron microscopy in three established regression groups: mild regression (MR), strong regression (SR), and total regression (TR). Morphometrically a gradual decrease in total tubular area and in the testicular, tubular, and epithelial volumes was observed during testicular regression. Interstitial and luminal volumes decreased from the MR group onwards. The tubular length decreased from MR to SR. As regards spermatogonial proliferation, only an initial decrease in proliferative activity was observed, whereas apoptotic germ cell activity increased throughout regression. The number of germ cells studied decreased throughout the process of testicular regression. In conclusion, testicular regression in Syrian hamster comprises two histomorphometrical phases, the first involving a decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter and volume and the second involving shortening of the seminiferous tubule and a decrease in interstitial volume. At the cellular level, there is an

  18. MASS SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  19. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  20. A micromachined mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, G.; Siebert, P.; Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Microsystemtechnology

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the concept, the processing and the simulated and measured characteristics of a miniaturised mass spectrometer, with dimensions of approximately only a few cm{sup 3}. The mass spectrometer consists of three main parts to be manufactured by micro structuring: an electron source, an ionisation chamber including accelerating and focusing units and a mass analyser with detector. Its fabrication is based on techniques used in micro-system processing and in particular anisotropic etching, thin film deposition, electroplating, and anodic bonding. The aim of the concept for this micro mass spectrometer is not only to scale down a macroscopic system but it also takes advantage of the added features of a micro system, i.e. a high Knudsen number of about 3 at a pressure of a few Pascal, and high field strengths at a relatively low voltage. Therefore, the demands on the vacuum systems and the electrical circuits are much more simple compared to a macroscopic mass spectrometer. In the presented design of the micro mass spectrometer the resolution is in the range of 10 to 20 at a sensitivity of several tens of ppm. (orig.)

  1. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  2. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  3. Future ozone air quality and radiative forcing over China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Liao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    We apply the nested grid version of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to assess 2000-2050 changes in O3 air quality and associated radiative forcing in China owing to future changes in emissions under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5). Changes in surface layer O3 concentrations, numbers of O3 exceedance days (days with maximum daily 8 h average (MDA8) O3 exceeding 74.7 ppbv), and tropospheric O3 radiative forcing (RF) are simulated for 2000-2050. Over China, RCP8.5 is the worst scenario for near future (2020-2030) and RCP6.0 is the worst scenario over 2040-2050; the maximum increases in annual mean surface layer O3 concentrations of 6-12 ppbv relative to present day (year 2000) are found over southern China in 2020 and 2030 under RCP8.5 and in 2040 and 2050 under RCP6.0. The numbers of MDA8 O3 exceedance days are simulated to be 10, 0, 0, and 2 days over Beijing-Tianjin-Tanggu (BTT), Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Sichuan Basin (SCB), respectively, in the present day (year 2000). No exceedance days are simulated in year 2050 for all the four regions under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, but extremely high numbers of exceedance days are found in 2050 under RCP6.0 (with 102, 75, 57, and 179 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively) and in 2030 under RCP8.5 (with 94, 60, 34, and 162 days in BTT, YRD, PRD, and SCB, respectively). The tropospheric O3 RF in 2050 relative to 2000 averaged over eastern China (18°-45°N, 95°-125°E) is simulated to be -0.11, 0.0, 0.01, and 0.14 W m-2 under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, and RCP8.5, respectively. When we consider both the health and climate impacts of tropospheric O3 over China in 2050, RCP2.6 is a significantly improving scenario for both air quality and climate, RCP4.5 is a significantly improving scenario for air quality but has small consequences for climate, RCP6.0 is a significantly worsening scenario for air quality

  4. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  5. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  6. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  7. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  8. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained r...

  9. Comparison of PCR/Electron Spray Ionization-Time-of-Flight-Mass Spectrometry versus Traditional Clinical Microbiology for Active Surveillance of Organisms Contaminating High-Use Surfaces in a Burn Intensive Care Unit, an Orthopedic Ward and Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Enterobacter spp., Streptococcus spp. (68% viridans group), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii -calcoaceticus complex; the proportions of these...Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii on computer interface surfaces of hospital wards and association with clinical isolates. BMC Infect Dis 2009, 9...Cursino MR, Sinto S: Environmental contamination by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in an intensive care unit. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

  10. Modulation of protein phosphorylation, N-glycosylation and Lys-acetylation in grape (Vitis vinifera) mesocarp and exocarp owing to Lobesia botrana infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C S; Thelen, Jay J; Larsen, Martin R; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  11. Modulation of Protein Phosphorylation, N-Glycosylation and Lys-Acetylation in Grape (Vitis vinifera) Mesocarp and Exocarp Owing to Lobesia botrana Infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Braga, Marcella N.; Verano-Braga, Thiago; León, Ileana R.; Antonacci, Donato; Nogueira, Fábio C. S.; Thelen, Jay J.; Larsen, Martin R.; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is an economically important fruit crop that is subject to many types of insect and pathogen attack. To better elucidate the plant response to Lobesia botrana pathogen infection, we initiated a global comparative proteomic study monitoring steady-state protein expression as well as changes in N-glycosylation, phosphorylation, and Lys-acetylation in control and infected mesocarp and exocarp from V. vinifera cv Italia. A multi-parallel, large-scale proteomic approach employing iTRAQ labeling prior to three peptide enrichment techniques followed by tandem mass spectrometry led to the identification of a total of 3059 proteins, 1135 phosphorylation sites, 323 N-linked glycosylation sites and 138 Lys-acetylation sites. Of these, we could identify changes in abundance of 899 proteins. The occupancy of 110 phosphorylation sites, 10 N-glycosylation sites and 20 Lys-acetylation sites differentially changed during L. botrana infection. Sequence consensus analysis for phosphorylation sites showed eight significant motifs, two of which containing up-regulated phosphopeptides (X-G-S-X and S-X-X-D) and two containing down-regulated phosphopeptides (R-X-X-S and S-D-X-E) in response to pathogen infection. Topographical distribution of phosphorylation sites within primary sequences reveal preferential phosphorylation at both the N- and C termini, and a clear preference for C-terminal phosphorylation in response to pathogen infection suggesting induction of region-specific kinase(s). Lys-acetylation analysis confirmed the consensus X-K-Y-X motif previously detected in mammals and revealed the importance of this modification in plant defense. The importance of N-linked protein glycosylation in plant response to biotic stimulus was evident by an up-regulated glycopeptide belonging to the disease resistance response protein 206. This study represents a substantial step toward the understanding of protein and PTMs-mediated plant-pathogen interaction shedding

  12. Nanoscale mass conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Brian C.; Aloni, Shaul; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2008-03-11

    A mass transport method and device for individually delivering chargeable atoms or molecules from source particles is disclosed. It comprises a channel; at least one source particle of chargeable material fixed to the surface of the channel at a position along its length; a means of heating the channel; and a means for applying an controllable electric field along the channel, whereby the device transports the atoms or molecules along the channel in response to applied electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the mass transport device will comprise a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT), although other one dimensional structures may also be used. The MWNT or other structure acts as a channel for individual or small collections of atoms due to the atomic smoothness of the material. Also preferred is a source particle of a metal such as indium. The particles move by dissociation into small units, in some cases, individual atoms. The particles are preferably less than 100 nm in size.

  13. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  14. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  15. Quantifying Stellar Mass Loss with High Angular Resolution Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ridgway, Stephen; Creech-Eakman, Michelle; Elias, Nicholas; Howell, Steve; Hutter, Don; Karovska, Margarita; Ragland, Sam; Wishnow, Ed; Zhao, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Mass is constantly being recycled in the universe. One of the most powerful recycling paths is via stellar mass-loss. All stars exhibit mass loss with rates ranging from ~10(-14) to 10(-4) M(sun) yr-1, depending on spectral type, luminosity class, rotation rate, companion proximity, and evolutionary stage. The first generation of stars consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium. These shed material - via massive winds, planetary nebulae and supernova explosions - seeding the interstellar medium with heavier elements. Subsequent generations of stars incorporated this material, changing how stars burn and providing material for planet formation. An understanding of mass loss is critical for modeling individual stars as well as answering larger astrophysical questions. Understanding mass loss is essential for following the evolution of single stars, binaries, star clusters, and galaxies. Mass loss is one of our weakest areas in the modeling of fundamental stellar processes. In large part this is owing to lack of co...

  16. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  17. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  18. Investigating young children's learning of mass measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children's concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children's understanding of the measurement of mass were developed. Prompted by the results and recommendations from the earlier study, five lessons were developed that offered rich learning experiences regarding concepts of mass. The 119 Year 1 and 2 children participating in the study were interviewed using the same protocol before and after the teaching period. The assessment data showed that the majority of these children moved from using nonstandard units to using standard units and instruments for measuring mass. The findings from this study challenge the traditional approach of using informal units for an extended period before the introduction of standard units.

  19. Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶全荣

    2006-01-01

    @@ Every day,we are all influenced by the mass media.Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don't need,the media also contribute to keeping people informed.In other words,while dangers do exist,the benefits of the media far outweigh(超过)the disadvantages.Most of the messages brought to viewers,listeners,and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain,and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

  20. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  1. Binary mass ratios: system mass not primary mass

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Binary properties are usually expressed (for good observational reasons) as a function of primary mass. It has been found that the distribution of companion masses -- the mass ratio distribution -- is different for different primary masses. We argue that system mass is the more fundamental physical parameter to use. We show that if system masses are drawn from a log-normal mass function, then the different observed mass ratio distributions as a function of primary mass, from M-dwarfs to A-stars, are all consistent with a universal, flat, system mass ratio distribution. We also show that the brown dwarf mass ratio distribution is not drawn from the same flat distribution, suggesting that the process which decides upon mass ratios is very different in brown dwarfs and stars.

  2. Mass Distribution Measurement of 252Cf Spontaneous Fission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Shi-long; YANG; Yi; ZHANG; Chun-li; HAN; Hong-yin

    2015-01-01

    The E-v method of measuring the kinetic energy(E)and velocity(v)of outgoing fission products has been utilized,with the goal of measuring the mass resolution better than 1atomic mass units(amu),and could identify every mass for light fission products of unsymmetrical fission.This work measured mass yield distribution

  3. Mass-radius relationships of rocky exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Sohl, F; Rauer, H

    2012-01-01

    Mass and radius of planets transiting their host stars are provided by radial velocity and photometric observations. Structural models of solid exoplanet interiors are then constructed by using equations of state for the radial density distribution, which are compliant with the thermodynamics of the high-pressure limit. However, to some extent those structural models suffer from inherent degeneracy or non-uniqueness problems owing to a principal lack of knowledge of the internal differentiation state and/or the possible presence of an optically thick atmosphere. We here discuss the role of corresponding measurement errors, which adversely affect determinations of a planet's mean density and bulk chemical composition. Precise measurements of planet radii will become increasingly important as key observational constraints for radial density models of individual solid low-mass exoplanets or super-Earths.

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet since AD 1900

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Bjørk, Anders A.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Box, Jason E.; Funder, Svend; Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Colgan, William; Van Den Broeke, Michiel; Siggaard-Andersen, Marie Louise; Nuth, Christopher; Schomacker, Anders; Andresen, Camilla S.; Willerslev, Eske; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2015-01-01

    The response of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) to changes in temperature during the twentieth century remains contentious, largely owing to difficulties in estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of ice mass changes before 1992, when Greenland-wide observations first became available. The on

  5. Tunnel Design by Rock Mass Classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    fact, rock mass classifications have been successfully applied throughout the world : in the United States,2 - Canada,7 8 Western Europe, 9 -12 South...gneiss. Very high strength >30000 >200 Quartzite, dolerite, gabbro , basalt. Table 10 3 Classification for Discontinuity Spacing Spacing of Rock Mass

  6. Development report, mass flow controller PN 5716068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, W.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and manufacture of an all mechanical mass flow controller are discussed. A test program was conducted using inert gas as the test medium. The unit controlled the pressure within plus of minus one percent. An analytical method is presented for relating the control pressure error with error in mass flow.

  7. The field white dwarf mass distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Cummings, J.; Kalirai, J. S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Gentile-Fusillo, N.; Raddi, R.

    2016-09-01

    We revisit the properties and astrophysical implications of the field white dwarf mass distribution in preparation of Gaia applications. Our study is based on the two samples with the best established completeness and most precise atmospheric parameters, the volume-complete survey within 20 pc and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) magnitude-limited sample. We explore the modelling of the observed mass distributions with Monte Carlo simulations, but find that it is difficult to constrain independently the initial mass function (IMF), the initial-to-final-mass relation (IFMR), the stellar formation history (SFH), the variation of the Galactic disc vertical scale height as a function of stellar age, and binary evolution. Each of these input ingredients has a moderate effect on the predicted mass distributions, and we must also take into account biases owing to unidentified faint objects (20 pc sample), as well as unknown masses for magnetic white dwarfs and spectroscopic calibration issues (SDSS sample). Nevertheless, we find that fixed standard assumptions for the above parameters result in predicted mean masses that are in good qualitative agreement with the observed values. It suggests that derived masses for both studied samples are consistent with our current knowledge of stellar and Galactic evolution. Our simulations overpredict by 40-50 per cent the number of massive white dwarfs (M > 0.75 M⊙) for both surveys, although we can not exclude a Salpeter IMF when we account for all biases. Furthermore, we find no evidence of a population of double white dwarf mergers in the observed mass distributions.

  8. Contribution to the determination of genetically significant dose owing to radiodiagnostic methods in the Madrid area. Contribucion de las exploraciones de radiodiagnostico la dosis geneticamente significativa en el area de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, V.; Vano, E.; Moran, P.; Fernandez, A.; Calzado, A.; Gonzalez, L. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Facultad de Medicina)

    1992-01-01

    The results of the determination of genetically significant dose owing to radiodiagnostic methods in the Madrid area are presented. The value obtained for this magnitude is 220+- 60 mu G y. The values for child expectancy, on the basis of age and sex, the number of each type of exploration per 1000 inhabitants per year, distributed according to sex and age, and the values corresponding to the dose in gonads for each probe are also presented. The sample was obtained from 4 large hospitals in the Madrid area, 2 outpatient clinics and some private centers, affording a total of some 700 determinations of dose in gonads. (author)

  9. Microbial fuel cells as pollutant treatment units: Research updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a device that can convert chemical energy in influent substances to electricity via biological pathways. Based on the consent that MFC technology should be applied as a waste/wastewater treatment unit rather than a renewable energy source, this mini-review discussed recent R&D efforts on MFC technologies for pollutant treatments and highlighted the challenges and research and development needs. Owing to the low power density levels achievable by larger-scale MFC, the MFC should be used as a device other than energy source such as being a pollutant treatment unit.

  10. New determination of the electron's mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Thomas; Häffner, Hartmut; Hermanspahn, Nikolaus; Karshenboim, Savely G; Kluge, H-Jürgen; Quint, Wolfgang; Stahl, Stefan; Verdú, José; Werth, Günther

    2002-01-07

    A new independent value for the electron's mass in units of the atomic mass unit is presented, m(e) = 0.000 548 579 909 2(4) u. The value is obtained from our recent measurement of the g factor of the electron in (12)C(5+) in combination with the most recent quantum electrodynamical (QED) predictions. In the QED corrections, terms of order alpha(2) were included by a perturbation expansion in Zalpha. Our total precision is three times better than that of the accepted value for the electron's mass.

  11. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  12. A possible dose-response association between distance to farmers' markets and roadside produce stands, frequency of shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index among customers in the Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Hinkley, Jedediah; Wu, Qiang; McGuirt, Jared T; Lyonnais, Mary Jane; Rafferty, Ann P; Whitt, Olivia R; Winterbauer, Nancy; Phillips, Lisa

    2017-01-11

    The association between farmers' market characteristics and consumer shopping habits remains unclear. Our objective was to examine associations among distance to farmers' markets, amenities within farmers' markets, frequency of farmers' market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that the relationship between frequency of farmers' market shopping and BMI would be mediated by fruit and vegetable consumption. In 15 farmers' markets in northeastern North Carolina, July-September 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 263 farmers' market customers (199 provided complete address data) and conducted farmers' market audits. To participate, customers had to be over 18 years of age, and English speaking. Dependent variables included farmers' market shopping frequency, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Analysis of variance, adjusted multinomial logistic regression, Poisson regression, and linear regression models, adjusted for age, race, sex, and education, were used to examine associations between distance to farmers' markets, amenities within farmers' markets, frequency of farmers' market shopping, fruit and vegetable consumption, and BMI. Those who reported shopping at farmers' markets a few times per year or less reported consuming 4.4 (standard deviation = 1.7) daily servings of fruits and vegetables, and those who reported shopping 2 or more times per week reported consuming 5.5 (2.2) daily servings. There was no association between farmers' market amenities, and shopping frequency or fruit and vegetable consumption. Those who shopped 2 or more times per week had a statistically significantly lower BMI than those who shopped less frequently. There was no evidence of mediation of the relationship between frequency of shopping and BMI by fruit and vegetable consumption. More work should be done to understand factors within farmers' markets that encourage fruit and vegetable purchases.

  13. Optics of mass separator I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown.

  14. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  15. Aero-Thermo-Dynamic Mass Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kota; Yoshikawa, Genki

    2016-07-01

    Each gas molecule has its own molecular weight, while such a microscopic characteristic is generally inaccessible, and thus, it is measured indirectly through e.g. ionization in conventional mass analysis. Here, we present a novel approach to the direct measurement of molecular weight through a nanoarchitectonic combination of aerodynamics, thermodynamics, and mechanics, transducing microscopic events into macroscopic phenomena. It is confirmed that this approach can provide molecular weight of virtually any gas or vaporizable liquid sample in real-time without ionization. Demonstrations through analytical calculations, numerical simulations, and experiments verify the validity and versatility of the novel mass analysis realized by a simple setup with a flexible object (e.g. with a bare cantilever and even with a business card) placed in a laminar jet. Owing to its unique and simple working principle, this aero-thermo-dynamic mass analysis (AMA) can be integrated into various analytical devices, production lines, and consumer mobile platforms, opening new chapters in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mechanics, and mass analysis.

  16. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  17. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    raises the challenge to theorists still further. "Either they were born so big or smaller stars merged together to produce them," explains Crowther. Stars between about 8 and 150 solar masses explode at the end of their short lives as supernovae, leaving behind exotic remnants, either neutron stars or black holes. Having now established the existence of stars weighing between 150 and 300 solar masses, the astronomers' findings raise the prospect of the existence of exceptionally bright, "pair instability supernovae" that completely blow themselves apart, failing to leave behind any remnant and dispersing up to ten solar masses of iron into their surroundings. A few candidates for such explosions have already been proposed in recent years. Not only is R136a1 the most massive star ever found, but it also has the highest luminosity too, close to 10 million times greater than the Sun. "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, I think it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon," concludes Crowther. Notes [1] The star A1 in NGC 3603 is a double star, with an orbital period of 3.77 days. The two stars in the system have, respectively, 120 and 92 times the mass of the Sun, which means that they have formed as stars weighing, respectively, 148 and 106 solar masses. [2] The team used the SINFONI, ISAAC and MAD instruments, all attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, Chile. [3] (note added on 26 July 2010) The "bigger" in the title does not imply that these stars are the biggest observed. Such stars, called red supergiants, can have radii up to about a thousand solar radii, while R136a1, which is blue, is about 35 times as large as the Sun. However, R136a1 is the star with the greatest mass known to date. More information This work is presented in an article published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society ("The R136 star cluster hosts several stars whose individual masses greatly exceed the accepted 150 Msun stellar mass limit", by

  18. [Ischemic Changes in the Electrocardiogram and Circulatory Collapse Accompanied by Severe Anemia Owing to the Delay of Red Blood Cell Concentrate Transfusion in Two Patients with Intraoperative Massive Bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshinori; Noguchi, Teruo; Kurita, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Takeda, Masafumi; Sha, Keiichi; Nagahata, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We present two patients developing intraoperative massive bleeding and showed ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram and circulatory collapse accompanied by severe anemia owing to the delay of red blood cell concentrate transfusion. One patient underwent hepatectomy and the other pancreaticoduodenectomy. Their lowest hemoglobin concentration was around 2 g x dl(-1), and they showed ischemic changes in the electrocardiogram and severe decreases in blood pressure. The former received compatible red blood cell concentrate and the latter received uncrossmatched same blood group red blood cell concentrate immediately, and their electrocardiogram and blood pressure quickly improved. To avoid life-threatening anemia, emergency red blood cell concentrate transfusion including compatible different blood group transfusion should be applied for intraoperative massive bleeding.

  19. Interference Phase of Mass Neutrinos in Kerr Space-Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiu-Ju; WANG Yong-Jiu

    2003-01-01

    Along the geodesic we calculate the interference phase of the mass neutrinos in some special cases. Because of the rotation of the mass resource which induces the gravitational field, the angular momentum per unit mass, a, has a contribution to the phase, which is different from the case in Schwarzschild space-time.

  20. THOR Particle Processing Unit PPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federica Marcucci, Maria; Bruno, Roberto; Consolini, Giuseppe; D'Amicis, Raffaella; De Lauretis, Marcello; De Marco, Rossana; De Michelis, Paola; Francia, Patrizia; Laurenza, Monica; Materassi, Massimo; Vellante, Massimo; Valentini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. On board THOR, data collected by the Turbulent Electron Analyser, the Ion Mass Spectrum analyser and the Cold Solar Wind ion analyser instruments will be processed by a common digital processor unit, the Particle Processing Unit (PPU). PPU architecture will be based on the state of the art space flight processors and will be fully redundant, in order to efficiently and safely handle the data from the numerous sensors of the instruments suite. The approach of a common processing unit for particle instruments is very important for the enabling of an efficient management for correlative plasma measurements, also facilitating interoperation with other instruments on the spacecraft. Moreover, it permits technical and programmatic synergies giving the possibility to optimize and save spacecraft resources.

  1. Quarks with unit charge: a search for anomalous hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, R A; Alvarez, L W; Holley, W R; Stephenson, E J

    1977-04-29

    Quarks of charge +1 and other anomalous hydrogen have been sought by using the 88-inch cyclotron at Berkeley as a high-energy mass spectrometer, with natural hydrogen and deuterium as the sources of ions. No quarks were observed, and limits were placed on their ratio to protons on the earth that vary from < 2 x 10(-19)for high masses (3 to 8.2 atomic mass units) to 10(-13) for the lowest masses (< (1/3) atomic mass unit).

  2. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  3. Application of Nanodiamonds in Biomolecular Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Cheng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of nanodiamond (ND with biomolecular mass spectrometry (MS makes rapid, sensitive detection of biopolymers from complex biosamples feasible. Due to its chemical inertness, optical transparency and biocompatibility, the advantage of NDs in MS study is unique. Furthermore, functionalization on the surfaces of NDs expands their application in the fields of proteomics and genomics for specific requirements greatly. This review presents methods of MS analysis based on solid phase extraction and elution on NDs and different application examples including peptide, protein, DNA, glycan and others. Owing to the quick development of nanotechnology, surface chemistry, new MS methods and the intense interest in proteomics and genomics, a huge increase of their applications in biomolecular MS analysis in the near future can be predicted.

  4. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-01-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the ‘punctuated equilibrium’ debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  5. The History of Nuclidic Masses and of their Evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Audi, G

    2006-01-01

    This paper is centered on some historical aspects of nuclear masses, and their relations to major discoveries. Besides nuclear reactions and decays, the heart of mass measurements lies in mass spectrometry, the early history of which will be reviewed first. I shall then give a short history of the mass unit which has not always been defined as one twelfth of the carbon-12 mass. When combining inertial masses from mass spectrometry with energy differences obtained in reactions and decays, the conversion factor between the two is essential. The history of the evaluation of the nuclear masses (actually atomic masses) is only slightly younger than that of the mass measurements themselves. In their modern form, mass evaluations can be traced back to 1955. Prior to 1955, several tables were established, the oldest one in 1935.

  6. Using the Mini-Session Course Format to Train Students in the Practical Aspects of Modern Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Dale A., Jr.; Masterson, Tina S.; Masterson, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been gaining in popularity in recent years owing in large part to the development of soft-ionization techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI). These soft-ionization techniques have opened up the field of MS analysis to biomolecules, polymers, and other high…

  7. Using the Mini-Session Course Format to Train Students in the Practical Aspects of Modern Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Dale A., Jr.; Masterson, Tina S.; Masterson, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been gaining in popularity in recent years owing in large part to the development of soft-ionization techniques such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and electrospray ionization (ESI). These soft-ionization techniques have opened up the field of MS analysis to biomolecules, polymers, and other high…

  8. Organization and implementation of medical rescue of mass casualties during earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ling ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, there were more than 40 earthquakes greater than 7 magnitude occurred worldwide, 10 of which in China, which killed 600 thousand people accounting for 53% of global earthquake deaths. On May 12, 2008, an 8.0-magnitude earthquake occurred in Wenchuan, Sichuan Province, causing 69000 deaths, 18000 missings, and 370000 injuries. Among 10 thousand severe injuries, most were traumatic injuries, 74% of which were fracture. On April 14, 2010, a 7.1-magnitude earthquake occurred in Yushu, Qinghai Province. There were 2698 deaths, 270 missings and 11000 injuries. Among 3100 severe injuries, fracture accounted for 58.4%. After each earthquake, the Chinese Army Medical Services took actions and made quick response according to the law. They sent out elites with efficient command and scientific organization, fully participating in the medical rescue operations. After Wenchuan earthquake, 397 mobile medical service units and 7061 health workers were sent out. A total of 69000 people were treated, and 22000 cases of surgeries were performed. After Yushu earthquake, a total of 25 mobile medical service units and 2025 health workers were sent. They performed 1635 cases of surgeries with a miracle of "zero death" in mass earthquake casualties and altitude diseases in cold highlands. After each earthquake, injuries cured within 1 week accounted for 60% of the total, and patients evacuated accounted for 80% of the total, which owed to the effective first aid in site of Chinese Army Medical Service. They effectively played the role as the main force, making significant contributions for the final victory of earthquake relief. From the practice of medical rescue revelation after the two earthquakes, what Chinese Army Medical Services Services learned are: firstly, the theory of medical relief should be innovated; secondly, military and civilian organizations should be coordinated; thirdly, professional rescue force should be strengthened

  9. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  10. The local mass density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    An improved mass-luminosity relation for faint main-sequence stars derived from recently revised masses for some faint double stars is presented. The total local mass density is increased to nearly 0.2 solar masses per cu pc. This estimate is as large as the mass density required by Oort's (1965) dynamical analysis of stellar motions perpendicular to the galactic plane if the mass is concentrated in a narrow layer.

  11. A Review of the Emerging Field of Underwater Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Chua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometers are versatile sensor systems, owing to their high sensitivity and ability to simultaneously measure multiple chemical species. Over the last two decades, traditional laboratory-based membrane inlet mass spectrometers have been adapted for underwater use. Underwater mass spectrometry has drastically improved our capability to monitor a broad suite of gaseous compounds (e.g., dissolved atmospheric gases, light hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds in the aquatic environment. Here we provide an overview of the progress made in the field of underwater mass spectrometry since its inception in the 1990s to the present. In particular, we discuss the approaches undertaken by various research groups in developing in situ mass spectrometers. We also provide examples to illustrate how underwater mass spectrometers have been used in the field. Finally, we present future trends in the field of in situ mass spectrometry. Most of these efforts are aimed at improving the quality and spatial and temporal scales of chemical measurements in the ocean. By providing up-to-date information on underwater mass spectrometry, this review offers guidance for researchers interested in adapting this technology as well as goals for future progress in the field.

  12. Graviton as a Grand United Gauge Boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafiddinov, Rasulkhozha S.

    2015-04-01

    To any type of charge corresponds a kind of inertial mass. Such a mass-charge duality explains the availability in the neutrino of the naturally united rest mass and charge equal to all its mass and charge consisting of the electric, weak, strong and a range of other the innate components. From their point of view, we discuss a new theory of a grand unification. In this theory, the gravitational field is a naturally united field of the unified system of the most diverse combinations of the electric photons, magnetic monophotons, weak bosons and the strong gluons where the four pairs of forces of a different nature are united. Some consequences and laboratory confirmations of the discussed theory have been listed, in which graviton is predicted as a grand united gauge boson. Therefore, the gravitons constitute a natural light testifying in favor of gravitational force. They show that to each type of light corresponds a kind of force. Thereby, the suggested field theory that unites all gauge bosons in gravitons gives the possibility to directly look on the nature of gravitational matter elucidating the interratio of intragraviton forces and the problem of elementary particle fundamental symmetries.

  13. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  14. Stresses in Dolos Breakwater Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Breakage of slender unreinforced armour unite is the cause of many breakwater failures. Design diagrams to ensure structural integrity of armour unite such as dolosse and tetrapods have not been available. The article presents results of an analysis of the stresses in dolosse based on model tests...... with load-cell instrumented dolosse with masses of 200 kg and 200 g. A preliminary design diagram is presented as well....

  15. FOREWORD: Special issue on mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This special issue is intended to present a review of mass standards, mass determination and the efforts to replace the international prototype of the kilogram by a new definition of the kilogram based on a fundamental constant of physics. Mass is a quantity that is familiar to everybody primarily for its importance in commerce. It is not only one of the traditional quantities of metrology but also of science in general. The unit of mass has always been based on a material object and, since 1889, on the international prototype of the kilogram. The mass of any standard weight is derived from this prototype by a cascade of comparison measurements using balances. The sources of uncertainty of the mass of a standard depend upon the circumstances of the weighing process and the long-term instabilities of the intermediate standards. The international prototype—its mass is one kilogram by definition—may also suffer from instabilities or drifts in time, but until now it has not been possible to check this by comparison with a fundamental constant in physics. Repeated verifications of some 40 or so national prototypes of the members of the Metre Convention have shown significant drifts with an average of about 50 µg within 100 years, a fact that casts doubt on the stability of the international prototype itself. Experiments have been underway for about 30 years on linking fundamental constants such as the Avogadro constant or, correspondingly, the atomic mass unit and Planck's constant to the kilogram. Relative uncertainties of the order of 10-7 have been reached today, still one order of magnitude too large for monitoring the stability of the international prototype or for a new definition. The first article of this special issue gives information on the international and the national prototypes of the kilogram, its material, manufacture, cleaning procedures, stability investigations and the periodic verifications of national prototypes. The next article describes

  16. Mass Function of Low Mass Dark Halos

    CERN Document Server

    Yahagi, H; Yoshii, Y; Yahagi, Hideki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2004-01-01

    The mass function of dark halos in a Lambda-dominated cold dark matter (LambdaCDM) universe is investigated. 529 output files from five runs of N-body simulations are analyzed using the friends-of-friends cluster finding algorithm. All the runs use 512^3 particles in the box size of 35 h^{-1}Mpc to 140 h^{-1}Mpc. Mass of particles for 35 h^{-1} Mpc runs is 2.67 times 10^7 h^{-1} M_{solar}. Because of the high mass resolution of our simulations, the multiplicity function in the low-mass range, where the mass is well below the characteristic mass and $\

  17. A simple and efficient protocol for the mass propagation of Cymbidium mastersii: an ornamental orchid of Northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Padmaja; Paul, Sumi; Das, Meera C.; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cymbidium mastersii is an epiphytic orchid distributed mainly in Northeast India. Owing to its high commercial value in the floricultural industry, natural populations are under threat from over-exploitation. Mass propagation provides an alternative means of satisfying the demand. Unfortunately, conventional propagation is slow and difficult, suggesting in vitro methods for mass multiplication may be more appropriate. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient...

  18. A simple and efficient protocol for the mass propagation of Cymbidium mastersii: an ornamental orchid of Northeast India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Padmaja; Paul, Sumi; Das, Meera C.; Kumaria, Suman; Tandon, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Cymbidium mastersii is an epiphytic orchid distributed mainly in Northeast India. Owing to its high commercial value in the floricultural industry, natural populations are under threat from over-exploitation. Mass propagation provides an alternative means of satisfying the demand. Unfortunately, conventional propagation is slow and difficult, suggesting in vitro methods for mass multiplication may be more appropriate. The objective of this study was to develop an efficient...

  19. Heat and Mass Transfer in a Semi Infinite Porous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Narang

    1967-07-01

    Full Text Available Unsteady axially symmetric transfer of heat and mass in a semi-infinite porous circular cylinder initially at a constant temperature and mass transfer potential has been considered. The circular boundary of the porous cylinder is maintained at temperature and mass transfer potential which are functions of both axial co-ordinate and time, whereas the plane end is impervious to heat and mass transfer. Both the axial and radial components of heat and diffusive mass transfer have been taken into account. A particular case when the temperature and mass transfer potential are unit step functions has been discussed in detail and some results have been exhibited graphically.

  20. Mass spectrometric immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Randall W; Williams, Peter; Krone, Jennifer Reeve

    2007-12-04

    Rapid mass spectrometric immunoassay methods for detecting and/or quantifying antibody and antigen analytes utilizing affinity capture to isolate the analytes and internal reference species (for quantification) followed by mass spectrometric analysis of the isolated analyte/internal reference species. Quantification is obtained by normalizing and calibrating obtained mass spectrum against the mass spectrum obtained for an antibody/antigen of known concentration.

  1. Experimental study on interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a mass–spring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the interaction between a positive mass and a negative effective mass through a three-mass chain connected with elastic springs, a pair of masses is designed to have an effective negative mass, and it interacts with the third positive one as if an equivalent two-mass chain. The dynamics of the equivalent two-mass chain shows that the two bodies may be self-accelerated in same direction when the effective mass becomes negative, the experiment is also conducted to demonstrate this type of motion. We further show that the energy principle (Hamilton’s principle is applicable if the energy of the negative mass unit is properly characterized. The result may be relevant to composite with cells of effective negative mass, their interaction with matrix may lead to more richer unexpected macroscopic responses.

  2. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  3. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen J.; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2013-01-29

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  4. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  5. Units of measurement past, present and future international system of units

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2010-01-01

    It is for the first time that the subject of quantities and their respective units is dealt this much in detail a glimpse of units of measurements of base quantities of length, time, mass and volume is given for ancient India three and four dimensional systems of measurement units are critically examined establishment of the fact that only four base units are needed to describe a system of units the basics to arrive at the unit of a derived quantity are explained basic, derived and dimensionless quantities including quantity calculus are introduced life history of scientists concerned with measurements units are presented to be inspiring to working metrologists and students. The International System of Units including, Metre Convention Treaty and its various organs including International National of Weights and Measure are described. The realisation of base units is given in detail. Classes of derived units within the SI, units permitted for time to come, units outside SI but used in special fields of measur...

  6. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...

  7. Peltier Effect Applied to the Design and Realization of a New Mass Flow Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmoun, M.; El Hassani, A.; Leclerq, D.; Bendada, E.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper deals with design and realization of a new mass flow sensor using the Peltier effect. The sensor, shaped as a bimetallic circuit includes two continuous parallel strips coated with a great deal of metal plated spots. In such a device, one track performs as a classical thermoelectrical circuitry whose both plated and uncoated parts provide the thermopile junctions. The other strip is subjected to electrical current so as to generate numerous small thermal gradients owing to t...

  8. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  9. Papain-Catalyzed Synthesis of Polyglutamate Containing a Nylon Monomer Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Kenjiro Yazawa; Keiji Numata

    2016-01-01

    Peptides have the potential to serve as an alternative for petroleum-based polymers to support a sustainable society. However, they lack thermoplasticity, owing to their strong intermolecular interactions. In contrast, nylon is famous for its thermoplasticity and chemical resistance. Here, we synthesized peptides containing a nylon unit to modify their thermal properties by using papain-catalyzed chemoenzymatic polymerization. We used l-glutamic acid alkyl ester as the amino acid monomer and ...

  10. The Kilogram and Measurements of Mass and Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Z J; Yaniv, S L

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the facilities, measurement capabilities, and ongoing research activities in the areas of mass and force at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first section of the paper is devoted to mass metrology and starts with a brief historical perspective on the developments that led to the current definition of the kilogram. An overview of mass measurement procedures is given with a brief discussion of current research on alternative materials for mass standards and surface profiles of the U.S. national prototype kilograms. A brief outlook into the future possible redefinition of the unit of mass based on fundamental principles is included. The second part of this paper focuses on the unit of force and describes the realization of the unit, measurement procedures, uncertainty in the realized force, facilities, and current efforts aimed at the realization of small forces.

  11. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  12. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  13. Baryon masses with dynamical twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Koutsou, G; Baron, R; Guichon, P; Brinet, M; Carbonell, J; Drach, V; Liu, Z; Pène, O; Urbach, C

    2007-01-01

    We present results on the mass of the nucleon and the $\\Delta$ using two dynamical degenerate twisted mass quarks. The evaluation is performed at four quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range of 690-300 MeV on lattices of size 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm. We check for cutoff effects by evaluating these baryon masses on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm with lattice spacings $a(\\beta=3.9)=0.0855(6)$ fm and $a(\\beta=4.05)=0.0666(6)$ fm, determined from the pion sector and find them to be within our statistical errors. Lattice results are extrapolated to the physical limit using continuum chiral perturbation theory. The nucleon mass at the physical point provides a determination of the lattice spacing. Using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory at ${\\cal O}(p^3)$ we find $a(\\beta=3.9)=0.0879(12)$ fm, with a systematic error due to the chiral extrapolation estimated to be about the same as the statistical error. This value of the lattice spacing is in good agreement with the value determined from the pion se...

  14. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement…

  15. Pangloss: Reconstructing lensing mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Mason, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Pangloss reconstructs all the mass within a light cone through the Universe. Understanding complex mass distributions like this is important for accurate time delay lens cosmography, and also for accurate lens magnification estimation. It aspires to use all available data in an attempt to make the best of all mass maps.

  16. Gravity-induced stresses in stratified rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Swolfs, H.S.; Savage, W.Z.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic and stratified rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained. The rock mass consists of finite mechanical units, each unit being modeled as a homogeneous, transversely isotropic or isotropic linearly elastic material. The following results are found. The nature of the gravity induced stress field in a stratified rock mass depends on the elastic properties of each rock unit and how these properties vary with depth. It is thermodynamically admissible for the induced horizontal stress component in a given stratified rock mass to exceed the vertical stress component in certain units and to be smaller in other units; this is not possible for the classical unstratified isotropic solution. Examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity induced stress field in stratified rock masses. It is found that a decrease in rock mass anisotropy and a stiffening of rock masses with depth can generate stress distributions comparable to empirical hyperbolic distributions previously proposed in the literature. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Pathways of geomorphic evolution of sandstone escarpments in the Góry Stołowe tableland (SW Poland) - Insights from LiDAR-based high-resolution DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migoń, Piotr; Kasprzak, Marek

    2016-05-01

    The tableland of the Stołowe Mountains (SW Poland), with its prominent mesas and sandstone-capped escarpments, belongs to the most spectacular geomorphic landscapes of Central Europe. While the gross morphological features of the area have long been recognized, the evolutionary pathways of densely forested and poorly accessible escarpment slopes remained poorly understood. In this paper we use LiDAR data to shed a new light on landform inventories within the escarpments, their spatial patterns and, using process-from-form reasoning, on the longer-term evolution of the escarpments. Four sites, two on each major escarpment, have been subject to detailed analysis which involved examination of shaded relief, slope, plan and profile curvature and topographic wetness index. In each case, the 1 × 1 m model was used, while for the most complex site at Mt. Szczeliniec Wielki the results were compared with the 5 × 5 m model to check the impact of model resolution on geomorphic interpretation. Despite some loss of information involved in model re-interpolation to the coarser scale, the main features of escarpment morphology could still be recognized. On the other hand, automatic landform classification based on the calculation of Topographic Position Index from the 10 × 10 m model and performed for the entire tableland failed to reveal differences between various sections of the escarpments, detectable on finer models. The analysis of spatial patterns of minor landforms within the escarpments, identified on LiDAR-derived models shows that no single pathway of escarpment evolution exists. Both the upper slopes (in sandstone caprock) and the mid-slopes (in weaker rocks) show signs of instability and these are not necessarily coupled. Large-scale caprock failures do occur but seem rare and localized. Sandstone free faces are rather subject to continuous slow retreat by detachment of individual joint-bound blocks. Another zone of instability occurs well below the caprock and

  18. A universal thermodynamic model of calculating mass action concentrations for structural units or ion couples in aqueous solutions and its applications in binary and ternary aqueous solutions%计算水溶液结构单元或离子对的质量作用浓度通用热力学模型及其在二元和三水溶液中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨学民; 赵伟洁; 柴国明; 郭汉杰; 张强

    2011-01-01

    A universal thermodynamic model of calculating mass action concentrations for structural units or ion couples in ternary and binary strong electrolyte aqueous solution was developed based on the ion and molecule coexistence theory and verified in four kinds of binary aqueous solutions and two kinds of ternary aqueous solutions. The calculated mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples in four binary aqueous solutions and two ternary solutions at 298.15 K have good agreement with the reported activity data from literatures after shifting the standard state and concentration unit. Therefore,the calculated mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples from the developed universal thermodynamic model for ternary and binary aqueous solutions can be applied to predict reaction ability of components in ternary and binary strong electrolyte aqueous solutions. It is also proved that the assumptions applied in the developed thermodynamic model are correct and reasonable,i.e.,strong electrolyte aqueous solution is composed of cations and anions as simple ions,H2O as simple molecule and other hydrous salt compounds as complex molecules. The calculated mass action concentrations of structural units or ion couples in ternary and binary strong electrolyte aqueous solutions strictly follow the mass action law.%基于离子与分子共存理论,建立了计算二元和三元强电解质水溶液中结构单元或离子对的质量作用浓度的通用热力学模型;同时,采用4种二元水溶液和2种三元水溶液验证该通用热力学模型.通过转换标准态和浓度单位,用所建立的通用热力学模型计算出的298.15 K时4种二元水溶液和2种三元水溶液中结构单元或离子对的质量作用浓度和文献中报道的活度值吻合得很好.因此,可采用本研究提出的通用热力学模型计算出的二元和三元水溶液结构单元或离子对的质量作用浓度预报二元和三元强电解质水

  19. Analytical validation of accelerator mass spectrometry for pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Bradly D; Ognibene, Ted; Vogel, John S

    2010-03-01

    The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of (14)C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the (14)C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least 1 year, linear over four orders of magnitude with an analytical range from 0.1 Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Furthermore, accuracy was excellent (between 1 and 3%), while precision expressed as coefficient of variation was between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of (14)C, respectively (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with (14)C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. Accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices.

  20. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  1. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  2. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  3. The Cosmological Mass Function

    CERN Document Server

    Monaco, P

    1997-01-01

    This thesis aims to review the cosmological mass function problem, both from the theoretical and the observational point of view, and to present a new mass function theory, based on realistic approximations for the dynamics of gravitational collapse. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction on gravitational dynamics in cosmological models. Chapter 2 gives a complete review of the mass function theory. Chapters 3 and 4 present the ``dynamical'' mass function theory, based on truncated Lagrangian dynamics and on the excursion set approach. Chapter 5 reviews the observational state-of-the-art and the main applications of the mass function theories described before. Finally, Chapter 6 gives conclusions and future prospects.

  4. Miniaturised TOF mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, U.; Wurz, P.; Whitby, J.

    2003-04-01

    For the BepiColombo misson of ESA to Mercury, we built a prototype of a miniaturised Time of Flight mass spectrometer with a low mass and low power consumption. Particles will be set free form the surface and ionized by short laser pluses. The mass spectrometer is dedicated to measure the elemental and isotopic composition of almost all elements of Mercurys planetary surface with an adequate dynamique range, mass range and mass resolution. We will present first results of our prototype and future designs.

  5. A one-kilogram quartz resonator as a mass standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, John; Howe, David

    2013-02-01

    The SI unit of mass, the kilogram, is defined by a single artifact, the International Prototype Kilogram. This artifact, the primary mass standard, suffers from long-term instabilities that are neither well understood nor easily monitored. A secondary mass standard consisting of a 1-kg quartz resonator in ultrahigh vacuum is proposed. The frequency stability of such a resonator is likely to be far higher than the mass stability of the primary mass standard. Moreover, the resonator would provide a link to the SI time-interval unit. When compared with a laboratory-grade atomic frequency standard or GPS time, the frequency of the resonator could be monitored, on a continuous basis, with 10(-15) precision in only a few days of averaging. It could also be coordinated, worldwide, with other resonator mass standards without the need to transport the standards.

  6. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  7. Membrane device and process for mass exchange, separation, and filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L.

    2016-11-15

    A membrane device and processes for fabrication and for using are disclosed. The membrane device may include a number of porous metal membranes that provide a high membrane surface area per unit volume. The membrane device provides various operation modes that enhance throughput and selectivity for mass exchange, mass transfer, separation, and/or filtration applications between feed flow streams and permeate flow streams.

  8. A Simple Watt Balance for the Absolute Determination of Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Terry; Quinn, Lucas; Davis, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A watt balance is an electromechanical device that allows a mass to be determined in terms of measurable electrical and mechanical quantities, themselves traceable to the fundamental constants of physics. International plans are well advanced to redefine the unit of mass, the kilogram, in terms of a fixed numerical value for the Planck constant. A…

  9. Evaluation of a mass flow sensor at a gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a system to optimize the cotton ginning process, a custom-built mass flow sensor was evaluated at USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit at Stoneville, Mississippi. The mass flow sensor was fabricated based on the principle of the sensor patented by Thomasson and Sui. The optical and ele...

  10. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  11. Origins of Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries - specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ($W$ and $Z$ bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive (i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of $W$ and $Z$ boson masses. It also al...

  12. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  13. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook.

  14. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  15. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  16. An Introduction to Medical Malpractice in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Medical malpractice law in the United States is derived from English common law, and was developed by rulings in various state courts. Medical malpractice lawsuits are a relatively common occurrence in the United States. The legal system is designed to encourage extensive discovery and negotiations between adversarial parties with the goal of resolving the dispute without going to jury trial. The injured patient must show that the physician acted negligently in rendering care, and that such negligence resulted in injury. To do so, four legal elements must be proven: (1) a professional duty owed to the patient; (2) breach of such duty; (3) injury caused by the breach; and (4) resulting damages. Money damages, if awarded, typically take into account both actual economic loss and noneconomic loss, such as pain and suffering. PMID:19034593

  17. Gravity-induced rock mass damage related to large en masse rockslides: Evidence from Vajont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    to failure, unstable rock slopes can be affected by diffuse newly formed gravity-driven joints that are absent in the surrounding area and within the underlying bedrock, as the Vajont case history demonstrates (joint sets J9 and J10). These fractures, caused by critical tensile and shear stresses, represent an important mechanical clue to recognizing, on a geological basis, the instability condition of a rock slope under investigation. Owing to its complex geological evolution, the Vajont landslide is an outstanding example to help learn about cumulative GRMD effects that can accumulate over time when an ancient rockslide is further remobilized by a sudden en masse sliding motion.

  18. 新课标人教版选修8 Unit 2 Cloning Using language Reading,discussing and writing教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟莉莉

    2015-01-01

    教材:新课标人教版选修8单元:Unit 2 Cloning Using languageTeaching materials Using language part of NSEFCS Book 8Target language Key words and expressions:Differ,exact,identical,complicated,pay off,breakthrough,cast down, arbitrary, fate, object ,medium ,obtain ,conservative ,accumulate ,in favour of, owe,etc.

  19. Recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have attracted great interest over past decades owing to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this article, we review recent progress in application of carbon nanomaterials in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI MS). Various types of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanodots, nanodiamond, nanofibers, nanohorns, and their derivative forms, are involved. The applications of these materials as new matrices or probes in matrix-assisted or surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI or SELDI MS) are discussed. Finally, we summarize current challenges and give our perspectives on the future of applications of carbon nanomaterials in LDI MS.

  20. Mercury's Protoplanetary Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2004-01-01

    Major element fractionation among chondrites has been discussed for decades as ratios relative to Si or Mg. Recently, by expressing ratios relative to Fe, I discovered a new relationship admitting the possibility that ordinary chondrite meteorites are derived from two components, a relatively oxidized and undifferentiated, primitive component and a somewhat differentiated, planetary component, with oxidation state like the highly reduced enstatite chondrites, which I suggested was identical to Mercury's complement of lost elements. Here, on the basis of that relationship, I derive expressions, as a function of the mass of planet Mercury and the mass of its core, to estimate the mass of Mercury's lost elements, the mass of Mercury's alloy and rock protoplanetary core, and the mass of Mercury's gaseous protoplanet. Although Mercury's mass is well known, its core mass is not, being widely believed to be in the range of 70-80 percent of the planet mass. For a core mass of 75 percent, the mass of Mercury's lost el...

  1. Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States: A Comparison of the Curriculum Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2010-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, post-secondary institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of…

  2. Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States: A Comparison of the Curriculum Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2010-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, post-secondary institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of…

  3. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  4. Mass Dependence of Disappearance of Transverse Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, A D; Sood, Aman D.; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2004-01-01

    A complete theoretical study is presented for the disappearance of flow, for the first time, by analyzing 15 reactions with masses between 47 and 476 units. We demonstrate that the effect of nucleon-nucleon cross-section reduces to insignificant level for heavier colliding nuclei in agreement with previous studies. A stiff equation of state with nucleon-nucleon cross-sections of 35-40 mb is able to explain all the measured balance energies within few percent. A power law is also given for the mass dependence of the disappearance of flow which is in excellent agreement with experimental data.

  5. MassAI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX.......A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX....

  6. Does Information Have Mass?

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B

    2013-01-01

    Does information have mass? This question has been asked many times and there are many answers even on the Internet, including on Yahoo Answers. Usually the answer is "no". Attempts have been made to assess the physical mass of information by estimating the mass of electrons feeding the power-guzzling computers and devices making up the Internet, the result being around 50 gram. Other efforts to calculate the mass of information have assumed that each electron involved in signal transfer carries one bit of information, which makes the corresponding mass to be about 10^-5 gram. We address the fundamental question of minimum mass related to a bit of information from the angles of quantum physics and special relativity. Our results indicate that there are different answers depending on the physical situation, and sometimes the mass can even be negative. We tend to be skeptical about the earlier mass estimations, mentioned above, because our results indicate that the electron's mass does not play a role in any on...

  7. MassAI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX.......A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX....

  8. Digital Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bamberger, Casimir; Bamberger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Methods to visualize the two-dimensional distribution of molecules by mass spectrometric imaging evolve rapidly and yield novel applications in biology, medicine, and material surface sciences. Most mass spectrometric imagers acquire high mass resolution spectra spot-by-spot and thereby scan the object's surface. Thus, imaging is slow and image reconstruction remains cumbersome. Here we describe an imaging mass spectrometer that exploits the true imaging capabilities by ion optical means for the time of flight mass separation. The mass spectrometer is equipped with the ASIC Timepix chip as an array detector to acquire the position, mass, and intensity of ions that are imaged by MALDI directly from the target sample onto the detector. This imaging mass spectrometer has a spatial resolving power at the specimen of (84\\pm35) \\mu m with a mass resolution of 45 and locates atoms or organic compounds on a surface area up to ~2 cm2. Extended laser spots of ~5 mm2 on structured specimens allowed parallel imaging of s...

  9. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...

  10. The Syntax and Semantics of Purepecha Noun Phrases and the Mass/Count Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Rojas Maldonado, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Purepecha (isolate, central Western Mexico) nouns can be assigned to one of three classes depending on their inherent number characteristics: count nouns denote atomic units, mass nouns denote plural entities and count-mass nouns (Doetjes 1997) denote sets that contain pluralities and atomic units as well. This tri-partite distinction guides the…

  11. Anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, and anthocyanins profiling in wine lees by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry with data-dependent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado de la Torre, M P; Ferreiro-Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2013-12-26

    A method has been developed to study the content of anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidicins, and anthocyanins in wine lees, an abundant byproduct from wineries. Detection/quantitation of the target compounds was carried out by a hyphenated system consisting of a solid-phase extraction workstation (Prospekt-2 unit) online coupled to a liquid chromatograph-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS), where standards were used for identification/quantitation of both anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins. Owing to the lack of anthocyanins standards, advantages from the use of data-dependent methods were taken for their identification and confirmatory analysis. Combination of the scanning methods (viz. product-ion, precursor-ion, and neutral-loss scanning) allowed identifying five different anthocyanins present in wine residues. The results thus obtained have been validated by complementary analysis of the extracts using LC-TOF/MS in high-resolution mode. Quantitation of the monitored compounds was supported on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and calibration curves run with standards of anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins.

  12. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories....... Understanding these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in digestion engineering and for establishing and running a successful anaerobic digestion facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the digestate. Use in agriculture as a fertilizer is described in Chapter 9.10 and use...

  13. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  14. Absolute neutrino mass update

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H; P\\"as, Heinrich; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    The determination of absolute neutrino masses is crucial for the understanding of theories underlying the standard model, such as SUSY. We review the experimental prospects to determine absolute neutrino masses and the correlations among approaches, using the Delta m^2's inferred from neutrino oscillation experiments and assuming a three neutrino Universe.

  15. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  16. Photon mass from inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Törnkvist, Ola; Woodard, Richard

    2002-09-01

    We consider vacuum polarization from massless scalar electrodynamics in de Sitter inflation. The theory exhibits a 3+1 dimensional analog of the Schwinger mechanism in which a photon mass is dynamically generated. The mechanism is generic for light scalar fields that couple minimally to gravity. The nonvanishing of the photon mass during inflation may result in magnetic fields on cosmological scales.

  17. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  18. Top Quark Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I wil...

  19. Deconstructed Transverse Mass Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Virzi, Joseph S; Walker, Devin G E

    2014-01-01

    Traditional searches for R-parity conserving natural supersymmetry (SUSY) require large transverse mass and missing energy cuts to separate the signal from large backgrounds. SUSY models with compressed spectra inherently produce signal events with small amounts of missing energy that are hard to explore. We use this difficulty to motivate the construction of "deconstructed" transverse mass variables which are designed preserve information on both the norm and direction of the missing momentum. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these variables in searches for the pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners which subsequently decay into a final state with an isolated lepton, jets and missing energy. We show that the use of deconstructed transverse mass variables extends the accessible compressed spectra parameter space beyond the region probed by traditional methods. The parameter space can further be expanded to neutralino masses that are larger than the difference between the stop and top masses. ...

  20. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  1. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  2. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  3. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  4. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. What Is a Kilogram in the Revised International System of Units (SI)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of the kilogram, the unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), has not changed in more than 125 years. The kilogram is still defined by the mass of a Pt-Ir cylinder conserved at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. Science and technology have progressed to the point where it is likely the kilogram will be…

  6. Effect of Body Mass Index on Left Ventricular Mass in Career Male Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Maria; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G.; Farioli, Andrea; Yang, Justin; Christiani, David C.; Christophi, Costas A.; Lombardi, David A.; Kovacs, Richard J.; Mastouri, Ronald; Abbasi, Siddique; Steigner, Michael; Moffatt, Steven; Smith, Denise; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2017-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) mass is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events; increased LV mass is common among US firefighters and plays a major role in firefighter sudden cardiac death. We aim to identify significant predictors of LV mass among firefighters. Cross-sectional study of 400 career male firefighters selected by an enriched randomization strategy. Weighted analyses were performed based on the total number of risk factors per subject with inverse probability weighting. LV mass was assessed by echocardiography (ECHO) and cardiac magnetic resonance, and normalized (indexed) for height. CVD risk parameters included vital signs at rest, body mass index (BMI)–defined obesity, obstructive sleep apnea risk, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and physical activity. Linear regression models were performed. In multivariate analyses, BMI was the only consistent significant independent predictor of LV mass indexes (all, p <0.001). A 1-unit decrease in BMI was associated with 1-unit (g/m1.7) reduction of LV mass/height1.7 after adjustment for age, obstructive sleep apnea risk, and cardiorespiratory fitness. In conclusion, after height-indexing ECHO-measured and cardiac magnetic resonance–measured LV mass, BMI was found to be a major driver of LV mass among firefighters. Our findings taken together with previous research suggest that reducing obesity will improve CVD risk profiles and decrease on-duty CVD and sudden cardiac death events in the fire service. Our results may also support targeted noninvasive screening for LV hypertrophy with ECHO among obese firefighters. PMID:27687051

  7. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-14

    This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  8. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  9. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  10. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  11. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  12. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  13. Top quark mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Tuula [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-03-18

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parametrized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parametrized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector.

  14. Metabolite profiling of Triterpene Saponins in medicago truncatula hairy roots by liquid chromatography fourier transform Ion Cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pollier, Jacob; Morreel, Kris; Geelen, Danny; Goossens, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Triterpenes are one of the largest classes of plant natural products, with an enormous variety in structure and bioactivities. Here, triterpene saponins from hairy roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula were profiled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC ESI FT-ICR MS). Owing to the accuracy of the FT-ICR MS, reliable molecular formulas of the detected compounds could be ...

  15. Supersymmetry for Fermion Masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun

    2007-01-01

    It is proposed that supersymmetry (SUSY) may be used to understand fermion mass hierarchies. A family symmetry Z3L is introduced, which is the cyclic symmetry among the three generation SU(2) doublets. SUSY breaks at a high energy scale ~ 1011 GeV. The electroweak energy scale ~ 100 GeV is unnaturally small. No additional global symmetry, like the R-parity, is imposed. The Yukawa couplings and R-parity violating couplings all take their natural values, which are (&)(100 ~ 10-2). Under the family symmetry, only the third generation charged fermions get their masses. This family symmetry is broken in the soft SUSY breaking terms, which result in a hierarchical pattern of the fermion masses. It turns out that for the charged leptons, the τ mass is fromthe Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV)and the sneutrino VEVs, the muon mass is due to the sneutrino VEVs, and the electron gains its mass due to both Z3L and SUSY breaking. The large neutrino mixing are produced with neutralinos playing the partial role of right-handed neutrinos. |Ve3|, which is for ve-vτ mixing, is expected to be about 0.1. For the quarks, the third generation masses are from the Higgs VEVs, the second generation masses are from quantum corrections, and the down quark mass due to the sneutrino VEVs. It explains mc/ms, ms/me, md > mu, and so on. Other aspects of the model are discussed.

  16. Masses, Radii, and the Equation of State of Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özel, Feryal; Freire, Paulo

    2016-09-01

    We summarize our current knowledge of neutron-star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the past few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron-star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with three known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0-M⊙ mass range. For radii, large, high-quality data sets from X-ray satellites as well as significant progress in theoretical modeling led to considerable progress in the measurements, placing them in the 10-11.5-km range and shrinking their uncertainties, owing to a better understanding of the sources of systematic errors. The combination of the massive-neutron-star discoveries, the tighter radius measurements, and improved laboratory constraints of the properties of dense matter has already made a substantial impact on our understanding of the composition and bulk properties of cold nuclear matter at densities higher than that of the atomic nucleus, a major unsolved problem in modern physics.

  17. Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Li, Ailin; Tian, Yuan; Zare, Richard N; Austin, Daniel E

    2016-08-02

    We report a linear ion trap (LIT) in which the electric field is formed by fine wires held under tension and accurately positioned using holes drilled in two end plates made of plastic. The coordinates of the hole positions were optimized in simulation. The stability diagram and mass spectra using boundary ejection were compared between simulation and experiment and good agreement was found. The mass spectra from experiments show peak widths (fwhm) in units of mass-to-charge of around 0.38 Th using a scan rate of 3830 Th/s. The limits of detection are 137 ppbv and 401 ppbv for benzene and toluene, respectively. Different sizes of the wire ion trap can be easily fabricated by drilling holes in scaled positions. Other distinguishing features, such as high ion and photon transmission, low capacitance, high tolerance to mechanical and assembly error, and low weight, are discussed.

  18. [Atypical intraperitoneal cystic masses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Pérez, S T; Baeza-Herrera, C; Villalobos-Castillejos, A; González-Mateos, T; Aguilar-Venegas, M

    2010-01-01

    Omental, mesenteric and retroperitoneal cystic masses are very rare in pediatric population. They usually present as asymptomatic abdominal tumors and only occasionally a preoperative diagnosis is made. We presented 4 cases presented to our hospital during a 2-year period. All patients were male with an age ranged from 5 months to 7 years. Three patients had previous diagnosis of cystic mass by abdominal ultrasound. Three patients presented with acute abdomen and one patient with bowel obstruction. All patients underwent successful resection of the mass with no perioperative mortality.

  19. High Resolution Mass Spectrometry of Polyfluorinated Polyether-Based Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimzon, Ian Ken; Trier, Xenia; Frömel, Tobias; Helmus, Rick; Knepper, Thomas P.; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-02-01

    High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was successfully applied to elucidate the structure of a polyfluorinated polyether (PFPE)-based formulation. The mass spectrum generated from direct injection into the MS was examined by identifying the different repeating units manually and with the aid of an instrument data processor. Highly accurate mass spectral data enabled the calculation of higher-order mass defects. The different plots of MW and the nth-order mass defects (up to n = 3) could aid in assessing the structure of the different repeating units and estimating their absolute and relative number per molecule. The three major repeating units were -C2H4O-, -C2F4O-, and -CF2O-. Tandem MS was used to identify the end groups that appeared to be phosphates, as well as the possible distribution of the repeating units. Reversed-phase HPLC separated of the polymer molecules on the basis of number of nonpolar repeating units. The elucidated structure resembles the structure in the published manufacturer technical data. This analytical approach to the characterization of a PFPE-based formulation can serve as a guide in analyzing not just other PFPE-based formulations but also other fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymers. The information from MS is essential in studying the physico-chemical properties of PFPEs and can help in assessing the risks they pose to the environment and to human health.

  20. Perspective on the Origin of Hadron Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig D.

    2017-01-01

    The energy-momentum tensor in chiral QCD, T_{μ ν }, exhibits an anomaly, viz. \\varTheta _0 := T_{μ μ } ne 0. Measured in the proton, this anomaly yields m_p^2, where m_p is the proton's mass; but, at the same time, when computed in the pion, the answer is m_π ^2=0. Any attempt to understand the origin and nature of mass, and identify observable expressions thereof, must explain and unify these two apparently contradictory results, which are fundamental to the nature of our Universe. Given the importance of Poincaré-invariance in modern physics, the utility of a frame-dependent approach to this problem seems limited. That is especially true of any approach tied to a rest-frame decomposition of T_{μ ν } because a massless particle does not possess a rest-frame. On the other hand, the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking paradigm, connected with a Poincaré-covariant treatment of the continuum bound-state problem, provides a straightforward, simultaneous explanation of both these identities, and also a diverse array of predictions, testable at existing and proposed facilities. From this perspective, < π | \\varTheta _0 |π rangle =0 owing to exact, symmetry-driven cancellations which occur between one-body dressing effects and two-body-irreducible binding interactions in any well-defined computation of the forward scattering amplitude that defines this expectation value in the pseudoscalar meson. The cancellation is incomplete in any other hadronic bound state, with a remainder whose scale is set by the size of one-body dressing effects.

  1. An innovative approach of structural instabilities in tetragonal tungsten bronze crystals through the concept of rigid unit modes

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, Mikhail; Saint-Grégoire, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) oxides are one of the most important classes of ferroelectrics. Many of these framework structures undergo ferroelastic transformations related to octahedron tilting deformations. Such tilting deformations are closely related to the Rigid Unit Modes (RUMs). This paper discusses the whole set of RUMs in an ideal TTB lattice and possible crystal structures which can emerge owing to the condensation of some of them. Analysis of available experimental data for the...

  2. Litigation, Mass Media, and the Campaign to Criminalize the Firearms Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. Haltom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the co-authors’ researches on mass media coverage of crusades against manufacturers and marketers of tobacco products in the United States to media coverage of similar crusades against manufacturers and marketers of firearms in the United States. The major contention of the article is that firearms-reformers have used civil suits and allied publicity outside courts to depict firearms producers and retailers as criminals. A major tactic that has unified reformers’ efforts inside and outside courts is deployment of crimtorts, civil litigation for torts that includes elements of criminal prosecution. Crimtorts and publicity through entertainment media enabled opponents of firearms companies to lose case after case yet to damage the reputations or brands of firearms makers and marketers. The firearms interests fended off crusaders in civil action after civil action yet became portrayed as outright criminals owing mostly to crimtorts. Este artículo amplia las investigaciones de los autores sobre la cobertura mediática de las cruzadas contra productores y vendedores de tabaco en los Estados Unidos hacia la cobertura mediática de cruzadas similares contra productores y vendedores de armas de fuego en Estados Unidos. El argumento principal del artículo sostiene que los que buscan la reforma de la legislación sobre armas de fuego han utilizado las demandas civiles y la publicidad externa a los tribunales para representar a los productores y vendedores de armas de fuego como criminales. Una táctica principal que ha unido los esfuerzos de los reformistas dentro y fuera de los tribunales es el uso de crimtorts, juicios civiles para acciones por responsabilidad civil extracontractual que incluyen elementos de procesos criminales. A pesar de perder caso tras caso, los crimtorts y la publicidad en los medios de entretenimiento permitió a los oponentes a las compañías armamentísticas perjudicar la reputación o las marcas de

  3. Graviton Mass Bounds

    CERN Document Server

    de Rham, Claudia; Tolley, Andrew J; Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Recently, aLIGO has announced the first direct detections of gravitational waves, a direct manifestation of the propagating degrees of freedom of gravity. The detected signals GW150914 and GW151226 have been used to examine the basic properties of these gravitational degrees of freedom, particularly setting an upper bound on their mass. It is timely to review what the mass of these gravitational degrees of freedom means from the theoretical point of view, particularly taking into account the recent developments in constructing consistent massive gravity theories. Apart from the GW150914 mass bound, a few other observational bounds have been established from the effects of the Yukawa potential, modified dispersion relation and fifth force that are all induced when the fundamental gravitational degrees of freedom are massive. We review these different mass bounds and examine how they stand in the wake of recent theoretical developments and how they compare to the bound from GW150914.

  4. Mass Separation by Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-25

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  5. Improved Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Mass Spectrometer project will develop system requirements and analyze the path to space qualification.   The results of this project...

  6. W mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Andari, Nansi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A first measurement of the W-boson mass at the LHC is presented based on about 4.6 fb^-1 of proton–proton collision data recorded in 2011 at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector. The measured value is 80370±19 MeV, consistent with the Standard Model prediction, with the combined values measured at the LEP and Tevatron colliders, and with the world average. The ATLAS result equals in precision the previous best measurement of the W mass, performed by the CDF collaboration. The CMS results for the W-like measurement of the Z boson mass using dimuon events are also shown. An overview of the analyses is shown with a special emphasis on the evaluation of the experimental systematic uncertainties, as well as on the uncertainties due to the modelling of the vector boson production and decay.

  7. Absolute Neutrino Mass Determination

    CERN Document Server

    Päs, H

    2001-01-01

    We discuss four approaches to the determination of absolute neutrino mass. These are the measurement of the zero-neutrino double beta decay rate, of the tritium decay end-point spectrum, of the cosmic ray spectrum above the GZK cutoff, and the cosmological measurement of the power spectrum governing the CMB and large scale structure. The first two approaches are sensitive to the mass eigenstates coupling to the electron neutrino, whereas the latter two are sensitive to the heavy component of the cosmic neutrino background. All mass eigenstates are related by the $\\Delta m^2$'s inferred from neutrino oscillation data. Consequently, the potential for absolute mass determination of each of the four approaches is correlated with the other three, in ways that we point out.

  8. Paperbacks in Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Hanno

    1978-01-01

    Lists paperback books on mass communication, divided into six categories: history and biography; appraisals of the press, law, and ethics; cultural, psychological, and social aspects; radio, television, film, photography; international communication; and journalism techniques, miscellaneous. (GW)

  9. Arkitektur & Mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Publikationens ambition er at udrede og give indblik i produktindustriens seneste udvikling med forretnings- og produktionsstrategien Mass Customization, og dermed en indgang til de muligheder og problemer der knytter sig til implementering af disse eller tilsvarende strategier i byggebranchen, og...

  10. Stable lepton mass matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Domcke, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    We study natural lepton mass matrices, obtained assuming the stability of physical flavour observables with respect to the variations of individual matrix elements. We identify all four possible stable neutrino textures from algebraic conditions on their entries. Two of them turn out to be uniquely associated to specific neutrino mass patterns. We then concentrate on the semi-degenerate pattern, corresponding to an overall neutrino mass scale within the reach of future experiments. In this context we show that i) the neutrino and charged lepton mixings and mass matrices are largely constrained by the requirement of stability, ii) naturalness considerations give a mild preference for the Majorana phase most relevant for neutrinoless double-beta decay, $\\alpha \\sim \\pi/2$, and iii) SU(5) unification allows to extend the implications of stability to the down quark sector. The above considerations would benefit from an experimental determination of the PMNS ratio $|U_{32}/U_{31}|$, i.e. of the Dirac phase $\\delta...

  11. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  12. Cantilever Based Mass Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Cantilever based mass sensors utilize that a change in vibrating mass will cause a change in the resonant frequency. This can be used for very accurate sensing of adsorption and desorption processes on the cantilever surface. The change in resonant frequency caused by a single molecule depends...... on various parameters including the vibrating mass of the cantilever and the frequency at which it vibrates. The minimum amount of molecules detectable is highly dependent on the noise of the system as well as the method of readout. The aim of this Ph.D. thesis has been twofold: To develop a readout method...... suitable for a portable device and to investigate the possibility of enhancing the functionality and sensitivity of cantilever based mass sensors. A readout method based on the hard contact between the cantilever and a biased electrode placed in close proximity to the cantilever is proposed. The viability...

  13. Precision gaugino mass measurements as a probe of large trilinear soft terms at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Nagata, Natsumi; Serce, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric models with radiatively-driven naturalness, higgsino-like electroweak-inos (EW-inos) are expected to lie in a mass range 100--300 GeV, the lighter the more natural. Such states can be pair-produced at high rates at ILC where their masses are nearly equal to the value of the superpotential mu parameter while their mass splittings depend on the gaugino masses M_1 and M_2. The gaugino masses in turn depend on trilinear soft terms---the A parameters, which are expected to lie in the multi-TeV range owing to the 125 GeV Higgs mass---via two-loop contributions to renormalization group running. We examine the extent to which ILC is sensitive to large A-terms via precision EW-ino mass measurement. Extraction of gaugino masses at the percent level should allow for interesting probes of large trilinear soft SUSY breaking terms under the assumption of unified gaugino masses.

  14. Competitiveness in mass tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Claver Cortés, Enrique; Molina-Azorín, José F.; Pereira-Moliner, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    This paper offers an indepth analysis of a second-generation destination specializing in sun and sand mass tourism: Benidorm, Spain. Contrary to the view of many researchers, it is argued that such destinations need not inevitably decline and can in fact continue to be competitive. The persistence of this sun and sand mass tourism model is shown empirically through an analysis of its evolution and competitive situation. The paper offers suggestions about the strategies Benidorm hotels s...

  15. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions....

  16. The PAMELA storage and control unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolino, M. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: Marco.Casolino@roma2.infn.it; Altamura, F. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Basili, A. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Minori, M. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Nagni, M. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Picozza, P. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Sparvoli, R. [INFN, Structure of Rome II, Physics Department, University of Rome II ' Tor Vergata' , I-00133 Rome (Italy); Adriani, O. [INFN, Structure of Florence, Physics Department, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Papini, P. [INFN, Structure of Florence, Physics Department, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Spillantini, P. [INFN, Structure of Florence, Physics Department, University of Florence, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Castellini, G. [CNR-Istituto di Fisica Applicata ' Nello Carrara' , I-50127 Florence (Italy); Boezio, M. [INFN, Structure of Trieste, Physics Department, University of Trieste, I-34147 Trieste (Italy)

    2007-03-01

    The PAMELA Storage and Control Unit (PSCU) comprises a Central Processing Unit (CPU) and a Mass Memory (MM). The CPU of the experiment is based on a ERC-32 architecture (a SPARC v7 implementation) running a real time operating system (RTEMS). The main purpose of the CPU is to handle slow control, acquisition and store data on a 2 GB MM. Communications between PAMELA and the satellite are done via a 1553B bus. Data acquisition from the sub-detectors is performed via a 2 MB/s interface. Download from the PAMELA MM towards the satellite main storage unit is handled by a 16 MB/s bus. The maximum daily amount of data transmitted to ground is about 20 GB.

  17. Top Quark Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-10-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I will discuss the status of those techniques and their results, and present a brief outlook of further improvements in the experimental determination of the top quark mass to be expected at the LHC and beyond.

  18. Substernal Thyroid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H. Regal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum. They preserve the connection between the thoracic and cervical portion and receive their blood supply from the neck.2,3 In 1940, the seminal report of Wakeley and Mulvany divided intrathoracic thyroid masses into 3 types; (1”Small substernal extension” of a mainly cervical mass, (2 “Partial” intrathoracic, in which the major portion of the mass is situated within the thorax, and (3”Complete” in which all of the mass lies within the thoracic cavity.

  19. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  20. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  1. Dosimetric impact of the variation of the conversion feature of hounsfield units to mass density in the simulation by the method of Monte Carlo in radiotherapy treatment; Impacto dosimetrico de la variacion de la funcion de conversion de unidades hounsfield a densidad de masa en la simulacion por el metodo de Monte Carlo de un tratamiento de radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Albericio, F. J.; Laliena Bielsa, V.; Gandia Martinez, A.; Font Gomez, J. A.; Andres Redondo, M. M.; Mengual Gil, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    The study focuses on linear transformations which are made on the study of TC to get the array of mass densities, and how affects the variation of these transformations in clinical dosimetry. (Author)

  2. Carbon-cluster mass calibration at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Ankur

    2007-12-10

    A carbon-cluster ion source has been installed and tested at SHIPTRAP, the Penning-trap mass spectrometer for mass measurements of heavy elements at GSI/Darmstadt, Germany. A precision mass determination is carried out by measuring the ion cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c}=qB=m, where q/m is the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion and B is the magnetic field. The mass of the ion of interest is obtained from the comparison of its cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub c} with that of a well-known reference ion. Carbon clusters are the mass reference of choice since the unified atomic mass unit is defined as 1/12 of the mass of the {sup 12}C atom. Thus the masses of carbon clusters {sup 12}C{sub n}, n=1,2,3,.. are multiples of the unified atomic mass unit. Carbon-cluster ions {sup 12}C{sub n}{sup +}, 5{<=}n{<=}23, were produced by laser-induced desorption and ionization from a carbon sample. Carbon clusters of various sizes ({sup 12}C{sub 7}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 9}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 10}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 11}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 12}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 15}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 18}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 19}{sup +}, {sup 12}C{sub 20}{sup +}) were used for an investigation of the accuracy of SHIPTRAP covering a mass range from 84 u to 240 u. To this end the clusters were used both as ions of interest and reference ions. Hence the true values of the frequency ratios are exactly known. The mass-dependent uncertainty was found to be negligible for the case of (m-m{sub ref})<100 u. However, a systematic uncertainty of 4.5 x 10{sup -8} was revealed. In addition, carbon clusters were employed for the first time as reference ions in an on-line studies of short-lived nuclei. Absolute mass measurements of the radionuclides {sup 144}Dy, {sup 146}Dy and {sup 147}Ho were performed using {sup 12}C{sub 11}{sup +} as reference ion. The results agree with measurements during the same run using {sup 85}Rb{sup +} as reference ion. The investigated radionuclides were produced in the

  3. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  4. Techniques for mass resolution improvement achieved by typical plasma mass analyzers: Modeling and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Georgios; Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Mass separation and particularly distinction between atomic ions and molecular ions are essential in understanding a wide range of plasma environments, with each consisted of different species with various properties. In this study we present the optimization results of light-weight (about 2 kg) magnetic mass analyzers with high g-factor for Rosetta (Ion Composition Analyser: ICA) and for Mars Express and Venus Express (Ion Mass Analyser: IMA). For the instrument's optimization we use SIMION, a 3D ion tracing software in which we can trace particle beams of several energies and directions, passing through the instrument's units. We first reproduced ICA and IMA results, which turned out to be different from simple models for low energy (< 100 eV). We then change the mechanical structure of several units of the instrument and we quantify the new mass resolution achieved with each change. Our goal is to find the optimal instrument's structure, which will allow us to achieve a proper mass resolution to distinguish atomic nitrogen from atomic oxygen for the purposes of a future magnetospheric mission.

  5. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  6. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Ways to Give Matching Gifts Donate Your Car Online Options United Way Close About UMDF Our ... Rights Reserved | UMDF Donor Privacy Policy Facebook Twitter Google+ Youtube Vimeo Instagram Email STAY UPDATED! Join the ...

  7. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  8. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  9. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  10. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  11. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  12. Solar abundance of manganese: a case for the existence of near Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia supernova progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Seitenzahl, Ivo R; Roepke, Friedrich K; Ruiter, Ashley J

    2013-01-01

    Context: Manganese is predominantly synthesised in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions. Owing to the entropy dependence of the Mn yield in explosive thermonuclear burning, SNe Ia involving near Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs (WDs) are predicted to produce Mn to Fe ratios significantly exceeding those of SN Ia explosions involving sub-Chandrasekhar mass primary WDs. Of all current supernova explosion models, only SN Ia models involving near-Chandrasekhar mass WDs produce [Mn/Fe] > 0.0. Aims: Using the specific yields for competing SN Ia scenarios, we aim to constrain the relative fractions of exploding near-Chandrasekhar mass to sub-Chandrasekhar mass primary WDs in the Galaxy. Methods: We extract the Mn yields from three-dimensional thermonuclear supernova simulations referring to different initial setups and progenitor channels. We then compute the chemical evolution of Mn in the Solar neighborhood, assuming SNe Ia are made up of different relative fractions of the considered explosion models. Results: We ...

  13. Dimensionless Units in the SI

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is supposed to be coherent. That is, when a combination of units is replaced by an equivalent unit, there is no additional numerical factor. Here we consider dimensionless units as defined in the SI, {\\it e.g.} angular units like radians or steradians and counting units like radioactive decays or molecules. We show that an incoherence may arise when different units of this type are replaced by a single dimensionless unit, the unit "one", and suggest how to properly include such units into the SI in order to remove the incoherence. In particular, we argue that the radian is the appropriate coherent unit for angles and that hertz is not a coherent unit in the SI. We also discuss how including angular and counting units affects the fundamental constants.

  14. Pediatric Neck Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Neck masses include a wide variety of diagnostic possibilities, with more than 60 etiologies that depend on clinical aspects such as age, location and time of disease progression. The interview and physical examination guide research that cross the neck masses in pediatric patients in 3 groups: infectious / inflammatory, and neoplastic embryonic remnants. The aim of this study was to present a protocol for evaluation of neck masses in the pediatric age group, based on a review of literature on the subject and experience of this service. Materials and Methods Survey of literature data from PubMed / Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus Database without language restriction, since 1980 sources, with the MeSH term "Pediatric neck mass".  Results Prepared flowchart guidelines to be followed according with diagnostic suspicions. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the initial clinical manifestations and according to etiological hypotheses formulated recommend evaluations protocols.  Conclusion The standardization of the evaluation of neck masses in children proves valuable and can help in the differential diagnosis of different etiologies involved.

  15. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  16. Milligram mass metrology using an electrostatic force balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gordon A.; Stirling, Julian; Kramar, John A.; Moses, Alexander; Abbott, Patrick; Steiner, Richard; Koffman, Andrew; Pratt, Jon R.; Kubarych, Zeina J.

    2016-10-01

    Although mass is typically defined within the International System of Units (SI) at the kilogram level, the pending SI redefinition provides an opportunity to realize mass at any scale using electrical metrology. We propose the use of an electromechanical balance to realize mass at the milligram level using SI electrical units. An integrated concentric-cylinder vacuum gap capacitor allows us to leverage the highly precise references available for capacitance, voltage and length to generate an electrostatic reference force. Weighing experiments performed on 1 mg and 20 mg artifacts show the same or lower uncertainty than similar experiments performed by subdividing the kilogram. The measurement is currently limited by the stability of the materials that compose the mass artifacts and the changes in adsorbed layers on the artifact surfaces as they are transferred from vacuum to air.

  17. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Baehr, Hans Dieter

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook provides a solid foundation of knowledge on the principles of heat and mass transfer and shows how to solve problems by applying modern methods. The basic theory is developed systematically, exploring in detail the solution methods to all important problems.   The thoroughly revised 3rd edition includes an introduction to the numerical solution of Finite Elements. A new section on heat and mass transfer in porous media has also been added.   The book will be useful not only to upper-level and graduate students, but also to practicing scientists and engineers, offering a firm understanding of the principles of heat and mass transfer, and showing how to solve problems by applying modern methods. Many completed examples and numerous exercises with solutions facilitate learning and understanding, and an appendix includes data on key properties of important substances.

  18. Keaton and the Masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    This paper explores conflicts between individual and mass and the process of 'massification' (i.e. the becoming of masses) as comic potential in Buster Keaton’s physical comedies. This comic potential is characterized by a person’s formalized and aestheticized de-individualization when confronted...... with tangible, non-human matter. As already indicated by Henri Bergson, de-individualization plays an important role in modern comedy in general. With his intense focus on massification, Keaton is not only one of the first, but also one of the most dedicated investigators of comic de-individualization by purely...... and thematics of the films and down to the comic details of each individual gag. The paper initiates by considering the complex relations in Keaton between gag and narrative with specific regard to the conflict between the individual and the masses. This leads to an exploration of the basic compositional...

  19. Keaton and the Masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    This paper explores conflicts between individual and mass and the process of 'massification' (i.e. the becoming of masses) as comic potential in Buster Keaton’s physical comedies. This comic potential is characterized by a person’s formalized and aestheticized de-individualization when confronted...... with tangible, non-human matter. As already indicated by Henri Bergson, de-individualization plays an important role in modern comedy in general. With his intense focus on massification, Keaton is not only one of the first, but also one of the most dedicated investigators of comic de-individualization by purely...... and thematics of the films and down to the comic details of each individual gag. The paper initiates by considering the complex relations in Keaton between gag and narrative with specific regard to the conflict between the individual and the masses. This leads to an exploration of the basic compositional...

  20. Large area mass analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachev, Mikhail [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)]. E-mail: mikhail.rachev@mpi-hd.mpg.de; Srama, Ralf [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Srowig, Andre [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany); Gruen, Eberhard [Max-Planck-Institut for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg 69117 (Germany)

    2004-12-11

    A new time-of-flight spectrometer for the chemical analysis of cosmic dust particles in space has been simulated by Simion 7.0. The instrument is based upon impact ionization. This method is a reliable method for in situ dust detection and is well established. Instruments using the impact ionization flew on board of Helios and Galileo and are still in operation on board of the Ulysses and Cassini-Huygens missions. The new instrument has a large sensitive area of 0.1m2 in order to achieve a significant number of measurements. The mass resolution M/{delta}M>100 and the mass range covers the most relevant elements expected in cosmic dust. The instrument has a reflectron configuration which increases the mass resolution. Most of the ions released during the impact are focused to the detector. The ion detector consists of a large area ion-to-electron converter, an electron reflectron and a microchannel plate detector.

  1. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  2. Treatment of appendiceal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure...... in total 3,772 patients. Operation for appendiceal mass was beset with a moderate to high risk of complications of up to 57% and a risk of intestinal resection of up to 25%. Major complications were observed in up to 18% of cases. Conservative treatment with or without antibiotics was associated...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  3. Comparative mass spectrometric analyses of Photofrin oligomers by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, UV and IR matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and laser desorption/jet-cooling photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M M; Tabei, K; Tsao, R; Pastel, M J; Pandey, R K; Berkenkamp, S; Hillenkamp, F; de Vries, M S

    1999-06-01

    Photofrin (porfimer sodium) is a porphyrin derivative used in the treatment of a variety of cancers by photodynamic therapy. This oligomer complex and a variety of porphyrin monomers, dimers and trimers were analyzed with five different mass spectral ionization techniques: fast atom bombardment, UV and IR matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, electrospray ionization, and laser desorption/jet-cooling photoionization. All five approaches resulted in very similar oligomer distributions with an average oligomer length of 2.7 +/- 0.1 porphyrin units. In addition to the Photofrin analysis, this study provides a side-by-side comparison of the spectra for the five different mass spectrometric techniques.

  4. Development and evaluation of magnesium oxide-based ceramics for chamber parts in mass-production plasma etching equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Yuji; Tsutsumi, Kota; Mitomi, Shinzo; Uesugi, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In mass-production plasma etching equipment, the corrosion of ceramic chamber parts reduces the production yield of LSI and overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) owing to contamination, short useful life, and particle generation. Novel ceramics that can improve the production yield and OEE are highly required. We develop magnesium oxide (MgO)-based ceramics and evaluate them under mass-production plasma etching conditions. The results of this study indicate that the developed MgO-based ceramics with high mechanical properties and low electric resistivity have a higher resistance to corrosion in plasma etching using CF4 gas than Si and conventional ceramic materials such as aluminum oxide and yttrium oxide.

  5. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  6. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  7. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  8. Spontaneously broken mass

    CERN Document Server

    Endlich, Solomon; Penco, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincar\\'e group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  9. A large thumb mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amit K; Macnair, Rory; Figus, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a 5-year history of a spontaneously occurring soft tissue mass on the palmar aspect of his left non dominant thumb. Over 5 months he was having progressive difficulty flexing at the interphalangeal joint. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass likely to be either a peripheral fibromatosis or giant cell tumour of the flexor tendon (Figure 1). Intraoperatively a large neuroma in continuity with the ulnar digital nerve was found and debulked (Figure 2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  10. A GPU Accelerated Spring Mass System for Surgical Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Jesper; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing demand for surgical simulators to dofast and precise calculations of tissue deformation to simulateincreasingly complex morphology in real-time. Unfortunately, evenfast spring-mass based systems have slow convergence rates for largemodels. This paper presents a method to accele...... to accelerate computation of aspring-mass system in order to simulate a complex organ such as theheart. This acceleration is achieved by taking advantage of moderngraphics processing units (GPU)....

  11. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  12. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  13. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  14. Light Quark Mass Effects in Bottom Quark Mass Determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, A. H.

    2001-01-01

    Recent results for charm quark mass effects in perturbative bottom quark mass determinations from $\\Upsilon$ mesons are reviewed. The connection between the behavior of light quark mass corrections and the infrared sensitivity of some bottom quark mass definitions is examined in some detail.

  15. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102...

  16. The Origin of Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Raya, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and confinement are two crucial features of Quantum Chromodynamics responsible for the nature of the hadron spectrum. These phenomena, presumably coincidental, can account for 98% of the mass of our visible universe. In this set of lectures, I shall present an introductory review of them in the light of the Schwinger-Dyson equations.

  17. Mass Equivalent Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Bai, Shaoping; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 2-DoF dyad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of balanced mechanisms, for instance to increase or reduce the number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its balance. Also it can be used as

  18. Mass equivalent triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 3-DoF triad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of shaking force balanced and statically balanced mechanisms, for instance to add or remove a number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its

  19. Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, S.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2009-01-01

    With this book we want to illustrate how two quickly growing fields of instrumentation and technology, both applied to life sciences, mass spectrometry and microfluidics (or microfabrication) naturally came to meet at the end of the last century and how this marriage impacts on several types of appl

  20. Processes of Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channey, David

    This sociological treatment of mass communications analysis first discusses the theories of audience behavior, then turns to the organization of media production, and closes with a study of performance. The book covers audience needs and gratifications, the history of British press and broadcasting results of systems of media distribution, the…

  1. Media, Minds, and Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggot, James; Vino, Faith

    This booklet describes the language arts course "Media, Minds, and Masses," written for the Dade County, Fla., public schools. Topics for the course include the workings of contemporary radio, television, newspapers, magazines, and movies; the present status and power of media; the history and development of media; and the influences of…

  2. A female mass murder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsavdakis, Kostas A; Meloy, J Reid; White, Stephen G

    2011-05-01

    A case study of a 44-year-old woman who committed a mass murder is presented. Following a chronic course of psychotic deterioration, and a likely diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia that remained untreated, she returned to her workplace after 3 years from her termination and killed seven people and herself. Her history is reconstructed through investigation of primary and secondary source materials. Although there are very few female mass murderers in recorded criminal history, this case is quite similar to the known research on mass murderers in general. Such individuals often have a psychotic disorder evident in violent and paranoid delusions, show a deteriorating life course before the mass murder, intentionally plan and prepare for their assault, and methodically kill as many individuals as possible before taking their own lives. They typically do not directly threaten the target beforehand, but do leak their intent to third parties--however, in this case, leakage and other obvious warning behaviors did not occur. Such acts are impossible to predict but depend on threat management and target security for risk mitigation. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Valle, J W F

    2005-01-01

    I summarize the status of three--neutrino oscillations that follow from combining the relevant world's data. The discussion includes the small parameters Delta_m-sol/Delta_m-atm and \\sin^2\\theta_{13}, which characterize the strength of CP violation in neutrino oscillations, the impact of oscillation data on the prospects for probing the absolute scale of neutrino mass in \

  4. "Magic" Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimpin, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The systematic study of the temperature and pressure dependence of matrix-assisted ionization (MAI) led us to the discovery of the seemingly impossible, initially explained by some reviewers as either sleight of hand or the misinterpretation by an overzealous young scientist of results reported many years before and having little utility. The "magic" that we were attempting to report was that with matrix assistance, molecules, at least as large as bovine serum albumin (66 kDa), are lifted into the gas phase as multiply charged ions simply by exposure of the matrix:analyte sample to the vacuum of a mass spectrometer. Applied heat, a laser, or voltages are not necessary to achieve charge states and ion abundances only previously observed with electrospray ionization (ESI). The fundamentals of how solid phase volatile or nonvolatile compounds are converted to gas-phase ions without added energy currently involves speculation providing a great opportunity to rethink mechanistic understanding of ionization processes used in mass spectrometry. Improved understanding of the mechanism(s) of these processes and their connection to ESI and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization may provide opportunities to further develop new ionization strategies for traditional and yet unforeseen applications of mass spectrometry. This Critical Insights article covers developments leading to the discovery of a seemingly magic ionization process that is simple to use, fast, sensitive, robust, and can be directly applied to surface characterization using portable or high performance mass spectrometers.

  5. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  6. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  7. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  8. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  9. Ultrahigh performance of Ti-based glassy alloy tube sensor for Coriolis mass flowmeter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-li; A. INOUE; ZHANG Tao

    2006-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have potential applications for both structural and functional components owing to their good mechanical properties. With the aim of demonstrating great engineering value of BMGs, a direct melt-forming technique based on suction casting for the production of glassy alloy tubes was developed. The fabrication, structure, geometry, properties and sensor performance of the tubes were examined. The results show that the Coriolis mass flowmeters using the Ti-based glassy alloy sensor tube exhibit excellent measurement sensitivity, viz. 28.5 times higher than that of the conventional flowmeter manufactured using stainless steel (SUS316) tube.

  10. The Methods for Direct Detection of WIMP with Mass <0.5 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, B M; Parusov, V V

    2015-01-01

    The chamber for direct detection of WIMP with mass <0.5 Gev/c2 was developed. The chamber is filled with gas mixture Ne+10%H2 (0-1bar)+0,15ppm Ge(CH3)4. For events detection used GEM+pin-anodes , which provides the energy threshold about eV. The electron background is suppressed owing to photosensitive addition Ge(CH3)4 . It is proposed also for direct detection of WIMP the liquid argon chamber with H2 dissolved in liquid argon at a concentration 100ppm+0,015ppm Ge(CH3)4 .

  11. Determination of Metformin in Human Plasma by Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometric Assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; WANG Ying-wu; GU Jing-kai; WU Yi; WANG Yan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide) (Fig. 1) is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type Ⅱ). Owing to its weight-decreasing and serum lipid-normalizing effects, it is especially recommended for obese patients[1,2] Various analytical methods have been described for the measurement of metformin in biological fluids, including gas chromatography(GC)[3-5], capillary electrophoresis (CE)[6] and HPLC[7~16]with UV detection[7-12,17] HPLC-Mass spectrometry (LC/APCIMS/MS ) offers an attractive alternative to HPLC[18].

  12. Pondering Parotid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Miller

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A49-year-old, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- infected, Haitian-born woman presented with a left facial mass that she had noticed for the previous eight weeks. She was known to have been HIV-seropositive for the previous 11 years and had been on multiple antiretroviral therapies. Her past medical history was also significant for hypertension, disseminated varicella zoster virus and recurrent oral and buttock Herpes simplex episodes. She was taking the following medications at the time of her presentation with the facial mass: stavudine, lamivudine, didanosine, nelfinavir mesylate, famciclovir, hydrochlorothiazide and cotrimoxazole. She had no complaints of fever, chills, sweats, weight loss or anorexia. She denied any pain, redness or warmth at the site of the facial swelling. Her most recent CD4 lymphocyte count was 336 cells/µL, with an HIV viral load of log102.6 copies/mL. Physical examination revealed a 4 cm fluid-filled mass in the left parotid gland. There was no detectable induration, redness, warmth or tenderness, and no associated adenopathy. The rest of the examination was unremarkable. An aspirate of the mass was performed under sterile conditions and yielded 30 mL of turbid, yellow liquid. A Gram stain revealed no neutrophils, scant mononuclear cells and no visible organisms. An acid-fast stain was negative as well. Routine, mycobacterial and fungal cultures showed no growth. Cytological analysis showed scant reactive lymphocytes and no malignant cells. The patient was not given therapy and was observed for another two months. The fluid reaccumulated in the left parotid gland, and the patient?s only complaint concerned the unsightly appearance of the mass. The lesion was again aspirated for 30 mL of fluid and this time, the fluid had a turbid, brown appearance. All laboratory results were identical to the results from the first aspirate. What is your diagnosis, and how would you treat this patient?

  13. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  14. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  15. First mass measurement at JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, A. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Eronen, T. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hager, U. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hakala, J. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kolhinen, V. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kopecky, S. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rinta-Antila, S. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Szerypo, J. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, PB 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2004-12-27

    The first mass measurements at JYFLTRAP facility are reviewed. Those are also first ever direct mass measurements of the heaviest Zr-isotopes. Results are compared to atomic mass evaluation data and the recent calculations. The first TOF-resonances from high-precision trap and an implication to high-precision mass measurements are discussed.

  16. Riddle of the Neutrino Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    We discuss some known approaches and results as well as few new ideas concerning origins and nature of neutrino mass. The key issues include (i) connections of neutrino and charged fermions masses, relation between masses and mixing, energy scale of new physics behind neutrino mass where possibilities spread from the Planck and GUT masses down to a sub-eV scale. The data hint two different new physics involved in generation of neutrino mass. Determination of the CP phase as well as mass hierarchy can play important role in identification of new physics. It may happen that sterile neutrinos provide the key to resolve the riddle.

  17. Strange quark mass and Lambda parameter by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We determine f_K for lattice QCD in the two flavor approximation with non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions. The result is used to set the scale for dimensionful quantities in CLS/ALPHA simulations. To control its dependence on the light quark mass, two different strategies for the chiral extrapolation are applied. Combining f_K and the bare strange quark mass with non-perturbative renormalization factors and step scaling functions computed in the Schroedinger Functional, we determine the RGI strange quark mass and the Lambda parameter in units of f_K.

  18. The W Boson Mass Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V.

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984-2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  19. The W Boson Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984–2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  20. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  1. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  2. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  3. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

  4. Sickle Cell Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    Included in this high school biology unit on sickle cell anemia are the following materials: a synopsis of the history of the discovery and the genetic qualities of the disease; electrophoresis diagrams comparing normal, homozygous and heterozygous conditions of the disease; and biochemical characteristics and population genetics of the disease. A…

  5. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  6. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  7. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  8. Impact of sudden mass mortality on suicides

    CERN Document Server

    Roehner, Bertrand M

    2009-01-01

    We show that a large scale mass mortality results in increased numbers of suicides. As a case in point, we consider the influenza epidemic of October 1918 in the United States. In this month, suicides peaked at a level of over 4s (where s denotes the desaisonalized standard deviation of the suicide rate) which means that one would expect such a jump to occur merely by chance only once in several centuries. The mechanism that we propose to explain this effect relies on two steps (i) Mass mortalities break family bonds for instance between parents and children or husbands and wives. (ii) Increased numbers of suicides then result from the well known fact that the severance of family bonds invariably produces more suicides.

  9. Atmospheric Mass Loss During Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting, Hilke; Yalinewich, Almog

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the atmospheric mass loss during planet formation by examining the contributions to atmospheric loss from both giant impacts and planetesimal accretion. Giant impacts cause global motion of the ground. Using analytic self-similar solutions and full numerical integrations we find (for isothermal atmospheres with adiabatic index ($\\gamma=5/3$) that the local atmospheric mass loss fraction for ground velocities $v_g \\sqrt{2} \\rho_0 (\\pi h R)^{3/2}$ (25~km for the current Earth), are able to eject all the atmosphere above the tangent plane of the impact site, which is $h/2R$ of the whole atmosphere, where $h$, $R$ and $\\rho_0$ are the atmospheric scale height, radius of the target, and its atmospheric density at the ground. 2) Smaller impactors, but above $m>4 \\pi \\rho_0 h^3$ (1~km for the current Earth) are only able to eject a fraction of the atmospheric mass above the tangent plane. We find that the most efficient impactors (per unit impactor mass) for atmospheric loss are planetesimals just above...

  10. Microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Garnett C.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the microprocessor controlled proof-mass actuator is to develop the capability to mount a small programmable device on laboratory models. This capability will allow research in the active control of flexible structures. The approach in developing the actuator will be to mount all components as a single unit. All sensors, electronic and control devices will be mounted with the actuator. The goal for the force output capability of the actuator will be one pound force. The programmable force actuator developed has approximately a one pound force capability over the usable frequency range, which is above 2 Hz.

  11. Masse et fascisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Brumlik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L’époque du fascisme s’est annoncée comme une époque des masses, plus précisément des masses fascinées ou séduites par des chefs (Führer. Lorsque l’ouvrage majeur du sociologue Max Weber fut publié en 1921 à titre posthume, l’un de ses chapitres fut déjà consacré à la « domination charismatique » pour nommer, à travers le concept de « charisme », les qualités d’une personnalité « qui font qu’elle est perçue comme un chef, qui le font apparaître comme un émissaire de Dieu ou comme une personn...

  12. Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooker, Nancy; Joselyn, Jo Ann; Feynman, Joan

    The early 1970's can be said to mark the beginning of The Enlightenment in the history of the Space Age, literally as well as by analogy to European history. Instruments blinded by Earth's atmosphere were lifted above and, for the first time, saw clearly and continuously the ethereal white light and sparkling x-rays from the solar corona. From these two bands of the light spectrum came images of coronal mass ejections and coronal holes, respectively. But whereas coronal holes were immediately identified as the source of high-speed solar wind streams, at first coronal mass ejections were greeted only by a sense of wonder. It took years of research to identify their signatures in the solar wind before the fastest ones could be identified with the well-known shock disturbances that cause the most violent space storms.

  13. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  14. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  15. Masses of Fundamental Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    2011-01-01

    Not only the masses of fundamental particles including the weak bosons, Higgs scalar, quarks, and leptons, but also the mixing angles of quarks and those of neutrinos are all explained and/or predicted in the unified composite model of quarks and leptons successfully. In addition, both of the two anomalies recently found by the CDF Collaboration are suggested to be taken as evidences for the substructure of the fundamental particles.

  16. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data.

  17. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-30

    mass spectrometer. Also discussed were Corporation, St. Louis , Mo. unique analytical applications of several negative ion chemical Synthesis of the...were purchsed from obtained at a probe temperature of 180-200 °C and displays Sigma Chemical Co.. St. Louis , Mo. Arginine hydrochloride (4) a M4...13) Rosenstock. H, M.: Drax . K.: Stener. B. W: Hernon J. T. J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data 1977, 6, Supl. 1. 774-783,167 occur in the ratio of 10/ 1

  18. Neutrinos Mass and Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    González-Garciá, M Concepción

    1998-01-01

    I review the status of neutrino masses and mixings in the light of the solar and atmospheric neutrino data. The result from the LSND experiment and the possible role of neutrinos as hot dark matter are also included. I also discuss the simplest schemes proposed to reconcile these data which include a light sterile neutrino in addition to the three standard ones. Implications for future experiments are commented.

  19. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  20. Mass sensitivity studies for an inductively driven railgun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, J.J. (Science Applications International Corp., Marietta, GA (US)); Young, A.F. (Air Force Armament Lab., Eglin AFB, FL (United States))

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary system constructs for an Electromagnetic Launcher (EML) System consists of a homopolar generator (HPG) driven by a hot hydrogen multi-stage turbine/nuclear reactor. The HPG is used to charge an inductive energy store. A key evaluation criterion for determining the viability of an EML is system mass. The objective of this paper is to identify those areas which result in substantial system mass reductions for an HPG driven EML. Sensitivity studies are performed by varying launch mass peak acceleration, launcher efficiency, inductance gradient (L{prime}), injection velocity, barrel mass per unit length, fuel tankage and pump estimates, and component energy and power densities. Two major contributors to the system mass are the allowed number of shots per barrel versus the number required for the mission, and the barrel length.

  1. Inflight magnetic characterization of the test masses onboard LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Aguiló, Marc; Lobo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a science and technology demonstrator of the European Space Agency within the framework of its LISA mission, the latter aiming to be the first space-borne gravitational wave observatory. The payload of LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package, which is designed to measure relative accelerations between two test masses in nominal free fall. The diagnostics subsystem consists of several modules, one of which is the magnetic diagnostics unit. Its main function is the assessment of the differential acceleration noise between the test masses due to magnetic effects. This subsystem is composed of two onboard coils intended to produce controlled magnetic fields at the location of the test masses. These magnetic fields couple with the remanent magnetic moment and susceptibility and produce forces and torques on the test masses. These, in turn, produce kinematic excursions of the test masses which are sensed by the onboard interferometer. We prove that adequately processing these exc...

  2. Nonlinear pulsation masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The advent of nonlinear pulsation theory really coincides with the development of the large computers after the second world war. Christy and Stobbie were the first to make use of finite difference techniques on computers to model the bumps'' observed in the classical Cepheid light and velocity curves, the so-called Hertzsprung'' sequence. Following this work a more sophisticated analysis of the light and velocity curves from the models was made by Simon and Davis using Fourier techniques. Recently a simpler amplitude equation formalism has been developed that helps explain this resonance mechanism. The determination of Population I Cepheid masses by nonlinear methods will be discussed. For the lower mass objects, such as RR Lyrae and BL Her. stars, we find general agreement using evolutionary masses and nonlinear pulsation theory. An apparent difficulty of nonlinear pulsation theory occurs in the understanding of double'' mode pulsation, which will also be discussed. Recent studies in nonlinear pulsation theory have dealt with the question of mode selection, period doubling and the trends towards chaotic behavior such as is observed in the transition from W Virginis to RV Tauri-like stars. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Mass extinction: a commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    Four neocatastrophist claims about mass extinction are currently being debated; they are that: 1, the late Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by large body impact; 2, as many as five other major extinctions were caused by impact; 3, the timing of extinction events since the Permian is uniformly periodic; and 4, the ages of impact craters on Earth are also periodic and in phase with the extinctions. Although strongly interconnected the four claims are independent in the sense that none depends on the others. Evidence for a link between impact and extinction is strong but still needs more confirmation through bed-by-bed and laboratory studies. An important area for future research is the question of whether extinction is a continuous process, with the rate increasing at times of mass extinctions, or whether it is episodic at all scales. If the latter is shown to be generally true, then species are at risk of extinction only rarely during their existence and catastrophism, in the sense of isolated events of extreme stress, is indicated. This is line of reasoning can only be considered an hypothesis for testing. In a larger context, paleontologists may benefit from a research strategy that looks to known Solar System and Galactic phenomena for predictions about environmental effects on earth. The recent success in the recognition of Milankovitch Cycles in the late Pleistocene record is an example of the potential of this research area.

  4. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  5. Masses of noble gases

    CERN Multimedia

    Marx, G H; Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M

    The so-called magic numbers, cornerstones of the quantum nuclear ensemble, are now known to lose their supernatural powers far from the protected valley of stability. To complement the well-established (but not yet well-understood) case of N = 20, we propose to examine the erstwhile N = 28 shell closure via a measurement of the important (but unknown) mass of the nuclide $^{48}$Ar. The quenching of a shell closure, a mechanism as mysterious as the reason for magic numbers themselves, also has important consequences in nucleosynthesis. While $^{48}$Ar is not part of the region concerned by the canonical rapid neutro-capture r-process, the question of shell strength is of great importance for heavier nuclides. The location of the r-process path would benefit from extending the succesful ISOTRAP krypton mass measurements beyond the N = 58 sub-shell to $^{96-98}$Kr. Modeling the complementary rapid proton-capture rp- process, putative source of some proton-rich species, requires the mass of $^{70}$Kr, near the e...

  6. Mass balance re-analysis of Findelengletscher, Switzerland; benefits of extensive snow accumulation measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo eSold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A re-analysis is presented here of a 10-year mass balance series at Findelengletscher, a temperate mountain glacier in Switzerland. Calculating glacier-wide mass balance from the set of glaciological point balance observations using conventional approaches, such as the profile or contour method, resulted in significant deviations from the reference value given by the geodetic mass change over a five-year period. This is attributed to the sparsity of observations at high elevations and to the inability of the evaluation schemes to adequately estimate accumulation in unmeasured areas. However, measurements of winter mass balance were available for large parts of the study period from snow probings and density pits. Complementary surveys by helicopter-borne ground-penetrating radar (GPR were conducted in three consecutive years. The complete set of seasonal observations was assimilated using a distributed mass balance model. This model-based extrapolation revealed a substantial mass loss at Findelengletscher of -0.43m w.e. a^-1 between 2004 and 2014, while the loss was less pronounced for its former tributary, Adlergletscher (-0.30m w.e. a^-1. For both glaciers, the resulting time series were within the uncertainty bounds of the geodetic mass change. We show that the model benefited strongly from the ability to integrate seasonal observations. If no winter mass balance measurements were available and snow cover was represented by a linear precipitation gradient, the geodetic mass balance was not matched. If winter balance measurements by snow probings and snow density pits were taken into account, the model performance was substantially improved but still showed a significant bias relative to the geodetic mass change. Thus the excellent agreement of the model-based extrapolation with the geodetic mass change was owed to an adequate representation of winter accumulation distribution by means of extensive GPR measurements.

  7. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  8. Mass Media Forces in Our society. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Francis H.; Voelker, Ludmila A.

    The primary purpose of this book is to help the public become more aware and critical in their selection and appraisal of the media. Part 1 consists of a single essay by Theodore Peterson that gives a historical perspective on the development of the mass media in the United States. Part 2 deals with the print and electronic media: magazines, photo…

  9. The Mass Media: Aspen Institute Guide to Communication Industry Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Christopher H.; Haight, Timothy R.

    Intended to provide a single reference source for the most significant statistics describing communication industry trends in the United States since 1900, this book is a collection and assessment of the currently available quantitative descriptive information on mass media industries. The core of the book is its more than 300 tables of data on…

  10. Importance of the Mass Media Education: Western Cultural Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littunen, Yrjo

    1978-01-01

    Discusses features in the Western cultural background which may be relevant to changes in international opinion. Notes problems of freedom of information and cultural processes caused by mass communication among nations, including the high violence content of United States television programs compared with those of Canada and Europe. (MF)

  11. The Role of the Mass Media in Shaping Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael J.

    This discussion of agenda setting reviews early theories of mass communication and traces the beginnings of agenda setting theory to the 1968 United States presidential campaign, during which researchers found a high correlation between what the media were saying about issues and what the people thought were important issues. The results of more…

  12. The stellar mass-halo mass relation of isolated field dwarfs: a critical test of ΛCDM at the edge of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J. I.; Iorio, G.; Agertz, O.; Fraternali, F.

    2017-01-01

    We fit the rotation curves of isolated dwarf galaxies to directly measure the stellar mass-halo mass relation (M★ - M200) over the mass range 5 {×} 10^5 ≲ M_{*} / M_⊙ ≲ 108. By accounting for cusp-core transformations due to stellar feedback, we find a monotonic relation with little scatter. Such monotonicity implies that abundance matching should yield a similar M★ - M200 if the cosmological model is correct. Using the `field galaxy' stellar mass function from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the halo mass function from the Λ Cold Dark Matter Bolshoi simulation, we find remarkable agreement between the two. This holds down to M200 ˜ 5 × 109 M⊙, and to M200 ˜ 5 × 108 M⊙ if we assume a power law extrapolation of the SDSS stellar mass function below M★ ˜ 107 M⊙. However, if instead of SDSS we use the stellar mass function of nearby galaxy groups, then the agreement is poor. This occurs because the group stellar mass function is shallower than that of the field below M★ ˜ 109 M⊙, recovering the familiar `missing satellites' and `too big to fail' problems. Our result demonstrates that both problems are confined to group environments and must, therefore, owe to `galaxy formation physics' rather than exotic cosmology. Finally, we repeat our analysis for a Λ Warm Dark Matter cosmology, finding that it fails at 68% confidence for a thermal relic mass of mWDM < 1.25 keV, and mWDM < 2 keV if we use the power law extrapolation of SDSS. We conclude by making a number of predictions for future surveys based on these results.

  13. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  14. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  15. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  16. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  17. Unit 5. Thermodynamics (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Summary of the "Unit 5. Thermodynamics" of course "Physical Foundations of Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image Engineering, in Telecommunications. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante Resumen del "Tema 5. Termodinámica" de la asignatura "Fundamentos Físicos de la Ingeniería I". Grado en Ingeniería en Sonido e Imagen en Telecomunicaciones. Escuela Politécnica Superior. Universidad de Alicante.

  18. GalMass: A Smartphone Application for Estimating Galaxy Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Kyle R

    2011-01-01

    This note documents the methods used by the smartphone application, "GalMass," which has been released on the Android Market. GalMass estimates the halo virial mass (Mvir), stellar mass (Mstar), gas mass (Mgas), and galaxy gas fraction of a central galaxy as a function of redshift (z<2), with any one of the above masses as an input parameter. In order to convert between Mvir and Mstar (in either direction), GalMass uses fitting functions that approximate the abundance matching models of either Conroy & Wechsler (2009), Moster et al. (2010), or Behroozi et al. (2010). GalMass uses a a semi-empirical fit to observed galaxy gas fractions to convert between Mstar and Mgas, as outlined in Stewart et al. (2009).

  19. The teacher taught? What Charles Darwin owed to John Lubbock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The period around the publication of John Lubbock's Origin of civilisation in 1870 and Charles Darwin's Descent of man and selection in relation to sex the following year is key to a re-evaluation of the relationship between the two men, usually characterized as that of pupil and master. It is in the making of Descent that Lubbock's role as a scientific collaborator is most easily discerned, a role best understood within the social and political context of the time. Lubbock made Darwin—both the man and his science—acceptable and respectable. Less obvious is Darwin's conscious cultivation of Lubbock's patronage in both his private and public life, and Lubbock's equally conscious bestowal, culminating in his role in Darwin's burial in Westminster Abbey.

  20. Tackling infection owing to brain-eating amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Abdul Mannan; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-02-01

    In view of the devastating nature of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri and the problems associated with diagnostic delays and chemotherapeutic failures, here we propose a noninvasive diagnostic method using the 'reverse transcribrial route device', a novel strategy in the management of this life-threatening infection with a case fatality rate of more than 90%. The proposed rationale should stimulate interest in this emerging infection that almost always proves fatal.

  1. Optical cleaning owing to the bulk photovoltaic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, B.; Kösters, M.; Haertle, D.; Becher, C.; Buse, K.

    2009-12-01

    It is shown within the conventional photovoltaic charge-transport model that photoexcitable electrons, localized at deep impurity levels, can be effectively removed by light from the exposed area at sufficiently high temperatures. This allows to modify strongly the absorption and photoelectric properties of the material and, in particular, to suppress “optical damage” in LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 crystals. This optical cleaning method is applicable to numerous pyro- and piezo-electric optical materials. It employs the photovoltaic drift of electrons and ionic charge compensation at elevated temperatures. The physics of the optical cleaning is very rich; it has strong links to nonlinear dynamics and offers important handles for improvement of the cleaning performance. The use of properly moving light beams leads, e.g., to a strong enhancement of the cleaning rate and allows to reduce the electron concentration by several orders of magnitude. The theoretical predictions are supported by the data of our cleaning experiments with LiNbO3 crystals. In particular, the intensity threshold of optical damage is increased by three orders of magnitude.

  2. College Students Discount Money "Won" More than Money "Owed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam; Terrell, Heather K.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence in the research literature indicates people may treat "won" money differently than they would their own money. The present study had a sample of 648 college students complete a delay-discounting task that involved the hypothetical monetary amounts of $1,000 or $100,000. Participants were asked repeatedly what amount they would…

  3. Osteopathia Striata With Cranial Sclerosis Owing to WTX Gene Defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdu, Bram; de Freitas, Fenna; Frints, Suzanne G. M.; Schouten, Meyke; Schrander-Stumpel, Connie; Barbosa, Mafalda; Pinto-Basto, Jorge; Reis-Lima, Margarida; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Becker, Kristin; Freckmann, Marie-Louise; Keymolen, Kathlijn; Haan, Eric; Savarirayan, Ravi; Koenig, Rainer; Zabel, Bernhard; Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Van Hul, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is an X-linked dominant condition marked by linear striations mainly affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones and pelvis in combination with cranial sclerosis. Recently, the disease-causing gene was identified as the WTX gene (FAM123B), an

  4. College Students Discount Money "Won" More than Money "Owed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Derenne, Adam; Terrell, Heather K.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence in the research literature indicates people may treat "won" money differently than they would their own money. The present study had a sample of 648 college students complete a delay-discounting task that involved the hypothetical monetary amounts of $1,000 or $100,000. Participants were asked repeatedly what amount they would accept…

  5. Mass surveillance, privacy, and freedom : A case for public access to information about mass government surveillance programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, Bryce; Moore, Adam D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines judicial decisions about the legality of mass surveillance in the United States and Europe (at the European Court of Human Rights), and explores how the existence of these programs threatens individual freedom. In doing so, the chapter presents a theory of information access an

  6. NEW MESON MASS RELATION AND LOWEST PSEUDOSCALAR GLUEBALL MASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU NING; RUAN TU-NAN; ZHENG ZHI-PENG

    2001-01-01

    After considering its mixing with the glueball, we give a new mass relation for the meson nonet. According to this mass relation and the predicted mass of the pseudoscalar glueball given by lattice calculations and the effective Hamiltonian, the expected mass of the mixed pseudoscalar glueball is about 1.7 GeV. This result is helpful in the experimental search for the mixed isoscalar pseudoscalar glueball. η(1760) is discussed as a possible candidate for this type of particle.

  7. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  8. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  9. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  10. Mass movement processes associated with volcanic structures in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Carlos Valerio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mexico City, one of the most populated areas of the world, has been affected by various hazards of natural origin, such as subsidence and cracking of the soil, seismicity, floods and mass movement processes (MMPs. Owing to the lack of space on the plain, in recent years urban growth has been concentrated particularly on the slopes of the surrounding mountain ranges, and this has significantly modified the dynamics of the relief as well as the hydrogeological conditions. The specific character of natural susceptibility to mass movements is strongly dependent on the geological–structural and morphological characteristics of the volcanic bodies that form the mountainous relief. This natural susceptibility, combined with the characteristics of vulnerability of the society, creates risk conditions that can generate severe consequences for the population and the economy. Hence, based on an inventory of mass movement processes comprising 95 data points, the present study aimed to achieve a zoning of the areas susceptible to these processes, as well as to characterize the mechanisms of instability in the volcanic structures that form the relief of the area in question. The results of this work clearly show the role of the lithology, the mode of emplacement and the morpho–structural characteristics of the volcanic structures, in the types of mass movement processes. In addition, it identifies the diverse activities of anthropogenic origin that favour slope instability in the zone: deforestation and burning of rubbish, felling of timber on the slopes for building infrastructure and dwellings, leakages of water, vibrations of vehicles, rotating machinery and the use of explosives in mining works, overloading the heads of the slopes, disturbance of the geohydrological regime, generation of rubbish tips, terracing of the slopes for cultivation, inadequate building regulations, and the use of counterproductive or ineffectual stabilization measures.

  11. Comparison of xanthans by the relative abundance of its six constituent repeating units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.M.; Gruppen, H.; Sworn, G.; Schols, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five xanthans were hydrolyzed to their repeating units using cellulases. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with online electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry and evaporative light scattering detection was used to analyze the oligomers released. It was concluded that six different pe

  12. Stellar mass-gap as a probe of halo assembly history and concentration: youth hidden among old fossils

    CERN Document Server

    Deason, Alis J; Wetzel, Andrew R; Tinker, Jeremy L

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the use of the mass-gap statistic --- defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo --- as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ~ 25,000 group/cluster sized halos in the mass range 10^12.5 < M_halo/M_sun < 10^14.5. In agreement with previous work, we find that mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite population, which limits the use of the mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large mass-gap systems (akin to "fossil groups") are young, and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite and the central galaxy. We relate halo mass-...

  13. Mass-Loss Evolution of Close-In Exoplanets: Evaporation of Hot Jupiters and the Effect on Population

    CERN Document Server

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense XUV (X-ray and extreme ultraviolet) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (~10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius dist...

  14. In Situ Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The In Situ Mass Spectrometer projects focuses on a specific subsystem to leverage advanced research for laser-based in situ mass spectrometer development...

  15. Understanding neutrino masses and mixings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra

    2004-02-01

    We discuss ways to understand large neutrino mixings using new symmetries of quarks and leptons beyond the standard model for the three allowed patterns of neutrino masses: normal, inverted hierarchy and degenerate masses.

  16. Biomedical accelerator mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.; Vogel, John S.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasensitive SIMS with accelerator based spectrometers has recently begun to be applied to biomedical problems. Certain very long-lived radioisotopes of very low natural abundances can be used to trace metabolism at environmental dose levels ( [greater-or-equal, slanted] z mol in mg samples). 14C in particular can be employed to label a myriad of compounds. Competing technologies typically require super environmental doses that can perturb the system under investigation, followed by uncertain extrapolation to the low dose regime. 41Ca and 26Al are also used as elemental tracers. Given the sensitivity of the accelerator method, care must be taken to avoid contamination of the mass spectrometer and the apparatus employed in prior sample handling including chemical separation. This infant field comprises the efforts of a dozen accelerator laboratories. The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has been particularly active. In addition to collaborating with groups further afield, we are researching the kinematics and binding of genotoxins in-house, and we support innovative uses of our capability in the disciplines of chemistry, pharmacology, nutrition and physiology within the University of California. The field can be expected to grow further given the numerous potential applications and the efforts of several groups and companies to integrate more the accelerator technology into biomedical research programs; the development of miniaturized accelerator systems and ion sources capable of interfacing to conventional HPLC and GMC, etc. apparatus for complementary chemical analysis is anticipated for biomedical laboratories.

  17. Archimedes Mass Filter Vaporizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putvinski, S.; Agnew, A. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Ohkawa, T.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.; Dresvin, S. V.; Kuteev, B. V.; Feygenson, O. N.; Ivanov, D. V.; Zverev, S. G.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Egorov, S. M.; Kiesewetter, D. V.; Maliugin, V. I.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group, Inc., is developing a plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter that separates waste oxide mixtures ion by ion into two mass groups: light and heavy. Since high-level waste at Hanford has 99.9its radioactivity associated with heavy elements, the Archimedes Filter can effectively decontaminate over three-quarters of that waste. The Filter process involves some preprocessing followed by volatilization and separation by the magnetic and electric fields of the main plasma. This presentation describes the approach to volatilization of the waste oxy-hydroxide mixture by means of a very high heat flux (q > 10 MW/m2). Such a high heat flux is required to ensure congruent evaporation of the complex oxy-hydroxide mixture and is achieved by injection of small droplets of molten waste into an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch. This presentation further addresses different issues related to evaporation of the waste including modeling of droplet evaporation, estimates of parameters of plasma torch, and 2D modeling of the plasma. The experimental test bed for oxide vaporization and results of the initial experiments on oxide evaporation in 60 kW ICP torch will also be described.

  18. Peak mass and dynamical friction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Popolo, A

    1995-01-01

    We show how the results given by several authors relatively to the mass of a density peak are changed when small scale substructure induced by dynamical friction are taken into account. The peak mass obtained is compared to the result of Peacock \\& Heavens (1990) and to the peak mass when dynamical friction is absent to show how these effects conspire to reduce the mass accreted by the peak.

  19. Localizability and the planck mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne`eman, Y. [Tel-Aviv Univ. (Israel). Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences]|[Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Center for Particle Physics

    1993-06-01

    The author combines the assumption of environmental decoherence, as the mechanism generating the classical (i.e. no quantum interferences) nature of spacetime, with the limit on its other classical feature, point-like continuity, namely Planck length. As a result, quantum extended objects with masses larger than Planck mass have to derive their quantum behavior from long-range correlations; objects with masses smaller than Planck mass cannot display classical behavior.

  20. Growing massive black holes through super-critical accretion of stellar-mass seeds

    CERN Document Server

    Lupi, A; Dotti, M; Fiacconi, D; Mayer, L; Madau, P

    2015-01-01

    The rapid assembly of the massive black holes that power the luminous quasars observed at $z \\sim 6-7$ remains a puzzle. Various direct collapse models have been proposed to head-start black hole growth from initial seeds with masses $\\sim 10^5\\,\\rm M_\\odot$, which can then reach a billion solar mass while accreting at the Eddington limit. Here we propose an alternative scenario based on radiatively inefficient super-critical accretion of stellar-mass holes embedded in the gaseous circum-nuclear discs (CNDs) expected to exist in the cores of high redshift galaxies. Our sub-pc resolution hydrodynamical simulations show that stellar-mass holes orbiting within the central 100 pc of the CND bind to very high density gas clumps that arise from the fragmentation of the surrounding gas. Owing to the large reservoir of dense cold gas available, a stellar-mass black hole allowed to grow at super-Eddington rates according to the "slim disc" solution can increase its mass by 3 orders of magnitudes within a few million y...

  1. Mass ejection by pulsational pair-instability in very massive stars and implications for luminous supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Takashi; Maeda, Keiichi; Ishii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Massive stars having a CO core of $\\sim 40 - 60$ M$_\\odot$ experience pulsational pair-instability (PPI) after carbon-burning. This instability induces strong pulsations of the whole star and a part of outer envelope is ejected. We investigate the evolution and mass ejection of metal-poor very massive stars which experience PPI. We use stellar models with initial masses of 140, 200, and 250 M$_\\odot$ and the metallicity Z=0.004. Their masses decrease to 54.09, 58.65, and 61.03 M$_\\odot$ before the neon-burning owing to mass loss and He mass fraction at the surface becomes about 20%. During the PPI period of $\\sim 1 - 2000$ years, they experience six, four, and three pulsations, respectively. The larger CO-core model has the longer PPI period and ejects the larger amount of mass. Since almost all surface He has been lost by the pulsations, these stars become type Ic supernovae if they explode. Light curves during the PPI stage and supernovae are investigated and are implicated in luminous supernovae. The lumin...

  2. Work up of incidental adrenal mass: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bada, Maida; Castellan, Pietro; Tamburro, Fabiola R; Berardinelli, Francesco; Neri, Fabio; Cindolo, Luca; Schips, Luigi

    2016-11-18

    Due to the increasing use of radiological investigations, the detection of incidental adrenal masses has become even more frequent. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the nature of the adrenal mass in order to decide the type of treatment that should be undertaken. Toward this goal, biochemical tests are useful in order to assess catecholamines levels for the presence of a pheochromocytoma or cortisol excess in case of Cushing's syndrome. Furthermore, the dexamethasone suppression test and late-night salivary cortisol may be useful in measuring plasma cortisol, respectively, in the blood and urine. Hyperaldosteronism could be suspected in the presence of arterial hypertension. With regard to imaging modalities, the contrast washout and Hounsfield units estimation might play a role as indicators on computed tomography. In terms of treatment, a surgical approach is most suitable for a hyperfunctioning adrenal mass irrespective of size, and for nonfunctioning masses >4 cm. For indeterminate smaller lesions, with washout >50%, <10 Hounsfield Unit, nonfunctioning, benign-appearing, undergoing a follow-up in regular intervals is more appropriate in order to estimate mass growth. This paper summarizes recent findings on the management of incidental adrenal masses, with a special focus on the use of imaging, surgical management and follow-up modalities in improving patient outcomes.

  3. Stream pollution concentration in riffle geomorphic units (Yzeron basin, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namour, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent; Eschbach, David; Moulin, Bertrand; Fantino, Guillaume; Bordes, Claire; Breil, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    In urbanized areas, small streams can be greatly damaged by urban inflows and combined sewer overflows. These polluted inputs can be several times higher than the natural stream flow over short time periods. Sound knowledge of the spatial distribution of the discharged pollutants in sediments is therefore crucial for designing monitoring strategies and suitable remediation operations. This field study combines geomorphic characterization, hydraulic conductivity measurement and pollutant assays in sediments of a small suburban river. The study site was divided up into geomorphic units: riffles, pools and runs. The last two were grouped into one class named "pool-runs" owing to their closely similar open channel flow hydraulics. Benthic and hyporheic sediments were sampled at 2m intervals. Conventional particulate pollutants (Cr, Pb, N(org), P(tot) & C(org)) were assayed in samples. The main result was: pollutants were not randomly distributed in the stream sediments, but their location showed clear concentration differences by geomorphic units, with preferential accumulation in the hyporheic zones of riffle units and a lesser one in the hyporheic zones of pools. A decrease in hydraulic conductivity was significantly correlated with an increase in pollutant concentration. This occurred mainly at the transition between riffles and pool units. The down-welling water fluxes in the sediment calculated using Darcy's formula reflect this slowdown. Our findings highlight the need to take into account the geomorphological and hydrological functioning of a stream to accurately locate the biogeochemical hotspots to be treated and thereby develop more relevant monitoring and remediation methodologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. UNIT COMMITMENT: A NEW TRUNCATED METHOD OF UNIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    limits, minimum up/down times. Other ... incremental heat rate in ₦/hour for unit i ... approaches to treating thermal unit during its ... (d) Load Balance: During each interval of time, k, the .... The unit information and initial conditions are shown in.

  5. Neutrino Oscillations with Nil Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    An alternative neutrino oscillation process is presented as a counterexample for which the neutrino may have nil mass consistent with the standard model. The process is developed in a quantum trajectories representation of quantum mechanics, which has a Hamilton-Jacobi foundation. This process has no need for mass differences between mass eigenstates. Flavor oscillations and $\\bar{\

  6. Neutrino Oscillations with Nil Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2016-09-01

    An alternative neutrino oscillation process is presented as a counterexample for which the neutrino may have nil mass consistent with the standard model. The process is developed in a quantum trajectories representation of quantum mechanics, which has a Hamilton-Jacobi foundation. This process has no need for mass differences between mass eigenstates. Flavor oscillations and ν ,bar{ν } oscillations are examined.

  7. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  8. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the organization of a graduate course dealing with mass transfer, particularly as it relates to chemical reactions. Discusses the course outline, including mathematics models of mass transfer, enhancement of mass transfer rates by homogeneous chemical reaction, and gas-liquid systems with chemical reaction. (TW)

  9. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F W Giacobbe

    2003-03-01

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly different from a more typical Chandrasekhar mass limit approach. This technique produced a maximum stellar iron core mass value of 2.69 × 1030 kg (1.35 solar masses). This mass value is very near to the typical mass values found for neutron stars in a recent survey of actual neutron star masses. Although slightly lower and higher neutron star masses may also be found, lower mass neutron stars are believed to be formed as a result of enhanced iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large stars. And, higher mass neutron stars are likely to be formed as a result of fallback or accretion of additional matter after an initial collapse event involving an iron core having a mass no greater than 2.69 × 1030 kg.

  10. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  11. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  12. Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.

  13. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  14. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient nuclides at SHIPTRAP and commissioning of a cryogenic narrow-band FT-ICR mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Garcia, R.

    2007-07-01

    The dissertation presented here deals with high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry on short-lived radionuclides. Owed to the ability of revealing all nucleonic interactions, mass measurements far off the line of {beta}-stability are expected to bring new insight to the current knowledge of nuclear properties and serve to test the predictive power of mass models and formulas. In nuclear astrophysics, atomic masses are fundamental parameters for the understanding of the synthesis of nuclei in the stellar environments. This thesis presents ten mass values of radionuclides around A=90 interspersed in the predicted rp-process pathway. Six of them have been experimentally determined for the first time. The measurements have been carried out at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP using the destructive time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance (TOF-ICR) detection technique. Given the limited performance of the TOF-ICR detection when trying to investigate heavy/superheavy species with small production cross sections ({sigma} <1 {mu}b), a new detection system is found to be necessary. Thus, the second part of this thesis deals with the commissioning of a cryogenic double-Penning trap system for the application of a highly-sensitive, narrow-band Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique. With the non-destructive FT-ICR detection method a single singly-charged trapped ion will provide the required information to determine its mass. First off-line tests of a new detector system based on a channeltron with an attached conversion dynode, of a cryogenic pumping barrier, to guarantee ultra-high vacuum conditions during mass determination, and of the detection electronics for the required single-ion sensitivity are reported. (orig.)

  15. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  16. Process and structure: resource management and the development of sub-unit organisational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packwood, T; Keen, J; Buxton, M

    1992-03-01

    Resource Management (RM) requires hospital units to manage their work in new ways, and the new management processes affect, and are affected by, organisation structure. This paper is concerned with these effects, reporting on the basis of a three-year evaluation of the national RM experiment that was commissioned by the DH. After briefly indicating some of the major characteristics of the RM process, the two main types of unit structures existing in the pilot sites at the beginning of the experiment, unit disciplinary structure and clinical directorates, are analysed. At the end of the experiment, while clinical directorates had become more popular, another variant, clinical grouping, had replaced the unit disciplinary structure. Both types of structure represent a movement towards sub-unit organisation, bringing the work and interests of the service providers and unit managers closer together. Their properties are likewise analysed and their implications, particularly in terms of training and organisational development (OD), are then considered. The paper concludes by considering the causes for these structural changes, which, in the immediate time-scale, appear to owe as much to the NHS Review as to RM.

  17. Order Units in a *-Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Karn

    2003-02-01

    Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  18. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  19. The American family and mass communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, R

    1963-08-01

    Initial attention is directed to how television -- the most typical as well as the most "mass" of the media -- appears to the broadcaster to fit into the fabric of society. This is followed by consideration of how this medium can be used more effectively in family life education. The basic social contribution derives from television's role as a mass medium that uses limited facilities (the air waves) for dissemination of its content, and inherent in television is the inherent need to serve the needs of a total society. If the sights of a society are to be raised by means of a mass medium, the society must 1st be brought to the medium. As long as there are free and alternative channels of communication, the actual influence on ideas which can be exerted by any 1 medium is very slight. The United States has chosen not to take the route of elite control of the products of communications media, preferring pluralism and diversity to orthodoxy. The 1st job of individuals who are concerned about better programming is to be selective as individuals and as families. The support of development and growth of educational television at local levels is urged. The primary objective of the family relations field in the context of the television phenomenon is the enrichment of relationships within the family unit through encouragement of healthy interpersonal attitudes and behavior. Television can be used as a medium for presenting materials which educate, inform, and encourage and to demonstrate what social agencies are doing to help people help themselves.

  20. Masses for Galactic Beat Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Noella L.; Morgan, Siobahn M.; Böhm-Vitense, Erika

    2000-08-01

    Accurate mass determinations for Cepheids may be used to determine the degree of excess mixing in the interiors of their main-sequence progenitors: the larger the excess mixing, the larger the luminosity of the Cepheid of a given mass, or the smaller the mass of a Cepheid with given luminosity. Dynamical masses determined recently for a few Cepheid binaries indicate excess mixing somewhat stronger than that corresponding to the convective overshoot models by Schaller et al. Beat Cepheids can be used similarly to test main-sequence mixing in stellar interiors. The period ratios for beat Cepheids depend on luminosity, Teff, heavy element abundance, and mass. By comparing pulsational models and the observationally derived luminosity, Teff, metallicities, and period ratios it is possible to obtain masses for these stars, the so-called beat masses. With the old opacities masses much smaller than the evolutionary masses were obtained. With the new OPAL opacities a beat mass close to the dynamical mass was obtained for the binary beat Cepheid Y Carinae, showing that it is now possible to obtain reliable beat masses. In this paper, we determine beat masses for seven Galactic beat Cepheids for which photometric and spectroscopic data are available. We find an average mass around 4.2+/-0.3 Msolar for these stars, though the actual error limits for each star may be larger mainly because of uncertainties in E(B-V) and the heavy element abundances. (As derived spectroscopically, beat Cepheids are in general metal-poor, with -0.4relation between the derived beat masses and the luminosities again indicates excess mixing that is somewhat larger than that corresponding to the models by Schaller et al.

  1. Strong CP Problem, Neutrino Masses and the 750 GeV Diphoton Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Qing-Hong; Gu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We present an $SU(3)^{}_{c}\\times SU(2)^{}_{L}\\times SU(2)^{}_{R}\\times U(1)_{L}^{}\\times U(1)_{R}^{}\\rightarrow SU(3)^{}_{c}\\times SU(2)^{}_{L}\\times SU(2)^{}_{R}\\times U(1)^{}_{B-L}$ left-right symmetric model with a discrete parity symmetry to realize a universal seesaw scenario. The model can simultaneously solve the strong CP problem without resorting to the unobserved axion and explain the 750 GeV diphoton resonance reported recently by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC. Owing to large suppressions in the two-loop induced Dirac mass terms, the Majorana mass matrices of left- and right-handed neutrinos naturally share the same structure. That allows us to quantitatively study the neutrinoless double beta decay induced by the right-handed currents.

  2. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This chapter deals with the EU institutions’ external communication and how it relates to the European public sphere(s). We argue that one of the preconditions for establishing a well-functioning European public sphere is that the EU institutions’ decision-making and political debates around...... policies and issues are organised in such a way that the European citizens 1) are informed of the actions of European political leaders and top executives in ways that appeal to a wide range of publics, and 2) are encouraged to discuss and enter in a dialogue about these issues in appropriate communicative...... spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more...

  3. Mass for the graviton

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1998-01-01

    Can we give the graviton a mass? Does it even make sense to speak of a massive graviton? In this essay I shall answer these questions in the affirmative. I shall outline an alternative to Einstein Gravity that satisfies the Equivalence Principle and automatically passes all classical weak-field tests (GM/r approx 10^{-6}). It also passes medium-field tests (GM/r approx 1/5), but exhibits radically different strong-field behaviour (GM/r approx 1). Black holes in the usual sense do not exist in this theory, and large-scale cosmology is divorced from the distribution of matter. Furthermore, the cosmological constant is a non-issue in this theory. To do all this we have to sacrifice something: the theory exhibits prior geometry, and depends on a non-dynamical background metric.

  4. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  5. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  6. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  7. Spectroscopy for the Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Robert J.; Hopkins, Scott; Power, William P.; Leung, Tong; Hepburn, John

    2015-06-01

    Undergraduate students in all areas of science encounter one or more types of spectroscopy as an essential tool in their discipline, but most never take the advanced physics or chemistry courses in which the subject is normally taught. To address this problem, for over 20 years our department has been teaching a popular Introductory Spectroscopy course that assumes as background only a one-term introductory chemistry course containing a unit on atomic theory, and a familiarity with rudimentary calculus. This survey course provides an introduction to microwave, infrared, Raman, electronic, photoelectron and NMR spectroscopy in a manner that allows students to understand many of these phenomena as intuitive generalizations of the problem of a particle in a 1-D box or a particle-on-a-ring, and does not require any high level mathematics.

  8. Sustainability Evaluation of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Taps, Stig B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Some factors indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however...... other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass...

  9. Determination of Effective Thoracic Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H. Marcus

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective thoracic mass is an important parameter in specifying mathematical and mechanical models (such as crash dummies of humans exposed to impact conditions. A method is developed using a numerical optimizer to determine effective thoracic mass (and mass distribution given a number of acceleration signals and a force signal response. Utilizing previously reported lateral and frontal impact tests with human cadaveric test specimens in a number of different conditions, the effective thoracic mass is computed. The effective thoracic masses are then computed for a variety of crash dummies exposed to identical test conditions.

  10. Misrepresentation of health risks by mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomlitz, Larisa J; Brezis, Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Mass media are a leading source of health information for general public. We wished to examine the relationship between the intensity of media coverage for selected health topics and their actual risk to public health. Mass media reports in the United States on emerging and chronic health hazards (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bioterrorism, West Nile Fever, AIDS, smoking and physical inactivity) were counted for the year 2003, using LexisNexis database. The number of media reports for each health risk was correlated with the corresponding death rate as reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The number of media reports inversely correlated with the actual number of deaths for the health risks evaluated. SARS and bioterrorism killed less than a dozen people in 2003, but together generated over 100 000 media reports, far more than those covering smoking and physical inactivity, which killed nearly a million Americans. Emerging health hazards are over-reported in mass media by comparison to common threats to public health. Since premature mortality in industrialized societies is most often due to well-known risks such as smoking and physical inactivity, their under-representation on public agendas may cause suboptimal prioritization of public health resources.

  11. Gaseous Nitrogen Orifice Mass Flow Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritrivi, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Gaseous Nitrogen (GN2) Orifice Mass Flow Calculator was used to determine Space Shuttle Orbiter Water Spray Boiler (WSB) GN2 high-pressure tank source depletion rates for various leak scenarios, and the ability of the GN2 consumables to support cooling of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) lubrication during entry. The data was used to support flight rationale concerning loss of an orbiter APU/hydraulic system and mission work-arounds. The GN2 mass flow-rate calculator standardizes a method for rapid assessment of GN2 mass flow through various orifice sizes for various discharge coefficients, delta pressures, and temperatures. The calculator utilizes a 0.9-lb (0.4 kg) GN2 source regulated to 40 psia (.276 kPa). These parameters correspond to the Space Shuttle WSB GN2 Source and Water Tank Bellows, but can be changed in the spreadsheet to accommodate any system parameters. The calculator can be used to analyze a leak source, leak rate, gas consumables depletion time, and puncture diameter that simulates the measured GN2 system pressure drop.

  12. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia (Chinese translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-67613. This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  13. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  14. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  15. Annual Enrollment Report Number of Students Studying Journalism and Mass Communication at All-time High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lee B.; Vlad, Tudor; Huh, Jisu; Prine, Joelle

    2001-01-01

    Finds that journalism and mass communication programs appear to be entering another period of rapid enrollment growth, swept up by overall increases in enrollments at United States universities. Finds that only about four in ten of the journalism and mass communication programs report enrollments by race, suggesting many administrators are not…

  16. Evaluation of an experimental mass-flow sensor of cotton-lint at the gin

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a system to optimize the cotton ginning process, a custom built mass-flow sensor was evaluated at USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit at Stoneville, Mississippi. The mass-flow sensor was fabricated based on the principle of the senor patented by Thomasson and Sui (2004). The optical a...

  17. Commitment and dispatch of heat and power units via affinely adjustable robust optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The joint management of heat and power systems is believed to be key to the integration of renewables into energy systems with a large penetration of district heating. Determining the day-ahead unit commitment and production schedules for these systems is an optimization problem subject...... to uncertainty stemming from the unpredictability of demand and prices for heat and electricity. Furthermore, owing to the dynamic features of production and heat storage units as well as to the length and granularity of the optimization horizon (e.g., one whole day with hourly resolution), this problem...... approach. Secondly, we appraise the gain obtained by switching from linear to piecewise-linear decision rules within robust optimization. Furthermore, we give directions for selecting the parameters defining the uncertainty set (size, budget) and assess the resulting trade-off between average profit...

  18. Start-up circuit upgrading to reduce the erosion of the rotor blades of the last stages of steam turbines and prevent the mass strips of stellite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhko, V. V.; Gorin, A. V.; Zaitsev, I. V.; Kovalev, I. A.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Lomagin, S. N.; Chernov, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    At turbine starts with low steam flow rates in idle mode, the low-pressure rotor blades consume energy, causing the ventilation heating of the stages and creating higher depression in them than in the condenser. This leads to the return steam flows in the exhaust of the low-pressure cylinder (LPC), reducing the heat due to the moisture of starting steam damps and cooling injections. It is shown that, as a result of upgrading with the transition to fully milled shroud platforms of rotor blades, the depression in the stages decreases and their cooling efficiency is reduced due to the removal of an elastic turn of the rotor blades under the action of centrifugal forces and seal of them by periphery. Heating the rotor blades of the last stages exceeds the temperature threshold of soldering resistance of stellite plates (150°C), and their mass strips begin. The start-up circuit providing both the temperature retention of the last stages lower the soldering resistance threshold due to overwetting the steam damps up to saturation condition and the high degree of removal from the dump steam of excessive erosive-dangerous condensed moisture was proposed, applied, and tested at the operating power unit. The investment in the development and application of the new start-up circuit are compensated in the course of a year owing to guaranteed prevention of the strips of stellite plates that lengthens the service life of the rotor blades of the last stages as well as increase of the rotor blade efficiency due to the sharp decrease of erosive wear of the profiles and reduction of their surface roughness. This reduces the annual consumption of equivalent fuel by approximately 1000 t for every 100 MW of installed capacity.

  19. Nonlinear mechanical resonators for ultra-sensitive mass detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datskos, Panos G [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental sensitivity limit of an appropriately scaled down mechanical resonator can approach one atomic mass unit when only thermal noise is present in the system. However, operation of such nanoscale mechanical resonators is very challenging due to minuteness of their oscillation amplitudes and presence of multiple noise sources in real experimental environments. In order to surmount these challenges, we use microscale cantilever resonators driven to large amplitudes, far beyond their nonlinear instability onset. Our experiments show that such a nonlinear cantilever resonator, described analytically as a Duffing oscillator, has mass sensing performance comparable to that of much smaller resonators operating in a linear regime. We demonstrate femtogram level mass sensing that relies on a bifurcation point tracking that does not require any complex readout means. Our approaches enable straightforward detection of mass changes that are near the fundamental limit imposed by thermo-mechanical fluctuations.

  20. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat.

  1. Fission fragment mass distributions via prompt -ray spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L S Danu; D C Biswas; B K Nayak; R K Choudhury

    2015-09-01

    The distribution of fragment masses formed in nuclear fission is one of the most striking features of the process. Such measurements are very important to understand the shape evolution of the nucleus from ground state to scission through intermediate saddle points. The fission fragment mass distributions, generally obtained via conventional methods (i.e., by measuring the energy and/or the velocity of the correlated fission fragments) are limited to a mass resolution of 4–5 units. On the other hand, by employing the -ray spectroscopy, it is possible to estimate the yield of individual fission fragments. In this work, determination of the fission fragment mass distribution by employing prompt -ray spectroscopy is described along with the recent results on 238U(18O, f) and 238U(32S, f) systems.

  2. Pulsating laminar pipe flows with sinusoidal mass flux variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünsal, B.; Ray, S.; Durst, F.; Ertunç, Ö.

    2005-11-01

    Combined analytical and experimental investigation of sinusoidal mass flow-controlled, pulsating, laminar and fully developed pipe flow was carried out. The experimental investigation employed a mass flow control unit built at LSTM-Erlangen for the present investigation. For the analytical investigation, the equations describing such flows were normalized to allow for a general solution, depending only on the normalized amplitude mA* of the mass flow pulsation and the normalized frequency F. The analytical and experimental results are presented in this normalized way and it is shown that good agreement between the results of the authors is obtained. A diagram is presented for the condition of flow reversal in terms of the dimensionless frequency F and the mass flow rate amplitude mA*.

  3. Synthesis of Multi-component Mass-exchange Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Linlin; DU Jian; Mahmoud M.El-Halwagi; José María Ponce-Ortega; YAO Pingjing

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a superstructure-based formulation for the synthesis of mass-exchange networks (MENs) considering multiple components.The superstructure is simplified by directly using the mass separation agents (MSA) from their sources,and therefore the automatic synthesis of the multi-component system involved in the MENs can be achieved without choosing a ‘key-component' either for the whole process or the mass exchangers.A mathematical model is proposed to carry out the optimization process.The concentrations,flow rates,matches and unit operation displayed in the obtained network constitute the exact representation of the mass exchange process in terms of all species in the system.An example is used to illustrate and demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

  4. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  5. Learning unit: Thin lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, L.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Learning unit: Thin lenses "Why objects seen through lenses are sometimes upright and sometimes reversed" Nita Laura Simona National College of Arts and Crafts "Constantin Brancusi", Craiova, Romania 1. GEOMETRIC OPTICS. 13 hours Introduction (models, axioms, principles, conventions) 1. Thin lenses (Types of lenses. Defining elements. Path of light rays through lenses. Image formation. Required physical quantities. Lens formulas). 2. Lens systems (Non-collated lenses. Focalless systems). 3. Human eye (Functioning as an optical system. Sight defects and their corrections). 4. Optical instruments (Characteristics exemplified by a magnifying glass. Paths of light rays through a simplified photo camera. Path of light rays through a classical microscope) (Physics curriculum for the IXth grade/ 2011). This scenario exposes a learning unit based on experimental sequences (defining specific competencies), as a succession of lessons started by noticing a problem whose solution assumes the setup of an experiment under laboratory conditions. Progressive learning of theme objectives are realised with sequential experimental steps. The central cognitive process is the induction or the generalization (development of new knowledge based on observation of examples or counterexamples of the concept to be learnt). Pupil interest in theme objectives is triggered by problem-situations, for example: "In order to better see small objects I need a magnifying glass. But when using a magnifier, small object images are sometimes seen upright and sometimes seen reversed!" Along the way, pupils' reasoning will converge to the idea: "The image of an object through a lens depends on the relative distances among object, lens, and observer". Associated learning model: EXPERIMENT Specific competencies: derived from the experiment model, in agreement with the following learning unit steps I. Evoking - Anticipation: Size of the problem, formulation of hypotheses and planning of experiment. II

  6. STELLAR MASS-GAP AS A PROBE OF HALO ASSEMBLY HISTORY AND CONCENTRATION: YOUTH HIDDEN AMONG OLD FOSSILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wetzel, A. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Tinker, J. L., E-mail: alis@ucolick.org [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ∼ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 10{sup 12.5} < M{sub halo}/M{sub ☉} < 10{sup 14.5}. In agreement with previous work, we find that halo mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to {sup f}ossil groups{sup )} are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  7. Classification and assessment of rock mass parameters in Choghart iron mine using P-wave velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Hemmati Nourani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineering rock mass classification, based on empirical relations between rock mass parameters and engineering applications, is commonly used in rock engineering and forms the basis for designing rock structures. The basic data required may be obtained from visual observation and laboratory or field tests. However, owing to the discontinuous and variable nature of rock masses, it is difficult for rock engineers to directly obtain the specific design parameters needed. As an alternative, the use of geophysical methods in geomechanics such as seismography may largely address this problem. In this study, 25 seismic profiles with the total length of 543 m have been scanned to determine the geomechanical properties of the rock mass in blocks I, III and IV-2 of the Choghart iron mine. Moreover, rock joint measurements and sampling for laboratory tests were conducted. The results show that the rock mass rating (RMR and Q values have a close relation with P-wave velocity parameters, including P-wave velocity in field (VPF, P-wave velocity in the laboratory (VPL and the ratio of VPF to VPL (i.e. KP = VPF/VPL. However, Q value, totally, has greater correlation coefficient and less error than the RMR. In addition, rock mass parameters including rock quality designation (RQD, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, joint roughness coefficient (JRC and Schmidt number (RN show close relationship with P-wave velocity. An equation based on these parameters was obtained to estimate the P-wave velocity in the rock mass with a correlation coefficient of 91%. The velocities in two orthogonal directions and the results of joint study show that the wave velocity anisotropy in rock mass may be used as an efficient tool to assess the strong and weak directions in rock mass.

  8. Research opportunities in loss of red blood cell mass in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, J. M.; Fisher, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Decreases of red blood cell mass and plasma volume have been observed consistently following manned space flights. Losses of red cell mass by United States astronauts have averaged 10 to 15% (range: 2 to 21%). Based on postflight estimates of total hemoglobin, Soviet cosmonauts engaged in space missions lasting from 1 to 7 months have exhibited somewhat greater losses. Restoration of red cell mass requires from 4 to 6 weeks following return to Earth, regardless of the duration of space flight.

  9. Observation of free electron cyclotron resonance in NaAlSi3O8 feldspar: Direct determination of the effective electron mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Nicholis, J.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.;

    2001-01-01

    We report the first observation of cyclotron resonances in alkali feldspars, using highly sensitive optical detection methods. In Na-feldspar (NaAlSi3O8). a near isotropic effective electron mass value of m(c)(*) = 0.79m, has been determined. The significance of this measurement in terms of the o......We report the first observation of cyclotron resonances in alkali feldspars, using highly sensitive optical detection methods. In Na-feldspar (NaAlSi3O8). a near isotropic effective electron mass value of m(c)(*) = 0.79m, has been determined. The significance of this measurement in terms...

  10. Last call for units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Stuart; Rosen, Ronald; Jones, Clifford; Bean, Leonard W.; Lane, Frank

    2009-09-01

    I am writing with regard to Kevin McGuigan's definition of the darwin unit, Dw, as "the mathematical probability of one undergraduate (or faculty) fatality per practical if the person in question is left to their own devices" (July p60). Although it is clear how the loss of genitals in a laboratory accident would result in a student's removal from the gene pool, McGuigan does not explain how the loss of finger (a 1 mDw event, he suggests) might impede procreation in the slightest. Perhaps McGuigan is confusing Darwin's evolution by natural selection with Lamarck's discredited theory of evolution by the inheritance of acquired characteristics. If so, the gulf between physicists and biologists seems as wide as ever.

  11. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  12. 球囊扩张联合神经肌肉电刺激治疗80岁以上高龄脑卒中后吞咽障碍的临床观察%Bal oon expansion joint neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment on over 80 - year - old swal owing disorder after stroke clinical observation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海生; 刘捷; 张锋伟; 贾炜

    2014-01-01

    Objective observation of bal oon dilatation joint neuromuscular electrical stimulation to the curative effect of senile patients with swal owing disorder after stroke, and safety. Method by TV fluoroscopy swal ow function (VFSS), after the bal oon expansion and real-time neuromuscular electrical stimulator (VitalStim) treatment old age (> 80 years) patients with swal owing disorder after stroke (3 cases), once a day, the course of 8 ~ 12 days. Results after treatment, patients with bal oon expansion volume increased by 4 ~ 5 ml to 8 ~8.5 ml, VFSS, barium residue in the val ey of epiglottis, piriform fossa decreased significantly, without choking cough or aspiration, ring open basic normal pharyngeal muscles, food can be smoothly through ring pharyngeal muscle into the esophagus, patients can safely through the mouth to eat. Conclusion preliminary showed that bal oon expansion for over 80 - year - old patients with swal owing disorder treatment is effective and safe.%目的:观察球囊扩张术联合神经肌肉电刺激对高龄患者卒中后吞咽障碍的疗效及安全性。方法经电视透视吞咽功能检查(VFSS)后,采用球囊扩张并实时神经肌肉电刺激仪(VitalStim)治疗高龄患者(>80岁)卒中后吞咽障碍3例,每天一次,疗程8~12天。结果治疗后患者球囊扩张量由4~5ml增加到8~8.5m l,VFSS显示,钡剂在会厌谷、梨状隐窝的残留量明显减少,无呛咳或误吸,环咽肌开放基本正常,食物可顺利通过环咽肌进入食道,患者可经口安全进食。结论初步表明球囊扩张对于80岁以上高龄患者吞咽障碍的治疗是有效且安全的。

  13. Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Webb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar eruptive phenomena embrace a variety of eruptions, including flares, solar energetic particles, and radio bursts. Since the vast majority of these are associated with the eruption, development, and evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, we focus on CME observations in this review. CMEs are a key aspect of coronal and interplanetary dynamics. They inject large quantities of mass and magnetic flux into the heliosphere, causing major transient disturbances. CMEs can drive interplanetary shocks, a key source of solar energetic particles and are known to be the major contributor to severe space weather at the Earth. Studies over the past decade using the data sets from (among others the SOHO, TRACE, Wind, ACE, STEREO, and SDO spacecraft, along with ground-based instruments, have improved our knowledge of the origins and development of CMEs at the Sun and how they contribute to space weather at Earth. SOHO, launched in 1995, has provided us with almost continuous coverage of the solar corona over more than a complete solar cycle, and the heliospheric imagers SMEI (2003 – 2011 and the HIs (operating since early 2007 have provided us with the capability to image and track CMEs continually across the inner heliosphere. We review some key coronal properties of CMEs, their source regions and their propagation through the solar wind. The LASCO coronagraphs routinely observe CMEs launched along the Sun-Earth line as halo-like brightenings. STEREO also permits observing Earth-directed CMEs from three different viewpoints of increasing azimuthal separation, thereby enabling the estimation of their three-dimensional properties. These are important not only for space weather prediction purposes, but also for understanding the development and internal structure of CMEs since we view their source regions on the solar disk and can measure their in-situ characteristics along their axes. Included in our discussion of the recent developments in CME

  14. Ongoing drought-induced uplift in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Adrian Antal; Agnew, Duncan Carr; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    The western United States has been experiencing severe drought since 2013. The solid earth response to the accompanying loss of surface and near-surface water mass should be a broad region of uplift. We use seasonally adjusted time series from continuously operating global positioning system stations to measure this uplift, which we invert to estimate mass loss. The median uplift is 5 millimeters (mm), with values up to 15 mm in California’s mountains. The associated pattern of mass loss, ranging up to 50 centimeters (cm) of water equivalent, is consistent with observed decreases in precipitation and streamflow. We estimate the total deficit to be ~240 gigatons, equivalent to a 10-cm layer of water over the entire region, or the annual mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  15. Unit Invariance as a Unifying Principle of Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shaukat, Abrar

    2010-01-01

    A basic principle of physics is the freedom to locally choose any unit system when describing physical quantities. Its implementation amounts to treating Weyl invariance as a fundamental symmetry of all physical theories. In this thesis, we study the consequences of this "unit invariance" principle and find that it is a unifying one. Unit invariance is achieved by introducing a gauge field called the scale, designed to measure how unit systems vary from point to point. In fact, by a uniform and simple Weyl invariant coupling of scale and matter fields, we unify massless, massive, and partially massless excitations. As a consequence, masses now dictate the response of physical quantities to changes of scale. This response is calibrated by certain "tractor Weyl weights". Reality of these weights yield Breitenlohner-Freedman stability bounds in anti de Sitter spaces. Another valuable outcome of our approach is a general mechanism for constructing conformally invariant theories. In particular, we provide direct d...

  16. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Granell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach.We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs. 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001 and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003. The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07 per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03 than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11 though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31. The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79 per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11 per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects.Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granell, Raquel; Henderson, A John; Evans, David M; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R; Lewis, Sarah; Palmer, Tom M; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2014-07-01

    Observational studies have reported associations between body mass index (BMI) and asthma, but confounding and reverse causality remain plausible explanations. We aim to investigate evidence for a causal effect of BMI on asthma using a Mendelian randomization approach. We used Mendelian randomization to investigate causal effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on current asthma at age 7½ y in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A weighted allele score based on 32 independent BMI-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was derived from external data, and associations with BMI, fat mass, lean mass, and asthma were estimated. We derived instrumental variable (IV) estimates of causal risk ratios (RRs). 4,835 children had available data on BMI-associated SNPs, asthma, and BMI. The weighted allele score was strongly associated with BMI, fat mass, and lean mass (all p-values<0.001) and with childhood asthma (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.38-4.76 per unit score, p = 0.003). The estimated causal RR for the effect of BMI on asthma was 1.55 (95% CI 1.16-2.07) per kg/m2, p = 0.003. This effect appeared stronger for non-atopic (1.90, 95% CI 1.19-3.03) than for atopic asthma (1.37, 95% CI 0.89-2.11) though there was little evidence of heterogeneity (p = 0.31). The estimated causal RRs for the effects of fat mass and lean mass on asthma were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11-1.79) per 0.5 kg and 2.25 (95% CI 1.23-4.11) per kg, respectively. The possibility of genetic pleiotropy could not be discounted completely; however, additional IV analyses using FTO variant rs1558902 and the other BMI-related SNPs separately provided similar causal effects with wider confidence intervals. Loss of follow-up was unlikely to bias the estimated effects. Higher BMI increases the risk of asthma in mid-childhood. Higher BMI may have contributed to the increase in asthma risk toward the end of the 20th century. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  18. Overview of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, G A Nagana; Djukovic, Danijel

    2014-01-01

    The field of metabolomics has witnessed an exponential growth in the last decade driven by important applications spanning a wide range of areas in the basic and life sciences and beyond. Mass spectrometry in combination with chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance are the two major analytical avenues for the analysis of metabolic species in complex biological mixtures. Owing to its inherent significantly higher sensitivity and fast data acquisition, MS plays an increasingly dominant role in the metabolomics field. Propelled by the need to develop simple methods to diagnose and manage the numerous and widespread human diseases, mass spectrometry has witnessed tremendous growth with advances in instrumentation, experimental methods, software, and databases. In response, the metabolomics field has moved far beyond qualitative methods and simple pattern recognition approaches to a range of global and targeted quantitative approaches that are now routinely used and provide reliable data, which instill greater confidence in the derived inferences. Powerful isotope labeling and tracing methods have become very popular. The newly emerging ambient ionization techniques such as desorption ionization and rapid evaporative ionization have allowed direct MS analysis in real time, as well as new MS imaging approaches. While the MS-based metabolomics has provided insights into metabolic pathways and fluxes, and metabolite biomarkers associated with numerous diseases, the increasing realization of the extremely high complexity of biological mixtures underscores numerous challenges including unknown metabolite identification, biomarker validation, and interlaboratory reproducibility that need to be dealt with for realization of the full potential of MS-based metabolomics. This chapter provides a glimpse at the current status of the mass spectrometry-based metabolomics field highlighting the opportunities and challenges.

  19. The role of mass transport in protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Otálora, Fermín; García-Caballero, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Mass transport takes place within the mesoscopic to macroscopic scale range and plays a key role in crystal growth that may affect the result of the crystallization experiment. The influence of mass transport is different depending on the crystallization technique employed, essentially because each technique reaches supersaturation in its own unique way. In the case of batch experiments, there are some complex phenomena that take place at the interface between solutions upon mixing. These transport instabilities may drastically affect the reproducibility of crystallization experiments, and different outcomes may be obtained depending on whether or not the drop is homogenized. In diffusion experiments with aqueous solutions, evaporation leads to fascinating transport phenomena. When a drop starts to evaporate, there is an increase in concentration near the interface between the drop and the air until a nucleation event eventually takes place. Upon growth, the weight of the floating crystal overcomes the surface tension and the crystal falls to the bottom of the drop. The very growth of the crystal then triggers convective flow and inhomogeneities in supersaturation values in the drop owing to buoyancy of the lighter concentration-depleted solution surrounding the crystal. Finally, the counter-diffusion technique works if, and only if, diffusive mass transport is assured. The technique relies on the propagation of a supersaturation wave that moves across the elongated protein chamber and is the result of the coupling of reaction (crystallization) and diffusion. The goal of this review is to convince protein crystal growers that in spite of the small volume of the typical protein crystallization setup, transport plays a key role in the crystal quality, size and phase in both screening and optimization experiments.

  20. Establishment of the platinum-iridium kilogram mass standards at NMIJ after the Extraordinary Calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Shigeki; Fujii, Kenichi

    2016-04-01

    The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures has carried out calibrations of the platinum-iridium kilogram mass standards by referencing the international prototype of the kilogram for the first time since the third periodic verification of national prototypes of the kilogram was carried out in 1988-92. This calibration campaign was designated ‘Extraordinary Calibrations’ in the second phase, in which two platinum-iridium kilogram mass standards of the National Metrology Institute of Japan were calibrated with a standard uncertainty of 3.5 μg. By adding these new calibration data into our data sets from 1991, we established our mass unit with a standard uncertainty of 3.3 μg by least-squares analysis using an exponential model, which is useful for compensating for mass increase after cleaning the mass standards. Moreover, it was found that our established mass unit following the Extraordinary Calibrations shifted against our previously maintained mass unit by  -20.8 μg as of the beginning of 2015. The analysis with a linear model revealed that the amount of mass increase over time of some standards was significantly smaller than that suggested at the third periodic verification of national prototypes of the kilogram. The analysis with the exponential model gave an exponent of 0.217 with a standard uncertainty of 0.057. This suggests that the mass increase due to surface contamination cannot be explained by a diffusion-limited process.